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Sample records for retardation protein paralogs

  1. Using Disease-Associated Coding Sequence Variation to Investigate Functional Compensation by Human Paralogous Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Sayaka; Tate, Stephanie; Kumar, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Gene duplication enables the functional diversification in species. It is thought that duplicated genes may be able to compensate if the function of one of the gene copies is disrupted. This possibility is extensively debated with some studies reporting proteome-wide compensation, whereas others suggest functional compensation among only recent gene duplicates or no compensation at all. We report results from a systematic molecular evolutionary analysis to test the predictions of the functional compensation hypothesis. We contrasted the density of Mendelian disease-associated single nucleotide variants (dSNVs) in proteins with no discernable paralogs (singletons) with the dSNV density in proteins found in multigene families. Under the functional compensation hypothesis, we expected to find greater numbers of dSNVs in singletons due to the lack of any compensating partners. Our analyses produced an opposite pattern; paralogs have over 35% higher dSNV density than singletons. We found that these patterns are concordant with similar differences in the rates of amino acid evolution (ie, functional constraints), as the proteins with paralogs have evolved 33% slower than singletons. Our evolutionary constraint explanation is robust to differences in family sizes, ages (young vs. old duplicates), and degrees of amino acid sequence similarities among paralogs. Therefore, disease-associated human variation does not exhibit significant signals of functional compensation among paralogous proteins, but rather an evolutionary constraint hypothesis provides a better explanation for the observed patterns of disease-associated and neutral polymorphisms in the human genome. PMID:26604664

  2. Functional prediction: identification of protein orthologs and paralogs.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, R.; Jeong, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    Orthologs typically retain the same function in the course of evolution. Using beta-decarboxylating dehydrogenase family as a model, we demonstrate that orthologs can be confidently identified. The strategy is based on our recent findings that substitutions of only a few amino acid residues in these enzymes are sufficient to exchange substrate and coenzyme specificities. Hence, the few major specificity determinants can serve as reliable markers for determining orthologous or paralogous relationships. The power of this approach has been demonstrated by correcting similarity-based functional misassignment and discovering new genes and related pathways, and should be broadly applicable to other enzyme families. PMID:11206056

  3. A novel polypyrimidine tract-binding protein paralog expressed in smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Gooding, Clare; Kemp, Paul; Smith, Christopher W J

    2003-04-25

    Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) is an abundant widespread RNA-binding protein with roles in regulation of pre-mRNA alternative splicing and 3'-end processing, internal ribosomal entry site-driven translation, and mRNA localization. Tissue-restricted paralogs of PTB have previously been reported in neuronal and hematopoietic cells. These proteins are thought to replace many general functions of PTB, but to have some distinct activities, e.g. in the tissue-specific regulation of some alternative splicing events. We report the identification and characterization of a fourth rodent PTB paralog (smPTB) that is expressed at high levels in a number of smooth muscle tissues. Recombinant smPTB localized to the nucleus, bound to RNA, and was able to regulate alternative splicing. We suggest that replacement of PTB by smPTB might be important in controlling some pre-mRNA alternative splicing events. PMID:12578833

  4. Identification of Paralogous Life-Cycle Stage Specific Cytoskeletal Proteins in the Parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Portman, Neil; Gull, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, is characterised by a transition between insect and mammalian hosts representing very different environments that present the parasite with very different challenges. These challenges are met by the expression of life-cycle stage-specific cohorts of proteins, which function in systems such as metabolism and immune evasion. These life-cycle transitions are also accompanied by morphological rearrangements orchestrated by microtubule dynamics and associated proteins of the subpellicular microtubule array. Here we employed a gel-based comparative proteomic technique, Difference Gel Electrophoresis, to identify cytoskeletal proteins that are expressed differentially in mammalian infective and insect form trypanosomes. From this analysis we identified a pair of novel, paralogous proteins, one of which is expressed in the procyclic form and the other in the bloodstream form. We show that these proteins, CAP51 and CAP51V, localise to the subpellicular corset of microtubules and are essential for correct organisation of the cytoskeleton and successful cytokinesis in their respective life cycle stages. We demonstrate for the first time redundancy of function between life-cycle stage specific paralogous sets in the cytoskeleton and reveal modification of cytoskeletal components in situ prior to their removal during differentiation from the bloodstream form to the insect form. These specific results emphasise a more generic concept that the trypanosome genome encodes a cohort of cytoskeletal components that are present in at least two forms with life-cycle stage-specific expression. PMID:25180513

  5. RPL39L is an example of a recently evolved ribosomal protein paralog that shows highly specific tissue expression patterns and is upregulated in ESCs and HCC tumors.

    PubMed

    Wong, Queenie Wing-Lei; Li, Jia; Ng, Sheng Rong; Lim, Seng Gee; Yang, Henry; Vardy, Leah A

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to be able to impart selectivity on the translating ribosome implicating them in gene expression control. Many ribosomal proteins are highly conserved and recently a number of ribosomal protein paralogs have been described in mammals. We examined the expression pattern of RPs in differentiating mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs), paying particular attention to the RP paralogs. We find the RP paralog Rpl39l is highly expressed in ESC and its expression strongly correlates with hepatocellular carcinoma tumor (HCC) samples with high tumor grading and alpha-fetoprotein level giving it diagnostic potential. We further screen the expression pattern of all RPs and their paralogs across 22 different tissues. We find that the more recently evolved RP paralogs show a much greater level of tissue-specific expression. We propose that these RP paralogs evolved more recently to provide a greater level of gene expression control to higher eukaryotes. PMID:24452241

  6. Adhesive Properties of YapV and Paralogous Autotransporter Proteins of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manoj K. M.; De Masi, Leon; Yue, Min; Galván, Estela M.; Chen, Huaiqing; Wang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. This bacterium evolved from an ancestral enteroinvasive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain by gene loss and acquisition of new genes, allowing it to use fleas as transmission vectors. Infection frequently leads to a rapidly lethal outcome in humans, a variety of rodents, and cats. This study focuses on the Y. pestis KIM yapV gene and its product, recognized as an autotransporter protein by its typical sequence, outer membrane localization, and amino-terminal surface exposure. Comparison of Yersinia genomes revealed that DNA encoding YapV or each of three individual paralogous proteins (YapK, YapJ, and YapX) was present as a gene or pseudogene in a strain-specific manner and only in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. YapV acted as an adhesin for alveolar epithelial cells and specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as shown with recombinant Escherichia coli, Y. pestis, or purified passenger domains. Like YapV, YapK and YapJ demonstrated adhesive properties, suggesting that their previously related in vivo activity is due to their capacity to modulate binding properties of Y. pestis in its hosts, in conjunction with other adhesins. A differential host-specific type of binding to ECM proteins by YapV, YapK, and YapJ suggested that these proteins participate in broadening the host range of Y. pestis. A phylogenic tree including 36 Y. pestis strains highlighted an association between the gene profile for the four paralogous proteins and the geographic location of the corresponding isolated strains, suggesting an evolutionary adaption of Y. pestis to specific local animal hosts or reservoirs. PMID:25690102

  7. Adhesive properties of YapV and paralogous autotransporter proteins of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Nair, Manoj K M; De Masi, Leon; Yue, Min; Galván, Estela M; Chen, Huaiqing; Wang, Fang; Schifferli, Dieter M

    2015-05-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. This bacterium evolved from an ancestral enteroinvasive Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain by gene loss and acquisition of new genes, allowing it to use fleas as transmission vectors. Infection frequently leads to a rapidly lethal outcome in humans, a variety of rodents, and cats. This study focuses on the Y. pestis KIM yapV gene and its product, recognized as an autotransporter protein by its typical sequence, outer membrane localization, and amino-terminal surface exposure. Comparison of Yersinia genomes revealed that DNA encoding YapV or each of three individual paralogous proteins (YapK, YapJ, and YapX) was present as a gene or pseudogene in a strain-specific manner and only in Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis. YapV acted as an adhesin for alveolar epithelial cells and specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as shown with recombinant Escherichia coli, Y. pestis, or purified passenger domains. Like YapV, YapK and YapJ demonstrated adhesive properties, suggesting that their previously related in vivo activity is due to their capacity to modulate binding properties of Y. pestis in its hosts, in conjunction with other adhesins. A differential host-specific type of binding to ECM proteins by YapV, YapK, and YapJ suggested that these proteins participate in broadening the host range of Y. pestis. A phylogenic tree including 36 Y. pestis strains highlighted an association between the gene profile for the four paralogous proteins and the geographic location of the corresponding isolated strains, suggesting an evolutionary adaption of Y. pestis to specific local animal hosts or reservoirs. PMID:25690102

  8. Parameters of proteome evolution from histograms of amino-acid sequence identities of paralogous proteins

    E-print Network

    Jacob Bock Axelsen; Koon-Kiu Yan; Sergei Maslov

    2007-11-05

    The evolution of the full repertoire of proteins encoded in a given genome is mostly driven by gene duplications, deletions, and sequence modifications of existing proteins. Indirect information about relative rates and other intrinsic parameters of these three basic processes is contained in the proteome-wide distribution of sequence identities of pairs of paralogous proteins. We introduce a simple mathematical framework based on a stochastic birth-and-death model that allows one to extract some of this information and apply it to the set of all pairs of paralogous proteins in seven model organisms. It was found that the histogram of sequence identities p generated by an all-to-all alignment of all protein sequences encoded in a genome is well fitted with a power-law form ~p^(-gamma) with the value of the exponent gamma around 4 for the majority of organisms used in this study. This implies that the intra-protein variability of substitution rates is best described by the Gamma-distribution with the exponent alpha ~ 0.33. We separately measure the short-term (``raw'') duplication and deletion rates r*_dup, r*_del which include gene copies that will be removed soon after the duplication event and their dramatically reduced long-term counterparts r_dup, r_del. Systematic trends of each of the four duplication/deletion rates with the total number of genes in the genome were analyzed. All but the deletion rate of recent duplicates r*_del were shown to systematically increase with N_genes. Abnormally flat shapes of sequence identity histograms observed for yeast and human are consistent with lineages leading to these organisms undergoing one or more whole-genome duplications.

  9. Protein Phosphatase 1 ? Paralogs Encode the Zebrafish Myosin Phosphatase Catalytic Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Jayashankar, Vaishali; Nguyen, Michael J.; Carr, Brandon W.; Zheng, Dale C.; Rosales, Joseph B.; Rosales, Joshua B.; Weiser, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The myosin phosphatase is a highly conserved regulator of actomyosin contractility. Zebrafish has emerged as an ideal model system to study the in vivo role of myosin phosphatase in controlling cell contractility, cell movement and epithelial biology. Most work in zebrafish has focused on the regulatory subunit of the myosin phosphatase called Mypt1. In this work, we examined the critical role of Protein Phosphatase 1, PP1, the catalytic subunit of the myosin phosphatase. Methodology/Principal Findings We observed that in zebrafish two paralogous genes encoding PP1?, called ppp1cba and ppp1cbb, are both broadly expressed during early development. Furthermore, we found that both gene products interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase complex. In addition, expression of this complex results in dephosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain and large scale rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton. Morpholino knock-down of ppp1cba and ppp1cbb results in severe defects in morphogenetic cell movements during gastrulation through loss of myosin phosphatase function. Conclusions/Significance Our work demonstrates that zebrafish have two genes encoding PP1?, both of which can interact with Mypt1 and assemble an active myosin phosphatase. In addition, both genes are required for convergence and extension during gastrulation and correct dosage of the protein products is required. PMID:24040418

  10. Differential and collaborative actions of Rad51 paralog proteins in cellular response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Yonetani, Yasukazu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Shinya, Sayoko; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Takeda, Shunichi; Yamazoe, Mistuyoshi

    2005-01-01

    Metazoan Rad51 plays a central role in homologous DNA recombination, and its activity is controlled by a number of Rad51 cofactors. These include five Rad51 paralogs, Rad51B, Rad51C, Rad51D, XRCC2 and XRCC3. We previously hypothesized that all five paralogs participate collaboratively in repair. However, this idea was challenged by the biochemical identification of two independent complexes composed of either Rad51B/C/D/XRCC2 or Rad51C/XRCC3. To investigate if this biochemical finding is matched by genetic interactions, we made double mutants in either the same complex (rad51b/rad51d) or in both complexes (xrcc3/rad51d). In agreement with the biochemical findings the double deletion involving both complexes had an additive effect on the sensitivity to camptothecin and cisplatin. The double deletion of genes in the same complex, on the other hand, did not further increase the sensitivity to these agents. Conversely, all mutants tested displayed comparatively mild sensitivity to ?-irradiation and attenuated ?-irradiation-induced Rad51 foci formation. Thus, in accord with our previous conclusion, all paralogs appear to collaboratively facilitate Rad51 action. In conclusion, our detailed genetic study reveals a complex interplay between the five Rad51 paralogs and suggests that some of the Rad51 paralogs can separately operate in later step of homologous recombination. PMID:16093548

  11. Identifying Cognate Binding Pairs among a Large Set of Paralogs: The Case of PE/PPE Proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  12. Identifying cognate binding pairs among a large set of paralogs: the case of PE/PPE proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Riley, Robert; Pellegrini, Matteo; Eisenberg, David

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of how to detect cognate pairs of proteins that bind when each belongs to a large family of paralogs. To illustrate the problem, we have undertaken a genomewide analysis of interactions of members of the PE and PPE protein families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our computational method uses structural information, operon organization, and protein coevolution to infer the interaction of PE and PPE proteins. Some 289 PE/PPE complexes were predicted out of a possible 5,590 PE/PPE pairs genomewide. Thirty-five of these predicted complexes were also found to have correlated mRNA expression, providing additional evidence for these interactions. We show that our method is applicable to other protein families, by analyzing interactions of the Esx family of proteins. Our resulting set of predictions is a starting point for genomewide experimental interaction screens of the PE and PPE families, and our method may be generally useful for detecting interactions of proteins within families having many paralogs. PMID:18787688

  13. Did Androgen-Binding Protein Paralogs Undergo Neo- and/or Subfunctionalization as the Abp Gene Region Expanded in the Mouse Genome?

    PubMed Central

    Karn, Robert C.; Chung, Amanda G.; Laukaitis, Christina M.

    2014-01-01

    The Androgen-binding protein (Abp) region of the mouse genome contains 30 Abpa genes encoding alpha subunits and 34 Abpbg genes encoding betagamma subunits, their products forming dimers composed of an alpha and a betagamma subunit. We endeavored to determine how many Abp genes are expressed as proteins in tears and saliva, and as transcripts in the exocrine glands producing them. Using standard PCR, we amplified Abp transcripts from cDNA libraries of C57BL/6 mice and found fifteen Abp gene transcripts in the lacrimal gland and five in the submandibular gland. Proteomic analyses identified proteins corresponding to eleven of the lacrimal gland transcripts, all of them different from the three salivary ABPs reported previously. Our qPCR results showed that five of the six transcripts that lacked corresponding proteins are expressed at very low levels compared to those transcripts with proteins. We found 1) no overlap in the repertoires of expressed Abp paralogs in lacrimal gland/tears and salivary glands/saliva; 2) substantial sex-limited expression of lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs in males but no sex-limited expression in females; and 3) that the lacrimal gland/tear expressed-paralogs are found exclusively in ancestral clades 1, 2 and 3 of the five clades described previously while the salivary glands/saliva expressed-paralogs are found only in clade 5. The number of instances of extremely low levels of transcription without corresponding protein production in paralogs specific to tears and saliva suggested the role of subfunctionalization, a derived condition wherein genes that may have been expressed highly in both glands ancestrally were down-regulated subsequent to duplication. Thus, evidence for subfunctionalization can be seen in our data and we argue that the partitioning of paralog expression between lacrimal and salivary glands that we report here occurred as the result of adaptive evolution. PMID:25531410

  14. Adaptive Mutations that Prevent Crosstalk Enable the Expansion of Paralogous Signaling Protein Families

    E-print Network

    Capra, Emily Jordan

    Orthologous proteins often harbor numerous substitutions, but whether these differences result from neutral or adaptive processes is usually unclear. To tackle this challenge, we examined the divergent evolution of a model ...

  15. Expression analysis of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTBP1) and its paralogs PTBP2 and PTBP3 during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Noiret, Maud; Audic, Yann; Hardy, Serge

    2012-01-01

    The PTB (polypyrimidine tract binding protein) family of RNA-binding proteins plays a critical role in development through the regulation of post-transcriptional events. We have determined expression patterns of the three members of this gene family ptbp1, ptbp2 and ptbp3 during Xenopus tropicalis embryogenesis using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Our results show that each paralog presents a unique pattern of expression. ptbp1 is the prevalent maternal mRNA and is differentially expressed in the three germ layers. Later in development, it is widely expressed in the embryo including the epidermis, the dermatome, the intermediate mesoderm, the lateral plate mesoderm and the neural crest. ptbp2 expression is restricted to the nervous system including the brain, the neural retina and the spinal cord and the intermediate mesoderm. In addition to being expressed in erythroid precursors, ptbp3 is present in specific subdomains of the brain and the spinal cord, as well as in the posterior part of the notochord, suggesting it may play a role in the patterning of the nervous system. In the eye, each of the three genes is expressed in a specific structure which emphasizes their non-redundant function during development. Strickingly, our experiments also revealed that none of the three paralogs was expressed in the myotome, suggesting that the absence of PTB activity is a key determinant to display myotomal splicing patterns. PMID:23124965

  16. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Regulates Heterosynaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Steven A.; Hoeffer, Charles A.; Klann, Eric; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2011-01-01

    Silencing of a single gene, FMR1, is linked to a highly prevalent form of mental retardation, characterized by social and cognitive impairments, known as fragile X syndrome (FXS). The FMR1 gene encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which negatively regulates translation. Knockout of Fmr1 in mice results in enhanced long-term…

  17. Phylogenomics with paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Hellmuth, Marc; Wieseke, Nicolas; Lechner, Marcus; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Middendorf, Martin; Stadler, Peter F.

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenomics heavily relies on well-curated sequence data sets that comprise, for each gene, exclusively 1:1 orthologos. Paralogs are treated as a dangerous nuisance that has to be detected and removed. We show here that this severe restriction of the data sets is not necessary. Building upon recent advances in mathematical phylogenetics, we demonstrate that gene duplications convey meaningful phylogenetic information and allow the inference of plausible phylogenetic trees, provided orthologs and paralogs can be distinguished with a degree of certainty. Starting from tree-free estimates of orthology, cograph editing can sufficiently reduce the noise to find correct event-annotated gene trees. The information of gene trees can then directly be translated into constraints on the species trees. Although the resolution is very poor for individual gene families, we show that genome-wide data sets are sufficient to generate fully resolved phylogenetic trees, even in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. PMID:25646426

  18. Elucidating the evolutionary history and expression patterns of nucleoside phosphorylase paralogs (vegetative storage proteins) in Populus and the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nucleoside phosphorylases (NPs) have been extensively investigated in human and bacterial systems for their role in metabolic nucleotide salvaging and links to oncogenesis. In plants, NP-like proteins have not been comprehensively studied, likely because there is no evidence of a metabolic function in nucleoside salvage. However, in the forest trees genus Populus a family of NP-like proteins function as an important ecophysiological adaptation for inter- and intra-seasonal nitrogen storage and cycling. Results We conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the distribution and evolution of NP-like proteins in plants. These analyses revealed two major clusters of NP-like proteins in plants. Group I proteins were encoded by genes across a wide range of plant taxa while proteins encoded by Group II genes were dominated by species belonging to the order Malpighiales and included the Populus Bark Storage Protein (BSP) and WIN4-like proteins. Additionally, we evaluated the NP-like genes in Populus by examining the transcript abundance of the 13 NP-like genes found in the Populus genome in various tissues of plants exposed to long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) photoperiods. We found that all 13 of the Populus NP-like genes belonging to either Group I or II are expressed in various tissues in both LD and SD conditions. Tests of natural selection and expression evolution analysis of the Populus genes suggests that divergence in gene expression may have occurred recently during the evolution of Populus, which supports the adaptive maintenance models. Lastly, in silico analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the promoters of the 13 NP-like genes in Populus revealed common regulatory elements known to be involved in light regulation, stress/pathogenesis and phytohormone responses. Conclusion In Populus, the evolution of the NP-like protein and gene family has been shaped by duplication events and natural selection. Expression data suggest that previously uncharacterized NP-like proteins may function in nutrient sensing and/or signaling. These proteins are members of Group I NP-like proteins, which are widely distributed in many plant taxa. We conclude that NP-like proteins may function in plants, although this function is undefined. PMID:23957885

  19. Distinct expression, localization and function of two Rab7 proteins encoded by paralogous genes in a free-living model eukaryote.

    PubMed

    Osi?ska, Magdalena; Wiejak, Jolanta; Wypych, Emilia; Bilski, Henryk; Bartosiewicz, Rafa?; Wyroba, El?bieta

    2011-01-01

    Rab7 GTPases are involved in membrane trafficking in the late endosomal/lysosomal pathway. In Paramecium octaurelia Rab7a and Rab7b are encoded by paralogous genes. Antipeptide antibodies generated against divergent C-termini recognize Rab7a of 22.5 kDa and Rab7b of 25 kDa, respectively. In 2D gel electrophoresis two immunoreactive spots were identified for Rab7b at pI about 6.34 and about 6.18 and only one spot for Rab7a of pI about 6.34 suggesting post-translational modification of Rab7b. Mass spectrometry revealed eight identical phosphorylated residues in the both proteins. ProQ Emerald staining and ConA overlay of immunoprecipitated Rab7b indicated its putative glycosylation that was further supported by a faster electrophoretic mobility of this protein upon deglycosylation. Such a post-translational modification and substitution of Ala(140) in Rab7a for Ser(140) in Rab7b may result in distinct targeting to the oral apparatus where Rab7b associates with the microtubular structures as revealed by STED confocal and electron microscopy. Rab7a was mapped to phagosomal compartment. Absolute qReal-Time PCR analysis revealed that expression of Rab7a was 2.6-fold higher than that of Rab7b. Upon latex internalization it was further 2-fold increased for Rab7a and only slightly for Rab7b. Post-transcriptional gene silencing of rab7a suppressed phagosome formation by 70 % and impaired their acidification. Ultrastructural analysis with double immunogold labeling revealed that this effect was due to the lack of V-ATPase recruitment to phagolysosomes. No significant phenotype changes were noticed in cells upon rab7b silencing. In conclusion, Rab7b acquired a new function, whereas Rab7a can be assigned to the phagolysosomal pathway. PMID:22030555

  20. Fragile X mental retardation protein and synaptic plasticity

    E-print Network

    Sidorov, Michael Samuel

    Loss of the translational repressor FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome. In healthy neurons, FMRP modulates the local translation of numerous synaptic proteins. Synthesis of these proteins is required for the maintenance and ...

  1. The Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein, FMRP, Recognizes G-Quartets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, Jennifer C.; Warren, Stephen T.; Darnell, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation is a disease caused by the loss of function of a single RNA-binding protein, FMRP. Identifying the RNA targets recognized by FMRP is likely to reveal much about its functions in controlling some aspects of memory and behavior. Recent evidence suggests that one of the predominant RNA motifs recognized by the FMRP…

  2. Deletion of PTEN Produces Deficits in Conditioned Fear and Increases Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Smith, Gregory D.; Morrison, Jessica B.; White, Jessika

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatase and tensin homolog detected on chromosome 10 (PTEN) gene product modulates activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The PI3K pathway has been found to be involved in the regulation of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which is important for long-term depression and in the formation of new…

  3. Translational complexity of the fragile x mental retardation protein: insights from the fly.

    PubMed

    Broadie, Kendal; Pan, Luyuan

    2005-03-18

    Through the awesome power of Drosophila genetics, two recent studies reveal novel mechanisms by which the Fragile X Mental Retardation protein regulates selective mRNA translation, controlling key steps of germline development during oogenesis and neuronal development during synaptogenesis. PMID:15780932

  4. Leverage principle of retardation signal in titration of double protein via chip moving reaction boundary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liu-Xia; Cao, Yi-Ren; Xiao, Hua; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Shao-Rong; Meng, Qing-Hua; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2016-03-15

    In the present work we address a simple, rapid and quantitative analytical method for detection of different proteins present in biological samples. For this, we proposed the model of titration of double protein (TDP) and its relevant leverage theory relied on the retardation signal of chip moving reaction boundary electrophoresis (MRBE). The leverage principle showed that the product of the first protein content and its absolute retardation signal is equal to that of the second protein content and its absolute one. To manifest the model, we achieved theoretical self-evidence for the demonstration of the leverage principle at first. Then relevant experiments were conducted on the TDP-MRBE chip. The results revealed that (i) there was a leverage principle of retardation signal within the TDP of two pure proteins, and (ii) a lever also existed within these two complex protein samples, evidently demonstrating the validity of TDP model and leverage theory in MRBE chip. It was also showed that the proposed technique could provide a rapid and simple quantitative analysis of two protein samples in a mixture. Finally, we successfully applied the developed technique for the quantification of soymilk in adulterated infant formula. The TDP-MRBE opens up a new window for the detection of adulteration ratio of the poor food (milk) in blended high quality one. PMID:26414025

  5. Fast protein evolution and germ line expression of a Drosophila parental gene and its young retroposed paralog.

    PubMed

    Betrán, Esther; Bai, Yongsheng; Motiwale, Mansi

    2006-11-01

    This is the first detailed study of the evolution, phylogenetic distribution, and transcription of one young retroposed gene, CG13732, and its parental gene CG15645, whose functions are unknown. CG13732 is a recognizable retroposed copy of CG15645 retaining the signals of this process. We name the parental gene Cervantes and the retrogene Quijote. To determine when this duplication occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of Quijote, we employed polymerase chain reaction, Southern blotting, and the available information on sequenced Drosophila genomes. Interestingly, these analyses revealed that Quijote is present only in 4 species of Drosophila (Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila simulans, Drosophila sechellia, and Drosophila mauritiana) and that retroposed copies of Cervantes have also originated in the lineages leading to Drosophila yakuba and Drosophila erecta independently in the 3 instances. We name the new retrogene in the D. yakuba lineage Rocinante and the new retrogene in the D. erecta lineage Sancho. In this work, we present data on Quijote and its parental gene Cervantes. Polymorphism analysis of the derived gene and divergence data for both parental and derived genes were used to determine that both genes likely produce functional proteins and that they are changing at a fast rate (KA/KS approximately 0.38). The negative value of H of Fay and Wu in the non-African sample reveals an excess of derived variants at high frequency. This could be explained either by positive selection in the region or by demographic effects. The comparative expression pattern shows that both genes express in the same adult tissues (male and female germ line) in D. melanogaster. Quijote is also expressed in male and female in D. simulans, D. sechellia, and D. mauritiana. We argue that the fast rate of evolution of these genes could be related to their putative germ line function and are further studying the independent recruitment of Cervantes-derived retrogenes in multiple lineages. PMID:16916943

  6. Ancestral paralogs and pseudoparalogs and their role in the emergence of the eukaryotic cell.

    PubMed

    Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Mekhedov, Sergey L; Mirkin, Boris G; Koonin, Eugene V

    2005-01-01

    Gene duplication is a crucial mechanism of evolutionary innovation. A substantial fraction of eukaryotic genomes consists of paralogous gene families. We assess the extent of ancestral paralogy, which dates back to the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and examine the origins of the ancestral paralogs and their potential roles in the emergence of the eukaryotic cell complexity. A parsimonious reconstruction of ancestral gene repertoires shows that 4137 orthologous gene sets in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) map back to 2150 orthologous sets in the hypothetical first eukaryotic common ancestor (FECA) [paralogy quotient (PQ) of 1.92]. Analogous reconstructions show significantly lower levels of paralogy in prokaryotes, 1.19 for archaea and 1.25 for bacteria. The only functional class of eukaryotic proteins with a significant excess of paralogous clusters over the mean includes molecular chaperones and proteins with related functions. Almost all genes in this category underwent multiple duplications during early eukaryotic evolution. In structural terms, the most prominent sets of paralogs are superstructure-forming proteins with repetitive domains, such as WD-40 and TPR. In addition to the true ancestral paralogs which evolved via duplication at the onset of eukaryotic evolution, numerous pseudoparalogs were detected, i.e. homologous genes that apparently were acquired by early eukaryotes via different routes, including horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from diverse bacteria. The results of this study demonstrate a major increase in the level of gene paralogy as a hallmark of the early evolution of eukaryotes. PMID:16106042

  7. Manipulating the fragile X mental retardation proteins in the frog.

    PubMed

    Huot, Marc-Etienne; Bisson, Nicolas; Moss, Thomas; Khandjian, Edouard W

    2012-01-01

    The frog is a model of choice to study gene function during early development, since a large number of eggs are easily obtained and rapidly develop external to the mother. This makes it a highly flexible model system in which direct tests of gene function can be investigated by microinjecting RNA antisense reagents. Two members of the Fragile X Related (FXR) gene family, namely xFmr1 and xFxr1 have been identified in Xenopus. While the tissue distribution of their products was found to be identical to that in mammals, the pattern of isoform expression is less complex. Translational silencing of the xFmr1 and xFxr1 mRNAs by microinjection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) induced dramatic morphological alterations, revealing tissue-specific requirements for each protein during development and in maintaining the steady state levels of a range of transcripts in these tissues. The power and versatility of the frog model is that the MO-induced phenotypes can be rescued by microinjection of the corresponding MO-insensitive mRNAs. Most importantly, this animal model allows one rapidly to determine whether any member of the FXR family can compensate for the absence of another, an approach that cannot be performed in other animal models. PMID:22009352

  8. Regulation of Heart Rate in Drosophila via Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Stefanie Mares; Joardar, Archi; Gregorio, Carol C.; Zarnescu, Daniela C.

    2015-01-01

    RNA binding proteins play a pivotal role in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation, however little is understood about their role in cardiac function. The Fragile X (FraX) family of RNA binding proteins is most commonly studied in the context of neurological disorders, as mutations in Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) are the leading cause of inherited mental retardation. More recently, alterations in the levels of Fragile X Related 1 protein, FXR1, the predominant FraX member expressed in vertebrate striated muscle, have been linked to structural and functional defects in mice and zebrafish models. FraX proteins are established regulators of translation and are known to regulate specific targets in different tissues. To decipher the direct role of FraX proteins in the heart in vivo, we turned to Drosophila, which harbors a sole, functionally conserved and ubiquitously expressed FraX protein, dFmr1. Using classical loss of function alleles as well as muscle specific RNAi knockdown, we show that Drosophila FMRP, dFmr1, is required for proper heart rate during development. Functional analyses in the context of cardiac-specific dFmr1 knockdown by RNAi demonstrate that dFmr1 is required cell autonomously in cardiac cells for regulating heart rate. Interestingly, these functional defects are not accompanied by any obvious structural abnormalities, suggesting that dFmr1 may regulate a different repertoire of targets in Drosophila than in vertebrates. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that dFmr1 protein is essential for proper cardiac function and establish the fly as a new model for studying the role(s) of FraX proteins in the heart. PMID:26571124

  9. The amino-terminal structure of human fragile X mental retardation protein obtained using precipitant-immobilized imprinted polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yufeng; Chen, Zhenhang; Fu, Yanjun; He, Qingzhong; Jiang, Lun; Zheng, Jiangge; Gao, Yina; Mei, Pinchao; Chen, Zhongzhou; Ren, Xueqin

    2015-03-01

    Flexibility is an intrinsic property of proteins and essential for their biological functions. However, because of structural flexibility, obtaining high-quality crystals of proteins with heterogeneous conformations remain challenging. Here, we show a novel approach to immobilize traditional precipitants onto molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) to facilitate protein crystallization, especially for flexible proteins. By applying this method, high-quality crystals of the flexible N-terminus of human fragile X mental retardation protein are obtained, whose absence causes the most common inherited mental retardation. A novel KH domain and an intermolecular disulfide bond are discovered, and several types of dimers are found in solution, thus providing insights into the function of this protein. Furthermore, the precipitant-immobilized MIPs (piMIPs) successfully facilitate flexible protein crystal formation for five model proteins with increased diffraction resolution. This highlights the potential of piMIPs for the crystallization of flexible proteins.

  10. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates synaptic and behavioral plasticity to repeated cocaine administration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laura N.; Jedynak, Jakub P.; Fontenot, Miles R.; Hale, Carly F.; Dietz, Karen C.; Taniguchi, Makoto; Thomas, Feba S.; Zirlin, Benjamin C.; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Huber, Kimberly M.; Thomas, Mark J.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Repeated cocaine exposure causes persistent, maladaptive alterations in brain and behavior, and hope for effective therapeutics lies in understanding these processes. We describe here an essential role for fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), an RNA-binding protein and regulator of dendritic protein synthesis, in cocaine conditioned place preference, behavioral sensitization and motor stereotypy. Cocaine reward deficits in FMRP-deficient mice stem from elevated mGluR5 function, similar to a subset of Fragile X symptoms, and do not extend to natural reward. We find that FMRP functions in the adult nucleus accumbens (NAc), a critical addiction-related brain region, to mediate behavioral sensitization, but not cocaine reward. FMRP-deficient mice also exhibit several abnormalities in NAc medium spiny neurons, including reduced presynaptic function and premature changes in dendritic morphology and glutamatergic neurotransmission following repeated cocaine treatment. Together, our findings reveal FMRP as a novel mediator of cocaine-induced behavioral and synaptic plasticity. PMID:24811383

  11. GABAB receptor upregulates fragile X mental retardation protein expression in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenhua; Xu, Chanjuan; Tu, Haijun; Wang, Yunyun; Sun, Qian; Hu, Ping; Hu, Yongjian; Rondard, Philippe; Liu, Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein important for the control of translation and synaptic function. The mutation or silencing of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), which leads to intellectual disability and social impairment. ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian central nervous system, and its metabotropic GABAB receptor has been implicated in various mental disorders. The GABAB receptor agonist baclofen has been shown to improve FXS symptoms in a mouse model and in human patients, but the signaling events linking the GABAB receptor and FMRP are unknown. In this study, we found that GABAB receptor activation upregulated cAMP response element binding protein-dependent Fmrp expression in cultured mouse cerebellar granule neurons via two distinct mechanisms: the transactivation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and activation of protein kinase C. In addition, a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAB receptor, CGP7930, stimulated Fmrp expression in neurons. These results suggest a role for GABAB receptor in Fmrp regulation and a potential interest of GABAB receptor signaling in FXS improvement. PMID:26020477

  12. Expression of TMEM16 paralogs during murine embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rock, Jason R; Harfe, Brian D

    2008-09-01

    The TMEM16 protein family has recently been identified through several different experimental strategies including bioinformatic and microarray-based approaches. In mice and humans, there exist 10 paralogs with each containing eight putative transmembrane domains and a conserved C-terminal domain of unknown function. Mutation of at least one member of this family is associated with a human disorder, and several members of this gene family are overexpressed in different types of cancer. Despite their apparent relevance to normal development and disease, little is known about the expression of TMEM16 paralogs during embryonic development. Here, we provide a phylogenetic analysis of mouse and human TMEM16 paralogs and report the expression of Tmem16a, Tmem16b, Tmem16c, Tmem16f, Tmem16h, Tmem16j, and Tmem16k during murine embryogenesis with an emphasis on the respiratory, digestive, skeletal, and integumentary systems. These data should encourage investigations into the functions of TMEM16 paralogs in vertebrate development. PMID:18729231

  13. Fragile X mental retardation protein stimulates ribonucleoprotein assembly of influenza A virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhuo; Cao, Mengmeng; Guo, Yang; Zhao, Lili; Wang, Jingfeng; Jia, Xue; Li, Jianguo; Wang, Conghui; Gabriel, Gülsah; Xue, Qinghua; Yi, Yonghong; Cui, Sheng; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei; Deng, Tao

    2014-02-01

    The ribonucleoprotein (RNP) of the influenza A virus is responsible for the transcription and replication of viral RNA in the nucleus. These processes require interplay between host factors and RNP components. Here, we report that the Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) targets influenza virus RNA synthesis machinery and facilitates virus replication both in cell culture and in mice. We demonstrate that FMRP transiently associates with viral RNP and stimulates viral RNP assembly through RNA-mediated interaction with the nucleoprotein. Furthermore, the KH2 domain of FMRP mediates its association with the nucleoprotein. A point mutation (I304N) in the KH2 domain, identified from a Fragile X syndrome patient, disrupts the FMRP-nucleoprotein association and abolishes the ability of FMRP to participate in viral RNP assembly. We conclude that FMRP is a critical host factor used by influenza viruses to facilitate viral RNP assembly. Our observation reveals a mechanism of influenza virus RNA synthesis and provides insights into FMRP functions.

