Sample records for retardation protein paralogs

  1. Parameters of the proteome evolution from the distribution of sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Axelsen, Jacob; Maslov, Sergei

    2006-03-01

    The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is driven by gene duplications, deletions and modifications of amino-acid sequences of already existing proteins. The information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. We introduced a simple mathematical framework that allows one to extract some of this hidden information. It was then applied to the proteome-wide set of paralogous proteins in H. pylori, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster and H. sapiens. We estimated the stationary per-gene deletion and duplication rates, the distribution of amino-acid substitution rate of these organisms. The validity of our mathematical framework was further confirmed by numerical simulations of a simple evolutionary model of a fixed-size proteome.

  2. Parameters of proteome evolution from histograms of amino-acid sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    PubMed Central

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Maslov, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    Background The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is mostly driven by gene duplications, deletions, and sequence modifications of existing proteins. Indirect information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the proteome-wide distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. Results We introduce a simple mathematical framework based on a stochastic birth-and-death model that allows one to extract some of this information and apply it to the set of all pairs of paralogous proteins in H. pylori, E. coli, S. cerevisiae, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, and H. sapiens. It was found that the histogram of sequence identities p generated by an all-to-all alignment of all protein sequences encoded in a genome is well fitted with a power-law form ~ p-? with the value of the exponent ? around 4 for the majority of organisms used in this study. This implies that the intra-protein variability of substitution rates is best described by the Gamma-distribution with the exponent ? ? 0.33. Different features of the shape of such histograms allow us to quantify the ratio between the genome-wide average deletion/duplication rates and the amino-acid substitution rate. Conclusion We separately measure the short-term ("raw") duplication and deletion rates rdup?, rdel? which include gene copies that will be removed soon after the duplication event and their dramatically reduced long-term counterparts rdup, rdel. High deletion rate among recently duplicated proteins is consistent with a scenario in which they didn't have enough time to significantly change their functional roles and thus are to a large degree disposable. Systematic trends of each of the four duplication/deletion rates with the total number of genes in the genome were analyzed. All but the deletion rate of recent duplicates rdel? were shown to systematically increase with Ngenes. Abnormally flat shapes of sequence identity histograms observed for yeast and human are consistent with lineages leading to these organisms undergoing one or more whole-genome duplications. This interpretation is corroborated by our analysis of the genome of Paramecium tetraurelia where the p-4 profile of the histogram is gradually restored by the successive removal of paralogs generated in its four known whole-genome duplication events. PMID:18039386

  3. Adhesive Properties of YapV and Paralogous Autotransporter Proteins of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Manoj K M; De Masi, Leon; Yue, Min; Galván, Estela M; Chen, Huaiqing; Wang, Fang; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2015-05-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. This bacterium evolved from an ancestral enteroinvasive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain by gene loss and acquisition of new genes, allowing it to use fleas as transmission vectors. Infection frequently leads to a rapidly lethal outcome in humans, a variety of rodents, and cats. This study focuses on the Y. pestis KIM yapV gene and its product, recognized as an autotransporter protein by its typical sequence, outer membrane localization, and amino-terminal surface exposure. Comparison of Yersinia genomes revealed that DNA encoding YapV or each of three individual paralogous proteins (YapK, YapJ, and YapX) was present as a gene or pseudogene in a strain-specific manner and only in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. YapV acted as an adhesin for alveolar epithelial cells and specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as shown with recombinant Escherichia coli, Y. pestis, or purified passenger domains. Like YapV, YapK and YapJ demonstrated adhesive properties, suggesting that their previously related in vivo activity is due to their capacity to modulate binding properties of Y. pestis in its hosts, in conjunction with other adhesins. A differential host-specific type of binding to ECM proteins by YapV, YapK, and YapJ suggested that these proteins participate in broadening the host range of Y. pestis. A phylogenic tree including 36 Y. pestis strains highlighted an association between the gene profile for the four paralogous proteins and the geographic location of the corresponding isolated strains, suggesting an evolutionary adaption of Y. pestis to specific local animal hosts or reservoirs. PMID:25690102

  4. Two highly thermostable paralogous single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Marcin; Mickiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Kur, Józef

    2008-07-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis has two single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) proteins, designated TteSSB2 and TteSSB3. In a SSB complementation assay in Escherichia coli, only TteSSB3 took over the in vivo function of EcoSSB. We have cloned the ssb genes obtained by PCR and have developed E. coli overexpression systems. The TteSSB2 and TteSSB3 consist of 153 and 150 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 17.29 and 16.96 kDa, respectively. They are the smallest known bacterial SSB proteins. The homology between amino acid sequences of these proteins is 40% identity and 53% similarity. They are functional as homotetramers, with each monomer encoding one single-stranded DNA binding domain (OB-fold). In fluorescence titrations with poly(dT), both proteins bind single-stranded DNA with a binding site size of about 40 nt per homotetramer. Thermostability with half-life of about 30 s at 95 degrees C makes TteSSB3 similar to the known SSB of Thermus aquaticus (TaqSSB). The TteSSB2 was fully active even after 6 h incubation at 100 degrees C. Here, we show for the first time paralogous thermostable homotetrameric SSBs, which could be an attractive alternative for known homodimeric thermostable SSB proteins in their applications for molecular biology methods and analytical purposes. PMID:18392610

  5. Protein Phosphatase 1 ? Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1?, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1?, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  6. Targeted Identification of SUMOylation Sites in Human Proteins Using Affinity Enrichment and Paralog-specific Reporter Ions*

    PubMed Central

    Lamoliatte, Frederic; Bonneil, Eric; Durette, Chantal; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Wildemann, Dirk; Zerweck, Johannes; Wenshuk, Holger; Thibault, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Protein modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) modulates the activities of numerous proteins involved in different cellular functions such as gene transcription, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Comprehensive identification of SUMOylated sites is a prerequisite to determine how SUMOylation regulates protein function. However, mapping SUMOylated Lys residues by mass spectrometry (MS) is challenging because of the dynamic nature of this modification, the existence of three functionally distinct human SUMO paralogs, and the large SUMO chain remnant that remains attached to tryptic peptides. To overcome these problems, we created HEK293 cell lines that stably express functional SUMO paralogs with an N-terminal His6-tag and an Arg residue near the C terminus that leave a short five amino acid SUMO remnant upon tryptic digestion. We determined the fragmentation patterns of our short SUMO remnant peptides by collisional activation and electron transfer dissociation using synthetic peptide libraries. Activation using higher energy collisional dissociation on the LTQ-Orbitrap Elite identified SUMO paralog-specific fragment ions and neutral losses of the SUMO remnant with high mass accuracy (< 5 ppm). We exploited these features to detect SUMO modified tryptic peptides in complex cell extracts by correlating mass measurements of precursor and fragment ions using a data independent acquisition method. We also generated bioinformatics tools to retrieve MS/MS spectra containing characteristic fragment ions to the identification of SUMOylated peptide by conventional Mascot database searches. In HEK293 cell extracts, this MS approach uncovered low abundance SUMOylated peptides and 37 SUMO3-modified Lys residues in target proteins, most of which were previously unknown. Interestingly, we identified mixed SUMO-ubiquitin chains with ubiquitylated SUMO proteins (K20 and K32) and SUMOylated ubiquitin (K63), suggesting a complex crosstalk between these two modifications. PMID:23750026

  7. Testis Fascin (FSCN3): A Novel Paralog of the Actin-Bundling Protein Fascin Expressed Specifically in the Elongate Spermatid Head

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Tubb; David J. Mulholland; Wayne Vogl; Zi-Jian Lan; Craig Niederberger; Austin Cooney; Joseph Bryan

    2002-01-01

    During spermiogenesis, significant morphological changes occur as round spermatids are remodeled into the fusiform shape of mature spermatozoa. These changes are correlated with a reorganization of microfilaments and microtubules in the head and tail regions of elongating spermatids. There is also altered expression of specialized actin- and tubulin-associated proteins. We report the characterization of a novel, spermatid-specific murine paralog of

  8. Unfolding stabilities of two paralogous proteins from Naja naja naja (Indian cobra) as probed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Gorai, Biswajit; Sivaraman, Thirunavukkarasu

    2013-09-01

    Structurally similar but functionally different two paralogous proteins, CTX1 (a cardiotoxin) and LNTX2 (an alpha-neurotoxin), from venom of Naja naja naja have been homology modeled and subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at four different temperatures (298 K, 310 K, 373 K & 473 K) under close quarters of physiological conditions. Each MD simulation was performed for 25 ns and trajectory structures stored at every 25 ps were used to probe various structural events occurring in the temperature-induced unfolding of the proteins. Notwithstanding their similar scaffolds, the two proteins are drastically differing in their unfolding stabilities from each other. The structural orders of flexibilities for the CTX1 and LNTX2 were found to be loop II > loop III > loop I > C-terminal and C-terminal > loop I > loop III > loop II, respectively. Based on the comprehensive analyses of the simulation data and studies on the various structural interactions of all cardiotoxins (CTXs) and alpha-neurotoxins (NTXs) for which three-dimensional structures determined by experimental techniques are available to date, we have herein proposed a hypothesis ('CN network') rationalizing the differential stabilities of the CTXs and NTXs belonging to a three-finger toxin superfamily of snake venoms. PMID:23791667

  9. Structure–function relationships of two paralogous single-stranded DNA-binding proteins from Streptomyces coelicolor: implication of SsbB in chromosome segregation during sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Paradzik, Tina; Ivic, Nives; Filic, Zelimira; Manjasetty, Babu A.; Herron, Paul; Luic, Marija; Vujaklija, Dusica

    2013-01-01

    The linear chromosome of Streptomyces coelicolor contains two paralogous ssb genes, ssbA and ssbB. Following mutational analysis, we concluded that ssbA is essential, whereas ssbB plays a key role in chromosome segregation during sporulation. In the ssbB mutant, ?30% of spores lacked DNA. The two ssb genes were expressed differently; in minimal medium, gene expression was prolonged for both genes and significantly upregulated for ssbB. The ssbA gene is transcribed as part of a polycistronic mRNA from two initiation sites, 163 bp and 75 bp upstream of the rpsF translational start codon. The ssbB gene is transcribed as a monocistronic mRNA, from an unusual promoter region, 73 bp upstream of the AUG codon. Distinctive DNA-binding affinities of single-stranded DNA-binding proteins monitored by tryptophan fluorescent quenching and electrophoretic mobility shift were observed. The crystal structure of SsbB at 1.7 Å resolution revealed a common OB-fold, lack of the clamp-like structure conserved in SsbA and previously unpublished S-S bridges between the A/B and C/D subunits. This is the first report of the determination of paralogous single-stranded DNA-binding protein structures from the same organism. Phylogenetic analysis revealed frequent duplication of ssb genes in Actinobacteria, whereas their strong retention suggests that they are involved in important cellular functions. PMID:23393191

  10. Fragile X mental retardation protein: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miri; Ceman, Stephanie

    2012-06-01

    We begin by reviewing the first characterization of fragile X syndrome, which ultimately led to cloning of the FMR1 gene. Discovery of the molecular basis of this disorder, including expansion of a trinucleotide repeat, gave insight not only into fragile X syndrome but also into the premutation syndromes. Features of fragile X syndrome are discussed including the patient phenotype down to the neuronal phenotype. The domain features of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP are described, as are the mRNAs bound by FMRP and the role of post-translational modifications as regulators of FMRP function. The relatively new role of FMRP in progenitor cells is reviewed, as is FMRP localization in cells and how FMRP is regulated by glutamatergic signaling in the brain. Understanding how metabotropic glutamate receptors impact FMRP has led to novel therapeutic approaches in treating this disorder. PMID:22708486

  11. A new regulatory function of the region proximal to the RGG box in the Fragile X mental retardation protein

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Ernest; Ceman, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is required for normal cognition. FMRP has two autosomal paralogs, which although similar to FMRP, cannot compensate for the loss of FMRP expression in brain. The arginine- and glycine-rich region of FMRP (the RGG box) is unique; it is the high-affinity RNA-binding motif in FMRP and is encoded by exon 15. Alternative splicing occurs in the 5? end of exon 15, which is predicted to affect the structure of the distally encoded RGG box. Here, we provide evidence that isoform 3, which removes 25 amino acids from the 5? end of exon 15, has an altered conformation that reduces binding of a specific antibody and renders the RGG box unable to efficiently associate with polyribosomes. Isoform 3 is also compromised in its ability to form granules and to associate with a key messenger ribonucleoprotein Yb1 (also known as p50, NSEP1 and YBX1). Significantly, these functions are similarly compromised when the RGG box is absent from FMRP, suggesting an important regulatory role of the N-terminal region encoded by exon 15. PMID:21868366

  12. Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Valverde,R.; Poznyakova, I.; Kajander, T.; Venkatraman, J.; Regan, L.

    2007-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, with an estimated prevalence of about 1 in 4000 males. Although several observations indicate that the absence of functional Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome, the structure and function of FMRP are currently unknown. Here, we present an X-ray crystal structure of the tandem KH domains of human FMRP, which reveals the relative orientation of the KH1 and KH2 domains and the location of residue Ile304, whose mutation to Asn is associated with a particularly severe incidence of Fragile X syndrome. We show that the Ile304Asn mutation both perturbs the structure and destabilizes the protein.

  13. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates Heterosynaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Steven A.; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Klann, Eric; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    Silencing of a single gene, FMR1, is linked to a highly prevalent form of mental retardation, characterized by social and cognitive impairments, known as fragile X syndrome (FXS). The FMR1 gene encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which negatively regulates translation. Knockout of Fmr1 in mice results in enhanced long-term…

  14. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Targets G Quartet mRNAs Important for Neuronal Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer C. Darnell; Kirk B. Jensen; Peng Jin; Victoria Brown; Stephen T. Warren; Robert B. Darnell

    2001-01-01

    Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) function causes the fragile X mental retardation syndrome. FMRP harbors three RNA binding domains, associates with polysomes, and is thought to regulate mRNA translation and\\/or localization, but the RNAs to which it binds are unknown. We have used RNA selection to demonstrate that the FMRP RGG box binds intramolecular G quartets. This

  15. In vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated by phosphorylation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    November 7, 2011 Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene- dependent learning behavior. INTRODUCTION Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenic causeIn vivo neuronal function of the fragile X mental retardation protein is regulated

  16. A Novel Function for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Translational Activation

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , Universite´ Laval, Que´bec, Canada Fragile X syndrome, the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation of the physiopathology of the Fragile X syndrome, such as anxiety, sleep troubles, and autism. Citation: Bechara EGA Novel Function for Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Translational Activation Elias G

  17. Phylogenomics with paralogs.

    PubMed

    Hellmuth, Marc; Wieseke, Nicolas; Lechner, Marcus; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Middendorf, Martin; Stadler, Peter F

    2015-02-17

    Phylogenomics heavily relies on well-curated sequence data sets that comprise, for each gene, exclusively 1:1 orthologos. Paralogs are treated as a dangerous nuisance that has to be detected and removed. We show here that this severe restriction of the data sets is not necessary. Building upon recent advances in mathematical phylogenetics, we demonstrate that gene duplications convey meaningful phylogenetic information and allow the inference of plausible phylogenetic trees, provided orthologs and paralogs can be distinguished with a degree of certainty. Starting from tree-free estimates of orthology, cograph editing can sufficiently reduce the noise to find correct event-annotated gene trees. The information of gene trees can then directly be translated into constraints on the species trees. Although the resolution is very poor for individual gene families, we show that genome-wide data sets are sufficient to generate fully resolved phylogenetic trees, even in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25646426

  18. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors and Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: Partners in Translational Regulation at the Synapse

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jennifer A. Ronesi (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center; Department of Neuroscience REV)

    2008-02-05

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) mental retardation is caused by loss-of-function mutations in an RNA-binding protein, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Previous studies in patients or animal models of FXS have identified alterations in dendritic spine structure, as well as synaptic plasticity induced by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). The translation of multiple messenger RNA (mRNA) targets of FMRP is regulated by mGluRs at synapses. Here, we incorporate data from several studies into a working model of how FMRP regulates mGluR-stimulated protein synthesis and, in turn, regulates protein synthesis–dependent synaptic plasticity. Understanding the complex functions of FMRP at the synapse will lead to a better understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of mental retardation.

  19. Protein Implicated in Nonsyndromic Mental Retardation Regulates Protein Kinase A (PKA) Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tawashi, Azza; Jung, Sung Yun; Liu, Dou; Su, Bing; Qin, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Mutation of the coiled-coil and C2 domain-containing 1A (CC2D1A) gene, which encodes a C2 domain and DM14 domain-containing protein, has been linked to severe autosomal recessive nonsyndromic mental retardation. Using a mouse model that produces a truncated form of CC2D1A that lacks the C2 domain and three of the four DM14 domains, we show that CC2D1A is important for neuronal differentiation and brain development. CC2D1A mutant neurons are hypersensitive to stress and have a reduced capacity to form dendrites and synapses in culture. At the biochemical level, CC2D1A transduces signals to the cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway during neuronal cell differentiation. PKA activity is compromised, and the translocation of its catalytic subunit to the nucleus is also defective in CC2D1A mutant cells. Consistently, phosphorylation of the PKA target cAMP-responsive element-binding protein, at serine 133, is nearly abolished in CC2D1A mutant cells. The defects in cAMP/PKA signaling were observed in fibroblast, macrophage, and neuronal primary cells derived from the CC2D1A KO mice. CC2D1A associates with the cAMP-PKA complex following forskolin treatment and accumulates in vesicles or on the plasma membrane in wild-type cells, suggesting that CC2D1A may recruit the PKA complex to the membrane to facilitate signal transduction. Together, our data show that CC2D1A is an important regulator of the cAMP/PKA signaling pathway, which may be the underlying cause for impaired mental function in nonsyndromic mental retardation patients with CC2D1A mutation. PMID:22375002

  20. Sumo paralogs: redundancy and divergencies.

    PubMed

    Citro, Simona; Chiocca, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Although sharing a common conjugation pathway, SUMO1, SUMO2/3 and SUMO4 seem to play preferential roles in the cell. Recently, many regulatory mechanisms contributing to SUMO paralogs specific modification have emerged. SUMO enzymes can discriminate between SUMO paralogs at both conjugation and deconjugation levels. Moreover, many substrates possess characteristics that promote their preference for different SUMO family members. A better knowledge of the mechanisms promoting SUMO specific modification will improve our understanding of the functions of SUMO paralogs in distinct cellular pathways. PMID:23277067

  1. Fragile X mental retardation protein and synaptic plasticity

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Michael Samuel

    Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maintenance and ...

  2. Intense and Specialized Dendritic Localization of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    dynamics of dendrites. Loss and abnormal expression of FMRP occur in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and some, Inc. INDEXING TERMS: fragile X syndrome; dendritic regulation; nucleus laminaris; medial superiorIntense and Specialized Dendritic Localization of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

  3. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) interacting proteins exhibit different expression patterns during development.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, C M; Spatuzza, M; Di Marco, B; Gloria, A; Barrancotto, G; Cupo, A; Musumeci, S A; D'Antoni, S; Bardoni, B; Catania, M V

    2015-05-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by the lack of expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein involved in mRNA transport and translation. FMRP is a component of mRNA ribonucleoprotein complexes and it can interact with a range of proteins either directly or indirectly, as demonstrated by two-hybrid selection and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. Most of FMRP-interacting proteins are RNA-binding proteins such as FXR1P, FXR2P and 82-FIP. Interestingly, FMRP can also interact directly with the cytoplasmic proteins CYFIP1 and CYFIP2, which do not bind RNA and link FMRP to the RhoGTPase pathway. The interaction with these different proteins may modulate the functions of FMRP by influencing its affinity to RNA and by affecting the FMRP ability of cytoskeleton remodeling through Rho/Rac GTPases. To better define the relationship of FMRP with its interacting proteins during brain development, we have analyzed the expression pattern of FMRP and its interacting proteins in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellum at different ages in wild type (WT) mice. FMRP and FXR2P were strongly expressed during the first week and gradually decreased thereafter, more rapidly in the cerebellum than in the cortex. FXR1P was also expressed early and showed a reduction at later stages of development with a similar developmental pattern in these two regions. CYFIP1 was expressed at all ages and peaked in the third post-natal week. In contrast, CYFIP2 and 82-FIP (only in forebrain regions) were moderately expressed at P3 and gradually increased after P7. In general, the expression pattern of each protein was similar in the regions examined, except for 82-FIP, which exhibited a strong expression at P3 and low levels at later developmental stages in the cerebellum. Our data indicate that FMRP and its interacting proteins have distinct developmental patterns of expression and suggest that FMRP may be preferentially associated to certain proteins in early and late developmental periods. In particular, the RNA-binding and cytoskeleton remodeling functions of FMRP may be differently modulated during development. PMID:25681562

  4. The fragile X mental retardation protein is a ribonucleoprotein containing both nuclear localization and nuclear export signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek E. Eberhart; Henry E. Malter; Yue Feng; Stephen T. Warren

    1996-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is a frequent cause of mental retardation resulting from the absence of FMRP, the protein encoded by the FMR1 gene. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein of unknown function which is associated with ribosomes. To gain insight into FMRP function, we performed immunolocalization analysis of FMRP truncation and fusion constructs which revealed a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in

  5. The Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein participates in the piRNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Bozzetti, Maria Pia; Specchia, Valeria; Cattenoz, Pierre B; Laneve, Pietro; Geusa, Annamaria; Sahin, H Bahar; Di Tommaso, Silvia; Friscini, Antonella; Massari, Serafina; Diebold, Celine; Giangrande, Angela

    2015-06-01

    RNA metabolism controls multiple biological processes, and a specific class of small RNAs, called piRNAs, act as genome guardians by silencing the expression of transposons and repetitive sequences in the gonads. Defects in the piRNA pathway affect genome integrity and fertility. The possible implications in physiopathological mechanisms of human diseases have made the piRNA pathway the object of intense investigation, and recent work suggests that there is a role for this pathway in somatic processes including synaptic plasticity. The RNA-binding fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP, also known as FMR1) controls translation and its loss triggers the most frequent syndromic form of mental retardation as well as gonadal defects in humans. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that germline, as well as somatic expression, of Drosophila Fmr1 (denoted dFmr1), the Drosophila ortholog of FMRP, are necessary in a pathway mediated by piRNAs. Moreover, dFmr1 interacts genetically and biochemically with Aubergine, an Argonaute protein and a key player in this pathway. Our data provide novel perspectives for understanding the phenotypes observed in Fragile X patients and support the view that piRNAs might be at work in the nervous system. PMID:25908854

  6. Distribution of fragile X mental retardation protein in the human auditory brainstem.

    PubMed

    Beebe, K; Wang, Y; Kulesza, R

    2014-07-25

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) binds select mRNAs, functions in intracellular transport of these mRNAs and represses their translation. FMRP is highly expressed in neurons and lack of FMRP has been shown to result in dendritic dysmorphology and altered synaptic function. FMRP is known to interact with mRNAs for the Kv3.1b potassium channel which is required for neurons to fire action potentials at high rates with remarkable temporal precision. Auditory brainstem neurons are known for remarkably high spike rates and expression of Kv3.1b potassium channels. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic disorder caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (Fmr1) resulting in decreased expression of FMRP and subsequent intellectual disability, seizures, attention deficit and hypersensitivity to auditory and other sensory stimuli. We therefore hypothesize that the auditory difficulties in FXS result, at least in part, from dysfunction of auditory brainstem neurons. To examine this hypothesis, we have studied normal human brainstem tissue with immunohistochemical techniques and confocal microscopy. Our results demonstrate that FMRP is widely expressed in cell bodies and dendritic arbors of neurons in the human cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex and also that coincidence detector neurons of the medial superior olive colocalization of FMRP and Kv3.1b. We interpret these observations to suggest that the lower auditory brainstem is a potential site of dysfunction in FXS. PMID:24838064

  7. GABAB receptor upregulates fragile X mental retardation protein expression in neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhua; Xu, Chanjuan; Tu, Haijun; Wang, Yunyun; Sun, Qian; Hu, Ping; Hu, Yongjian; Rondard, Philippe; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein important for the control of translation and synaptic function. The mutation or silencing of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), which leads to intellectual disability and social impairment. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, and its metabotropic GABAB receptor has been implicated in various mental disorders. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to improve FXS symptoms in a mouse model and in human patients, but the signaling events linking the GABAB receptor and FMRP are unknown. In this study, we found that GABAB receptor activation upregulated cAMP response element binding protein-dependent Fmrp expression in cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons via two distinct mechanisms: the transactivation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and activation of protein kinase C. In addition, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, CGP7930, stimulated Fmrp expression in neurons. These results suggest a role for GABAB receptor in Fmrp regulation and a potential interest of GABAB receptor signaling in FXS improvement. PMID:26020477

  8. GABAB receptor upregulates fragile X mental retardation protein expression in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhua; Xu, Chanjuan; Tu, Haijun; Wang, Yunyun; Sun, Qian; Hu, Ping; Hu, Yongjian; Rondard, Philippe; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein important for the control of translation and synaptic function. The mutation or silencing of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), which leads to intellectual disability and social impairment. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, and its metabotropic GABAB receptor has been implicated in various mental disorders. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to improve FXS symptoms in a mouse model and in human patients, but the signaling events linking the GABAB receptor and FMRP are unknown. In this study, we found that GABAB receptor activation upregulated cAMP response element binding protein-dependent Fmrp expression in cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons via two distinct mechanisms: the transactivation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and activation of protein kinase C. In addition, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, CGP7930, stimulated Fmrp expression in neurons. These results suggest a role for GABAB receptor in Fmrp regulation and a potential interest of GABAB receptor signaling in FXS improvement. PMID:26020477

  9. Cyclostome Hemoglobins Are Possibly Paralogous to Gnathostome Hemoglobins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazutaka Katoh; Takashi Miyata

    2002-01-01

    .   Dimeric hemoglobins in lampreys are thought to be orthologous to gnathostome hemoglobins, comprising a familiar tetrameric\\u000a assembly, despite their different subunit interface. To elucidate this contradictory problem, a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate\\u000a globins was conducted. The inferred maximum-likelihood trees revealed that the cyclostome hemoglobins are closely related\\u000a to STAPs, recently identified stellate cell activation-associated proteins, and are paralogous to

  10. Biochemical and genetic interaction between the fragile X mental retardation protein and the microRNA pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Jin; Daniela C Zarnescu; Stephanie Ceman; Mika Nakamoto; Julie Mowrey; Thomas A Jongens; David L Nelson; Kevin Moses; Stephen T Warren

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is caused by a loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is a selective RNA-binding protein which forms a messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) complex that associates with polyribosomes. Recently, mRNA ligands associated with FMRP have been identified. However, the mechanism by which FMRP regulates the translation of its mRNA ligands remains unclear. MicroRNAs

  11. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates olfactory sensitivity but not odorant discrimination.

    PubMed

    Schilit Nitenson, Arielle; Stackpole, Emily E; Truszkowski, Torrey L S; Midroit, Maellie; Fallon, Justin R; Bath, Kevin G

    2015-06-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and is characterized by cognitive impairments and altered sensory function. It is caused by absence of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein essential for normal synaptic plasticity and function. Animal models have provided important insights into mechanisms through which loss of FMRP impacts cognitive and sensory development and function. While FMRP is highly enriched in the developing and adult olfactory bulb (OB), its role in olfactory sensory function remains poorly understood. Here, we used a mouse model of FXS, the fmr1 (-/y) mouse, to test whether loss of FMRP impacts olfactory discrimination, habituation, or sensitivity using a spontaneous olfactory cross-habituation task at a range of odorant concentrations. We demonstrated that fmr1 (-/y) mice have a significant decrease in olfactory sensitivity compared with wild type controls. When we controlled for differences in sensitivity, we found no effect of loss of FMRP on the ability to habituate to or spontaneously discriminate between odorants. These data indicate that loss of FMRP significantly alters olfactory sensitivity, but not other facets of basal olfactory function. These findings have important implications for future studies aimed at understanding the role of FMRP on sensory functioning. PMID:25917509

  12. Differential domain evolution and complex RNA processing in a family of paralogous EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes facilitates expression of diverse tissue-specific isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Chan, Nadine; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Dubchak, Inna; Narla, Mohandas; Gascard, Philippe D.; Conboy, John G.

    2004-07-15

    The EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes epitomize the resourcefulness of the mammalian genome to encode a complex proteome from a small number of genes. By utilizing alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3, and EPB41L1 encode a diverse array of structural adapter proteins. Comparative genomic and transcript analysis of these 140kb-240kb genes indicates several unusual features: differential evolution of highly conserved exons encoding known functional domains, interspersed with unique exons whose size and sequence variations contribute substantially to intergenic diversity: alternative first exons, most of which map far upstream of the coding regions; and complex tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing that facilitates synthesis of functionally different complements of 4.1 proteins in various cells. Understanding the splicing regulatory networks that control protein 4.1 expression will be critical to a full appreciation of the many roles of 4.1 proteins in normal cell biology and their proposed roles in human cancer.

  13. Fragile X mental retardation protein stimulates ribonucleoprotein assembly of influenza A virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhuo; Cao, Mengmeng; Guo, Yang; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Xue; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Conghui; Gabriel, Gülsah; Xue, Qinghua; Yi, Yonghong; Cui, Sheng; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of the influenza A virus is responsible for the transcription and replication of viral RNA in the nucleus. These processes require interplay between host factors and RNP components. Here, we report that the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) targets influenza virus RNA synthesis machinery and facilitates virus replication both in cell culture and in mice. We demonstrate that FMRP transiently associates with viral RNP and stimulates viral RNP assembly through RNA-mediated interaction with the nucleoprotein. Furthermore, the KH2 domain of FMRP mediates its association with the nucleoprotein. A point mutation (I304N) in the KH2 domain, identified from a Fragile X syndrome patient, disrupts the FMRP-nucleoprotein association and abolishes the ability of FMRP to participate in viral RNP assembly. We conclude that FMRP is a critical host factor used by influenza viruses to facilitate viral RNP assembly. Our observation reveals a mechanism of influenza virus RNA synthesis and provides insights into FMRP functions.

  14. Human herpesvirus 8 viral FLICE-inhibitory protein retards cell proliferation via downregulation of Id2 and Id3 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Fen; Wang, Lin-Yu; Li, Yi-Ling; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Chou, Miao-Chen; Lin, Kuan-Hua; Tai, Ming-Hong; Chen, Chang-Yu

    2010-10-01

    Death receptor-mediated apoptosis is potently inhibited by viral FLIP (FLICE/caspase 8 inhibitory protein) through reduced activation of procaspase 8. In this study, we show that the human herpesvirus 8-encoded vFLIP retards cell proliferation. Overexpression of vFLIP caused cell cycle arrest, with an apparent decrease of cells in the S phase. The Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) proteins are considered as dominant negative regulators of differentiation pathways, but positive regulators of cellular proliferation. The mechanisms by which Id proteins promote the cell cycle are diverse, but appear to involve affecting the expression of cell cycle regulators. RT-PCR results demonstrated that the expression of vFLIP decreased the expression levels of Id2 and Id3 as well as cyclin E and cyclin A compared with the vFLIP-null cells. These indicate that vFLIP affects cell proliferation by decreasing the expression levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins. PMID:20512523

  15. Transcriptomic and phenotypic analysis of paralogous spx gene function in Bacillus anthracis Sterne

    PubMed Central

    Barendt, Skye; Lee, Hyunwoo; Birch, Cierra; Nakano, Michiko M; Jones, Marcus; Zuber, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Spx of Bacillus subtilis is a redox-sensitive protein, which, under disulfide stress, interacts with RNA polymerase to activate genes required for maintaining thiol homeostasis. Spx orthologs are highly conserved among low %GC Gram-positive bacteria, and often exist in multiple paralogous forms. In this study, we used B. anthracis Sterne, which harbors two paralogous spx genes, spxA1 and spxA2, to examine the phenotypes of spx null mutations and to identify the genes regulated by each Spx paralog. Cells devoid of spxA1 were sensitive to diamide and hydrogen peroxide, while the spxA1 spoxA2 double mutant was hypersensitive to the thiol-specific oxidant, diamide. Bacillus anthracis Sterne strains expressing spxA1DD or spxA2DD alleles encoding protease-resistant products were used in microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses in order to uncover genes under SpxA1, SpxA2, or SpxA1/SpxA2 control. Comparison of transcriptomes identified many genes that were upregulated when either SpxA1DD or SpxA2DD was produced, but several genes were uncovered whose transcript levels increased in only one of the two SpxADD-expression strains, suggesting that each Spx paralog governs a unique regulon. Among genes that were upregulated were those encoding orthologs of proteins that are specifically involved in maintaining intracellular thiol homeostasis or alleviating oxidative stress. Some of these genes have important roles in B. anthracis pathogenesis, and a large number of upregulated hypothetical genes have no homology outside of the B. cereus/thuringiensis group. Microarray and RT-qPCR analyses also unveiled a regulatory link that exists between the two spx paralogous genes. The data indicate that spxA1 and spxA2 are transcriptional regulators involved in relieving disulfide stress but also control a set of genes whose products function in other cellular processes. Bacillus anthracis harbors two paralogs of the global transcriptional regulator of stress response, SpxA. SpxA1 and SpxA2 contribute to disulfide stress tolerance, but only SpxA1 functions in resistance to peroxide. Transcriptome analysis uncovered potential SpxA1 and SpxA2 regulon members, which include genes activated by both paralogs. However, paralog-specific gene activation was also observed. Genes encoding glutamate racemase, CoA disulfide reductase, and products functioning in bacillithiol biosynthesis, are among the genes activated by the SpxA paralogs. PMID:23873705

  16. Structural Studies of the Tandem Tudor Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Related Proteins FXR1 and FXR2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.; Guo, Yahong; Bian, ChuanBing; Amaya, Maria F.; Lam, Robert; Wasney, Gregory A.; Vedadi, Masoud; Xu, Chao; Min, Jinrong (Toronto)

    2011-11-23

    Expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1, fragile X mental retardation 1, gene results in suppression of protein expression for this gene and is the underlying cause of Fragile X syndrome. In unaffected individuals, the FMRP protein, together with two additional paralogues (Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome-related Protein 1 and 2), associates with mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex in the nucleus that is transported to dendrites and spines of neuronal cells. It is thought that the fragile X family of proteins contributes to the regulation of protein synthesis at sites where mRNAs are locally translated in response to stimuli. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the non-canonical nuclear localization signals of the FXR1 and FXR2 autosomal paralogues of FMRP, which were determined at 2.50 and 1.92 {angstrom}, respectively. The nuclear localization signals of the FXR1 and FXR2 comprise tandem Tudor domain architectures, closely resembling that of UHRF1, which is proposed to bind methylated histone H3K9. The FMRP, FXR1 and FXR2 proteins comprise a small family of highly conserved proteins that appear to be important in translational regulation, particularly in neuronal cells. The crystal structures of the N-terminal tandem Tudor domains of FXR1 and FXR2 revealed a conserved architecture with that of FMRP. Biochemical analysis of the tandem Tudor doamins reveals their ability to preferentially recognize trimethylated peptides in a sequence-specific manner.

  17. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Circadian Rhythmicity and Memory Consolidation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    causes fragile X syndrome (FraX), the most commonly inherited form of mental retardation and autism in establishing and maintaining neural circuit function. Keywords Fragile X syndrome . Learning . Memory is clearly evident when this regulation becomes compromised, as in fragile X syndrome (FraX). FraX is caused

  18. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    E-print Network

    Lin, Haining

    Background: High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental ...

  19. Identification of TGF-?, inhibin ?A and follistatin paralogs in the rainbow trout genome.

    PubMed

    de Mello, Fernanda; Streit, Danilo Pedro; Sabin, Nathalie; Gabillard, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Since their initial discovery, TGF-? superfamily members have been considered multifunctional growth and differentiation factors in many cell types. Various studies have clearly demonstrated the key roles of specific TGF-? members in muscle growth, including myostatin and inhibin as well as genes, such as follistatin. By binding to TGF-? members, follistatin prevents TGF-? from binding to its receptors and thus neutralizes its activity. Here, we report the identification of the gene sequences of four TGF-? isoforms and three paralogs of TGF-?1, which we called TGF-?1a, TGF-?1b and TGF-?1c, four sequences of inhibin ?A paralogs; and two sequences of follistatin paralogs from rainbow trout. A phylogenetic analysis clearly indicated the existence of four monophyletic clades, corresponding to TGF-?1, -?2, -?3 and -?6. Based on their sequence identity TGF-?1a and -?1c are grouped together, whereas TGF-?1b appears more divergent even though it is grouped within the TGF-?1 clade. Alignments and phylogenetic analyses showed that the protein sequences of TGF-?, inhibin ?A and follistatin are extremely well conserved (>90%) relative to each other; however, their regulation and expression patterns are different. TGF-?2 and -?3 showed the most abundant expression in muscle and were the main TGF-? members expressed in this tissue. Follistatin and inhibin ?A paralogs were expressed in all tissues examined but with different patterns. Our identification of multiple copies of TGF-?, inhibin ?A and follistatin with different expression patterns suggests non-redundant functions for these paralogs in rainbow trout. PMID:25149133

  20. A chromatin-dependent role of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP in the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Alpatov, Roman; Lesch, Bluma J.; Nakamoto-Kinoshita, Mika; Blanco, Andres; Chen, Shuzhen; Stützer, Alexandra; Armache, Karim J.; Simon, Matthew D.; Xu, Chao; Ali, Muzaffar; Murn, Jernej; Prisic, Sladjana; Kutateladze, Tatiana G.; Vakoc, Christopher R.; Min, Jinrong; Kingston, Robert E.; Fischle, Wolfgang; Warren, Stephen T.; Page, David C.; Shi, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Summary The fragile X syndrome, a common form of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein FMRP. FMRP is present predominantly in the cytoplasm where it regulates translation of proteins important for synaptic function. We identify FMRP as a chromatin binding protein that functions in the DNA damage response (DDR). Specifically, we show that FMRP binds chromatin through its tandem Tudor (Agenet) domain in vitro, and associates with chromatin in vivo. We also demonstrate that FMRP participates in the DDR in a chromatin binding-dependent manner. The DDR machinery is known to play important roles in developmental processes such as gametogenesis. We show that FMRP occupies meiotic chromosomes and regulates the dynamics of DDR machinery during mouse spermatogenesis. These findings suggest that nuclear FMRP regulates genomic stability at the chromatin interface, and may impact gametogenesis and some developmental aspects of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:24813610

  1. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein is Required for Synapse Elimination by the Activity-Dependent Transcription Factor MEF2

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Brad E.; Zang, Tong; Wilkerson, Julia R.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Maksimova, Marina A.; Smith, Laura N.; Cowan, Christopher W.; Huber, Kimberly M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of mental retardation and autism, is caused by loss of function mutations in an RNA binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Patients’ neurons, as well as those of the mouse model, Fmr1 knockout (KO), are characterized by an excess of dendritic spines, suggesting a deficit in excitatory synapse elimination. In response to neuronal activity, myocyte enhancing factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors induce robust synapse elimination. Here, we demonstrate that MEF2 activation fails to eliminate functional or structural excitatory synapses in hippocampal neurons from Fmr1 KO mice. Similarly, inhibition of endogenous MEF2 increases synapse number in wildtype, but not Fmr1 KO neurons. MEF2-dependent synapse elimination is rescued in Fmr1 KO neurons by acute postsynaptic expression of FMRP, but not RNA binding mutants of FMRP. Our results reveal that active MEF2 and FMRP function together in an acute, cell autonomous mechanism to eliminate excitatory synapses. PMID:20434996

  2. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for synapse elimination by the activity-dependent transcription factor MEF2.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Brad E; Zang, Tong; Wilkerson, Julia R; Taniguchi, Makoto; Maksimova, Marina A; Smith, Laura N; Cowan, Christopher W; Huber, Kimberly M

    2010-04-29

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of mental retardation and autism, is caused by loss-of-function mutations in an RNA-binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Neurons from patients and the mouse Fmr1 knockout (KO) model are characterized by an excess of dendritic spines, suggesting a deficit in excitatory synapse elimination. In response to neuronal activity, myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors induce robust synapse elimination. Here, we demonstrate that MEF2 activation fails to eliminate functional or structural excitatory synapses in hippocampal neurons from Fmr1 KO mice. Similarly, inhibition of endogenous MEF2 increases synapse number in wild-type but not Fmr1 KO neurons. MEF2-dependent synapse elimination is rescued in Fmr1 KO neurons by acute postsynaptic expression of wild-type but not RNA-binding mutants of FMRP. Our results reveal that active MEF2 and FMRP function together in an acute, cell-autonomous mechanism to eliminate excitatory synapses. PMID:20434996

  3. Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogarten, J. P.; Olendzenski, L.