  14. Olfactory discrimination learning in mice lacking the fragile X mental retardation protein.

    PubMed

    Larson, John; Kim, Daniel; Patel, Roseanne C; Floreani, Christina

    2008-07-01

    An automated training system was used to compare the behavior of knockout (KO) mice lacking the fragile X mental retardation protein with that of wild-type (WT) mice (C57Bl/6 strain) in the acquisition and retention of olfactory discriminations. KO and WT mice did not differ in the acquisition of a four-stage nose poke shaping procedure. In two separate experiments, mutant mice required substantially more training to acquire a series of novel olfactory discrimination problems than did control mice. The KO mice required significantly more sessions to reach criterion performance, made significantly more errors during training, and more often failed to acquire discriminations. Both KO and WT mice showed similar error patterns when learning novel discriminations and both groups showed evidence of more rapid learning of later discriminations in the problem series. Both groups showed significant long-term memory two or four weeks after training but WT and KO mice did not differ in this regard. A group of well-trained mice were given training on novel odors in sessions limited to 20-80 trials. Memory of these problems at two day delays did not differ between WT and KO mice. Tests using ethyl acetate demonstrated that WT and KO mice had similar odor detection thresholds. PMID:18289890

  15. Fragile X mental retardation protein regulates trans-synaptic signaling in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Samuel H.; Dani, Neil; Rushton, Emma; Broadie, Kendal

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited determinant of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders, is caused by loss of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene product (FMRP), an mRNA-binding translational repressor. A number of conserved FMRP targets have been identified in the well-characterized Drosophila FXS disease model, but FMRP is highly pleiotropic in function and the full spectrum of FMRP targets has yet to be revealed. In this study, screens for upregulated neural proteins in Drosophila fmr1 (dfmr1) null mutants reveal strong elevation of two synaptic heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs): GPI-anchored glypican Dally-like protein (Dlp) and transmembrane Syndecan (Sdc). Our recent work has shown that Dlp and Sdc act as co-receptors regulating extracellular ligands upstream of intracellular signal transduction in multiple trans-synaptic pathways that drive synaptogenesis. Consistently, dfmr1 null synapses exhibit altered WNT signaling, with changes in both Wingless (Wg) ligand abundance and downstream Frizzled-2 (Fz2) receptor C-terminal nuclear import. Similarly, a parallel anterograde signaling ligand, Jelly belly (Jeb), and downstream ERK phosphorylation (dpERK) are depressed at dfmr1 null synapses. In contrast, the retrograde BMP ligand Glass bottom boat (Gbb) and downstream signaling via phosphorylation of the transcription factor MAD (pMAD) seem not to be affected. To determine whether HSPG upregulation is causative for synaptogenic defects, HSPGs were genetically reduced to control levels in the dfmr1 null background. HSPG correction restored both (1) Wg and Jeb trans-synaptic signaling, and (2) synaptic architecture and transmission strength back to wild-type levels. Taken together, these data suggest that FMRP negatively regulates HSPG co-receptors controlling trans-synaptic signaling during synaptogenesis, and that loss of this regulation causes synaptic structure and function defects characterizing the FXS disease state. PMID:24046358

  16. The Stage- and Cell Type-Specific Localization of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein in Rat Ovaries.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Tarumi, Wataru; Itoh, Masanori T; Ishizuka, Bunpei

    2015-12-01

    Premutations of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene are associated with increased risk of primary ovarian insufficiency. Here we examined the localization of the Fmr1 gene protein product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), in rat ovaries at different stages, including fetus, neonate, and old age. In ovaries dissected from 19 days postcoitum embryos, the germ cells were divided into 2 types: one with decondensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP positive in the cytoplasm, but the other with strongly condensed chromatin in the nucleus was FMRP negative in the cytoplasm. The FMRP was predominantly localized to the cytoplasm of oocytes in growing ovarian follicles. Levels of FMRP in oocytes from elderly (9 or 14 months of age) ovaries were lower than in those from younger ovaries. These results suggest that FMRP is associated with the activation of oogenesis and oocyte function. Especially, FMRP is likely to be implicated in germline development during oogenesis. PMID:26037301

  17. Differential domain evolution and complex RNA processing in a family of paralogous EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes facilitates expression of diverse tissue-specific isoforms

    SciTech Connect

    Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry; Chan, Nadine; Ryaboy, Dmitriy; Dubchak, Inna; Narla, Mohandas; Gascard, Philippe D.; Conboy, John G.

    2004-07-15

    The EPB41 (protein 4.1) genes epitomize the resourcefulness of the mammalian genome to encode a complex proteome from a small number of genes. By utilizing alternative transcriptional promoters and tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing, EPB41, EPB41L2, EPB41L3, and EPB41L1 encode a diverse array of structural adapter proteins. Comparative genomic and transcript analysis of these 140kb-240kb genes indicates several unusual features: differential evolution of highly conserved exons encoding known functional domains, interspersed with unique exons whose size and sequence variations contribute substantially to intergenic diversity: alternative first exons, most of which map far upstream of the coding regions; and complex tissue-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing that facilitates synthesis of functionally different complements of 4.1 proteins in various cells. Understanding the splicing regulatory networks that control protein 4.1 expression will be critical to a full appreciation of the many roles of 4.1 proteins in normal cell biology and their proposed roles in human cancer.

  18. Structural Studies of the Tandem Tudor Domains of Fragile X Mental Retardation Related Proteins FXR1 and FXR2

    SciTech Connect

    Adams-Cioaba, Melanie A.; Guo, Yahong; Bian, ChuanBing; Amaya, Maria F.; Lam, Robert; Wasney, Gregory A.; Vedadi, Masoud; Xu, Chao; Min, Jinrong

    2011-11-23

    Expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat in the 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1, fragile X mental retardation 1, gene results in suppression of protein expression for this gene and is the underlying cause of Fragile X syndrome. In unaffected individuals, the FMRP protein, together with two additional paralogues (Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome-related Protein 1 and 2), associates with mRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex in the nucleus that is transported to dendrites and spines of neuronal cells. It is thought that the fragile X family of proteins contributes to the regulation of protein synthesis at sites where mRNAs are locally translated in response to stimuli. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the non-canonical nuclear localization signals of the FXR1 and FXR2 autosomal paralogues of FMRP, which were determined at 2.50 and 1.92 {angstrom}, respectively. The nuclear localization signals of the FXR1 and FXR2 comprise tandem Tudor domain architectures, closely resembling that of UHRF1, which is proposed to bind methylated histone H3K9. The FMRP, FXR1 and FXR2 proteins comprise a small family of highly conserved proteins that appear to be important in translational regulation, particularly in neuronal cells. The crystal structures of the N-terminal tandem Tudor domains of FXR1 and FXR2 revealed a conserved architecture with that of FMRP. Biochemical analysis of the tandem Tudor doamins reveals their ability to preferentially recognize trimethylated peptides in a sequence-specific manner.

  19. Scaffold attachment factor B2 (SAFB2)-null mice reveal non-redundant functions of SAFB2 compared with its paralog, SAFB1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shiming; Katz, Tiffany A; Garee, Jason P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lee, Adrian V; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2015-09-01

    Scaffold attachment factors SAFB1 and SAFB2 are multifunctional proteins that share >70% sequence similarity. SAFB1-knockout (SAFB1(-/-)) mice display a high degree of lethality, severe growth retardation, and infertility in male mice. To assess the in vivo role of SAFB2, and to identify unique functions of the two paralogs, we generated SAFB2(-/-) mice. In stark contrast to SAFB1(-/-), SAFB2(-/-) offspring were born at expected Mendelian ratios and did not show any obvious defects in growth or fertility. Generation of paralog-specific antibodies allowed extensive expression analysis of SAFB1 and SAFB2 in mouse tissues, showing high expression of both SAFB1 and SAFB2 in the immune system, and in hormonally controlled tissues, with especially high expression of SAFB2 in the male reproductive tract. Further analysis showed a significantly increased testis weight in SAFB2(-/-) mice, which was associated with an increased number of Sertoli cells. Our data suggest that this is at least in part caused by alterations in androgen-receptor function and expression upon deletion of SAFB2. Thus, despite a high degree of sequence similarity, SAFB1(-/-) and SAFB2(-/-) mice do not totally phenocopy each other. SAFB2(-/-) mice are viable, and do not show any major defects, and our data suggest a role for SAFB2 in the differentiation and activity of Sertoli cells that deserves further study. PMID:26092125

  20. Scaffold attachment factor B2 (SAFB2)-null mice reveal non-redundant functions of SAFB2 compared with its paralog, SAFB1

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shiming; Katz, Tiffany A.; Garee, Jason P.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lee, Adrian V.; Oesterreich, Steffi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scaffold attachment factors SAFB1 and SAFB2 are multifunctional proteins that share >70% sequence similarity. SAFB1-knockout (SAFB1?/?) mice display a high degree of lethality, severe growth retardation, and infertility in male mice. To assess the in vivo role of SAFB2, and to identify unique functions of the two paralogs, we generated SAFB2?/? mice. In stark contrast to SAFB1?/?, SAFB2?/? offspring were born at expected Mendelian ratios and did not show any obvious defects in growth or fertility. Generation of paralog-specific antibodies allowed extensive expression analysis of SAFB1 and SAFB2 in mouse tissues, showing high expression of both SAFB1 and SAFB2 in the immune system, and in hormonally controlled tissues, with especially high expression of SAFB2 in the male reproductive tract. Further analysis showed a significantly increased testis weight in SAFB2?/? mice, which was associated with an increased number of Sertoli cells. Our data suggest that this is at least in part caused by alterations in androgen-receptor function and expression upon deletion of SAFB2. Thus, despite a high degree of sequence similarity, SAFB1?/? and SAFB2?/? mice do not totally phenocopy each other. SAFB2?/? mice are viable, and do not show any major defects, and our data suggest a role for SAFB2 in the differentiation and activity of Sertoli cells that deserves further study. PMID:26092125

  1. Functional diversification of vitamin D receptor paralogs in teleost fish after a whole genome duplication event.

    PubMed

    Kollitz, Erin M; Hawkins, Mary Beth; Whitfield, G Kerr; Kullman, Seth W

    2014-12-01

    The diversity and success of teleost fishes (Actinopterygii) has been attributed to three successive rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD). WGDs provide a source of raw genetic material for evolutionary forces to act upon, resulting in the divergence of genes with altered or novel functions. The retention of multiple gene pairs (paralogs) in teleosts provides a unique opportunity to study how genes diversify and evolve after a WGD. This study examines the hypothesis that vitamin D receptor (VDR) paralogs (VDR? and VDR?) from two distantly related teleost orders have undergone functional divergence subsequent to the teleost-specific WGD. VDR? and VDR? paralogs were cloned from the Japanese medaka (Beloniformes) and the zebrafish (Cypriniformes). Initial transactivation studies using 1?, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 revealed that although VDR? and VDR? maintain similar ligand potency, the maximum efficacy of VDR? was significantly attenuated compared with VDR? in both species. Subsequent analyses revealed that VDR? and VDR? maintain highly similar ligand affinities; however, VDR? demonstrated preferential DNA binding compared with VDR?. Protein-protein interactions between the VDR paralogs and essential nuclear receptor coactivators were investigated using transactivation and mammalian two-hybrid assays. Our results imply that functional differences between VDR? and VDR? occurred early in teleost evolution because they are conserved between distantly related species. Our results further suggest that the observed differences may be associated with differential protein-protein interactions between the VDR paralogs and coactivators. We speculate that the observed functional differences are due to subtle ligand-induced conformational differences between the two paralogs, leading to divergent downstream functions. PMID:25279795

  2. Deficiency of a protein-repair enzyme results in the accumulation of altered proteins, retardation of growth, and fatal seizures in?mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Edward; Lowenson, Jonathan D.; MacLaren, Duncan C.; Clarke, Steven; Young, Stephen G.

    1997-01-01

    l-Asparaginyl and l-aspartyl residues in proteins are subject to spontaneous degradation reactions that generate isomerized and racemized aspartyl derivatives. Proteins containing l-isoaspartyl and d-aspartyl residues can have altered structures and diminished biological activity. These residues are recognized by a highly conserved cytosolic enzyme, the protein l-isoaspartate(d-aspartate) O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.77). The enzymatic methyl esterification of these abnormal residues in vitro can lead to their conversion (i.e., repair) to normal l-aspartyl residues and should therefore prevent the accumulation of potentially dysfunctional proteins in vivo as cells and tissues age. Particularly high levels of the repair methyltransferase are present in the brain, although enyzme activity is present in all vertebrate tissues. To define the physiological relevance of this protein-repair pathway and to determine whether deficient protein repair would cause central nervous system dysfunction, we used gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells to generate protein l-isoaspartate(d-aspartate) O-methyltransferase-deficient mice. Analyses of tissues from methyltransferase knockout mice revealed a striking accumulation of protein substrates for this enzyme in the cytosolic fraction of brain, heart, liver, and erythrocytes. The knockout mice showed significant growth retardation and succumbed to fatal seizures at an average of 42 days after birth. These results suggest that the ability of mice to repair l-isoaspartyl- and d-aspartyl-containing proteins is essential for normal growth and for normal central nervous system function. PMID:9177182

  3. Boronate Complex Formation with Dopa Containing Mussel Adhesive Protein Retards pH-Induced Oxidation and Enables Adhesion to Mica

    PubMed Central

    Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Chen, Yunfei; Waite, J. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The biochemistry of mussel adhesion has inspired the design of surface primers, adhesives, coatings and gels for technological applications. These mussel-inspired systems often focus on incorporating the amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (Dopa) or a catecholic analog into a polymer. Unfortunately, effective use of Dopa is compromised by its susceptibility to auto-oxidation at neutral pH. Oxidation can lead to loss of adhesive function and undesired covalent cross-linking. Mussel foot protein 5 (Mfp-5), which contains ?30 mole % Dopa, is a superb adhesive under reducing conditions but becomes nonadhesive after pH-induced oxidation. Here we report that the bidentate complexation of borate by Dopa to form a catecholato-boronate can be exploited to retard oxidation. Although exposure of Mfp-5 to neutral pH typically oxidizes Dopa, resulting in a>95% decrease in adhesion, inclusion of borate retards oxidation at the same pH. Remarkably, this Dopa-boronate complex dissociates upon contact with mica to allow for a reversible Dopa-mediated adhesion. The borate protection strategy allows for Dopa redox stability and maintained adhesive function in an otherwise oxidizing environment. PMID:25303409

  4. Boronate complex formation with Dopa containing mussel adhesive protein retards ph-induced oxidation and enables adhesion to mica.

    PubMed

    Kan, Yajing; Danner, Eric W; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Chen, Yunfei; Waite, J Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The biochemistry of mussel adhesion has inspired the design of surface primers, adhesives, coatings and gels for technological applications. These mussel-inspired systems often focus on incorporating the amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (Dopa) or a catecholic analog into a polymer. Unfortunately, effective use of Dopa is compromised by its susceptibility to auto-oxidation at neutral pH. Oxidation can lead to loss of adhesive function and undesired covalent cross-linking. Mussel foot protein 5 (Mfp-5), which contains ? 30 mole % Dopa, is a superb adhesive under reducing conditions but becomes nonadhesive after pH-induced oxidation. Here we report that the bidentate complexation of borate by Dopa to form a catecholato-boronate can be exploited to retard oxidation. Although exposure of Mfp-5 to neutral pH typically oxidizes Dopa, resulting in a>95% decrease in adhesion, inclusion of borate retards oxidation at the same pH. Remarkably, this Dopa-boronate complex dissociates upon contact with mica to allow for a reversible Dopa-mediated adhesion. The borate protection strategy allows for Dopa redox stability and maintained adhesive function in an otherwise oxidizing environment. PMID:25303409

  5. Fragile X mental retardation protein controls synaptic vesicle exocytosis by modulating N-type calcium channel density

    PubMed Central

    Ferron, Laurent; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Cassidy, John S.; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable form of mental retardation, is characterized by synaptic dysfunction. Synaptic transmission depends critically on presynaptic calcium entry via voltage-gated calcium (CaV) channels. Here we show that the functional expression of neuronal N-type CaV channels (CaV2.2) is regulated by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). We find that FMRP knockdown in dorsal root ganglion neurons increases CaV channel density in somata and in presynaptic terminals. We then show that FMRP controls CaV2.2 surface expression by targeting the channels to the proteasome for degradation. The interaction between FMRP and CaV2.2 occurs between the carboxy-terminal domain of FMRP and domains of CaV2.2 known to interact with the neurotransmitter release machinery. Finally, we show that FMRP controls synaptic exocytosis via CaV2.2 channels. Our data indicate that FMRP is a potent regulator of presynaptic activity, and its loss is likely to contribute to synaptic dysfunction in FXS. PMID:24709664

  6. Orthologs, paralogs and genome comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gogarten, J. P.; Olendzenski, L.

    1999-01-01

    During the past decade, ancient gene duplications were recognized as one of the main forces in the generation of diverse gene families and the creation of new functional capabilities. New tools developed to search data banks for homologous sequences, and an increased availability of reliable three-dimensional structural information led to the recognition that proteins with diverse functions can belong to the same superfamily. Analyses of the evolution of these superfamilies promises to provide insights into early evolution but are complicated by several important evolutionary processes. Horizontal transfer of genes can lead to a vertical spread of innovations among organisms, therefore finding a certain property in some descendants of an ancestor does not guarantee that it was present in that ancestor. Complete or partial gene conversion between duplicated genes can yield phylogenetic trees with several, apparently independent gene duplications, suggesting an often surprising parallelism in the evolution of independent lineages. Additionally, the breakup of domains within a protein and the fusion of domains into multifunctional proteins makes the delineation of superfamilies a task that remains difficult to automate.

  7. Learning and Behavioral Deficits Associated with the Absence of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: What a Fly and Mouse Model Can Teach Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana Rita; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros K.; Bagni, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent form of inherited mental disability and is considered a monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder. FXS is caused by a triplet expansion that inhibits the expression of the "FMR1" gene. The gene product, the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), regulates mRNA metabolism in brain…

  8. FRAXE-associated mental retardation protein (FMR2) is an RNA-binding protein with high affinity for G-quartet RNA forming structure

    PubMed Central

    Bensaid, Mounia; Melko, Mireille; Bechara, Elias G.; Davidovic, Laetitia; Berretta, Antonio; Catania, Maria Vincenza; Gecz, Jozef; Lalli, Enzo; Bardoni, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    FRAXE is a form of mild to moderate mental retardation due to the silencing of the FMR2 gene. The cellular function of FMR2 protein is presently unknown. By analogy with its homologue AF4, FMR2 was supposed to have a role in transcriptional regulation, but robust evidences supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We observed that FMR2 co-localizes with the splicing factor SC35 in nuclear speckles, the nuclear regions where splicing factors are concentrated, assembled and modified. Similarly to what was reported for splicing factors, blocking splicing or transcription leads to the accumulation of FMR2 in enlarged, rounded speckles. FMR2 is also localized in the nucleolus when splicing is blocked. We show here that FMR2 is able to specifically bind the G-quartet-forming RNA structure with high affinity. Remarkably, in vivo, in the presence of FMR2, the ESE action of the G-quartet situated in mRNA of an alternatively spliced exon of a minigene or of the putative target FMR1 appears reduced. Interestingly, FMR1 is silenced in the fragile X syndrome, another form of mental retardation. All together, our findings strongly suggest that FMR2 is an RNA-binding protein, which might be involved in alternative splicing regulation through an interaction with G-quartet RNA structure. PMID:19136466

  9. Differential Selection within the Drosophila Retinal Determination Network and Evidence for Functional Divergence between Paralog Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Rhea R.; Cruickshank, Tami; Kumar, Justin P.

    2011-01-01

    The retinal determination (RD) network in Drosophila comprises fourteen known nuclear proteins that include DNA binding proteins, transcriptional co-activators, kinases and phosphatases. The composition of the network varies considerably throughout the animal kingdom, with the network in several basal insects having fewer members and with vertebrates having potentially significantly higher numbers of retinal determination genes. One important contributing factor for the variation in gene number within the network is gene duplication. For example, ten members of the RD network in Drosophila are derived from duplication events. Here we present an analysis of the coding regions of the five pairs of duplicate genes from within the retinal determination network of several different Drosophila species. We demonstrate that there is differential selection across the coding regions of all RD genes. Additionally, some of the most significant differences in ratios of non-silent to silent site substitutions (dN/dS) between paralog pairs are found within regions that have no ascribed function. Previous structure/function analyses of several duplicate genes have identified areas within one gene that contain novel activities when compared to its paralog. The evolutionary analysis presented here identifies these same areas in the paralogs as being under high levels of relaxed selection. We suggest that sequence divergence between paralogs and selection signatures can be used as a reasonable predictor of functional changes in rapidly evolving motifs. PMID:21210943

  10. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At ?5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein?low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein?high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  11. Brominated flame retardants, tetrabromobisphenol A and hexabromocyclododecane, activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Cato, Anita; Celada, Lindsay; Kibakaya, Esther Caroline; Simmons, Nadia; Whalen, Margaret M

    2014-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells provide a vital surveillance against virally infected cells, tumor cells, and antibody-coated cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and gamma interferon (IFN-?). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used primarily in expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for thermal insulation in the building and construction industry. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is used both as a reactive and an additive flame retardant in a variety of materials. HBCD and TBBPA contaminate the environment and are found in human blood samples. In previous studies, we have shown that other environmental contaminants, such as the dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), decrease NK lytic function by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the NK cells. HBCD and TBBPA also interfere with NK cell(s) lytic function. The current study evaluates whether HBCD and/or TBBPA have the capacity to activate MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). The effects of concentrations of HBCD and TBBPA that inhibited lytic function on the phosphorylation state and total levels of the MAPKs (p44/42, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation and total levels of the MAP2Ks (MEK1/2 and MKK3/6) were examined. Results indicate that exposure of human NK cells to 10-0.5 ?M HBCD or TBBPA activate MAPKs and MAP2Ks. This HBCD and TBBPA-induced activation of MAPKs may leave them unavailable for activation by virally infected or tumor target cells and thus contributes to the observed decreases in lytic function seen in NK cells exposed to HBCD and TBBPA. PMID:25341744

  12. Brominated Flame Retardants, Tetrabromobisphenol A and Hexabromocyclododecane, Activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Human Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cato, Anita; Celada, Lindsay; Kibakaya, Esther Caroline; Simmons, Nadia; Whalen, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    NK cells provide a vital surveillance against virally infected cells, tumor cells, and antibody-coated cells through the release of cytolytic mediators and gamma interferon (IFN-?). Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) is a brominated flame retardant used primarily in expanded (EPS) and extruded (XPS) polystyrene foams for thermal insulation in the building and construction industry. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is used both as a reactive and an additive flame retardant in a variety of materials. HBCD and TBBPA contaminate the environment and are found in human blood samples. In previous studies, we have shown that other environmental contaminants, such as the dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT), decrease NK lytic function by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the NK cells. HBCD and TBBPA also interfere with NK cell(s) lytic function. The current study evaluates whether HBCD and/or TBBPA have the capacity to activate MAPKs and MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). The effects of concentrations of HBCD and TBBPA that inhibited lytic function on the phosphorylation state and total levels of the MAPKs (p44/42, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation and total levels of the MAP2Ks (MEK1/2 and MKK3/6) were examined. Results indicate that exposure of human NK cells to 10-0.5 µM HBCD or TBBPA activate MAPKs and MAP2Ks. This HBCD and TBBPA-induced activation of MAPKs may leave them unavailable for activation by virally infected or tumor target cells and thus contributes to the observed decreases in lytic function seen in NK cells exposed to HBCD and TBBPA. PMID:25341744

  13. ER stress-induced protein, VIGG, disturbs plant cation homeostasis, which is correlated with growth retardation and robustness to ER stress

    SciTech Connect

    Katoh, Hironori; Fujita, Keiko; Takuhara, Yuki; Ogawa, Atsushi; Suzuki, Shunji

    2011-02-18

    Highlights: {yields} VIGG is an ER stress-induced protein in plant. {yields} We examine the characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing Arabidopsis plants. {yields} VIGG-overexpressing plants reveal growth retardation and robustness to ER stress. {yields} VIGG disturbs cation homeostasis in plant. -- Abstract: VIGG is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein induced by virus infection and ER stress, and is correlated with fruit quality in grapevine. The present study was undertaken to determine the biological function of VIGG in grapevine. Experiments using fluorescent protein-VIGG fusion protein demonstrated that VIGG is localized in ER and the ER targeting sequence is in the N-terminus. The overexpression of VIGG in Arabidopsis plant led to growth retardation. The rosette leaves of VIGG-overexpressing plants were smaller than those of the control plants and rolled at 42 days after seeding. VIGG-overexpressing plants revealed robustness to ER stress as well as the low expression of ER stress marker proteins, such as the luminal binding proteins. These characteristics of VIGG-overexpressing plants were supported by a microarray experiment that demonstrated the disruption of genes related to ER stress response and flowering, as well as cation mobility, in the plants. Finally, cation homeostasis in the plants was disturbed by the overexpression of VIGG. Taken together, these results suggest that VIGG may disturb cation homeostasis in plant, which is correlated with the robustness to ER stress and growth retardation.

  14. Subcellular Fractionation and Localization Studies Reveal a Direct Interaction of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) with Nucleolin

    PubMed Central

    Taha, Mohamed S.; Nouri, Kazem; Milroy, Lech G.; Moll, Jens M.; Herrmann, Christian; Brunsveld, Luc; Piekorz, Roland P.; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X mental Retardation Protein (FMRP) is a well-known regulator of local translation of its mRNA targets in neurons. However, despite its ubiquitous expression, the role of FMRP remains ill-defined in other cell types. In this study we investigated the subcellular distribution of FMRP and its protein complexes in HeLa cells using confocal imaging as well as detergent-free fractionation and size exclusion protocols. We found FMRP localized exclusively to solid compartments, including cytosolic heavy and light membranes, mitochondria, nuclear membrane and nucleoli. Interestingly, FMRP was associated with nucleolin in both a high molecular weight ribosomal and translation-associated complex (?6 MDa) in the cytosol, and a low molecular weight complex (?200 kDa) in the nucleoli. Consistently, we identified two functional nucleolar localization signals (NoLSs) in FMRP that are responsible for a strong nucleolar colocalization of the C-terminus of FMRP with nucleolin, and a direct interaction of the N-terminus of FMRP with the arginine-glycine-glycine (RGG) domain of nucleolin. Taken together, we propose a novel mechanism by which a transient nucleolar localization of FMRP underlies a strong nucleocytoplasmic translocation, most likely in a complex with nucleolin and possibly ribosomes, in order to regulate translation of its target mRNAs. PMID:24658146

  15. Two CDC42 paralogs modulate C. neoformans thermotolerance and morphogenesis under host physiological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ballou, Elizabeth R.; Nichols, Connie B.; Miglia, Kathleen J; Kozubowski, Lukasz; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The precise regulation of morphogenesis is a key mechanism by which cells respond to a variety of stresses, including those encountered by microbial pathogens in the host. The polarity protein Cdc42 regulates cellular morphogenesis throughout eukaryotes, and we explore the role of Cdc42 proteins in the host survival of the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Uniquely, C. neoformans has two functional Cdc42 paralogs, Cdc42 and Cdc420. Here we investigate the contribution of each paralog to resistance to host stress. In contrast to non-pathogenic model organisms, C. neoformans Cdc42 proteins are not required for viability under non-stress conditions. In the presence of cell stress, strains deleted for either paralog show defects in thermotolerance and morphogenesis, likely as a result of their roles in the organization of actin and septin structures during bud growth and cytokinesis. These proteins act downstream of C. neoformans Ras1 to regulate its morphogenesis subpathway, but not its effects on mating. Cdc42, and not Cdc420, is required for virulence in a murine model of cryptococcosis. The C. neoformans Cdc42 proteins likely perform complementary functions with other Rho-like GTPases to control cell polarity, septin organization, and hyphal transitions that allow survival in the environment and in the host. PMID:20025659

  16. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hester S; Koolen, Lucas A E; Dingemans, Milou M L; Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa; Leonards, Pim E G; Ramakers, Geert M J; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate (ZS), whereas the neurotoxic potential of other HFFRs, such as aluminum diethylphosphinate (Alpi), appears low. However, the in vivo (neuro)toxicity of these compounds is largely unknown. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exposure to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on synaptic plasticity in mouse hippocampus. Male C57bl/6 mice received a single oral dose of 211 µmol/kg bw TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on postnatal day (PND) 10. On PND 17-19, effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity were investigated using ex vivo extracellular field recordings. Additionally, we measured levels of postsynaptic proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as flame retardant concentrations in brain, muscle and liver tissues. All three flame retardants induced minor, but insignificant, effects on LTP. Additionally, TBBPA induced a minor decrease in post-tetanic potentiation. Despite these minor effects, expression of selected synaptic proteins involved in LTP was not affected. The flame retardants could not be measured in significant amounts in the brains, suggesting low bioavailability and/or rapid elimination/metabolism. We therefore conclude that a single neonatal exposure on PND 10 to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS does affect neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity only to a small extent in mice. Additional data, in particular on persistence, bioaccumulation and (in vivo) toxicity, following prolonged (developmental) exposure are required for further (human) risk assessment. PMID:25253649

  17. IL-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 associated with mental retardation and autism mediates synapse formation by trans-synaptic interaction with protein tyrosine phosphatase ?.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Yasumura, Misato; Uemura, Takeshi; Lee, Sung-Jin; Ra, Moonjin; Taguchi, Ryo; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2011-09-21

    Mental retardation (MR) and autism are highly heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. IL-1-receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) is responsible for nonsyndromic MR and is associated with autism. Thus, the elucidation of the functional role of IL1RAPL1 will contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of these mental disorders. Here, we showed that knockdown of endogenous IL1RAPL1 in cultured cortical neurons suppressed the accumulation of punctate staining signals for active zone protein Bassoon and decreased the number of dendritic protrusions. Consistently, the expression of IL1RAPL1 in cultured neurons stimulated the accumulation of Bassoon and spinogenesis. The extracellular domain (ECD) of IL1RAPL1 was required and sufficient for the presynaptic differentiation-inducing activity, while both the ECD and cytoplasmic domain were essential for the spinogenic activity. Notably, the synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was specific for excitatory synapses. Furthermore, we identified presynaptic protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) ? as a major IL1RAPL1-ECD interacting protein by affinity chromatography. IL1RAPL1 interacted selectively with certain forms of PTP? splice variants carrying mini-exon peptides in Ig-like domains. The synaptogenic activity of IL1RAPL1 was abolished in primary neurons from PTP? knock-out mice. IL1RAPL1 showed robust synaptogenic activity in vivo when transfected into the cortical neurons of wild-type mice but not in PTP? knock-out mice. These results suggest that IL1RAPL1 mediates synapse formation through trans-synaptic interaction with PTP?. Our findings raise an intriguing possibility that the impairment of synapse formation may underlie certain forms of MR and autism as a common pathogenic pathway shared by these mental disorders. PMID:21940441

  18. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for programmed cell death and clearance of developmentally-transient peptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Cheryl L; Broadie, Kendal

    2011-08-15

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), caused by loss of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene function, is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. The FMR1 product (FMRP) is an RNA-binding protein best established to function in activity-dependent modulation of synaptic connections. In the Drosophila FXS disease model, loss of functionally-conserved dFMRP causes synaptic overgrowth and overelaboration in pigment dispersing factor (PDF) peptidergic neurons in the adult brain. Here, we identify a very different component of PDF neuron misregulation in dfmr1 mutants: the aberrant retention of normally developmentally-transient PDF tritocerebral (PDF-TRI) neurons. In wild-type animals, PDF-TRI neurons in the central brain undergo programmed cell death and complete, processive clearance within days of eclosion. In the absence of dFMRP, a defective apoptotic program leads to constitutive maintenance of these peptidergic neurons. We tested whether this apoptotic defect is circuit-specific by examining crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP) and bursicon circuits, which are similarly developmentally-transient and normally eliminated immediately post-eclosion. In dfmr1 null mutants, CCAP/bursicon neurons also exhibit significantly delayed clearance dynamics, but are subsequently eliminated from the nervous system, in contrast to the fully persistent PDF-TRI neurons. Thus, the requirement of dFMRP for the retention of transitory peptidergic neurons shows evident circuit specificity. The novel defect of impaired apoptosis and aberrant neuron persistence in the Drosophila FXS model suggests an entirely new level of "pruning" dysfunction may contribute to the FXS disease state. PMID:21596027

  19. Dramatic Diversity of Ciliate Histone H4 Genes Revealed by Comparisons of Patterns of Substitutions and Paralog Divergences Among Eukaryotes

    E-print Network

    Katz, Laura

    and Paralog Divergences Among Eukaryotes Laura A. Katz,* Jacob G. Bornstein, Erica Lasek-Nesselquist,*1 of this essential eukaryotic protein. We analyzed histone H4 sequences from 13 species of ciliates and compared these data with sequences from well-sampled eukaryotic clades. Ciliate histone H4s differ from one another

  20. Evolutionary Acquisition of Cysteines Determines FOXO Paralog-Specific Redox Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Putker, Marrit; Vos, Harmjan R.; van Dorenmalen, Kim; de Ruiter, Hesther; Duran, Ana G.; Snel, Berend; Burgering, Boudewijn M.T.; Vermeulen, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Reduction–oxidation (redox) signaling, the translation of an oxidative intracellular environment into a cellular response, is mediated by the reversible oxidation of specific cysteine thiols. The latter can result in disulfide formation between protein hetero- or homodimers that alter protein function until the local cellular redox environment has returned to the basal state. We have previously shown that this mechanism promotes the nuclear localization and activity of the Forkhead Box O4 (FOXO4) transcription factor. Aims: In this study, we sought to investigate whether redox signaling differentially controls the human FOXO3 and FOXO4 paralogs. Results: We present evidence that FOXO3 and FOXO4 have acquired paralog-specific cysteines throughout vertebrate evolution. Using a proteome-wide screen, we identified previously unknown redox-dependent FOXO3 interaction partners. The nuclear import receptors Importin-7 (IPO7) and Importin-8 (IPO8) form a disulfide-dependent heterodimer with FOXO3, which is required for its reactive oxygen species-induced nuclear translocation. FOXO4 does not interact with IPO7 or IPO8. Innovation and Conclusion: IPO7 and IPO8 control the nuclear import of FOXO3, but not FOXO4, in a redox-sensitive and disulfide-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that evolutionary acquisition of cysteines has contributed to regulatory divergence of FOXO paralogs, and that phylogenetic analysis can aid in the identification of cysteines involved in redox signaling. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 15–28. PMID:25069953

  1. Interactions involving the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C and XRCC3 in human cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, Claudia; Collins, David W.; Albala, Joanna S.; Thompson, Larry H.; Kronenberg, Amy; Schild, David; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Homologous recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks and crosslinks in human cells is likely to require Rad51 and the five Rad51 paralogs (XRCC2, XRCC3, Rad51B/Rad51L1, Rad51C/Rad51L2 and Rad51D/Rad51L3), as has been shown in chicken and rodent cells. Previously, we reported on the interactions among these proteins using baculovirus and two- and three-hybrid yeast systems. To test for interactions involving XRCC3 and Rad51C, stable human cell lines have been isolated that express (His)6-tagged versions of XRCC3 or Rad51C. Ni2+-binding experiments demonstrate that XRCC3 and Rad51C interact in human cells. In addition, we find that Rad51C, but not XRCC3, interacts directly or indirectly with Rad51B, Rad51D and XRCC2. These results argue that there are at least two complexes of Rad51 paralogs in human cells (Rad51C-XRCC3 and Rad51B-Rad51C-Rad51D-XRCC2), both containing Rad51C. Moreover, Rad51 is not found in these complexes. X-ray treatment did not alter either the level of any Rad51 paralog or the observed interactions between paralogs. However, the endogenous level of Rad51C is moderately elevated in the XRCC3-overexpressing cell line, suggesting that dimerization between these proteins might help stabilize Rad51C.

  2. Retardation of Protein Dynamics by Trehalose in Dehydrated Systems of Photosynthetic Reaction Centers. Insights from Electron Transfer and Thermal Denaturation Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Malferrari, Marco; Francia, Francesco; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2015-10-29

    Conformational protein dynamics is known to be hampered in amorphous matrixes upon dehydration, both in the absence and in the presence of glass forming disaccharides, like trehalose, resulting in enhanced protein thermal stability. To shed light on such matrix effects, we have compared the retardation of protein dynamics in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers (RC) dehydrated at controlled relative humidity in the absence (RC films) or in the presence of trehalose (RC-trehalose glasses). Small scale RC dynamics, associated with the relaxation from the dark-adapted to the light-adapted conformation, have been probed up to the second time scale by analyzing the kinetics of electron transfer from the photoreduced quinone acceptor (QA(-)) to the photoxidized primary donor (P(+)) as a function of the duration of photoexcitation from 7 ns (laser pulse) to 20 s. A more severe inhibition of dynamics is found in RC-trehalose glasses than in RC films: only in the latter system does a complete relaxation to the light-adapted conformation occur even at extreme dehydration, although strongly retarded. To gain insight into the large scale RC dynamics up to the time scale of days, the kinetics of thermal denaturation have been studied at 44 °C by spectral analysis of the Qx and Qy bands of the RC bacteriochlorin cofactors, as a function of the sugar/protein molar ratio, m, varied between 0 and 10(4). Upon increasing m, denaturation is slowed progressively, and above m ? 500 the RC is stable at least for several days. The stronger retardation of RC relaxation and dynamics induced by trehalose is discussed in the light of a recent molecular dynamics simulation study performed in matrixes of the model protein lysozyme with and without trehalose. We suggest that the efficiency of trehalose in retarding RC dynamics and preventing thermal denaturation stems mainly from its propensity to form and stabilize extended networks of hydrogen bonds involving sugar, residual water, and surface residues of the RC complex and from its ability of reducing the free volume fraction of protein alone matrixes. PMID:26083980

  3. Mutations in the Gene Encoding the Sigma 2 Subunit of the Adaptor Protein 1 Complex, AP1S2, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Tarpey, Patrick S. ; Stevens, Claire ; Teague, Jon ; Edkins, Sarah ; O’Meara, Sarah ; Avis, Tim ; Barthorpe, Syd ; Buck, Gemma ; Butler, Adam ; Cole, Jennifer ; Dicks, Ed ; Gray, Kristian ; Halliday, Kelly ; Harrison, Rachel ; Hills, Katy ; Hinton, Jonathon ; Jones, David ; Menzies, Andrew ; Mironenko, Tatiana ; Perry, Janet ; Raine, Keiran ; Richardson, David ; Shepherd, Rebecca ; Small, Alexandra ; Tofts, Calli ; Varian, Jennifer ; West, Sofie ; Widaa, Sara ; Yates, Andy ; Catford, Rachael ; Butler, Julia ; Mallya, Uma ; Moon, Jenny ; Luo, Ying ; Dorkins, Huw ; Thompson, Deborah ; Easton, Douglas F. ; Wooster, Richard ; Bobrow, Martin ; Carpenter, Nancy ; Simensen, Richard J. ; Schwartz, Charles E. ; Stevenson, Roger E. ; Turner, Gillian ; Partington, Michael ; Gecz, Jozef ; Stratton, Michael R. ; Futreal, P. Andrew ; Raymond, F. Lucy 

    2006-01-01

    In a systematic sequencing screen of the coding exons of the X chromosome in 250 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), we identified two nonsense mutations and one consensus splice-site mutation in the AP1S2 gene on Xp22 in three families. Affected individuals in these families showed mild-to-profound mental retardation. Other features included hypotonia early in life and delay in walking. AP1S2 encodes an adaptin protein that constitutes part of the adaptor protein complex found at the cytoplasmic face of coated vesicles located at the Golgi complex. The complex mediates the recruitment of clathrin to the vesicle membrane. Aberrant endocytic processing through disruption of adaptor protein complexes is likely to result from the AP1S2 mutations identified in the three XLMR-affected families, and such defects may plausibly cause abnormal synaptic development and function. AP1S2 is the first reported XLMR gene that encodes a protein directly involved in the assembly of endocytic vesicles. PMID:17186471

  4. Microtubule perturbation retards both the direct and the indirect apical pathway but does not affect sorting of plasma membrane proteins in intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2).

    PubMed Central

    Matter, K; Bucher, K; Hauri, H P

    1990-01-01

    Endogenous plasma membrane proteins are sorted from two sites in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Apical proteins are transported from the Golgi apparatus to the apical domain along a direct pathway and an indirect pathway via the basolateral membrane. In contrast, basolateral proteins never appear in the apical plasma membrane. Here we report on the effect of the microtubule-active drug nocodazole on the post-synthetic transport and sorting of plasma membrane proteins. Pulse-chase radiolabeling was combined with domain-specific cell surface assays to monitor the appearance of three apical and one basolateral protein in plasma membrane domains. Nocodazole was found to drastically retard both the direct transport of apical proteins from the Golgi apparatus and the indirect transport (transcytosis) from the basolateral membrane to the apical cell surface. In contrast, neither the transport rates of the basolateral membrane nor the sorting itself were significantly affected by the nocodazole treatment. We conclude that an intact microtubular network facilitates, but is not necessarily required for, the transport of apical membrane proteins along the two post-Golgi pathways to the brush border. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2209541

  5. Unusual domain architecture of aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their paralogs from Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Leishmania major, a protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Due to the development of resistance against the currently available anti-leishmanial drugs, there is a growing need for specific inhibitors and novel drug targets. In this regards, aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, the linchpins of protein synthesis, have received recent attention among the kinetoplastid research community. This is the first comprehensive survey of the aminoacyl tRNA synthetases, their paralogs and other associated proteins from L. major. Results A total of 26 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases were identified using various computational and bioinformatics tools. Phylogenetic analysis and domain architectures of the L. major aminoacyl tRNA synthetases suggest a probable archaeal/eukaryotic origin. Presence of additional domains or N- or C-terminal extensions in 11 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases from L. major suggests possibilities such as additional tRNA binding or oligomerization or editing activity. Five freestanding editing domains were identified in L. major. Domain assignment revealed a novel asparagine tRNA synthetase paralog, asparagine synthetase A which has been so far reported from prokaryotes and archaea. Conclusions A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis revealed 26 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and five freestanding editing domains in L. major. Identification of two EMAP (endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide) II-like proteins similar to human EMAP II-like proteins suggests their participation in multisynthetase complex formation. While the phylogeny of tRNA synthetases suggests a probable archaeal/eukaryotic origin, phylogeny of asparagine synthetase A strongly suggests a bacterial origin. The unique features identified in this work provide rationale for designing inhibitors against parasite aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their paralogs. PMID:23151081

  6. Dysregulation of fragile X mental retardation protein and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in superior frontal cortex of individuals with autism: a postmortem brain study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fragile X syndrome is caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene and shares multiple phenotypes with autism. We have previously found reduced expression of the protein product of FMR1 (FMRP) in vermis of adults with autism. Methods In the current study, we have investigated levels of FMRP in the superior frontal cortex of people with autism and matched controls using Western blot analysis. Because FMRP regulates the translation of multiple genes, we also measured protein levels for downstream molecules metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor ?3 (GABR?3), as well as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Results We observed significantly reduced levels of protein for FMRP in adults with autism, significantly increased levels of protein for mGluR5 in children with autism and significantly increased levels of GFAP in adults and children with autism. We found no change in expression of GABR?3. Our results for FMRP, mGluR5 and GFAP confirm our previous work in the cerebellar vermis of people with autism. Conclusion These changes may be responsible for cognitive deficits and seizure disorder in people with autism. PMID:21548960

  7. Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein Interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3?-Untranslated Region of NR2B mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A.; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R.; Bassell, Gary J.; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5?-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the Post Synaptic Density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3?-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3?-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:26412477

  8. Fragile X mental retardation protein interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3'-untranslated region of NR2B mRNA.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R; Bassell, Gary J; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-11-10

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the post synaptic density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3'-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3'-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets. PMID:26412477

  9. Identification of pathways, gene networks and paralogous gene families in Daphnia pulex responding to exposure to the toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter IM; Glaholt, Stephen; Colbourne, John K; Janssen, Colin R; Shaw, Joseph R; De Schamphelaere, Karel AC

    2013-01-01

    Although cyanobacteria produce a wide range of natural toxins that impact aquatic organisms, food webs and water quality, the mechanisms of toxicity are still insufficiently understood. Here, we implemented a whole-genome expression microarray to identify pathways, gene networks and paralogous gene families responsive to Microcystis stress in Daphnia pulex. Therefore, neonates of a sensitive isolate were given a diet contaminated with Microcystis to contrast with those given a control diet for sixteen days. The microarray revealed 2247 differentially expressed (DE) genes (7.6% of the array) in response to Microcystis, of which 17% are lineage specific( i.e., these genes have no detectable homology to any other gene in currently available databases) and 49% are gene duplicates (paralogs). We identified four pathways/gene networks and eight paralogous gene families affected by Microcystis. Differential regulation of the ribosome, including 3 paralogous gene families encoding 40S, 60S and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins, suggests an impact of Microcystis on protein synthesis of D. pulex. In addition, differential regulation of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway (including the NADH ubquinone oxidoreductase gene family) and the trypsin paralogous gene family (a major component of the digestive system in D. pulex) could explain why fitness is reduced based on energy budget considerations. PMID:22799445

  10. The paralogous R3 MYB proteins CAPRICE, TRIPTYCHON and ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 play pleiotropic and partly non-redundant roles in the phosphate starvation response of Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Ying; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate (Pi) deficiency alters root hair length and frequency as a means of increasing the absorptive surface area of roots. Three partly redundant single R3 MYB proteins, CAPRICE (CPC), ENHANCER OF TRY AND CPC1 (ETC1) and TRIPTYCHON (TRY), positively regulate the root hair cell fate by participating in a lateral inhibition mechanism. To identify putative targets and processes that are controlled by these three transcription factors (TFs), we conducted transcriptional profiling of roots from Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type plants, and cpc, etc1 and try mutants grown under Pi-replete and Pi-deficient conditions using RNA-seq. The data show that in an intricate interplay between the three MYBs regulate several developmental, physiological and metabolic processes that are putatively located in different tissues. When grown on media with a low Pi concentration, all three TFs acquire additional functions that are related to the Pi starvation response, including transition metal transport, membrane lipid remodelling, and the acquisition, uptake and storage of Pi. Control of gene activity is partly mediated through the regulation of potential antisense transcripts. The current dataset extends the known functions of R3 MYB proteins, provides a suite of novel candidates with critical function in root hair development under both control and Pi-deficient conditions, and challenges the definition of genetic redundancy by demonstrating that environmental perturbations may confer specific functions to orthologous proteins that could have similar roles under control conditions. PMID:26022254

  11. Evolutionary Dynamics of Recently Duplicated Genes: Selective Constraints on Diverging Paralogs

    E-print Network

    Meisel, Rich

    independence between distant paralogs. Partially duplicated genes have a higher likeli- hood, and longer duplication tracts are more likely to contain a completely duplicated gene. ThereforeEvolutionary Dynamics of Recently Duplicated Genes: Selective Constraints on Diverging Paralogs

  12. A MecA Paralog, YpbH, Binds ClpC, Affecting both Competence and Sporulation

    PubMed Central

    Persuh, Marjan; Mandic-Mulec, Ines; Dubnau, David

    2002-01-01

    ComK, the master regulator of competence, is degraded by the general stress-related protease ClpCP but must be targeted to this protease by binding to the adapter protein MecA. The genome of Bacillus subtilis contains a paralog of mecA, ypbH. We show in the present study that YpbH, like MecA, binds ClpC and that its elimination or overproduction affects competence and sporulation. PMID:11914365

  13. Hox11 paralogous genes are essential for metanephric kidney induction

    E-print Network

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    Hox11 paralogous genes are essential for metanephric kidney induction Deneen M. Wellik, Patrick J by molecular analysis. For example, mice individually mutant for Hoxa11 or Hoxd11 show no discernible kidney abnormalities. Hoxa11/Hoxd11 double mutants, however, demonstrate hypoplasia of the kidneys. As described

  14. PaTre: a method for paralogy trees construction.

    PubMed

    Pisanti, N; Marangoni, R; Ferragina, P; Frangioni, A; Savona, A; Pisanelli, C; Luccio, F

    2003-01-01

    Genomes can be described as a collection of clusters, the gene families, whose members are called paralogs. Paralogs are genes that most probably share duplication history and show a significant similarity in their sequences, even if they perform slightly different biological function. Among the different mechanisms that have led to an increase of the genomic information during biological evolution, gene duplication is probably the most important. To better understand duplication events, the first step is to investigate the history of the gene families in order to detect which duplication events have taken place, and in which relative (partial) order. Here we present a method, called PaTre, that, given a gene family, attempts to construct the paralogy tree of the family. We will work under the hypothesis that every family member derives from a duplication process of another member. By the term paralogy tree, we mean a directed tree in which the root represents the most ancient paralog of the family and each oriented arc (a, b) represents the existence of a duplication event from the template gene a to its copy b. Notice that gene a survives the event and can serve as a template of more than one duplication event; in fact, there can be more than one arc leaving a. PaTre uses new algorithmic techniques motivated by the specific application at hand. The reliability of the inferential process has been tested by means of a simulator that implements different hypotheses on the duplication-with-modification paradigm and on three examples of different biological gene families, belonging either to lower and higher organisms. PMID:14633400

  15. A paralog of the proteinaceous elicitor SM1 is involved in colonization of maize roots by Trichoderma virens.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Frankie K; Moran-Diez, Maria E; Ding, Shengli; Liu, Jinggao; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Kenerley, Charles M

    2015-06-01

    The biocontrol agent, Trichoderma virens, has the ability to protect plants from pathogens by eliciting plant defense responses, involvement in mycoparasitism, or secreting antagonistic secondary metabolites. SM1, an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR), was found to have three paralogs within the T. virens genome. The paralog sm2 is highly expressed in the presence of plant roots. Gene deletion mutants of sm2 were generated and the mutants were found to overproduce SM1. The ability to elicit ISR in maize against Colletotrichum graminicola was not compromised for the mutants compared to that of wild type isolate. However, the deletion strains had a significantly lowered ability to colonize maize roots. This appears to be the first report on the involvement of an effector-like protein in colonization of roots by Trichoderma. PMID:25986544

  16. Learning and behavioral deficits associated with the absence of the fragile X mental retardation protein: what a fly and mouse model can teach us

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ana Rita; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros K.

    2014-01-01

    The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most frequent form of inherited mental disability and is considered a monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder. FXS is caused by a triplet expansion that inhibits the expression of the FMR1 gene. The gene product, the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), regulates mRNA metabolism in brain and nonneuronal cells. During brain development, FMRP controls the expression of key molecules involved in receptor signaling, cytoskeleton remodeling, protein synthesis and, ultimately, spine morphology. Symptoms associated with FXS include neurodevelopmental delay, cognitive impairment, anxiety, hyperactivity, and autistic-like behavior. Twenty years ago the first Fmr1 KO mouse to study FXS was generated, and several years later other key models including the mutant Drosophila melanogaster, dFmr1, have further helped the understanding of the cellular and molecular causes behind this complex syndrome. Here, we review to which extent these biological models are affected by the absence of FMRP, pointing out the similarities with the observed human dysfunction. Additionally, we discuss several potential treatments under study in animal models that are able to partially revert some of the FXS abnormalities. PMID:25227249

  17. Mental Retardation in TSC

    MedlinePLUS

    ... originally identified the triad of mental retardation, intractable epilepsy, and facial angiofibromas as the trademarks of tuberous ... two to three years. Seizures and Mental Retardation Epilepsy often begins in early childhood/infancy. This is ...

  18. SPOCS: Software for Predicting and Visualizing Orthology/Paralogy Relationships Among Genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Darren S.; Phillips, Aaron R.; Callister, Stephen J.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann

    2013-10-15

    At the rate that prokaryotic genomes can now be generated, comparative genomics studies require a flexible method for quickly and accurately predicting orthologs among the rapidly changing set of genomes available. SPOCS implements a graph-based ortholog prediction method to generate a simple tab-delimited table of orthologs and in addition, html files that provide a visualization of the predicted ortholog/paralog relationships to which gene/protein expression metadata may be overlaid. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A SPOCS web application is freely available at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/tools/spocs.html. Source code for Linux systems is also freely available under an open source license at http://cbb.pnnl.gov/portal/software/spocs.html; the Boost C++ libraries and BLAST are required.

  19. An HcpR paralog of Desulfovibrio gigas provides protection against nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sofia M.; Amaral, Catarina; Neves, Susana S.; Santos, Cátia; Pimentel, Catarina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina

    2015-01-01

    Desulfovibrio gigas belongs to the group of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). These ubiquitous and metabolically versatile microorganisms are often exposed to reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Nonetheless, the mechanisms and regulatory elements involved in nitrosative stress protection are still poorly understood. The transcription factor HcpR has emerged as a putative regulator of nitrosative stress response among anaerobic bacteria. HcpR is known to orchestrate the expression of the hybrid cluster protein gene, hcp, proposed to be involved in cellular defense against RNS. According to phylogenetic analyses, the occurrence of hcpR paralog genes is a common feature among several Desulfovibrio species. Within the D. gigas genome we have identified two HcpR-related sequences. One of these sequences, hcpR1, was found in the close vicinity of the hcp gene and this finding prompted us to proceed with its functional characterization. We observed that the growth of a D. gigas strain lacking hcpR1 is severely impaired under nitrosative stress. An in silico search revealed several putative targets of HcpR1 that were experimentally validated. The fact that HcpR1 regulates several genes encoding proteins involved in nitrite and nitrate metabolism, together with the sensitive growth phenotype to NO displayed by an hcpR1 mutant strain, strongly supports a relevant role of this factor under nitrosative stress. Moreover, the finding that several Desulfovibrio species possess HcpR paralogs, which have been transmitted vertically in the evolution and diversification of the genus, suggests that these sequences may confer adaptive or survival advantage to these organisms, possibly by increasing their tolerance to nitrosative stress. PMID:26273559

  20. Ancestral paralogs and pseudoparalogs and their role in the emergence of the eukaryotic cell

    E-print Network

    Mirkin, Boris

    Ancestral paralogs and pseudoparalogs and their role in the emergence of the eukaryotic cell Kira S paralogs and their potential roles in the emergence of the eukaryotic cell complexity. A par- simonious, which dates back to the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes, and examine the origins of the ancestral

  1. Interaction specificity, toxicity, and regulation of a paralogous set of ParE/RelE-family toxin-antitoxin systems

    PubMed Central

    Fiebig, Aretha; Rojas, Cyd Marie Castro; Siegal-Gaskins, Dan; Crosson, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Summary Toxin-antitoxin (TA) gene cassettes are widely distributed across bacteria, archaea, and bacteriophage. The chromosome of the ?-proteobacterium, Caulobacter crescentus, encodes eight ParE/RelE-superfamily toxins that are organized into operons with their cognate antitoxins. A systematic genetic analysis of these parDE and relBE TA operons demonstrates that seven encode functional toxins. The one exception highlights an example of a non-functional toxin pseudogene. Chromosomally-encoded ParD and RelB proteins function as antitoxins, inhibiting their adjacently-encoded ParE and RelE toxins. However, these antitoxins do not functionally complement each other, even when overexpressed. Transcription of these paralogous TA systems is differentially regulated under distinct environmental conditions. These data support a model in which multiple TA paralogs encoded by a single bacterial chromosome form independent functional units with insulated protein-protein interactions. Further characterization of the parDE1 system at the single-cell level reveals that ParE1 toxin functions to inhibit cell division but not cell growth; residues at the C-terminus of ParE1 are critical for its stability and toxicity. While continuous ParE1 overexpression results in a substantial loss in cell viability at the population level, a fraction of cells escape toxicity, providing evidence that ParE1 toxicity is not uniform within clonal cell populations. PMID:20487277

  2. THE MENTALLY RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JORDAN, THOMAS E.

    THIS BOOK PROVIDES A GUIDE TO THE BASIC CONCEPTS AND ISSUES IN THE FIELD OF MENTAL RETARDATION. THERE ARE MANY SOURCES OR CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND THE FOLLOWING TYPES ARE EXPLAINED--(1) GENETIC OR CHEMICAL DISORDERS, (2) BIRTH TRAUMA, (3) SUBSEQUENT ACCIDENTS OR DISEASE, AND (4) ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES. IT IS NOTED THAT MOST CASES INVOLVE…

  3. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  4. Mental Retardation in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Michael; And Others

    This monograph presents a general introduction to the history, classification, and characteristics of mental retardation. It begins with a discussion of the history of mental retardation from ancient Greece and Rome to the present. The beginnings of special education are traced to the early 19th century in Europe. Major influences in treatment of…

  5. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  6. Litter-Spinning Retarders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Aerodynamic plates stop litter from spinning during hoisting by helicopter. Features of proposed litter-spinning retarders include convenience of deployment and independence from ground restraint. Retarder plate(s) folded flat against bottom of litter during storage or while litter is loaded. Plate(s) held in storage position by latch that releases manually or automatically as litter is hoisted. Upon release, springs move plates into deployed position.

  7. PAXX, a paralog of XRCC4 and XLF, interacts with Ku to promote DNA double-strand break repair**

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Julia; Jhujh, Satpal; Mehmood, Shahid; Tamura, Naoka; Travers, Jon; Wu, Qian; Draviam, Viji M.; Robinson, Carol V.; Blundell, Tom L.; Jackson, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    XRCC4 and XLF are two structurally-related proteins that function in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we identify human PAXX (PAralog of XRCC4 and XLF; also called C9orf142) as a new XRCC4-superfamily member, and show that its crystal structure resembles that of XRCC4. PAXX interacts directly with the DSB-repair protein Ku and is recruited to DNA-damage sites in cells. Using RNA interference and CRISPR-Cas9 to generate PAXX?/? cells, we demonstrate that PAXX functions with XRCC4 and XLF to mediate DSB repair and cell survival in response to DSB-inducing agents. Finally, we reveal that PAXX promotes Ku-dependent DNA ligation in vitro, and assembly of core non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors on damaged chromatin in cells. These findings identify PAXX as a new component of the NHEJ machinery. PMID:25574025

  8. csrR, a Paralog and Direct Target of CsrA, Promotes Legionella pneumophila Resilience in Water

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Zachary D.; Yakhnin, Helen; Babitzke, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Critical to microbial versatility is the capacity to express the cohort of genes that increase fitness in different environments. Legionella pneumophila occupies extensive ecological space that includes diverse protists, pond water, engineered water systems, and mammalian lung macrophages. One mechanism that equips this opportunistic pathogen to adapt to fluctuating conditions is a switch between replicative and transmissive cell types that is controlled by the broadly conserved regulatory protein CsrA. A striking feature of the legionellae surveyed is that each of 14 strains encodes 4 to 7 csrA-like genes, candidate regulators of distinct fitness traits. Here we focus on the one csrA paralog (lpg1593) that, like the canonical csrA, is conserved in all 14 strains surveyed. Phenotypic analysis revealed that long-term survival in tap water is promoted by the lpg1593 locus, which we name csrR (for “CsrA-similar protein for resilience”). As predicted by its GGA motif, csrR mRNA was bound directly by the canonical CsrA protein, as judged by electromobility shift and RNA-footprinting assays. Furthermore, CsrA repressed translation of csrR mRNA in vivo, as determined by analysis of csrR-gfp reporters, csrR mRNA stability in the presence and absence of csrA expression, and mutation of the CsrA binding site identified on the csrR mRNA. Thus, CsrA not only governs the transition from replication to transmission but also represses translation of its paralog csrR when nutrients are available. We propose that, during prolonged starvation, relief of CsrA repression permits CsrR protein to coordinate L. pneumophila’s switch to a cell type that is resilient in water supplies. PMID:26060275

  9. Splign: algorithms for computing spliced alignments with identification of paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Kapustin, Yuri; Souvorov, Alexander; Tatusova, Tatiana; Lipman, David

    2008-01-01

    Background The computation of accurate alignments of cDNA sequences against a genome is at the foundation of modern genome annotation pipelines. Several factors such as presence of paralogs, small exons, non-consensus splice signals, sequencing errors and polymorphic sites pose recognized difficulties to existing spliced alignment algorithms. Results We describe a set of algorithms behind a tool called Splign for computing cDNA-to-Genome alignments. The algorithms include a high-performance preliminary alignment, a compartment identification based on a formally defined model of adjacent duplicated regions, and a refined sequence alignment. In a series of tests, Splign has produced more accurate results than other tools commonly used to compute spliced alignments, in a reasonable amount of time. Conclusion Splign's ability to deal with various issues complicating the spliced alignment problem makes it a helpful tool in eukaryotic genome annotation processes and alternative splicing studies. Its performance is enough to align the largest currently available pools of cDNA data such as the human EST set on a moderate-sized computing cluster in a matter of hours. The duplications identification (compartmentization) algorithm can be used independently in other areas such as the study of pseudogenes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by: Steven Salzberg, Arcady Mushegian and Andrey Mironov (nominated by Mikhail Gelfand). PMID:18495041

  10. Mammalian RAD51 paralogs protect nascent DNA at stalled forks and mediate replication restart.

    PubMed

    Somyajit, Kumar; Saxena, Sneha; Babu, Sharath; Mishra, Anup; Nagaraju, Ganesh

    2015-11-16

    Mammalian RAD51 paralogs are implicated in the repair of collapsed replication forks by homologous recombination. However, their physiological roles in replication fork maintenance prior to fork collapse remain obscure. Here, we report on the role of RAD51 paralogs in short-term replicative stress devoid of DSBs. We show that RAD51 paralogs localize to nascent DNA and common fragile sites upon replication fork stalling. Strikingly, RAD51 paralogs deficient cells exhibit elevated levels of 53BP1 nuclear bodies and increased DSB formation, the latter being attributed to extensive degradation of nascent DNA at stalled forks. RAD51C and XRCC3 promote the restart of stalled replication in an ATP hydrolysis dependent manner by disengaging RAD51 and other RAD51 paralogs from the halted forks. Notably, we find that Fanconi anemia (FA)-like disorder and breast and ovarian cancer patient derived mutations of RAD51C fails to protect replication fork, exhibit under-replicated genomic regions and elevated micro-nucleation. Taken together, RAD51 paralogs prevent degradation of stalled forks and promote the restart of halted replication to avoid replication fork collapse, thereby maintaining genomic integrity and suppressing tumorigenesis. PMID:26354865

  11. Sost and its paralog Sostdc1 coordinate digit number in a Gli3-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Collette, Nicole M; Yee, Cristal S; Murugesh, Deepa; Sebastian, Aimy; Taher, Leila; Gale, Nicholas W; Economides, Aris N; Harland, Richard M; Loots, Gabriela G

    2013-11-01

    WNT signaling is critical in most aspects of skeletal development and homeostasis, and antagonists of WNT signaling are emerging as key regulatory proteins with great promise as therapeutic agents for bone disorders. Here we show that Sost and its paralog Sostdc1 emerged through ancestral genome duplication and their expression patterns have diverged to delineate non-overlapping domains in most organ systems including musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, digestive, reproductive and respiratory. In the developing limb, Sost and Sostdc1 display dynamic expression patterns with Sost being restricted to the distal ectoderm and Sostdc1 to the proximal ectoderm and the mesenchyme. While Sostdc1(-/-) mice lack any obvious limb or skeletal defects, Sost(-/-) mice recapitulate the hand defects described for Sclerosteosis patients. However, elevated WNT signaling in Sost(-/-); Sostdc1(-/-) mice causes misregulation of SHH signaling, ectopic activation of Sox9 in the digit 1 field and preaxial polydactyly in a Gli1- and Gli3-dependent manner. In addition, we show that the syndactyly documented in Sclerosteosis is present in both Sost(-/-) and Sost(-/-); Sostdc1(-/-) mice, and is driven by misregulation of Fgf8 in the AER, a region lacking Sost and Sostdc1 expression. This study highlights the complexity of WNT signaling in skeletal biology and disease and emphasizes how redundant mechanism and non-cell autonomous effects can synergize to unveil new intricate phenotypes caused by elevated WNT signaling. PMID:23994639

  12. Educating the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, William O.

    1979-01-01

    A school can be an educational opportunity for mentally retarded citizens only if its teachers and learners can decide together on such things as the purposes toward which activities are directed, the means of reaching them, and the subject matter to be used in stimulating thinking. (Author/NQ)

  13. Mental Retardation Film List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    A list of films on mental retardation includes titles, publication information, physical descriptions, language revisions when other than English, series reference, technical description of film content, sale source, and distributor. Films intended for the general public are grouped under the heading Nonprofessional; others are listed as…

  14. The Mentally Retarded Offender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menolascino, Frank J.

    1974-01-01

    It is maintained that since H. Goddard's investigations in 1914, over 450 separate studies on intellectual dimensions of the juvenile and adult retarded offender have been published, yet the investigations have not provided conclusive evidence that intelligence level plays a role in deliquent and/or criminal behavior. (Author/MC)

  15. Vignettes in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1983-01-01

    Described are turn-of-the-century (1900) efforts of E. Johnstone, Vineland Training School for the mentally retarded; H. Goddard, psychologist (also at Vineland); and C. Davenport, Carnegie Foundation biological laboratory, Coldspring Harbor; to identify the roles of genetic heredity and environmental impact, and thus to eradicate or ameliorate…

  16. Monkey Retardate Learning Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamove, A. S.; Molinaro, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Seven rhesus monkeys reared on diets high in phenylalanine to induce phenylketonuria (PKU--a metabolic disorder associated with mental retardation if untreated) were compared with normal, pair-fed, and younger controls; frontal brain-lesioned monkeys; and those raised on high-tryptophan diets in three object discrimination tasks. (Author)

  17. The Impact of Paralogy on Phylogenomic Studies – A Case Study on Annelid Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Torsten H.