    1999-01-01

    During the past decade, ancient gene duplications were recognized as one of the main forces in the generation of diverse gene families and the creation of new functional capabilities. New tools developed to search data banks for homologous sequences, and an increased availability of reliable three-dimensional structural information led to the recognition that proteins with diverse functions can belong to the same superfamily. Analyses of the evolution of these superfamilies promises to provide insights into early evolution but are complicated by several important evolutionary processes. Horizontal transfer of genes can lead to a vertical spread of innovations among organisms, therefore finding a certain property in some descendants of an ancestor does not guarantee that it was present in that ancestor. Complete or partial gene conversion between duplicated genes can yield phylogenetic trees with several, apparently independent gene duplications, suggesting an often surprising parallelism in the evolution of independent lineages. Additionally, the breakup of domains within a protein and the fusion of domains into multifunctional proteins makes the delineation of superfamilies a task that remains difficult to automate.

  4. The Creatine Transporter Gene Paralogous at 16p11.2 Is Expressed in Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bayou, Nadia; M’rad, Ridha; Belhaj, Ahlem; Daoud, Hussein; Zemni, Ramzi; Briault, Sylvain; Helayem, M. Béchir; Ben Jemaa, Lamia; Chaabouni, Habiba

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment of social interaction, language, communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behavior. Genetic predisposition to autism has been demonstrated in families and twin studies. About 5–10% of autism cases are associated with chromosomal abnormalities or monogenic disorders. The identification of genes involved in the origin of autism is expected to increase our understanding of the pathogenesis. We report on the clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular findings in a boy with autism carrying a de novo translocation t(7;16)(p22.1;p11.2). The chromosome 16 breakpoint disrupts the paralogous SLC6A8 gene also called SLC6A10 or CT2. Predicted translation of exons and RT-PCR analysis reveal specific expression of the creatine transporter paralogous in testis and brain. Several studies reported on the role of X-linked creatine transporter mutations in individuals with mental retardation, with or without autism. The existence of disruption in SLC6A8 paralogous gene associated with idiopathic autism suggests that this gene may be involved in the autistic phenotype in our patient. PMID:18509488

  5. Differential Selection within the Drosophila Retinal Determination Network and Evidence for Functional Divergence between Paralog Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rhea R.; Cruickshank, Tami; Kumar, Justin P.

    2011-01-01

    The retinal determination (RD) network in Drosophila comprises fourteen known nuclear proteins that include DNA binding proteins, transcriptional co-activators, kinases and phosphatases. The composition of the network varies considerably throughout the animal kingdom, with the network in several basal insects having fewer members and with vertebrates having potentially significantly higher numbers of retinal determination genes. One important contributing factor for the variation in gene number within the network is gene duplication. For example, ten members of the RD network in Drosophila are derived from duplication events. Here we present an analysis of the coding regions of the five pairs of duplicate genes from within the retinal determination network of several different Drosophila species. We demonstrate that there is differential selection across the coding regions of all RD genes. Additionally, some of the most significant differences in ratios of non-silent to silent site substitutions (dN/dS) between paralog pairs are found within regions that have no ascribed function. Previous structure/function analyses of several duplicate genes have identified areas within one gene that contain novel activities when compared to its paralog. The evolutionary analysis presented here identifies these same areas in the paralogs as being under high levels of relaxed selection. We suggest that sequence divergence between paralogs and selection signatures can be used as a reasonable predictor of functional changes in rapidly evolving motifs. PMID:21210943

  6. Delayed Myelination in an Intrauterine Growth Retardation Model Is Mediated by Oxidative Stress Upregulating Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Mary V.; Murray, Kaitlin A.; Marsh, Eric D.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Simmons, Rebecca A.; Grinspan, Judith B.

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) is associated with neurological deficits including cerebral palsy and cognitive and behavioral disabilities. The pathogenesis involves oxidative stress that leads to periventricular white matter injury with a paucity of mature oligodendrocytes and hypomyelination. The molecular mechanisms underlying this damage remain poorly understood. We employed a rat model of IUGR created by bilateral ligation of the uterine artery at embryonic day 19 that results in fetal growth retardation and oxidative stress in the developing brain. The IUGR rat pups showed significant delays in oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that resolved by 8 weeks. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), which inhibits oligodendrocyte maturation, was elevated in IUGR brains at postnatal time points and returned to near normal by adulthood. Despite the apparent recovery, behavioral deficiencies were found in 8-week-old female animals, suggesting that the early transient myelination defects have permanent effects. In support of these in vivo data, oligodendrocyte precursor cells cultured from postnatal IUGR rats retained increased BMP4 expression and impaired differentiation that was reversed with the BMP inhibitor noggin. Oxidants in oligodendrocyte cultures increased BMP expression, which decreased differentiation; however, abrogating BMP signaling with noggin in vitro and in BMP-deficient mice prevented these effects. Together, these findings suggest that IUGR results in delayed myelination through the generation of oxidative stress that leads to BMP4 upregulation. PMID:22710965

  7. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Cassidy, John S.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2014-04-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation, is characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic transmission depends critically on presynaptic calcium entry via voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Here we show that the functional expression of neuronal N-type CaV channels (CaV2.2) is regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We find that FMRP knockdown in dorsal root ganglion neurons increases CaV channel density in somata and in presynaptic terminals. We then show that FMRP controls CaV2.2 surface expression by targeting the channels to the proteasome for degradation. The interaction between FMRP and CaV2.2 occurs between the carboxy-terminal domain of FMRP and domains of CaV2.2 known to interact with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Finally, we show that FMRP controls synaptic exocytosis via CaV2.2 channels. Our data indicate that FMRP is a potent regulator of presynaptic activity, and its loss is likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunction in FXS.

  8. Drosophila Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Developmentally Regulates Activity-Dependent Axon Pruning

    PubMed Central

    Tessier, Charles R.; Broadie, Kendal

    2014-01-01

    Summary Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is a broad-spectrum neurological disorder with symptoms ranging from hyperexcitability to mental retardation and autism. Loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (fmr1) gene product, the mRNA-binding translational regulator FMRP, causes structural over-elaboration of dendritic and axonal processes as well as functional alterations in synaptic plasticity at maturity. It is unclear, however, whether FraX is primarily a disease of development, a disease of plasticity or both; a distinction vital for engineering intervention strategies. To address this critical issue, we have used the Drosophila FraX model to investigate the developmental roles of Drosophila FMRP (dFMRP). dFMRP expression and regulation of chickadee/profilin coincides with a transient window of late brain development. During this time, dFMRP is positively regulated by sensory input activity, and required to limit axon growth and for efficient activity-dependent pruning of axon branches in the Mushroom Body learning/memory center. These results demonstrate that dFMRP has a primary role in activity-dependent neural circuit refinement in late brain development. PMID:18321984

  9. Enhanced corticosteroid signaling alters synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus in mice lacking the fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Ghilan, M; Hryciw, B N; Brocardo, P S; Bostrom, C A; Gil-Mohapel, J; Christie, B R

    2015-05-01

    The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an important regulator of protein translation, and a lack of FMRP expression leads to a cognitive disorder known as fragile X syndrome (FXS). Clinical symptoms characterizing FXS include learning impairments and heightened anxiety in response to stressful situations. Here, we report that, in response to acute stress, mice lacking FMRP show a faster elevation of corticosterone and a more immediate impairment in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG). These stress-induced LTP impairments were rescued by administering the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU38486. Administration of RU38486 also enhanced LTP in Fmr1(-/y) mice in the absence of acute stress to wild-type levels, and this enhancement was blocked by application of the NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid. These results suggest that a loss of FMPR results in enhanced GR signaling that may adversely affect NMDAR dependent synaptic plasticity in the DG. PMID:25731748

  10. Mutations in mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPL12 leads to growth retardation, neurological deterioration and mitochondrial translation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Serre, Valérie; Rozanska, Agata; Beinat, Marine; Chretien, Dominique; Boddaert, Nathalie; Munnich, Arnold; Rötig, Agnès; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Zofia M

    2013-08-01

    Multiple respiratory chain deficiencies represent a common cause of mitochondrial diseases and are associated with a wide range of clinical symptoms. We report a subject, born to consanguineous parents, with growth retardation and neurological deterioration. Multiple respiratory chain deficiency was found in muscle and fibroblasts of the subject as well as abnormal assembly of complexes I and IV. A microsatellite genotyping of the family members detected only one region of homozygosity on chromosome 17q24.2-q25.3 in which we focused our attention to genes involved in mitochondrial translation. We sequenced MRPL12, encoding the mitochondrial ribosomal protein L12 and identified a c.542C>T transition in exon 5 changing a highly conserved alanine into a valine (p.Ala181Val). This mutation resulted in a decreased steady-state level of MRPL12 protein, with altered integration into the large ribosomal subunit. Moreover, an overall mitochondrial translation defect was observed in the subject's fibroblasts with a significant reduction of synthesis of COXI, COXII and COXIII subunits. Modeling of MRPL12 shows Ala181 positioned in a helix potentially involved in an interface of interaction suggesting that the p.Ala181Val change might be predicted to alter interactions with the elongation factors. These results contrast with the eubacterial orthologues of human MRPL12, where L7/L12 proteins do not appear to have a selective effect on translation. Therefore, analysis of the mutated version found in the subject presented here suggests that the mammalian protein does not function in an entirely analogous manner to the eubacterial L7/L12 equivalent. PMID:23603806

  11. Fetal Growth Retardation Induced by Dietary Imbalance of Threonine and Dispensable Amino Acids, with Adequate Energy and Protein-Equivalent Intakes, in Pregnant Rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACK METCOFF; TIMOTHY J. COLE ANDRICHARD

    Whether fetal growth retardation could be induced by diets ap parently adequate in protein and energy sources, but imbalanced relative to a single amino acid, was investigated. Pregnant rats were fed one of three diets: either a basal (B) 6% casein diet supplemented by L-methionine (L-Met) and a 5% mixture of essential plus 4.5% small neutral non-essential amino acids, which

  12. Evolutionary Acquisition of Cysteines Determines FOXO Paralog-Specific Redox Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Putker, Marrit; Vos, Harmjan R.; van Dorenmalen, Kim; de Ruiter, Hesther; Duran, Ana G.; Snel, Berend; Burgering, Boudewijn M.T.; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling, the translation of an oxidative intracellular environment into a cellular response, is mediated by the reversible oxidation of specific cysteine thiols. The latter can result in disulfide formation between protein hetero- or homodimers that alter protein function until the local cellular redox environment has returned to the basal state. We have previously shown that this mechanism promotes the nuclear localization and activity of the Forkhead Box O4 (FOXO4) transcription factor. Aims: In this study, we sought to investigate whether redox signaling differentially controls the human FOXO3 and FOXO4 paralogs. Results: We present evidence that FOXO3 and FOXO4 have acquired paralog-specific cysteines throughout vertebrate evolution. Using a proteome-wide screen, we identified previously unknown redox-dependent FOXO3 interaction partners. The nuclear import receptors Importin-7 (IPO7) and Importin-8 (IPO8) form a disulfide-dependent heterodimer with FOXO3, which is required for its reactive oxygen species-induced nuclear translocation. FOXO4 does not interact with IPO7 or IPO8. Innovation and Conclusion: IPO7 and IPO8 control the nuclear import of FOXO3, but not FOXO4, in a redox-sensitive and disulfide-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that evolutionary acquisition of cysteines has contributed to regulatory divergence of FOXO paralogs, and that phylogenetic analysis can aid in the identification of cysteines involved in redox signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 15–28. PMID:25069953

  13. Absence of FMR1 protein in two mentally retarded fragile X males without CGG repeat expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Lugenbeel, K.A.; Nelson, D.L. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States); Carson, N.L.; Chudley, A.E. [Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome is characterized by absence of the product of the FMR1 gene due to an expansion and abnormal methylation of a CGG repeat located in exon 1. While the vast majority of fragile X patients demonstrate this common mutation, a small number of non-CGG mutations have been identified among patients exhibiting features of fragile X syndrome. Three patients with large deletions ablating all or a portion of FMR1 have been previously reported. A fourth patient has been described with a point mutation resulting in an Ile367 Asn substitution. While this last individual suggests that FMR1 is directly responsible for fragile X syndrome, the severe phenotype observed suggests a gain of function mutation. Our long-term goal is to understand both the normal function of the FMR1 gene product and the consequences of its absence. Using Western blot analysis of protein extracts prepared from transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from individuals suspected of fragile X syndrome without CGG expansion, we have identified two fragile X males who display no FMR1 protein. In order to facilitate identification of small-scale mutations in these patients, primers have been designed which allow amplification of each exon of the FMR1 gene along with their intron boundaries. Exons 2 through 17 of FMR1 have been analyzed by amplification of patient genomic DNA using these primers. Each patient shows normal length amplification product from each exon as assayed by agarose gel electrophoresis, suggesting the absence of insertions, deletions, or other rearrangements. Sequence analysis of exons 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 has shown no alteration from the normal FMR1 sequence. Current analysis has focused on the use of mutation detection electrophoresis (MDE) in order to identify candidate exons for mutations. RT-PCR analysis is also under way to determine if FMR1 mRNA is present and to offer an alternative approach to mutation detection.

  14. Flame retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troitzsch, J.

    1988-01-01

    The use of flame retardants in plastics has grown only slightly in recent years and will probably grow slowly in the future. The reasons for this are slow economic growth and the absence of fundamentally new requirements for future fire prevention. The trends are toward the increasing use of easily handled, dust-free and well-dispersed flame retardant compounds and master batches; there are no spectacular new developments. In the future, questions of smoke evolution, toxicity and corrosiveness of combustion gases will become increasingly important, especially due to new regulations and rising requirements for environmental protection.

  15. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for programmed cell death and clearance of developmentally-transient peptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-08-15

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function, is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 product (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein best established to function in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic connections. In the Drosophila FXS disease model, loss of functionally-conserved dFMRP causes synaptic overgrowth and overelaboration in pigment dispersing factor (PDF) peptidergic neurons in the adult brain. Here, we identify a very different component of PDF neuron misregulation in dfmr1 mutants: the aberrant retention of normally developmentally-transient PDF tritocerebral (PDF-TRI) neurons. In wild-type animals, PDF-TRI neurons in the central brain undergo programmed cell death and complete, processive clearance within days of eclosion. In the absence of dFMRP, a defective apoptotic program leads to constitutive maintenance of these peptidergic neurons. We tested whether this apoptotic defect is circuit-specific by examining crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon circuits, which are similarly developmentally-transient and normally eliminated immediately post-eclosion. In dfmr1 null mutants, CCAP/bursicon neurons also exhibit significantly delayed clearance dynamics, but are subsequently eliminated from the nervous system, in contrast to the fully persistent PDF-TRI neurons. Thus, the requirement of dFMRP for the retention of transitory peptidergic neurons shows evident circuit specificity. The novel defect of impaired apoptosis and aberrant neuron persistence in the Drosophila FXS model suggests an entirely new level of "pruning" dysfunction may contribute to the FXS disease state. PMID:21596027

  16. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for programmed cell death and clearance of developmentally-transient peptidergic neurons

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    factor Crustacean cardioactive peptide Bursicon Synapse Calcium Apoptosis Fragile X syndrome Drosophila Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function. Introduction Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by CGG

  17. Arabidopsis Small Ubiquitin-Like Modifier Paralogs Have Distinct Functions in Development and Defense[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    van den Burg, Harrold A.; Kini, Ramachandra K.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Takken, Frank L.W.

    2010-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications allow dynamic and reversible changes to protein function. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a small gene family encodes paralogs of the small ubiquitin-like posttranslational modifier. We studied the function of these paralogs. Single mutants of the SUM1 and SUM2 paralogs do not exhibit a clear phenotype. However, the corresponding double knockdown mutant revealed that SUM1 and SUM2 are essential for plant development, floral transition, and suppression of salicylic acid (SA)–dependent defense responses. The SUM1 and SUM2 genes are constitutively expressed, but their spatial expression patterns do not overlap. Tight transcriptional regulation of these two SUM genes appears to be important, as overexpression of either wild-type or conjugation-deficient mutants resulted in activation of SA-dependent defense responses, as did the sum1 sum2 knockdown mutant. Interestingly, expression of the paralog SUM3 is strongly and widely induced by SA and by the defense elicitor Flg22, whereas its expression is otherwise low and restricted to a few specific cell types. Loss of SUM3 does not result in an aberrant developmental phenotype except for late flowering, while SUM3 overexpression causes early flowering and activates plant defense. Apparently, SUM3 promotes plant defense downstream of SA, while SUM1 and SUM2 together prevent SA accumulation in noninfected plants. PMID:20525853

  18. Nonredundant and locus-specific gene repression functions of PRC1 paralog family members in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    van den Boom, Vincent; Rozenveld-Geugien, Marjan; Bonardi, Francesco; Malanga, Donatella; van Gosliga, Djoke; Heijink, Anne Margriet; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Morrone, Giovanni; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2013-03-28

    The Polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI1 is a key factor in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and leukemic stem cell self-renewal and functions in the context of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1). In humans, each of the 5 subunits of PRC1 has paralog family members of which many reside in PRC1 complexes, likely in a mutually exclusive manner, pointing toward a previously unanticipated complexity of Polycomb-mediated silencing. We used an RNA interference screening approach to test the functionality of these paralogs in human hematopoiesis. Our data demonstrate a lack of redundancy between various paralog family members, suggestive of functional diversification between PcG proteins. By using an in vivo biotinylation tagging approach followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify PcG interaction partners, we confirmed the existence of multiple specific PRC1 complexes. We find that CBX2 is a nonredundant CBX paralog vital for HSC and progenitor function that directly regulates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21, independently of BMI1 that dominantly controls expression of the INK4A/ARF locus. Taken together, our data show that different PRC1 paralog family members have nonredundant and locus-specific gene regulatory activities that are essential for human hematopoiesis. PMID:23349393

  19. Elevation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 level in Pallister-Killian syndrome: Implications for the postnatal growth retardation phenotype.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kosuke; Kellogg, Emily; Fujiki, Katsunori; Kaur, Maninder; Tilton, Richard K; Noon, Sarah; Wilkens, Alisha; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D

    2015-06-01

    Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a multi-system developmental disorder caused by tetrasomy 12p that exhibits tissue-limited mosaicism. Probands with PKS often demonstrate a unique growth profile consisting of macrosomia at birth with deceleration of growth postnatally. We have previously demonstrated that cultured skin fibroblasts from PKS probands have significantly elevated expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP2). To further evaluate the role of IGFBP2 in PKS, the amount of IGFBP2 secreted from cultured skin fibroblast cell lines and serum IGFBP2 levels were measured in probands with PKS. Approximately 60% of PKS fibroblast cell lines secreted higher levels of IGFBP2 compared to control fibroblasts, although the remaining 40% of PKS samples produced comparable level of IGFBP2 to that of control fibroblasts. Serum IGFBP2 levels were also measured in PKS probands and were elevated in 40% of PKS probands. PKS probands with elevated IGFBP2 manifested with severe postnatal growth retardation. IGFBPs are the family of related proteins that bind IGFs with high affinity and are typically thought to attenuate IGF action. We suggest that elevated IGFBP2 levels might play a role in the growth retardation phenotype of PKS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25900123

  20. The paralogous R3 MYB proteins CAPRICE, TRIPTYCHON and ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 play pleiotropic and partly non-redundant roles in the phosphate starvation response of Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency alters root hair length and frequency as a means of increasing the absorptive surface area of roots. Three partly redundant single R3 MYB proteins, CAPRICE (CPC), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) and TRIPTYCHON (TRY), positively regulate the root hair cell fate by participating in a lateral inhibition mechanism. To identify putative targets and processes that are controlled by these three transcription factors (TFs), we conducted transcriptional profiling of roots from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants, and cpc, etc1 and try mutants grown under Pi-replete and Pi-deficient conditions using RNA-seq. The data show that in an intricate interplay between the three MYBs regulate several developmental, physiological and metabolic processes that are putatively located in different tissues. When grown on media with a low Pi concentration, all three TFs acquire additional functions that are related to the Pi starvation response, including transition metal transport, membrane lipid remodelling, and the acquisition, uptake and storage of Pi. Control of gene activity is partly mediated through the regulation of potential antisense transcripts. The current dataset extends the known functions of R3 MYB proteins, provides a suite of novel candidates with critical function in root hair development under both control and Pi-deficient conditions, and challenges the definition of genetic redundancy by demonstrating that environmental perturbations may confer specific functions to orthologous proteins that could have similar roles under control conditions. PMID:26022254

  1. Neurodegeneration-associated TDP-43 Interacts with Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP)/Staufen (STAU1) and Regulates SIRT1 Expression in Neuronal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhipeng; Fan, Dongsheng; Gui, Bin; Shi, Lei; Xuan, Chenghao; Shan, Lin; Wang, Qian; Shang, Yongfeng; Wang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the identification of the 43 kDa transactive response DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) as a major pathological signatory protein in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, the mechanistic role of TDP-43 in neurodegenerative disorders is still poorly understood. Here, we report that TDP-43 is physically associated with fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and Staufen (STAU1) to form a functional complex. Differential microarray analysis revealed that the expression of a collection of functionally important genes including Sirtuin (SIRT1) is regulated by this complex. RNA-immunoprecipitation (RIP) and RNA pull-down assays demonstrated that TDP-43/FMRP/STAU1 specifically binds to the 3?-UTR of SIRT1 mRNA, and that knockdown the expression of any one of these three proteins resulted in the reduction of SIRT1 mRNA and protein. SIRT1 is implicated in double-stranded DNA break repair and is required for cell survival. Indeed, depletion of TDP-43/FMRP/STAU1 sensitizes cells to apoptosis and DNA damages. Collectively, our results revealed a molecular mechanism for the cellular function of TDP-43 and might shed new light on the understanding of the mechanistic role of TDP-43 in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22584570

  2. Unexpected Ancient Paralogs and an Evolutionary Model for the COPII Coat Complex

    PubMed Central

    Schlacht, Alexander; Dacks, Joel B.

    2015-01-01

    The coat protein complex II (COPII) is responsible for the transport of protein cargoes from the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. COPII has been functionally characterized extensively in vivo in humans and yeast. This complex shares components with the nuclear pore complex and the Seh1-Associated (SEA) complex, inextricably linking its evolution with that of the nuclear pore and other protocoatomer domain-containing complexes. Importantly, this is one of the last coat complexes to be examined from a comparative genomic and phylogenetic perspective. We use homology searching of eight components across 74 eukaryotic genomes, followed by phylogenetic analyses, to assess both the distribution of the COPII components across eukaryote diversity and to assess its evolutionary history. We report that Sec12, but not Sed4 was present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor along with Sec16, Sar1, Sec13, Sec31, Sec23, and Sec24. We identify a previously undetected paralog of Sec23 that, at least, predates the archaeplastid clade. We also describe three Sec24 paralogs likely present in the Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor, including one newly detected that was anciently present but lost from both opisthokonts and excavates. Altogether, we report previously undescribed complexity of the COPII coat in the ancient eukaryotic ancestor and speculate on models for the evolution, not only of the complex, but its relationship to other protocoatomer-derived complexes. PMID:25747251

  3. Combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection drive retention of RPL36a paralogs in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Casanova-Sáez, Rubén; Candela, Héctor; Micol, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplication events have driven to a large degree the evolution of angiosperm genomes. Although the majority of redundant gene copies after a genome duplication are lost, subfunctionalization or gene balance account for the retention of gene copies. The Arabidopsis 80S ribosome represents an excellent model to test the gene balance hypothesis as it consists of 80 ribosomal proteins, all of them encoded by genes belonging to small gene families. Here, we present the isolation of mutant alleles of the APICULATA2 (API2) and RPL36aA paralogous genes, which encode identical ribosomal proteins but share a similarity of 89% in their coding sequences. RPL36aA was found expressed at a higher level than API2 in the wild type. The loss-of-function api2 and rpl36aa mutations are recessive and affect leaf development in a similar way. Their double mutant combinations with asymmetric leaves2-1 (as2-1) caused leaf polarity defects that were stronger in rpl36aa as2-1 than in api2 as2-1. Our results highlight the role of combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection in the retention of these paralogous genes in the Arabidopsis genome. PMID:24535089

  4. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor SM1 is involved in colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Moran-Diez, Maria E; Ding, Shengli; Liu, Jinggao; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2015-06-01

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs within the T. virens genome. The paralog sm2 is highly expressed in the presence of plant roots. Gene deletion mutants of sm2 were generated and the mutants were found to overproduce SM1. The ability to elicit ISR in maize against Colletotrichum graminicola was not compromised for the mutants compared to that of wild type isolate. However, the deletion strains had a significantly lowered ability to colonize maize roots. This appears to be the first report on the involvement of an effector-like protein in colonization of roots by Trichoderma. PMID:25986544

  5. Mineral nutrient imbalance, DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink involved in growth retardation of Vicia faba L. seedlings exposed to lanthanum ions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengrun; Zhang, Kegui; He, Mei; Jiang, Chuanjun; Tian, Liumin; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Xiaorong

    2012-01-01

    Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance, DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink on growth of Vicia faba L. seedlings hydroponically cultivated in concentrations of extraneous lanthanum (La) for 20 days were investigated in the present experiment. The results showed that contents of La, Cu or K elements in roots generally changed synchronously with those in leaves, while Ca, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn or P in the roots altered inversely to those in the leaves. Thus, the extraneous La led to redistribution and imbalance of mineral nutrient elements in the roots and leaves. DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate/potassium (SDS/K+) precipitation methods, respectively. The results demonstrated that the increasing La induced DNA break and DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) in the seedlings. These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance, DNA lesion and DNA-protein crosslink were involved in the growth retardation and growth alteration of the seedlings, which may help to understand the mechanisms of rare earth elements (REEs) on plant growth. PMID:22655379

  6. Analysis of the Fragile X mental retardation protein isoforms 1, 2 and 3 interactions with the G-quadruplex forming semaphorin 3F mRNA.

    PubMed

    Evans, Timothy L; Blice-Baum, Anna C; Mihailescu, Mihaela-Rita

    2012-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most prevalent inheritable mental retardation, is caused by the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein with nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttle activity, proposed to act as a translation regulator of specific mRNAs in the brain. It has been shown that FMRP uses its arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) box domain to bind a subset of mRNA targets that form a G-quadruplex structure. FMRP has also been shown to undergo the post-translational modifications of arginine methylation and phosphorylation, as well as alternative splicing, resulting in multiple isoforms. The alternative splice isoforms investigated in this study, isoform 1 (ISO1), isoform 2 (ISO2), and isoform 3 (ISO3), are created by the alternative splicing acceptor site at exon 15. FMRP ISO2 and ISO3 are truncated by 12 and 13 residues, respectively, relative to the longest FMRP isoform ISO1. These truncations, which are in the close proximity of the RGG box domain, preserve the integrity of the RGG box in all three isoforms, but eliminate the in vivo phosphorylation sites, present only on FMRP ISO1. We have expressed and purified recombinant FMRP ISO1, ISO2 and ISO3 in Escherichia coli, free of post-translational modifications, and by using fluorescence spectroscopy, we show that each FMRP isoform binds G-quadruplex RNA, albeit with different binding affinities, suggesting that naturally occurring sequence modifications in the proximity of the RGG box modulate its G-quadruplex RNA binding ability. PMID:22134704

  7. Drosophila fragile X mental retardation protein and metabotropic glutamate receptor A convergently regulate the synaptic ratio of ionotropic glutamate receptor subclasses.

    PubMed

    Pan, Luyuan; Broadie, Kendal S

    2007-11-01

    A current hypothesis proposes that fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding translational regulator, acts downstream of glutamatergic transmission, via metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) G(q)-dependent signaling, to modulate protein synthesis critical for trafficking ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) at synapses. However, direct evidence linking FMRP and mGluR function with iGluR synaptic expression is limited. In this study, we use the Drosophila fragile X model to test this hypothesis at the well characterized glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Two iGluR classes reside at this synapse, each containing common GluRIIC (III), IID and IIE subunits, and variable GluRIIA (A-class) or GluRIIB (B-class) subunits. In Drosophila fragile X mental retardation 1 (dfmr1) null mutants, A-class GluRs accumulate and B-class GluRs are lost, whereas total GluR levels do not change, resulting in a striking change in GluR subclass ratio at individual synapses. The sole Drosophila mGluR, DmGluRA, is also expressed at the NMJ. In dmGluRA null mutants, both iGluR classes increase, resulting in an increase in total synaptic GluR content at individual synapses. Targeted postsynaptic dmGluRA overexpression causes the exact opposite GluR phenotype to the dfmr1 null, confirming postsynaptic GluR subtype-specific regulation. In dfmr1; dmGluRA double null mutants, there is an additive increase in A-class GluRs, and a similar additive impact on B-class GluRs, toward normal levels in the double mutants. These results show that both dFMRP and DmGluRA differentially regulate the abundance of different GluR subclasses in a convergent mechanism within individual postsynaptic domains. PMID:17989302

  8. Eukaryotic GPN-loop GTPases paralogs use a dimeric assembly reminiscent of archeal GPN.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Béatrice; Beraud, Carole; Meguellati, Sarra; Chen, Shu W; Pellequer, Jean Luc; Armengaud, Jean; Godon, Christian

    2013-02-01

    GTPases are molecular switches that regulate a wide-range of cellular processes. The GPN-loop GTPase (GPN) is a sub-family of P-loop NTPase that evolved from a single gene copy in archaea to triplicate paralog genes in eukaryotes, each having a non-redundant essential function in cell. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yGPN1 and yGPN2 are involved in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism, whereas nothing is known regarding yGPN3 function. Previous high-throughput experiments suggested that GPN paralogs interaction may occur. In this work, GPN|GPN contact was analyzed in details using TAP-Tag approach, yeast two-hybrid assay, in silico energy computation and site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved Glu residue located at the center of the interaction interface. It is demonstrated that this residue is essential for cell viability. A chromatid cohesion assay revealed that, like yGPN1 and yGPN2, yGPN3 also plays a role in sister chromatid cohesion. These results suggest that all three GPN proteins act at the molecular level in sister chromatid cohesion mechanism as a GPN|GPN complex reminiscent of the homodimeric structure of PAB0955, an archaeal member of GPN-loop GTPase. PMID:23324351

  9. Reconstructing the Evolutionary History of Paralogous APETALA1/FRUITFULL-Like Genes in Grasses (Poaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Jill C.; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the generation of evolutionary novelty. Paralogous genes that are not silenced may evolve new functions (neofunctionalization) that will alter the developmental outcome of preexisting genetic pathways, partition ancestral functions (subfunctionalization) into divergent developmental modules, or function redundantly. Functional divergence can occur by changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of gene expression and/or by changes in the activities of their protein products. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of two paralogous monocot MADS-box transcription factors, FUL1 and FUL2, and determined the evolution of sequence and gene expression in grass AP1/FUL-like genes. Monocot AP1/FUL-like genes duplicated at the base of Poaceae and codon substitutions occurred under relaxed selection mostly along the branch leading to FUL2. Following the duplication, FUL1 was apparently lost from early diverging taxa, a pattern consistent with major changes in grass floral morphology. Overlapping gene expression patterns in leaves and spikelets indicate that FUL1 and FUL2 probably share some redundant functions, but that FUL2 may have become temporally restricted under partial subfunctionalization to particular stages of floret development. These data have allowed us to reconstruct the history of AP1/FUL-like genes in Poaceae and to hypothesize a role for this gene duplication in the evolution of the grass spikelet. PMID:16816429

  10. HcrVf paralogs are present on linkage groups 1 and 6 of Malus.

    PubMed

    Broggini, Giovanni A L; Galli, Paolo; Parravicini, Gabriella; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Molecular markers derived from resistance gene analogs of HcrVf2, the first apple resistance gene cloned, may pave the way to the cloning of additional apple scab resistance genes. The Malus xdomestica 'Florina' (Vf) bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomic library was screened by hybridization using HcrVf2 as a probe. Positive BAC clones were assembled into contigs and microsatellite markers developed from each contig mapped. Only linkage groups 1 and 6 contained HcrVf2 paralogs. On linkage group 1, five loci in addition to the Vf locus were identified. A single locus was detected on linkage group 6. Representative BAC clones of these loci including the Vf locus were sequenced and the gene structure compiled. A total of 22 sequences, showing high sequence similarity to HcrVf2, were identified. Nine sequences were predicted to encode all seven protein domains described in HcrVf2, while three were truncated. Transcriptional analysis indicated that six genes with a complete HcrVf-like structure were constitutively expressed in young uninfected leaves of 'Florina'. The map position of each HcrVf analog was compared with the location of the major apple scab resistance genes. None of the major genes conferring scab resistance co-localized with HcrVf paralogs, indicating that they are unlikely to belong to the leucine-rich repeat - transmembrane class, which includes the Vf gene. PMID:19234561

  11. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for rapid experience-dependent regulation of the potassium channel Kv3.1b.