    2013-01-01

    Phylogenomic studies based on hundreds of genes derived from expressed sequence tags libraries are increasingly used to reveal the phylogeny of taxa. A prerequisite for these studies is the assignment of genes into clusters of orthologous sequences. Sophisticated methods of orthology prediction are used in such analyses, but it is rarely assessed whether paralogous sequences have been erroneously grouped together as orthologous sequences after the prediction, and whether this had an impact on the phylogenetic reconstruction using a super-matrix approach. Herein, I tested the impact of paralogous sequences on the reconstruction of annelid relationships based on phylogenomic datasets. Using single-partition analyses, screening for bootstrap support, blast searches and pruning of sequences in the supermatrix, wrongly assigned paralogous sequences were found in eight partitions and the placement of five taxa (the annelids Owenia, Scoloplos, Sthenelais and Eurythoe and the nemertean Cerebratulus) including the robust bootstrap support could be attributed to the presence of paralogous sequences in two partitions. Excluding these sequences resulted in a different, weaker supported placement for these taxa. Moreover, the analyses revealed that paralogous sequences impacted the reconstruction when only a single taxon represented a previously supported higher taxon such as a polychaete family. One possibility of a priori detection of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences could combine 1) a screening of single-partition analyses based on criteria such as nodal support or internal branch length with 2) blast searches of suspicious cases as presented herein. Also possible are a posteriori approaches in which support for specific clades is investigated by comparing alternative hypotheses based on differences in per-site likelihoods. Increasing the sizes of EST libraries will also decrease the likelihood of wrongly assigned paralogous sequences, and in the case of orthology prediction methods like HaMStR it is likewise decreased by using more than one reference taxon. PMID:23667537

  18. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  19. Rad51 Paralogs Remodel Pre-synaptic Rad51 Filaments to Stimulate Homologous Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Martin R.G.; Špírek, Mário; Chaurasiya, Kathy R.; Ward, Jordan D.; Carzaniga, Raffaella; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward H.; Collinson, Lucy M.; Rueda, David; Krejci, Lumir; Boulton, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Repair of DNA double strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by Rad51 filament nucleation on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which catalyzes strand exchange with homologous duplex DNA. BRCA2 and the Rad51 paralogs are tumor suppressors and critical mediators of Rad51. To gain insight into Rad51 paralog function, we investigated a heterodimeric Rad51 paralog complex, RFS-1/RIP-1, and uncovered the molecular basis by which Rad51 paralogs promote HR. Unlike BRCA2, which nucleates RAD-51-ssDNA filaments, RFS-1/RIP-1 binds and remodels pre-synaptic filaments to a stabilized, “open,” and flexible conformation, in which the ssDNA is more accessible to nuclease digestion and RAD-51 dissociation rate is reduced. Walker box mutations in RFS-1, which abolish filament remodeling, fail to stimulate RAD-51 strand exchange activity, demonstrating that remodeling is essential for RFS-1/RIP-1 function. We propose that Rad51 paralogs stimulate HR by remodeling the Rad51 filament, priming it for strand exchange with the template duplex. PMID:26186187

  20. A fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-based protease activity assay and its use to monitor paralog-specific small ubiquitin-like modifier processing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sarah F; Hattersley, Neil; Samuel, Ifor D W; Hay, Ronald T; Tatham, Michael H

    2007-04-01

    Dynamic modification of proteins with the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) affects the stability, cellular localization, enzymatic activity, and molecular interactions of a wide spectrum of protein targets. We have developed an in vitro fluorescence-resonance-energy-transfer-based assay that uses bacterially expressed substrates for the rapid and quantitative analysis of SUMO paralog-specific C-terminal hydrolase activity. This assay has applications in SUMO protease characterization, enzyme kinetic analysis, determination of SUMO protease activity in eukaryotic cell extracts, and high-throughput inhibitor screening. In addition, while demonstrating such uses, we show that the SUMO-1 processing activity in crude HeLa cell extracts is far greater than that of SUMO-2, implying that differential maturation rates of SUMO paralogs in vivo may be functionally significant. The high degree of structural conservation across the ubiquitin-like protein superfamily suggests that the general principle of this assay should be applicable to other post-translational protein modification systems. PMID:17288980

  1. NUCKS1 is a novel RAD51AP1 paralog important for homologous recombination and genome stability.

    PubMed

    Parplys, Ann C; Zhao, Weixing; Sharma, Neelam; Groesser, Torsten; Liang, Fengshan; Maranon, David G; Leung, Stanley G; Grundt, Kirsten; Dray, Eloïse; Idate, Rupa; Østvold, Anne Carine; Schild, David; Sung, Patrick; Wiese, Claudia

    2015-11-16

    NUCKS1 (nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1) is a 27 kD chromosomal, vertebrate-specific protein, for which limited functional data exist. Here, we demonstrate that NUCKS1 shares extensive sequence homology with RAD51AP1 (RAD51 associated protein 1), suggesting that these two proteins are paralogs. Similar to the phenotypic effects of RAD51AP1 knockdown, we find that depletion of NUCKS1 in human cells impairs DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and chromosome stability. Depletion of NUCKS1 also results in greatly increased cellular sensitivity to mitomycin C (MMC), and in increased levels of spontaneous and MMC-induced chromatid breaks. NUCKS1 is critical to maintaining wild type HR capacity, and, as observed for a number of proteins involved in the HR pathway, functional loss of NUCKS1 leads to a slow down in DNA replication fork progression with a concomitant increase in the utilization of new replication origins. Interestingly, recombinant NUCKS1 shares the same DNA binding preference as RAD51AP1, but binds to DNA with reduced affinity when compared to RAD51AP1. Our results show that NUCKS1 is a chromatin-associated protein with a role in the DNA damage response and in HR, a DNA repair pathway critical for tumor suppression. PMID:26323318

  2. Flame Retardant Epoxy Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Lyon, R. E.

    2004-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial aircraft, flame retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured epoxies were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis and microscale combustion calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness of plaques of several cured formulations was determined on single-edge notched bend specimens. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  3. Fire-retardant foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  4. Bell inequalities with retarded settings

    E-print Network

    Lucien Hardy

    2015-08-27

    We consider retarded settings in the context of a Bell-type experiment. The retarded setting is defined as the value the setting would have taken were it not for some external intervention (for example, by a human). We derive retarded Bell inequalities that explicitly take into account the retarded settings. These inequalities are not violated by Quantum Theory (or any other theory) when the retarded settings are equal to the actual settings. We construct a simple model that reproduces Quantum Theory when the retarded and actual settings are equal, but violates it when they are not. We discuss using humans to choose the settings in this type of experiment and the implications of a violation of Quantum Theory (in agreement with the retarded Bell inequalities) in this context.

  5. Retarded Gravitation Theory

    E-print Network

    C. K. Raju

    2013-11-27

    We propose a Lorentz-covariant theory of gravity, and explain its theoretical origins in the problem of time in Newtonian physics. In this retarded gravitation theory (RGT), the gravitational force depends upon both retarded position and velocity, and the equations of motion are time-asymmetric retarded functional differential equations. We explicitly solve these equations, under simplifying assumptions, for various NASA spacecraft. This shows that the differences from Newtonian gravity, though tiny within the solar system, are just appropriate to explain the flyby anomaly as a v/c effect due to earth's rotation. The differences can, however, be large in the case of a spiral galaxy, and we show that the combined velocity drag from a large number of co-rotating stars enormously speeds up a test particle. Thus, the non-Newtonian behaviour of rotation curves in a spiral galaxy may be explained as being due to velocity drag rather than dark matter. RGT can also be tested in the laboratory. It necessitates a reappraisal of current laboratory methods of determining the Newtonian gravitational constant G. Since RGT makes no speculative assumptions, its refutation would have serious implications across physics.

  6. Evolutionary analyses of caspase-8 and its paralogs: Deep origins of the apoptotic signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Kazuhiro; Imai, Kenichiro; Tomii, Kentaro; Miller, David J

    2015-07-01

    Although Caenorhabditis and Drosophila proved invaluable in unraveling the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, it is now clear that these animals are of limited value for understanding the evolution of apoptotic systems. Whereas data from these invertebrates led to the assumption that the extrinsic apoptotic pathway is restricted to vertebrates, recent data from cnidarians and sponges indicate that this pathway predates bilaterian origins. Here we review the phylogenetic distribution of caspase-8, the initiator caspase of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, its paralogs and other components of the network. The ancestral caspase-8 gave rise to four paralogs early in vertebrate evolution, and these have been maintained in many tetrapods. However, eutherians have lost caspase-18 and myomorph rodents have lost caspase-10, these losses suggesting functional redundancy amongst caspase-8 paralogs. The apoptotic network of the eumetazoan ancestor appears to have been complex and vertebrate like, and is only now being revealed by studying simple animals. PMID:26010168

  7. Systematic Variation in the Pattern of Gene Paralog Retention between the Teleost Superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii

    PubMed Central

    Garcia de la serrana, Daniel; Mareco, Edson A.; Johnston, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Teleost fish underwent whole-genome duplication around 450 Ma followed by diploidization and loss of 80–85% of the duplicated genes. To identify a deep signature of this teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (TSGD), we searched for duplicated genes that were systematically and uniquely retained in one or other of the superorders Ostariophysi and Acanthopterygii. TSGD paralogs comprised 17–21% of total gene content. Some 2.6% (510) of TSGD paralogs were present as pairs in the Ostariophysi genomes of Danio rerio (Cypriniformes) and Astyanax mexicanus (Characiformes) but not in species from four orders of Acanthopterygii (Gasterosteiformes, Gasterosteus aculeatus; Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodon nigroviridis; Perciformes, Oreochromis niloticus; and Beloniformes, Oryzias latipes) where a single copy was identified. Similarly, 1.3% (418) of total gene number represented cases where TSGD paralogs pairs were systematically retained in the Acanthopterygian but conserved as a single copy in Ostariophysi genomes. We confirmed the generality of these results by phylogenetic and synteny analysis of 40 randomly selected linage-specific paralogs (LSPs) from each superorder and completed with the transcriptomes of three additional Ostariophysi species (Ictalurus punctatus [Siluriformes], Sinocyclocheilus species [Cypriniformes], and Piaractus mesopotamicus [Characiformes]). No chromosome bias was detected in TSGD paralog retention. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed significant enrichment of GO terms relative to the human GO SLIM database for “growth,” “Cell differentiation,” and “Embryo development” in Ostariophysi and for “Transport,” “Signal Transduction,” and “Vesicle mediated transport” in Acanthopterygii. The observed patterns of paralog retention are consistent with different diploidization outcomes having contributed to the evolution/diversification of each superorder. PMID:24732281

  8. Meiotic recombination between paralogous RBCSB genes on sister chromatids of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Jelesko, John G; Carter, Kristy; Thompson, Whitney; Kinoshita, Yuki; Gruissem, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    Paralogous genes organized as a gene cluster can rapidly evolve by recombination between misaligned paralogs during meiosis, leading to duplications, deletions, and novel chimeric genes. To model unequal recombination within a specific gene cluster, we utilized a synthetic RBCSB gene cluster to isolate recombinant chimeric genes resulting from meiotic recombination between paralogous genes on sister chromatids. Several F1 populations hemizygous for the synthRBCSB1 gene cluster gave rise to Luc+ F2 plants at frequencies ranging from 1 to 3 x 10(-6). A nonuniform distribution of recombination resolution sites resulted in the biased formation of recombinant RBCS3B/1B::LUC genes with nonchimeric exons. The positioning of approximately half of the mapped resolution sites was effectively modeled by the fractional length of identical DNA sequences. In contrast, the other mapped resolution sites fit an alternative model in which recombination resolution was stimulated by an abrupt transition from a region of relatively high sequence similarity to a region of low sequence similarity. Thus, unequal recombination between paralogous RBCSB genes on sister chromatids created an allelic series of novel chimeric genes that effectively resulted in the diversification rather than the homogenization of the synthRBCSB1 gene cluster. PMID:15020479

  9. PhylomeDB v3.0: an expanding repository of genome-wide collections of trees, alignments and phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Cepas, Jaime; Capella-Gutierrez, Salvador; Pryszcz, Leszek P; Denisov, Ivan; Kormes, Diego; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Gabaldón, Toni

    2011-01-01

    The growing availability of complete genomic sequences from diverse species has brought about the need to scale up phylogenomic analyses, including the reconstruction of large collections of phylogenetic trees. Here, we present the third version of PhylomeDB (http://phylomeDB.org), a public database for genome-wide collections of gene phylogenies (phylomes). Currently, PhylomeDB is the largest phylogenetic repository and hosts 17 phylomes, comprising 416,093 trees and 165,840 alignments. It is also a major source for phylogeny-based orthology and paralogy predictions, covering about 5 million proteins in 717 fully-sequenced genomes. For each protein-coding gene in a seed genome, the database provides original and processed alignments, phylogenetic trees derived from various methods and phylogeny-based predictions of orthology and paralogy relationships. The new version of phylomeDB has been extended with novel data access and visualization features, including the possibility of programmatic access. Available seed species include model organisms such as human, yeast, Escherichia coli or Arabidopsis thaliana, but also alternative model species such as the human pathogen Candida albicans, or the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum. Finally, PhylomeDB is currently being used by several genome sequencing projects that couple the genome annotation process with the reconstruction of the corresponding phylome, a strategy that provides relevant evolutionary insights. PMID:21075798

  10. Characterization of the Drosophila Group Ortholog to the Amino-Terminus of the Alpha-Thalassemia and Mental Retardation X-Linked (ATRX) Vertebrate Protein

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Campos, Adam; Montero, Daniel; Rudiño, Enrique; Vázquez, Martha; Zurita, Mario; Valadez-Graham, Viviana

    2014-01-01

    The human ATRX gene encodes hATRX, a chromatin-remodeling protein harboring an helicase/ATPase and ADD domains. The ADD domain has two zinc fingers that bind to histone tails and mediate hATRX binding to chromatin. dAtrx, the putative ATRX homolog in Drosophila melanogaster, has a conserved helicase/ATPase domain but lacks the ADD domain. A bioinformatic search of the Drosophila genome using the human ADD sequence allowed us to identify the CG8290 annotated gene, which encodes three ADD harboring- isoforms generated by alternative splicing. This Drosophila ADD domain is highly similar in structure and in the amino acids which mediate the histone tail contacts to the ADD domain of hATRX as shown by 3D modeling. Very recently the CG8290 annotated gene has been named dadd1. We show through pull-down and CoIP assays that the products of the dadd1 gene interact physically with dAtrxL and HP1a and all of them mainly co-localize in the chromocenter, although euchromatic localization can also be observed through the chromosome arms. We confirm through ChIP analyses that these proteins are present in vivo in the same heterochromatic regions. The three isoforms are expressed throughout development. Flies carrying transheterozygous combinations of the dadd1 and atrx alleles are semi-viable and have different phenotypes including the appearance of melanotic masses. Interestingly, the dAdd1-b and c isoforms have extra domains, such as MADF, which suggest newly acquired functions of these proteins. These results strongly support that, in Drosophila, the atrx gene diverged and that the dadd1-encoded proteins participate with dAtrx in some cellular functions such as heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:25437195

  11. THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROME, L.; STERN, J.

    DATA FROM RECENT COMPREHENSIVE STUDIES OF THE PATHOLOGY OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE ASSEMBLED, INCLUDING MATERIAL ON ETIOLOGY, MORPHOLOGY, BIOCHEMISTRY, AND LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS. AREAS COVERED ARE (1) GENETIC CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION, (2) DISORDERS OF GESTATION, (3) BIRTH INJURY, (4) GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF POSTNATAL CAUSES OF MENTAL…

  12. Educable Mentally Retarded, Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suo, Minnie Alice; Willemin, Helen

    Intended for teachers of special classes of educable mentally retarded children aged 6 to 8 (mental age = 3.5 to 4.9), the guide stresses skills necessary to the development of physical, personal and social, and vocational competency. An introduction defines philosophy and goals, outlines the educable mentally retarded program and the readiness…

  13. DEATH AND MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS

    E-print Network

    Evans, Daryl

    1981-01-01

    :3). The expendability of retarded people is apparent even today. The methods may not be as direct as those employed in Sparta or Auschwitz, but the results are still the same. Duff and Campbell (1973:892) found widespread de facto euthanasia of defective children in a... presented by a retarded patient may succumb to one of the aforementioned methods of dealing with retarded people in a kind of medical regression. First, if the patient is sick enough, the doctor may facilitate his death either actively or passively. Second...

  14. Heterogeneous Conservation of Dlx Paralog Co-Expression in Jawed Vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Debiais-Thibaud, Mélanie; Metcalfe, Cushla J.; Pollack, Jacob; Germon, Isabelle; Ekker, Marc; Depew, Michael; Laurenti, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Background The Dlx gene family encodes transcription factors involved in the development of a wide variety of morphological innovations that first evolved at the origins of vertebrates or of the jawed vertebrates. This gene family expanded with the two rounds of genome duplications that occurred before jawed vertebrates diversified. It includes at least three bigene pairs sharing conserved regulatory sequences in tetrapods and teleost fish, but has been only partially characterized in chondrichthyans, the third major group of jawed vertebrates. Here we take advantage of developmental and molecular tools applied to the shark Scyliorhinus canicula to fill in the gap and provide an overview of the evolution of the Dlx family in the jawed vertebrates. These results are analyzed in the theoretical framework of the DDC (Duplication-Degeneration-Complementation) model. Results The genomic organisation of the catshark Dlx genes is similar to that previously described for tetrapods. Conserved non-coding elements identified in bony fish were also identified in catshark Dlx clusters and showed regulatory activity in transgenic zebrafish. Gene expression patterns in the catshark showed that there are some expression sites with high conservation of the expressed paralog(s) and other expression sites with events of paralog sub-functionalization during jawed vertebrate diversification, resulting in a wide variety of evolutionary scenarios within this gene family. Conclusion Dlx gene expression patterns in the catshark show that there has been little neo-functionalization in Dlx genes over gnathostome evolution. In most cases, one tandem duplication and two rounds of vertebrate genome duplication have led to at least six Dlx coding sequences with redundant expression patterns followed by some instances of paralog sub-functionalization. Regulatory constraints such as shared enhancers, and functional constraints including gene pleiotropy, may have contributed to the evolutionary inertia leading to high redundancy between gene expression patterns. PMID:23840829

  15. Roles of ATR1 paralogs YMR279c and YOR378w in boron stress tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Uluisik, Irem; Gulculer, Gulce Sila; Karakaya, Huseyin C.; Koc, Ahmet

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} ATR1 paralog YMR279c plays role in boron detoxification. {yields} YMR279c overexpression lowers cytoplasmic boron levels. {yields} ATR1 paralog YOR378w has no roles in boron stress response. -- Abstract: Boron is a necessary nutrient for plants and animals, however excess of it causes toxicity. Previously, Atr1 and Arabidopsis Bor1 homolog were identified as the boron efflux pump in yeast, which lower the cytosolic boron concentration and help cells to survive in the presence of toxic amount of boron. In this study, we analyzed ATR1 paralogs, YMR279c and YOR378w, to understand whether they participate in boron stress tolerance in yeast. Even though these genes share homology with ATR1, neither their deletion rendered cells boron sensitive nor their expression was significantly upregulated by boron treatment. However, expression of YMR279, but not YOR378w, from the constitutive GAPDH promoter on a high copy plasmid provided remarkable boron resistance by decreasing intracellular boron levels. Thus our results suggest the presence of a third boron exporter, YMR279c, which functions similar to ATR1 and provides boron resistance in yeast.

  16. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  17. Intumescent coatings as fire retardants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Fohlen, G. M.; Parker, J. A.; Sawko, P. M.

    1970-01-01

    Fire-retardant paint, when activated by the heat of fire, reacts to form a thick, low-density, polymeric coating or char layer. Water vapor and sulphur dioxide are released during the intumescent reaction.

  18. Neurotoxicity of brominated flame retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been commonly used as commercial flame retardants in a variety of products including plastics and textiles. Despite their decreasing usage worldwide, congeners continue to accumulate in the environment, including soil, dust, food, anima...

  19. Gitelman's syndrome with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Rena; Takeuchi, Kaoru; Nakamura, Akinobu; Tajima, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Yoshihiko

    2006-01-01

    A 56-year-old mentally retarded Japanese woman (intelligence quotient: 49) was admitted to our hospital with the chief complaints of headache, dizziness, vomiting, and lower limb paralysis. Laboratory tests showed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalciuria. These findings suggested a diagnosis of Gitelman's syndrome (GS). We examined the thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransporter (TSC) gene for the mutations that can be responsible for Gitelman's syndrome, and confirmed the diagnosis. After potassium and magnesium supplementation, her paralysis improved dramatically. The marriage of her parents was consanguineous. She had nine siblings (all with mental retardation), among whom five had died of unknown causes during childhood. Familial mental retardation has never been detected before in Gitelman's syndrome. Here we report a rare case of Gitelman's syndrome with familial mental retardation. PMID:16543691

  20. The Mentally Retarded Offender: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilit, Jeffrey; And Others

    An annotated bibliography of approximately 150 books and articles on the mentally retarded offender as well as 30 nonannotated entries are provided. Topics covered include such areas as characteristics of mentally retarded delinquents, rehabilitation of the retarded offender, community services for retarded persons, rights of the mentally…

  1. Exchanging ligand-binding specificity between a pair of mouse olfactory receptor paralogs reveals odorant recognition principles

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Olivia; Yuan, Shuguang; Veya, Luc; Filipek, Slawomir; Vogel, Horst; Pick, Horst

    2015-01-01

    A multi-gene family of ~1000 G protein-coupled olfactory receptors (ORs) constitutes the molecular basis of mammalian olfaction. Due to the lack of structural data its remarkable capacity to detect and discriminate thousands of odorants remains poorly understood on the structural level of the receptor. Using site-directed mutagenesis we transferred ligand specificity between two functionally related ORs and thereby revealed amino acid residues of central importance for odorant recognition and discrimination of the two receptors. By exchanging two of three residues, differing at equivalent positions of the putative odorant binding site between the mouse OR paralogs Olfr73 (mOR-EG) and Olfr74 (mOR-EV), we selectively changed ligand preference but remarkably also signaling activation strength in both ORs. Computer modeling proposed structural details at atomic resolution how the very same odorant molecule might interact with different contact residues to induce different functional responses in two related receptors. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how the olfactory system distinguishes different molecular aspects of a given odorant molecule, and unravel important molecular details of the combinatorial encoding of odorant identity at the OR level. PMID:26449412

  2. Impairment of fragile X mental retardation protein-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling and its downstream cognates ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, amyloid beta A4 precursor protein, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase, and homer 1, in autism: a postmortem study in cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Candidate genes associated with idiopathic forms of autism overlap with other disorders including fragile X syndrome. Our laboratory has previously shown reduction in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and increase in metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) in cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex (BA9) of individuals with autism. Methods In the current study we have investigated expression of four targets of FMRP and mGluR5 signaling - homer 1, amyloid beta A4 precursor protein (APP), ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) - in the cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex (BA9) via SDS-PAGE and western blotting. Data were analyzed based on stratification with respect to age (children and adolescents vs. adults), anatomic region of the brain (BA9 vs. cerebellar vermis), and impact of medications (children and adolescents on medications (n = 4) vs. total children and adolescents (n = 12); adults on medications (n = 6) vs. total adults (n = 12)). Results There were significant increases in RAC1, APP 120 kDa and APP 80 kDa proteins in BA9 of children with autism vs. healthy controls. None of the same proteins were significantly affected in cerebellar vermis of children with autism. In BA9 of adults with autism there were significant increases in RAC1 and STEP 46 kDa and a significant decrease in homer 1 vs. controls. In the vermis of adult subjects with autism, RAC1 was significantly increased while APP 120, STEP 66 kDa, STEP 27 kDa, and homer 1 were significantly decreased when compared with healthy controls. No changes were observed in vermis of children with autism. There was a significant effect of anticonvulsant use on STEP 46 kDa/?-actin and a potential effect on homer 1/NSE, in BA9 of adults with autism. However, no other significant confound effects were observed in this study. Conclusions Our findings provide further evidence of abnormalities in FMRP and mGluR5 signaling partners in brains of individuals with autism and open the door to potential targeted treatments which could help ameliorate the symptoms of autism. PMID:23803181

  3. Development of novel fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigdel Regmi, Bhawani

    Numerous candidate environmentally-friendly, water-soluble, and non-toxic fire retardants and fire-retarding processes were developed and tested according to the ASTM D 3801 flammability test and the NRL 8093 smoldering test. Flame retardants that passed the ASTM D 3801 flammability test with the highest V0 rating were boron esters of guanidinium hydroxycarboxylate (glycolate, salicylate and dihydroxybenzoate), zinc gluconate borate ester, and cyanoacetate salts of organic bases (melaminium, cyanoguanidinium, and ammonium). Several related compounds pass this test with the lower V1 rating. Two new synergistic flame and smolder retarding systems were developed in which the individual components were incapable of preventing flame spread or smoldering but in combination they were highly effective. These systems were mixtures of either guanyl urea phosphate and boric acid or beta-alanine and boric acid. Compositions leading to the maximum solubility of boron oxides in the ammonium borate/sodium borate system were determined at several temperatures and the formation of mixtures exceeding 50% dissolved boric acid equivalents was found possible. These mixtures were applied as flame retardants for wood, paper, and carbon-loaded polyurethane foam both directly and indirectly by in situ precipitation of boric acid or zinc borate by appropriate chemical treatments. These all passed the ASTM flammability test with V0 rating. The performance of the boron-containing fire retardants is likely due to deposition of protective boron oxide coatings at elevated temperatures except where phosphate was present and a protective boron phosphate was deposited instead. In all cases, the oxidation of carbonaceous char was strongly inhibited. The hydroxycarboxylate groups generally formed intumescent chars during thermal decomposition that also contributed to fire retardancy.

  4. Genomic characterization and expression analysis of four apolipoprotein A-IV paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup).

    PubMed

    Roman-Padilla, J; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Claros, M G; Hachero-Cruzado, I; Manchado, M

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A-IV (ApoA-IV) plays a key role in lipid transport and feed intake regulation. In this work, four cDNA sequences encoding ApoA-IV paralogs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed conserved structural features including the common 33-codon block and nine repeated motifs. Gene structure analysis identified four exons and three introns except for apoA-IVAa1 (with only 3 exons). Synteny analysis showed that the four paralogs were structured into two clusters (cluster A containing apoA-IVAa1 and apoA-IVAa2 and cluster B with apoA-IVBa3 and apoA-IVBa4) linked to an apolipoprotein E. Phylogenetic analysis clearly separated the paralogs according to their cluster organization as well as revealed four subclades highly conserved in Acanthopterygii. Whole-mount analyses (WISH) in early larvae (0 and 1day post-hatch (dph)) showed that the four paralogs were mainly expressed in yolk syncytial layer surrounding the oil globules. Later, at 3 and 5dph, the four paralogs were mainly expressed in liver and intestine although with differences in their relative abundance and temporal expression patterns. Diet supply triggered the intensity of WISH signals in the intestine of the four paralogs. Quantification of mRNA abundance by qPCR using whole larvae only detected the induction by diet at 5dph. Moreover, transcript levels increased progressively with age except for apoA-IVAa2, which appeared as a low-expressed isoform. Expression analysis in juvenile tissues confirmed that the four paralogs were mainly expressed in liver and intestine and secondary in other tissues. The role of these ApoA-IV genes in lipid transport and the possible role of apoA-IVAa2 as a regulatory form are discussed. PMID:26453798

  5. Subtleties of the clock retardation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redži?, D. V.

    2015-11-01

    For a simple electromagnetic model of a clock introduced by Jefimenko (clock # 1 in 1996 Am. J. Phys. 64 812), a change of the rate of the clock when it is set in uniform motion is calculated exactly, employing the correct equation of motion of a charged particle in the electromagnetic field and the universal boostability assumption. Thus, for the clock under consideration, dynamical contents of the clock retardation are demonstrated. Somewhat surprisingly, the analysis presented discloses that some familiar relativistic generalizations concerning the retardation of clocks have to be amended.

  6. Functional Specificity among Ribosomal Proteins

    E-print Network

    Roth, Frederick

    Functional Specificity among Ribosomal Proteins Regulates Gene Expression Suzanne Komili,1RNAs. Intriguingly, these paralog-specific effects are limited to a distinct subset of duplicated ribosomal pro- teins. Moreover, transcriptional and phenotypic profiling of cells lacking specific ribosomal pro- teins

  7. Genetic Counseling in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Peter

    The task of the genetic counselor who identifies genetic causes of mental retardation and assists families to understand risk of recurrence is described. Considered are chromosomal genetic disorders such as Down's syndrome, inherited disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, identification by testing the amniotic fluid cells (amniocentresis) in time…

  8. HANDBOOK OF MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H.

    THE CLINICAL SYNDROMES WHICH CONTRIBUTE TO THE PRODUCTION OF MENTAL RETARDATION ARE DESCRIBED BY SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, AND ETIOLOGY. SYNDROMES TREATED ARE (1) PRENATAL AND POSTNATAL INFECTIONS, (2) PRENATAL INTOXICATION AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, (3) PRENATAL TRAUMA, PHYSICAL AGENTS, OR INTOXICATION, (4) BIRTH INJURIES, (5) POSTNATAL POISONS AND ALLERGIC…

  9. Detection of Malingered Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandera, Anne L.; Berry, David T. R.; Clark, Jessica A.; Schipper, Lindsey J.; Graue, Lili O.; Harp, Jordan P.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-validation of results from L. O. Graue et al. (2007), standard psychological assessment instruments, as well as tests of neurocognitive and psychiatric feigning, were administered under standard instructions to 24 participants diagnosed with mild mental retardation (MR) and 10 demographically matched community volunteers (CVH). A 2nd…

  10. MEDICAL ASPECTS OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARTER, CHARLES H., COMP.

    TO AID PHYSICIANS AND OTHER SPECIALISTS IN DIAGNOSING CASES OF MENTAL RETARDATION AND IN COUNSELING PARENTS, THE BOOK PRESENTS MEDICAL INFORMATION, INCLUDING RECENT ADVANCES. THIRTY-TWO AUTHORITIES CONTRIBUTE CHAPTERS IN SUCH AREAS AS DIAGNOSIS, METABOLISM, NUTRITION, ETIOLOGY, MONGOLISM, CRANIAL ABNORMALITIES, BIRTH INJURIES, INFECTIONS,…

  11. Toilet Training the Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jeffrey K.

    The booklet offers guidelines in both Spanish and English to parents who are toilet training a mentally retarded child. The toilet training process is broken down into tasks that the child must learn, and the importance of positive reinforcement for each successfully accomplished task is emphasized. It is recommended that parents keep charts…

  12. VOCATIONAL PROGRAMMING FOR THE RETARDED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRICE, CARL R.

    A SUCCESSFUL PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED IS BEING CARRIED ON AT THE MADISON (WISCONSIN) VOCATIONAL, TECHNICAL, AND ADULT SCHOOLS. THE TRAINEES MUST BE 17 YEARS OR OLDER, WITH AN IQ OF APPROXIMATELY 50-75. THE SCHOOL OF QUANTITY FOOD PREPARATION CONTRIBUTES GREATLY TO THIS PROGRAM, FOR WHILE IT MAINLY TEACHES CHEFS AND…

  13. Mental Retardation: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poser, Charles M., Ed.

    A collection of writings by 17 authors, the text includes the following discussions: general principles of diagnosis and management of mental retardation, neurologic evaluation of the infant and child, psychological evaluation, educational information, and treatment of pseudoretardation, communicative disorders, and metabolic and endocrine causes.…

  14. Fire-retardant epoxy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akawie, R. I.; Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.

    1978-01-01

    Phosphorus atoms in molecular structure of epoxies make them fire-retardant without degrading their adhesive strength. Moreover, polymers are transparent, unlike compounds that contain arsenic or other inorganics. They have been used to bond polyvinylfluoride and polyether sulfone films onto polyimide glass laminates.

  15. Multiple Co-Evolutionary Networks Are Supported by the Common Tertiary Scaffold of the LacI/GalR Proteins

    E-print Network

    Parente, Daniel J.; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

    2013-12-31

    Protein families might evolve paralogous functions on their common tertiary scaffold in two ways. First, the locations of functionally-important sites might be ‘‘hard-wired’’ into the structure, with novel functions evolved by altering the amino...

  16. A theory of utility conditionals: Paralogical reasoning from decision-theoretic leakage.

    PubMed

    Bonnefon, Jean-François

    2009-10-01

    Many "if p, then q" conditionals have decision-theoretic features, such as antecedents or consequents that relate to the utility functions of various agents. These decision-theoretic features leak into reasoning processes, resulting in various paralogical conclusions. The theory of utility conditionals offers a unified account of the various forms that this phenomenon can take. The theory is built on 2 main components: (1) a representational tool (the utility grid), which summarizes in compact form the decision-theoretic features of a conditional, and (2) a set of folk axioms of decision, which reflect reasoners' beliefs about the way most agents make their decisions. Applying the folk axioms to the utility grid of a conditional allows for the systematic prediction of the paralogical conclusions invited by the utility grid's decision-theoretic features. The theory of utility conditionals significantly extends the scope of current theories of conditional inference and moves reasoning research toward a greater integration with decision-making research. PMID:19839689

  17. Functional divergence of type 2 deiodinase paralogs in the Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Lorgen, Marlene; Casadei, Elisa; Król, El?bieta; Douglas, Alex; Birnie, Mike J; Ebbesson, Lars O E; Nilsen, Tom O; Jordan, William C; Jørgensen, Even H; Dardente, Hugues; Hazlerigg, David G; Martin, Samuel A M

    2015-03-30

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is an ancestral signal linked to seasonal life history transitions throughout vertebrates. TH action depends upon tissue-localized regulation of levels of active TH (triiodothyronine, T3), through spatiotemporal expression of thyroid hormone deiodinase (dio) genes. We investigated the dio gene family in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr, which prepare for seaward migration in the spring (smoltification) through TH-dependent changes in physiology. We identified two type 2 deiodinase paralogs, dio2a and dio2b, responsible for conversion of thyroxine (T4) to T3. During smoltification, dio2b was induced in the brain and gills in zones of cell proliferation following increasing day length. Contrastingly, dio2a expression was induced in the gills by transfer to salt water (SW), with the magnitude of the response proportional to the plasma chloride level. This response reflected a selective enrichment for osmotic response elements (OREs) in the dio2a promoter region. Transcriptomic profiling of gill tissue from fish transferred to SW plus or minus the deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid, revealed SW-induced increases in cellular respiration as the principal consequence of gill dio2 activity. Divergent evolution of dio2 paralogs supports organ-specific timing of the TH-dependent events governing the phenotypic plasticity required for migration to sea. PMID:25802152

  18. Conserved transcriptional responses to cyanobacterial stressors are mediated by alternate regulation of paralogous genes in Daphnia.

    PubMed

    Asselman, Jana; Pfrender, Michael E; Lopez, Jacqueline A; De Coninck, Dieter I M; Janssen, Colin R; Shaw, Joseph R; De Schamphelaere, Karel A C

    2015-04-01

    Despite a significant increase in genomic data, our knowledge of gene functions and their transcriptional responses to environmental stimuli remains limited. Here, we use the model keystone species Daphnia pulex to study environmental responses of genes in the context of their gene family history to better understand the relationship between genome structure and gene function in response to environmental stimuli. Daphnia were exposed to five different treatments, each consisting of a diet supplemented with one of five cyanobacterial species, and a control treatment consisting of a diet of only green algae. Differential gene expression profiles of Daphnia exposed to each of these five cyanobacterial species showed that genes with known functions are more likely to be shared by different expression profiles, whereas genes specific to the lineage of Daphnia are more likely to be unique to a given expression profile. Furthermore, while only a small number of nonlineage-specific genes were conserved across treatment type, there was a high degree of overlap in expression profiles at the functional level. The conservation of functional responses across the different cyanobacterial treatments can be attributed to the treatment-specific expression of different paralogous genes within the same gene family. Comparison with available gene expression data in the literature suggests differences in nutritional composition in diets with cyanobacterial species compared to diets of green algae as a primary driver for cyanobacterial effects on Daphnia. We conclude that conserved functional responses in Daphnia across different cyanobacterial treatments are mediated through alternate regulation of paralogous gene families. PMID:25754071

  19. The Right to Education for the Retarded

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Jan B.; Sherman, James A.

    1974-08-01

    The Right to Education for the Retarded Jan Sheldon James A. Sherman University of Kansas Introduction Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great... retarded seems wholly "arbitrary and irrational." 38 A state or school district may argue that there are not enough financial resources to educate the mentally retarded. However, to make this argu- ment, they must show that not educating the retarded...

  20. Low Elevated Lead Levels and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    The relationship between low elevated lead absorption and mild mental retardation was investigated in 40 rural children (preschool to grade 12) without demonstrable cause for their retardation. Trace mineral analysis of hair samples from Ss and a control group (N=20) indicated the mean hair lead concentrations for the retarded Ss were considerably…

  1. Energy Conservation and Mentally Retarded Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogelman, Charles J.; And Others

    Suggested are some principles of developing energy conservation programs where retarded persons might be particularly affected, ways to conserve energy, and pertinent references. It is thought that the retarded, particularly the retarded in institutions, are more likely to suffer from energy conservation measures than members of the larger…

  2. Non-Verbal Communication in Retarded Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Evan R.; Dennis, Virginia Collier

    Thirty educable mentally retarded (EMR) and 20 trainable mentally retarded (TMR) black or white pupils were observed interacting with classmates and 25 teachers in a retardation center. Multi-modal communicative behavior was noted, with focus on interpersonal spatial distance as one index of relationship and affect between interacting partners.…

  3. People with Mental Retardation Are Dying, Legally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Criticizes the institution of the death penalty for convicted criminals with mental retardation. Examples are given of cases in which juries were not told of the defendant's mental retardation before sentencing, and a list of defendants with mental retardation that have been executed since 1976 is provided. (CR)

  4. Conservation of ?28-Dependent Non-Coding RNA Paralogs and Predicted ?54-Dependent Targets in Thermophilic Campylobacter Species

    PubMed Central

    Le, My Thanh; van Veldhuizen, Mart; Porcelli, Ida; Bongaerts, Roy J.; Gaskin, Duncan J. H.; Pearson, Bruce M.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Assembly of flagella requires strict hierarchical and temporal control via flagellar sigma and anti-sigma factors, regulatory proteins and the assembly complex itself, but to date non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have not been described to regulate genes directly involved in flagellar assembly. In this study we have investigated the possible role of two ncRNA paralogs (CjNC1, CjNC4) in flagellar assembly and gene regulation of the diarrhoeal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. CjNC1 and CjNC4 are 37/44 nt identical and predicted to target the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of genes transcribed from the flagellar sigma factor ?54. Orthologs of the ?54-dependent 5' UTRs and ncRNAs are present in the genomes of other thermophilic Campylobacter species, and transcription of CjNC1 and CNC4 is dependent on the flagellar sigma factor ?28. Surprisingly, inactivation and overexpression of CjNC1 and CjNC4 did not affect growth, motility or flagella-associated phenotypes such as autoagglutination. However, CjNC1 and CjNC4 were able to mediate sequence-dependent, but Hfq-independent, partial repression of fluorescence of predicted target 5' UTRs in an Escherichia coli-based GFP reporter gene system. This hints towards a subtle role for the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs in post-transcriptional gene regulation in thermophilic Campylobacter species, and suggests that the currently used phenotypic methodologies are insufficiently sensitive to detect such subtle phenotypes. The lack of a role of Hfq in the E. coli GFP-based system indicates that the CjNC1 and CjNC4 ncRNAs may mediate post-transcriptional gene regulation in ways that do not conform to the paradigms obtained from the Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:26512728

  5. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2{gamma}C, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2{gamma}C and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  6. Gene Conversion and DNA Sequence Polymorphism in the Sex-Determination Gene fog-2 and Its Paralog ftr-1

    E-print Network

    Bergthorsson, Ulfar

    Gene Conversion and DNA Sequence Polymorphism in the Sex-Determination Gene fog-2 and Its Paralog to duplication events. fog-2, a sex-determination gene unique to Caenorhabditis elegans and implicated of unknown function. Synonymous sequence divergence in regions of fog-2 and ftr-1 (excluding recent gene

  7. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy component forms polybenzoxazole (PBO) in a reaction that absorbs heat from its surroundings. PBO under thermal stress cross-links, forming a protective char layer, which thermally insulates the polymer. Thus, the formation of the char layer further assists to extinguish the fire by preventing vaporization of the polymeric fuel.

  8. Physiology, pharmacology, and therapeutic relevance of urocortins in mammals: ancient CRF paralogs

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Éva M.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2007-01-01

    Urocortins, three paralogs of the stress-related peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) found in bony fish, amphibians, birds and mammals, have unique phylogenies, pharmacologies, and tissue distributions. As a result and despite a structural family resemblance, the natural functions of urocortins and CRF in mammalian homeostatic responses differ substantially. Endogenous urocortins are neither simply counterpoints nor mimics of endogenous CRF action. In their own right, urocortins may be clinically relevant molecules in the pathogenesis or management of many conditions, including congestive heart failure, hypertension, gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, active gastritis, gastroparesis, rheumatoid arthritis), atopic/allergic disorders (dermatitis, urticaria, asthma), pregnancy and parturition (preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, onset and maintenance of effective labor), major depression and obesity. Safety trials for intravenous urocortin treatment have already begun for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Further understanding the unique functions of urocortin 1, urocortin 2 and urocortin 3 action may uncover other therapeutic opportunities. PMID:17083971

  9. Physiology, pharmacology, and therapeutic relevance of urocortins in mammals: ancient CRF paralogs.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Eva M; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2007-04-01

    Urocortins, three paralogs of the stress-related peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) found in bony fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, have unique phylogenies, pharmacologies, and tissue distributions. As a result and despite a structural family resemblance, the natural functions of urocortins and CRF in mammalian homeostatic responses differ substantially. Endogenous urocortins are neither simply counterpoints nor mimics of endogenous CRF action. In their own right, urocortins may be clinically relevant molecules in the pathogenesis or management of many conditions, including congestive heart failure, hypertension, gastrointestinal and inflammatory disorders (irritable bowel syndrome, active gastritis, gastroparesis, and rheumatoid arthritis), atopic/allergic disorders (dermatitis, urticaria, and asthma), pregnancy and parturition (preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, onset, and maintenance of effective labor), major depression and obesity. Safety trials for intravenous urocortin treatment have already begun for the treatment of congestive heart failure. Further understanding the unique functions of urocortin 1, urocortin 2, and urocortin 3 action may uncover other therapeutic opportunities. PMID:17083971

  10. Exploiting genomic patterns to discover new supramolecular protein assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Beeby, Morgan; Bobik, Thomas A; Yeates, Todd O

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial microcompartments are supramolecular protein assemblies that function as bacterial organelles by compartmentalizing particular enzymes and metabolic intermediates. The outer shells of these microcompartments are assembled from multiple paralogous structural proteins. Because the paralogs are required to assemble together, their genes are often transcribed together from the same operon, giving rise to a distinctive genomic pattern: multiple, typically small, paralogous proteins encoded in close proximity on the bacterial chromosome. To investigate the generality of this pattern in supramolecular assemblies, we employed a comparative genomics approach to search for protein families that show the same kind of genomic pattern as that exhibited by bacterial microcompartments. The results indicate that a variety of large supramolecular assemblies fit the pattern, including bacterial gas vesicles, bacterial pili, and small heat-shock protein complexes. The search also retrieved several widely distributed protein families of presently unknown function. The proteins from one of these families were characterized experimentally and found to show a behavior indicative of supramolecular assembly. We conclude that cotranscribed paralogs are a common feature of diverse supramolecular assemblies, and a useful genomic signature for discovering new kinds of large protein assemblies from genomic data. PMID:19177352

  11. ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE family in plants: lineage-specific expansion in monocotyledons and conserved genomic and expression features among rice (Oryza sativa) paralogs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Duplications are very common in the evolution of plant genomes, explaining the high number of members in plant gene families. New genes born after duplication can undergo pseudogenization, neofunctionalization or subfunctionalization. Rice is a model for functional genomics research, an important crop for human nutrition and a target for biofortification. Increased zinc and iron content in the rice grain could be achieved by manipulation of metal transporters. Here, we describe the ZINC-INDUCED FACILITATOR-LIKE (ZIFL) gene family in plants, and characterize the genomic structure and expression of rice paralogs, which are highly affected by segmental duplication. Results Sequences of sixty-eight ZIFL genes, from nine plant species, were comparatively analyzed. Although related to MSF_1 proteins, ZIFL protein sequences consistently grouped separately. Specific ZIFL sequence signatures were identified. Monocots harbor a larger number of ZIFL genes in their genomes than dicots, probably a result of a lineage-specific expansion. The rice ZIFL paralogs were named OsZIFL1 to OsZIFL13 and characterized. The genomic organization of the rice ZIFL genes seems to be highly influenced by segmental and tandem duplications and concerted evolution, as rice genome contains five highly similar ZIFL gene pairs. Most rice ZIFL promoters are enriched for the core sequence of the Fe-deficiency-related box IDE1. Gene expression analyses of different plant organs, growth stages and treatments, both from our qPCR data and from microarray databases, revealed that the duplicated ZIFL gene pairs are mostly co-expressed. Transcripts of OsZIFL4, OsZIFL5, OsZIFL7, and OsZIFL12 accumulate in response to Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency in roots, two stresses with partially overlapping responses. Conclusions We suggest that ZIFL genes have different evolutionary histories in monocot and dicot lineages. In rice, concerted evolution affected ZIFL duplicated genes, possibly maintaining similar expression patterns between pairs. The enrichment for IDE1 boxes in rice ZIFL gene promoters suggests a role in Zn-excess and Fe-deficiency up-regulation of ZIFL transcripts. Moreover, this is the first description of the ZIFL gene family in plants and the basis for functional studies on this family, which may play important roles in Zn and Fe homeostasis in plants. PMID:21266036

  12. Mental Retardation; Its Social Context and Social Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farber, Bernard

    Concerned with mental retardation as a social product, the following topics are discussed: mental retardation as a social phenomenon, the concept of the retarded as surplus population, labeling and incompetence in relation to life chances, mental retardation as deviance and as incompetence, and findings on the prevalence of retardation in the…

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) Genes in Plants Reveals the Eudicot-Wide PDAT Gene Expansion and Altered Selective Pressures Acting on the Core Eudicot PDAT Paralogs1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xue; Peng, Fred Y.; Weselake, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    PHOSPHOLIPID:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE (PDAT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a fatty acyl moiety from the sn-2 position of a phospholipid to the sn-3-position of sn-1,2-diacylglyerol, thus forming triacylglycerol and a lysophospholipid. Although the importance of PDAT in triacylglycerol biosynthesis has been illustrated in some previous studies, the evolutionary relationship of plant PDATs has not been studied in detail. In this study, we investigated the evolutionary relationship of the PDAT gene family across the green plants using a comparative phylogenetic framework. We found that the PDAT candidate genes are present in all examined green plants, including algae, lowland plants (a moss and a lycophyte), monocots, and eudicots. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the evolutionary division of the PDAT gene family into seven major clades. The separation is supported by the conservation and variation in the gene structure, protein properties, motif patterns, and/or selection constraints. We further demonstrated that there is a eudicot-wide PDAT gene expansion, which appears to have been mainly caused by the eudicot-shared ancient gene duplication and subsequent species-specific segmental duplications. In addition, selection pressure analyses showed that different selection constraints have acted on three core eudicot clades, which might enable paleoduplicated PDAT paralogs to either become nonfunctionalized or develop divergent expression patterns during evolution. Overall, our study provides important insights into the evolution of the plant PDAT gene family and explores the evolutionary mechanism underlying the functional diversification among the core eudicot PDAT paralogs. PMID:25585619

  14. Hand Function Measurement with Educable Mental Retardates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sand, Patricia L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reports on results of the Developmental Hand Function Test administered to 28 educable mentally retarded and 34 normal 12-and 14-year-old girls to show that manual dexterity and functional had skills are compromised in the mentally retarded. (DS)

  15. Political Philosophy and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanovich, Keith E.

    The effects of Social Darwinism, eugenics, and contemporary political conservatism on the status of advocacy efforts for the mentally retarded are reviewed. Provided are historical sketches of Social Darwinism, which viewed the retarded as members of an inferior race, and eugenics, which argued for sterilization of the "genetically unfit". The…

  16. Can Enrichment Help the Academically Retarded?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Norman C.; Knight, Octavia B.

    1965-01-01

    An instructional enrichment program in a Murfreesboro, N.C., school was designed to help academically retarded students in grades 3 to 8 (I.Q. 72-85). The participating students, who were retarded from 1 to 5 years, were grouped homogeneously to receive individual and small group instruction, and were encouraged to develop good listening and study…

  17. Statistics on Mental Retardation in Indiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Association for Retarded Citizens, Indianapolis.

    Presented are 19 tables of statistical data on prevalence of mental retardation, and services provided the estimated 158,724 mentally retarded (MR) persons in Indiana through 1973 by special education classes, vocational rehabilitation units, local organizations, and state hospitals and training centers. Given in tables 1 through 8 are data on…

  18. Identifying Depression in Students with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stough, Laura M.; Baker, Lynn

    1999-01-01

    Offers guidelines to teachers for identifying depression in students with mental retardation. Discusses prevalence and symptoms of depression, causes of depression, difficulty of diagnosis in students with mental retardation, detecting symptoms in the classroom, treatment of depression, and psychological services. Inserts list ideas for helping…

  19. Body Awareness in Children with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Johan; Dedroog, Inge

    2009-01-01

    The body awareness of 124 toddlers with mental retardation and of 124 children developing normally matched to them on age and gender was examined. Twenty-nine of the children with mental retardation were diagnosed as Down syndrome (DS). The "Pointing and Naming" Test of Berges and Lezine [Berges, J., & Lezine, I. (1978). "Test d'imitation de…

  20. Problems of Psychology of Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of the USSR, Moscow. Inst. of Defectology.

    Presented are 18 papers on problems in the psychology of mentally retarded children. Seven of the papers are in English, two in French, and nine in Russian. The English papers are concerned with the following topics: peculiarities of psychic functions in oligophrenic (retarded) children with pronounced underdevelopment of frontal lobes of cerebral…

  1. Care Of The Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, J.

    1979-01-01

    Mental retardation is a clinical syndrome, not an intellectual defect or brain disease per se. As such, physicians should not participate in the downgrading labelling of moron, idiot and imbecile. Such labelled people are difficult to relate to and this results in the concept of 'nil expectations' in which the whole of society participates. Maladaptation in this syndrome is more related to poor environmental input than to basic organic defect, and is a family problem. The family doctor is in an ideal situation to help the family handle the problems of anger, shame, guilt, rejection. If aware of his own feelings, he should also be the coordinator of the physical needs of the child and the alternatives available for maximal input. Imagesp1344-a PMID:21297810

  2. Nuclear Ribosomal ITS Functional Paralogs Resolve the Phylogenetic Relationships of a Late-Miocene Radiation Cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  3. Nuclear ribosomal ITS functional paralogs resolve the phylogenetic relationships of a late-miocene radiation cycad Cycas (Cycadaceae).

    PubMed

    Xiao, Long-Qian; Möller, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cycas is the most widespread and diverse genus among the ancient cycads, but the extant species could be the product of late Miocene rapid radiations. Taxonomic treatments to date for this genus are quite controversial, which makes it difficult to elucidate its evolutionary history. We cloned 161 genomic ITS sequences from 31 species representing all sections of Cycas. The divergent ITS paralogs were examined within each species and identified as putative pseudogenes, recombinants and functional paralogs. Functional paralogs were used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships with pseudogene sequences as molecular outgroups, since an unambiguous ITS sequence alignment with their closest relatives, the Zamiaceae, is unachievable. A fully resolved and highly supported tree topology was obtained at the section level, with two major clades including six minor clades. The results fully supported the classification scheme proposed by Hill (2004) at the section level, with the minor clades representing his six sections. The two major clades could be recognised as two subgenera. The obtained pattern of phylogenetic relationships, combined with the different seed dispersal capabilities and paleogeography, allowed us to propose a late Miocene rapid radiation of Cycas that might have been promoted by vicariant events associated with the complex topography and orogeny of South China and adjacent regions. In contrast, transoceanic dispersals might have played an important role in the rapid diversification of sect. Cycas, whose members have evolved a spongy layer in their seeds aiding water dispersals. PMID:25635842

  4. Trypanosoma brucei harbors a divergent XPB helicase paralog that is specialized in nucleotide excision repair and conserved among kinetoplastid organisms

    PubMed Central

    Badjatia, Nitika; Nguyen, Tu N; Lee, Ju Huck; Günzl, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Summary Conserved from yeast to humans, TFIIH is essential for RNA polymerase II transcription and nucleotide excision repair (NER). TFIIH consists of a core that includes the DNA helicase Xeroderma pigmentosum B (XPB) and a kinase subcomplex. Trypanosoma brucei TFIIH harbors all core complex components and is indispensable for RNA polymerase II transcription of spliced leader RNA genes (SLRNAs). Kinetoplastid organisms, however, possess two highly divergent XPB paralogs with only the larger being identified as a TFIIH subunit in T. brucei. Here we show that a knockout of the gene for the smaller paralog, termed XPB-R (R for repair) resulted in viable cultured trypanosomes that grew slower than normal. XPB-R depletion did not affect transcription in vivo or in vitro and XPB-R was not found to occupy the SLRNA promoter which assembles a RNA polymerase II transcription pre-initiation complex including TFIIH. However, XPB-R?/? cells were much less tolerant than wild-type cells to UV light- and cisplatin-induced DNAdamage, which require NER. Since XPB-R?/? cells were not impaired in DNA base excision repair, XPB-R appears to function specifically in NER. Interestingly, several other protists possess highly divergent XPB paralogs suggesting that XPBs specialized in transcription or NER exist beyond the Kinetoplastida. PMID:24134817

  5. New scheme for finite-retardation limitations of linear retarders with fixed axes in polarization control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Li, Mo; Liang, Wen-Ye; Wang, Dong; He, De-Yong; Wang, Shuang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Finite retardation ranges of linear retarders with fixed axes limit their applications in polarization control. In this work, we present a simple and efficient constraint scheme for this finite-retardation limitation. Its theoretical basis is given geometrically and mathematically. The new polarization control algorithm combines the constraint scheme and a widely-used maximum-search algorithm. Both simulations and experiments confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed scheme and control algorithm. In experiments, the control system uses four cascaded linear retarders with fast axes alternately oriented at 0° and 45°. Each retarder (fiber squeezer) has a finite retardation range of 4?. For a 15-min test, the mean (maximum) polarization error angle is 0.09 (0.28) rad while stabilizing a polarization fluctuation at an average speed of 26 rad/s. Furthermore, no events of hitting retardation limits occur.

  6. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Mental retardation and personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127...Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  7. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Mental retardation and personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127...Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  8. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Mental retardation and personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127...Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  9. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Mental retardation and personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127...Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  10. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Mental retardation and personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127...Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  11. miR-1322 Binding Sites in Paralogous and Orthologous Genes

    PubMed Central

    Niyazova, Raigul; Berillo, Olga; Atambayeva, Shara; Pyrkova, Anna; Alybayeva, Aigul; Ivashchenko, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    We searched for 2,563 microRNA (miRNA) binding sites in 17,494 mRNA sequences of human genes. miR-1322 has more than 2,000 binding sites in 1,058 genes with ?G/?Gm ratio of 85% and more. miR-1322 has 1,889 binding sites in CDSs, 215 binding sites in 5? UTRs, and 160 binding sites in 3? UTRs. From two to 28 binding sites have arranged localization with the start position through three nucleotides of each following binding site. The nucleotide sequences of these sites in CDSs encode oligopeptides with the same and/or different amino acid sequences. We found that 33% of the target genes encoded transcription factors. miR-1322 has arranged binding sites in the CDSs of orthologous MAMLD1, MAML2, and MAML3 genes. These sites encode a polyglutamine oligopeptide ranging from six to 47 amino acids in length. The properties of miR-1322 binding sites in orthologous and paralogous target genes are discussed. PMID:26114118

  12. Paralog Re-Emergence: A Novel, Historically Contingent Mechanism in the Evolution of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Nichola J.; Cools, Hans J.; Sierotzki, Helge; Shaw, Michael W.; Knogge, Wolfgang; Kelly, Steven L.; Kelly, Diane E.; Fraaije, Bart A.

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of resistance to drugs and pesticides poses a serious threat to human health and agricultural production. CYP51 encodes the target site of azole fungicides, widely used clinically and in agriculture. Azole resistance can evolve due to point mutations or overexpression of CYP51, and previous studies have shown that fungicide-resistant alleles have arisen by de novo mutation. Paralogs CYP51A and CYP51B are found in filamentous ascomycetes, but CYP51A has been lost from multiple lineages. Here, we show that in the barley pathogen Rhynchosporium commune, re-emergence of CYP51A constitutes a novel mechanism for the evolution of resistance to azoles. Pyrosequencing analysis of historical barley leaf samples from a unique long-term experiment from 1892 to 2008 indicates that the majority of the R. commune population lacked CYP51A until 1985, after which the frequency of CYP51A rapidly increased. Functional analysis demonstrates that CYP51A retains the same substrate as CYP51B, but with different transcriptional regulation. Phylogenetic analyses show that the origin of CYP51A far predates azole use, and newly sequenced Rhynchosporium genomes show CYP51A persisting in the R. commune lineage rather than being regained by horizontal gene transfer; therefore, CYP51A re-emergence provides an example of adaptation to novel compounds by selection from standing genetic variation. PMID:24732957

  13. APRIN is a Unique Pds5 Paralog with Features of a Chromatin Regulator in Hormonal Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Maffini, Maricel; Denes, Viktoria; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana; Geck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Activation of steroid receptors results in global changes of gene expression patterns. Recent studies showed that steroid receptors control only a portion of their target genes directly, by promoter binding. The majority of the changes are indirect, through chromatin rearrangements. The mediators that relay the hormonal signals to large-scale chromatin changes are, however, unknown. We report here that APRIN, a novel hormone-induced nuclear phosphoprotein has the characteristics of a chromatin regulator and may link endocrine pathways to chromatin. We showed earlier that APRIN is involved in the hormonal regulation of proliferative arrest in cancer cells. To investigate its function we cloned and characterized APRIN orthologs and performed homology and expression studies. APRIN is a paralog of the cohesin-associated Pds5 gene lineage and arose by gene-duplication in early vertebrates. The conservation and domain differences we found suggest, however, that APRIN acquired novel chromatin-related functions (e.g. the HMG-like domains in APRIN, the hallmarks of chromatin regulators, are absent in Pds5). We show that in interphase nuclei APRIN localizes in the euchromatin/heterochromatin interface and we also identified its DNA-binding and nuclear import signal domains. Our results indicate that APRIN, in addition to its Pds5 similarity, has the features and localization of a hormone-induced chromatin regulator. PMID:17997301

  14. Helicobacter pylori bab Paralog Distribution and Association with cagA, vacA, and homA/B Genotypes in American and South Korean Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jieun; Kim, Jinmoon; Jang, Sungil; Cha, Ho Jin; Lee, Wan Jin; Kim, June; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Peek, Richard M.; Merrell, D. Scott; Cha, Jeong-Heon

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori genetic variation is a crucial component of colonization and persistence within the inhospitable niche of the gastric mucosa. As such, numerous H. pylori genes have been shown to vary in terms of presence and genomic location within this pathogen. Among the variable factors, the Bab family of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) has been shown to differ within subsets of strains. To better understand genetic variation among the bab genes and to determine whether this variation differed among isolates obtained from different geographic locations, we characterized the distribution of the Bab family members in 80 American H. pylori clinical isolates (AH) and 80 South Korean H. pylori clinical isolates (KH). Overall, we identified 23 different bab genotypes (19 in AH and 11 in KH), but only 5 occurred in greater than 5 isolates. Regardless of strain origin, a strain in which locus A and locus B were both occupied by a bab gene was the most common (85%); locus C was only occupied in those isolates that carried bab paralog at locus A and B. While the babA/babB/- genotype predominated in the KH (78.8%), no single genotype could account for greater than 40% in the AH collection. In addition to basic genotyping, we also identified associations between bab genotype and well known virulence factors cagA and vacA. Specifically, significant associations between babA at locus A and the cagA EPIYA-ABD motif (P<0.0001) and the vacA s1/i1/m1 allele (P<0.0001) were identified. Log-linear modeling further revealed a three-way association between bab carried at locus A, vacA, and number of OMPs from the HOM family (P<0.002). En masse this study provides a detailed characterization of the bab genotypes from two distinct populations. Our analysis suggests greater variability in the AH, perhaps due to adaptation to a more diverse host population. Furthermore, when considering the presence or absence of both the bab and homA/B paralogs at their given loci and the vacA genotype, an association was observed. Our results highlight the multifactorial nature of H. pylori mediated disease and the importance of considering how the specific combinations of H. pylori virulence genes and their multiple interactions with the host will collectively impact disease progression. PMID:26317221

  15. Tetrahymena Pot2 Is a Developmentally Regulated Paralog of Pot1 That Localizes to Chromosome Breakage Sites but Not to Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Cranert, Stacey; Heyse, Serena; Linger, Benjamin R.; Lescasse, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Tetrahymena telomeres are protected by a protein complex composed of Pot1, Tpt1, Pat1, and Pat2. Pot1 binds the 3? overhang and serves multiple roles in telomere maintenance. Here we describe Pot2, a paralog of Pot1 which has evolved a novel function during Tetrahymena sexual reproduction. Pot2 is unnecessary for telomere maintenance during vegetative growth, as the telomere structure is unaffected by POT2 macronuclear gene disruption. Pot2 is expressed only in mated cells, where it accumulates in developing macronuclei around the time of two chromosome processing events: internal eliminated sequence (IES) excision and chromosome breakage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated Pot2 localization to regions of chromosome breakage but not to telomeres or IESs. Pot2 association with chromosome breakage sites (CBSs) occurs slightly before chromosome breakage. Pot2 did not bind CBSs or telomeric DNA in vitro, suggesting that it is recruited to CBSs by another factor. The telomere proteins Pot1, Pat1, and Tpt1 and the IES binding factor Pdd1 fail to colocalize with Pot2. Thus, Pot2 is the first protein found to associate specifically with CBSs. The selective association of Pot2 versus Pdd1 with CBSs or IESs indicates a mechanistic difference between the chromosome processing events at these two sites. Moreover, ChIP revealed that histone marks characteristic of IES processing, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, are absent from CBSs. Thus, the mechanisms of chromosome breakage and IES excision must be fundamentally different. Our results lead to a model where Pot2 directs chromosome breakage by recruiting telomerase and/or the endonuclease responsible for DNA cleavage to CBSs. PMID:25303953

  16. Tetrahymena Pot2 is a developmentally regulated paralog of Pot1 that localizes to chromosome breakage sites but not to telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cranert, Stacey; Heyse, Serena; Linger, Benjamin R; Lescasse, Rachel; Price, Carolyn

    2014-12-01

    Tetrahymena telomeres are protected by a protein complex composed of Pot1, Tpt1, Pat1, and Pat2. Pot1 binds the 3' overhang and serves multiple roles in telomere maintenance. Here we describe Pot2, a paralog of Pot1 which has evolved a novel function during Tetrahymena sexual reproduction. Pot2 is unnecessary for telomere maintenance during vegetative growth, as the telomere structure is unaffected by POT2 macronuclear gene disruption. Pot2 is expressed only in mated cells, where it accumulates in developing macronuclei around the time of two chromosome processing events: internal eliminated sequence (IES) excision and chromosome breakage. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) demonstrated Pot2 localization to regions of chromosome breakage but not to telomeres or IESs. Pot2 association with chromosome breakage sites (CBSs) occurs slightly before chromosome breakage. Pot2 did not bind CBSs or telomeric DNA in vitro, suggesting that it is recruited to CBSs by another factor. The telomere proteins Pot1, Pat1, and Tpt1 and the IES binding factor Pdd1 fail to colocalize with Pot2. Thus, Pot2 is the first protein found to associate specifically with CBSs. The selective association of Pot2 versus Pdd1 with CBSs or IESs indicates a mechanistic difference between the chromosome processing events at these two sites. Moreover, ChIP revealed that histone marks characteristic of IES processing, H3K9me3 and H3K27me3, are absent from CBSs. Thus, the mechanisms of chromosome breakage and IES excision must be fundamentally different. Our results lead to a model where Pot2 directs chromosome breakage by recruiting telomerase and/or the endonuclease responsible for DNA cleavage to CBSs. PMID:25303953

  17. A polymeric flame retardant additive for rubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N.; Maiti, S.

    1993-12-31

    Synthesis of a polyphosphonate by the interfacial polymerization of bisphenol-A (BPA) and dichloro-phenyl phosphine oxide (DCPO) using cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (TMAC) as phase transfer catalyst (PTC) was reported. The polyphosphonate was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, TGA, DSC and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The flame retardancy of the polymer was done by OI study. The polymer was used as a fire retardant additive to rubbers such as natural rubber (NR), styrene-butadiene rubber(SBR), nitrile rubber (NBR) and chloroprene rubber (CR). The efficiency of the fire retardant property of this additive was determined by LOI measurements of the various rubber samples.

  18. Public health implications of components of plastics manufacture. Flame retardants.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, E M; Liepins, R

    1975-01-01

    The four processes involved in the flammability of materials are described and related to the various flame retardance mechanisms that may operate. Following this the four practical approaches used in improving flame retardance of materials are described. Each approach is illustrated with a number of typical examples of flame retardants or synthetic procedures used. This overview of flammability, flame retardance, and flame retardants used is followed by a more detailed examination of most of the plastics manufactured in the United States during 1973, their consumption patterns, and the primary types of flame retardants used in the flame retardance of the most used plastics. The main types of flame retardants are illustrated with a number of typical commercial examples. Statistical data on flame retardant market size, flame retardant growth in plastics, and price ranges of common flame retardants are presented. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. PMID:1175568

  19. Genomic imbalances in mental retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kriek, M; White, S; Bouma, M; Dauwerse, H; Hansson, K; Nijhuis, J; Bakker, B; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; Breuning, M

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: It has been estimated that cytogenetically visible rearrangements are present in ~1% of newborns. These chromosomal changes can cause a wide range of deleterious developmental effects, including mental retardation (MR). It is assumed that many other cases exist where the cause is a submicroscopic deletion or duplication. To facilitate the detection of such cases, different techniques have been developed, which have differing efficiency as to the number of loci and patients that can be tested. Methods: We implemented multiplex amplifiable probe hybridisation (MAPH) to test areas known to be rearranged in MR patients (for example, subtelomeric/pericentromeric regions and those affected in microdeletion syndromes) and to look for new regions that might be related to MR. Results: In this study, over 30 000 screens for duplications and deletions were carried out; 162 different loci tested in each of 188 developmentally delayed patients. The analysis resulted in the detection of 19 rearrangements, of which ~65% would not have been detected by conventional cytogenetic analysis. A significant fraction (46%) of the rearrangements found were interstitial, despite the fact that only a limited number of these loci have so far been tested. Discussion: Our results strengthen the arguments for whole genome screening within this population, as it can be assumed that many more interstitial rearrangements would be detected. The strengths of MAPH for this analysis are the simplicity, the high throughput potential, and the high resolution of analysis. This combination should help in the future identification of the specific genes that are responsible for MR. PMID:15060096

  20. The consequence of an additional NADH dehydrogenase paralog on the growth of Gluconobacter oxydans DSM3504.

    PubMed

    Kostner, D; Luchterhand, B; Junker, A; Volland, S; Daniel, R; Büchs, J; Liebl, W; Ehrenreich, A

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria such as Gluconobacter oxydans are used in several biotechnological processes due to their ability to perform rapid incomplete regio- and stereo-selective oxidations of a great variety of carbohydrates, alcohols, and related compounds by their membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In order to understand the growth physiology of industrial strains such as G. oxydans ATCC 621H that has high substrate oxidation rates but poor growth yields, we compared its genome sequence to the genome sequence of strain DSM 3504 that reaches an almost three times higher optical density. Although the genome sequences are very similar, DSM 3504 has additional copies of genes that are absent from ATCC 621H. Most importantly, strain DSM 3504 contains an additional type II NADH dehydrogenase (ndh) gene and an additional triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) gene. We deleted these additional paralogs from DSM 3504, overexpressed NADH dehydrogenase in ATCC 621H, and monitored biomass and the concentration of the representative cell components as well as O2 and CO2 transfer rates in growth experiments on mannitol. The data revealed a clear competition of membrane-bound dehydrogenases and NADH dehydrogenase for channeling electrons in the electron transport chain of Gluconobacter and an important role of the additional NADH dehydrogenase for increased growth yields. The less active the NADH dehydrogenase is, the more active is the membrane-bound polyol dehydrogenase. These results were confirmed by introducing additional ndh genes via plasmid pAJ78 in strain ATCC 621H, which leads to a marked increase of the growth rate. PMID:25267158

  1. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. PMID:25909656

  2. Environmentally Benign Flame Retardant Nanocoatings for Fabric 

    E-print Network

    Li, Yu-Chin

    2012-07-16

    and environmental impact, which has created a need for alternative flame retardant chemistries and approaches. Polymer nanocomposites typically exhibit reduced mass loss and heat release rates, along with anti-dripping behavior, all of which are believed to be due...

  3. Brominated Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...

  4. Retarded Children at Camp with Normal Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.

    1969-01-01

    Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)

  5. Sterilization of Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Thomas E.; Andersen, H. Frank

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the historical, legal, and ethical concerns regarding sterilization for persons with mental retardation and offers guidelines to help counsel individuals with disabilities or their families regarding decision making about sterilization. (DB)

  6. Epilepsy, Mental Retardation, and Anticonvulsant Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Kenneth Roland; Katz-Garris, Lynda

    1979-01-01

    Inappropriate or inadequately documented medication for patients in mental retardation institutions is a major medical and economic problem. Within a 127-patient ward, 41 patients were treated with anticonvulsants. Of these patients, 24 had no documented indications for usage. (Author)

  7. PCBs, PBBs and Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...

  8. Retardation Measurements of Infrared PVA Wave plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Z, H.; W, D.; D, Y.; Z, Z.; S, J.

    The wave plate made of Polyvinyl Alcohol PVA plastic film has several advantages such as its lower cost and insensitivity to temperature and incidence angle so it has been used in the Solar Multi-Channel Telescope SMCT in China But the important parameter retardations of PVA wave plates in the near infrared wavelength have never been provided In this paper a convenient and high precise instrument to get the retardations of discrete wavelengths or a continuous function of wavelength in near infrared is developed In this method the retardations of wave plates have been determined through calculating the maximum and minimum of light intensity The instrument error has been shown Additionally we can get the continuous direction of wavelength retardations in the ultraviolet visible or infrared spectral in another way

  9. Realidades Acerca de la Deficiencia Mental = Facts about Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Austin.

    This document consists of two booklets, one in Spanish and one in English, both covering the same text: the characteristics of mentally retarded individuals, the prevalence of mentally retarded persons in Texas, causes of mental retardation, prevention possibilities, and services available to mentally retarded persons in Texas. A distinction is…

  10. The RNA binding protein FXR1 is a new driver in the 3q26-29 amplicon and predicts poor prognosis in human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jun; Hassanein, Mohamed; Hoeksema, Megan D.; Harris, Bradford K.; Zou, Yong; Chen, Heidi; Lu, Pengcheng; Eisenberg, Rosana; Wang, Jing; Espinosa, Allan; Ji, Xiangming; Harris, Fredrick T.; Rahman, S. M. Jamshedur; Massion, Pierre P.