    PubMed

    Strumbos, John G; Brown, Maile R; Kronengold, Jack; Polley, Daniel B; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2010-08-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates synaptic plasticity by repressing translation of specific mRNAs. We found that FMRP binds mRNA encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.1b in brainstem synaptosomes. To explore the regulation of Kv3.1b by FMRP, we investigated Kv3.1b immunoreactivity and potassium currents in the auditory brainstem sound localization circuit of male mice. The unique features of this circuit allowed us to control neuronal activity in vivo by exposing animals to high-frequency, amplitude-modulated stimuli, which elicit predictable and stereotyped patterns of input to the anterior ventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). In wild-type (WT) animals, Kv3.1b is expressed along a tonotopic gradient in the MNTB, with highest levels in neurons at the medial, high-frequency end. At baseline, Fmr1(-/-) mice, which lack FMRP, displayed dramatically flattened tonotopicity in Kv3.1b immunoreactivity and K(+) currents relative to WT controls. Moreover, after 30 min of acoustic stimulation, levels of Kv3.1b immunoreactivity were significantly elevated in both the MNTB and AVCN of WT, but not Fmr1(-/-), mice. These results suggest that FMRP is necessary for maintenance of the gradient in Kv3.1b protein levels across the tonotopic axis of the MNTB, and are consistent with a role for FMRP as a repressor of protein translation. Using numerical simulations, we demonstrate that Kv3.1b tonotopicity may be required for accurate encoding of stimulus features such as modulation rate, and that disruption of this gradient, as occurs in Fmr1(-/-) animals, degrades processing of this information. PMID:20685971

  12. Intense and specialized dendritic localization of the fragile X mental retardation protein in binaural brainstem neurons: a comparative study in the alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan; Sakano, Hitomi; Beebe, Karisa; Brown, Maile R; de Laat, Rian; Bothwell, Mark; Kulesza, Randy J; Rubel, Edwin W

    2014-06-15

    Neuronal dendrites are structurally and functionally dynamic in response to changes in afferent activity. The fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an mRNA binding protein that regulates activity-dependent protein synthesis and morphological dynamics of dendrites. Loss and abnormal expression of FMRP occur in fragile X syndrome (FXS) and some forms of autism spectrum disorders. To provide further understanding of how FMRP signaling regulates dendritic dynamics, we examined dendritic expression and localization of FMRP in the reptilian and avian nucleus laminaris (NL) and its mammalian analogue, the medial superior olive (MSO), in rodents and humans. NL/MSO neurons are specialized for temporal processing of low-frequency sounds for binaural hearing, which is impaired in FXS. Protein BLAST analyses first demonstrate that the FMRP amino acid sequences in the alligator and chicken are highly similar to human FMRP with identical mRNA-binding and phosphorylation sites, suggesting that FMRP functions similarly across vertebrates. Immunocytochemistry further reveals that NL/MSO neurons have very high levels of dendritic FMRP in low-frequency hearing vertebrates including alligator, chicken, gerbil, and human. Remarkably, dendritic FMRP in NL/MSO neurons often accumulates at branch points and enlarged distal tips, loci known to be critical for branch-specific dendritic arbor dynamics. These observations support an important role for FMRP in regulating dendritic properties of binaural neurons that are essential for low-frequency sound localization and auditory scene segregation, and support the relevance of studying this regulation in nonhuman vertebrates that use low frequencies in order to further understand human auditory processing disorders. PMID:24318628

  13. SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-10-15

    At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

  14. Slc7a7 disruption causes fetal growth retardation by downregulating Igf1 in the mouse model of lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Sperandeo, Maria Pia; Annunziata, Patrizia; Bozzato, Andrea; Piccolo, Pasquale; Maiuri, Luigi; D'Armiento, Maria; Ballabio, Andrea; Corso, Gaetano; Andria, Generoso; Borsani, Giuseppe; Sebastio, Gianfranco

    2007-07-01

    The solute carrier family 7A member 7 gene (SLC7A7) encodes the light chain of the heterodimeric carrier responsible for cationic amino acid (CAA) transport across the basolateral membranes of epithelial cells in intestine and kidney. Mutations affecting SLC7A7 cause lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), a multiorgan disorder with clinical symptoms that include visceromegaly, growth retardation, osteoporosis, hyperammonemia, and hyperdibasicaminoaciduria. Here, we describe the consequences of inactivating Slc7a7 in a mouse model of LPI. The Slc7a7 mutation was generated by high-throughput retroviral gene-trapping in embryonic stem cells. The Slc7a7(-/-) mouse displayed intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), commonly leading to neonatal lethality. After heavy protein ingestion, the surviving adult animals presented metabolic derangement consistent with that observed in human LPI. IUGR was investigated by examining the expression of main factors controlling fetal growth. Insulin-like growth factor 1, the dominant fetal growth regulator in late gestation, was markedly downregulated as demonstrated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, immunostaining and Western blot analysis in fetal liver. To further explore the pathophysiology of LPI, gene expression profiling analyses were carried out by DNA microarray technology in intestine and liver of adult Slc7a7(-/-) mice. Significant upregulation or downregulation (twofold or greater) was observed for 488 transcripts in intestine, and for 521 transcripts in the liver. The largest category of differentially expressed genes corresponds to those involved in transport according to Gene Ontology classification. This mouse model offers new insights into the pathophysiology of LPI and into mechanisms linking CAA metabolic pathways and growth control. PMID:17376816

  15. Evolutionary Conservation of Amino Acid Composition in Paralogous Insect Vitellogenins

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of paralogous vitellogenins in 10 insect species representing six orders showed a remarkable degree of conservation of amino acid composition in spite of sequence differences. For example, the correlation between the percentages of the 20 amino acids in two vitellogenins from the beetle Tribolium castaneum was 0.975, even though the two amino acid sequences differed from each other at 49.4% of sites. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of occurrence of reciprocal pairs of amino acids in more distantly related paralogs, and this correlation was generally strongest when both of the amino acids in the pair were nutritionally essential. These results imply that conservation of amino acid composition occurs through amino acid replacements that result in a balanced loss and gain of each amino acid each amino acid residue. Thus insect vitellogenins seem to be subject to an unusual kind of purifying selection, where the amino acid content is conserved rather than the sequence per se, selection apparently arising from the nutritional needs of the developing embryo appears to be responsible for maintaining the balance of amino acids. PMID:20655995

  16. Adaptation of topoisomerase I paralogs to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Dalla Rosa, Ilaria; Goffart, Steffi; Wurm, Melanie; Wiek, Constanze; Essmann, Frank; Sobek, Stefan; Schroeder, Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Krutmann, Jean; Hanenberg, Helmut; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Mielke, Christian; Pommier, Yves; Boege, Fritz; Christensen, Morten O

    2009-10-01

    Topoisomerase I is essential for DNA metabolism in nuclei and mitochondria. In yeast, a single topoisomerase I gene provides for both organelles. In vertebrates, topoisomerase I is divided into nuclear and mitochondrial paralogs (Top1 and Top1mt). To assess the meaning of this gene duplication, we targeted Top1 to mitochondria or Top1mt to nuclei. Overexpression in the fitting organelle served as control. Targeting of Top1 to mitochondria blocked transcription and depleted mitochondrial DNA. This was also seen with catalytically inactive Top1 mutants, but not with Top1mt overexpressed in mitochondria. Targeting of Top1mt to the nucleus revealed that it was much less able to interact with mitotic chromosomes than Top1 overexpressed in the nucleus. Similar experiments with Top1/Top1mt hybrids assigned these functional differences to structural divergences in the DNA-binding core domains. We propose that adaptation of this domain to different chromatin environments in nuclei and mitochondria has driven evolutional development and conservation of organelle-restricted topoisomerase I paralogs in vertebrates. PMID:19720733

  17. Adaptation of topoisomerase I paralogs to nuclear and mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Ilaria Dalla; Goffart, Steffi; Wurm, Melanie; Wiek, Constanze; Essmann, Frank; Sobek, Stefan; Schroeder, Peter; Zhang, Hongliang; Krutmann, Jean; Hanenberg, Helmut; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Mielke, Christian; Pommier, Yves; Boege, Fritz; Christensen, Morten O.

    2009-01-01

    Topoisomerase I is essential for DNA metabolism in nuclei and mitochondria. In yeast, a single topoisomerase I gene provides for both organelles. In vertebrates, topoisomerase I is divided into nuclear and mitochondrial paralogs (Top1 and Top1mt). To assess the meaning of this gene duplication, we targeted Top1 to mitochondria or Top1mt to nuclei. Overexpression in the fitting organelle served as control. Targeting of Top1 to mitochondria blocked transcription and depleted mitochondrial DNA. This was also seen with catalytically inactive Top1 mutants, but not with Top1mt overexpressed in mitochondria. Targeting of Top1mt to the nucleus revealed that it was much less able to interact with mitotic chromosomes than Top1 overexpressed in the nucleus. Similar experiments with Top1/Top1mt hybrids assigned these functional differences to structural divergences in the DNA-binding core domains. We propose that adaptation of this domain to different chromatin environments in nuclei and mitochondria has driven evolutional development and conservation of organelle-restricted topoisomerase I paralogs in vertebrates. PMID:19720733

  18. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  19. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  20. PAXX, a paralog of XRCC4 and XLF, interacts with Ku to promote DNA double-strand break repair**

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Julia; Jhujh, Satpal; Mehmood, Shahid; Tamura, Naoka; Travers, Jon; Wu, Qian; Draviam, Viji M.; Robinson, Carol V.; Blundell, Tom L.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    XRCC4 and XLF are two structurally-related proteins that function in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we identify human PAXX (PAralog of XRCC4 and XLF; also called C9orf142) as a new XRCC4-superfamily member, and show that its crystal structure resembles that of XRCC4. PAXX interacts directly with the DSB-repair protein Ku and is recruited to DNA-damage sites in cells. Using RNA interference and CRISPR-Cas9 to generate PAXX?/? cells, we demonstrate that PAXX functions with XRCC4 and XLF to mediate DSB repair and cell survival in response to DSB-inducing agents. Finally, we reveal that PAXX promotes Ku-dependent DNA ligation in vitro, and assembly of core non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors on damaged chromatin in cells. These findings identify PAXX as a new component of the NHEJ machinery. PMID:25574025

  1. csrR, a Paralog and Direct Target of CsrA, Promotes Legionella pneumophila Resilience in Water

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Zachary D.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critical to microbial versatility is the capacity to express the cohort of genes that increase fitness in different environments. Legionella pneumophila occupies extensive ecological space that includes diverse protists, pond water, engineered water systems, and mammalian lung macrophages. One mechanism that equips this opportunistic pathogen to adapt to fluctuating conditions is a switch between replicative and transmissive cell types that is controlled by the broadly conserved regulatory protein CsrA. A striking feature of the legionellae surveyed is that each of 14 strains encodes 4 to 7 csrA-like genes, candidate regulators of distinct fitness traits. Here we focus on the one csrA paralog (lpg1593) that, like the canonical csrA, is conserved in all 14 strains surveyed. Phenotypic analysis revealed that long-term survival in tap water is promoted by the lpg1593 locus, which we name csrR (for “CsrA-similar protein for resilience”). As predicted by its GGA motif, csrR mRNA was bound directly by the canonical CsrA protein, as judged by electromobility shift and RNA-footprinting assays. Furthermore, CsrA repressed translation of csrR mRNA in vivo, as determined by analysis of csrR-gfp reporters, csrR mRNA stability in the presence and absence of csrA expression, and mutation of the CsrA binding site identified on the csrR mRNA. Thus, CsrA not only governs the transition from replication to transmission but also represses translation of its paralog csrR when nutrients are available. We propose that, during prolonged starvation, relief of CsrA repression permits CsrR protein to coordinate L. pneumophila’s switch to a cell type that is resilient in water supplies. PMID:26060275

  2. The cytohesin paralog Sec7 of Dictyostelium discoideum is required for phagocytosis and cell motility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dictyostelium harbors several paralogous Sec7 genes that encode members of three subfamilies of the Sec7 superfamily of guanine nucleotide exchange factors. One of them is the cytohesin family represented by three members in D. discoideum, SecG, Sec7 and a further protein distinguished by several transmembrane domains. Cytohesins are characterized by a Sec7-PH tandem domain and have roles in cell adhesion and migration. Results We study here Sec7. In vitro its PH domain bound preferentially to phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). When following the distribution of GFP-Sec7 in vivo we observed the protein in the cytosol and at the plasma membrane. Strikingly, when cells formed pseudopods, macropinosomes or phagosomes, GFP-Sec7 was conspicuously absent from areas of the plasma membrane which were involved in these processes. Mutant cells lacking Sec7 exhibited an impaired phagocytosis and showed significantly reduced speed and less persistence during migration. Cellular properties associated with mammalian cytohesins like cell-cell and cell-substratum adhesion were not altered. Proteins with roles in membrane trafficking and signal transduction have been identified as putative interaction partners consistent with the data obtained from mutant analysis. Conclusions Sec7 is a cytosolic component and is associated with the plasma membrane in a pattern distinctly different from the accumulation of PI(3,4,5)P3. Mutant analysis reveals that loss of the protein affects cellular processes that involve membrane flow and the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:23915312

  3. Schmerzbehandlung mit Dihydrocodein retard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zimmermann; H. Arnau; M. Hepper

    1995-01-01

    Zusammenfassung  Chronischer Schmerz erfordert eine chronische Behandlung. Dihydrocodein retard (DHC 60 Mundipharma) kommt diesem Grundsatz\\u000a entgegen: als Retardpräparat setzt es den Wirkstoff verzögert frei und sorgt so für gleichmäßige Plasmaspiegel. Durch die\\u000a bis zu 12 h lange Wirkungsdauer kommt der Patient mit einer täglich zweimaligen Gabe aus. Um den Einsatz von Dihydrocodein\\u000a retard beim niedergelassenen Arzt zu evaluieren, wurde eine Anwendungsbeobachtung

  4. HELQ promotes RAD51 paralog-dependent repair to avert germ cell attrition and tumourigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Adelman, Carrie A.; Lolo, Rafal L.; Birkbak, Nicolai J.; Murina, Olga; Matsuzaki, Kenichiro; Horejsi, Zuzana; Parmar, Kalindi; Borel, Valérie; Skehel, J. Mark; Stamp, Gordon; D’Andrea, Alan; Sartori, Alessandro A.; Swanton, Charles; Boulton, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Repair of interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) requires the coordinate action of the intra-S phase checkpoint and the Fanconi Anemia (FA) pathway, which promote ICL incision, translesion synthesis, and homologous recombination (reviewed in 1,2). Previous studies have implicated the 3?-5? superfamily 2 helicase HELQ/Hel308 in ICL repair in D. melanogaster (known as Mus301 or Spn-C3) and C. elegans (known as Helq-1 or Hel-3084). While in vitro analysis suggests that HELQ preferentially unwinds synthetic replication fork substrates with 3? ssDNA overhangs and also disrupts protein/DNA interactions while translocating along DNA5,6, little is known regarding its functions in mammalian organisms. Here we report that HELQ helicase-deficient mice exhibit subfertility, germ cell attrition, ICL sensitivity and tumour predisposition, with HelQ heterozygous mice exhibiting a similar, albeit less severe, phenotype than the null, indicative of haploinsufficiency. We establish that HELQ interacts directly with the RAD51 paralog complex, BCDX2, and functions in parallel to the FA pathway to promote efficient HR at damaged replication forks. Thus, our results reveal a critical role for HELQ in replication-coupled DNA repair, germ cell maintenance and tumour suppression in mammals. PMID:24005329

  5. Comparison of serine-rich protein genes of Entamoeba histolytica isolates obtained from institutions for the mentally retarded in Kanagawa and Shizuoka Prefectures, Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Feng Fu; Kouichi Nagakura; Xun-Jia Cheng; Hiroshi Tachibana

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, amebiasis has been observed in homosexual men, in institutionalized persons, and in overseas travelers. We have\\u000a previously reported an outbreak of amebiasis that occurred from 1986 to 1994 in institutions for the mentally retarded in\\u000a Kanagawa and Shizuoka Prefectures in Eastern Japan. Entamoeba histolytica but not Entamoeba dispar was identified in Entamoeba cultures obtained from cyst passers in

  6. Loss of WAVE-1 causes sensorimotor retardation and reduced learning and memory in mice

    E-print Network

    Scott, John D.

    with 3p-syndrome mental retardation who are haploinsuf- ficient for WRP MEGAP, a component of the WAVE-1-syndrome mental retardation (19). Although WASp WAVE scaffolding proteins share a conserved modular structureLoss of WAVE-1 causes sensorimotor retardation and reduced learning and memory in mice Scott H

  7. The presence of GSI-like genes in higher plants: support for the paralogous evolution of GSI and GSII genes.

    PubMed

    Mathis, R; Gamas, P; Meyer, Y; Cullimore, J V

    2000-02-01

    Glutamine synthetase type I (GSI) genes have previously been described only in prokaryotes except that the fungus Emericella nidulans contains a gene (fluG) which encodes a protein with a large N-terminal domain linked to a C-terminal GSI-like domain. Eukaryotes generally contain the type II (GSII) genes which have been shown to occur also in some prokaryotes. The question of whether GSI and GSII genes are orthologues or paralogues remains a point of controversy. In this article we show that GSI-like genes are widespread in higher plants and have characterized one of the genes from the legume Medicago truncatula. This gene is part of a small gene family and is expressed in many organs of the plant. It encodes a protein similar in size and with between 36 and 46% amino acid sequence similarity to prokaryotic GS proteins used in the analyses, whereas it is larger and with less than 25% similarity to GSII proteins, including those from the same plant species. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that this protein is most similar to putative proteins encoded by expressed sequence tags of other higher plant species (including dicots and a monocot) and forms a cluster with FluG as the most divergent of the GSI sequences. The discovery of GSI-like genes in higher plants supports the paralogous evolution of GSI and GSII genes, which has implications for the use of GS in molecular studies on evolution. PMID:10684345

  8. Educating the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, William O.

    1979-01-01

    A school can be an educational opportunity for mentally retarded citizens only if its teachers and learners can decide together on such things as the purposes toward which activities are directed, the means of reaching them, and the subject matter to be used in stimulating thinking. (Author/NQ)

  9. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  10. Flame retardant polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, M.; Atlas, S.M.; Pearce, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The flame retardation of polyolefins is the focus of this volume. Methods for reduction of smoke and experimental evaluation of flammability parameters for polymeric materials are discussed. The flammability evaluation methods for textiles and the use of mass spectrometry for analysis of polymers and their degradation products are also presented.

  11. Evolutionary analyses of caspase-8 and its paralogs: Deep origins of the apoptotic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Imai, Kenichiro; Tomii, Kentaro; Miller, David J

    2015-07-01

    Although Caenorhabditis and Drosophila proved invaluable in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, it is now clear that these animals are of limited value for understanding the evolution of apoptotic systems. Whereas data from these invertebrates led to the assumption that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway is restricted to vertebrates, recent data from cnidarians and sponges indicate that this pathway predates bilaterian origins. Here we review the phylogenetic distribution of caspase-8, the initiator caspase of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, its paralogs and other components of the network. The ancestral caspase-8 gave rise to four paralogs early in vertebrate evolution, and these have been maintained in many tetrapods. However, eutherians have lost caspase-18 and myomorph rodents have lost caspase-10, these losses suggesting functional redundancy amongst caspase-8 paralogs. The apoptotic network of the eumetazoan ancestor appears to have been complex and vertebrate like, and is only now being revealed by studying simple animals. PMID:26010168

  12. Mental Retardation, Selected Conference Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheerenberger, R.C., Ed.

    A compilation of selected papers includes the following: comprehensive diagnostic services; pediatric aspects of diagnosis; psychological evaluation of the severely retarded; use of social competency devices; diagnosis of the adult retarded; programing for the severely retarded; nursery school experiences for the trainable; a practical approach to…

  13. Teaching the Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Harold D.

    The text discusses the behavior, evaluation, and education of mentally retarded children. Harold D. Love presents an overview of the retarded, a description of intelligence and personality tests, and a historical survey of retardation; Virginia Cantrell reviews the educational philosophies and methods of Itard, Seguin, and Montessori. Shirley K.…

  14. Enhanced disease resistance and hypersensitivity to BTH by introduction of an NH1/OsNPR1 paralog.

    PubMed

    Bai, Wei; Chern, Mawsheng; Ruan, Deling; Canlas, Patrick E; Sze-To, Wing Hoi; Ronald, Pamela C

    2011-02-01

    Non-expresser of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1) is the master regulator of salicylic acid-mediated systemic acquired resistance. Over-expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 and rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog1)/OsNPR1 in rice results in enhanced resistance. While there are four rice NPR1 paralogs in the rice genome, none have been demonstrated to function in disease resistance. To study rice NPR1 paralog 3, we introduced constructs into rice and tested for effects on resistance to infection by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), the causal agent of bacterial blight. While over-expression of NH3 using the maize ubiquitin-1 promoter failed to enhance resistance, introduction of an extra copy of NH3 driven by its own promoter (nNT-NH3) resulted in clear, enhanced resistance. Progeny analysis confirms that the enhanced resistance phenotype, measured by Xoo-induced lesion length, is associated with the NH3 transgene. Bacterial growth curve analysis indicates that bacterial population levels are reduced 10-fold in nNT-NH3 lines compared to control rice lines. The transgenic plants exhibit higher sensitivity to benzothiadiazole (BTH) and 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) treatment as measured by increased cell death. Expression analysis of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes showed that nNT-NH3 plants display greatly enhanced induction of PR genes only after treatment with BTH. Our study demonstrates an alternative method to employ a regulatory protein to enhance plant defence. This approach avoids using undesirable constitutive, high-level expression and may prove to be more practical for engineering resistance. PMID:20561248

  15. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  16. Retarded gravitation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a ?/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.

  17. OrthoParaMap: Distinguishing orthologs from paralogs by integrating comparative genome data and gene phylogenies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven B. Cannon; Nevin D. Young

    2003-01-01

    Background: In eukaryotic genomes, most genes are members of gene families. When comparing genes from two species, therefore, most genes in one species will be homologous to multiple genes in the second. This often makes it difficult to distinguish orthologs (separated through speciation) from paralogs (separated by other types of gene duplication). Combining phylogenetic relationships and genomic position in both

  18. Palaeophylogenomics of the Vertebrate Ancestor--Impact of Hidden Paralogy on Hagfish and Lamprey Gene Phylogeny

    E-print Network

    Meyer, Axel

    -branching lineages in vertebrates, cyclostomes (hagfishes and lampreys) have been used for comparative analyses, namely cyclostomes (hagfishes and lampreys) occupy crucial positions (Kuraku et al. 2009b). RecentSYMPOSIUM Palaeophylogenomics of the Vertebrate Ancestor--Impact of Hidden Paralogy on Hagfish

  19. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor sm1 affects colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs wi...

  20. Mechanisms of functional promiscuity by HP1 proteins

    PubMed Central

    Canzio, Daniele; Larson, Adam; Narlikar, Geeta J.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins were originally identified as critical components in heterochromatin mediated gene silencing and are now recognized to play essential roles in several other processes including gene activation. Several eukaryotes possess more than one HP1 paralog. Despite high sequence conservation, the HP1 paralogs achieve diverse functions. Further, in many cases, the same HP1 paralog is implicated in multiple functions. Recent biochemical studies have revealed interesting paralog-specific biophysical differences and unanticipated conformational versatility in HP1 proteins that may account for this functional promiscuity. Here, we review these findings and describe a molecular framework that aims to link the conformational flexibility of HP1 proteins observed in vitro with their functional promiscuity observed in vivo. PMID:24618358

  1. PhylomeDB v3.0: an expanding repository of genome-wide collections of trees, alignments and phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Denisov, Ivan; Kormes, Diego; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The growing availability of complete genomic sequences from diverse species has brought about the need to scale up phylogenomic analyses, including the reconstruction of large collections of phylogenetic trees. Here, we present the third version of PhylomeDB (http://phylomeDB.org), a public database for genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes). Currently, PhylomeDB is the largest phylogenetic repository and hosts 17 phylomes, comprising 416,093 trees and 165,840 alignments. It is also a major source for phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions, covering about 5 million proteins in 717 fully-sequenced genomes. For each protein-coding gene in a seed genome, the database provides original and processed alignments, phylogenetic trees derived from various methods and phylogeny-based predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships. The new version of phylomeDB has been extended with novel data access and visualization features, including the possibility of programmatic access. Available seed species include model organisms such as human, yeast, Escherichia coli or Arabidopsis thaliana, but also alternative model species such as the human pathogen Candida albicans, or the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum. Finally, PhylomeDB is currently being used by several genome sequencing projects that couple the genome annotation process with the reconstruction of the corresponding phylome, a strategy that provides relevant evolutionary insights. PMID:21075798

  2. PhylomeDB v3.0: an expanding repository of genome-wide collections of trees, alignments and phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Pryszcz, Leszek P.; Denisov, Ivan; Kormes, Diego; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The growing availability of complete genomic sequences from diverse species has brought about the need to scale up phylogenomic analyses, including the reconstruction of large collections of phylogenetic trees. Here, we present the third version of PhylomeDB (http://phylomeDB.org), a public database for genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes). Currently, PhylomeDB is the largest phylogenetic repository and hosts 17 phylomes, comprising 416?093 trees and 165?840 alignments. It is also a major source for phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions, covering about 5 million proteins in 717 fully-sequenced genomes. For each protein-coding gene in a seed genome, the database provides original and processed alignments, phylogenetic trees derived from various methods and phylogeny-based predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships. The new version of phylomeDB has been extended with novel data access and visualization features, including the possibility of programmatic access. Available seed species include model organisms such as human, yeast, Escherichia coli or Arabidopsis thaliana, but also alternative model species such as the human pathogen Candida albicans, or the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum. Finally, PhylomeDB is currently being used by several genome sequencing projects that couple the genome annotation process with the reconstruction of the corresponding phylome, a strategy that provides relevant evolutionary insights. PMID:21075798

  3. Evolution of paralogous genes: Reconstruction of genome rearrangements through comparison of multiple genomes within Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tsuru, Takeshi; Kawai, Mikihiko; Mizutani-Ui, Yoko; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Ichizo

    2006-06-01

    Analysis of evolution of paralogous genes in a genome is central to our understanding of genome evolution. Comparison of closely related bacterial genomes, which has provided clues as to how genome sequences evolve under natural conditions, would help in such an analysis. With species Staphylococcus aureus, whole-genome sequences have been decoded for seven strains. We compared their DNA sequences to detect large genome polymorphisms and to deduce mechanisms of genome rearrangements that have formed each of them. We first compared strains N315 and Mu50, which make one of the most closely related strain pairs, at the single-nucleotide resolution to catalogue all the middle-sized (more than 10 bp) to large genome polymorphisms such as indels and substitutions. These polymorphisms include two paralogous gene sets, one in a tandem paralogue gene cluster for toxins in a genomic island and the other in a ribosomal RNA operon. We also focused on two other tandem paralogue gene clusters and type I restriction-modification (RM) genes on the genomic islands. Then we reconstructed rearrangement events responsible for these polymorphisms, in the paralogous genes and the others, with reference to the other five genomes. For the tandem paralogue gene clusters, we were able to infer sequences for homologous recombination generating the change in the repeat number. These sequences were conserved among the repeated paralogous units likely because of their functional importance. The sequence specificity (S) subunit of type I RM systems showed recombination, likely at the homology of a conserved region, between the two variable regions for sequence specificity. We also noticed novel alleles in the ribosomal RNA operons and suggested a role for illegitimate recombination in their formation. These results revealed importance of recombination involving long conserved sequence in the evolution of paralogous genes in the genome. PMID:16601000

  4. Retarded ejaculation: a review.

    PubMed

    Munjack, D J; Kanno, P H

    1979-03-01

    Retarded ejaculation is the persistent difficulty or inability to ejaculate despite the presence of adequate sexual desire, erection, and stimulation. The causes of this dysfunction may be organic, i.e., medical illness or drug ingestion (particularly medications with antiadrenergic effects), the result of surgical interventions, or secondary to inhibiting psychological factors. With regard to psychological determinants, fear, guilt, resentment, and passively have all been implicated, although objective studies are rare. The sexual object choice of men with retarded ejaculation has ben reported by several clinicians and investigators to be other than adult members of the opposite sex, while the marital relationship of these males has been considered etiological in other instances. Outcome assessment to date consists mostly of individual case reports or reports on small groups of patients treated without controls. To some extent, routine reliance on long-term traditional therapy has yielded to shorter, symptomatic learning-based treatments. While improved outcomes have been reported, many patients do not respond well. It is not yet possible to objectively predict succes or failure. Since it is our impression that this sexual dysfunction is more common than previously assumed (or is increasing in frequency), our present lack of data should soon be remedied. PMID:112949

  5. Sibling rivalry among paralogs promotes evolution of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Tyler-Smith, Chris; Xue, Yali

    2012-05-11

    Geneticists have long sought to identify the genetic changes that made us human, but pinpointing the functionally relevant changes has been challenging. Two papers in this issue suggest that partial duplication of SRGAP2, producing an incomplete protein that antagonizes the original, contributed to human brain evolution. PMID:22579279

  6. Sequence Motifs in MADS Transcription Factors Responsible for Specificity and Diversification of Protein-Protein Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aalt D. J. van Dijk; Giuseppa Morabito; Martijn Fiers; Roeland C. H. J. van Ham; Gerco C. Angenent; Richard G. H. Immink

    2010-01-01

    Protein sequences encompass tertiary structures and contain information about specific molecular interactions, which in turn determine biological functions of proteins. Knowledge about how protein sequences define interaction specificity is largely missing, in particular for paralogous protein families with high sequence similarity, such as the plant MADS domain transcription factor family. In comparison to the situation in mammalian species, this important

  7. Fire-Retardant Epoxy Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    Phosphorus-containing epoxy is fire-retardant and translucent. Intended as adhesive for laminated plastic sheets, new material bonds well to titanium dioxide-filled plastic film, which ordinarily shows little surface interaction with adhesives. Fire retardancy has been demonstrated, and smoke density is low enough to avoid smoke obscuration.

  8. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  9. X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben C. J. Hamel; H.-Hilger Ropers

    2005-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental

  10. X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-Hilger Ropers; Pietro Chiurazzi

    1980-01-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation. However, their contribution is often underestimated because in developed countries, severely affected patients are mainly sporadic cases and familial cases are rare. X-chromosomal mental retardation is the exception to this rule, and this is one of the reasons why research into the genetic and molecular causes of mental

  11. Aromatic polysulfones for flame retardancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Doina Macocinschi; Aurelia Grigoriu; Daniela Filip

    2002-01-01

    A poly(ether sulfone) and a copoly(ester sulfone) were synthesized and characterized using elemental analyses, IR, 1H-NMR spectrometry, GPC, thermogravimetric analyses. These polysulfones which show good thermal stability and flame retardancy were applied on textile materials and measurements for the evaluation of the flame retardant effect were carried out.

  12. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  13. Ancient Origin of Chaperonin Gene Paralogs Involved in Ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Krishanu; Brocchieri, Luciano

    2013-01-01

    The Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is a human developmental disorder that has been associated with fourteen BBS genes affecting the development of cilia. Three BBS genes are distant relatives of chaperonin proteins, a family of chaperones well known for the protein-folding role of their double-ringed complexes. Chaperonin-like BBS genes were originally thought to be vertebrate-specific, but related genes from different metazoan species have been identified as chaperonin-like BBS genes based on sequence similarity. Our phylogenetic analyses confirmed the classification of these genes in the chaperonin-like BBS gene family, and set the origin of the gene family earlier than the time of separation of Bilateria, Cnidaria, and Placozoa. By extensive searches of chaperonin-like genes in complete genomes representing several eukaryotic lineages, we discovered the presence of chaperonin-like BBS genes also in the genomes of Phytophthora and Pythium, belonging to the group of Oomycetes. This finding suggests that the chaperonin-like BBS gene family had already evolved before the origin of Metazoa, as early in eukaryote evolution as before separation of the lineages of Unikonts and Chromalveolates. The analysis of coding sequences indicated that chaperonin-like BBS proteins have evolved in all lineages under constraining selection. Furthermore, analysis of the predicted structural features suggested that, despite their high rate of divergence, chaperonin-like BBS proteins mostly conserve a typical chaperonin-like three-dimensional structure, but question their ability to assemble and function as chaperonin-like double-ringed complexes. PMID:24010126

  14. Avoiding paralogy: diploid loci for allotetraploid blue sucker fish ( Cycleptus elongatus , Catostomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Bessert; Craig Sitzman; Guillermo Ortí

    2007-01-01

    The blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) is a widespread North American catostomid fish that appears to be declining throughout much of its range. Here, we describe\\u000a the isolation and characterization of eleven microsatellite loci developed for population genetic studies in the genus. We\\u000a show that an additional step of cloning and sequencing can be useful in isolating paralogous loci that often

  15. Heterogeneous Conservation of Dlx Paralog Co-Expression in Jawed Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; Metcalfe, Cushla J.; Pollack, Jacob; Germon, Isabelle; Ekker, Marc; Depew, Michael; Laurenti, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model. Results The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family. Conclusion Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary inertia leading to high redundancy between gene expression patterns. PMID:23840829

  16. Comparative analysis of Hox paralog group 2 gene expression during Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ) embryonic development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Le Pabic; Edmund J. Stellwag; Shelby N. Brothers; Jean-Luc Scemama

    2007-01-01

    The hindbrain and pharyngeal arch-derived structures of vertebrates are determined, at least in part, by Hox paralog group 2 genes. In sarcopterygians, the Hoxa2 gene alone appears to specify structures derived from the second pharyngeal arch (PA2), while in zebrafish (Danio rerio), either of the two Hox PG2 genes, hoxa2b or hoxb2a, can specify PA2-derived structures. We previously reported three

  17. Roles of Rad51 paralogs for promoting homologous recombination in Leishmania infantum

    PubMed Central

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Plourde, Marie; Éthier, Chantal; Roy, Gaétan; Poirier, Guy G.; Ouellette, Marc; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    To achieve drug resistance Leishmania parasite alters gene copy number by using its repeated sequences widely distributed through the genome. Even though homologous recombination (HR) is ascribed to maintain genome stability, this eukaryote exploits this potent mechanism driven by the Rad51 recombinase to form beneficial extrachromosomal circular amplicons. Here, we provide insights on the formation of these circular amplicons by analyzing the functions of the Rad51 paralogs. We purified three Leishmania infantum Rad51 paralogs homologs (LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6) all of which directly interact with LiRad51. LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6 show differences in DNA binding and annealing capacities. Moreover, it is also noteworthy that LiRad51-3 and LiRad51-4 are able to stimulate Rad51-mediated D-loop formation. In addition, we succeed to inactivate the LiRad51-4 gene and report a decrease of circular amplicons in this mutant. The LiRad51-3 gene was found to be essential for cell viability. Thus, we propose that the LiRad51 paralogs play crucial functions in extrachromosomal circular DNA amplification to circumvent drug actions and preserve survival. PMID:25712090

  18. Roles of Rad51 paralogs for promoting homologous recombination in Leishmania infantum.

    PubMed

    Genois, Marie-Michelle; Plourde, Marie; Éthier, Chantal; Roy, Gaétan; Poirier, Guy G; Ouellette, Marc; Masson, Jean-Yves

    2015-03-11

    To achieve drug resistance Leishmania parasite alters gene copy number by using its repeated sequences widely distributed through the genome. Even though homologous recombination (HR) is ascribed to maintain genome stability, this eukaryote exploits this potent mechanism driven by the Rad51 recombinase to form beneficial extrachromosomal circular amplicons. Here, we provide insights on the formation of these circular amplicons by analyzing the functions of the Rad51 paralogs. We purified three Leishmania infantum Rad51 paralogs homologs (LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6) all of which directly interact with LiRad51. LiRad51-3, LiRad51-4 and LiRad51-6 show differences in DNA binding and annealing capacities. Moreover, it is also noteworthy that LiRad51-3 and LiRad51-4 are able to stimulate Rad51-mediated D-loop formation. In addition, we succeed to inactivate the LiRad51-4 gene and report a decrease of circular amplicons in this mutant. The LiRad51-3 gene was found to be essential for cell viability. Thus, we propose that the LiRad51 paralogs play crucial functions in extrachromosomal circular DNA amplification to circumvent drug actions and preserve survival. PMID:25712090

  19. Allosteric activation of trypanosomatid deoxyhypusine synthase by a catalytically dead paralog.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Suong; Jones, Deuan C; Wyllie, Susan; Fairlamb, Alan H; Phillips, Margaret A

    2013-05-24

    Polyamine biosynthesis is a key drug target in African trypanosomes. The "resurrection drug" eflornithine (difluoromethylornithine), which is used clinically to treat human African trypanosomiasis, inhibits the first step in polyamine (spermidine) biosynthesis, a highly regulated pathway in most eukaryotic cells. Previously, we showed that activity of a key trypanosomatid spermidine biosynthetic enzyme, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase, is regulated by heterodimer formation with a catalytically dead paralog (a prozyme). Here, we describe an expansion of this prozyme paradigm to the enzyme deoxyhypusine synthase, which is required for spermidine-dependent hypusine modification of a lysine residue in the essential translation factor eIF5A. Trypanosoma brucei encodes two deoxyhypusine synthase paralogs, one that is catalytically functional but grossly impaired, and the other is inactive. Co-expression in Escherichia coli results in heterotetramer formation with a 3000-fold increase in enzyme activity. This functional complex is also present in T. brucei, and conditional knock-out studies indicate that both DHS genes are essential for in vitro growth and infectivity in mice. The recurrent evolution of paralogous, catalytically dead enzyme-based activating mechanisms may be a consequence of the unusual gene expression in the parasites, which lack transcriptional regulation. Our results suggest that this mechanism may be more widely used by trypanosomatids to control enzyme activity and ultimately influence pathogenesis than currently appreciated. PMID:23525104

  20. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C. [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)] [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey); Koc, Ahmet, E-mail: ahmetkoc@iyte.edu.tr [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)] [Izmir Institute of Technology, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 35430 Urla, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  1. Two Rac paralogs regulate polarized growth in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Elizabeth Ripley; Selvig, Kyla; Narloch, Jessica L.; Nichols, Connie B.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A genome wide analysis of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii has revealed a number of duplications of highly conserved genes involved in morphogenesis. Previously, we reported that duplicate Cdc42 paralogs provide C. neoformans with niche-specific responses to environmental stresses: Cdc42 is required for thermotolerance, while Cdc420 supports the formation of titan cells. The related Rho-GTPase Rac1 has been shown in C. neoformans var. neoformans to play a major role in filamentation and to share Cdc42/Cdc420 binding partners. Here we report the characterization of a second Rac paralog in C. neoformans, Rac2, and describe its overlapping function with the previously described CnRac, Rac1. Further, we demonstrate that the Rac paralogs play a primary role in polarized growth via the organization of reactive oxygen species and play only a minor role in the organization of actin. Finally, we provide preliminary evidence that pharmacological inhibitors of Rac activity and actin stability have synergistic activity. PMID:23748012

  2. Computer assisted cloning of human neutral ?-glucosidase C (GANC): A new paralog in the glycosyl hydrolase gene family 31

    PubMed Central

    Hirschhorn, R.; Huie, M. L.; Kasper, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The exponential expansion of the publicly available human DNA sequence database has increasingly facilitated cloning by homology of genes for biochemically defined, functionally similar proteins. We hypothesized that an as-yet uncloned human ?-glucosidase (human neutral ?-glucosidase C or GANC) is a previously uncharacterized member of a paralogous human glycosyl hydrolase gene family 31, sharing sequence homology and related, but not identical, functions with other cloned human ?-glucosidases. We now report both the in silico and physical cloning of two alleles of human neutral ?-glucosidase (designated GANC on the human gene map). This cloning and correct identification and annotation as GANC was successful only because of the application of the biochemical and genetic information we had previously developed regarding this gene to the results of the in silico method. Of note, this glucosidase, a member of family 31 glycosyl hydrolases, has multiple alleles, including a “null” allele and is potentially significant because it is involved in glycogen metabolism and localizes to a chromosomal region (15q15) reported to confer susceptibility to diabetes. PMID:12370436

  3. SP Transcription Factor Paralogs and DNA-Binding Sites Coevolve and Adaptively Converge in Mammals and Birds

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Ken Daigoro; Pollock, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Functional modification of regulatory proteins can affect hundreds of genes throughout the genome, and is therefore thought to be almost universally deleterious. This belief, however, has recently been challenged. A potential example comes from transcription factor SP1, for which statistical evidence indicates that motif preferences were altered in eutherian mammals. Here, we set out to discover possible structural and theoretical explanations, evaluate the role of selection in SP1 evolution, and discover effects on coregulatory proteins. We show that SP1 motif preferences were convergently altered in birds as well as mammals, inducing coevolutionary changes in over 800 regulatory regions. Structural and phylogenic evidence implicates a single causative amino acid replacement at the same SP1 position along both lineages. Furthermore, paralogs SP3 and SP4, which coregulate SP1 target genes through competitive binding to the same sites, have accumulated convergent replacements at the homologous position multiple times during eutherian and bird evolution, presumably to preserve competitive binding. To determine plausibility, we developed and implemented a simple model of transcription factor and binding site coevolution. This model predicts that, in contrast to prevailing beliefs, even small selective benefits per locus can drive concurrent fixation of transcription factor and binding site mutants under a broad range of conditions. Novel binding sites tend to arise de novo, rather than by mutation from ancestral sites, a prediction substantiated by SP1-binding site alignments. Thus, multiple lines of evidence indicate that selection has driven convergent evolution of transcription factors along with their binding sites and coregulatory proteins. PMID:23019068

  4. Therapeutic implications of the mGluR theory of fragile X mental retardation

    E-print Network

    Bear, Mark

    for remarkably diverse psychiatric and neurological symptoms in fragile X syndrome, including delayed cognitiveReview Therapeutic implications of the mGluR theory of fragile X mental retardation M. F. Bear mGluR) activ- ation are exaggerated in the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein

  5. Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains

    E-print Network

    Regan, Lynne

    Structure Article Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome: Structure of the KH1-KH2 Domains.06.022 SUMMARY Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans of functional Fragile X Mental Retarda- tion Protein (FMRP) is the underlying basis of Fragile X syndrome

  6. Intumescent coatings as fire retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  7. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  8. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  9. Variable ultrabroadband and narrowband composite polarization retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Thorsten; Ivanov, Svetoslav S.; Englisch, Daniel; Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Halfmann, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate novel types of composite sequences of half-wave and quarter-wave polarization retarders, either permitting operation at ultra-broad spectral bandwidth or narrow bandwidth. The retarders are composed of stacked standard half-wave retarders and quarter-wave retarders of equal thickness. To our knowledge, these home-built devices outperform all commercially available compound retarders, made of several birefringent materials.