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant expression of RNA-binding proteins has profound implications for cellular physiology and the pathogenesis of human diseases such as cancer. We previously identified the Fragile X-Related 1 gene (FXR1) as one amplified candidate driver gene at 3q26-29 in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). FXR1 is an autosomal paralog of Fragile X mental retardation 1 and has not been directly linked to human cancers. Here we demonstrate that FXR1 is a key regulator of tumor progression and its overexpression is critical for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We identified the mechanisms by which FXR1 executes its regulatory function by forming a novel complex with two other oncogenes, protein kinase C, iota and epithelial cell transforming 2, located in the same amplicon via distinct binding mechanisms. FXR1 expression is a candidate biomarker predictive of poor survival in multiple solid tumors including NSCLCs. Because FXR1 is overexpressed and associated with poor clinical outcomes in multiple cancers, these results have implications for other solid malignancies. PMID:25733852

  11. Evolution of the vertebrate genome as reflected in paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, L.G. )

    1993-04-01

    Gene constellations on several human chromosomes are interpreted as indications of large regional duplications that took place during evolution of the vertebrate genome. Four groups of paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse are suggested and are believed to be conserved remnants of the two or three rounds of tetraploidization that are likely to have occurred during evolution of the vertebrates. The phenomenon of differential silencing of genes is described. The importance of conservation of linkage of particular genes is discussed in relation to genetic regulation and cell differentiation. 120 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Identification and characterization of the methyl arginines in the fragile X mental retardation

    E-print Network

    Clarke, Steven

    Identification and characterization of the methyl arginines in the fragile X mental retardation arginine­glycine­glycine box. We identify the four arginines that are methylated and show that cellular and the Drosophila ortholog dFmr1 are methylated post-translationally. Recombinant protein arginine methyl

  13. The mGluR theory of fragile X mental retardation

    E-print Network

    Bear, Mark

    associated with human mental retardation of unknown etiology [7], as well as with Down's and Rett syndromes), the defect respon- sible for fragile X syndrome in humans, increases LTD in mouse hippocampus. This finding X syndrome, based on the assumption that many of the protein-synthesis- dependent functions

  14. Evolution, diversification, and expression of KNOX proteins in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Yang, Xue; Zhao, Wei; Lang, Tiange; Samuelsson, Tore

    2015-01-01

    The KNOX (KNOTTED1-like homeobox) transcription factors play a pivotal role in leaf and meristem development. The majority of these proteins are characterized by the KNOX1, KNOX2, ELK, and homeobox domains whereas the proteins of the KNATM family contain only the KNOX domains. We carried out an extensive inventory of these proteins and here report on a total of 394 KNOX proteins from 48 species. The land plant proteins fall into two classes (I and II) as previously shown where the class I family seems to be most closely related to the green algae homologs. The KNATM proteins are restricted to Eudicots and some species have multiple paralogs of this protein. Certain plants are characterized by a significant increase in the number of KNOX paralogs; one example is Glycine max. Through the analysis of public gene expression data we show that the class II proteins of this plant have a relatively broad expression specificity as compared to class I proteins, consistent with previous studies of other plants. In G. max, class I protein are mainly distributed in axis tissues and KNATM paralogs are overall poorly expressed; highest expression is in the early plumular axis. Overall, analysis of gene expression in G. max demonstrates clearly that the expansion in gene number is associated with functional diversification. PMID:26557129

  15. New chemical retarder for acid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Carbonate formations have been treated with acid for many years to increase fracture length and conductivity and thereby stimulate production. Fracture acidizing of carbonate formations requires consideration of several parameters, including the acid penetration distance, dynamic fracture geometry, and fracture conductivity. Acid penetration distances have been increased to various extents with chemically retarded acids, gelled acids, emulsified acids, and acid systems composed of hydrochloric, acetic, and/or formic acids. A new chemical retarder has been developed for use with emulsified and nonemulsified acids to help increase acid penetration into fractured limestone formations. The chemical retarder is chemically and physically adsorbed on the formation where it slows the reaction rate of acid, and the adsorption appears strong enough to withstand turbulent flow. This work discusses the laboratory evaluation of the new retarder's effect on acid penetration distances and reaction times with nonemulsified and emulsified hydrogen chloride and a formic acid mixture. Also discussed are acid placement techniques used in 21 Mexican wells with the new retarder and results of these techniques. 10 references.

  16. Structure and Catalysis in the Escherichia coli Hotdog-fold Thioesterase Paralogs YdiI and YbdB

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herein, the structural determinants for substrate recognition and catalysis in two hotdog-fold thioesterase paralogs, YbdB and YdiI from Escherichia coli, are identified and analyzed to provide insight into the evolution of biological function in the hotdog-fold enzyme superfamily. The X-ray crystal structures of YbdB and YdiI, in complex with inert substrate analogs, determined in this study revealed the locations of the respective thioester substrate binding sites and the identity of the residues positioned for substrate binding and catalysis. The importance of each of these residues was assessed through amino acid replacements followed by steady-state kinetic analyses of the corresponding site-directed mutants. Transient kinetic and solvent 18O-labeling studies were then carried out to provide insight into the role of Glu63 posited to function as the nucleophile or general base in catalysis. Finally, the structure–function–mechanism profiles of the two paralogs, along with that of a more distant homolog, were compared to identify conserved elements of substrate recognition and catalysis, which define the core traits of the hotdog-fold thioesterase family, as well as structural features that are unique to each thioesterase. Founded on the insight gained from this analysis, we conclude that the promiscuity revealed by in vitro substrate activity determinations, and posited to facilitate the evolution of new biological function, is the product of intrinsic plasticity in substrate binding as well as in the catalytic mechanism. PMID:25010423

  17. Plasma impregnation of wood with fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabeliña, Karel G.; Lumban, Carmencita O.; Ramos, Henry J.

    2012-02-01

    The efficacy of chemical and plasma treatments with phosphate and boric compounds, and nitrogen as flame retardants on wood are compared in this study. The chemical treatment involved the conventional method of spraying the solution over the wood surface at atmospheric condition and chemical vapor deposition in a vacuum chamber. The plasma treatment utilized a dielectric barrier discharge ionizing and decomposing the flame retardants into innocuous simple compounds. Wood samples are immersed in either phosphoric acid, boric acid, hydrogen or nitrogen plasmas or a plasma admixture of two or three compounds at various concentrations and impregnated by the ionized chemical reactants. Chemical changes on the wood samples were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) while the thermal changes through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). Plasma-treated samples exhibit superior thermal stability and fire retardant properties in terms of highest onset temperature, temperature of maximum pyrolysis, highest residual char percentage and comparably low total percentage weight loss.

  18. Similar but not the same: insights into the evolutionary history of paralogous sex-determining genes of the dwarf honey bee Apis florea.

    PubMed

    Biewer, M; Lechner, S; Hasselmann, M

    2016-01-01

    Studying the fate of duplicated genes provides informative insight into the evolutionary plasticity of biological pathways to which they belong. In the paralogous sex-determining genes complementary sex determiner (csd) and feminizer (fem) of honey bee species (genus Apis), only heterozygous csd initiates female development. Here, the full-length coding sequences of the genes csd and fem of the phylogenetically basal dwarf honey bee Apis florea are characterized. Compared with other Apis species, remarkable evolutionary changes in the formation and localization of a protein-interacting (coiled-coil) motif and in the amino acids coding for the csd characteristic hypervariable region (HVR) are observed. Furthermore, functionally different csd alleles were isolated as genomic fragments from a random population sample. In the predicted potential specifying domain (PSD), a high ratio of ?N/?S=1.6 indicated positive selection, whereas signs of balancing selection, commonly found in other Apis species, are missing. Low nucleotide diversity on synonymous and genome-wide, non-coding sites as well as site frequency analyses indicated a strong impact of genetic drift in A. florea, likely linked to its biology. Along the evolutionary trajectory of ~30 million years of csd evolution, episodic diversifying selection seems to have acted differently among distinct Apis branches. Consistently low amino-acid differences within the PSD among pairs of functional heterozygous csd alleles indicate that the HVR is the most important region for determining allele specificity. We propose that in the early history of the lineage-specific fem duplication giving rise to csd in Apis, A. florea csd stands as a remarkable example for the plasticity of initial sex-determining signals. PMID:26153222

  19. Interplay of the Serine/Threonine-Kinase StkP and the Paralogs DivIVA and GpsB in Pneumococcal Cell Elongation and Division

    PubMed Central

    Campo, Nathalie; Cluzel, Caroline; Lavergne, Jean-Pierre; Freton, Céline; Combet, Christophe; Guiral, Sébastien; Soufi, Boumediene; Macek, Boris; Kuru, Erkin; VanNieuwenhze, Michael S.; Brun, Yves V.; Di Guilmi, Anne-Marie; Claverys, Jean-Pierre; Galinier, Anne; Grangeasse, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Despite years of intensive research, much remains to be discovered to understand the regulatory networks coordinating bacterial cell growth and division. The mechanisms by which Streptococcus pneumoniae achieves its characteristic ellipsoid-cell shape remain largely unknown. In this study, we analyzed the interplay of the cell division paralogs DivIVA and GpsB with the ser/thr kinase StkP. We observed that the deletion of divIVA hindered cell elongation and resulted in cell shortening and rounding. By contrast, the absence of GpsB resulted in hampered cell division and triggered cell elongation. Remarkably, ?gpsB elongated cells exhibited a helical FtsZ pattern instead of a Z-ring, accompanied by helical patterns for DivIVA and peptidoglycan synthesis. Strikingly, divIVA deletion suppressed the elongated phenotype of ?gpsB cells. These data suggest that DivIVA promotes cell elongation and that GpsB counteracts it. Analysis of protein-protein interactions revealed that GpsB and DivIVA do not interact with FtsZ but with the cell division protein EzrA, which itself interacts with FtsZ. In addition, GpsB interacts directly with DivIVA. These results are consistent with DivIVA and GpsB acting as a molecular switch to orchestrate peripheral and septal PG synthesis and connecting them with the Z-ring via EzrA. The cellular co-localization of the transpeptidases PBP2x and PBP2b as well as the lipid-flippases FtsW and RodA in ?gpsB cells further suggest the existence of a single large PG assembly complex. Finally, we show that GpsB is required for septal localization and kinase activity of StkP, and therefore for StkP-dependent phosphorylation of DivIVA. Altogether, we propose that the StkP/DivIVA/GpsB triad finely tunes the two modes of peptidoglycan (peripheral and septal) synthesis responsible for the pneumococcal ellipsoid cell shape. PMID:24722178

  20. Molecular and functional characterization of seven Na+/K+-ATPase ? subunit paralogs in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858).

    PubMed

    Armesto, Paula; Infante, Carlos; Cousin, Xavier; Ponce, Marian; Manchado, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    In the present work, seven genes encoding Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) ?-subunits in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of the predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation with those of other vertebrate species and maintenance of important motifs involved in structure and function. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the seven genes into four main clades: ?1 (atp1b1a and atp1b1b), ?2 (atp1b2a and atp1b2b), ?3 (atp1b3a and atp1b3b) and ?4 (atp1b4). In juveniles, all paralogous transcripts were detected in the nine tissues examined albeit with different expression patterns. The most ubiquitous expressed gene was atp1b1a whereas atp1b1b was mainly detected in osmoregulatory organs (gill, kidney and intestine), and atp1b2a, atp1b2b, atp1b3a, atp1b3b and atp1b4 in brain. An expression analysis in three brain regions and pituitary revealed that ?1-type transcripts were more abundant in pituitary than the other ? paralogs with slight differences between brain regions. Quantification of mRNA abundance in gills after a salinity challenge showed an activation of atp1b1a and atp1b1b at high salinity water (60 ppt) and atp1b3a and atp1b3b in response to low salinity (5 ppt). Transcriptional analysis during larval development showed specific expression patterns for each paralog. Moreover, no differences in the expression profiles between larvae cultivated at 10 and 35 ppt were observed except for atp1b4 with higher mRNA levels at 10 than 35 ppt at 18 days post hatch. Whole-mount in situ hybridization analysis revealed that atp1b1b was mainly localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, and chordacentrum of newly hatched larvae. All these data suggest distinct roles of NKA ? subunits in tissues, during development and osmoregulation with ?1 subunits involved in the adaptation to hyperosmotic conditions and ?3 subunits to hypoosmotic environments. PMID:25483323

  1. Bibliographic Instruction for Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, Dennis A.

    Conducted as part of a practicum to be completed at the Champaign (Illinois) Public Library and Information Center, this study was designed to view the availability of appropriate bibliographic instruction for adults who are mentally retarded that will enhance both their ability to use library resources and equipment, and their desire to do so.…

  2. Training Procedure Manual for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Josephine; And Others

    Presented is a training procedure manual for institutionalized moderately, severely, and profoundly retarded persons. Teaching activities are suggested for the following skill areas: motor development and awareness (including sensory stimulation, mat skills, and music and basic rhythm); toileting; eating skills (such as straw sipping and table…

  3. Brominated flame retardants as food contaminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major brominated flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...

  4. Mental Retardation: Past, Present and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Marie Skodak

    1975-01-01

    Notes that two developments had major impacts on policies towards the mentally retarded between the 1880s and the 1920s: (1) the swing toward the eugenics-heredity-genetics movement, and (2) the development of individual intelligence testing. (Author/JM)

  5. Euthanasia and Mental Retardation: Suggesting the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Russell

    1989-01-01

    The article examines current opinions toward euthanasia of persons with mental retardation in light of the history of public and professional attitudes. It also discusses the rejection of euthanasia on moral and religious grounds, and notes the use of lifelong incarceration, based on eugenics principles, to accomplish similar ends. (DB)

  6. HEALTH ASPECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing bromine have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...

  7. CURRICULUM GUIDE FOR TRAINABLE RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster County Superintendent of Schools Office, Ft. Dodge, IA.

    ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION, ADMINISTRATIVE PRACTICES, AND EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES ARE DISCUSSED. CHARACTERISTICS OF THESE TRAINABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN ARE DESCRIBED, AND DAILY SCHEDULES FOR YOUNGER AND OLDER GROUPS ARE LISTED. TEACHING SUGGESTIONS ARE PRESENTED FOR SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT (INCLUDING SELF-CARE), ECONOMIC USEFULNESS, ACADEMIC…

  8. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...

  9. BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...

  10. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Brominated flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...

  11. Aerobic Fitness for the Moderately Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    Intended for physical education teachers, the booklet offers ideas for incorporating aerobic conditioning into programs for moderately mentally retarded students. An explanation of aerobic fitness and its benefits is followed by information on initiating a fitness program with evaluation of height, weight, body fat, resting heart rate, and…

  12. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body…

  13. Novel additives to retard permeable flow

    SciTech Connect

    Golombok, Michael; Crane, Carel; Ineke, Erik; Welling, Marco; Harris, Jon

    2008-09-15

    Low concentrations of surfactant and cosolute in water, can selectively retard permeable flow in high permeability rocks compared to low permeability ones. This represents a way forward for more efficient areal sweep efficiency when water flooding a reservoir during improved oil recovery. (author)

  14. Abandoning the Myth of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the concept underlying the term metal retardation and the effort to define it in a way that is scientifically accurate and in a way that promotes greater sensitivity to the needs of people described by the term which has been continuous for centuries. The author states that a scientifically sound and…

  15. Hydrocephalus and mental retardation in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Noetzel, M J; Marsh, J L; Palkes, H; Gado, M

    1985-12-01

    We prospectively studied craniosynostosis, regardless of neurologic status, by cranial computed tomography or psychometric testing in 56 children. None of the 27 children with simple craniosynostosis (single or multiple suture involvement) had evidence of hydrocephalus on CT scan. Of the 24 patients with simple craniosynostosis who underwent psychometric testing, 17 were of average intelligence; six were in the low average range. The single mentally retarded child had a history of severe perinatal asphyxia. Hydrocephalus occurred more frequently (five of 23 cases) in children with complex craniosynostosis syndromes, including Pfeiffer syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and kleeblattschädel deformity. More striking than hydrocephalus, however, was the finding of dysmorphic ventricular dilation in eight patients, including the three children with Apert syndrome and four with Crouzon syndrome. Nineteen of the 25 children with complex craniosynostosis syndromes receiving psychometric testing were of normal intelligence. Four children with borderline normal intelligence had either hydrocephalus or ventricular dilation. The two children with mental retardation were sisters with Crouzon syndrome whose family included other retarded individuals. This study indicates that the incidence of hydrocephalus and mental retardation in craniosynostosis is lower than reported previously. PMID:4067746

  16. Teaching Laundry Skills to Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvo, Anthony J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Five moderately and mildly retarded students (19 to 21 years old) were taught to sort garments to be laundered and to use a clothes washer and dryer. Rapid acquisition and maintenance of the laundry skills were obtained through praise and response contingent feedback as a consequence for behavior. (Author/CL)

  17. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  18. Improving Outcomes for Workers with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra; Rocco, Tonette S.; Rosenberg, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This research presents an analysis of factors predicting job retention, job satisfaction, and job performance of workers with mental retardation. The findings highlight self-determination as a critical skill in predicting the three important employee outcomes. The study examined a hypothesized job retention model and the outcome of the three…

  19. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  20. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section...DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION...1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a) A...

  1. The Performance of Cultural-Familial Retardates on Conservation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Harvey; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compared the performance of 29 institutionalized cultural-familial mental retardates on Piagetian conservation tasks. Examined the effects of age, sex, and degree of retardation on conservation performance. (BD)

  2. Mutations in single FT- and TFL1-paralogs of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and their impact on flowering time and yield components

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuan; Hans, Harloff; Christian, Jung; Molina, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is grown in different geographical regions of the world. It is adapted to different environments by modification of flowering time and requirement for cold. A broad variation exists from very early-flowering spring-type to late-flowering winter cultivars which only flower after exposure to an extended cold period. B. napus is an allopolyploid species which resulted from the hybridization between B. rapa and B. oleracea. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the PEBP-domain genes FLOWERING LOCUS-T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER-1 (TFL1) are important integrators of different flowering pathways. Six FT and four TFL1 paralogs have been identified in B. napus. However, their role in flowering time control is unknown. We identified EMS mutants of the B. napus winter-type inbreed line Express 617. In total, 103 mutant alleles have been determined for BnC6FTb, BnC6FTa, and BnTFL1-2 paralogs. We chose three non-sense and 15 missense mutant lines (M3) which were grown in the greenhouse. Although only two out of 6 FT paralogs were mutated, 6 out of 8 BnC6FTb mutant lines flowered later as the control, whereas all five BnC6FTa mutant lines started flowering as the non-mutated parent. Mutations within the BnTFL1-2 paralog had no large effects on flowering time but on yield components. F1 hybrids between BnTFL1-2 mutants and non-mutated parents had increased seed number per pod and total seeds per plant suggesting that heterozygous mutations in a TFL1 paralog may impact heterosis in rapeseed. We demonstrate that single point-mutations in BnFT and BnTFL1 paralogs have effects on flowering time despite the redundancy of the rapeseed genome. Moreover, our results suggest pleiotropic effects of BnTFL1 paralogs beyond the regulation of flowering time. PMID:24987398

  3. Specific Reading Retardation and Working Memory: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorm, Anthony F.

    1983-01-01

    Examined research into the memory deficit of retarded readers within a working memory framework. Results showed fairly consistent evidence that reading retardation can be associated with a deficit in long-term storage of phonological information, which may affect retarded readers' ability to utilize the articulatory loop. (JAC)

  4. Neuropsychological Profiles of Persons with Mental Retardation and Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Glen A.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the use of neuropsychological tests to assist in the differential diagnosis of dementia among persons with mental retardation. The author compared performances of persons with mental retardation and dementia ("n" = 10) to persons with mental retardation without dementia ("n" = 12). Participants were matched by IQ (mild or…

  5. Attitudes of High School Students toward Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Junean; Flaherty, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    The attitudes of 144 high school students toward individuals with mental retardation were examined using the Mental Retardation Attitude Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that gender and frequency of contact both influenced attitudes. Females and students with more frequent contacts with individuals with mental retardation indicated more…

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factor Levels in Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Comparison of cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, obesity, and smoking) in 329 adults with mental retardation residing in various settings with subjects in the Framingham Offspring Study found that adults with mental retardation had cardiovascular risk profiles similar to those of individuals without mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  7. Functional modeling identifies paralogous solanesyl-diphosphate synthases that assemble the side chain of plastoquinone-9 in plastids.

    PubMed

    Block, Anna; Fristedt, Rikard; Rogers, Sara; Kumar, Jyothi; Barnes, Brian; Barnes, Joshua; Elowsky, Christian G; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A; Redding, Kevin; Merchant, Sabeeha S; Basset, Gilles J

    2013-09-20

    It is a little known fact that plastoquinone-9, a vital redox cofactor of photosynthesis, doubles as a precursor for the biosynthesis of a vitamin E analog called plastochromanol-8, the physiological significance of which has remained elusive. Gene network reconstruction, GFP fusion experiments, and targeted metabolite profiling of insertion mutants indicated that Arabidopsis possesses two paralogous solanesyl-diphosphate synthases, AtSPS1 (At1g78510) and AtSPS2 (At1g17050), that assemble the side chain of plastoquinone-9 in plastids. Similar paralogous pairs were detected throughout terrestrial plant lineages but were not distinguished in the literature and genomic databases from mitochondrial homologs involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The leaves of the atsps2 knock-out were devoid of plastochromanol-8 and displayed severe losses of both non-photoactive and photoactive plastoquinone-9, resulting in near complete photoinhibition at high light intensity. Such a photoinhibition was paralleled by significant damage to photosystem II but not to photosystem I. In contrast, in the atsps1 knock-out, a small loss of plastoquinone-9, restricted to the non-photoactive pool, was sufficient to eliminate half of the plastochromanol-8 content of the leaves. Taken together, these results demonstrate that plastochromanol-8 originates from a subfraction of the non-photoactive pool of plastoquinone-9. In contrast to other plastochromanol-8 biosynthetic mutants, neither the single atsps knock-outs nor the atsps1 atsps2 double knock-out displayed any defects in tocopherols accumulation or germination. PMID:23913686

  8. Functional Modeling Identifies Paralogous Solanesyl-diphosphate Synthases That Assemble the Side Chain of Plastoquinone-9 in Plastids*

    PubMed Central

    Block, Anna; Fristedt, Rikard; Rogers, Sara; Kumar, Jyothi; Barnes, Brian; Barnes, Joshua; Elowsky, Christian G.; Wamboldt, Yashitola; Mackenzie, Sally A.; Redding, Kevin; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Basset, Gilles J.

    2013-01-01

    It is a little known fact that plastoquinone-9, a vital redox cofactor of photosynthesis, doubles as a precursor for the biosynthesis of a vitamin E analog called plastochromanol-8, the physiological significance of which has remained elusive. Gene network reconstruction, GFP fusion experiments, and targeted metabolite profiling of insertion mutants indicated that Arabidopsis possesses two paralogous solanesyl-diphosphate synthases, AtSPS1 (At1g78510) and AtSPS2 (At1g17050), that assemble the side chain of plastoquinone-9 in plastids. Similar paralogous pairs were detected throughout terrestrial plant lineages but were not distinguished in the literature and genomic databases from mitochondrial homologs involved in the biosynthesis of ubiquinone. The leaves of the atsps2 knock-out were devoid of plastochromanol-8 and displayed severe losses of both non-photoactive and photoactive plastoquinone-9, resulting in near complete photoinhibition at high light intensity. Such a photoinhibition was paralleled by significant damage to photosystem II but not to photosystem I. In contrast, in the atsps1 knock-out, a small loss of plastoquinone-9, restricted to the non-photoactive pool, was sufficient to eliminate half of the plastochromanol-8 content of the leaves. Taken together, these results demonstrate that plastochromanol-8 originates from a subfraction of the non-photoactive pool of plastoquinone-9. In contrast to other plastochromanol-8 biosynthetic mutants, neither the single atsps knock-outs nor the atsps1 atsps2 double knock-out displayed any defects in tocopherols accumulation or germination. PMID:23913686

  9. Overexpression of the chimeric plasmin-resistant VEGF165/VEGF183 (132-158) protein in murine breast cancer induces distinct vascular patterning adjacent to tumors and retarded tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui-Yong; Fan, Bing-Lin; Wu, Xin-Sheng; Mu, Ling-Min; Wang, Wen-Feng; Zhu, Wu-Ling

    2015-02-01

    A chimeric plasmin?resistant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)165/VEGF183 (132-158) protein, named as VEGF183 (according to the nomenclature of VEGF), designed by a previous study, was demonstrated to have an enhanced affinity for the extracellular matrix (ECM) amongst other bioactivities. However, it is now accepted that mutant VEGFs frequently demonstrate different angiogenic activities and produce different vascular patterning from the parental molecule. The present study hypothesized that VEGF183, due to its enhanced binding affinity to the ECM, would exhibit a different angiogenic activity and produce a different vascular patterning compared to those of VEGF165. Murine breast cancer EMT?6 cells were manipulated to stably overexpress VEGF165 or VEGF183. These cells were then inoculated intradermally into BALB/c mice in order to monitor the formation of vascular patterning in skin proximal to tumors. In vivo angiogenesis experiments revealed that overexpression of VEGF183 in murine breast cancer cells resulted in irregular, disorganized and dense vascular patterning as well as induced a significant inhibition of tumor growth compared with that of VEGF165. In addition, allograft tumor immunochemical assays of VEGF183?overexpressing tumors demonstrated significantly lower vascular densities than those of VEGF165?overexpressing tumors; however, VEGF183 tumors had a significantly enlarged vascular caliber. Conversely, cell wound healing experiments revealed that VEGF183?overexpressing EMT?6 cells had significantly decreased migration rates compared with those of VEGF165?overexpressing EMT?6 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study supported the hypothesis that the altered ECM affinity of VEGF induced structural alterations to vasculature. In addition, these results provided a novel insight into VEGF design and indirect evidence for the function of exon 8 in VEGF. [Corrected] PMID:25373557

  10. Fast Protein Evolution and Germ Line Expression of a Drosophila Parental Gene and Its Young Retroposed Paralog

    E-print Network

    Betrán, Esther

    the parental gene Cervantes and the retrogene Quijote. To de- termine when this duplication occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of Quijote, we employed polymerase chain re- action, Southern blotting, and the available information on sequenced Drosophila genomes. Interestingly, these analyses revealed that Quijote

  11. Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F

    2004-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of brominated flame retardants. PMID:14698924

  12. Postnatal Psychological Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Benjamin; Max, Paul

    1962-01-01

    The psychological factors present in 715 suspected retarded children were studied. Social, cultural and educational deprivation accounted for 57 cases. Personality and emotional conflicts were primary etiological factors in 15 children. Functional childhood psychosis was found in 18. A group of 89 children had no obvious definitive cause for retardation, although epilepsy, mixed eye and hand dominance, visual perceptive disorders, or poor muscle tone was present in some. In the remaining 523 children, primary brain damage was evident. A sample of 142 of these brain-damaged children revealed that 38 had neurotic symptoms, 23 were antisocial, 11 were psychotic, 28 had restless, disturbed activity, and 42 had intellectual lowering only. The authors suggest that both psychological and organic factors must be taken into consideration in order that complete diagnostic and therapeutic effectiveness be achieved. PMID:13899687

  13. Teaching job interview skills to retarded clients.

    PubMed Central

    Hall, C; Sheldon-Wildgen, J; Sherman, J A

    1980-01-01

    Six retarded adults were taught job application and interview skills including introducing oneself, filling out a standard job application form, answering questions, and asking questions. A combination of instructions, modeling, role playing, and positive and corrective feedback was used across a multiple baseline experimental design. After training, the clients' performance in each area improved substantially over baseline levels. In addition, the newly taught skills appeared to generalize to a different office, application form, and interviewer. PMID:7430004

  14. Chemistry and toxicity of flame retardants for plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Liepins, R; Pearce, E M

    1976-01-01

    An overview of commercially used flame retardants is give. The most used flame retardants are illustrated and the seven major markets, which use 96% of all flame-retarded polymers, are described. Annual flame retardant growth rate for each major market is also projected. Toxicity data are reviewed on only those compositions that are considered commercially significant today. This includes 18 compounds or families of compounds and four inherently flame-retarded polymers. Toxicological studies of flame retardants for most synthetic materials are of recent origin and only a few of the compounds have been evaluated in any great detail. Considerable toxicological problems may exist in the manufacturing of some flame retardants, their by-products, and possible decomposition products. PMID:1026419

  15. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  16. Expression of paralogous SEP-, FUL-, AG- and STK-like MADS-box genes in wild-type and peloric Phalaenopsis flowers

    PubMed Central

    Acri-Nunes-Miranda, Roberta; Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The diverse flowers of Orchidaceae are the result of several major morphological transitions, among them the most studied is the differentiation of the inner median tepal into the labellum, a perianth organ key in pollinator attraction. Type A peloria lacking stamens and with ectopic labella in place of inner lateral tepals are useful for testing models on the genes specifying these organs by comparing their patterns of expression between wild-type and peloric flowers. Previous studies focused on DEFICIENS- and GLOBOSA-like MADS-box genes because of their conserved role in perianth and stamen development. The “orchid code” model summarizes this work and shows in Orchidaceae there are four paralogous lineages of DEFICIENS/AP3-like genes differentially expressed in each floral whorl. Experimental tests of this model showed the conserved, higher expression of genes from two specific DEF-like gene lineages is associated with labellum development. The present study tests whether eight MADS-box candidate SEP-, FUL-, AG-, and STK-like genes have been specifically duplicated in the Orchidaceae and are also differentially expressed in association with the distinct flower organs of Phalaenopsis hyb. “Athens.” The gene trees indicate orchid-specific duplications. In a way analogous to what is observed in labellum-specific DEF-like genes, a two-fold increase in the expression of SEP3-like gene PhaMADS7 was measured in the labellum-like inner lateral tepals of peloric flowers. The overlap between SEP3-like and DEF-like genes suggests both are associated with labellum specification and similar positional cues determine their domains of expression. In contrast, the uniform messenger levels of FUL-like genes suggest they are involved in the development of all organs and their expression in the ovary suggests cell differentiation starts before pollination. As previously reported AG-like and STK-like genes are exclusively expressed in gynostemium and ovary, however no evidence for transcriptional divergence was found in the stage investigated. Gene expression suggests a developmental regulatory system based on the combined activity of duplicate MADS-box genes. We discuss its feasibility based on documented protein interactions and patterns of expression. PMID:24659990

  17. Protein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  18. Protein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fruits Fats and Cholesterol Types of Fat Cholesterol Dietary fat and disease Calcium and Milk Vitamins Healthy Drinks ... the high protein diet saw improvements in blood lipids and blood pressure. ( 11 ) A more recent study ...

  19. Domain duplication, divergence, and loss events in vertebrate Msx paralogs reveal phylogenomically informed disease markers

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, John R; Mazza, Maureen E; Jezewski, Peter A

    2009-01-01

    Background Msx originated early in animal evolution and is implicated in human genetic disorders. To reconstruct the functional evolution of Msx and inform the study of human mutations, we analyzed the phylogeny and synteny of 46 metazoan Msx proteins and tracked the duplication, diversification and loss of conserved motifs. Results Vertebrate Msx sequences sort into distinct Msx1, Msx2 and Msx3 clades. The sister-group relationship between MSX1 and MSX2 reflects their derivation from the 4p/5q chromosomal paralogon, a derivative of the original "MetaHox" cluster. We demonstrate physical linkage between Msx and other MetaHox genes (Hmx, NK1, Emx) in a cnidarian. Seven conserved domains, including two Groucho repression domains (N- and C-terminal), were present in the ancestral Msx. In cnidarians, the Groucho domains are highly similar. In vertebrate Msx1, the N-terminal Groucho domain is conserved, while the C-terminal domain diverged substantially, implying a novel function. In vertebrate Msx2 and Msx3, the C-terminal domain was lost. MSX1 mutations associated with ectodermal dysplasia or orofacial clefting disorders map to conserved domains in a non-random fashion. Conclusion Msx originated from a MetaHox ancestor that also gave rise to Tlx, Demox, NK, and possibly EHGbox, Hox and ParaHox genes. Duplication, divergence or loss of domains played a central role in the functional evolution of Msx. Duplicated domains allow pleiotropically expressed proteins to evolve new functions without disrupting existing interaction networks. Human missense sequence variants reside within evolutionarily conserved domains, likely disrupting protein function. This phylogenomic evaluation of candidate disease markers will inform clinical and functional studies. PMID:19154605

  20. Comprehensive Genetic Analysis of Paralogous Terminal Septin Subunits Shs1 and Cdc11 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Finnigan, Gregory C; Takagi, Julie; Cho, Christina; Thorner, Jeremy

    2015-07-01

    Septins are a family of GTP-binding proteins considered to be cytoskeletal elements because they self-assemble into filaments and other higher-order structures in vivo. In budding yeast, septins establish a diffusion barrier at the bud neck between a mother and daughter cell, promote membrane curvature there, and serve as a scaffold to recruit other proteins to the site of cytokinesis. However, the mechanism by which any septin engages a partner protein has been unclear. The two most related and recently evolved subunits appear to be Cdc11 and Shs1, and the basic building blocks for assembling septin structures are hetero-octameric rods (Cdc11-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Cdc11 and Shs1-Cdc12-Cdc3-Cdc10-Cdc10-Cdc3-Cdc12-Shs1). Loss of Cdc11 is not normally tolerated, whereas cells lacking Shs1 do not appear grossly abnormal. We established several different sensitized genetic backgrounds wherein Shs1 is indispensable, which allowed us to carry out the first comprehensive and detailed genetic analysis of Shs1 in vivo. Our analysis revealed several novel insights, including: (i) the sole portion of Shs1 essential for its function is a predicted coiled-coil-forming segment in its C-terminal extension (CTE); (ii) the CTE of Cdc11 shares this function; (iii) this role for the CTEs of Cdc11 and Shs1 is quite distinct from that of the CTEs of Cdc3 and Cdc12; and (iv) heterotypic Cdc11 and Shs1 junctions likely occur in vivo. PMID:25971665

  1. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The exploitation of "new" effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  2. Nanotechnology finding its way into flame retardancy

    SciTech Connect

    Schartel, Bernhard

    2014-05-15

    Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21{sup st} century. The exploitation of 'new' effects that arise from materials structured on the nano-scale has also been proposed successfully for flame retardancy of polymers since the end of the 90s. Of all of the approaches these include, at this time the use of nanocomposites offers the best potential for industrial application, also some other ideas are sketched, such as using electrospun nanofibers mats or layer-by-layer deposits as protection coatings, as well as sub-micrometer multilayer coatings as effective IR-mirrors. The general phenomena, inducing a flow limit in the pyrolysing melt and changing the fire residue, are identified in nanocomposites. Key experiments are performed such as quasi online investigation of the protection layer formation to understand what is going on in detail. The flame retardancy mechanisms are discussed and their impact on fire behaviour quantified. With the latter, the presentation pushes forward the state of the art. For instance, the heat shielding is experimentally quantified for a layered silicate epoxy resin nanocomposite proving that it is the only import mechanism controlling the reduction in peak heat release rate in the investigated system for different irradiations. The flame retardancy performance is assessed comprehensively illuminating not only the strengths but also the weak points of the concepts. Guidelines for materials development are deduced and discussed. Apart from inorganic fillers (layered silicate, boehmite, etc.) not only carbon nanoobjects such as multiwall carbon nanotubes, multilayer graphene and graphene are investigated, but also nanoparticles that are more reactive and harbor the potential for more beneficial interactions with the polymer matrix.