  10. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  11. Multiple Co-Evolutionary Networks Are Supported by the Common Tertiary Scaffold of the LacI/GalR Proteins

    E-print Network

    Parente, Daniel J.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2013-12-31

    Protein families might evolve paralogous functions on their common tertiary scaffold in two ways. First, the locations of functionally-important sites might be ‘‘hard-wired’’ into the structure, with novel functions evolved ...

  12. Firefighters and flame retardant activism.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Brown, Phil; Morello-Frosch, Rachel

    2015-02-01

    In the past decade, exposure to flame retardant chemicals has become a pressing health concern and widely discussed topic of public safety for firefighters in the United States. Working through local, state, and national unions and independent health and advocacy organizations, firefighters have made important contributions to efforts to restrict the use of certain flame retardants. Firefighters are key members in advocacy coalitions dedicated to developing new environmental health regulations and reforming flammability standards to reflect the best available fire science. Their involvement has been motivated by substantiated health concerns and critiques of deceptive lobbying practices by the chemical industry. Drawing on observations and interviews with firefighters, fire safety experts, and other involved stakeholders, this article describes why firefighters are increasingly concerned about their exposure to flame retardant chemicals in consumer products, and analyzes their involvement in state and national environmental health coalitions. PMID:25816168

  13. Subtleties of the clock retardation

    E-print Network

    Redzic, D V

    2015-01-01

    For a simple electromagnetic model of a clock introduced by Jefimenko (clock $\\#$ 1 in 1996 {\\it Am. J. Phys.} {\\bf 64} 812), a change of the rate of the clock when it is set in uniform motion is calculated exactly, employing the correct equation of motion of a charged particle in the electromagnetic field and the universal boostability assumption. Thus, for the clock under consideration, a dynamical content of the clock retardation is demonstrated. Somewhat surprisingly, the analysis presented discloses that some familiar relativistic generalisations concerning the retardation of clocks have to be amended.

  14. [Hyperlipoproteinemia in mentally retarded children].

    PubMed

    Höllge, J; Vymlátil, J; Kostiuk, P; Böswart, J

    1993-08-01

    Screening revealed a significantly higher incidence of hyperlipoproteinaemia in mentally retarded children in an Institute for Social Welfare than in the healthy child population (P 1%). In the aetiology participate most markedly secondary influences ensuing in particular from complications of the basic diagnosis of oligophrenia. It is mainly a question of the action of antiepileptics, neuroleptics, the influence of viral hepatic infections and other endogenous and exogenous factors. Early diagnosis of hyperlipoproteinaemia is possible so far only by biochemical methods. It is essential for genetic counselling, for prevention of deterioration as regards mental retardation, restriction of pharmacotherapy and later for a reduced risk of development of cardiovascular disease. PMID:8403035

  15. Nogo receptor 3, a paralog of Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1), may function as a NgR1 co-receptor for Nogo-66.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Kuang, Xia; Zhang, Jian

    2011-11-20

    Nogo-A is a major myelin associated inhibitor that blocks regeneration of injured axons in the central nervous system (CNS). Nogo-66 (a 66-residue domain of Nogo-A) expressed on the surface of oligodendrocytes has been shown to directly interact with Nogo-66 receptor 1 (NgR1). A number of additional components of NgR1 receptor complex essential for its signaling have been uncovered. However, detailed composition of the complex and its signaling mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. In this study, we show that Nogo receptor 3 (NgR3), a paralog of NgR1, is a binding protein for NgR1. The interaction is highly specific because other members of the reticulin family, to which Nogo-A belongs, do not bind to NgR3. Neither does NgR3 show any binding activity with Nogo receptor 2 (NgR2), another NgR1 paralog. Majority of NgR3 domains are required for its binding to NgR1. Moreover, a truncated NgR3 with the membrane anchoring domain deleted can function as a decoy receptor to reverse neurite outgrowth inhibition caused by Nogo-66 in culture. These in vitro results, together with previously reported overlapping expression profile between NgR1 and NgR3, suggest that NgR3 may be associated with NgR1 in vivo and that their binding interface may be targeted for treating neuronal injuries. PMID:22133682

  16. Lateral gene transfer and ancient paralogy of operons containing redundant copies of tryptophan-pathway genes in Xylella species and in heterocystous cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gary; Bonner, Carol A; Brettin, Tom; Gottardo, Raphael; Keyhani, Nemat O; Jensen, Roy A

    2003-01-01

    Background Tryptophan-pathway genes that exist within an apparent operon-like organization were evaluated as examples of multi-genic genomic regions that contain phylogenetically incongruous genes and coexist with genes outside the operon that are congruous. A seven-gene cluster in Xylella fastidiosa includes genes encoding the two subunits of anthranilate synthase, an aryl-CoA synthetase, and trpR. A second gene block, present in the Anabaena/Nostoc lineage, but not in other cyanobacteria, contains a near-complete tryptophan operon nested within an apparent supraoperon containing other aromatic-pathway genes. Results The gene block in X. fastidiosa exhibits a sharply delineated low-GC content. This, as well as bias of codon usage and 3:1 dinucleotide analysis, strongly implicates lateral gene transfer (LGT). In contrast, parametric studies and protein tree phylogenies did not support the origination of the Anabaena/Nostoc gene block by LGT. Conclusions Judging from the apparent minimal amelioration, the low-GC gene block in X. fastidiosa probably originated by LGT at a relatively recent time. The surprising inability to pinpoint a donor lineage still leaves room for alternative, albeit less likely, explanations other than LGT. On the other hand, the large Anabaena/Nostoc gene block does not seem to have arisen by LGT. We suggest that the contemporary Anabaena/Nostoc array of divergent paralogs represents an ancient ancestral state of paralog divergence, with extensive streamlining by gene loss occurring in the lineage of descent representing other (unicellular) cyanobacteria. PMID:12620124

  17. Science Education for the Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Lloyd M.; Downing, Kay

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the research and general literature on science education for educable mentally retarded, and recommends using the Santa Cruz curriculum guide and preparation of study units based upon scope and sequence charts for the retarded. (AL)

  18. Citizen Advocacy in a Mental Retardation Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Charles W.; Craik, Mildred C.

    1972-01-01

    Described is a program initiated by the social work staff of a hospital mental retardation unit which involved locating and screening citizen advocates to serve as friend, big brother, social worker, and legal counselor to retarded patients. (GW)

  19. VOCATIONAL PROGRAMMING FOR THE RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRICE, CARL R.

    A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS BEING CARRIED ON AT THE MADISON (WISCONSIN) VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND ADULT SCHOOLS. THE TRAINEES MUST BE 17 YEARS OR OLDER, WITH AN IQ OF APPROXIMATELY 50-75. THE SCHOOL OF QUANTITY FOOD PREPARATION CONTRIBUTES GREATLY TO THIS PROGRAM, FOR WHILE IT MAINLY TEACHES CHEFS AND…

  20. Transportation and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a contract that involved identification, description, and categorization of the nature of transportation problems for the mentally retarded by means of analysis of existing studies, two surveys, and an inventory of specialized programs and systems operating in the United States. One major problem was found to be…

  1. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  2. Books for Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cincinnati - Hamilton County Public Library, OH.

    Presented is an annotated list of approximately 300 books for educable (EMR) and trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 6 to 15 years of age. Books are arranged in the following groups for EMR students: Group I contains approximately 84 entries for students 6 to 9 years of age; Group II lists approximately 81 stories and books…

  3. Reformulation of fire retardant coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald B. Dahm

    1996-01-01

    Fire retardant coatings currently in use contain a number of ingredients which are either considered to be ‘toxic’ heavy metals or on the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) list. In addition, there is concern that the use of halogenated chemicals in these coatings and other products will be banned in the future. This paper contains the details of two reformulations programs.

  4. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  5. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  6. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  7. Retarded Dispersion Forces Between Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. McLachlan

    1963-01-01

    The frequency-dependent susceptibility of the molecules and of the electromagnetic field is used to calculate the force between two molecules at zero temperature. The field susceptibility at imaginary frequency, which is the Laplace transform of the retarded potentials, is found from the commutation relations, otherwise we do not need quantum field theory. A method of `images' gives the force between

  8. Fragile X Proteins FMRP and FXR2P Control Synaptic GluA1 Expression and Neuronal Maturation via Distinct Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weixiang; Polich, Eric D; Su, Juan; Gao, Yu; Christopher, Devin M; Allan, Andrea M; Wang, Min; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Guangfu; Zhao, Xinyu

    2015-06-16

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and its autosomal paralog FXR2P are selective neuronal RNA-binding proteins, and mice that lack either protein exhibit cognitive deficits. Although double-mutant mice display more severe learning deficits than single mutants, the molecular mechanism behind this remains unknown. In the present study, we discovered that FXR2P (also known as FXR2) is important for neuronal dendritic development. FMRP and FXR2P additively promote the maturation of new neurons by regulating a common target, the AMPA receptor GluA1, but they do so via distinct mechanisms: FXR2P binds and stabilizes GluA1 mRNA and enhances subsequent protein expression, whereas FMRP promotes GluA1 membrane delivery. Our findings unveil important roles for FXR2P and GluA1 in neuronal development, uncover a regulatory mechanism of GluA1, and reveal a functional convergence between fragile X proteins in neuronal development. PMID:26051932

  9. The Retarded Adult in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Elias

    The discussion of a series of questions with case illustrations delineates the problems and possibilities of helping retarded adults become valuable, productive members of society. Among topics considered are the definition of retarded adults in the community, the need for concern, and community evaluation and needs of the retarded adult. Also…

  10. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  11. Non-Verbal Communication in Retarded Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Evan R.; Dennis, Virginia Collier

    Thirty educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 20 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) black or white pupils were observed interacting with classmates and 25 teachers in a retardation center. Multi-modal communicative behavior was noted, with focus on interpersonal spatial distance as one index of relationship and affect between interacting partners.…

  12. Species-specific difference in expression and splice-site choice in Inpp5b, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase paralogous to the enzyme deficient in Lowe Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bothwell, Susan P; Farber, Leslie W; Hoagland, Adam; Nussbaum, Robert L

    2010-10-01

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL; MIM #309000) is an X-linked human disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, mental retardation, and renal proximal tubular dysfunction caused by loss-of-function mutations in the OCRL gene that encodes Ocrl, a type II phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P(2)) 5-phosphatase. In contrast, mice with complete loss-of-function of the highly homologous ortholog Ocrl have no detectable renal, ophthalmological, or central nervous system abnormalities. We inferred that the disparate phenotype between Ocrl-deficient humans and mice was likely due to differences in how the two species compensate for loss of the Ocrl enzyme. We therefore turned our attention to Inpp5b, another type II PtdIns4,5P(2) 5-phosphatase encoded by Inpp5b in mice and INPP5B in humans, as potential compensating genes in the two species, because Inpp5b/INPP5B are the most highly conserved paralogs to Ocrl/OCRL in the respective genomes of both species and Inpp5b demonstrates functional overlap with Ocrl in mice in vivo. We used in silico sequence analysis, reverse-transcription PCR, quantitative PCR, and transient transfection assays of promoter function to define splice-site usage and the function of an internal promoter in mouse Inpp5b versus human INPP5B. We found mouse Inpp5b and human INPP5B differ in their transcription, splicing, and primary amino acid sequence. These observations form the foundation for analyzing the functional basis for the difference in how Inpp5b and INPP5B compensate for loss of Ocrl function and, by providing insight into the cellular roles of Ocrl and Inpp5b, aid in the development of a model system in which to study Lowe syndrome. PMID:20872266

  13. Retardation effect in graphene plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hugen

    2015-03-01

    Localized plasmons in graphene micro- and nano-structures have attracted lots of attention recently. Typically the size of the graphene structure is much smaller than the on-resonance light wavelength and the quasi-electrostatic treatment of the light-matter interaction is sufficient. However, with increasing graphene structure size and stacked layer thickness, the quasi-electrostatic treatment fails. Retardation effect and dynamic depolarization have to be taken into account. In the paper, we'll focus on two major topics related to the retardation effect. First, ultralow damping of graphene plasmons can be achieved in ultra-large graphene disk and ribbon arrays. Second, the coupling of graphene structures in the same array is radiative in nature and the resonance associated with the periodic lattice of the graphene disk or ribbon arrays play an role in the plasmonic response.

  14. Increased apoptosis in the syncytiotrophoblast in human term placentas complicated by either preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naonori Ishihara; Hiroya Matsuo; Homare Murakoshi; Jovelle B. Laoag-Fernandez; Takashi Samoto; Takeshi Maruo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation are associated with an increase in placental apoptosis. Study Design: Tissue specimens from 7 normal term placentas and each of 7 term placentas complicated by severe preeclampsia or intrauterine growth retardation were analyzed. Fas antigen and Bcl-2 protein expression were examined by the avidin\\/biotin immunoperoxidase method, whereas

  15. [Neuroleptics in mentally retarded children].

    PubMed

    Höllge, J

    1993-09-01

    Long-term administration of neuroleptic drugs to 149 severely mentally retarded children led to a significantly higher number of somatic complications and respiratory morbidity, as compared with a control group (p < or = 5%). Precise differentiation of the influence of neuroleptics from other drugs, complications of the basic diagnosis of oligophrenia and others is not possible so far. Therefore it is essential to consider carefully the indication for administration of neuroleptics and to reduce thus their undesirable effects to a minimum. PMID:7902782

  16. X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gillian Turner; Brian Turner

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the mentally retarded children with an IQ between 30 and 55 born in a 10-year period (1955-64) and now of school age was carried out in New South Wales. The number of propositi who had a similarly affected sib of the same sex was ascertained; 58 boys had a similarly affected brother(s) and 22 girls had a

  17. Methylotrophic Bacillus methanolicus Encodes Two Chromosomal and One Plasmid Born NAD+ Dependent Methanol Dehydrogenase Paralogs with Different Catalytic and Biochemical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas E. N.; Kupper, Christiane E.; Schneider, Olha; Vorholt, Julia A.; Ellingsen, Trond E.; Brautaset, Trygve

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus methanolicus can utilize methanol as the sole carbon source for growth and it encodes an NAD+-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (Mdh), catalyzing the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde. Recently, the genomes of the B. methanolicus strains MGA3 (ATCC53907) and PB1 (NCIMB13113) were sequenced and found to harbor three different putative Mdh encoding genes, each belonging to the type III Fe-NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. In each strain, two of these genes are encoded on the chromosome and one on a plasmid; only one chromosomal act gene encoding the previously described activator protein ACT was found. The six Mdhs and the ACT proteins were produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. All Mdhs required NAD+ as cosubstrate, were catalytically stimulated by ACT, exhibited a broad and different substrate specificity range and displayed both dehydrogenase and reductase activities. All Mdhs catalyzed the oxidation of methanol; however the catalytic activity for methanol was considerably lower than for most other alcohols tested, suggesting that these enzymes represent a novel class of alcohol dehydrogenases. The kinetic constants for the Mdhs were comparable when acting as pure enzymes, but together with ACT the differences were more pronounced. Quantitative PCR experiments revealed major differences with respect to transcriptional regulation of the paralogous genes. Taken together our data indicate that the repertoire of methanol oxidizing enzymes in thermotolerant bacilli is larger than expected with complex mechanisms involved in their regulation. PMID:23527128

  18. Exploiting genomic patterns to discover new supramolecular protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Beeby, Morgan; Bobik, Thomas A; Yeates, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments are supramolecular protein assemblies that function as bacterial organelles by compartmentalizing particular enzymes and metabolic intermediates. The outer shells of these microcompartments are assembled from multiple paralogous structural proteins. Because the paralogs are required to assemble together, their genes are often transcribed together from the same operon, giving rise to a distinctive genomic pattern: multiple, typically small, paralogous proteins encoded in close proximity on the bacterial chromosome. To investigate the generality of this pattern in supramolecular assemblies, we employed a comparative genomics approach to search for protein families that show the same kind of genomic pattern as that exhibited by bacterial microcompartments. The results indicate that a variety of large supramolecular assemblies fit the pattern, including bacterial gas vesicles, bacterial pili, and small heat-shock protein complexes. The search also retrieved several widely distributed protein families of presently unknown function. The proteins from one of these families were characterized experimentally and found to show a behavior indicative of supramolecular assembly. We conclude that cotranscribed paralogs are a common feature of diverse supramolecular assemblies, and a useful genomic signature for discovering new kinds of large protein assemblies from genomic data. PMID:19177352

  19. ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE family in plants: lineage-specific expansion in monocotyledons and conserved genomic and expression features among rice (Oryza sativa) paralogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Duplications are very common in the evolution of plant genomes, explaining the high number of members in plant gene families. New genes born after duplication can undergo pseudogenization, neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Rice is a model for functional genomics research, an important crop for human nutrition and a target for biofortification. Increased zinc and iron content in the rice grain could be achieved by manipulation of metal transporters. Here, we describe the ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE (ZIFL) gene family in plants, and characterize the genomic structure and expression of rice paralogs, which are highly affected by segmental duplication. Results Sequences of sixty-eight ZIFL genes, from nine plant species, were comparatively analyzed. Although related to MSF_1 proteins, ZIFL protein sequences consistently grouped separately. Specific ZIFL sequence signatures were identified. Monocots harbor a larger number of ZIFL genes in their genomes than dicots, probably a result of a lineage-specific expansion. The rice ZIFL paralogs were named OsZIFL1 to OsZIFL13 and characterized. The genomic organization of the rice ZIFL genes seems to be highly influenced by segmental and tandem duplications and concerted evolution, as rice genome contains five highly similar ZIFL gene pairs. Most rice ZIFL promoters are enriched for the core sequence of the Fe-deficiency-related box IDE1. Gene expression analyses of different plant organs, growth stages and treatments, both from our qPCR data and from microarray databases, revealed that the duplicated ZIFL gene pairs are mostly co-expressed. Transcripts of OsZIFL4, OsZIFL5, OsZIFL7, and OsZIFL12 accumulate in response to Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency in roots, two stresses with partially overlapping responses. Conclusions We suggest that ZIFL genes have different evolutionary histories in monocot and dicot lineages. In rice, concerted evolution affected ZIFL duplicated genes, possibly maintaining similar expression patterns between pairs. The enrichment for IDE1 boxes in rice ZIFL gene promoters suggests a role in Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency up-regulation of ZIFL transcripts. Moreover, this is the first description of the ZIFL gene family in plants and the basis for functional studies on this family, which may play important roles in Zn and Fe homeostasis in plants. PMID:21266036

  20. Genome-Wide Analysis of PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) Genes in Plants Reveals the Eudicot-Wide PDAT Gene Expansion and Altered Selective Pressures Acting on the Core Eudicot PDAT Paralogs1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Peng, Fred Y.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a fatty acyl moiety from the sn-2 position of a phospholipid to the sn-3-position of sn-1,2-diacylglyerol, thus forming triacylglycerol and a lysophospholipid. Although the importance of PDAT in triacylglycerol biosynthesis has been illustrated in some previous studies, the evolutionary relationship of plant PDATs has not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary relationship of the PDAT gene family across the green plants using a comparative phylogenetic framework. We found that the PDAT candidate genes are present in all examined green plants, including algae, lowland plants (a moss and a lycophyte), monocots, and eudicots. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary division of the PDAT gene family into seven major clades. The separation is supported by the conservation and variation in the gene structure, protein properties, motif patterns, and/or selection constraints. We further demonstrated that there is a eudicot-wide PDAT gene expansion, which appears to have been mainly caused by the eudicot-shared ancient gene duplication and subsequent species-specific segmental duplications. In addition, selection pressure analyses showed that different selection constraints have acted on three core eudicot clades, which might enable paleoduplicated PDAT paralogs to either become nonfunctionalized or develop divergent expression patterns during evolution. Overall, our study provides important insights into the evolution of the plant PDAT gene family and explores the evolutionary mechanism underlying the functional diversification among the core eudicot PDAT paralogs. PMID:25585619

  1. Intrauterine growth retardation leads to a permanent nephron deficit in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudie Merlet-Bénichou; Thierry Gilbert; Martine Muffat-Joly; Martine Lelièvre-Pégorier; Bruno Leroy

    1994-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by partial artery ligation of one uterine horn in the mother on day 17 of gestation or by feeding the mother a 5% protein diet from day 8 of gestation. The controls were pups of the contralateral uterine horn or pups born to mothers fed a normal (22%) protein diet. The

  2. Original article Anchoring tick salivary anti-complement proteins IRAC I

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Anchoring tick salivary anti-complement proteins IRAC I and IRAC II to membrane targets for the development of anti-tick vaccines. Recently, we described two paralogous anti-complement proteins, called Ixodes ricinus anti-complement (IRAC) proteins I and II, that are co-expressed in tick I

  3. Loss of RPS41 but not its paralog RPS42 results in altered growth, filamentation and transcriptome changes in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Yao, Xiang-Wen; Whiteway, Malcolm; Xiong, Juan; Liao, Ze-Bin; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Cao, Ying-Ying

    2015-07-01

    Although ribosomal proteins (RPs) are components of the ribosome, and function centrally in protein synthesis, several lines of evidence suggest that S4 ribosomal proteins (Rps4ps) can function in other cellular roles. In Candida albicans, ribosomal protein S4 (Rps4p) is encoded by two distinct but highly similar genes, RPS41 (C2_10620W_A) and RPS42 (C1_01640W_A). Previous studies indicated that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae loss of one isoform generated distinct phenotypes. To probe this relationship in C. albicans, rps41? and rps42? homozygous null mutants were generated. The transcript levels of the RPS41 and RPS42 genes are asymmetric in C. albicans, RPS41 mRNA levels were similar in wild-type strains and rps42? null mutants, while RPS42 gene transcript levels were induced 20 fold relative to wild type in rps41? null mutants. We found that the rps41? homozygous null mutant showed a reduced growth rate, and had defects in filament formation in liquid media and on solid media, while these phenotypes were not observed in the rps42? mutant strain. Neither the rps41? nor rps42? mutant strains displayed differential sensitivity to azoles, although intriguingly ectopic expression of either RPS41 or RPS42 in a wild-type strain leads to decreased sensitivity to fluconazole (FLC). C. albicans cDNA microarray analysis experiments found that carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolic processes were repressed but transport-process-related genes were up-regulated in the rps41? mutant. Overall, our present study suggests that loss of the RPS41 gene but not its paralog the RPS42 gene can generate distinct phenotypes including effects on growth rate, morphological transitions, and susceptibility to osmotic stress due to the fact that mRNA levels of RPS41 is much higher than RPS42 in C. albicans. PMID:25937438

  4. The X-linked intellectual disability protein IL1RAPL1 regulates excitatory synapse formation by binding PTP? and RhoGAP2

    PubMed Central

    Valnegri, Pamela; Montrasio, Chiara; Brambilla, Dario; Ko, Jaewon; Passafaro, Maria; Sala, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Mutations of the Interleukin-1-receptor accessory protein like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene are associated with cognitive impairment ranging from non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation to autism. IL1RAPL1 belongs to a novel family of IL1/Toll receptors, which is localized at excitatory synapses and interacts with PSD-95. We previously showed that IL1RAPL1 regulates the synaptic localization of PSD-95 by controlling c-Jun N-terminal kinase activity and PSD-95 phosphorylation. Here, we show that the IgG-like extracellular domains of IL1RAPL1 induce excitatory pre-synapse formation by interacting with protein tyrosine phosphatase delta (PTP?). We also found that IL1RAPL1 TIR domains interact with RhoGAP2, which is localized at the excitatory post-synaptic density. More interestingly, the IL1RAPL1/PTP? complex recruits RhoGAP2 at excitatory synapses to induce dendritic spine formation. We also found that the IL1RAPL1 paralog, IL1RAPL2, interacts with PTP? and induces excitatory synapse and dendritic spine formation. The interaction of the IL1RAPL1 family of proteins with PTP? and RhoGAP2 reveals a pathophysiological mechanism of cognitive impairment associated with a novel type of trans-synaptic signaling that regulates excitatory synapse and dendritic spine formation. PMID:21926414

  5. Trypanosoma brucei harbors a divergent XPB helicase paralog that is specialized in nucleotide excision repair and conserved among kinetoplastid organisms

    PubMed Central

    Badjatia, Nitika; Nguyen, Tu N; Lee, Ju Huck; Günzl, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Summary Conserved from yeast to humans, TFIIH is essential for RNA polymerase II transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). TFIIH consists of a core that includes the DNA helicase Xeroderma pigmentosum B (XPB) and a kinase subcomplex. Trypanosoma brucei TFIIH harbors all core complex components and is indispensable for RNA polymerase II transcription of spliced leader RNA genes (SLRNAs). Kinetoplastid organisms, however, possess two highly divergent XPB paralogs with only the larger being identified as a TFIIH subunit in T. brucei. Here we show that a knockout of the gene for the smaller paralog, termed XPB-R (R for repair) resulted in viable cultured trypanosomes that grew slower than normal. XPB-R depletion did not affect transcription in vivo or in vitro and XPB-R was not found to occupy the SLRNA promoter which assembles a RNA polymerase II transcription pre-initiation complex including TFIIH. However, XPB-R?/? cells were much less tolerant than wild-type cells to UV light- and cisplatin-induced DNAdamage, which require NER. Since XPB-R?/? cells were not impaired in DNA base excision repair, XPB-R appears to function specifically in NER. Interestingly, several other protists possess highly divergent XPB paralogs suggesting that XPBs specialized in transcription or NER exist beyond the Kinetoplastida. PMID:24134817

  6. Research Progress on Flame-Retardant of Silicone Rubber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Ding; Mingxia Shen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the flame-retardant of silicone rubber and flame-retardant mechanism of polymer has been reviewed. The studies on assorted flame retardant systems used in silicone rubber matrix are reviewed too. The influence of halogenated flame retardants, metal hydroxide, transition metal compounds, as well as flame retardant with nanoparticle on flame resistance properties of polymer are discussed in detail. Owing

  7. Inhibition of SRGAP2 function by its human-specific paralogs induces neoteny during spine maturation

    PubMed Central

    Charrier, Cécile; Joshi, Kaumudi; Coutinho-Budd, Jaeda; Kim, Ji-Eun; Lambert, Nelle; de Marchena, Jacqueline; Jin, Wei-Lin; Vanderhaeghen, Pierre; Ghosh, Anirvan; Sassa, Takayuki; Polleux, Franck

    2012-01-01

    Structural genomic variations represent a major driving force of evolution and a burst of large segmental gene duplications occurred in the human lineage during its separation from non-human primates. SRGAP2, a gene recently implicated in neocortical development, has undergone two human-specific duplications. Here we find that both duplications (SRGAP2B and SRGAP2C) are partial and encode a truncated F-BAR domain. SRGAP2C is expressed in the developing and adult human brain and dimerizes with ancestral SRGAP2 to inhibit its function. In the mouse neocortex, SRGAP2 promotes spine maturation and limits spine density. Expression of SRGAP2C phenocopies SRGAP2 deficiency. It underlies sustained radial migration and leads to the emergence of human-specific features, including neoteny during spine maturation and increased density of longer spines. These results suggest that inhibition of SRGAP2 function by its human-specific paralogs has contributed to the evolution of the human neocortex and plays an important role during human brain development. PMID:22559944

  8. Selenium controls transcription of paralogous formate dehydrogenase genes in the termite gut acetogen, Treponema primitia.

    PubMed

    Matson, Eric G; Zhang, Xinning; Leadbetter, Jared R

    2010-08-01

    The termite gut spirochete, Treponema primitia, is a CO(2)-reductive acetogen that is phylogenetically distinct from other distantly related and more extensively studied acetogens such as Moorella thermoacetica. Research on T. primitia has revealed details about the role of spirochetes in CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis, a process important to the mutualism occurring between termites and their gut microbial communities. Here, a locus of the T. primitia genome containing Wood-Ljungdahl pathway genes for CO(2)-reductive acetogenesis was sequenced. This locus contained methyl-branch genes of the pathway (i.e. for the reduction of CO(2) to the level of methyl-tetrahydrofolate) including paralogous genes for cysteine and selenocysteine (Sec) variants of formate dehydrogenase (FDH) and genes for Sec incorporation. The FDH variants affiliated phylogenetically with hydrogenase-linked FDH enzymes, suggesting that T. primitia FDH enzymes utilize electrons derived directly from molecular H(2). Sub-nanomolar concentrations of selenium decreased transcript levels of the cysteine variant FDH gene. Selenium concentration did not markedly influence the level of mRNA upstream of the Sec-codon in the Sec variant FDH; however, the level of transcript extending downstream of the Sec-codon increased incrementally with increasing selenium concentrations. The features and regulation of these FDH genes are an indication that T. primitia may experience dynamic selenium availability in its H(2)-rich gut environment. PMID:21966917

  9. miR-1322 Binding Sites in Paralogous and Orthologous Genes

    PubMed Central

    Niyazova, Raigul; Berillo, Olga; Atambayeva, Shara; Pyrkova, Anna; Alybayeva, Aigul; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We searched for 2,563 microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in 17,494 mRNA sequences of human genes. miR-1322 has more than 2,000 binding sites in 1,058 genes with ?G/?Gm ratio of 85% and more. miR-1322 has 1,889 binding sites in CDSs, 215 binding sites in 5? UTRs, and 160 binding sites in 3? UTRs. From two to 28 binding sites have arranged localization with the start position through three nucleotides of each following binding site. The nucleotide sequences of these sites in CDSs encode oligopeptides with the same and/or different amino acid sequences. We found that 33% of the target genes encoded transcription factors. miR-1322 has arranged binding sites in the CDSs of orthologous MAMLD1, MAML2, and MAML3 genes. These sites encode a polyglutamine oligopeptide ranging from six to 47 amino acids in length. The properties of miR-1322 binding sites in orthologous and paralogous target genes are discussed.

  10. Rad51/Dmc1 paralogs and mediators oppose DNA helicases to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote crossovers during meiotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Alexander; Mehats, Alizée; Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    During meiosis programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome (homolog) as a template. This repair results in crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) recombinants. Only CO formation between homologs provides the physical linkages guiding correct chromosome segregation, which are essential to produce healthy gametes. The factors that determine the CO/NCO decision are still poorly understood. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model we show that the Rad51/Dmc1-paralog complexes Rad55-Rad57 and Rdl1-Rlp1-Sws1 together with Swi5-Sfr1 play a major role in antagonizing both the FANCM-family DNA helicase/translocase Fml1 and the RecQ-type DNA helicase Rqh1 to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote Mus81-Eme1-dependent COs. A common attribute of these protein complexes is an ability to stabilize the Rad51/Dmc1 nucleoprotein filament, and we propose that it is this property that imposes constraints on which enzymes gain access to the recombination intermediate, thereby controlling the manner in which it is processed and resolved. PMID:25414342

  11. Paralog group 1 hox genes regulate rhombomere 5/6 expression of vhnf1, a repressor of rostral hindbrain fates, in a meis-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seong-Kyu; Sagerström, Charles G

    2004-07-15

    The vertebrate hindbrain is segmented into an array of rhombomeres (r), but it remains to be fully understood how segmentation is achieved. Here we report that reducing meis function transforms the caudal hindbrain to an r4-like fate, and we exploit this experimental state to explore how r4 versus r5-r6 segments are set aside. We demonstrate that r4 transformation of the caudal hindbrain is mediated by paralog group 1 (PG1) hox genes and can be repressed by vhnf1, a gene expressed in r5-r6. We further find that vhnf1 expression is regulated by PG1 hox genes in a meis-dependent manner. This implies that PG1 hox genes not only induce r4 fates throughout the caudal hindbrain, but also induce expression of vhnf1, which then represses r4 fates in the future r5-r6. Our results further indicate that r4 transformation of the caudal hindbrain occurs at intermediate levels of meis function, while extensive removal of meis function produces a hindbrain completely devoid of segments, suggesting that different hox-dependent processes may have distinct meis requirements. Notably, reductions in the function of another Hox cofactor, pbx, have not been reported to transform the caudal hindbrain, suggesting that Meis and Pbx proteins may also function differently in their roles as Hox cofactors. PMID:15223339

  12. Public Libraries and People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walling, Linda Lucas

    2001-01-01

    This article is designed to help public libraries provide support for people with mental retardation through the implementation of "Guidelines for Library Services for People with Mental Retardation", developed by the American Library Association. Topics include needs assessment; staff training; adaptive technology; resource formats, including…

  13. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  14. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  15. Retarded Children of the Poor: A Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Majorie H.

    Written for welfare and social workers, the publication concerns families which have problems of retardation, usually mild or borderline, and which are heavily represented on welfare rolls. A brief discussion of retardation and family and child welfare services is followed by a list of suggested readings dealing with social and child welfare…

  16. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  17. Interaction between Family Violence and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Heidi

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics that make individuals with mental retardation more vulnerable to family violence are discussed in the areas of child, adult, and sexual abuse. Common psychological effects of this trauma are then explored followed by implications for practice. A case study of a female with mental retardation is presented. (Contains references.)…

  18. Tetrahymena Pot2 Is a Developmentally Regulated Paralog of Pot1 That Localizes to Chromosome Breakage Sites but Not to Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Cranert, Stacey; Heyse, Serena; Linger, Benjamin R.; Lescasse, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena telomeres are protected by a protein complex composed of Pot1, Tpt1, Pat1, and Pat2. Pot1 binds the 3? overhang and serves multiple roles in telomere maintenance. Here we describe Pot2, a paralog of Pot1 which has evolved a novel function during Tetrahymena sexual reproduction. Pot2 is unnecessary for telomere maintenance during vegetative growth, as the telomere structure is unaffected by POT2 macronuclear gene disruption. Pot2 is expressed only in mated cells, where it accumulates in developing macronuclei around the time of two chromosome processing events: internal eliminated sequence (IES) excision and chromosome breakage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated Pot2 localization to regions of chromosome breakage but not to telomeres or IESs. Pot2 association with chromosome breakage sites (CBSs) occurs slightly before chromosome breakage. Pot2 did not bind CBSs or telomeric DNA in vitro, suggesting that it is recruited to CBSs by another factor. The telomere proteins Pot1, Pat1, and Tpt1 and the IES binding factor Pdd1 fail to colocalize with Pot2. Thus, Pot2 is the first protein found to associate specifically with CBSs. The selective association of Pot2 versus Pdd1 with CBSs or IESs indicates a mechanistic difference between the chromosome processing events at these two sites. Moreover, ChIP revealed that histone marks characteristic of IES processing, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, are absent from CBSs. Thus, the mechanisms of chromosome breakage and IES excision must be fundamentally different. Our results lead to a model where Pot2 directs chromosome breakage by recruiting telomerase and/or the endonuclease responsible for DNA cleavage to CBSs. PMID:25303953

  19. Foster Family Care For Children With Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Regan, Gerald W.

    1974-01-01

    A foster care program for children who are mentally retarded is an alternative to institutional placement. A special conviction of Retarded Infants Services (RIS) has been that families with a retarded child should especially be sought as foster families. (CS)

  20. Aetiology of mild mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, M A; Dennis, N R

    1988-01-01

    A clinical and family study was carried out in 169 children attending schools for the mildly mentally retarded in Southampton to assess the prevalence of recognised medical risk factors; 71 children (42%) had such risk factors. These were prenatal in 22, perinatal in 41, and postnatal in eight. Risk factors of possible, but less certain, significance were found in a further 63 children (37%). In 86 families (51%) there was a history of serious educational problems in both parents. The prevalence of both types of risk factor was higher in the children whose parents had no educational problems. There were, however, 25 children (15%) whose parents had no history of educational problems and in whom medical risk factors were either absent or minimal. PMID:3178264

  1. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  2. Species-specific difference in expression and splice-site choice in Inpp5b, an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase paralogous to the enzyme deficient in Lowe Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bothwell, Susan P.; Farber, Leslie W.; Hoagland, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe (OCRL; MIM #309000) is an X-linked human disorder characterized by congenital cataracts, mental retardation, and renal proximal tubular dysfunction caused by loss-of-function mutations in the OCRL gene that encodes Ocrl, a type II phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PtdIns4,5P2) 5-phosphatase. In contrast, mice with complete loss-of-function of the highly homologous ortholog Ocrl have no detectable renal, ophthalmological, or central nervous system abnormalities. We inferred that the disparate phenotype between Ocrl-deficient humans and mice was likely due to differences in how the two species compensate for loss of the Ocrl enzyme. We therefore turned our attention to Inpp5b, another type II PtdIns4,5P2 5-phosphatase encoded by Inpp5b in mice and INPP5B in humans, as potential compensating genes in the two species, because Inpp5b/INPP5B are the most highly conserved paralogs to Ocrl/OCRL in the respective genomes of both species and Inpp5b demonstrates functional overlap with Ocrl in mice in vivo. We used in silico sequence analysis, reverse-transcription PCR, quantitative PCR, and transient transfection assays of promoter function to define splice-site usage and the function of an internal promoter in mouse Inpp5b versus human INPP5B. We found mouse Inpp5b and human INPP5B differ in their transcription, splicing, and primary amino acid sequence. These observations form the foundation for analyzing the functional basis for the difference in how Inpp5b and INPP5B compensate for loss of Ocrl function and, by providing insight into the cellular roles of Ocrl and Inpp5b, aid in the development of a model system in which to study Lowe syndrome. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00335-010-9281-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20872266

  3. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. PMID:25909656

  4. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  5. The RNA binding protein FXR1 is a new driver in the 3q26-29 amplicon and predicts poor prognosis in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Hassanein, Mohamed; Hoeksema, Megan D; Harris, Bradford K; Zou, Yong; Chen, Heidi; Lu, Pengcheng; Eisenberg, Rosana; Wang, Jing; Espinosa, Allan; Ji, Xiangming; Harris, Fredrick T; Rahman, S M Jamshedur; Massion, Pierre P

    2015-03-17

    Aberrant expression of RNA-binding proteins has profound implications for cellular physiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancer. We previously identified the Fragile X-Related 1 gene (FXR1) as one amplified candidate driver gene at 3q26-29 in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). FXR1 is an autosomal paralog of Fragile X mental retardation 1 and has not been directly linked to human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FXR1 is a key regulator of tumor progression and its overexpression is critical for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We identified the mechanisms by which FXR1 executes its regulatory function by forming a novel complex with two other oncogenes, protein kinase C, iota and epithelial cell transforming 2, located in the same amplicon via distinct binding mechanisms. FXR1 expression is a candidate biomarker predictive of poor survival in multiple solid tumors including NSCLCs. Because FXR1 is overexpressed and associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple cancers, these results have implications for other solid malignancies. PMID:25733852

  6. Postnatal Organic Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, G. G.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 1137 retarded children from Western Ontario revealed 129 (11.3%) in whom retardation was first noted after a specific postnatal event. Eighty-three of these were boys. The most common cause of postnatal cerebral injury in this series was a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the sudden onset of fever, convulsions and coma which occurred in 45 patients. The nature of this syndrome is discussed and the necessity for early treatment emphasized. Other postnatal causes of retardation are classified according to frequency, as encephalitis, accidents, meningitis and a miscellaneous group consisting of epilepsy and tumours. PMID:13907577

  7. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  8. Dicarboxylic aminoaciduria associated with mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Swarna; D. N. Rao; P. P. Reddy

    1989-01-01

    Five hundred mentally retarded children (of both sexes and under 15 years of age) referred to our institute were screened for aminoacid disorders. One case of dicarboxylic aminoaciduria was found in a girl.

  9. Environmentally Benign Flame Retardant Nanocoatings for Fabric 

    E-print Network

    Li, Yu-Chin

    2012-07-16

    A variety of materials were used to fabricate nanocoatings using layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to reduce the flammability of cotton fabric. The most effective brominated flame retardants have raised concerns related to ...

  10. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation 

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...

  11. Case Study--Weight Control and Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenwetter, Charles D.

    1978-01-01

    Through positive reinforcement of good eating habits, it is possible to help mentally retarded children lose weight and remain within the normal limits consistent with their age and body structure. (JD)

  12. X-linked mental retardation 2

    SciTech Connect

    Opitz, J.M.; Reynolds, J.F.; Spano, L.M. (Shodair Children's Hospital, Helena, MT (US))

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers on X-linked mental retardation. Chapters include clinical aspects; cytogenetic aspects; DNA and lineage; genetics and segregation; epidemiology and genetics; cytogenetics and fragile site expression.

  13. Milestones in the history of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Cardona, F A

    1994-06-01

    This article is an overview of notable events in the history of mental retardation covering various epoch--Antiquity, Dark and Middle Ages, Renaissance, Reformation and the ensuing centuries to the present era. Society's attitude toward mental retardation is based on its needs, expectancies and social consciousness which frequently change. The plight of individuals with mental retardation had its nadir and acme; from abject treatment less than humane to recognition as rightful members of society. Nevertheless, there are still practices that restrict integration of the mentally retarded into the mainstream of society. Hopefully, these barriers will be broken down. This, however, will be contingent upon society's deference towards the inherent dignity of all men. PMID:8065118

  14. Teaching mending skills to mentally retarded adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Cronin, K A; Cuvo, A J

    1979-01-01

    This experiment presents a model for analyzing community living skills and teaching them to mentally retarded adolescents. A task analysis of three mending skills was developed and validated, aided by consultation with persons having expertise in home economics and mental retardation. The task analysis was modified to compensate for the constraints imposed by the trainees' disabilities. Five moderately retarded youths received training on sewing hems, buttons, and seams. Sewing skills were acquired rapidly and maintained. The behavior generalized from trained to untrained tasks on their common components for all subjects. A multiple baseline across participants combined with a multiple baseline across responses demonstrated the combined effectiveness of an objectively validated, detailed task analysis; graduated sequence of prompts; and response consequences in training and maintaining community living skills with mentally retarded adolescents. PMID:117004

  15. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  16. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation

    E-print Network

    Stough, Laura

    1999-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. Identifying depression in students with mental retardation Stough, Laura M;Baker, Lynn Teaching Exceptional Children; Mar/Apr 1999; 31, 4; Pro...

  17. Moral and cognitive development of moderately retarded, mildly retarded, and nonretarded individuals.

    PubMed

    Kahn, J V

    1976-11-01

    The relationships of moral maturity, cognitive reasoning, MA, and CA were investigated with three IQ groups. The subjects were 20 moderately retarded, 20 mildly retarded, and 20 nonretarded individuals matched for MA. The findings indicated that moderately retarded individuals are at lower levels of cognitive reasoning and moral maturity than MA-matched mildly retarded and nonretarded individuals. The findings also indicated a stronger relationship between moral maturity and cognitive reasoning than between MA and moral maturity or MA and cognitive reasoning. The findings were discussed in terms of the positions of Kohlberg and Gilligan (1971) and Taylor and Achenback (1975). PMID:136897

  18. Thermally Stable and Flame Retardant Elastomeric Nanocomposites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Cerin; G. Fontaine; S. Duquesne; S. Bourbigot

    \\u000a This chapter is dedicated to thermally stable and flame retardant elastomeric composites. Two approaches are considered: the\\u000a synthesis of elastomeric nanocomposites, where the nanoparticles are dispersed at the nanoscale, and the incorporation of\\u000a nanofillers at high loadings where agglomerate of nanoparticles are observed in the elastomeric matrix. The chapter is mainly\\u000a focused on the key parameter influencing the flame retardancy,

  19. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  20. High-density linkage mapping and evolution of paralogs and orthologs in Salix and Populus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar) are members of the Salicaceae family and they share many ecological as well as genetic and genomic characteristics. The interest of using willow for biomass production is growing, which has resulted in increased pressure on breeding of high yielding and resistant clones adapted to different environments. The main purpose of this work was to develop dense genetic linkage maps for mapping of traits related to yield and resistance in willow. We used the Populus trichocarpa genome to extract evenly spaced markers and mapped the orthologous loci in the willow genome. The marker positions in the two genomes were used to study genome evolution since the divergence of the two lineages some 45 mya. Results We constructed two linkage maps covering the 19 linkage groups in willow. The most detailed consensus map, S1, contains 495 markers with a total genetic distance of 2477 cM and an average distance of 5.0 cM between the markers. The S3 consensus map contains 221 markers and has a total genetic distance of 1793 cM and an average distance of 8.1 cM between the markers. We found high degree of synteny and gene order conservation between willow and poplar. There is however evidence for two major interchromosomal rearrangements involving poplar LG I and XVI and willow LG Ib, suggesting a fission or a fusion in one of the lineages, as well as five intrachromosomal inversions. The number of silent substitutions were three times lower (median: 0.12) between orthologs than between paralogs (median: 0.37 - 0.41). Conclusions The relatively slow rates of genomic change between willow and poplar mean that the genomic resources in poplar will be most useful in genomic research in willow, such as identifying genes underlying QTLs of important traits. Our data suggest that the whole-genome duplication occurred long before the divergence of the two genera, events which have until now been regarded as contemporary. Estimated silent substitution rates were 1.28 × 10-9 and 1.68 × 10-9 per site and year, which are close to rates found in other perennials but much lower than rates in annuals. PMID:20178595

  1. Increased rates of cerebral glucose metabolism in a mouse model of fragile X mental retardation

    E-print Network

    Smith, Carolyn Beebe

    mental retardation protein (FMRP) gives rise to fragile X syndrome, the most common form of inherited of the characteristics of patients with fragile X syndrome, including immature dendritic spines and subtle behavioral be a function of abnormalities found in dendritic spines. Fragile X syndrome is the most common form

  2. Molecular and comparative genetics of mental retardation.

    PubMed Central

    Inlow, Jennifer K; Restifo, Linda L

    2004-01-01

    Affecting 1-3% of the population, mental retardation (MR) poses significant challenges for clinicians and scientists. Understanding the biology of MR is complicated by the extraordinary heterogeneity of genetic MR disorders. Detailed analyses of >1000 Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries and literature searches through September 2003 revealed 282 molecularly identified MR genes. We estimate that hundreds more MR genes remain to be identified. A novel test, in which we distributed unmapped MR disorders proportionately across the autosomes, failed to eliminate the well-known X-chromosome overrepresentation of MR genes and candidate genes. This evidence argues against ascertainment bias as the main cause of the skewed distribution. On the basis of a synthesis of clinical and laboratory data, we developed a biological functions classification scheme for MR genes. Metabolic pathways, signaling pathways, and transcription are the most common functions, but numerous other aspects of neuronal and glial biology are controlled by MR genes as well. Using protein sequence and domain-organization comparisons, we found a striking conservation of MR genes and genetic pathways across the approximately 700 million years that separate Homo sapiens and Drosophila melanogaster. Eighty-seven percent have one or more fruit fly homologs and 76% have at least one candidate functional ortholog. We propose that D. melanogaster can be used in a systematic manner to study MR and possibly to develop bioassays for therapeutic drug discovery. We selected 42 Drosophila orthologs as most likely to reveal molecular and cellular mechanisms of nervous system development or plasticity relevant to MR. PMID:15020472

  3. X-linked mental retardation and epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Froyen, Guy; Bauters, Marijke; Voet, Thierry; Marynen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The search for the genetic defects in constitutional diseases has so far been restricted to direct methods for the identification of genetic mutations in the patients’ genome. Traditional methods such as karyotyping, FISH, mutation screening, positional cloning and CGH, have been complemented with newer methods including array-CGH and PCR-based approaches (MLPA, qPCR). These methods have revealed a high number of genetic or genomic aberrations that result in an altered expression or reduced functional activity of key proteins. For a significant percentage of patients with congenital disease however, the underlying cause has not been resolved strongly suggesting that yet other mechanisms could play important roles in their etiology. Alterations of the ‘native’ epigenetic imprint might constitute such a novel mechanism. Epigenetics, heritable changes that do not rely on the nucleotide sequence, has already been shown to play a determining role in embryonic development, X-inactivation, and cell differentiation in mammals. Recent progress in the development of techniques to study these processes on full genome scale has stimulated researchers to investigate the role of epigenetic modifications in cancer as well as in constitutional diseases. We will focus on mental impairment because of the growing evidence for the contribution of epigenetics in memory formation and cognition. Disturbance of the epigenetic profile due to direct alterations at genomic regions, or failure of the epigenetic machinery due to genetic mutations in one of its components, has been demonstrated in cognitive derangements in a number of neurological disorders now. It is therefore tempting to speculate that the cognitive deficit in a significant percentage of patients with unexplained mental retardation results from epigenetic modifications. PMID:17125586

  4. Defining Mental Retardation and Ensuring Access to the General Curriculum

    E-print Network

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Defining Mental Retardation and Ensuring Access to the General Curriculum Michael L. Wehmeyer University of Kansas Abstract: Release of the most recent edition (2002) of the American Association on Mental Retardation’s terminology and classification... manual provides a point in time to consider ways in which mental retardation is understood and how that understanding contributes to educational practices to promote positive outcomes for students with mental retardation. Since release of the previous...

  5. Intrauterine radiation exposures and mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.W.

    1988-08-01

    Small head size and mental retardation have been known as effects of intrauterine exposure to ionizing radiation since the 1920s. In the 1950s, studies of Japanese atomic-bomb survivors revealed that at 4-17 wk of gestation, the greater the dose, the smaller the brain (and head size), and that beginning at 0.5 Gy (50 rad) in Hiroshima, mental retardation increased in frequency with increasing dose. No other excess of birth defects was observed. Otake and Schull (1984) pointed out that the period of susceptibility to mental retardation coincided with that for proliferation and migration of neuronal elements from near the cerebral ventricles to the cortex. Mental retardation could be the result of interference with this process. Their analysis indicated that exposures at 8-15 wk to 0.01-0.02 Gy (1-2 rad) doubled the frequency of severe mental retardation. This estimate was based on small numbers of mentally retarded atomic-bomb survivors. Although nuclear accidents have occurred recently, new cases will hopefully be too rare to provide further information about the risk of mental retardation. It may be possible, however, to learn about lesser impairment. New psychometric tests may be helpful in detecting subtle deficits in intelligence or neurodevelopmental function. One such test is PEERAMID, which is being used in schools to identify learning disabilities due, for example, to deficits in attention, short- or long-term memory, or in sequencing information. This and other tests could be applied in evaluating survivors of intrauterine exposure to various doses of ionizing radiation. The results could change our understanding of the safety of low-dose exposures.

  6. Recent Research Progress on the Flame-Retardant Mechanism of Halogen-Free Flame Retardant Polypropylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianjun Wang; Li Wang; Anguo Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is one of the five kinds of universal polymers that have greatly improved our life qualities. While a pestilent limitation of PP is its flammability. Usually, halogen-containing flame retardants (FRs) are used to improve its flame retard ability. However, the halogen-containing FRs are limited more and more strictly because they would produce environment problems, such as the release

  7. Interplay of the serine/threonine-kinase StkP and the paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in pneumococcal cell elongation and division.

    PubMed

    Fleurie, Aurore; Manuse, Sylvie; Zhao, Chao; Campo, Nathalie; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Freton, Céline; Combet, Christophe; Guiral, Sébastien; Soufi, Boumediene; Macek, Boris; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S; Brun, Yves V; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Claverys, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Anne; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ?gpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ?gpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ?gpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal) synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape. PMID:24722178

  8. Interplay of the Serine/Threonine-Kinase StkP and the Paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in Pneumococcal Cell Elongation and Division

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Nathalie; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Freton, Céline; Combet, Christophe; Guiral, Sébastien; Soufi, Boumediene; Macek, Boris; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Claverys, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Anne; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ?gpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ?gpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ?gpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal) synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape. PMID:24722178

  9. Direct activation of genes involved in intracellular iron use by the yeast iron-responsive transcription factor Aft2 without its paralog Aft1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Direct activation of genes involved in intracellular iron use by the yeast iron) 1 44 27 57 16 Running title: Transcriptional regulation of iron metabolism in yeast Word count, 13). The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two paralogous iron-responsive transcription activators

  10. Consequences of Lineage-Specific Gene Loss on Functional Evolution of Surviving Paralogs: ALDH1A and Retinoic Acid Signaling in Vertebrate Genomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cristian Cañestro; Julian M. Catchen; Adriana Rodríguez-Marí; Hayato Yokoi; John H. Postlethwait

    2009-01-01

    Genome duplications increase genetic diversity and may facilitate the evolution of gene subfunctions. Little attention, however, has focused on the evolutionary impact of lineage-specific gene loss. Here, we show that identifying lineage-specific gene loss after genome duplication is important for understanding the evolution of gene subfunctions in surviving paralogs and for improving functional connectivity among human and model organism genomes.

  11. Negative dispersion retarder using two negative birefringence films.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anoop Kumar; Yang, Seungbin; Lee, Ji-Hoon

    2015-05-18

    The achromatic response and wide viewing angle for varying wavelength of incident light are of long waiting research to be utilized it for the display devices. Such response can be obtained by employing the retarder that exhibits negative birefringence and negative dispersion. In this paper, negative dispersion half-wave retarder and negative dispersion quarter-wave retarder have been demonstrated by optimizing the retardation and the angle between the extraordinary axes of polystyrene and poly-methylmethacrylate films. The optimum angles for half and quarter-wave retarders were found to be 40° and 70°, respectively for different retardation values of polystyrene and poly-methylmethacrylate films. PMID:26074563

  12. Analytical Methods for Studying the Evolution of Paralogs Using Duplicate Gene Datasets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Mathews

    2005-01-01

    Gene duplication is widely viewed as an important source of raw material for functional innovation in proteins because at least some duplicate copies will evolve new or slightly modified functions. The study of the molecular processes by which functional innovation occurs interests both evolutionary biologists and protein chemists, and the development of methods to investigate these processes has led to

  13. Evolution of plant RNA polymerase IV/V genes: evidence of subneofunctionalization of duplicated NRPD2/NRPE2-like paralogs in Viola (Violaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA-dependent RNA polymerase IV and V (Pol IV and V) are multi-subunit enzymes occurring in plants. The origin of Pol V, specific to angiosperms, from Pol IV, which is present in all land plants, is linked to the duplication of the gene encoding the largest subunit and the subsequent subneofunctionalization of the two paralogs (NRPD1 and NRPE1). Additional duplication of the second-largest subunit, NRPD2/NRPE2, has happened independently in at least some eudicot lineages, but its paralogs are often subject to concerted evolution and gene death and little is known about their evolution nor their affinity with Pol IV and Pol V. Results We sequenced a ~1500 bp NRPD2/E2-like fragment from 18 Viola species, mostly paleopolyploids, and 6 non-Viola Violaceae species. Incongruence between the NRPD2/E2-like gene phylogeny and species phylogeny indicates a first duplication of NRPD2 relatively basally in Violaceae, with subsequent sorting of paralogs in the descendants, followed by a second duplication in the common ancestor of Viola and Allexis. In Viola, the mutation pattern suggested (sub-) neofunctionalization of the two NRPD2/E2-like paralogs, NRPD2/E2-a and NRPD2/E2-b. The dN/dS ratios indicated that a 54 bp region exerted strong positive selection for both paralogs immediately following duplication. This 54 bp region encodes a domain that is involved in the binding of the Nrpd2 subunit with other Pol IV/V subunits, and may be important for correct recognition of subunits specific to Pol IV and Pol V. Across all Viola taxa 73 NRPD2/E2-like sequences were obtained, of which 23 (32%) were putative pseudogenes - all occurring in polyploids. The NRPD2 duplication was conserved in all lineages except the diploid MELVIO clade, in which NRPD2/E2-b was lost, and its allopolyploid derivates from hybridization with the CHAM clade, section Viola and section Melanium, in which NRPD2/E2-a occurred in multiple copies while NRPD2/E2-b paralogs were either absent or pseudogenized. Conclusions Following the relatively recent split of Pol IV and Pol V, our data indicate that these two multi-subunit enzymes are still in the process of specialization and each acquiring fully subfunctionalized copies of their subunit genes. Even after specialization, the NRPD2/E2-like paralogs are prone to pseudogenization and gene conversion and NRPD2 and NRPE2 copy number is a highly dynamic process modulated by allopolyploidy and gene death. PMID:20158916

  14. Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

  15. Achromatic retarder for the vacuum ultraviolet.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    The author calculated quarter-wave multicomponent achromatic phase plates for the wavelength range 120 - 350 nm. The retardation elements are made up of 3 - 9 double crystalline layers of magnesium fluoride, the optical axes in each pair of layers being orthogonally oriented. The phase shift tolerance is 3 - 8 degrees for different retarder designs, while optical axis deviation varies from 1° to 3° depending on wavelength. The designs proposed can be used in the polarimetric modes of the ultraviolet space observatory Spectrum-UV.

  16. Molecular Characterization and Evolution of a Gene Family Encoding Both Female- and Male-Specific Reproductive Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Sirot, Laura K.; Findlay, Geoffrey D.; Sitnik, Jessica L.; Frasheri, Dorina; Avila, Frank W.; Wolfner, Mariana F.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the evolution of new reproductive proteins. However, in most cases, each resulting paralog continues to function within the same sex. To investigate the possibility that seminal fluid proteins arise through duplicates of female reproductive genes that become “co-opted” by males, we screened female reproductive genes in Drosophila melanogaster for cases of duplication in which one of the resulting paralogs produces a protein in males that is transferred to females during mating. We identified a set of three tandemly duplicated genes that encode secreted serine-type endopeptidase homologs, two of which are expressed primarily in the female reproductive tract (RT), whereas the third is expressed specifically in the male RT and encodes a seminal fluid protein. Evolutionary and gene expression analyses across Drosophila species suggest that this family arose from a single-copy gene that was female-specific; after duplication, one paralog evolved male-specific expression. Functional tests of knockdowns of each gene in D. melanogaster show that one female-expressed gene is essential for full fecundity, and both female-expressed genes contribute singly or in combination to a female’s propensity to remate. In contrast, knockdown of the male-expressed paralog had no significant effect on female fecundity or remating. These data are consistent with a model in which members of this gene family exert effects on females by acting on a common, female-expressed target. After duplication and male co-option of one paralog, the evolution of the interacting proteins could have resulted in differential strengths or effects of each paralog. PMID:24682282

  17. Extensive gene conversion drives the concerted evolution of paralogous copies of the SRY gene in European rabbits.

    PubMed

    Geraldes, Armando; Rambo, Teri; Wing, Rod A; Ferrand, Nuno; Nachman, Michael W

    2010-11-01

    The human Y chromosome consists of ampliconic genes, which are located in palindromes and undergo frequent gene conversion, and single-copy genes including the primary sex-determining locus, SRY. Here, we demonstrate that SRY is duplicated in a large palindrome in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Furthermore, we show through comparative sequencing that orthologous palindrome arms have diverged 0.40% between rabbit subspecies over at least 2 My, but paralogous palindrome arms have remained nearly identical. This provides clear evidence of gene conversion on the rabbit Y chromosome. Together with previous observations in humans, these results suggest that gene conversion is a general feature of the evolution of the mammalian Y chromosome. PMID:20525900

  18. Functional Modeling Identifies Paralogous Solanesyl-diphosphate Synthases That Assemble the Side Chain of Plastoquinone-9 in Plastids*

    PubMed Central

    Block, Anna; Fristedt, Rikard; Rogers, Sara; Kumar, Jyothi; Barnes, Brian; Barnes, Joshua; Elowsky, Christian G.; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A.; Redding, Kevin; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Basset, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    It is a little known fact that plastoquinone-9, a vital redox cofactor of photosynthesis, doubles as a precursor for the biosynthesis of a vitamin E analog called plastochromanol-8, the physiological significance of which has remained elusive. Gene network reconstruction, GFP fusion experiments, and targeted metabolite profiling of insertion mutants indicated that Arabidopsis possesses two paralogous solanesyl-diphosphate synthases, AtSPS1 (At1g78510) and AtSPS2 (At1g17050), that assemble the side chain of plastoquinone-9 in plastids. Similar paralogous pairs were detected throughout terrestrial plant lineages but were not distinguished in the literature and genomic databases from mitochondrial homologs involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The leaves of the atsps2 knock-out were devoid of plastochromanol-8 and displayed severe losses of both non-photoactive and photoactive plastoquinone-9, resulting in near complete photoinhibition at high light intensity. Such a photoinhibition was paralleled by significant damage to photosystem II but not to photosystem I. In contrast, in the atsps1 knock-out, a small loss of plastoquinone-9, restricted to the non-photoactive pool, was sufficient to eliminate half of the plastochromanol-8 content of the leaves. Taken together, these results demonstrate that plastochromanol-8 originates from a subfraction of the non-photoactive pool of plastoquinone-9. In contrast to other plastochromanol-8 biosynthetic mutants, neither the single atsps knock-outs nor the atsps1 atsps2 double knock-out displayed any defects in tocopherols accumulation or germination. PMID:23913686

  19. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  20. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  1. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  2. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  3. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  4. Environmentally Benign Flame Retardant Nanocoatings for Fabric

    E-print Network

    Li, Yu-Chin

    2012-07-16

    nanocomposites in an effort to produce more flame-retardant coatings. Laponite and montmorillonite (MMT) clay were paired with branched poly(ethylenimine) to create thin film assemblies that can be tailored by changing pH and concentration of aqueous deposition...

  5. Teaching Laundry Skills to Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvo, Anthony J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Five moderately and mildly retarded students (19 to 21 years old) were taught to sort garments to be laundered and to use a clothes washer and dryer. Rapid acquisition and maintenance of the laundry skills were obtained through praise and response contingent feedback as a consequence for behavior. (Author/CL)

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Rahman; Katherine H Langford; Mark D Scrimshaw; John N Lester

    2001-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether, PBDE, flame retardants are now a world-wide pollution problem reaching even remote areas. They have been found to bioaccumulate and there are concerns over the health effects of exposure to PBDEs, they also have potential endocrine disrupting properties. They are lipophilic compounds so are easily removed from the aqueous environment and are predicted to sorb onto sediments

  7. Vocational Horticulture for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, William H.; And Others

    The study explored methods and techniques for training mentally retarded adults to perform gardening tasks. A total of 31 subjects ages 21 to 48 (IQ range 32-89) participated in the study, which consisted of three phases. In an initial pilot study, experimentation without subjects resulted in the development of modified tools (e.g., notched…

  8. DRIFT RETARDING ADJUVANTS WITH GLYPHOSATE HERBICIDE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volume of fine, highly driftable spray droplets (<144 um diameter) of glyphosate herbicide (0.56 kg ai in 94 L of water/ha and 276 kPa pressure) was 53% for glyphosate alone and reduced by 11 to 42% with the addition of eight drift retarding compounds. At 2 weeks after treatment in the field, gl...

  9. Skills Assessment for the Trainable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    Presented is an instrument (behavior checklist) designed to assess the skill of trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students in performing specific tasks at all levels. Self care, motor, social, and cognitive skills or tasks are categorized according to three levels of competency. The first level includes the development of the very basic…

  10. Trainable Mentally Retarded Staff Deployment Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selznick, Harrie M.; And Others

    Reported was a project which revised the staffing pattern at a school for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students in an attempt to increase the program's cost effectiveness and to maintain the quality of classroom instruction while utilizing personnel without special training in the majority of classroom assignments. Examined were the project's…

  11. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  12. Genetics and pathophysiology of mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jamel Chelly; Malik Khelfaoui; Fiona Francis; Beldjord Chérif; Thierry Bienvenu

    2006-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) is defined as an overall intelligence quotient lower than 70, associated with functional deficit in adaptive behavior, such as daily-living skills, social skills and communication. Affecting 1–3% of the population and resulting from extraordinary heterogeneous environmental, chromosomal and monogenic causes, MR represents one of the most difficult challenges faced today by clinician and geneticists. Detailed analysis of

  13. Educable Mentally Retarded; Guide for Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    Designed to aid in developing instructional programs in North Carolina, the guide defines the educable mentally retarded (EMR) and presents the goal of the EMR education program. Also outlined are principles and methods of instruction, traditional areas of the curriculum as they relate to the EMR, and development of a sequential curriculum. Basic…

  14. Teaching Job Interview Skills to Retarded Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Christine; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Six retarded adults were taught job application and interview skills, including introducing oneself, filling out a standard job application form, answering questions, and asking questions. A combination of instructions, modeling, role playing, and positive and corrective feedback was used across a multiple baseline experimental design. (Author)

  15. Teaching the Mentally Retarded Job Interviewing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinnell, Jr., Richard M.; Lieberman, Alice

    1977-01-01

    Examined the most effective usage of videotape in job interview skill training for 24 mentally retarded young adults utilizing the microcounseling model of instruction. Data revealed the microcounseling model is most effective with the two skill areas of eye contact and body posture regardless of the method of videotape utilization. (Author)

  16. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  17. Establishing Stimulus Equivalences among Retarded Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Michael; Spradlin, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    Four experiments were designed to determine if a visual stimulus class could be established under certain conditions for retarded adolescents, and if subjects trained to select some members of the set in response to an auditory stimulus would select all members of the set in response to that auditory stimulus. (GO)

  18. Perspectives on Relational Learning in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gina; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This introductory paper covers basic concepts and terminology relevant to the application of research on relational learning to mental retardation. The paper discusses conditional discrimination; conditional stimulus relations and stimulus equivalence; generalized stimulus relations; impact of mediational processes on emergent behavior; relational…

  19. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  20. Inertial and retardation effects for dislocation interactions

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    by the speed of the sound waves. Therefore, the dislocations moving behind a shock front artificially alter with a progressive rearrangement of fields through wave propagation. The influence of the corresponding coupling of inertia [11, 13]. Wave propagation naturally leads to a retardation of the interaction between dis

  1. A de novo paradigm for mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisenka E L M Vissers; Joep de Ligt; Christian Gilissen; Irene Janssen; Marloes Steehouwer; Petra de Vries; Bart van Lier; Peer Arts; Nienke Wieskamp; Marisol del Rosario; Bregje W M van Bon; Alexander Hoischen; Bert B A de Vries; Han G Brunner; Joris A Veltman

    2010-01-01

    The per-generation mutation rate in humans is high. De novo mutations may compensate for allele loss due to severely reduced fecundity in common neurodevelopmental and psychiatric diseases, explaining a major paradox in evolutionary genetic theory. Here we used a family based exome sequencing approach to test this de novo mutation hypothesis in ten individuals with unexplained mental retardation. We identified

  2. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  3. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  4. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TRAINABLE RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster County Superintendent of Schools Office, Ft. Dodge, IA.

    ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION, ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES, AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES ARE DISCUSSED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN ARE DESCRIBED, AND DAILY SCHEDULES FOR YOUNGER AND OLDER GROUPS ARE LISTED. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS ARE PRESENTED FOR SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT (INCLUDING SELF-CARE), ECONOMIC USEFULNESS, ACADEMIC…

  5. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  6. Assertiveness Training for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bregman, Sue

    1984-01-01

    An assertiveness training program specifically developed for mentally retarded adults was used to train 128 participants from four rehabilitation centers. Results demonstrated improvement in assertive behaviors and some relationship between internal locus of control and increased assertiveness skills. (Author/CL)

  7. READINESS AND READING FOR THE RETARDED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BERNSTEIN, BEBE

    THIS TEACHER'S BOOK AND MANUAL, DESIGNED TO ACCOMPANY TWO WORKBOOKS, PRESENTS A FUNCTIONAL APPROACH TO READINESS AND READING FOR YOUNG EDUCABLE RETARDED CHILDREN. THE WORKBOOKS THEMSELVES OFFER PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN AT THE READINESS LEVEL AND SEQUENTIAL ACTIVITIES AND MATERIALS FOR THOSE AT THE BEGINNING READING STAGE. THE TEACHER'S…

  8. Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, K.

    2009-12-01

    Gravitation is Retarded:Theory and Evidence There were more than twenty times of observations about gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses since Maurice Allais’s pendulum test during the total solar eclipse of 1954 in Paris. All the theoretical modes are calculated according to Newton’s gravitation law. But due to the observation environments and conditions during above observations were not quite well, the platform for mounting the gravimeters were quite simple, so that the environment and human’s disturbance were unavoidable, therefore the data obtained from above observation where questionable. It is very hard to give a conclusion to say the gravity anomalies during the eclipses were really existing or not. The more important issue is that none of the suggested external factors could account for the magnitude and timing of observed anomalies, according to Chris Duif of University of Technology of Netherland. Since the total solar eclipse of Mohe, 1997, I have been working on a theory to explain the gravity anomalies. At Mohe, I was watching the image of the eclipse, and led a scientific term to conduct a comprehensive geophysical observation, including the gravity observation. The two kinds of observations were conducted at same location and same time. We noticed that solar light of the eclipse was emitted 500 seconds before the image reached to our eyes and cameras. It was reasonable to have similar idea that the gravitation emitted from the sun is also 500 seconds before our gravimeter received and recorded it; it means that gravitation is retarded. Based on either the Special Relativity or Leinard-Wiechert retarded potential, I have deduced the expressions for retarded gravitation; it is vector modification on Newton’s universal gravitation law. The retarded gravitation is gRT=-GM(R-R?)(1-?2)/R3(1-?r)3 For common cases, bodies move in a weak gravitation field along a quasi-straight light or with a slow speed, such as planets move around the sun or the moon/satellites moves around the earth, I have deduced a very useful expression gRT=gNT[1+(??2-2?r2)/2c2] where,?=v/c,?r=vr/c,??=v?/c, gNT=-GMr/r3. I would like to stress that the approximate solution from the general relativity is only of a scalar modification, as a comparison. The Great Total Soar Eclipse along Yangzi River of July 22 of 2009 provided us a great opportunity to clean up the doubts for last 50 years. Consider that solar gravitation is retarded and the earth’s response is delayed, moon’s retarded factor is negligible, all the theoretical amplitudes and the frequencies for each components of solar tide and moon tide can be calculated, the amplitudes and delay factor of earth tide, the frequencies for each components of solar tide, moon tide and earth tide can been separated and measured from the observation data: Asin?S(t-tS+tE)+Bsin?M(t+tE)=Csin?tot(t+ttot). Taking t=t1 and t=t2, we can get two equations with only two variables, solve the two equations, we can get the retarded factor of the solar gravitation and the delay factor of earth response for each compoenets. The retarded factor obtained will be strong evidence that gravitation is retarded.

  9. Stimulus Overselectivity: A Common Feature in Autism and Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovaas, O. Ivar; Wilhelm, Hannelore

    1976-01-01

    Overselective attention in discrimination between picture cards was investigated with three groups of children with different IQ levels: 10 severely retarded (IQ = 29 - 51, CA = 9.6 - 18 years), 10 moderately retarded (IQ = 56 - 85, CA = 12.8 - 16.3 years), and 10 non-retarded (CA = 10 - 12 years). (Author/IM)

  10. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  11. Generating Models of Mental Retardation from Data with Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    Generating Models of Mental Retardation from Data with Machine Learning Subramani Mani 3 Suzanne W domain models of Mental Retardation (MR) from data using Knowledge Discovery and Datamining (KDD) methods selected the domain of Mental Retardation (MR) for our study due to its complex nature and lack of simple

  12. Periventricular heterotopia, mental retardation, and epilepsy associated with

    E-print Network

    Cossart, Rosa

    Periventricular heterotopia, mental retardation, and epilepsy associated with 5q14.3-q15 deletion C features of three unrelated patients with epilepsy, mental retardation, and bilateral PH in the walls), mental retardation, and epilepsy, mapping to chromosome 5q14.3-q15. This observation rein- forces

  13. Generating Models of Mental Retardation from Data with Machine Learning

    E-print Network

    Pazzani, Michael J.

    Generating Models of Mental Retardation from Data with Machine Learning Subramani Mani 3 Suzanne W domain models of Mental Retardation (MR) from data using Knowledge Discovery and Datamining (KDD) methods of Medicine, Six Richland Medical Park, Columbia SC 29203. We have selected the domain of Mental Retardation

  14. A Cognitive Skills Training Program for Moderately Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetlin, Andrea G.; Gallimore, Ronald

    1980-01-01

    Problems inherent in curricula for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students are considered, approaches to cognitive training of retarded learners are reviewed, similarities among school problems of mentally retarded and minority children are pointed out, and a study investigating whether TMR students use or learn the necessary variety of…

  15. Effect of a novel charring–foaming agent on flame retardancy and thermal degradation of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Li; Miaojun Xu

    2006-01-01

    A new triazine polymer was synthesized by using cyanuric chloride, ethanolamine and ethylenediamine as raw materials. It is used both as a charring agent and as a foaming agent in intumescent flame retardants, designated as charring–foaming agent (CFA). Effect of CFA on flame retardancy, thermal degradation and mechanical properties of intumescent flame retardant polypropylene (PP) system (IFR–PP system) has been

  16. American Association on Mental Retardation 231 VOLUME 109, NUMBER 3: 231236 MAY 2004 AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    American Association on Mental Retardation 231 VOLUME 109, NUMBER 3: 231­236 MAY 2004 AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION The Relationship Between Age and IQ in Adults With Williams Syndrome Yvonne with autism and no mental retardation show evidence of verbal intellectual skills that improve through

  17. On the mechanism of flame retardancy and characterization of halogen-free, flame-retardant materials for wires and cables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kato; T. Futagami; M. Ishida; K. Sengoku; M. Ueda

    1986-01-01

    During exploratory on mechanistic pathway of halogen-free, flame-retardant materials, containing metal hydroxide with other ingredients, there were revealed that the char formation at high temperatures should play an important role to enhance flame retardancy of resultant compositions, and some metallic compounds which were capable of increase catalytically the amount of char could further improve flame retardancy. It has also been

  18. Linking energy production and protein synthesis in hydrogenotrophic methanogens.

    PubMed

    Oza, Javin P; Sowers, Kevin R; Perona, John J

    2012-03-27

    Hydrogenotrophic methanogens possessing the hydrogen-dependent dehydrogenase Hmd also encode paralogs of this protein whose function is poorly understood. Here we present biochemical evidence that the two inactive Hmd paralogs of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii, HmdII and HmdIII, form binary and ternary complexes with several components of the protein translation apparatus. HmdII and HmdIII, but not the active dehydrogenase Hmd, bind with micromolar binding affinities to a number of tRNAs and form ternary complexes with tRNA(Pro) and prolyl-tRNA synthetase (ProRS). Fluorescence spectroscopy experiments also suggest that binding of HmdII and ProRS involves distinct binding determinants on the tRNA. These biochemical data suggest the possibility of a regulatory link between energy production and protein translation pathways that may allow a rapid cellular response to altered environmental conditions. PMID:22401293

  19. Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2009-03-01

    The effect of short peptides on the growth of ice crystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations focus on two sequences (Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly) that are found in collagen hydrolysate, a substance that is known to retard crystal growth. In the absence of peptides, the growth of ice crystal in the solution with the ice/water interface is observed in at a rate comparable to the experimental data. When peptides are present in the liquid phase, the crystal growth is retarded to a significant extent compared to the pure water. It is found that Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly is more effective (crystallization is up to 5 times slower than in its absence) than Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly (up to 3 times slower) implying that the role of the proline residue is important. The mechanism can be understood in the nature of binding of the peptides to the growing crystal.