  3. Long-lived dichotomous lineages of the proteasome subunit beta type 8 (PSMB8) gene surviving more than 500 million years as alleles or paralogs.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Miura, Fumi; Fujito, Naoko T; Yoshizaki, Goro; Nonaka, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    On an evolutionary time scale, polymorphic alleles are believed to have a short life, persisting at most tens of millions of years even under long-term balancing selection. Here, we report highly diverged trans-species dimorphism of the proteasome subunit beta type 8 (PSMB8) gene, which encodes a catalytic subunit of the immunoproteasome responsible for the generation of peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, in lower teleosts including Cypriniformes (zebrafish and loach) and Salmoniformes (trout and salmon), whose last common ancestor dates to 300 Ma. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses indicated that these dimorphic alleles share lineages with two shark paralogous genes, suggesting that these two lineages have been maintained for more than 500 My either as alleles or as paralogs, and that conversion between alleles and paralogs has occurred at least once during vertebrate evolution. Two lineages termed PSMB8A and PSMB8F show an A(31)F substitution that would probably affect their cleaving specificity, and whereas the PSMB8A lineage has been retained by all analyzed jawed vertebrates, the PSMB8F lineage has been lost by most jawed vertebrates except for cartilaginous fish and basal teleosts. However, a possible functional equivalent of the PSMB8F lineage has been revived as alleles within the PSMB8A lineage at least twice during vertebrate evolution in the amphibian Xenopus and teleostean Oryzias species. Dynamic evolution of the PSMB8 polymorphism through long-term persistence, loss, and regaining of dimorphism and conversion between alleles and paralogs implies the presence of strong selective pressure for functional polymorphism of this gene. PMID:22491037

  4. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  5. Retardation of nanoparticles growth by doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Valentyna; Rudko, Galyna; Fediv, Volodymyr; Savchuk, Andrij; Gule, Evgenij; Vorona, Igor

    2014-12-01

    The process of doping of CdS nanoparticles with Mn during colloidal synthesis is analyzed by EPR and optical studies. Analysis of EPR results demonstrated that Mn2+ ions are successfully incorporated into the nanoparticles and occupy the crystal sites both in the bulk of a NP and near the surface of a NP. Optical absorption measurements revealed the retardation of absorption edge shift during the growth for Mn-doped CdS NPs as compared to the undoped CdS NPs. It was concluded that the presence of Mn in the solution leads to the inhibition of NPs growth.

  6. New hybrid halogen-free flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kijowska, Dorota; Jankowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of this work were researches concerning the methods of the in-situ modification of silicate layer-tubular mineral (SL-TM) halloysite, using the salts of melamine, i.e. melamine cyanurate. The modified mineral was used as flame retardant to thermoplastic polymers. In the case of the application of halloysite modified by melamine cyanurate to polyamide 6 (PA6) the highest parameters of vertical and horizontal flammability were achieved. The mechanical properties of filled polyamide 6 have been improved.

  7. Mental retardation as a Facade Self phenomenon: construct validation.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E

    1980-12-01

    Predictions from Wagner's Structural Analysis theory were tested to validate a theoretical explanation of the personality of mentally retarded adults. The Rorschach and Hand Test were administered to 44 medical students and 60 institutionalized mentally retarded adults. Results coincided with predictions based on Structural Analysis. Implications of these results for the diagnosis of mental retardation were discussed. The potential of a special Rorschach Facade Self Index for differential diagnosis of other forms of psychopathology was noted. PMID:7010298

  8. Missouri Schools for the Retarded, Title I Project. Program Enrichment for State Schools for Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Schools for the Retarded, Jefferson City.

    Enrichment programs conducted in Missouri state schools for trainable mentally retarded (TMR) children under Title I funding in 1967 are evaluated. Charts give the progress of 153 TMR pupils in the physical fitness programs conducted in three schools while case histories indicate improvement of six children in a prekindergarten enrichment program.…

  9. Psychomotor retardation in depression: biological underpinnings, measurement, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Buyukdura, Jeylan S; McClintock, Shawn M; Croarkin, Paul E

    2011-03-30

    Psychomotor retardation is a long established component of depression that can have significant clinical and therapeutic implications for treatment. Due to its negative impact on overall function in depressed patients, we review its biological correlates, optimal methods of measurement, and relevance in the context of therapeutic interventions. The aim of the paper is to provide a synthesis of the literature on psychomotor retardation in depression with the goal of enhanced awareness for clinicians and researchers. Increased knowledge and understanding of psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder may lead to further research and better informed diagnosis in regards to psychomotor retardation. Manifestations of psychomotor retardation include slowed speech, decreased movement, and impaired cognitive function. It is common in patients with melancholic depression and those with psychotic features. Biological correlates may include abnormalities in the basal ganglia and dopaminergic pathways. Neurophysiologic tools such as neuroimaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation may play a role in the study of this symptom in the future. At present, there are three objective scales to evaluate psychomotor retardation severity. Studies examining the impact of psychomotor retardation on clinical outcome have found differential results. However, available evidence suggests that depressed patients with psychomotor retardation may respond well to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Current literature regarding antidepressants is inconclusive, though tricyclic antidepressants may be considered for treatment of patients with psychomotor retardation. Future work examining this objective aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD) is essential. This could further elucidate the biological underpinnings of depression and optimize its treatment. PMID:21044654

  10. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  11. Primary Sequence That Determines the Functional Overlap between Mitochondrial Heat Shock Protein 70 Ssc1 and Ssc3

    E-print Network

    D' Silva, Patrick

    Ssc1 and Ssc3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae*S Received for publication,October 25, 2010, and in revised shock protein 70 (mtHsp70) Ssc1 and an uncharacterized Ssc3 paralog. Based on the evolutionary origin of Ssc3 and a high degree of sequence homology with Ssc1, it has been proposed that both have a close

  12. A New Protein Superfamily: TPPP-Like Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Orosz, Ferenc

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of the term ‘Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP)-like proteins’ is suggested. They constitute a eukaryotic protein superfamily, characterized by the presence of the p25alpha domain (Pfam05517, IPR008907), and named after the first identified member, TPPP/p25, exhibiting microtubule stabilizing function. TPPP-like proteins can be grouped on the basis of two characteristics: the length of their p25alpha domain, which can be long, short, truncated or partial, and the presence or absence of additional domain(s). TPPPs, in the strict sense, contain no other domains but one long or short p25alpha one (long- and short-type TPPPs, respectively). Proteins possessing truncated p25alpha domain are first described in this paper. They evolved from the long-type TPPPs and can be considered as arthropod-specific paralogs of long-type TPPPs. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the two groups (long-type and truncated TPPPs) split in the common ancestor of arthropods. Incomplete p25alpha domains can be found in multidomain TPPP-like proteins as well. The various subfamilies occur with a characteristic phyletic distribution: e. g., animal genomes/proteomes contain almost without exception long-type TPPPs; the multidomain apicortins occur almost exclusively in apicomplexan parasites. There are no data about the physiological function of these proteins except two human long-type TPPP paralogs which are involved in developmental processes of the brain and the musculoskeletal system, respectively. I predict that the superfamily members containing long or partial p25alpha domain are often intrinsically disordered proteins, while those with short or truncated domain(s) are structurally ordered. Interestingly, members of this superfamily connected or maybe connected to diseases are intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:23166627

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF TARGET GENES FOR A PROLACTIN FAMILY PARALOG IN MOUSE DECIDUA

    PubMed Central

    Alam, S.M. Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Soares, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Prolactin family 8, subfamily a, member 2 (PRL8A2; also called decidual prolactin-related protein; dPRP) is a member of the expanded prolactin family. PRL8A2 is expressed in the uterine decidua and contributes to pregnancy-dependent adaptations to hypoxia. The purpose of this study was to identify gene targets for PRL8A2 action within the uteroplacental compartment. Affymetrix DNA microarray analysis was performed for RNA samples from wild type and Prl8a2 null tissues. Validation of the DNA microarray was performed using quantitative RT-PCR. Nine genes were confirmed with decreased expression in Prl8a2 null tissues (e.g. Klk7, Rimklb, Arhgef6, Calm4, Sprr2h, Prl4a1, Ccl27, Lipg, and Htra3). These include potential decidual, endothelial, and trophoblast cell targets positively regulated by PRL8A2. A significant upregulation of Derl3, Herpud1, Creld2, Hsp90b1, Ddit3, and Hspa5 was identified in Prl8a2 null tissues, reflecting an increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. ER stress genes were prominently expressed in the uterine decidua. We propose that PRL8A2 is a mediator of progesterone-dependent modulation of intrauterine responses to physiological stressors. PMID:25926690

  14. Novel mutation of GLRA1 in Omani families with hyperekplexia and mild mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Al-Futaisi, Amna Mohammed; Al-Kindi, Mohammed Nasser; Al-Mawali, Al-Mundher; Koul, Roshan Lal; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al-Yahyaee, Said Ali

    2012-02-01

    Hyperekplexia is characterized by neonatal hypertonia and exaggerated startle reflex in response to loud noise or tactile stimuli. Mutations in patients with hyperekplexia were evident in several genes encoding proteins involved in glycinergic neurotransmission, i.e., glycine receptor ? and ? subunits, collybistin, gephyrin, and glycine transporter 2. We clinically and genetically characterized two large, unrelated consanguineous families with hyperekplexia. Affected members of the two families manifested hyperekplexia with mild mental retardation. Patients exhibited a novel homozygote c.593G>C missense mutation in GLRA1, resulting in amino acid substitution p.W170S in the corresponding mature glycine receptor ?1 subunit. This mutation was absent in 400 randomly selected chromosomes in the same population. In conclusion, a novel p.W170S mutation in the extracellular ligand binding domain of glycine receptor ?1 subunit was detected in patients with hyperekplexia and mild mental retardation. PMID:22264702

  15. Growth retardation in sickle-cell disease treated by nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Heyman, M B; Vichinsky, E; Katz, R; Gaffield, B; Hurst, D; Castillo, R; Chiu, D; Kleman, K; Ammann, A J; Thaler, M M

    1985-04-20

    The effect of increased nutritional intake was evaluated in 5 growth-retarded children with sickle-cell disease. Growth on recommended daily calorie and protein intakes had been inadequate in all 5. Fat absorption and intestinal mucosal morphology were normal in all 5. 2 children were given nutritional supplementation by nasogastric intubation, 1 received nightly oral formula supplements, and 2 were supplemented with zinc, iron, folate, and vitamin E only. Nutritional supplementation by the nasogastric route produced a rapid sustained increase in growth rate, associated with striking reductions in pain crises and infections which had previously necessitated many hospital admissions. Oral supplementation improved the clinical course but had no effect on growth rate. Mineral and vitamin supplements influenced neither the growth rate nor the clinical course. The observations indicate that nasogastric nutritional supplementation may accelerate growth and reduce the incidence and severity of complications in growth-retarded children with sickle-cell disease. PMID:2858749

  16. Juvenile polyposis with macrocephaly and mental retardation (? Ruvalcava-Myhre-Smith syndrome)--a case report.

    PubMed

    Nandini, N M; Singh, Th Bipin; Kumar, Anil; Nandeesh

    2004-07-01

    A male child aged one and a half years with a history of rectal bleeding, on examination was found to have severe degree of anaemia with grade -III protein-energy-malnutrition and pneumonia. Colonoscopy revealed features of colonic polyposis. An upper gastro-intestinal endoscopy showed a duodenal polyp while barium meal follow-through did not reveal any polyps in the small intestine. Total colectomy and ileo-rectal anastomosis was done. Following histopathological study, the diagnosis of Juvenile polyposis syndrome was made, a very rare entity and is known to lead to adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract. In addition the child was found to have macrocephaly and mental retardation. The rarity and importance of the diagnosis of juvenile polyposis syndrome associated with macrocephaly and mental retardation (?Ruvalcava-Myhre-Smith syndrome) prompted the documentation of this case. PMID:16295443

  17. Genes and proteins of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed

    Riley, M

    1998-01-01

    GenProtEC is a database of Escherichia coli genes and their gene products, classified by type of function and physiological role and with citations to the literature for each. Also present are data on sequence similarities among E.coli proteins, representing groups of paralogous genes, with PAM values, percent identity of amino acids, length of alignment and percent aligned. GenProtEC can be accessed at the URL http://www.mbl.edu/html/ecoli.html PMID:9399799

  18. A Practical Guide for Teaching the Mentally Retarded to Swim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    A guide for teaching the retarded to swim begins with a general discussion of retardation, the need for individualization, and staff qualifications. Factors discussed in program organization and administration include community agencies, staff training, examples of records and forms, and first aid procedures. Suggested methods consider perceptual…

  19. Programs for Preventing the Causes of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliphant, Peter S.; And Others

    This monograph, which reports findings from the New Jersey Governor's Council on the Prevention of Mental Retardation, discusses the scope of mental retardation (MR), its causes, identification of people at risk, and prevention methods. The Council cites several cost-effective prevention programs, such as vaccination programs and prenatal care…

  20. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  1. Flame retardant antibacterial cotton high-loft nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flame retardant treated gray cotton fibers were blended with antibacterial treated gray cotton fibers and polyester/polyester sheath/core bicomponent fibers to form high-loft fabrics. The high flame retardancy (FR) and antibacterial property of these high lofts were evaluated by limiting oxygen inde...

  2. Physical Trauma as an Etiological Agent in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angle, Carol R., Ed.; Bering, Edgar A., Jr., Ed.

    The conference on Physical Trauma as a Cause of Mental Retardation dealt with two major areas of etiological concern - postnatal and perinatal trauma. Following two introductory statements on the problem of and issues related to mental retardation (MR) after early trauma to the brain, five papers on the epidemiology of head trauma cover…

  3. Adaptive Behavior Malingering in Legal Claims of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlubek, Renee Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, the Supreme Court ruled that it is unconstitutional to put people with mental retardation to death for capital crimes ("Atkins v. Virginia," 2002). Justice Scalia dissented, suggesting that mental retardation is a condition easy to feign. The current study examined whether participants provided with the definition of mental…

  4. Adoptive and Birth Family Adjustment to Rearing Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, Laraine Masters; Bush, Beverly A.

    The study identified 81 families who adopted children with mental retardation or at risk for mental retardation, and compared them with 61 matched families with similar birth children. For birth families, the initial diagnosis was a time of crisis, with high depression scores, while scores at follow-up (an average of 5.3 years later) indicated no…

  5. Set retarded cement compositions and well cementing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, J.D.; Sabins, F.L.

    1986-04-15

    This patent describes a method of cementing a subterranean zone penetrated by a well bore comprising: providing a set retarded aqueous hydraulic cement slurry; admixing with the cement slurry to enhance the compressive strength development thereof after placement, an effective amount of a delayed retarder neutralizer selected from the group consisting of: a triethanolamine titanium chelate.

  6. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  7. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  8. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  9. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  10. 38 CFR 4.127 - Mental retardation and personality disorders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... personality disorders. 4.127 Section 4.127 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Mental Disorders § 4.127 Mental retardation and personality disorders. Mental retardation and personality disorders are not diseases or...

  11. Carbamazepine-Induced Hyponatremia in Patients with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Ted; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study of 40 patients with mental retardation receiving carbamazepine found hyponatremia in only 5 percent of these patients and found a statistically, but not clinically, significant decrease in serum sodium levels in patients receiving anticonvulsant polytherapy. Results support the use of this drug with patients with mental retardation and…

  12. Flame retardant properties of triazine phosphonates derivative with cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flame retardant behavior of a cotton fabric treated with phosphorus-nitrogen containing triazine compound was evaluated. It was found that cyanuric chloride (2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine) is an excellent starting material for the preparation of phosphonates flame retardants that interacts wel...

  13. [Language development and play behavior of retarded children].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K; Süss-Burghart, H

    1991-09-01

    The relationship of symbolic play behavior, general cognitive functioning and language in 108 mentally retarded children was studied. Correlations between play and language measures were found with mental age partialed out. Clinical implications for planning language facilitation programs with mentally retarded children are discussed. PMID:1722038

  14. Newborn Screening To Prevent Mental Retardation. The Arc Q & A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This information fact sheet on screening newborns to prevent mental retardation defines newborn screening and outlines how screening is performed. It discusses the six most common disorders resulting in mental retardation for which states most commonly screen. These include phenylketonuria, congenital hypothyroidism, galactosemia, maple syrup…

  15. Novel phosphonates triazine derivative as economic flame retardant for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorous-containing flame retardants are widely used in standard and engineering plastics, polyurethane foams, thermosets, coatings, and textiles. Organophosphorous flame retardants have been known to be more effective when used in conjunction with nitrogen-containing systems. Their mixture produ...

  16. Pre-Professional Training in Mental Retardation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Irving C., Jr.

    To interest students in mental retardation health services careers, 10 eligible prebaccalaureate students were selected to participate in a 10-week summer training program. The first 2 weeks involved orientation to informational and training aspects of mental retardation and exposure to the health services related disciplines of recreational and…

  17. Public Health Approach to the Study of Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Derek A.; Scott, Keith G.; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2008-01-01

    We applied a public health approach to the study of mental retardation by providing a basic descriptive epidemiological analysis using a large statewide linked birth and public school record database (N = 327,831). Sociodemographic factors played a key role across all levels of mental retardation. Birthweight less than 1000 g was associated with…

  18. Psychopharmacology and Mental Retardation: A 10 Year Review (1990- 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Bamburg, Jay W.; Mayville, Erik A.; Pinkston, Jim; Bielecki, Joanne; Kuhn, David; Smalls, Yemonja; Logan, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Review of the literature on psychopharmacology and mental retardation from 1990-1999 found most studies had major methodological flaws. Also, most drug administrations were not based in science, were not evaluated appropriately, and generally did not follow best practices for treatment of persons with mental retardation. A table lists the studies…

  19. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  20. IN VITRO DERMAL ABSORPTION OF FLAME RETARDANT CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The use of flame retardant chemicals in furniture fabric could pose a potential health risk to consumers from dermal absorption of these compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro dermal absorption of two flame retardant chemicals, [14C]-d...

  1. Services for People with Mental Retardation or Related Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Mental Retardation, Columbia.

    Intended as a reference for chambers of commerce, physicians, public schools, and other agencies, this directory lists services for families of people with mental retardation or related disabilities in South Carolina. First, the South Carolina Department of Mental Retardation is described, including its service system, organization, case…

  2. Defining Mental Retardation: A Matter of Life or Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William; Simon, Elliot W.

    2007-01-01

    Because persons with mental retardation cannot be executed for murder, the diagnosis becomes a life and death matter. The American Association on Mental Retardation (now the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) and other associations agree that IQ alone is an insufficient criterion and adaptive functioning also…

  3. RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    COPELAND, ROSS H.; SCHIEFELBUSCH, R.L.

    A REPORT OF A CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH IN SPEECH AND HEARING FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN IS PRESENTED. THE MAIN AREAS INCLUDED ARE THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION, PROCEDURES FOR MEASURING LANGUAGE, AND SPECIAL METHODS FOR TREATMENT. SPECIFIC REPORTS GIVEN ARE--"PSYCHOLINGUISTICS IN THE STUDY OF MENTAL RETARDATION" BY JOHN B.…

  4. Arizona's Comprehensive Plan to Help the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Health, Phoenix. Mental Retardation Section.

    To help combat mental retardation, 136 recommendations are made for the following: establishment by statute of a division of mental retardation, an advisory council, and a coordinating council of agencies; changes in laws governing the Arizona Children's Colony, additional public school legislation, and a study of civil and criminal law; immediate…

  5. Muscle Fatigue during Intermittent Exercise in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Dipla, Konstantina; Salonikidis, Konstantinos; Karra, Chrisanthi; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2010-01-01

    This study examined fatigue profile during intermittent exercise in 10 men with mild to moderate mental retardation (MR) and 10 men without mental retardation (C). They performed 4 x 30 s maximal knee extensions and flexions with 1-min rest on an isokinetic dynamometer. Peak torque of flexors (PTFL) and extensors (PTEX), total work (TW), and…

  6. 45 CFR 1308.10 - Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. 1308.10 Section 1308.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... DISABILITIES Health Services Performance Standards § 1308.10 Eligibility criteria: Mental retardation. (a)...

  7. Chromosome abnormalities in South African mental retardates.

    PubMed

    Ally, F E; Grace, H J

    1979-04-28

    Standard and differential staining techniques were employed in this cytogenetic study of mentally retarded Whites at the Umgeni Waterfall Institution. All of the 512 patients were karyotyped and 57 were found to have chromosome abnormalities. Of these, 42 had trisomy-21; there were 3 subjects with 5p deletion (cri-du-chat) syndrome, 3 had supernumerary small marker chromosomes, and 2 had complex structural rearrangements. Gonosomal aneuploidies were less common than the autosomal defects and only 2 poly-X males and 1 poly-X female were identified. Long Y chromosomes were found in 11 males and 4 others had deleted Y chromosomes. One abnormal chromosome, a deletion of the terminal region of 11q, was missed in unbanded karyotypes. Banding is essential to the identification of structurally abnormal chromosomes. PMID:156963

  8. Environmental monitoring of brominated flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.

    2011-06-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 ?g/mL and 20 ?g/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 ?g/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 ?g/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.

  9. Hand test characteristics of dual diagnosed mentally retarded older adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, P E; Wagner, E E

    1993-10-01

    The projective Hand Test (Wagner, 1962/1983) was administered to 17 older adults with a dual diagnosis (mental retardation existing concurrently with some form of mental illness) residing in a Midwestern institution for the mentally retarded. Each of these individuals was matched with another resident in the same institution with a single diagnosis of mental retardation on the variables of age, sex, and level of mental retardation to determine differences between the groups on the Hand Test. The dual diagnosis group gave significantly more bizarre (BIZ) responses, whereas the single diagnosis group gave more descriptive (DES) responses. It was contended that these two variables accurately reflect the essential difference between dual and single diagnosed mentally retarded individuals. PMID:8229637

  10. Prevalence of mental retardation among children in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hazmi, M A F; Al-Swailem, A A; Al-Mosa, N A; Al-Jarallah, A A

    2003-01-01

    This survey determined the prevalence and regional distribution of mental retardation among children in Saudi Arabia. Data were analysed from a population-based national survey conducted during 1996-99, in which 60,630 children aged up to 18 years were screened using IQ tests and questionnaires completed by physicians. The prevalence of mental retardation was 8.9 per 1000 children, a rate similar to that reported in other countries. Moderate or severe retardation was classified in 70.9% of these children. Of the mentally retarded children in the 0-18 years age range, 83.2% were not attending school. Special educational programmes are needed to improve the quality of life of mentally retarded children. PMID:15562727

  11. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  12. Correlated structural kinetics and retarded solvent dynamics at the metalloprotease active site

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Moran; Born, Benjamin; Heyden, Matthias; Tworowski, Dmitry; Fields, Gregg B; Sagi, Irit; Havenith, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Solvent dynamics can play a major role in enzyme activity, but obtaining an accurate, quantitative picture of solvent activity during catalysis is quite challenging. Here, we combine terahertz spectroscopy and X-ray absorption analyses to measure changes in the coupled water-protein motions during peptide hydrolysis by a zinc-dependent human metalloprotease. These changes were tightly correlated with rearrangements at the active site during the formation of productive enzyme-substrate intermediates and were different from those in an enzyme–inhibitor complex. Molecular dynamics simulations showed a steep gradient of fast-to-slow coupled protein-water motions around the protein, active site and substrate. Our results show that water retardation occurs before formation of the functional Michaelis complex. We propose that the observed gradient of coupled protein-water motions may assist enzyme-substrate interactions through water-polarizing mechanisms that are remotely mediated by the catalytic metal ion and the enzyme active site. PMID:21926991

  13. Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded; A President's Committee on Mental Retardation Monograph: 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kugel, Robert B., Ed.; Wolfensberger, Wolf, Ed.

    Facts about public residential facilities for the mentally retarded in the United States introduce the following subjects: personal reactions by an American and by a Scandinavian visitor to typical state institutions for the retarded; the history of U.S. institutions and the theoretical constructs of role and role perception; service concepts…

  14. A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the database of plastid protein families from red algae, secondary and tertiary rhodophyte-derived plastids, and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. The families contain proteins with maximal sequence similarity and minimal paralogous content. The database contains 6509 protein entries, 513 families and 278 nonsingletons (from which 230 are paralog-free, and among the remaining 48, 46 contain at maximum two proteins per species, and 2 contain at maximum three proteins per species). The method is compared with other approaches. Expression regulation of the moeB gene is studied using this database and the model of RNA polymerase competition. An analogous database obtained for green algae and their symbiotic descendants, and applications based on it are published earlier. PMID:26114108

  15. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  16. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  17. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  18. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  19. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201...measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders ...Ladj ave max ) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact —(1)...

  20. Molecular characterization of BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous transcription factors involved in the regulation of aliphatic glucosinolate profiles in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Glucosinolates (GSL) are one of the major secondary metabolites of the Brassicaceae family. In the present study, we aim at characterizing the multiple paralogs of aliphatic GSL regulators, such as BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 genes in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis, by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in different tissues and at various developmental stages. An overlapping gene expression pattern between the BrMYBs as well as their downstream genes (DSGs) was found at different developmental stages. Among the BrMYB28 and BrMYB29 paralogous genes, the BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1 genes were dominantly expressed in most of the developmental stages, compared to the other paralogs of the BrMYB genes. Furthermore, the differential expression pattern of the BrMYBs was observed under various stress treatments. Interestingly, BrMYB28.2 showed the least expression in most developmental stages, while its expression was remarkably high in different stress conditions. More specifically, the BrMYB28.2, BrMYB28.3, and BrMYB29.1 genes were highly responsive to various abiotic and biotic stresses, further indicating their possible role in stress tolerance. Moreover, the in silico cis motif analysis in the upstream regulatory regions of BrMYBs showed the presence of various putative stress-specific motifs, which further indicated their responsiveness to biotic and abiotic stresses. These observations suggest that the dominantly expressed BrMYBs, both in different developmental stages and under various stress treatments (BrMYB28.3 and BrMYB29.1), may be potential candidate genes for altering the GSL level through genetic modification studies in B. rapa ssp. pekinensis. PMID:26043798

  1. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air. PMID:24804279

  2. [Perinatal asphyxia as incorrect explanation for mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Tuerlings, J H A M; Smits, A P T; van den Berg, P P

    2002-09-21

    Three women, aged 21, 34 and 32 and with a family history of mental retardation said to be caused by perinatal asphyxia, each gave birth to a child with mental retardation. A chromosomal translocation, fragile X syndrome, and myotonic dystrophy could be diagnosed, respectively. In retrospect, the diagnosis of perinatal asphyxia in the family history had been too readily accepted. In reality the mental retardation was caused by a genetic disorder. Physicians are used to making a diagnosis, and when a diagnosis is not (yet) possible, they try to establish a working diagnosis or differential diagnosis. Too often such a working diagnosis becomes, through time, a definite diagnosis. PMID:12369434

  3. Stokes polarimetry using analysis of the nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship for liquid-crystal variable retarders

    SciTech Connect

    López-Téllez, J. M. Bruce, N. C.

    2014-03-15

    We present a method for using liquid-crystal variable retarders (LCVR’s) with continually varying voltage to measure the Stokes vector of a light beam. The LCVR's are usually employed with fixed retardance values due to the nonlinear voltage-retardance behavior that they show. The nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship is first measured and then a linear fit of the known retardance terms to the detected signal is performed. We use known waveplates (half-wave and quarter-wave) as devices to provide controlled polarization states to the Stokes polarimeter and we use the measured Stokes parameters as functions of the orientation of the axes of the waveplates as an indication of the quality of the polarimeter. Results are compared to a Fourier analysis method that does not take into account the nonlinear voltage-retardance relationship and also to a Fourier analysis method that uses experimental voltage values to give a linear retardance function with time. Also, we present results of simulations for comparison.

  4. Oral Rehabilitation and Management of Mentally Retarded

    PubMed Central

    Khetan, Jitendra; Gupta, Sarika; Tomar, Deepak; Singh, Meenakshi

    2015-01-01

    High level of periodontal problems of dental caries are frequently observed in mentally handicapped children. This group of patients presents various problems when they face dental treatments. Identification of such population and providing them affordable oral health care is the new concept. A systematic method for identification and screening of persons with mental retardation has been developed and is being followed. Cost and fear are the most commonly cited barriers to dental care. Physical or mental may lead to deterioration in self-care, and oral care state have a low priority. Risk factors are inter-related and are often barriers to oral health. With advancements in today’s world sufficient information and support is available for each and every individual to lead a healthy life which include the access to the oral health care. Factors such as fear, anxiety and dental phobia plays a vital role in acceptance of dental care and also the delaying of dental care. Lack of knowledge of oral and dental disease, awareness or oral need, oral side-effects of medication and organization of dental services are highlighted in the literature. All health personnel should receive training to support the concept of primary oral health care. Training about dealing with such mentally handicapped people should be addressed urgently among the health professionals. PMID:25738098

  5. Psychomotor Retardation in Elderly Untreated Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beheydt, Lieve Lia; Schrijvers, Didier; Docx, Lise; Bouckaert, Filip; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychomotor retardation (PR) is one of the core features in depression according to DSM V (1), but also aging in itself causes cognitive and psychomotor slowing. This is the first study investigating PR in relation to cognitive functioning and to the concomitant effect of depression and aging in a geriatric population ruling out contending effects of psychotropic medication. Methods: A group of 28 non-demented depressed elderly is compared to a matched control group of 20 healthy elderly. All participants underwent a test battery containing clinical depression measures, cognitive measures of processing speed, executive function and memory, clinical ratings of PR, and objective computerized fine motor skill-tests. Statistical analysis consisted of a General Linear Method multivariate analysis of variance to compare the clinical, cognitive, and psychomotor outcomes of the two groups. Results: Patients performed worse on all clinical, cognitive, and PR measures. Both groups showed an effect of cognitive load on fine motor function but the influence was significantly larger for patients than for healthy elderly except for the initiation time. Limitations: Due to the restrictive inclusion criteria, only a relatively limited sample size could be obtained. Conclusion: With a medication free sample, an additive effect of depression and aging on cognition and PR in geriatric patients was found. As this effect was independent of demand of effort (by varying the cognitive load), it was apparently not a motivational slowing effect of depression. PMID:25674065

  6. Compression release retarder with valve motion modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Meistrick, Z.S.; Quenneville, R.N.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes an engine retarding system of a gas compression release type including an internal combustion engine having a pressurized lubricating oil system, intake valve means, exhaust valve means, and pushtube means associated with each of the intake valve means and exhaust valve means, hydraulically actuated slave piston means associated with the exhaust valve means to open the exhaust valve means at a predetermined time, control valve means and solenoid valve means communicating in series with the pressurized lubricating oil system and the hydraulically actuated slave piston means. The improvement comprises plenum means communicating with the slave piston means, first check valve means located between the slave piston means and the plenum, driving cylinder means communicating with the plenum, free piston means having first and second ends mounted for reciprocating motion in the driving cylinder means, spring means biasing the free piston means outwardly from the plenum. The free piston means communicate on the first end with the plenum means and first master cylinder means align with the exhaust valve pushtube means and communicate with the second end of the free piston means. First master piston means are mounted for reciprocatory motion in the first master cylinder means and adapted to be driven by the exhaust valve pushtube means, trigger check valve means aligned with the first master piston means and communicating between the slave piston means and the second side of the free piston means to permit flow of hydraulic fluid from the slave piston means toward the free piston means.

  7. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. PMID:24745557

  8. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  9. Retardation of Senescence in Red Clover Leaf Discs by a New Antiozonant, N-[2-(2-Oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl]-N'-phenylurea.

    PubMed

    Lee, E H; Bennett, J H; Heggestad, H E

    1981-02-01

    Dark-induced senescence in leaf discs from O(3)-sensitive red clover trifoliates (Trifolium pratense L. cv. ;Pennscott') was markedly retarded by treatment with N-[2-(2-oxo-1-imidazolidinyl)ethyl-N'-phenylurea (EDU). EDU also protects against acute and chronic foliar O(3) injury when sprayed on intact leaves or supplied to the plants through soil application. Senescence retardation was measured by time-dependent analyses of chlorophyll, protein, and RNA in discs floated on aqueous EDU solutions ranging from 0 to 500 micrograms per milliliter EDU. Chlorophyll degradation, total protein, and nucleic acids were followed over 10-day test periods.EDU at 500 micrograms per milliliter (50 milligrams per pot), a concentration known to provide optimal protection to intact leaves against O(3) injury, was most effective in preventing chlorosis and in maintaining high concentrations of protein and RNA in the discs. In discs treated with 500 micrograms per milliliter EDU 90% of the chlorophyll was retained after 10 days in the dark. In contrast, lower concentrations (0, 125, and 250 micrograms per milliliter) showed the complete loss of chlorophyll or an intermediate retardation. The intermediate concentrations were similarly less effective in maintaining protein and RNA levels in the dark stressed leaf discs. It is suggested that EDU retards senescence and mitigates O(3) injury through the induction of specific free radical scavenging enzymes and in sustaining RNA and protein synthesis. PMID:16661672

  10. An Annotated Bibliography on the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cass, Michael, Comp.; Schilit, Jeffrey, Comp.

    Presented is an annotated bibliography with approximately 250 entries relating to the severely and profoundly retarded. Citations are listed alphabetically by author under the following categories: assessments, measurements, evaluations; associations; attending behavior; behavior modification; books; classical conditioning; cognitive development;…

  11. Horticultural Careers for Persons with Mental Retardation. Expanding Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dehart-Bennett, Mary E.; Relf, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Horticulture careers provide therapeutic, rewarding employment for persons with mental retardation. Rehabilitation experts should become aware of the potential employment opportunities in horticulture so that individuals with disabilities can receive the training and job placement support they need. (Author)

  12. Severe Mental Retardation in Children in a Northern Swedish County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Gustavson, K. H.

    1977-01-01

    Presented are results of a study of the incidence, prevalence, gestational age, birth weight, associated central nervous system disorders, and etiological and pathogenetic aspects of 161 severely mentally retarded children in Northern Sweden. (CL)

  13. Teaching about Older People with Mental Retardation: An Educational Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropf, Nancy P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The University of Georgia model curriculum to prepare students to work with mentally retarded older adults has six units: population overview, physiological issues, mental health issues, social support systems, service delivery networks, and legal/ethical issues. (SK)

  14. Highly efficient broadband conversion of light polarization by composite retarders

    E-print Network

    S. S. Ivanov; A. A. Rangelov; N. V. Vitanov; T. Peters; T. Halfmann

    2011-10-06

    Driving on an analogy with the technique of composite pulses in quantum physics, we propose highly efficient broadband polarization converters composed of sequences of ordinary retarders rotated at specific angles with respect to their fast-polarization axes.

  15. EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS FLAME RETARDANTS ON NEURONAL DEVELOPMENT IN VITRO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of organophosphorus compounds as alternatives to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has led to widespread human exposure, There is, however, limited information on their potential health effects. This study compared the effects of nii ne organophosphorus flame...