  20. Postnatal Psychological Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Benjamin; Max, Paul

    1962-01-01

    The psychological factors present in 715 suspected retarded children were studied. Social, cultural and educational deprivation accounted for 57 cases. Personality and emotional conflicts were primary etiological factors in 15 children. Functional childhood psychosis was found in 18. A group of 89 children had no obvious definitive cause for retardation, although epilepsy, mixed eye and hand dominance, visual perceptive disorders, or poor muscle tone was present in some. In the remaining 523 children, primary brain damage was evident. A sample of 142 of these brain-damaged children revealed that 38 had neurotic symptoms, 23 were antisocial, 11 were psychotic, 28 had restless, disturbed activity, and 42 had intellectual lowering only. The authors suggest that both psychological and organic factors must be taken into consideration in order that complete diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness be achieved. PMID:13899687

  1. Chromosome Instability and Defective Recombinational Repair in Knockout Mutants of the Five Rad51 Paralogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MINORU TAKATA; MASAO S. SASAKI; SEIJI TACHIIRI; TORU FUKUSHIMA; EIICHIRO SONODA; DAVID SCHILD; LARRY H. THOMPSON; SHUNICHI TAKEDA

    2001-01-01

    The Rad51 protein, a eukaryotic homologue of Escherichia coli RecA, plays a central role in both mitotic and meiotic homologous DNA recombination (HR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is essential for the proliferation of vertebrate cells. Five vertebrate genes, RAD51B ,- C, and -D and XRCC2 and -3, are implicated in HR on the basis of their sequence similarity to Rad51

  2. Diagnostic Genome Profiling in Mental Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bert B. A. de Vries; Rolph Pfundt; Martijn Leisink; David A. Koolen; Lisenka E. L. M. Vissers; Irene M. Janssen; Simon van Reijmersdal; Willy M. Nillesen; Erik H. L. P. G. Huys; Nicole de Leeuw; Dominique Smeets; Erik A. Sistermans; Ton Feuth; Conny M. A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts; Eric F. P. M. Schoenmakers; Han G. Brunner; Joris A. Veltman

    2005-01-01

    Mental retardation (MR) occurs in 2%-3% of the general population. Conventional karyotyping has a resolution of 5-10 million bases and detects chromosomal alterations in approximately 5% of individuals with unexplained MR. The frequency of smaller submicroscopic chromosomal alterations in these patients is unknown. Novel molecular karyotyping methods, such as array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), can detect submicroscopic chromosome alterations

  3. Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Soo Kim; Arun Yethiraj

    2009-01-01

    The effect of short peptides on the growth of ice crystals is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations focus on two sequences (Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly) that are found in collagen hydrolysate, a substance that is known to retard crystal growth. In the absence of peptides, the growth of ice crystal in the solution with the ice\\/water interface is observed

  4. Combustion toxicity of fire retarded EVA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Richard Hull; Rita E Quinn; Irene G Areri; David A Purser

    2002-01-01

    A Purser furnace has been used to investigate the combustion toxicity of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) with and without fire retardants, under different fire conditions. Steady state flaming combustion has been studied at equivalence ratios ? varying from 0.5 to 1.5 by driving the materials through the furnace at 750 °C. Yields of CO and CO2 for EVA containing 27% vinyl

  5. Evidence that soyasaponin Bb retards disease progression in a murine model of polycystic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana J Philbrick; Dominique P Bureau; F William Collins; Bruce J Holub

    2003-01-01

    Evidence that soyasaponin Bb retards disease progression in a murine model of polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundWe reported a lessened cyst growth in the pcy mouse model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) when mice were fed a soy protein isolate (SPI)–based diet and hypothesized that the soyasaponins may be associated with this therapeutic effect. The effects of feeding a saponin-enriched alcohol extract

  6. The mGluR theory of fragile X mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark F. Bear; Kimberly M. Huber; Stephen T. Warren

    2004-01-01

    Many of the diverse functional consequences of activating group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors require translation of pre-existing mRNA near synapses. One of these consequences is long-term depression (LTD) of transmission at hippocampal synapses. Loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), the defect responsible for fragile X syndrome in humans, increases LTD in mouse hippocampus. This finding is consistent with

  7. Direct Activation of Genes Involved in Intracellular Iron Use by the Yeast Iron-Responsive Transcription Factor Aft2 without Its Paralog Aft1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Courel; S. Lallet; J.-M. Camadro; P.-L. Blaiseau

    2005-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains a pair of paralogous iron-responsive transcription activators, Aft1 and Aft2. Aft1 activates the cell surface iron uptake systems in iron depletion, while the role of Aft2 remains poorly understood. This study compares the functions of Aft1 and Aft2 in regulating the transcription of genes involved in iron homeostasis, with reference to the presence\\/absence of the

  8. A 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cycloligase paralog from all domains of life: comparative genomic and experimental evidence for a cryptic role in thiamin metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Pribat; Ian K. Blaby; Aurora Lara-Núñez; Linda Jeanguenin; Romain Fouquet; Océane Frelin; Jesse F. Gregory; Benjamin Philmus; Tadhg P. Begley; Valérie de Crécy-Lagard; Andrew D. Hanson

    A paralog (here termed COG0212) of the ATP-dependent folate salvage enzyme 5-formyltetrahydrofolate cycloligase (5-FCL) occurs\\u000a in all domains of life and, although typically annotated as 5-FCL in pro- and eukaryotic genomes, is of unknown function.\\u000a COG0212 is similar in overall structure to 5-FCL, particularly in the substrate binding region, and has distant similarity\\u000a to other kinases. The Arabidopsis thaliana COG0212

  9. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, John R; Mazza, Maureen E; Jezewski, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Background Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Results Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx) in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal), were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Conclusion Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies. PMID:19154605

  10. Interactome Analyses of Mature ?-Secretase Complexes Reveal Distinct Molecular Environments of Presenilin (PS) Paralogs and Preferential Binding of Signal Peptide Peptidase to PS2*

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Amy Hye Won; Böhm, Christopher; Chen, Fusheng; Huo, Hairu; Ruan, Xueying; Ren, Carl He; Ho, Keith; Qamar, Seema; Mathews, Paul M.; Fraser, Paul E.; Mount, Howard T. J.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold

    2013-01-01

    ?-Secretase plays a pivotal role in the production of neurotoxic amyloid ?-peptides (A?) in Alzheimer disease (AD) and consists of a heterotetrameric core complex that includes the aspartyl intramembrane protease presenilin (PS). The human genome codes for two presenilin paralogs. To understand the causes for distinct phenotypes of PS paralog-deficient mice and elucidate whether PS mutations associated with early-onset AD affect the molecular environment of mature ?-secretase complexes, quantitative interactome comparisons were undertaken. Brains of mice engineered to express wild-type or mutant PS1, or HEK293 cells stably expressing PS paralogs with N-terminal tandem-affinity purification tags served as biological source materials. The analyses revealed novel interactions of the ?-secretase core complex with a molecular machinery that targets and fuses synaptic vesicles to cellular membranes and with the H+-transporting lysosomal ATPase macrocomplex but uncovered no differences in the interactomes of wild-type and mutant PS1. The catenin/cadherin network was almost exclusively found associated with PS1. Another intramembrane protease, signal peptide peptidase, predominantly co-purified with PS2-containing ?-secretase complexes and was observed to influence A? production. PMID:23589300

  11. Divergent Evolutionary and Expression Patterns between Lineage Specific New Duplicate Genes and Their Parental Paralogs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C.; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2013-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the origination of functional novelties in organisms. We performed a comparative genome analysis to systematically estimate recent lineage specific gene duplication events in Arabidopsis thaliana and further investigate whether and how these new duplicate genes (NDGs) play a functional role in the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. We accomplished this using syntenic relationship among four closely related species, A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella and Brassica rapa. We identified 100 NDGs, showing clear origination patterns, whose parental genes are located in syntenic regions and/or have clear orthologs in at least one of three outgroup species. All 100 NDGs were transcribed and under functional constraints, while 24% of the NDGs have differential expression patterns compared to their parental genes. We explored the underlying evolutionary forces of these paralogous pairs through conducting neutrality tests with sequence divergence and polymorphism data. Evolution of about 15% of NDGs appeared to be driven by natural selection. Moreover, we found that 3 NDGs not only altered their expression patterns when compared with parental genes, but also evolved under positive selection. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving the differential expression of NDGs and their parents, and found a number of NDGs had different cis-elements and methylation patterns from their parental genes. Overall, we demonstrated that NDGs acquired divergent cis-elements and methylation patterns and may experience sub-functionalization or neo-functionalization influencing the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. PMID:24009676

  12. Diversification of Paralogous ?-Isopropylmalate Synthases by Modulation of Feedback Control and Hetero-Oligomerization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    López, Geovani; Quezada, Héctor; Duhne, Mariana; González, James; Lezama, Mijail; El-Hafidi, Mohammed; Colón, Maritrini; Martínez de la Escalera, Ximena; Flores-Villegas, Mirelle Citlali; Scazzocchio, Claudio; DeLuna, Alexander; González, Alicia

    2015-06-01

    Production of ?-isopropylmalate (?-IPM) is critical for leucine biosynthesis and for the global control of metabolism. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has two paralogous genes, LEU4 and LEU9, that encode ?-IPM synthase (?-IPMS) isozymes. Little is known about the biochemical differences between these two ?-IPMS isoenzymes. Here, we show that the Leu4 homodimer is a leucine-sensitive isoform, while the Leu9 homodimer is resistant to such feedback inhibition. The leu4? mutant, which expresses only the feedback-resistant Leu9 homodimer, grows slowly with either glucose or ethanol and accumulates elevated pools of leucine; this phenotype is alleviated by the addition of leucine. Transformation of the leu4? mutant with a centromeric plasmid carrying LEU4 restored the wild-type phenotype. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation analysis showed that Leu4-Leu9 heterodimeric isozymes are formed in vivo. Purification and kinetic analysis showed that the hetero-oligomeric isozyme has a distinct leucine sensitivity behavior. Determination of ?-IPMS activity in ethanol-grown cultures showed that ?-IPM biosynthesis and growth under these respiratory conditions depend on the feedback-sensitive Leu4 homodimer. We conclude that retention and further diversification of two yeast ?-IPMSs have resulted in a specific regulatory system that controls the leucine-?-IPM biosynthetic pathway by selective feedback sensitivity of homomeric and heterodimeric isoforms. PMID:25841022

  13. Divergent evolutionary and expression patterns between lineage specific new duplicate genes and their parental paralogs in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Marowsky, Nicholas C; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2013-01-01

    Gene duplication is an important mechanism for the origination of functional novelties in organisms. We performed a comparative genome analysis to systematically estimate recent lineage specific gene duplication events in Arabidopsis thaliana and further investigate whether and how these new duplicate genes (NDGs) play a functional role in the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. We accomplished this using syntenic relationship among four closely related species, A. thaliana, A. lyrata, Capsella rubella and Brassica rapa. We identified 100 NDGs, showing clear origination patterns, whose parental genes are located in syntenic regions and/or have clear orthologs in at least one of three outgroup species. All 100 NDGs were transcribed and under functional constraints, while 24% of the NDGs have differential expression patterns compared to their parental genes. We explored the underlying evolutionary forces of these paralogous pairs through conducting neutrality tests with sequence divergence and polymorphism data. Evolution of about 15% of NDGs appeared to be driven by natural selection. Moreover, we found that 3 NDGs not only altered their expression patterns when compared with parental genes, but also evolved under positive selection. We investigated the underlying mechanisms driving the differential expression of NDGs and their parents, and found a number of NDGs had different cis-elements and methylation patterns from their parental genes. Overall, we demonstrated that NDGs acquired divergent cis-elements and methylation patterns and may experience sub-functionalization or neo-functionalization influencing the evolution and adaption of A. thaliana. PMID:24009676

  14. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  15. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  16. Proteins

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mowery, Jeanette

    Laboratory manual and supplemental resources that were developed for a college laboratory course in protein purification. The enzyme, Beta-galactosidase, is purified in two steps, with analysis and verification of results. Course materials are divided into four units: Why Proteins, Assays, The Purification Process, and Analysis and Verification. Powerpoint lectures and study guides are provided.

  17. The Drosophila fragile X mental retardation gene regulates sleep need.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Daniel; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara

    2009-02-18

    Sleep need is affected by developmental stage and neuronal plasticity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The fragile X mental retardation gene Fmr1, whose loss-of-function mutation causes the most common form of inherited mental retardation in humans, is involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity, and its expression depends on both developmental stage and waking experience. Fmr1 is highly conserved across species and Drosophila mutants carrying dFmr1 loss-of-function or gain-of-function mutations are well characterized: amorphs have overgrown dendritic trees with larger synaptic boutons, developmental defects in pruning, and enhanced neurotransmission, while hypermorphs show opposite defects, including dendritic and axonal underbranching and loss of synapse differentiation. We find here that dFmr1 amorphs are long sleepers and hypermorphs are short sleepers, while both show increased locomotor activity and shortened lifespan. Both amorphs and hypermorphs also show abnormal sleep homeostasis, with impaired waking performance and no sleep rebound after sleep deprivation. An impairment in the circadian regulation of sleep cannot account for the altered sleep phenotype of dFmr1 mutants, nor can an abnormal activation of glutamatergic metabotropic receptors. Moreover, overexpression of dFmr1 throughout the mushroom bodies is sufficient to reduce sleep. Finally, dFmr1 protein levels are modulated by both developmental stage and behavioral state, with increased expression immediately after eclosure and after prolonged wakefulness. Thus, dFmr1 expression dose-dependently affects both sleep and synapses, suggesting that changes in sleep time in dFmr1 mutants may derive from changes in synaptic physiology. PMID:19228950

  18. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  19. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schartel@bam.de [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Unter den Eichen 87, 12205 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  20. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented. PMID:24517809

  1. Sexual abuse of adults with mental retardation by other consumers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen M. Furey; Jill J. Niesen

    1994-01-01

    All allegations of sexual abuse of adults with mental retardation by other adults with mental retardation over a five year\\u000a period were examined. There were 72 cases substantiated with a total of 49 perpetrators. In all 72 cases, sexual abuse of\\u000a one adult with mental retardation by another occurred; however, the perpetrator was deemed culpable in 31 cases, abuse and

  2. Sexual abuse prevention for persons with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Lumley, V A; Miltenberger, R G

    1997-03-01

    The problem of sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills were discussed. Because very little research on teaching sexual abuse prevention skills exists, research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation as well as on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, was reviewed. Suggestions for future research in the area of sexual abuse prevention for persons with mental retardation were discussed. PMID:9083603

  3. New hybrid halogen-free flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowska, Dorota; Jankowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of this work were researches concerning the methods of the in-situ modification of silicate layer-tubular mineral (SL-TM) halloysite, using the salts of melamine, i.e. melamine cyanurate. The modified mineral was used as flame retardant to thermoplastic polymers. In the case of the application of halloysite modified by melamine cyanurate to polyamide 6 (PA6) the highest parameters of vertical and horizontal flammability were achieved. The mechanical properties of filled polyamide 6 have been improved.

  4. Syndromes and disorders associated with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Pratt, Helen D

    2005-10-01

    This article reviews selective comments on the concept of Mental Retardation (MR) in adolescents. Issues covered include the definition, prevalence, and differential diagnosis of MR. Some of the syndromes and disorders associated with MR in the adolescents are also considered with emphasis on the behavioral concerns that may be present in this age group. Finally, concepts of management by the clinician are reviewed. It is recommended that health care professionals caring for adolescents with MR should help these youths maximize their potential as human beings, helping them achieve meaningful functioning in adulthood. PMID:16272659

  5. WAIS profiles in mentally retarded adults.

    PubMed

    Coolidge, F L; Rakoff, R J; Schwellenbach, L D; Bracken, D D; Walker, S H

    1986-03-01

    The present study investigated WAIS indices of scatter in a sample of 83 mentally retarded adults (FIQ, means = 58). Overall subtest scatter was significantly correlated with VIQ, PIQ and FIQ. There was no significant relationship between the discrepancy score (absolute value of the difference between VIQ and PIQ), and VIQ, PIQ and FIQ. The scatter and discrepancy score means were surprisingly large. Analysis of VIQ and PIQ configuration revealed that VIQ greater than PIQ, and PIQ greater than VIQ occurred with nearly equal frequency. PMID:3701847

  6. Colonic transit time in mentally retarded persons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saskia Vande Velde; Stephanie Van Biervliet; Gert Van Goethem; Danny De Looze; Myriam Van Winckel

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Constipation is frequently seen in patients with mental retardation (MR). Its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Measurement\\u000a of colon transit time (CTT) differentiates between retentive and non-retentive constipation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim  To determine total and segmental CTT in MR patients compared to healthy controls.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Of 250 residents, 60 patients older then 16, without swallowing disorder or scoliosis, are randomly chosen, 58 participated\\u000a (intelligence quotient?

  7. Protein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for the heart. Alternatively, a cup of cooked lentils provides about 18 grams of protein and 15 ... eating approximately one daily serving of beans, chickpeas, lentils or peas can increase fullness, which may lead ...

  8. Missouri Schools for the Retarded, Title I Project. Program Enrichment for State Schools for Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Schools for the Retarded, Jefferson City.

    Enrichment programs conducted in Missouri state schools for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children under Title I funding in 1967 are evaluated. Charts give the progress of 153 TMR pupils in the physical fitness programs conducted in three schools while case histories indicate improvement of six children in a prekindergarten enrichment program.…

  9. Evaluation of Still Picture Telephone for Mentally Retarded Persons. Telematics and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane; Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

    This study examined the benefit of using a visual telecommunication system for Sweden's children and adults with mild to moderate mental retardation and speech difficulties. The Panasonic Image Communication Unit connects to standard modular telephones and includes a camera and monitor for the transfer of pictures. Units were placed in eight…

  10. Psychomotor retardation in depression: biological underpinnings, measurement, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Buyukdura, Jeylan S; McClintock, Shawn M; Croarkin, Paul E

    2011-03-30

    Psychomotor retardation is a long established component of depression that can have significant clinical and therapeutic implications for treatment. Due to its negative impact on overall function in depressed patients, we review its biological correlates, optimal methods of measurement, and relevance in the context of therapeutic interventions. The aim of the paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature on psychomotor retardation in depression with the goal of enhanced awareness for clinicians and researchers. Increased knowledge and understanding of psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder may lead to further research and better informed diagnosis in regards to psychomotor retardation. Manifestations of psychomotor retardation include slowed speech, decreased movement, and impaired cognitive function. It is common in patients with melancholic depression and those with psychotic features. Biological correlates may include abnormalities in the basal ganglia and dopaminergic pathways. Neurophysiologic tools such as neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation may play a role in the study of this symptom in the future. At present, there are three objective scales to evaluate psychomotor retardation severity. Studies examining the impact of psychomotor retardation on clinical outcome have found differential results. However, available evidence suggests that depressed patients with psychomotor retardation may respond well to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Current literature regarding antidepressants is inconclusive, though tricyclic antidepressants may be considered for treatment of patients with psychomotor retardation. Future work examining this objective aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential. This could further elucidate the biological underpinnings of depression and optimize its treatment. PMID:21044654

  11. Structural divergence of paralogous S components from ECF-type ABC transporters

    PubMed Central

    Berntsson, Ronnie P.-A.; ter Beek, Josy; Majsnerowska, Maria; Duurkens, Ria H.; Puri, Pranav; Poolman, Bert; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Energy coupling factor (ECF) proteins are ATP-binding cassette transporters involved in the import of micronutrients in prokaryotes. They consist of two nucleotide-binding subunits and the integral membrane subunit EcfT, which together form the ECF module and a second integral membrane subunit that captures the substrate (the S component). Different S components, unrelated in sequence and specific for different ligands, can interact with the same ECF module. Here, we present a high-resolution crystal structure at 2.1 ? of the biotin-specific S component BioY from Lactococcus lactis. BioY shares only 16% sequence identity with the thiamin-specific S component ThiT from the same organism, of which we recently solved a crystal structure. Consistent with the lack of sequence similarity, BioY and ThiT display large structural differences (rmsd = 5.1 ?), but the divergence is not equally distributed over the molecules: The S components contain a structurally conserved N-terminal domain that is involved in the interaction with the ECF module and a highly divergent C-terminal domain that binds the substrate. The domain structure explains how the S components with large overall structural differences can interact with the same ECF module while at the same time specifically bind very different substrates with subnanomolar affinity. Solitary BioY (in the absence of the ECF module) is monomeric in detergent solution and binds D-biotin with a high affinity but does not transport the substrate across the membrane. PMID:22891302

  12. Retardation of ice crystallization by short peptides.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Soo; Damodaran, Srinivasan; Yethiraj, Arun

    2009-04-23

    The effect of peptides on the growth of ice crystals are studied using molecular dynamics simulations. The growth of the ice crystal is simulated at a supercooling of 14 K, and the effect of a single tetrapeptide on the growth rate is calculated. For pure ice the simulated crystal grows at a rate comparable to experiment. When a peptide molecule is added near the interface, the growth rate is diminished significantly, by up to a factor of 5 for Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly and a factor of 3 for Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly. The retardation occurs via the binding of the peptide to the ice surface, suppression of ice growth near the binding site, and eventual growth of the crystal around the bound peptide. The peptide with a proline residue is more effective in retarding the crystal growth, and this can be understood from the conformation of the peptide within the frozen ice phase after overgrowth. The simulations suggest that short peptides can be effective antifreeze agents. PMID:19260668

  13. Characterization of two paralogous StAR genes in a teleost, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiangguo; Wu, Limin; Xie, Lang; Yang, Shijie; Charkraborty, Tapas; Shi, Hongjuan; Wang, Deshou; Zhou, Linyan

    2014-07-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transports cholesterol, the substrate for steroid synthesis, to the inner membranes of mitochondria. It is well known that estrogen is essential for female sex determination/differentiation in fish. However, no reports showed that the conventional StAR, which was supposed to be essential for estrogen production, was expressed in female gonads during the critical timing of sex determination/differentiation. In this study, two different StAR isoforms, named as StAR1 and StAR2, were characterized from the gonads of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Phylogenetic and synteny analysis revealed that two StAR genes existed in teleosts, Xenopus and chicken indicating that the duplication event occurred before the divergence of teleosts and tetrapods. Real-time PCR revealed that StAR1 was dominantly expressed in the testis, head kidney and kidney; while StAR2 was expressed exclusively in the gonads. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that StAR1 was expressed in the interrenal cells of the head kidney and Leydig cells of the testis; while StAR2 was expressed in the Leydig cells of the testis and the interstitial cells of the ovary. Ontogenic analysis demonstrated that StAR2 was expressed abundantly from 5 days after hatching (dah) in the somatic cells in XX gonads, whereas in XY gonads, both StARs could be detected from 30 dah until adulthood. Intraperitoneal injection of human chorionic gonadotropin experiments showed that expression of StAR1 and 2 was significantly elevated at 8h and persisted until 24h after injection in the testis. Taken together, our data suggested that StAR1 is likely to be required for cortisol production in the head kidney, and StAR2 is probably involved in estrogen production during early sex differentiation in XX gonads. In contrast, both StARs might be required for androgen production in testes. For the first time, our data demonstrated that two fish StARs might be involved in steroidogenesis in a tissue and developmental stage dependent manner. PMID:24859646

  14. Juvenile polyposis with macrocephaly and mental retardation (? Ruvalcava-Myhre-Smith syndrome)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Nandini, N M; Singh, Th Bipin; Kumar, Anil; Nandeesh

    2004-07-01

    A male child aged one and a half years with a history of rectal bleeding, on examination was found to have severe degree of anaemia with grade -III protein-energy-malnutrition and pneumonia. Colonoscopy revealed features of colonic polyposis. An upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy showed a duodenal polyp while barium meal follow-through did not reveal any polyps in the small intestine. Total colectomy and ileo-rectal anastomosis was done. Following histopathological study, the diagnosis of Juvenile polyposis syndrome was made, a very rare entity and is known to lead to adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition the child was found to have macrocephaly and mental retardation. The rarity and importance of the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome associated with macrocephaly and mental retardation (?Ruvalcava-Myhre-Smith syndrome) prompted the documentation of this case. PMID:16295443

  15. Evolutionary Comparisons of RecA-Like Proteins Across All Major Kingdoms of Living Organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Volker Brendel; Luciano Brocchieri; Steven J. Sandler; Alvin J. Clark; Samuel Karlin

    1997-01-01

    .   Protein sequences with similarities to Escherichia coli RecA were compared across the major kingdoms of eubacteria, archaebacteria, and eukaryotes. The archaeal sequences branch\\u000a monophyletically and are most closely related to the eukaryotic paralogous Rad51 and Dmc1 groups. A multiple alignment of\\u000a the sequences suggests a modular structure of RecA-like proteins consisting of distinct segments, some of which are conserved

  16. A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the database of plastid protein families from red algae, secondary and tertiary rhodophyte-derived plastids, and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. The families contain proteins with maximal sequence similarity and minimal paralogous content. The database contains 6509 protein entries, 513 families and 278 nonsingletons (from which 230 are paralog-free, and among the remaining 48, 46 contain at maximum two proteins per species, and 2 contain at maximum three proteins per species). The method is compared with other approaches. Expression regulation of the moeB gene is studied using this database and the model of RNA polymerase competition. An analogous database obtained for green algae and their symbiotic descendants, and applications based on it are published earlier.

  17. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  18. Recognition of Emotion by Mentally Retarded Adolescents and Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, R. P.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mildly mentally retarded adolescents and young adults (N=21) were not able to correctly match photographs of faces to emotionally expressive voices. Results suggest that mentally retarded individuals may have specific deficits in recognizing how bodily expressions of emotion are coordinated with each other. (Author/DB)

  19. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  20. The Two Intelligences of Bright, Average, and Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta

    This study attempted to determine if performance on Piagetian tasks can be predicted from Stanford-Binet mental age or IQ. Subjects were 143 children of bright, average, and retarded abilities as measured by performance on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test. Bright and average children were chronologically aged five to seven years; retarded

  1. Iconic Memory Deficit of Mildly Mentally Retarded Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstein, Henry A.; Mosley, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Ten mildly retarded young adult males and nonretarded subjects matched for chronological age or mental age were required to recognize both verbal and nonverbal stimuli presented tachistoscopically. Results of a backward visual masking paradigm varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) indicated the retarded subjects performed poorer at the longest…

  2. Charge density formulation for plasmons in the retarded regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sami Smaili; Yehia Massoud

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we derive the retarded dispersion relation for plasmons at the interface between a semi-infinite metal and a semi-infinite dielectric starting from the charge density and the current density. We use the retarded electric and magnetic potentials to arrive at the surface plasmon dispersion relation. Additionally, we derive the electric and magnetic fields using the potentials and show

  3. A Study of Public School Children with Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Maynard C.; And Others

    The report summarizes research and reported experience on day school care for severely mentally retarded children falling in the trainable range (IQ 25-50). Characteristics and numbers of such children, and literature reporting some methods and experiences in educating trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children are reviewed. Four public school TMR…

  4. Family Variables in the Adjustment of Retarded Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, C. Edward

    The study investigated the psychological home environments of 150 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students and 250 slow learners (largely educable mentally retarded--EMR--and some educationally handicapped--EH). Data were gathered at annual intervals by home interview and school visits. The home interview included structured questions and…

  5. CEC Selected Convention Papers; Annual International Convention: Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Arlington, VA.

    The following articles on mental retardation are provided: translating research findings into classroom activity; camping programs; a measurement device for educable mentally retarded adolescents on their self-concept as a worker; an investigation of the Doman-Delacato Theory in a trainable program in the public schools; and problems of sex…

  6. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS. M F Hughes1, B C Edwards1, C T Mitchell1, and B Bhooshan2. 1US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, RTP, NC; 2US CPSC, LSC, Rockville, MD. Two flame retardant chemicals that are candidates for treating furniture fabrics were evaluated for ...

  7. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  8. Mental Retardation. Selected Articles from the Rehabilitation Record.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Presented are six articles on residential living, vocational education, employment recreation, deinstitutionalization, and workshop experience of mentally retarded children and adults. K. Grunewald discusses the planning of housing for five- to eight person groups of retarded children and adults in varying kinds of residential facilities in Sweden…

  9. Mentally Retarded and Nonretarded Individuals' Attention Allocation and Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Patricia M.; Mosley, James L.

    1987-01-01

    Eighteen moderately mentally retarded adults, 20 nonretarded elementary age children, and 20 nonretarded adults were exposed to three conditions of an auditory detection task (location, meaning, and a combination of both). Developmentally immature subjects (retarded adults and nonretarded children) demonstrated less efficient attentional capacity.…

  10. Insulin Resistance in Short Children with Intrauterine Growth Retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL L. HOFMAN; WAYNE S. CUTFIELD; ELIZABETH M. ROBINSON; RICHARD N. BERGMAN; RAM K. MENON; MARK A. SPERLING; PETER D. GLUCKMAN

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association be- tween intrauterine growth retardation and an increased risk of adult diseases that include essential hypertension, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease. A common feature of these diseases is insulin resistance. To investigate whether abnormal insulin sensitivity was a char- acteristic of subjects with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), we compared two groups of

  11. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  12. Facial Emotional Expressions of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.

    1991-01-01

    Photographs of facial emotional expressions posed by adults classified as mentally retarded were judged by familiar and unfamiliar adults who were not mentally retarded. Happiness and sadness were accurately posed most often. The ability to encode facial emotional expressions was correlated with assessments of interpersonal competence provided by…

  13. Further Evidence for Cognitive Inertia of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Norman R.; Dulaney, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    Forty young adults with mental retardation (MR) were compared to 40 young adults without mental retardation in tests examining postpractice interference effects in naming colors of Stroop words. The study concluded that practice developed automatized reading suppression responses which held greater cognitive inertia for longer periods among MR…

  14. Reflections on a Lifetime in Human Services and Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfensberger, Wolf

    2011-01-01

    The author, a life member of the American Association on Mental Retardation, has reflected on over 30 years of primary engagement in mental retardation and inventoried what he believes are certain changes for the better and for the worse that have occurred since the 1950s as well as certain things that have not changed. Some action implications…

  15. Screening of the ARX gene in 682 retarded males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Grønskov; Helle Hjalgrim; Inge-Merete Nielsen; Karen Brøndum-Nielsen

    2004-01-01

    The newly identified gene, ARX, when mutated has been shown to cause both syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation. It seems that the less severe forms are due to polyalanine expansions and missense mutations in the gene. We screened 682 developmentally retarded males for polyalanine expansions in ARX in order to examine the contribution of ARX mutations to the

  16. Sexual Abuse Prevention for Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumley, Vicki A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses sexual abuse among persons with mental retardation, skills for preventing sexual abuse, and methods for assessing prevention skills. Reviews research on abduction prevention programs for persons with mental retardation and on sexual abuse prevention programs for children, and makes suggestions for future research. (Author/CR)

  17. Mainstreaming the Handicapped in Vocational Education. Serving the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudette

    One of a series of seven modules developed to improve the knowledge and skills of vocational educators who are or who will be serving the handicapped in regular vocational education settings, this module, dealing primarily with the educable mentally retarded (EMR), is designed to (1) explain what mental retardation is and to explore the range of…

  18. The attachment of a retarded child to an inanimate object

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy R. Haslett; Dorothy D. Bolding; Judith A. Harris; Alan L. Taylor; Patricia M. Simon; Robert Schedgick

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship of a moderately retarded boy with autistic features to an inanimate object, relates this relationship to his emotional development, and suggests methods for utilizing observations of his behavior with the object for assessment of cognition. The authors suggest that the object differs only qualitatively from a transitional object. Implications for the evaluation of retarded children

  19. Cone calorimeter evaluation of two flame retardant cotton fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unbleached (grey) cotton needle punched nonwoven (NW) fabrics with 12.5% polypropylene scrim were treated with two phosphate-nitrogen based fire-retardant (FR) formulations, SRRC-1 and SRRC-2. The SRRC-1 formulation contains diammonium phosphate as the flame retardant chemical along with urea and d...

  20. Novel phosphonates triazine derivative as economic flame retardant for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorous-containing flame retardants are widely used in standard and engineering plastics, polyurethane foams, thermosets, coatings, and textiles. Organophosphorous flame retardants have been known to be more effective when used in conjunction with nitrogen-containing systems. Their mixture produ...

  1. Haptic Asymmetries in Persons with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Jill L.; Mosley, James L.

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four adults with mild mental retardation were compared with equal-mental age children and adults without mental retardation on tactile processing asymmetries. Results suggest that hemispheric processing is dependent on information processing requirements rather than type of stimulus. (Author/JDD)

  2. Training Mentally Retarded Adults to Make Emergency Telephone Calls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ritamarie Risley; Anthony J. Cuvo

    1980-01-01

    Training mentally retarded persons to make emergency telephone calls is an important community survival skill. A task analysis for making telephone calls to three emergency parties (fire, police, and doctor) was performed and its content validity established. A series of four antecedent conditions, ordered from less to more direct assistance, was used to teach all component responses to three retarded

  3. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  4. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  5. Stimulus complexity and intramodal reaction time in retarded readers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marion Blank; Thomas J. Higgins; Wagner H. Bridger

    1971-01-01

    Examined the possible role of stimulus differences in the reported difficulty of cross-modal RT in retarded readers. Using an intramodal paradigm involving a simple and a complex visual stimulus, 20 retarded 3rd grade readers were found to have significantly longer RTs than 20 normal 3rd grade readers. The pattern of response was similar for both reading groups in that the

  6. Self-Invented Addition Strategies by Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental group (n=13) and a control group (n=15) of children with mental retardation were both shown a basic concrete counting procedure. Over six months, the experimental group was given regular opportunities to practice computing sums. Many of them invented calculational short cuts. Results suggest that children with mental retardation

  7. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. PMID:26043798

  8. White matter tract integrity and intelligence in patients with mental retardation and healthy adults

    E-print Network

    Jiang,Tianzi

    White matter tract integrity and intelligence in patients with mental retardation and healthy of brain white matter tracts and intelligence in patients with mental retardation (MR) and healthy adults; Fractional anisotropy; Mental retardation; Intelligence Introduction Researchers have long attempted

  9. Tuneable Sagnac comb filter including two wave retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Grajales-Coutiño, R.; González-García, A.

    2010-03-01

    In this paper we study theoretically and experimentally a wavelength-tuneable Sagnac birefringence filter. The device is a Sagnac interferometer including a symmetric fibre coupler and a length of high-birefringence fibre in the loop. A wave retarder is inserted at each end of the birefringent fibre for absolute wavelength tuning. We show theoretically that wavelength tuning through wave plate orientation ensuring constant amplitude of the filtering function is possible only if a minimum of two wave retarders are included in the setup. The position of the transmission peaks then varies linearly with the angle of one of the retarders and can be adjusted over one entire channel spacing. This happens only when a quarter-wave retarder and a half-wave retarder are used, if the former is oriented at 45° with respect to the fibre birefringence axes, while the orientation of the latter serves as the adjustment parameter. The theoretical predictions are confirmed by the experimental results.

  10. Retardation effects and angular coefficients in double photoionization

    SciTech Connect

    Kornberg, M.A.; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)] [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1995-10-01

    Retardation effects on the cross sections for double photoionization of He({sup 1}{ital S}{sub 0}) targets are studied at photon energies above 1.0 keV. The dipole asymmetry parameter {beta} is examined first and the importance of correlation in the final and initial states for this quantity is examined. The effects of retardation on the electron angular distributions are studied and the range of validity of a first-order retardation correction is evaluated. Finally, by using a simple model to calculate the total cross section, the contribution of retardation on the double ionization {sigma}{sup 2+} is calculated and it is found that the ratio of double to single photoionization, including retardation, remains the same as when the dipole velocity approximation is employed.

  11. Zebrafish brd2a and brd2b are paralogous members of the bromodomain-ET (BET) family of transcriptional coregulators that show structural and expression divergence

    PubMed Central

    DiBenedetto, Angela J; Guinto, Jake B; Ebert, Timothy D; Bee, Katharine J; Schmidt, Michael M; Jackman, Todd R

    2008-01-01

    Background Brd2 belongs to the bromodomain-extraterminal domain (BET) family of transcriptional co-regulators, and functions as a pivotal histone-directed recruitment scaffold in chromatin modification complexes affecting signal-dependent transcription. Brd2 facilitates expression of genes promoting proliferation and is implicated in apoptosis and in egg maturation and meiotic competence in mammals; it is also a susceptibility gene for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in humans. The brd2 ortholog in Drosophila is a maternal effect, embryonic lethal gene that regulates several homeotic loci, including Ultrabithorax. Despite its importance, there are few systematic studies of Brd2 developmental expression in any organism. To help elucidate both conserved and novel gene functions, we cloned and characterized expression of brd2 cDNAs in zebrafish, a vertebrate system useful for genetic analysis of development and disease, and for study of the evolution of gene families and functional diversity in chordates. Results We identify cDNAs representing two paralogous brd2 loci in zebrafish, brd2a on chromosome 19 and brd2b on chromosome 16. By sequence similarity, syntenic and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence for structural divergence of brd2 after gene duplication in fishes. brd2 paralogs show potential for modular domain combinations, and exhibit distinct RNA expression patterns throughout development. RNA in situ hybridizations in oocytes and embryos implicate brd2a and brd2b as maternal effect genes involved in egg polarity and egg to embryo transition, and as zygotic genes important for development of the vertebrate nervous system and for morphogenesis and differentiation of the digestive tract. Patterns of brd2 developmental expression in zebrafish are consistent with its proposed role in Homeobox gene regulation. Conclusion Expression profiles of zebrafish brd2 paralogs support a role in vertebrate developmental patterning and morphogenesis. Our study uncovers both maternal and zygotic contributions of brd2, the analysis of which may provide insight into the earliest events in vertebrate development, and the etiology of some forms of epilepsy, for which zebrafish is an important model. Knockdowns of brd2 paralogs in zebrafish may now test proposed function and interaction with homeotic loci in vertebrates, and help reveal the extent to which functional novelty or partitioning has occurred after gene duplication. PMID:18402692

  12. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad de La Frontera, Temuco (Chile); Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 4016, Concepción (Chile); Mar Sánchez-López, María del [Instituto de Bioingeniería, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain); García-Martínez, Pascuala [Departament d'Òptica, Universitat de València, 45100 Burjassot (Spain); Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Óptica y Tecnología Electrónica, Universidad Miguel Hernández, 03202 Elche (Spain)

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  13. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 ?g/mL and 20 ?g/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 ?g/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 ?g/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  14. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  15. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  16. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  17. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  18. LGR4/GPR48 Inactivation Leads to Aniridia-Genitourinary Anomalies-Mental Retardation Syndrome Defects*

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Tingfang; Weng, Jinsheng; Siwko, Stefan; Luo, Jian; Li, Dali; Liu, Mingyao

    2014-01-01

    AGR syndrome (the clinical triad of aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation, a subgroup of WAGR syndrome for Wilm's tumor, aniridia, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation) is a rare syndrome caused by a contiguous gene deletion in the 11p13–14 region. However, the mechanisms of WAGR syndrome pathogenesis are elusive. In this study we provide evidence that LGR4 (also named GPR48), the only G-protein-coupled receptor gene in the human chromosome 11p12–11p14.4 fragment, is the key gene responsible for the diseases of AGR syndrome. Deletion of Lgr4 in mouse led to aniridia, polycystic kidney disease, genitourinary anomalies, and mental retardation, similar to the pathological defects of AGR syndrome. Furthermore, Lgr4 inactivation significantly increased cell apoptosis and decreased the expression of multiple important genes involved in the development of WAGR syndrome related organs. Specifically, deletion of Lgr4 down-regulated the expression of histone demethylases Jmjd2a and Fbxl10 through cAMP-CREB signaling pathways both in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells and in urinary and reproductive system mouse tissues. Our data suggest that Lgr4, which regulates eye, kidney, testis, ovary, and uterine organ development as well as mental development through genetic and epigenetic surveillance, is a novel candidate gene for the pathogenesis of AGR syndrome. PMID:24519938

  19. From Anomaly to Paralogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Ravn Christensen; Tom Børsen

    In recent years natural science students' enrolment patterns have changed. Many new study-programmes have emerged with new\\u000a hot names like nanotechnology, molecular biomedicine, medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, health mathematics, product and\\u000a design psychology etc. These new study programmes transcend the traditional disciplinary borders of the classical scientific\\u000a disciplines, so that we see how core knowledge from the old sciences like physics,

  20. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    PubMed

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air. PMID:24804279

  1. Synergistic effect between polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarikova, B.; Kalendova, A.; Habrova, V.; Zatloukalova, S.; Machovsky, M.

    2014-05-01

    Synergistic effect was observed between two types of flame retardant and two types of polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS). The polymer matrix was represented by low density polyethylene Bralen RB 2-62 (Slovnaft). The polyethylene was mixed with nanofillers OctaIsobutyl POSS and TriSilanolIsobutyl POSS. The flame retardants was represented by ADK STAB® FP 2200 and Exolite® APP 722. The flammability was investigated by UL-94 test. The results showed that the APP/POSS system had important flame retardant and anti-dripping abilities for LDPE.

  2. INSTITUTIONALISED MENTALLY RETARDED IN A STATE MENTAL HOSPITAL

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, O.; Papakumari, M.; Jayanthini, V.; Kumar, M.Suresh

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY 298 institutionalised mentally retarded patients in Institute of Mental Health, Madras were studied for the aetiological factors, levels of intelligence, associated disorders and family structure and compared with 163 matched group of mentally retarded attending the outpatient services of the Institute of Mental Health. In 41% of the institutionalised the cause was unknown, 29.3% had infective aetiology, 18% formed the primary group and 6.4% were due to genetic and chromosomal factors. Statistically significant number of institutionalised were severely subnormal, had more associated disorders and poor family structure. The need for the development of exclusive residential services for the mentally retarded and community oriented approach are discussed. PMID:21847283

  3. PERSONALITY PATTERN OF PARENTS OF MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN1

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY Parents of fifty mentally retarded children were studied for their personality pattern with the help of Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. In fathers and mothers separately, none of the personality traits were observed to vary at statistically significant level in relation to the degree of retardation in their child, but both the parents of mildly retarded children obtained higher score on scale of anxiety, phobia and depression. Analysis of different factors when compared for fathers and mothers together, revealed a higher degree of neurotic traits in mothers. PMID:21965955

  4. The prevalence of intrauterine growth retardation in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Balcazar, H

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of intrauterine growth retardation in Mexican Americans compared with non-Hispanic Whites in the state of Arizona. Data came from all live birth certificates in 1986 and 1987. Rates of intrauterine growth retardation in Mexican-American and non-Hispanic White infants in Arizona were lower than those in White infants in California. Differences in patterns of the 10th percentile growth distribution curves were observed between infants born in Arizona and those born in California. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, Mexican Americans had lower adjusted odds ratios for intrauterine growth retardation according to several maternal risk characteristics. PMID:8129067

  5. Stokes polarimetry using analysis of the nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship for liquid-crystal variable retarders

    SciTech Connect

    López-Téllez, J. M., E-mail: jmlopez@comunidad.unam.mx; Bruce, N. C. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Apdo. Postal 70-186, México D.F., 04510 (Mexico)] [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, Apdo. Postal 70-186, México D.F., 04510 (Mexico)

    2014-03-15

    We present a method for using liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVR’s) with continually varying voltage to measure the Stokes vector of a light beam. The LCVR's are usually employed with fixed retardance values due to the nonlinear voltage-retardance behavior that they show. The nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship is first measured and then a linear fit of the known retardance terms to the detected signal is performed. We use known waveplates (half-wave and quarter-wave) as devices to provide controlled polarization states to the Stokes polarimeter and we use the measured Stokes parameters as functions of the orientation of the axes of the waveplates as an indication of the quality of the polarimeter. Results are compared to a Fourier analysis method that does not take into account the nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship and also to a Fourier analysis method that uses experimental voltage values to give a linear retardance function with time. Also, we present results of simulations for comparison.

  6. Effect of an ozone injury-retardant chemical on isozyme profiles from alfalfa callus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rier, J.P.; Sood, V.K.; Whitaker, A.; Watson, C.

    1983-01-01

    Plant ozone injury retardant (EDU or ethylenediurea) at 1.0 ppm inhibited growth of callus of alfalfa cultivars Williamsburg (ozone-sensitive) and MSB-CW5An2(ozone-insensitive) germplasm of Medicago sative. The presence of EDU(0.1 ppm) in growth medium increased the number of protein and peroxidase isozyme bands in alfalfa cultivar stem callus and ozone modified their intensities. Protein profiles of MSB stem callus from media containing EDU or exposed to ozone were unchanged. Marked differences were observed between the peroxidase profiles of ozonated and control ozone-insensitive stem callus from media containing EDU. Protein profiles of ozonated ozone-insensitive leaf callus differed slightly from controls.

  7. Oral rehabilitation and management of mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jitender; Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today's world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  8. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. PMID:24745557

  9. Compression release retarder with valve motion modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrick, Z.S.; Quenneville, R.N.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes an engine retarding system of a gas compression release type including an internal combustion engine having a pressurized lubricating oil system, intake valve means, exhaust valve means, and pushtube means associated with each of the intake valve means and exhaust valve means, hydraulically actuated slave piston means associated with the exhaust valve means to open the exhaust valve means at a predetermined time, control valve means and solenoid valve means communicating in series with the pressurized lubricating oil system and the hydraulically actuated slave piston means. The improvement comprises plenum means communicating with the slave piston means, first check valve means located between the slave piston means and the plenum, driving cylinder means communicating with the plenum, free piston means having first and second ends mounted for reciprocating motion in the driving cylinder means, spring means biasing the free piston means outwardly from the plenum. The free piston means communicate on the first end with the plenum means and first master cylinder means align with the exhaust valve pushtube means and communicate with the second end of the free piston means. First master piston means are mounted for reciprocatory motion in the first master cylinder means and adapted to be driven by the exhaust valve pushtube means, trigger check valve means aligned with the first master piston means and communicating between the slave piston means and the second side of the free piston means to permit flow of hydraulic fluid from the slave piston means toward the free piston means.

  10. The Needs Of The Retarded Adult

    PubMed Central

    Armour, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    This article deals primarily with the needs of people with a degree of mental retardation, from mild to moderately severe, who are able to live approximately normal lives with assistance by counselling, advice and family help. It has been found that they do much better living in the community, mixing with normal people, but also with access to the company of persons similarly affected. With adequate advice and counselling, they can become self-sustaining in a number of ways, such as self care, living in their own homes or in small groups, and working either in sheltered employment or in the labor force. Their needs, like those of all others, range from the material such as shelter, food, clothing, possessions, transportation, health care, through the pyschological such as self fulfillment, recreation and enjoyment, love, affection and sex, and social such as legal protection and responsibility. With appropriate arrangements, these needs can be better met in community living, probably at less cost than if they were living in the traditional large institutions. Continued training and rehabilitative measures can often improve their abilities to an astonishing degree. They are rarely unteachable. PMID:21297812

  11. Phylogenomics of Prokaryotic Ribosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yutin, Natalya; Puigbò, Pere; Koonin, Eugene V.; Wolf, Yuri I.

    2012-01-01

    Archaeal and bacterial ribosomes contain more than 50 proteins, including 34 that are universally conserved in the three domains of cellular life (bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes). Despite the high sequence conservation, annotation of ribosomal (r-) protein genes is often difficult because of their short lengths and biased sequence composition. We developed an automated computational pipeline for identification of r-protein genes and applied it to 995 completely sequenced bacterial and 87 archaeal genomes available in the RefSeq database. The pipeline employs curated seed alignments of r-proteins to run position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM)-based BLAST searches against six-frame genome translations, mitigating possible gene annotation errors. As a result of this analysis, we performed a census of prokaryotic r-protein complements, enumerated missing and paralogous r-proteins, and analyzed the distributions of ribosomal protein genes among chromosomal partitions. Phyletic patterns of bacterial and archaeal r-protein genes were mapped to phylogenetic trees reconstructed from concatenated alignments of r-proteins to reveal the history of likely multiple independent gains and losses. These alignments, available for download, can be used as search profiles to improve genome annotation of r-proteins and for further comparative genomics studies. PMID:22615861

  12. Coding, Planning and Mental Retardation: Theory, Evidence and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Geoffrey N.; Das, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    The paper traces the development of an integrated model of cognition stemming from Soviet neuropsychology and reviews recent research on simultaneous and successive syntheses. Implications for mental retardation, learning disability, hyperactivity, and reading disability are given. (Author/CL)

  13. Etiological Study of Mental Retardation in Budapest, Hungary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czeizel, A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The first complex etiological study of mental retardation in Budapest was carried out with 1,364 children ages 7 to 14 years. Results are compared with findings from previous surveys in the United States and the United Kingdom. (Author)

  14. Highly efficient broadband conversion of light polarization by composite retarders

    E-print Network

    S. S. Ivanov; A. A. Rangelov; N. V. Vitanov; T. Peters; T. Halfmann

    2011-10-06

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose highly efficient broadband polarization converters composed of sequences of ordinary retarders rotated at specific angles with respect to their fast-polarization axes.

  15. Career Attitude Development and the Educable Mentally Retarded

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Ronald A.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A study designed to compare the career maturity of students in a special class with educable mentally retarded students in regular classes indicated that special programs are not adequately preparing their students to enter the world of work. (SA)

  16. Adrenocortical function and depressive illness in mentally retarded patients.

    PubMed

    Ruedrich, S L; Wadle, C V; Sallach, H S; Hahn, R K; Menolascino, F J

    1987-05-01

    The authors administered a 1-mg dexamethasone suppression test (DST) to 85 institutionalized adults with mild to profound mental retardation after screening to exclude false-positive nonsuppression. Thirty-one (36%) of these subjects had baseline hypercortisolemia, which was significantly correlated with age, symptoms, and "modified" DSM-III criteria for major depressive disorder. Twenty (24%) of the 85 subjects were nonsuppressors (5 micrograms/dl) after testing; nonsuppression was significantly related to age, female sex, level of retardation, symptoms, and "modified" DSM-III criteria for major depressive disorder (sensitivity 41%, specificity 81%). First-order partial correlations maintained significant relationships between age and severity of retardation but not sex. Mental retardation itself did not appear to invalidate the DST. PMID:3578569

  17. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  18. Burning To Learn: An Introduction to Flame Retardants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity that demonstrates the effectiveness of flame retardants--substances added to combustible materials to slow down or hinder burning--that can be introduced when discussing combustion reactions or during a practical or everyday chemistry unit. (ASK)

  19. Cat Health Problem Might Be Linked to Flame Retardants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152327.html Cat Health Problem Might Be Linked to Flame Retardants ... linked to a common health problem in pet cats, a new study from Sweden says. Researchers found ...

  20. The Overweight Preschool Retarded Child Can and Should Lose Weight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a weight reduction and control program for obese retarded preschool children involving parent leaders and incorporating social and tangible rewards. Discusses techniques children practice daily for a total of 15 weeks. (RH)

  1. Fire retardant foams developed to suppress fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R.; Gilwee, W. J.; Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1968-01-01

    Heat insulating polyurethane foam retards and suppresses fuel fires. Uniformly dispersed in the foam is a halogenated polymer capable of splitting off hydrogen halide upon heating and charring of the polyurethane.

  2. X-linked mental retardation associated with macro-orchidism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Turner; C Eastman; J Casey; A McLeay; P Procopis; B Turner

    1975-01-01

    Two families are described with an X-linked form of mental retardation in whom the affected males were found to have bilateral enlargement of the testes. No conclusive evidence of any endocrinological disturbance was found.

  3. CRUSTED PILOLEIOMYOMA WITH MENTAL RETARDATION: A RARE ASSOCIATION

    PubMed Central

    Kamboj, Sangeeta; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Chaudhary, Shyam Sundar; Jain, Vir Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Piloleiomyoma is an uncommon benign smooth muscle neoplasm arising from arrector pili muscle. It is clinically defined by the presence of solitary or multiple reddish brown, dome-shaped, smooth papules or nodules, ranging in size from a few millimeters to a centimeter. The patients are otherwise healthy; but mental retardation developing in some patients with multiple Piloleiomyomas has been emerging as an intriguing matter for analysis by the scientists. In this case report, a mentally retarded patient with Piloleiomyoma is described, who, besides the characteristic smooth and dome-shaped lesions on the anterolateral aspect of the dorsum of the right foot, had developed crusting on one of the largest lesions. The histopathological features were consistent with Piloleiomyoma. The occurrence of Piloleiomyoma in a mentally retarded child and its unusual crusted nature has been rarely reported. The association between Piloleiomyoma and mental retardation is further stressed in this case report. PMID:20049278

  4. Highly efficient broadband conversion of light polarization by composite retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Svetoslav S.; Rangelov, Andon A.; Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Peters, Thorsten; Halfmann, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose highly efficient broadband polarization converters composed of sequences of ordinary retarders rotated at specific angles with respect to their fast-polarization axes.

  5. Fire Safety Training with Adults Who Are Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Rosamond; Roll, David

    1985-01-01

    An intensive fire safety training program for profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized persons resulted in a significant decrease in mean evacuation time and gradual substitution of verbal for physical prompts. (CL)

  6. The Protein Chaperone HSP90 Can Facilitate the Divergence of Gene Duplicates

    PubMed Central

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Lemus, Tzitziki; Thomas, James H.; Murphy, Patrick J. M.; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Queitsch, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) acts as a chaperone by ensuring proper maturation and folding of its client proteins. The HSP90 capacitor hypothesis holds that interactions with HSP90 allow proteins to accumulate mutations while maintaining function. Following this logic, HSP90 clients would be predicted to show relaxed selection compared with nonclients. In this study, we identify a new HSP90 client in the plant steroid hormone pathway: the transcription factor BES1. Its closest paralog, BZR1, is not an HSP90 client. This difference in HSP90 client status in two highly similar proteins enabled a direct test of the capacitor hypothesis. We find that BES1 shows relaxed selection compared to BZR1, hallmarks of neo- and subfunctionalization, and dynamic HSP90 client status across independent evolutionary paths. These results suggested that HSP90’s influence on gene evolution may be detectable if we compare gene duplicates because duplicates share most other properties influencing evolutionary rate that might otherwise conceal the chaperone’s effect. We test this hypothesis using systematically identified HSP90 clients in yeast and observe a significant trend of HSP90 clients evolving faster than their nonclient paralogs. This trend was not detected when yeast clients and nonclients were compared without considering paralog status. Our data provide evidence that HSP90 influences selection on genes encoding its clients and facilitates divergence between gene duplicates. PMID:23410833

  7. Halogenated Flame Retardants in the Great Lakes Environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane, several brominated benzenes, and a highly chlorinated norbornene compound called Dechlorane Plus. Most recently, we have begun measuring the atmospheric concentrations of several organophosphate esters, which are an increasing part of the flame retardant market. The interesting feature of this story is how one compound or set of compounds has followed another out of and into the marketplace even though none of them have been officially regulated. This replacement of one commercial product by another with similar functions shows that the chemical industry does respond to scientific environmental measurements and to the resulting bad publicity. This is a good thing. The problem is that often the replacement chemicals also become environmentally ubiquitous. PMID:26050713

  8. CA8 Mutations Cause a Novel Syndrome Characterized by Ataxia and Mild Mental Retardation with Predisposition to Quadrupedal Gait

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seval Türkmen; Gao Guo; Masoud Garshasbi; Katrin Hoffmann; Amjad J. Alshalah; Claudia Mischung; Andreas Kuss; Nicholas Humphrey; Stefan Mundlos; Peter N. Robinson

    2009-01-01

    We describe a consanguineous Iraqi family in which affected siblings had mild mental retardation and congenital ataxia characterized by quadrupedal gait. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified a 5.8 Mb interval on chromosome 8q with shared homozygosity among the affected persons. Sequencing of genes contained in the interval revealed a homozygous mutation, S100P, in carbonic anhydrase related protein 8 (CA8), which is

  9. Mutations in a putative global transcriptional regulator cause X-linked mental retardation with ?-thalassemia (ATR-X syndrome)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J Gibbons; David J Picketts; Laurent Villard; Douglas R Higgs

    1995-01-01

    The ATR-X syndrome is an X-linked disorder comprising severe psychomotor retardation, characteristic facial features, genital abnormalities, and a-thalassemia. We have shown that ATR-X results from diverse mutations of XH2, a member of a subgroup of the helicase superfamily that includes proteins involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including DNA recombination and repair (RAD16, RAD54, and ERCC6) and regulation

  10. The histone H3K4 demethylase SMCX links REST target genes to X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mamta Tahiliani; Pinchao Mei; Rui Fang; Thiago Leonor; Michael Rutenberg; Fumiko Shimizu; Jing Li; Anjana Rao; Yujiang Shi

    2007-01-01

    Gene transcription is critically influenced by chromatin structure and the modification status of histone tails. Methylation of lysine residues in histone tails is dynamically regulated by the opposing activities of histone methyltransferases and histone demethylases. Here we show that JARID1C\\/SMCX, a JmjC-domain-containing protein implicated in X-linked mental retardation and epilepsy, possesses H3K4 tri-demethylase activity and functions as a transcriptional repressor.

  11. Positional cloning and characterisation of the human DLGAP2 gene and its exclusion in progressive epilepsy with mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanna Ranta; Yonghui Zhang; Barbara Ross; Elina Takkunen; Aune Hirvasniemi; Albert de la Chapelle; T Conrad Gilliam; Anna-Elina Lehesjoki

    2000-01-01

    In search of the gene for progressive epilepsy with mental retardation (EPMR) we identified DLGAP2, the human homolog of the gene encoding the rat PSD-95\\/SAP90-associated protein-2 (Dlgap2). We extended the transcript in both the 5? and 3? directions and characterised the genomic structure of the approximately 10 kb gene. Sequence comparisons of human DLGAP2 cDNA sequences obtained from human testis

  12. Flame retardancy of paulownia wood and its mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Li; Juhachi Oda

    2007-01-01

    Paulownia wood (Pauloumia tomentosa) is a special kind of wood material in that it has especially excellent flame retardancy.\\u000a Using this property, it has been commonly used to make clothing wardrobes for a long time in Japan. In this research, the\\u000a flame retardancy of paulownia wood has been verified by heating experiments and cone calorimeter testing. The structure and\\u000a tissue

  13. Development of Flame Retardants for Engineering Polymers and Polyurethanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desikan, Anantha

    2013-03-01

    With a broad portfolio of brominated, organophosphorus and inorganic flame retardants, ICL Industrial Products (ICL-IP) is engaged in the development of new flame retardants by exploiting the synergism between bromine based, phosphorus based and other halogen-free flame retardants. ICL-IP is also focusing on the development of polymeric and reactive flame retardants. This presentation will give examples of existing and new polymeric and reactive products for applications in thermoplastics, thermosets and polyurethane foam. This presentation will also show examples of phosphorus-bromine synergism allowing partial or complete elimination of antimony trioxide in many thermoplastics for electronic applications. New synergistic combinations of magnesium hydroxide with phosphorus and other halogen-free FRs will be presented. With a broad portfolio of brominated, organophosphorus and inorganic flame retardants, ICL Industrial Products (ICL-IP) is engaged in the development of new flame retardants by exploiting the synergism between bromine based, phosphorus based and other halogen-free flame retardants. ICL-IP is also focusing on the development of polymeric and reactive flame retardants. This presentation will give examples of existing and new polymeric and reactive products for applications in thermoplastics, thermosets and polyurethane foam. This presentation will also show examples of phosphorus-bromine synergism allowing partial or complete elimination of antimony trioxide in many thermoplastics for electronic applications. New synergistic combinations of magnesium hydroxide with phosphorus and other halogen-free FRs will be presented. Work done in collaboration with S. Levchik, ICL-IP America, 430 Saw Mill Rriver Rd., Ardsley, NY, 10502, USA and M. Leifer, ICL-IP, P. O. Box 180, Beer Sheva 84101, Israel.

  14. Further delineation of X-linked mental retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. S. Herbst; H. G. Dunn; F. J. Dill; D. K. Kalousek; L. W. Krywaniuk

    1981-01-01

    Chromosomal, clinical, and psychological data are presented on members of six families with X-linked mental retardation. Affected males in three of these families express the fra(X)(q28) marker, while the retarded males in the other three do not. Similar variable physical and psychological charateristics, such as lop ears, large testes, and perseverative speech, are present in affected males in all six

  15. Familial X-linked mental retardation with an X chromosome abnormality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Harvey; C Judge; S Wiener

    1977-01-01

    An X-linked pattern of transmission observed in four families with familial mental retardation in several generations was associated with a probable secondary constriction at the distal end of the q arms of the X chromosome. Twenty retarded males and no retarded females were observed. All available live retarded males and most of their normal mothers were found to have the

  16. Predicting Marital Adjustment and Parent Satisfaction for Couples Having a Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Douglas A.; And Others

    Previous research on parents with a retarded child has been ambiguous; some has demonstrated decreased marital quality and greater depression with a retarded child but other research has found no differences between parents with a retarded child and parents without a retarded child. This study attempts to develop and test a conceptual model…

  17. Issues in Fertility Control for Mentally Retarded Female Adolescents: I. Sexual Activity, Sexual Abuse, and Contraception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Allan; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Sexual activity, sexual assault, and contraceptive use among 87 mentally retarded adolescents females were investigated. Half of the mildly retarded Ss had had sexual intercourse, and one-third of the mildly retarded and one-fourth of the moderately retarded Ss had been victims of rape or incest. (Author/CL)

  18. Developing proper mealtime behaviors of the institutionalized retarded.

    PubMed

    O'brien, F; Azrin, N H

    1972-01-01

    The institutionalized mentally retarded display a variety of unsanitary, disruptive, and improper table manners. A program was developed that included (1) acquisition-training of a high standard of proper table manners and (2) maintenance procedures to provide continued motivation to maintain proper mealtime behaviors and decrease improper skills. Twelve retardates received acquisition training, individually, by a combination of verbal instruction, imitation, and manual guidance. The students then ate in their group dining arrangement where the staff supervisor provided continuing approval for proper manners and verbal correction and timeout for improper manners. The results were: (1) the trained retardates showed significant improvement, whereas those untrained did not; (2) the trained retardates ate as well in the institution as non-retarded customers did in a public restaurant; (3) proper eating was maintained in the group dining setting; (4) timeout was rarely needed; (5) the program was easily administered by regular staff in a regular dining setting. The rapidity, feasibility, and effectiveness of the program suggests the program as a solution to improper mealtime behaviors by the institutionalized mentally retarded. PMID:16795363

  19. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J. [CUNY Mt. Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Community & Preventative Medicine

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  20. No effect of sustained systemic growth retardation on the distribution of Reelin-expressing interneurons in the neuron-producing hippocampal dentate gyrus in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takumi Ohishi; Liyun Wang; Bunichiro Ogawa; Kenichi Fujisawa; Eriko Taniai; Hitomi Hayashi; Kunitoshi Mitsumori; Makoto Shibutani

    2010-01-01

    Reelin signaling plays a role in neuronal migration and positioning during brain development. To clarify the effect of systemic growth retardation on the distribution of Reelin-expressing interneurons in the hilus of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, pregnant rats were fed a synthetic diet with either a normal (20% casein) or low (10% casein) protein concentration from gestational day 10 to postnatal

  1. Cyclosporine Immunomodulation Retards Regeneration of Surgically Transected Corneal Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Namavari, Abed; Chaudhary, Shweta; Chang, Jin-Hong; Yco, Lisette; Sonawane, Snehal; Khanolkar, Vishakha; Yue, Beatrice Y.; Sarkar, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether immunomodulation with cyclosporine (CsA) affects reinnervation after surgical transection of stromal nerves. Methods. Thy1-YFP+ neurofluorescent mice underwent lamellar corneal surgery and 3 days later, received artificial tears or CsA eye drops for 6 weeks. Serial in vivo wide-field stereofluorescent microscopy was performed to determine changes in nerve fiber density (NFD). Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to determine the expression of neurotrophins and cytokines (IL6 and TNF-?). Compartmental culture of trigeminal ganglion neurons was performed in Campenot devices to determine whether CsA directly affects neurite outgrowth. Results. Yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)–positive cells significantly increased at 3 and 7 days after surgery. The number of YFP-positive cells in the cornea was significantly lower in the CsA group than that in the control group. The percentage increase in NFD between 2 to 6 weeks was greater in the control group (80% ± 10%, P = 0.05) than that in the CsA group (39% ± 21%). The CsA group also exhibited lower expression of IL6 and TNF-? (P = 0.01). In compartmental culture experiments, neurite outgrowth toward side compartments containing CsA was significantly less (2.29 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.01) than that toward side compartments containing vehicle (3.97 ± 0.71 mm). Conclusions. Immunomodulation with CsA reduces the expression of cytokines (IL6) in the cornea and retards regenerative sprouting from transected corneal stromal nerve trunks. In addition, CsA has a direct growth inhibitory action on neurites as well. PMID:22205605

  2. Non-flammable elastomeric fiber from a fluorinated elastomer and containing an halogenated flame retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S. G.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions are described comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain halogen containing polyols, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and articles of manufacture comprised of the flame retardant clastomeric materials and non elastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, nylons, etc.

  3. CYFIP\\/Sra-1 Controls Neuronal Connectivity in Drosophila and Links the Rac1 GTPase Pathway to the Fragile X Protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annette Schenck; Barbara Bardoni; Caillin Langmann; Nicholas Harden; Jean-Louis Mandel; Angela Giangrande

    2003-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity requires actin cytoskeleton remodeling and local protein translation in response to extracellular signals. Rho GTPase pathways control actin reorganization, while the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) regulates the synthesis of specific proteins. Mutations affecting either pathway produce neuronal connectivity defects in model organisms and mental retardation in humans. We show that CYFIP, the fly ortholog of vertebrate

  4. Current Issues in Mental Retardation and Human Development: Selected Papers from the 1970 Staff Development Conferences of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation (Washington, D.C., 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J., Ed.

    Six papers discuss some of the current issues in the field of mental retardation and human development. Epidemiology of mental retardation from a sociological and clinical point of view is analyzed by Jane R. Mercer, based on studies of mental retardation in the community in Pomona, California. The role of genetics and intra-uterine diagnosis of…

  5. Consequences of Lineage-Specific Gene Loss on Functional Evolution of Surviving Paralogs: ALDH1A and Retinoic Acid Signaling in Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cañestro, Cristian; Catchen, Julian M.; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Yokoi, Hayato; Postlethwait, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Genome duplications increase genetic diversity and may facilitate the evolution of gene subfunctions. Little attention, however, has focused on the evolutionary impact of lineage-specific gene loss. Here, we show that identifying lineage-specific gene loss after genome duplication is important for understanding the evolution of gene subfunctions in surviving paralogs and for improving functional connectivity among human and model organism genomes. We examine the general principles of gene loss following duplication, coupled with expression analysis of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Aldh1a gene family during retinoic acid signaling in eye development as a case study. Humans have three ALDH1A genes, but teleosts have just one or two. We used comparative genomics and conserved syntenies to identify loss of ohnologs (paralogs derived from genome duplication) and to clarify uncertain phylogenies. Analysis showed that Aldh1a1 and Aldh1a2 form a clade that is sister to Aldh1a3-related genes. Genome comparisons showed secondarily loss of aldh1a1 in teleosts, revealing that Aldh1a1 is not a tetrapod innovation and that aldh1a3 was recently lost in medaka, making it the first known vertebrate with a single aldh1a gene. Interestingly, results revealed asymmetric distribution of surviving ohnologs between co-orthologous teleost chromosome segments, suggesting that local genome architecture can influence ohnolog survival. We propose a model that reconstructs the chromosomal history of the Aldh1a family in the ancestral vertebrate genome, coupled with the evolution of gene functions in surviving Aldh1a ohnologs after R1, R2, and R3 genome duplications. Results provide evidence for early subfunctionalization and late subfunction-partitioning and suggest a mechanistic model based on altered regulation leading to heterochronic gene expression to explain the acquisition or modification of subfunctions by surviving ohnologs that preserve unaltered ancestral developmental programs in the face of gene loss. PMID:19478994

  6. Group 13 HOX proteins interact with the MH2 domain of R-Smads and modulate Smad transcriptional activation functions independent of HOX DNA-binding capability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Williams; Melissa E. Williams; Joanne H. Heaton; Thomas D. Gelehrter; Jeffrey W. Innis

    2005-01-01

    Interactions with co-factors provide a means by which HOX proteins exert specificity. To identify candidate protein interactors of HOXA13, we created and screened an E11.5-E12.5, distal limb bud yeast two- hybrid prey library. Among the interactors, we isolated the BMP-signaling effector Smad5, which interacted with the paralogous HOXD13 but not with HOXA11 or HOXA9, revealing unique interaction capabilities of the

  7. A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quanxiao; Gao, Chong; Ding, Yanfen; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu

    2014-01-01

    A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period. PMID:24696526

  8. A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Quanxiao; Gao, Chong; Ding, Yanfen; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu

    2012-01-15

    A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn-Wall-Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period. PMID:24696526

  9. CHD5, a Brain-Specific Paralog of Mi2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzymes, Regulates Expression of Neuronal Genes

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Rebecca Casaday; Zhang, Peisu; Wurster, Andrea L.; Precht, Patricia; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yonqing; Becker, Kevin G.; Mattson, Mark P.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    CHD5 is frequently deleted in neuroblastoma and is a tumor suppressor gene. However, little is known about the role of CHD5 other than it is homologous to chromatin remodeling ATPases. We found CHD5 mRNA was restricted to the brain; by contrast, most remodeling ATPases were broadly expressed. CHD5 protein isolated from mouse brain was associated with HDAC2, p66ß, MTA3 and RbAp46 in a megadalton complex. CHD5 protein was detected in several rat brain regions and appeared to be enriched in neurons. CHD5 protein was predominantly nuclear in primary rat neurons and brain sections. Microarray analysis revealed genes that were upregulated and downregulated when CHD5 was depleted from primary neurons. CHD5 depletion altered expression of neuronal genes, transcription factors, and brain-specific subunits of the SWI/SNF remodeling enzyme. Expression of gene sets linked to aging and Alzheimer's disease were strongly altered by CHD5 depletion from primary neurons. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed CHD5 bound to these genes, suggesting the regulation was direct. Together, these results indicate that CHD5 protein is found in a NuRD-like multi-protein complex. CHD5 expression is restricted to the brain, unlike the closely related family members CHD3 and CHD4. CHD5 regulates expression of neuronal genes, cell cycle genes and remodeling genes. CHD5 is linked to regulation of genes implicated in aging and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:21931736

  10. Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; Lindsey, D.W.; Terry, D.T.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a retarded cement composition consisting essentially of hydraulic cement, water, a set retarder and a borate compound. It comprises the set retarder, a copolymer consisting of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) present in the copolymer in the range of from about 40 to about 60 mole percent, the copolymer having an average molecular weight below about 5,000 such that a 10 percent aqueous solution of the copolymer has a Brookfield viscosity reading at 20 rpm of the UL Adapter Spindle in the range of from about 2 to less than 5 centipoises, the amount in the range of from about 0.3 percent to about 5.0 percent by weight of the hydraulic cement; and further wherein the borate compound is capable of providing a borate ion species in the composition.

  11. Fire-Retardant Decorative Inks For Aircraft Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes testing of commercial and experimental fire retardants for incorporation into acrylic printing inks used on aircraft-interior sandwich panels. Films of acrylic ink containing fire-retardant additives prepared by casting on glass plates. Solvent evaporated in vacuum, cast films cured at 80 to 100 degree C for 30 minutes in air-circulating oven. Thermochemical properties of films examined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of inks cast on sheets of polyvinylfloride (PVF), and their limiting oxygen indices and smoke evolution measured.

  12. Tensile properties of polypropylene flame-retardant composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Z. Liang

    The polypropylene (PP) flame-retardant composites filled with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3), magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), zinc borate (ZB), nanometer calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO3), and polyolefin elastomer (POE) were prepared using a twin-screw extruder, and the tensile properties were measured at room\\u000a temperature by means of an electronic universal test machine (Model CMT4104) in this paper, to identify the influence of the\\u000a flame-retardant content

  13. Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; Lindsey, D.W.; Terry, D.T.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a method of cementing a zone in a subterranean formation penetrated by a wellbore; It comprises: forming a pumpable set retarded cement slurry comprising hydraulic cement, fresh water, particulate silica having a particle size in the range of from about 0.02 to about 0.5 micron and a set retarder comprising a copolymer consisting essentially of 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid having an average molecular weight below about 5000 and comprising from about 40 to about 60 mole percent AMPS; pumping the cement slurry into the zone by way of the wellbore, and allowing the cement slurry to set therein.

  14. [Severe mental retardation in an urban child population].

    PubMed

    Puras, D K

    1987-01-01

    The author studied the prevalence of severe mental retardation in Vilnyus and considered the status of its etiological and clinical differentiation. A total of 224 cases of oligophrenia were identified among children aged 4-13 years which constituted a populational rate of 0.31% in the above age group. A marked predominance of males among the cases with undifferentiated forms was ascertained, which is probably due to the accumulation in this group of X-chromosome-linked mental retardation. Cytogenetic examination of 20 suspected cases revealed the syndrome of a fragile X chromosome in 4 patients. PMID:3577530

  15. Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardant-Induced Acute Intoxications in Dogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas F. Lehner; Francisca Samsing; Wilson K. Rumbeiha

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Flame retardants have wide industrial applications and are incorporated into articles found in automobiles and home environments,\\u000a including seat cushions. These compounds differ widely chemically and in their toxic potential. We report here two cases involving\\u000a dogs following ingestion of car seat cushions impregnated with organophosphate ester fire retardants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Case Reports  Two case reports are presented. Two adult American Pit Bull

  16. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  17. Automatic clustering of orthologs and in-paralogs from pairwise species comparisons 1 1 Edited by F. Cohen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maido Remm; Christian E. V. Storm; Erik L. L. Sonnhammer

    2001-01-01

    Orthologs are genes in different species that originate from a single gene in the last common ancestor of these species. Such genes have often retained identical biological roles in the present-day organisms. It is hence important to identify orthologs for transferring functional information between genes in different organisms with a high degree of reliability. For example, orthologs of human proteins

  18. Cancer-Related PRUNE2 Protein Is Associated with Nucleotides and Is Highly Expressed in Mature Nerve Tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Iwama; Daisuke Tsuchimoto; Teruaki Iyama; Kunihiko Sakumi; Akira Nakagawara; Koichi Takayama; Yoichi Nakanishi; Yusaku Nakabeppu

    2011-01-01

    Human PRUNE is thought to enhance the metastasis of tumor cells. We found that a hypothetical paralog of PRUNE, PRUNE2, binds\\u000a to 8-oxo-GTP, an oxidized form of GTP. Hypothetical PRUNE2 gene consists of C9orf65 and BMCC1\\/BNIPXL, both of which are malignant tumor-associated genes. We isolated PRUNE2 complementary DNA and revealed that the protein is composed of 3,062 residues. C9orf65 and

  19. Diptericin-like protein: an immune response gene regulated by the anti-bacterial gene induction pathway in Drosophila

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Hee Lee; Kyoung Sang Cho; Jiwoon Lee; Jungsik Yoo; Jihyun Lee; Jongkyeong Chung

    2001-01-01

    Insects produce various anti-microbial peptides in response to injury and infection. In Drosophila, diptericin has previously been studied as an anti-bacterial immune response gene. Here, we report the cloning of the diptericin-like protein (dptlp) gene as a paralog of Drosophila diptericin. By comparison of their sequences, we found that the dptlp gene has all of the functional domains conserved in

  20. Milk Proteins for Edible Films and Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KHAOULA KHWALDIA; CRISTINA PEREZ; SYLVIE BANON; STÉPHANE DESOBRY; JOËL HARDY

    2004-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in ecological consciousness, research has turned toward finding edible materials. Viable edible films and coatings have been produced using milk proteins. These films and coatings may retard moisture loss, are good oxygen barriers, show good tensile strength and moderate elongation, are flexible, and generally have no flavor or taste. Incorporation of lipids in protein films,

  1. Clinical Features: Mutations of the MEF2C gene [OMIM # 600662] have been identified in patients with severe mental retardation,

    E-print Network

    Das, Soma

    in patients with severe mental retardation, stereotypic movements, hypotonia, and epilepsy (1-4). Patients can is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic movements, epilepsy and/or cerebral malformations al. Severe mental retardation,

  2. Brachydactyly and mental retardation: An Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome localized to 2q37

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.C. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom)]|[Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Oude Luttikhuis, M.E.M. [Univ. of Leicester (United Kingdom); Duckett, D.P.; Barrow, M.A. [Leicestershire Genetics Centre, Leicester (United Kingdom); Leverton, K.; Read, A.P. [St. Mary`s Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Oley, C.A.; Wolstenholme, J. [Univ. of Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Flint, J. [Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom); Leonard, J.V. [Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We report five patients with a combination of brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation, similar to that observed in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Four patients had cytogenetically visible de novo deletions of chromosome 2q37. The fifth patient was cytogenetically normal and had normal bioactivity of the {alpha} subunit of Gs (Gs{alpha}), the protein that is defective in AHO. In this patient, we have used a combination of highly polymorphic molecular markers and FISH to demonstrate a microdeletion at 2q37. The common region of deletion overlap involves the most telomeric 2q marker, D2S125, and extends proximally for a maximum distance of 17.6 cM. We suggest this represents a consistent phenotype associated with some deletions at 2q37 and that genes important for skeletal and neurodevelopment lie within this region. Screening for deletions at this locus should be considered in individuals with brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation. Furthermore, 2q37 represents a candidate region for type E brachydactyly. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ AGENCY: Natural...Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, Arizona. FOR FURTHER...Domestic Assistance under No. 10.904, Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention,...

  4. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

  5. On an expansion series of the Jones matrix elements for a multicomponent retardation system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherov, V. A.

    1993-04-01

    The elements of the Jones matrix of a multicomponent retardation system are expressed empirically in the form of finite series. The expressions obtained can be used in calculations of optical systems composed of sets of retardation plates.

  6. The flame retardant properties of cyanuric chloride derivatives in cotton textile applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanuric chloride derivatives are promising flame retardants in cotton textile applications due to their ease of synthesis, high yield, and excellent flame retardant properties as measured by thermogravimetric analyses, limiting oxygen index, and vertical flame testing. Scanning electron microscopic...

  7. A Test Battery for Assessing the Vocational Competency of Moderately Mentally Retarded Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinones, William A.

    1978-01-01

    The study involving 61 moderately retarded Ss (16-41 years old) was designed to develop a battery of tests that would predict the vocational competency of moderately retarded Ss in a sheltered workshop program. (SBH)

  8. Fire-and smoke-retardant polyesters and elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.; Mosesman, M.

    1978-01-01

    Test results indicate that most effective fire-and smoke-retardant fillers are inorganic hydrates and carbonates that release water and/or carbon dioxide. Most effective filler tested was hydrated sodium silicate. Effectiveness is due to high water content and formation of viscous molten glass when heated. Glass tends to inhibit polymer combustion and to promote formation of char residue.

  9. Environmentally-benign Flame Retardant Nanocoating for Foam and Fabric

    E-print Network

    Cain, Amanda Ashley

    2014-12-09

    for the purpose of inhibiting or suppressing the combustion cycle. Inspiration for first applying polymer/clay thin films (i.e., nanobrick walls) as flame retardant (FR) coatings to polyurethane foam via LbL came from the final stage of a proposed flame...

  10. Public Awareness About Mental Retardation: A Survey and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottwald, Henry

    The study was designed to identify the present status of public knowledge concerning mental retardation, and to relate certain population and demographic characteristics to the data. Data were collected through field interviews and questionnaires with precoded probable responses. Descriptive responses are presented for the sample of 1,515 subjects…

  11. Sexual Health and Behavior of Mentally Retarded Pupils in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumi, Angela Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    Sex education has always been a controversial topic. Although sex education at schools has improved in general, sex education for mentally retarded pupils still encounters prejudice and conservatism as a result of several misconceptions about the subject. This research was performed in the form of a survey of opinions about sex education in…

  12. A CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED PUPILS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detroit Public Schools, MI.

    DESIGNED TO MEET THE OBJECTIVES OF SELF REALIZATION, HUMAN RELATIONSHIP, ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY, AND CIVIC RESPONSIBILITY, THIS GUIDE FOR TEACHERS OF MENTALLY RETARDED STUDENTS IS ORGANIZED INTO FIVE AREAS OF LIVING. THE AREA OF HOME AND FAMILY LIVING INCLUDES THE FAMILY, THE HOME, CHILD CARE AND TRAINING, AND FRIENDS. THE HEALTH AND SAFETY AREA…

  13. Flame Retardants in Commercial Use or Development for Textiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward D. Weil; Sergei V. Levchik

    2008-01-01

    Non-durable and semi-durable flame retardants based mostly on phosphate or phosphonate salts continue to be used on infrequently washed or disposable goods, and recent improvements have been made to impart better `hand' or some limited wash resistance. Backcoating with insoluble ammonium polyphosphate, usually with additives and binders to provide intumescence, has been found effective on charrable fabrics. However, the leading

  14. Maturational Rate of Tokyo Children with and without Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Gunilla W.; Katoda, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Comparison of growth rates and menarcheal age for groups of boys and girls, ages 6 to 15, in Tokyo (Japan) found that children with mental retardation had a smaller growth spurt during puberty but did not differ in maturational rate defined by age at pubertal height spurt or age at menarche. (Author/DB)

  15. Resistance to Extinction and Frustration in Retarded and Nonretarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Viney, Linda L.

    1973-01-01

    The responses of 20 trainable retarded children, 10 to 16 years of age, and 20 nonretarded 4- to 5-year-old children to social and nonsocial matching-to-sample tasks were compared during the extinction period which followed the use of social and nonsocial rewards. (Author)

  16. Assistive Technology and Students with Mental Retardation: Utilization and Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 516 family members examined assistive-technology use by students with mental retardation. Findings indicate that the number of students who could benefit from devices but did not have access to them exceeded the number who actually had devices. Barriers to device utilization are discussed. (Author/CR)

  17. The Psychopathological Model of Mental Retardation: Theoretical and Therapeutic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Malfa, Giampaolo; Campigli, Marco; Bertelli, Marco; Mangiapane, Antonio; Cabras, Pier Luigi

    1997-01-01

    Describes a new integrated bio-psycho-social model of etiology for mental retardation. Discusses the problems with current models and the ability of the "universe line" model to integrate data from different research areas, especially cognitive and psychopathologic indicators. Addresses implications of this theoretical approach. (Author/CR)

  18. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  19. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  20. Coping with Adolescence: Perspectives of Retarded Individuals and Their Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetlin, Andrea G.; Turner, Jim L.

    Retrospective accounts of the nature of adolescence as experienced by mildly handicapped individuals were gathered through indepth conversations and interviews over an 18 month period with 48 mildly retarded adults (ages 22 to 60) living independently in the community. Structured life history interviews were also conducted with parents or other…

  1. Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hale; Mehran Alaee; Jon B. Manchester-Neesvig; Heather M. Stapleton; Michael G. Ikonomou

    2003-01-01

    North America consumes over half of the world's production of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants. About 98% of global demand for the Penta-BDE mixture, the constituents of which are the most bioaccumulative and environmentally widespread, resides here. However, research on the environmental distribution of PBDEs in North America has lagged behind that in Northern Europe. Examination of available governmentally

  2. Substituting Traditional Antipsychotics with Risperidone for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Elliott W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The use of risperidone for 10 individuals with mental retardation and mental health disturbances was evaluated using a case study approach to delineate the course of substitution of more traditional antipsychotic medications with risperidone. All participants showed improvement or resolution in side effects attributed to previous medication with…

  3. Acceleration of Object Permanence with Severely and Profoundly Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, James V.

    Examined was the effectiveness of training four severely and profoundly retarded children (3-6 years old) to improve their level of functioning on a measure of object permanence and to demonstrate generalization to other areas of sensorimotor intelligence. Ss were given a pretest and posttest on the I. Uzgiris and J. Hunt instrument which consists…

  4. INTEGRATED RETARDATION CONTROL USING NEURAL NETWORKS WITH GENETIC ALGORITHMS

    E-print Network

    Wolff, Krister

    brakes in order to minimize wear cost of pad, disc, and tyres is investigated. The neural network of using non-wear auxiliary brakes in order to minimize pad and disc wear cost. Keywords: auxiliary brake the tyre, pad, and disc wear are affected. Foundation brakes distribute the total retardation force demand

  5. Mental Illness in Persons with Mental Retardation: ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Linda R.; Wimmer, Sharon

    This brief factsheet presents information on mental illness in mentally retarded persons. The most prevalent disorders found in this population are schizophrenia, organic brain syndrome, adjustment disorders, personality disorders, depression, and behavioral problems. Few standardized methods of assessment exist for the diagnosis of mental illness…

  6. Families of Children with Mental Retardation: Effective Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Delar K.

    This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…

  7. Detection of THz pulses by phase retardation in lithium tantalate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Uhd Jepsen; C. Winnewisser; M. Schall; V. Schyja; S. R. Keiding; H. Helm

    1996-01-01

    Freely propagating THz pulses are recorded in a thin lithium tantalate crystal by monitoring the phase retardation of a femtosecond probe pulse. This technique permits the determination of the temporal shape of the THz pulse in the picosecond time domain and offers the exciting prospect of up-converting the spatial THz beam profile into the optical wavelength range in real time,

  8. ‘Mental Retardation’ or ‘Intellectual Disability’: Time for a Conceptual Change

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis Salvador-Carulla; Marco Bertelli

    2008-01-01

    Background: The term ‘mental retardation’ (MR) is outdated and has changed to ‘intellectual disability’ (ID). Unfortunately, this decision did not follow a nosology approach. The aim of this overview is twofold: (1) to provide a conceptual background and framing on the ID\\/MR field to other psychiatrists, and (2) to provide a nosology-based perspective to the debate on the name and

  9. Phonological Reading Skills Acquisition by Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, Frances A.; Rosenquist, Celia J.; Sligh, Allison C.; Atwell, Julie A.; Kiser, Tanya

    2006-01-01

    Twenty children with mental retardation (MR), age 7-12, completed a phonological reading skills program over approximately 10 weeks. As a result of the instruction, they were better able to sound out learned and transfer words compared to a control group matched on age, IQ, nonword reading, language comprehension, and phonemic awareness. Final…

  10. Trainable Mentally Retarded: An Approach to Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Ruth; And Others

    The program development guide for teachers of trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children and adolescents, 5- to 21-years-old, includes Indiana State guidelines, information on the TMR population, suggestions for instructional programs, evaluation tools, and informational sources. Specified by guidelines are TMR children's right to instruction,…

  11. College Juniors' Reactions to Tutoring Adolescent Trainable Retarded Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkoff, Jack; Sellin, Donald

    1973-01-01

    Fourteen college juniors in special education tutored a small group of adolescent trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students during an 8-week period to determine whether tutorial experience would increase self confidence for teaching TMR students and to compare self with external ratings of teaching ability. (MC)

  12. Attitude Change Toward Trainable Mentally Retarded: "Mainstreaming in Reverse."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Mildred S.

    The effect of special instruction and an integrated program on attitudes toward trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students was assessed with 42 adults (PTA board members and teachers) and 127 elementary children. Regular class students in small groups from first, third, and sixth grades were systematically integrated into a TMR class where they…

  13. Consultation in a Public School for the Severely Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollack, Donald

    Consultation to the staff of a trainable mentally retarded (TMR) public school over a 2 year period is described in terms of the multiple roles the consultant must play. Emphasis is placed on the consultant's active role in facilitating the staff, especially with regard to trying new behaviors. The consultant is seen to reach the children…

  14. A Guide for Teachers of Trainable Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City. Div. of Special Education.

    The guide for teachers of trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children is thought to be valuable especially to teachers, administrators, and other workers in public schools who are involved in educational programs for the children. Discussion of a general approach to the problem of educating TMR children in the public schools includes the topics of…

  15. Attitude Change Toward Trainable Mentally Retarded: "Mainstreaming in Reverse".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronk, Mildred S.

    An assessment was made of change in attitude toward trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students of 42 adults (members of the PTA Board and teachers of the experimental groups) and 127 children (in first, third, and sixth grades) as a result of special instruction and an integrated program. Regular class students in small groups were systematically…

  16. Mentally Retarded Youth in Transition in Allegheny County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elizabeth; And Others

    This report focuses on the transition situation of mentally retarded (MR) youth in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The county is served by two Intermediate Units: IU2 (1170 MR students) serves the Pittsburgh School System and emphasizes mainstreaming, with the mildly handicapped attending neighborhood schools and severely handicapped attending a…

  17. Salient Variables in Research with Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mink, Iris Tan; And Others

    Nineteen variables measuring environmental process, environmental press, and child rearing practices and attitudes were used to perform a cluster analysis of families with trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children. Five different family types were identified: (1) cohesive, harmonious; (2) control-oriented, somewhat unharmonious; (3)…

  18. Strategies for Teaching Students with Mild to Severe Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Warren, Steven F., Ed.

    This collection of papers presents strategies for teaching students with mental retardation. An introduction by Robert A. Gable and Steven F. Warren titled "The Enduring Value of Instructional Research" reviews problems besetting special education instructional research and outlines the papers' approach to the field from both an empirical research…

  19. Treatment of a Retarded Child's Faeces Smearing and Coprophagic Behaviour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedin, B. D.; Johnson, Helene K.

    1979-01-01

    The daily rearrangement of a profoundly retarded seven-year-old boy's routine shower was found to be effective in eliminating his low-frequency feces smearing and coprophagic (eating of feces) behavior during the late afternoon/early evening part of the day. (Author/DLS)

  20. Reduction of Disruptive Behaviors of a Hyperactive Profoundly Retarded Person.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart, Diana Brookover; Jablonski, Eugene

    Reinforcing contact with toys by providing chocolate milk odors, and tactile reinforcement helped to reduce the self injurious behaviors, feces smearing, and destructive behavior of a profoundly retarded deaf/blind hyperactive female. The underlying assumption of the approach was that increasing toy contact would result in improved alternative…

  1. Mental Retardation and Learning Disabilities: A Categorical Issue: Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutaria, Saroj

    The literature review examines the issue of whether categorical differentiation and placement of mentally retarded and learning disabled students is educationally warranted. First, the two conditions are defined; next, a comparison between the two on psychological, behavioral-social, and educational characteristics usually ascribed to children so…

  2. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  3. An ethical excursion through labeling the mentally retarded

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. Franco

    1982-01-01

    Review of a representative body of research data concerning the effects of the “mentally retarded” (MR) label on parents, teachers, college students, nonretarded children, communities, and persons labeled fails to support the extravagant claim of some investigators that the labeling process has psychologically damaging effects upon the individuals labeled as well as society. Negative reactions to labels could be minimized

  4. PBDE FLAME RETARDANTS: TOXICOLOGY, HEALTH EFFECTS, AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been routinely added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Global production of PBDEs has reached 67,000 metric tons per year. Recently concer...

  5. Sentencing the Mentally Retarded to Death: An Eighth Amendment Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Blume; David Bruck

    1988-01-01

    Today, on death rows across the United States, sit a number of men with the minds of children. These people are mentally retarded. Typical of these individuals is Limmie Arthur, who currently is imprisoned at Central Correctional Institution in Columbia, South Carolina. Although Arthur is twenty-eight years old, all the mental health professionals who have evaluated him, including employees of

  6. Behavior problems in children with speech and language retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Mattison; Dennis P. Cantwell; Lorian Baker

    1980-01-01

    A systematic evaluation for speech and language retardation and behavioral disorders was conducted on 100 children (mean age five years, six months) presenting consecutively to a suburban speech and hearing clinic. It revealed that parents, teachers, and an examining psychiatrist agreed that these children frequently had associated behavioral problems, some quite common. This indicated the need for a speech or

  7. Validation of a Weight Reduction Treatment Package for the Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    Five studies are reviewed which indicated the effectiveness on weight loss by mentally retarded persons of a treatment program stressing self control. The intervention included procedures which increased the dieter's self awareness of overeating behavior patterns and body weight, reduced food cues, reduced eating rates, increased activity level…

  8. Mental Retardation FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The paper reviews mental retardation research activities of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS). Research activities are cited to illustrate the scope of NICHHD's efforts in a variety of biomedial areas. Activities are…

  9. Dual-field imaging polarimeter using liquid crystal variable retarders

    E-print Network

    Shaw, Joseph A.

    re- lated to developing and scanning film exposed in different cameras. North and Duggin3 developed- ations in retardance with ray incidence angle and ray position in the aperture. Therefore LCVR lens and individually oriented polarizer (0°, 60°, and 120°). The developed film is scanned

  10. Teaching Self-Protection Skills to Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haseltine, Beth; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1990-01-01

    A curriculum for teaching self-protection skills was evaluated with eight mildly retarded adults. The curriculum, presented in a small-group format, uses instructions, modeling, rehearsal, feedback, and praise to teach proper responses to abduction and sexual abuse situations. Seven subjects learned the skills and maintained them at six-month…

  11. An undetected reason for severe fetal growth retardation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin R. Ulm; Reinhard Obwegeser; Barbara Ulm; Josef Deutinger

    1998-01-01

    In a severely growth-retarded fetus, repeated Doppler ultrasound examinations from the 23rd week of gestation on, showed normal and highly pathological blood flow velocities in the umbilical artery. A caesarean section performed in the 39th week of gestation revealed two true umbilical cord knots. Sonographic screening for umbilical cord knots may be valuable in similar cases. The use of color

  12. Anticipation of Cognitive Behavior of Mentally Retarded and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Candace S.; And Others

    The study attempted to determine the relative accuracy with which 290 college students anticipated the responses of a group of 65 educable mentally retarded (EMR) males (11- to 14-years-old) and a group of 66 normal children (10- to 14-years-old). Anticipations were analyzed according to the students' sex, academic major, age, hours in special…

  13. Programs for the Educable Mentally Retarded in California Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Fred M.; Shryock, Clifton

    Prepared by the California State Department of Education, the booklet reviews program components for the educable mentally retarded (EMR). Legal provisions cited include identification, assessment, and reevaluation procedures. Such administrative aspects as financing and supervision are considered. The characteristics and learning styles of the…

  14. Effects and Implications of Creativity Training with Mentally Retarded Youngsters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Barbara Gay; Renzulli, Joseph S.

    The effects of a creativity training program on 18 classes of middle grade and high school level educable mentally retarded (EMR) students were investigated. Ss received instruction with a systematic set of creativity training materials for a 12-week period while 12 control group classes continued regular classwork. Criterion groups were compared…

  15. An I. A. Experience for the Educable Mentally Retarded Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillilan, James O.; Katz, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    A program has been developed by the St. Louis, Missouri, school system providing educable mentally retarded (EMR) boys, aged 8 to 15, with industrial arts education. Courses are divided into upper, intermediate, and primary levels, by age, with students working with a variety of materials. (LH)

  16. Generating models of mental retardation from data with machine learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subramani Mani; Suzanne W. Mcdermott; Michael J. Pazzani

    1997-01-01

    The article focuses on generating simple and expressive domain models of Mental Retardation (MR) from data using knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD) methods. 2137 cases (mild or borderline MR) and 2165 controls (randomly selected) from the National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), a multicentric study involving pregnant mothers and the outcomes, constituted our sample. Twenty attributes (prenatal, perinatal and postnatal),

  17. 3. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING CONVEYOR (LEFT), WITH SCREENING ROOM (CENTER), AND COAL STORAGE SILO (RIGHT), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  18. 2. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING CONVEYOR (RIGHT), WITH LOADING ROOM (LEFT), SCREENING ROOM (LEFT CENTER), AND COAL STORAGE SILO (BACKGROUND), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  19. Mortality among Individuals with Mental Retardation Living in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of mortality in a population of 1,300 people with mental retardation living in the community revealed that 14 people died over a 4-year period. Cause of death was avoidable in three patients. The sentinel health event methodology and case-by-case mortality reviews are recommended for monitoring avoidable deaths in community residential…

  20. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  1. OCCUPATIONS IN THE CARE AND REHABILITATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOSS, MILTON R.; GREGG, RANDOLPH M.

    TWENTY-SEVEN FULL TIME OCCUPATIONS INVOLVING DIAGNOSIS, CARE, AND REHABILITATION OF THE MENTALLY RETARDED ARE DISCUSSED. FOR EACH, AN OCCUPATIONAL DEFINITION, THE NEEDED QUALIFICATIONS, AND SOME INDICATION OF THE NECESSARY WORKER TRAIT REQUIREMENTS SUCH AS APTITUDES, INTERESTS, TEMPERAMENT, AND PHYSICAL DEMANDS AND WORKING CONDITIONS ARE…

  2. Career Opportunities in the Field of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbud, Robert E., Comp.

    Addressed to high school and college students interested in working with the mentally retarded, the booklet describes opportunities in the field. Careers considered include 16 in health and health related services, four in education, seven in social and rehabilitative services, and six in administration and coordination of services. Research…

  3. Public Awareness about Mental Retardation. CEC Research Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottwald, Henry

    To identify the status of public knowledge about mental retardation, to discern public attitudes, and to obtain demographic information on attitudes, a questionnaire was submitted to approximately 1,515 subjects. Extensive results are reported by generic presentation of total responses, analysis of data by independent variables, and analysis of…

  4. Psychological Aspects of Sleep Disorders in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David T.

    This paper reviews literature and clinical experiences on the neurobiological and psychological aspects of sleep in children with mental retardation. The lack of a universal, operational definition of sleep disorders is noted, and a study is cited in which 61% of a group of 20 children (ages 2-13) with developmental disabilities were found to have…

  5. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    A clinical population of 39 families affected by fragile X syndrome, a sex-linked form of mental retardation, is described. Physical aspects, including such common features as prominent jaw and simple ears, are noted along with psychological aspects such as different mean IQs among various age groups. Findings of intellectual evaluation did not…

  6. Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Jerry R.; Bodfish, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Medical records of residents of a facility for persons with mental retardation from January 1, 1978, through December 31, 1997, were analyzed to identify incidence of sudden unexpected death for 180 individuals with and 125 without comorbid epilepsy. Eighty deaths were identified, with 55 occurring in those with epilepsy. (Contains 15 references.)…

  7. Arsenic Occurrence, Mobility, and Retardation in Sandstone and

    E-print Network

    Sahai, Nita

    Arsenic Occurrence, Mobility, and Retardation in Sandstone and Dolomite Formations of the Fox River of groundwater arsenic (100 µg L-1 ) 1.3 × 10-6 M) are found in the Fox River Valley, eastern Wisconsin, shown previously to cause elevated arsenic in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical and chemical analyses

  8. Improving Profoundly Mentally Retarded Adults' Performance on a Position Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, James; Richmond, Glenn

    1984-01-01

    Three experiments involving institutionalized mentally retarded persons revealed that the antecedent stimulus manipulation (i.e., hiding the candy or the kitty) was critical to establishing correct performance, while manipulation of the consequent stimuli afffected performance slightly. Findings had implications for reinforcement conditions. (CL)

  9. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2012-01-01

    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  10. Radiation Reaction as a Retarded Self-Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Teitelboim

    1971-01-01

    It is shown that the exact Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion for a strictly point charge is nothing more than the usual Lorentz force law when the retarded self-field of the particle is properly taken into account, as required for the very consistency of the idea of energy-momentum localization in the field.

  11. Art Therapy to Promote Ego Development in Disturbed Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Ellen A.

    The paper discusses the six major ego functions, ego disturbances in mentally retarded children, and case examples of the use of art therapy to promote ego development. Identified are the following ego functions: control and regulation of instinctual drives, autonomous functions, reality testing, object relationships, defense, and synthesis. The…

  12. Standards for Residential Facilities for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, Chicago, IL.

    Presented are standards for residential facilities for the mentally retarded that were developed by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals. The accreditation process is said to have two major objects: setting standards for services and determining the degree to which a specific services complies with the designated standards. The…

  13. Removal of organobromine compounds from the pyrolysis oils of flame retarded plastics using zeolite catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Hall; Paul T. Williams

    2008-01-01

    Two flame retarded plastics have been pyrolysed in the presence of two zeolite catalysts to remove the organobromine compounds from the derived pyrolysis oil. The flame retarded plastics were, acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene (ABS) that was flame retarded with tetrabromobisphenol A and high impact polystyrene (HIPS) that was flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether. The two catalysts investigated were zeolite ZSM-5 and zeolite Y-Zeolite.

  14. Process for spinning flame retardant elastomeric compositions. [fabricating synthetic fibers for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having halogen containing polyols incorporated into the polymer chain, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives were developed. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and manufactured articles as well as nonelastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, and nylons, for high oxygen environments.

  15. Expandable graphite systems for phosphorus-containing unsaturated polyesters. I. Enhanced thermal properties and flame retardancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeng-Fong Shih; Yih-Tyng Wang; Ru-Jong Jeng; Kuo-Min Wei

    2004-01-01

    A series of flame retardant-containing unsaturated polyesters have been developed. The flame retardants include expandable graphite and phosphorous-containing materials (ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP)). The effects of incorporating different flame retardants into the unsaturated polyesters were investigated by UL-94, DSC, TGA, LOI, MTGA, Py\\/GC\\/MS and adiabatic bomb calorimeter. The results indicate that the flame-retarding effect of APP type

  16. Development of the random-retardation-encoding anti-counterfeiting technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Jian Huang; Chao-Hsu Tsai; Ting-Ju Chen; Min-tsung Kuan; Chun-Hsiang Wen

    2006-01-01

    The properties of periodicity and linear separation\\/combination of optical retardation are adopted to develop the Random-Retardation-Encoding anti-counterfeiting technology. In the experiments of this paper, the authentication pattern was divided into two parts with different random retardation distribution. The two parts of random retardation pattern were fabricated on two separate films. One of them can be used as the authentication tag,

  17. A study of the play behavior of retarded children.

    PubMed

    van der Kooij, R

    1978-07-01

    Piaget, Almy and Peller have pointed to the necessity of play for cognitive development. Earlier, Lehman and Witty, Boyton and Ford, Horne and Philleo. Tilton, Ottinger and Weiner conducted studies on play in cognitively disturbed children. Hetzer and Inhelder show that the retarded child annot utilize his play area because of poor imagination and lack of expressive skills. Many play activities have a perseverating character. They cannot make sufficient use of the possibilities inherent in the toys presented to them. Uncontrolled drives inhibit creative and constructive play. Often, a plan d'attaque for play is lacking. Following on the heels of earlier studies, systematic play observations of 38 retarded children were made using ten observation categories. In Table II the results are shown of the way in which the child uses a toy. The play behavior of the retarded child is predominated by a great need to explore, experiment and move. He hardly has a chance to use toys in a creative way resulting in a play endproduct. The choice of toys is given in Table III. Boys had a particular interest in vehicles and environmental material, girls in dolls. According to expectation, the level of play behavior (Table IV) and the scores on an intelligence test (HAWIK) appeared to positively correlate with each other. This was also true for the correlations between the subtest scores and play behavior, with the exception of similarities and block design. Also, the variation in the exhibited play behavior correlated positively with the measured IQ's. In view of the correlations found, there are indications that imitation play is important for emotional and social behavior. Older study results, which showed a connection between an identification score and imitation play seem to be confirmed in retarded children, too. For the practical situation in child-rearing and education, the study results point to the necessity of bringing the retarded child into contact with as many different toys as possible. PMID:748190

  18. A Comment on Families and Mentally Retarded Children: Emphasis on the Father.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikler, Lynn

    1979-01-01

    Comments on a review of literature on families of retarded children focusing on the neglected role of the father and criticizes the authors, Price-Bonham and Addison, for recurring ambiguity regarding the level of retardation and bias toward pathology in the family of the retarded child. Comments by Sharon Price-Bonham follow. (Author/BEF)

  19. People with Mental Retardation in the Criminal Justice System. ARC Q&A #101-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Leigh Ann

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system. Questions and answers address the following topics: the number of people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system (2 to 10 percent of the prison population is mentally retarded); whether…

  20. Socio-Behavioral Study Center for Mental Retardation. Terminal Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific State Hospital, Pomona, CA.

    The terminal progress report of the Socio-Behavioral Study Center for Mental Retardation summarizes research activities and results of the Center's three major programs. The Community Research Program studied the epidemiological aspects of mental retardation in the community, including identification and classification of retardates, investigation…

  1. Physical Activity of Children with and without Mental Retardation in Inclusive Recess Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzi, David G.; Horvat, Michael; Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2000-01-01

    A study compared physical activity levels of 17 typical elementary school children and 17 with mental retardation in inclusive recess settings. Boys with mental retardation demonstrated higher activity counts and heart rates than boys without mental retardation while no group differences were apparent on an observational checklist. (Contains…

  2. Facial Emotional Expressions of Mentally Retarded Adults: Correlates of Interpersonal Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilczenski, Felicia L.

    Mentally retarded adults' ability to express facial emotions of happiness, sadness, anger, and fear was investigated. Photographs of facial emotional expressions posed by 52 retarded adults were judged by familiar and unfamiliar nonretarded adults. Happiness and sadness were accurately posed most often. The ability of retarded adults to encode…

  3. Mental Retardation Activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, January 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    The report describes the current mental retardation activities of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW). Discussed in the introductory section are the coordination of mental retardation programs and the categories of mental retardation activities of the Department: preventive services, basic and supportive services, training of…

  4. Development/Plasticity/Repair Loss of X-Linked Mental Retardation Gene Oligophrenin1 in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Development/Plasticity/Repair Loss of X-Linked Mental Retardation Gene Oligophrenin1 in Mice of oligophrenin1 (OPHN1) function in human causes X-linked mental retardation associated with cerebellar words: X-linked mental retardation; ophn1 knock-out; dendritic spines; brain ventricular enlargement

  5. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Desmond J. Smith; Edward M. Rubin

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  6. Perceived Social Support and Mental Retardation: A Social–Cognitive Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yona Lunsky; Betsey A. Benson

    2001-01-01

    Adults with mental retardation tend to have difficulty accurately interpreting social situations as well as the emotions of others. Predictions from a social–cognitive model of perceived social support were tested with 50 adults with mild mental retardation. Videotaped scenes portraying three levels of support were presented. The ratings of support perceptions provided by adults with mental retardation were contrasted with

  7. Weight Survey on Adult Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…

  8. Educating the 24-Hour Retarded Child: National Training Meeting on Education of the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    Presented are 18 author contributed papers from the 1975 New Orleans conference on the education of severely and profoundly retarded students. The document includes papers on the following topics: educational programs (S. Bijou, J. Tawney, E. Sontag); the developmental approach to curriculum (N. Haring); architectural considerations (G. Gray);…

  9. Thermal degradation and flame retardancy of a novel methacrylated phenolic melamine used for UV curable flame retardant coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongbo Liang; Anila Asif; Wenfang Shi

    2005-01-01

    Methacrylated phenolic melamine (MAPM) was synthesized as a flame retardant multifunctional oligomer for UV curable systems, and characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. A series of formulations was prepared based on MAPM and a commercial UV curable epoxy acrylate EB600. Their thermal behaviours were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, indicating that MAPM had no effect on the char formation

  10. Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

  11. Morale of Teachers of Mentally Retarded Children: An Exploratory Investigation. Mental Retardation Training Program Technical Report Series 68-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L.

    Evaluated was the morale of 204 regular class teachers and 146 teachers of the educable (EMR) or trainable (TMR) mentally retarded at both elementary and secondary levels. Administered were a biographical questionnaire and the Purdue Teacher Opinionaire which examines opinion in the following ten areas: teacher rapport with principal, satisfaction…

  12. Color Concepts for the Trainable Mentally Retarded; Mental Retardation Training Program Technical Report Series 69-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Marjorie; Kitchton, Pauline Y.

    Presented are lesson plans for a unit on color discrimination for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children. An introduction describes TMR children and the major educational objectives of self care, social adjustment, and economic usefulness. Criteria of effective units such as relationship to real life situations are listed. Specific unit…

  13. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  14. American Association on Mental Retardation 149 VOLUME 108, NUMBER 3: 149160 MAY 2003 AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    or Fragile X Syndrome Leonard Abbeduto, Melissa M. Murphy, Stephanie W. Cawthon, Erica K. Richmond, Michelle syndrome (n 19). We were interested in syndrome differences and gender differences within fragile X and fragile X syndrome are the two most common genetic causes of mental retardation (Dykens, Hodapp

  15. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  16. Protein Expression Profiling of the Drosophila Fragile X Mutant Brain Reveals Up-regulation

    E-print Network

    Broadie, Kendal S.

    'Donnell , and Kendal Broadie** Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation, associated:278­290, 2005. Fragile X syndrome (FraX)1 is a common form of inherited mental retardation manifesting a rangeProtein Expression Profiling of the Drosophila Fragile X Mutant Brain Reveals Up

  17. Copy-number variations measured by single-nucleotide-polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays in patients with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Wagenstaller, Janine; Spranger, Stephanie; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Kazmierczak, Bernd; Nathrath, Michaela; Wahl, Dagmar; Heye, Babett; Glaser, Dieter; Liebscher, Volkmar; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M

    2007-10-01

    Whole-genome analysis using high-density single-nucleotide-polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays allows identification of microdeletions, microduplications, and uniparental disomies. We studied 67 children with unexplained mental retardation with normal karyotypes, as assessed by G-banded chromosome analyses. Their DNAs were analyzed with Affymetrix 100K arrays. We detected 11 copy-number variations that most likely are causative of mental retardation, because they either arose de novo (9 cases) and/or overlapped with known microdeletions (2 cases). The eight deletions and three duplications varied in size from 200 kb to 7.5 Mb. Of the 11 copy-number variations, 5 were flanked by low-copy repeats. Two of those, on chromosomes 15q25.2 and Xp22.31, have not been described before and have a high probability of being causative of new deletion and duplication syndromes, respectively. In one patient, we found a deletion affecting only a single gene, MBD5, which codes for the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 5. In addition to the 67 children, we investigated 4 mentally retarded children with apparent balanced translocations and detected four deletions at breakpoint regions ranging in size from 1.1 to 14 Mb. PMID:17847001

  18. Copy-Number Variations Measured by Single-Nucleotide–Polymorphism Oligonucleotide Arrays in Patients with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Wagenstaller, Janine ; Spranger, Stephanie ; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina ; Kazmierczak, Bernd ; Nathrath, Michaela ; Wahl, Dagmar ; Heye, Babett ; Gläser, Dieter ; Liebscher, Volkmar ; Meitinger, Thomas ; Strom, Tim M. 

    2007-01-01

    Whole-genome analysis using high-density single-nucleotide–polymorphism oligonucleotide arrays allows identification of microdeletions, microduplications, and uniparental disomies. We studied 67 children with unexplained mental retardation with normal karyotypes, as assessed by G-banded chromosome analyses. Their DNAs were analyzed with Affymetrix 100K arrays. We detected 11 copy-number variations that most likely are causative of mental retardation, because they either arose de novo (9 cases) and/or overlapped with known microdeletions (2 cases). The eight deletions and three duplications varied in size from 200 kb to 7.5 Mb. Of the 11 copy-number variations, 5 were flanked by low-copy repeats. Two of those, on chromosomes 15q25.2 and Xp22.31, have not been described before and have a high probability of being causative of new deletion and duplication syndromes, respectively. In one patient, we found a deletion affecting only a single gene, MBD5, which codes for the methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 5. In addition to the 67 children, we investigated 4 mentally retarded children with apparent balanced translocations and detected four deletions at breakpoint regions ranging in size from 1.1 to 14 Mb. PMID:17847001

  19. Disruption of the serine/threonine kinase 9 gene causes severe X-linked infantile spasms and mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Kalscheuer, Vera M; Tao, Jiong; Donnelly, Andrew; Hollway, Georgina; Schwinger, Eberhard; Kübart, Sabine; Menzel, Corinna; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tommerup, Niels; Eyre, Helen; Harbord, Michael; Haan, Eric; Sutherland, Grant R; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Gécz, Jozef

    2003-06-01

    X-linked West syndrome, also called "X-linked infantile spasms" (ISSX), is characterized by early-onset generalized seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. Recently, we have shown that the majority of the X-linked families with infantile spasms carry mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX), which maps to the Xp21.3-p22.1 interval, and that the clinical picture in these patients can vary from mild mental retardation to severe ISSX with additional neurological abnormalities. Here, we report a study of two severely affected female patients with apparently de novo balanced X;autosome translocations, both disrupting the serine-threonine kinase 9 (STK9) gene, which maps distal to ARX in the Xp22.3 region. We show that STK9 is subject to X-inactivation in normal female somatic cells and is functionally absent in the two patients, because of preferential inactivation of the normal X. Disruption of the same gene in two unrelated patients who have identical phenotypes (consisting of early-onset severe infantile spasms, profound global developmental arrest, hypsarrhythmia, and severe mental retardation) strongly suggests that lack of functional STK9 protein causes severe ISSX and that STK9 is a second X-chromosomal locus for this disorder. PMID:12736870

  20. AtGEN1 and AtSEND1, Two Paralogs in Arabidopsis, Possess Holliday Junction Resolvase Activity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bauknecht, Markus; Kobbe, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are physical links between homologous DNA molecules that arise as central intermediary structures during homologous recombination and repair in meiotic and somatic cells. It is necessary for these structures to be resolved to ensure correct chromosome segregation and other functions. In eukaryotes, including plants, homologs of a gene called XPG-like endonuclease1 (GEN1) have been identified that process HJs in a manner analogous to the HJ resolvases of phages, archaea, and bacteria. Here, we report that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a eukaryotic organism, has two functional GEN1 homologs instead of one. Like all known eukaryotic resolvases, AtGEN1 and Arabidopsis single-strand DNA endonuclease1 both belong to class IV of the Rad2/XPG family of nucleases. Their resolvase activity shares the characteristics of the Escherichia coli radiation and UV sensitive C paradigm for resolvases, which involves resolving HJs by symmetrically oriented incisions in two opposing strands. This leads to ligatable products without the need for further processing. The observation that the sequence context influences the cleavage by the enzymes can be interpreted as a hint for the existence of sequence specificity. The two Arabidopsis paralogs differ in their preferred sequences. The precise cleavage positions observed for the resolution of mobile nicked HJs suggest that these cleavage positions are determined by both the substrate structure and the sequence context at the junction point. PMID:25037209