  16. Fire Safety Training with Adults Who Are Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Rosamond; Roll, David

    1985-01-01

    An intensive fire safety training program for profoundly mentally retarded institutionalized persons resulted in a significant decrease in mean evacuation time and gradual substitution of verbal for physical prompts. (CL)

  17. Stress retardation versus stress relaxation in linear viscoelasticity

    E-print Network

    Christov, Ivan C

    2016-01-01

    We present a preliminary examination of a new approach to a long-standing problem in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. First, we summarize how a general implicit functional relation between stress and rate of strain of a continuum with memory is reduced to the well-known linear differential constitutive relations that account for "relaxation" and "retardation." Then, we show that relaxation and retardation are asymptotically equivalent for small Deborah numbers, whence causal pure relaxation models necessarily correspond to ill-posed pure retardation models. We suggest that this dichotomy could be a possible way to reconcile the discrepancy between the theory of and certain experiments on viscoelastic liquids that are conjectured to exhibit only stress retardation.

  18. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane, several brominated benzenes, and a highly chlorinated norbornene compound called Dechlorane Plus. Most recently, we have begun measuring the atmospheric concentrations of several organophosphate esters, which are an increasing part of the flame retardant market. The interesting feature of this story is how one compound or set of compounds has followed another out of and into the marketplace even though none of them have been officially regulated. This replacement of one commercial product by another with similar functions shows that the chemical industry does respond to scientific environmental measurements and to the resulting bad publicity. This is a good thing. The problem is that often the replacement chemicals also become environmentally ubiquitous. PMID:26050713

  19. Positive selection and functional divergence of R2R3-MYB paralogous genes expressed in inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (Labiatae).

    PubMed

    Huang, Bing-Hong; Pang, Erli; Chen, Yi-Wen; Cao, Huifen; Ruan, Yu; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Anthocyanin is the main pigment forming floral diversity. Several transcription factors that regulate the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes belong to the R2R3-MYB family. Here we examined the transcriptomes of inflorescence buds of Scutellaria species (skullcaps), identified the expression R2R3-MYBs, and detected the genetic signatures of positive selection for adaptive divergence across the rapidly evolving skullcaps. In the inflorescence buds, seven R2R3-MYBs were identified. MYB11 and MYB16 were detected to be positively selected. The signature of positive selection on MYB genes indicated that species diversification could be affected by transcriptional regulation, rather than at the translational level. When comparing among the background lineages of Arabidopsis, tomato, rice, and Amborella, heterogeneous evolutionary rates were detected among MYB paralogs, especially between MYB13 and MYB19. Significantly different evolutionary rates were also evidenced by type-I functional divergence between MYB13 and MYB19, and the accelerated evolutionary rates in MYB19, implied the acquisition of novel functions. Another paralogous pair, MYB2/7 and MYB11, revealed significant radical amino acid changes, indicating divergence in the regulation of different anthocyanin-biosynthetic enzymes. Our findings not only showed that Scutellaria R2R3-MYBs are functionally divergent and positively selected, but also indicated the adaptive relevance of regulatory genes in floral diversification. PMID:25782156

  20. Sentra, a database of signal transduction proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Maltsev, N.; Marland, E.; Yu, G. X.; Bhatnagar, S.; Lusk, R.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2002-01-01

    Sentra (http://www-wit.mcs.anl.gov/sentra) is a database of signal transduction proteins with the emphasis on microbial signal transduction. The database was updated to include classes of signal transduction systems modulated by either phosphorylation or methylation reactions such as PAS proteins and serine/threonine kinases, as well as the classical two-component histidine kinases and methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins. Currently, Sentra contains signal transduction proteins from 43 completely sequenced prokaryotic genomes as well as sequences from SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL. Signal transduction proteins are annotated with information describing conserved domains, paralogous and orthologous sequences, and conserved chromosomal gene clusters. The newly developed user interface supports flexible search capabilities and extensive visualization of the data.

  1. Flame Retardant Exposure among Collegiate U.S. Gymnasts

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; McClean, Michael D.; Roberts, Simon C.; Stapleton, Heather M.; Sjödin, Andreas; Webster, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Gymnastics training facilities contain large volumes of polyurethane foam, a material that often contains additive flame retardants such as PentaBDE. While investigations of human exposure to flame retardants have focused on the general population, potentially higher than background exposures may occur in gymnasts and certain occupational groups. Our objectives were to compare PentaBDE body burden among gymnasts to the general U.S. population and characterize flame retardants levels in gym equipment, air and dust. We recruited 11 collegiate female gymnasts (ages 18–22) from one gym in the Eastern U.S. The geometric mean (GM) concentration of BDE-153 in gymnast sera (32.5 ng/g lipid) was 4–6.5 times higher than general U.S. population groups. Median concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB and TBPH in paired handwipe samples were 2–3 times higher after practice compared to before, indicating the gymnasts contacted these flame retardants during practice. GM concentrations of PentaBDE, TBB and TBPH were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in gym air and dust than in residences. Our findings suggest that these collegiate gymnasts experienced higher exposures to PentaBDE flame retardants compared to the general U.S. population and that gymnasts may also have increased exposure to other additive flame retardants used in polyurethane foam such as TBB and TBPH. PMID:24195753

  2. [Preliminary analysis of factors causing mental retardation in China].

    PubMed

    Li, A L; Li, L M; Qian, Y P

    1994-09-01

    Analysis of the data collected from national sampling survey of the mental retarded in 1987 showed: (1) prevalence of mental retardation in China was 12.68/1,000, (2) its causes mainly included hereditary diseases, cerebral diseases, malnutrition, pregnant infection and birth trauma for children and senile dementia for the elderly aged 60 or over, (3) severe mental retardation was mainly caused by cerebral diseases and developmental deformity in the country, and (4) the causes for 40.1% of the mental retarded persons remained unknown. Based on the researches at home and abroad, a series of major preventive measures for mental retardation have been put forward, they included: (1) to promote better birth and better rearing, vaccination, proper nutrition for pregnant mothers and infants, and safety education as focuses in primary prevention, (2) to detect early and timely treat cerebral diseases and nutritional deficiency, to strengthen antenatal diagnosis and early screening for inborn metabolic diseases as secondary prevention, and (3) to strengthen education, behavioral training and psychological rehabilitation, and to provide community-based rehabilitation service for the mental retarded as tertiary prevention. PMID:7842893

  3. Genetic Causes of Mental Retardation. ARC Q&A #101-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize what is known about the genetic causes of mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: what genetics is; how a person's genes can cause mental retardation; how often mental retardation is inherited (up to 60 percent of severe mental retardation has genetic…

  4. MENTAL RETARDATION ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    MENTAL RETARDATION ACTIVITIES OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE ARE REVIEWED. THE ROSTER OF THE SECRETARY'S COMMITTEE ON MENTAL RETARDATION IS PROVIDED. THE INTRODUCTION CONTAINS INFORMATION CONCERNING (1) THE COORDINATION OF MENTAL RETARDATION PROGRAMS THROUGH THE COMMITTEE, (2) THE SIX PIECES OF 1966 MENTAL RETARDATION

  5. Hansels and Gretels: Studies of Children in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braginsky, Dorothea D.; Braginsky, Benjamin M.

    Data from research with mildly mentally retarded children conducted in state training schools contradicts prevalent conceptions and theories of mental retardation and supports a new way of conceptualizing retardation, in which retardates are not seen as qualitatively different from others nor as defective or less than human organisms. Investigated…

  6. [Bochdalek's hernia in a mentally retarded adolescent].

    PubMed

    Nicho Salvador, Héctor; Acuña Fernández, Leoncio; Amado Ramírez, Julio; Nicho Gómez, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bochdalek hernia is a congenital defect of the lateral posterior or vertebral lumbar region on the left side of diaphragm, caused by a foramen on it, through which viscera displaced from abdomen to pleural cavity. This is a pathology frequently observed in just born babies but rarely found in teenagers or adults. In world medical history only 100 cases in adults have been reported. We present a case of a 16 years old male patient with moderate mental retard who suddenly suffered from convulsions; this was the second time it happened, because the first time (3 months ago) he showed the same clinical picture but with no further complications. Anticonvulsives were administered to the patient in the general hospital E.R., but immediately after that, he had uncontrollable and frequent nausea, vomits and regurgitation when eating. He also showed anxiety, desperation and even aggressiveness. He was also very thirsty. Three days later the patient was transferred to the gastroenterology unit where we observed the symptoms above mentioned. He also presented sialorrhea. After many difficulties to find the diagnosis due to the patient's problems to communicate even with his relatives help, we decided to perform a surgery. Endoscopy showed total occlusion of the gastric-esophagus connection and an abdomen and thorax X-r showed an abnormal image with hydro aerial level in nearly all left hemithorax. The surgical findings showed total displacement of stomach, spleen, part of the small intestine, ascending colon, cecum, appendix and proximal part of transverse colon to the left hemithorax. Surgical corrections were performed. The clinical case resolved satisfactorily. The late age of the patient, type and treatment are discussed. PMID:17712398

  7. Mental retardation and prenatal methylmercury toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Trasande, L.; Schechter, C.B.; Haynes, K.A.; Landrigan, P.J.

    2006-03-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a developmental neurotoxicant; exposure results principally from consumption of seafood contaminated by mercury (Hg). In this analysis, the burden of mental retardation (MR) associated with methylmercury exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort is estimated, and the portion of this burden attributable to mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants is identified. The aggregate loss in cognition associated with MeHg exposure in the 2000 U.S. birth cohort was estimated using two previously published dose-response models that relate increases in cord blood Hg concentrations with decrements in IQ. MeHg exposure was assumed not to be correlated with native cognitive ability. Previously published estimates were used to estimate economic costs of MR caused by MeHg. Downward shifts in IQ resulting from prenatal exposure to MeHg of anthropogenic origin are associated with 1,566 excess cases of MR annually (range: 376-14,293). This represents 3.2% of MR cases in the US (range: 0.8%-29.2%). The MR costs associated with decreases in IQ in these children amount to $2.0 billion/year (range: $0.5-17.9 billion). Hg from American power plants accounts for 231 of the excess MR cases year (range: 28-2,109), or 0.5% (range: 0.06%-4.3%) of all MR. These cases cost $289 million (range: $35 million-2.6 billion). Toxic injury to the fetal brain caused by Hg emitted from coal-fired power plants exacts a significant human and economic toll on American children.

  8. Expression of the CTCFL Gene during Mouse Embryogenesis Causes Growth Retardation, Postnatal Lethality, and Dysregulation of the Transforming Growth Factor ? Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sati, Leyla; Zeiss, Caroline; Yekkala, Krishna; Demir, Ramazan; McGrath, James

    2015-10-01

    CTCFL, a paralog of CTCF, also known as BORIS (brother of regulator of imprinted sites), is a testis-expressed gene whose function is largely unknown. Its product is a cancer testis antigen (CTA), and it is often expressed in tumor cells and also seen in two benign human vascular malformations, juvenile angiofibromas and infantile hemangiomas. To understand the function of Ctcfl, we created tetracycline-inducible Ctcfl transgenic mice. We show that Ctcfl expression during embryogenesis results in growth retardation, eye malformations, multiorgan pathologies, vascular defects, and neonatal death. This phenotype resembles prior mouse models that perturb the transforming growth factor ? (TGFB) pathway. Embryonic stem (ES) cells with the Ctcfl transgene reproduce the phenotype in ES cell-tetraploid chimeras. Transcriptome sequencing of the Ctcfl ES cells revealed 14 genes deregulated by Ctcfl expression. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the TGFB pathway as most affected by embryonic Ctcfl expression. Understanding the consequence of Ctcfl expression in nontesticular cells and elucidating downstream targets of Ctcfl could explain the role of its product as a CTA and its involvement in two, if not more, human vascular malformations. PMID:26169830

  9. Non-flammable elastomeric fiber from a fluorinated elastomer and containing an halogenated flame retardant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S. G.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions are described comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain halogen containing polyols, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and articles of manufacture comprised of the flame retardant clastomeric materials and non elastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, nylons, etc.

  10. The Protein Chaperone HSP90 Can Facilitate the Divergence of Gene Duplicates

    PubMed Central

    Lachowiec, Jennifer; Lemus, Tzitziki; Thomas, James H.; Murphy, Patrick J. M.; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Queitsch, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) acts as a chaperone by ensuring proper maturation and folding of its client proteins. The HSP90 capacitor hypothesis holds that interactions with HSP90 allow proteins to accumulate mutations while maintaining function. Following this logic, HSP90 clients would be predicted to show relaxed selection compared with nonclients. In this study, we identify a new HSP90 client in the plant steroid hormone pathway: the transcription factor BES1. Its closest paralog, BZR1, is not an HSP90 client. This difference in HSP90 client status in two highly similar proteins enabled a direct test of the capacitor hypothesis. We find that BES1 shows relaxed selection compared to BZR1, hallmarks of neo- and subfunctionalization, and dynamic HSP90 client status across independent evolutionary paths. These results suggested that HSP90’s influence on gene evolution may be detectable if we compare gene duplicates because duplicates share most other properties influencing evolutionary rate that might otherwise conceal the chaperone’s effect. We test this hypothesis using systematically identified HSP90 clients in yeast and observe a significant trend of HSP90 clients evolving faster than their nonclient paralogs. This trend was not detected when yeast clients and nonclients were compared without considering paralog status. Our data provide evidence that HSP90 influences selection on genes encoding its clients and facilitates divergence between gene duplicates. PMID:23410833

  11. Duplication of 5q21 in a mildly retarded male and his non-retarded mother

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, R.; Zurcher, V.; Schwartz, S.

    1994-09-01

    Euchromatic autosomal additions to chromosomal complements are typically associated with global effects including mental retardation (MR) and dysmorphism. We report a familial duplication that does not appear to cause consistent, significant effects. A hyperactive male with mild MR was referred for fra(X) testing at 8 yrs. His karyotype was fra(X) negative and normal except for an addition in one 5q. The abnormal 5 was also in the maternal karyotype, but all other parental chromosomes were normal. The addition (=8.5% the length of a 5) was interpreted as a duplication of band 5q21. FISH with Coatasome 5 (Oncor) showed the addition was from 5. The proband`s karyotype was designated 46,XY,dup(5)(q15q22.1)mat; his mother`s, 46,XX,dup(5)(q15q22.1). Single copy probes are being used to test the cytogenetic interpretation. At 39 yrs, the non-retarded, somewhat inattentive mother, who has a high school diploma and subsequent secretarial courses, cares for the proband and his chromosomally normal, but learning disabled sister at home. The family situation is chaotic with reported paternal psychiatric illness and abuse of the proband and his sister. The mother`s father is dead, but her four younger siblings and mother are reportedly normal. Their chromosomes have not been available. The proband was born at 40 weeks following an uneventful pregnancy, with length and weight at the 5-10th centiles. He walked and talked at about one year. At 9 yrs, his ht/wt ratio was 10th centile. Foot length as <3rd centile; soft masses were present on the anterior ankles. He was otherwise physically normal. His estimated I.Q. was 75 and he was severely hyperactive despite Ritalin. This is the first report of a familial duplication in 5q; no identical, isolated case is known. Although additional family members need evaluation, the presence of the dup(5q) in the non-retarded mother suggests that it may not be associated with the proband`s MR.

  12. Exposure to flame retardant chemicals on commercial airplanes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flame retardant chemicals are used in materials on airplanes to slow the propagation of fire. These chemicals migrate from their source products and can be found in the dust of airplanes, creating the potential for exposure. Methods To characterize exposure to flame retardant chemicals in airplane dust, we collected dust samples from locations inside 19 commercial airplanes parked overnight at airport gates. In addition, hand-wipe samples were also collected from 9 flight attendants and 1 passenger who had just taken a cross-country (USA) flight. The samples were analyzed for a suite of flame retardant chemicals. To identify the possible sources for the brominated flame retardants, we used a portable XRF analyzer to quantify bromine concentrations in materials inside the airplanes. Results A wide range of flame retardant compounds were detected in 100% of the dust samples collected from airplanes, including BDEs 47, 99, 153, 183 and 209, tris(1,3-dichloro-isopropyl)phosphate (TDCPP), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromo-phthalate (TBPH). Airplane dust contained elevated concentrations of BDE 209 (GM: 500 ug/g; range: 2,600 ug/g) relative to other indoor environments, such as residential and commercial buildings, and the hands of participants after a cross-country flight contained elevated BDE 209 concentrations relative to the general population. TDCPP, a known carcinogen that was removed from use in children’s pajamas in the 1970’s although still used today in other consumer products, was detected on 100% of airplanes in concentrations similar to those found in residential and commercial locations. Conclusion This study adds to the limited body of knowledge regarding exposure to flame retardants on commercial aircraft, an environment long hypothesized to be at risk for maximum exposures due to strict flame retardant standards for aircraft materials. Our findings indicate that flame retardants are widely used in many airplane components and all airplane types, as expected. Most flame retardants, including TDCPP, were detected in 100% of dust samples collected from the airplanes. The concentrations of BDE 209 were elevated by orders of magnitude relative to residential and office environments. PMID:23413926

  13. A Polycarbonate/Magnesium Oxide Nanocomposite with High Flame Retardancy

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Quanxiao; Gao, Chong; Ding, Yanfen; Wang, Feng; Wen, Bin; Zhang, Shimin; Wang, Tongxin; Yang, Mingshu

    2014-01-01

    A new flame retardant polycarbonate/magnesium oxide (PC/MgO) nanocomposite, with high flame retardancy was developed by melt compounding. The effect of MgO to the flame retardancy, thermal property, and thermal degradation kinetics were investigated. Limited oxygen index (LOI) test revealed that a little amount of MgO (2 wt %) led to significant enhancement (LOI = 36.8) in flame retardancy. Thermogravimetric analysis results demonstrated that the onset temperature of degradation and temperature of maximum degradation rate decreased in both air and N2 atmosphere. Apparent activation energy was estimated via Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method. Three steps in the thermal degradation kinetics were observed after incorporation of MgO into the matrix and the additive raised activation energies of the composite in the full range except the initial stage. It was interpreted that the flame retardancy of PC was influenced by MgO through the following two aspects: on the one hand, MgO catalyzed the thermal-oxidative degradation and accelerated a thermal protection/mass loss barrier at burning surface; on the other hand, the filler decreased activation energies in the initial step and improved thermal stability in the final period. PMID:24696526

  14. Population structure of the Indonesian giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon: a window into evolutionary similarities between paralogous mitochondrial DNA sequences and their genomes

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Aziz, Muslihudeen A; Schöfl, Gerhard; Mrotzek, Grit; Haryanti, Haryanti; Sugama, Ketut; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    Here we used both microsatellites and mtCR (mitochondrial DNA control region) sequences as genetic markers to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of Penaeus monodon shrimp from six Indonesian regions. The microsatellite data showed that shrimp from the Indian and the Pacific Ocean were genetically distinct from each other. It has been reported previously that P. monodon mtCR sequences from the Indo-Pacific group into two major paralogous clades of unclear origin. Here we show that the population structure inferred from mtCR sequences matches the microsatellite-based population structure for one of these clades. This is consistent with the notion that this mtCR clade shares evolutionary history with nuclear DNA and may thus represent nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (Numts). PMID:26380687

  15. Population structure of the Indonesian giant tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon: a window into evolutionary similarities between paralogous mitochondrial DNA sequences and their genomes.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Aziz, Muslihudeen A; Schöfl, Gerhard; Mrotzek, Grit; Haryanti, Haryanti; Sugama, Ketut; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2015-09-01

    Here we used both microsatellites and mtCR (mitochondrial DNA control region) sequences as genetic markers to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of Penaeus monodon shrimp from six Indonesian regions. The microsatellite data showed that shrimp from the Indian and the Pacific Ocean were genetically distinct from each other. It has been reported previously that P. monodon mtCR sequences from the Indo-Pacific group into two major paralogous clades of unclear origin. Here we show that the population structure inferred from mtCR sequences matches the microsatellite-based population structure for one of these clades. This is consistent with the notion that this mtCR clade shares evolutionary history with nuclear DNA and may thus represent nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (Numts). PMID:26380687

  16. Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; Lindsey, D.W.; Terry, D.T.

    1991-09-17

    This patent describes a retarded cement composition consisting essentially of hydraulic cement, water, a set retarder and a borate compound. It comprises the set retarder, a copolymer consisting of acrylic acid and 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) present in the copolymer in the range of from about 40 to about 60 mole percent, the copolymer having an average molecular weight below about 5,000 such that a 10 percent aqueous solution of the copolymer has a Brookfield viscosity reading at 20 rpm of the UL Adapter Spindle in the range of from about 2 to less than 5 centipoises, the amount in the range of from about 0.3 percent to about 5.0 percent by weight of the hydraulic cement; and further wherein the borate compound is capable of providing a borate ion species in the composition.

  17. Risk indicators of mental retardation: changes between 1967 and 1981.

    PubMed

    Louhiala, P

    1995-07-01

    The object of this case-control study was to investigate and analyse perinatal risk indicators of mental retardation. Data concerning 33 perinatal factors possibly related to mental retardation were collected retrospectively for the population of an area in Finland. The subjects were 339 cases born between 1967 and 1981 with mental retardation of suspected perinatal or unknown aetiology and 364 controls born in the same period. Independent risk indicators were low maternal social class, multiparity, multiple pregnancy, male sex, being born small for gestational age, asphyxia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia in the newborn infant. Perinatal problems increased the risk for multiple disabilities. Preterm birth under 33 gestational weeks and very low birthweight (< 1500 g) were associated with considerable risk, but neither was an independent risk indicator. The introduction of neonatal intensive care seems to have altered the risk of death to the risk of surviving with disability. PMID:7615149

  18. Defining a Structural and Kinetic Rationale for Paralogous Copies of Phenylacetate-CoA Ligases from the Cystic Fibrosis Pathogen Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315*

    PubMed Central

    Law, Adrienne; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The phenylacetic acid (PAA) degradation pathway is the sole aerobic route for phenylacetic acid metabolism in bacteria and facilitates degradation of environmental pollutants such as styrene and ethylbenzene. The PAA pathway also is implicated in promoting Burkholderia cenocepacia infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Intriguingly, the first enzyme in the PAA pathway is present in two copies (paaK1 and paaK2), yet each subsequent enzyme is present in only a single copy. Furthermore, sequence divergence indicates that PaaK1 and PaaK2 form a unique subgroup within the adenylate-forming enzyme (AFE) superfamily. To establish a biochemical rationale for the existence of the PaaK paralogs in B. cenocepacia, we present high resolution x-ray crystal structures of a selenomethionine derivative of PaaK1 in complex with ATP and adenylated phenylacetate intermediate complexes of PaaK1 and PaaK2 in distinct conformations. Structural analysis reveals a novel N-terminal microdomain that may serve to recruit subsequent PAA enzymes, whereas a bifunctional role is proposed for the P-loop in stabilizing the C-terminal domain in conformation 2. The potential for different kinetic profiles was suggested by a structurally divergent extension of the aryl substrate pocket in PaaK1 relative to PaaK2. Functional characterization confirmed this prediction, with PaaK1 possessing a lower Km for phenylacetic acid and better able to accommodate 3? and 4? substitutions on the phenyl ring. Collectively, these results offer detailed insight into the reaction mechanism of a novel subgroup of the AFE superfamily and provide a clear biochemical rationale for the presence of paralogous copies of PaaK of B. cenocepacia. PMID:21388965

  19. Why the DNA self-depurination mechanism operates in HB-? but not in ?-globin paralogs HB-?, HB-?1, HB-?1 and HB-?2.

    PubMed

    Amosova, Olga; Alvarez-Dominguez, Juan R; Fresco, Jacques R

    2015-08-01

    The human ?-globin, ?-globin and ?-globin genes contain almost identical coding strand sequences centered about codon 6 having potential to form a stem-loop with a 5'GAGG loop. Provided with a sufficiently stable stem, such a structure can self-catalyze depurination of the loop 5'G residue, leading to a potential mutation hotspot. Previously, we showed that such a hotspot exists about codon 6 of ?-globin, with by far the highest incidence of mutations across the gene, including those responsible for 6 anemias (notably Sickle Cell Anemia) and ?-thalassemias. In contrast, we show here that despite identical loop sequences, there is no mutational hotspot in the ?- or ?1-globin potential self-depurination sites, which differ by only one or two base pairs in the stem region from that of the ?-globin gene. These differences result in either one or two additional mismatches in the potential 7-base pair-forming stem region, thereby weakening its stability, so that either DNA cruciform extrusion from the duplex is rendered ineffective or the lifetime of the stem-loop becomes too short to permit self-catalysis to occur. Having that same loop sequence, paralogs HB-?1 and HB-?2 totally lack stem-forming potential. Hence the absence in ?- and ?1-globin genes of a mutational hotspot in what must now be viewed as non-functional homologs of the self-depurination site in ?-globin. Such stem-destabilizing variants appeared early among vertebrates and remained conserved among mammals and primates. Thus, this study has revealed conserved sequence determinants of self-catalytic DNA depurination associated with variability of mutation incidence among human ?-globin paralogs. PMID:26042536

  20. Consequences of Lineage-Specific Gene Loss on Functional Evolution of Surviving Paralogs: ALDH1A and Retinoic Acid Signaling in Vertebrate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Cañestro, Cristian; Catchen, Julian M.; Rodríguez-Marí, Adriana; Yokoi, Hayato; Postlethwait, John H.

    2009-01-01

    Genome duplications increase genetic diversity and may facilitate the evolution of gene subfunctions. Little attention, however, has focused on the evolutionary impact of lineage-specific gene loss. Here, we show that identifying lineage-specific gene loss after genome duplication is important for understanding the evolution of gene subfunctions in surviving paralogs and for improving functional connectivity among human and model organism genomes. We examine the general principles of gene loss following duplication, coupled with expression analysis of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase Aldh1a gene family during retinoic acid signaling in eye development as a case study. Humans have three ALDH1A genes, but teleosts have just one or two. We used comparative genomics and conserved syntenies to identify loss of ohnologs (paralogs derived from genome duplication) and to clarify uncertain phylogenies. Analysis showed that Aldh1a1 and Aldh1a2 form a clade that is sister to Aldh1a3-related genes. Genome comparisons showed secondarily loss of aldh1a1 in teleosts, revealing that Aldh1a1 is not a tetrapod innovation and that aldh1a3 was recently lost in medaka, making it the first known vertebrate with a single aldh1a gene. Interestingly, results revealed asymmetric distribution of surviving ohnologs between co-orthologous teleost chromosome segments, suggesting that local genome architecture can influence ohnolog survival. We propose a model that reconstructs the chromosomal history of the Aldh1a family in the ancestral vertebrate genome, coupled with the evolution of gene functions in surviving Aldh1a ohnologs after R1, R2, and R3 genome duplications. Results provide evidence for early subfunctionalization and late subfunction-partitioning and suggest a mechanistic model based on altered regulation leading to heterochronic gene expression to explain the acquisition or modification of subfunctions by surviving ohnologs that preserve unaltered ancestral developmental programs in the face of gene loss. PMID:19478994

  1. Set retarded cement compositions and methods for well cementing

    SciTech Connect

    Brothers, L.E.; Lindsey, D.W.; Terry, D.T.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes a method of cementing a zone in a subterranean formation penetrated by a wellbore; It comprises: forming a pumpable set retarded cement slurry comprising hydraulic cement, fresh water, particulate silica having a particle size in the range of from about 0.02 to about 0.5 micron and a set retarder comprising a copolymer consisting essentially of 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid having an average molecular weight below about 5000 and comprising from about 40 to about 60 mole percent AMPS; pumping the cement slurry into the zone by way of the wellbore, and allowing the cement slurry to set therein.

  2. A retarding ion mass spectrometer for the Dynamics Explorer-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W.

    1985-01-01

    The Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) for Dynamics Explorer-1 is an instrument designed to measure the details of the thermal plasma distribution. It combines the ion temperature determining capability of the retarding potential analyzer with the compositional capabilities of the mass spectrometer and adds multiple sensor heads to sample all directions relative to the spacecraft ram direction. This manual provides a functional description of the RIMS, the instrument calibration, and a description of the commands which can be stored in the instrument logic to control its operation.

  3. Fire-Retardant Decorative Inks For Aircraft Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes testing of commercial and experimental fire retardants for incorporation into acrylic printing inks used on aircraft-interior sandwich panels. Films of acrylic ink containing fire-retardant additives prepared by casting on glass plates. Solvent evaporated in vacuum, cast films cured at 80 to 100 degree C for 30 minutes in air-circulating oven. Thermochemical properties of films examined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of inks cast on sheets of polyvinylfloride (PVF), and their limiting oxygen indices and smoke evolution measured.

  4. Mimicking of Estradiol Binding by Flame Retardants and Their Metabolites: A Crystallographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gosavi, Rajendrakumar A.; Knudsen, Gabriel A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), used in many types of consumer goods, are being studied because of concerns about possible health effects related to endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and neurotoxicity. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), the most widely used BFR, and human metabolites of certain congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ether (e.g., 3-OH-BDE-47) have been suggested to inhibit estrogen sulfotransferase, potentially affecting estrogen metabolism. Objectives: Our primary goal was to understand the structural mechanism for inhibition of the hormone-metabolizing enzyme estrogen sulfotransferase by certain BFRs. We also sought to understand various factors that facilitate the binding of flame retardants in the enzyme binding pocket. Methods: We used X-ray crystallography to obtain atomic detail of the binding modes of TBBPA and 3-OH-BDE-47 to estrogen sulfotransferase for comparison with binding of the endogenous substrate estradiol. Results: The crystal structures reveal how BFRs mimic estradiol binding as well as the various interactions between the compounds and protein residues that facilitate its binding. In addition, the structures provide insights into the ability of the sulfotransferase substrate binding pocket to accommodate a range of halogenated compounds that satisfy minimal structural criteria. Conclusions: Our results show how BFRs or their metabolites can bind to and inhibit a key hormone-metabolizing enzyme, potentially causing endocrine disruption. Citation: Gosavi RA, Knudsen GA, Birnbaum LS, Pedersen LC. 2013. Mimicking of estradiol binding by flame retardants and their metabolites: a crystallographic analysis. Environ Health Perspect 121:1194–1199;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306902 PMID:23959441

  5. Diagnosis of growth retardation by biochemical methods.

    PubMed

    Klopper, A

    1984-08-01

    The substances in the blood or urine of a pregnant woman which may give an indication of the state of fetal growth are examined. The drawback of measuring such substances is that the values are variable, making it difficult to distinguish between normal and abnormal. Variability arises from technical factors in measurements, from short-term changes of no significance and from the large spread of normal values from one individual to the next. Biochemical parameters of fetal growth can be applied in one of two ways: as screening tests or as control measures by serial assays to guide management. The criteria by which any test should be evaluated--sensitivity, specificity and relative risk--are examined. Particular substances whose measurement may be helpful are considered in terms of the steroids or proteins produced by the fetoplacental unit. The oestrogens, notably oestriol, hold pride of place among the steroids. Dynamic tests of steroid synthesis are also considered. The chief placental proteins of interest are chorionic gonadotrophin, placental lactogen and Schwangerschaftsprotein 1. It is concluded that the method to be recommended is to screen a whole obstetric population with assays of placental lactogen and to follow those with values below the normal limit with serial oestriol assays. PMID:6332704

  6. Cadmium-induced fetal growth retardation: protective effect of excess dietary zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Ahokas, R.A.; Dilts, P.V. Jr.; LaHaye, E.B.

    1980-01-15

    Reproductive performance and fetal cellular growth and development were investigated in laboratory rats chronically fed low drinking water levels (0, 1.0, 10.0, and 100 ..mu..g/ml) of cadmium (Cd), a known embryotoxic trace element, through gestation. Maternal daily food and water consumption, total weight gain, maternal weight gain, and feed efficiency all decreased with increasing Cd consumption. Term fetal weight was significantly less than that of control subjects only in the group fed 100 ..mu..g Cd/ml drinking water. Total litter weight, however, gradually decreased with increasing Cd concentration due to reduced litter size. Fetal growth retardation was a result of decreased cell division (DNA) and cell growth (protein/DNA ratio). When dams were pair-fed the average daily amount of food consumed by those fed 100 ..mu..g Cd/ml drinking water, maternal weight gain and fetal weight, DNA, and protein/DNA ratio were increased, but not to control levels. Dietary zinc (Zn) supplementation (5.0 ..mu..g/ml drinking water) of Cd-fed dams increased maternal food consumption and fetal weight, DNA, and protein/DNA ratio to control levels. Fetal levels of Cd were extremely low (0.038 to 0.095 ..mu..g/gm fetus) and did not increase with increasing Cd consumption, while placental Cd increased more than 10-fold. Fetal Zn was decreased in Cd-fed dams, and Zn supplementation increased fetal Zn levels, but not to control levels.These results suggest that Cd-induced fetal growth retardation is an indirect rather than a direct effect, resulting from reduced maternal food consumption and metabolism. Since dietary Zn blocks these effects, Cd may be a result of induced Zn deficiency.

  7. Brachydactyly and Mental Retardation: An Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy–like Syndrome Localized to 2q37

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L. C.; Leverton, K.; Luttikhuis, M. E. M. Oude; Oley, C. A.; Flint, J.; Wolstenholme, J.; Duckett, D. P.; Barrow, M. A.; Leonard, J. V.; Read, A. P.; Trembath, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    We report five patients with a combination of brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation, similar to that observed in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Four patients had cytogenetically visible de novo deletions of chromosome 2q37. The fifth patient was cytogenetically normal and had normal bioactivity of the ? subunit of Gs (Gs?), the protein that is defective in AHO. In this patient, we have used a combination of highly polymorphic molecular markers and FISH to demonstrate a microdeletion at 2q37. The common region of deletion overlap involves the most telomeric 2q marker, D2S125, and extends proximally for a maximum distance of 17.6 cM. We suggest this represents a consistent phenotype associated with some deletions at 2q37 and that genes important for skeletal and neurodevelopment lie within this region. Screening for deletions at this locus should be considered in individuals with brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation. Furthermore, 2q37 represents a candidate region for type E brachydactyly. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:7847374

  8. Brachydactyly and mental retardation: An Albright hereditary osteodystrophy-like syndrome localized to 2q37

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, L.C. |; Oude Luttikhuis, M.E.M.; Duckett, D.P.; Barrow, M.A.; Leverton, K.; Read, A.P.; Oley, C.A.; Wolstenholme, J.; Flint, J.; Leonard, J.V.

    1995-02-01

    We report five patients with a combination of brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation, similar to that observed in Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). Four patients had cytogenetically visible de novo deletions of chromosome 2q37. The fifth patient was cytogenetically normal and had normal bioactivity of the {alpha} subunit of Gs (Gs{alpha}), the protein that is defective in AHO. In this patient, we have used a combination of highly polymorphic molecular markers and FISH to demonstrate a microdeletion at 2q37. The common region of deletion overlap involves the most telomeric 2q marker, D2S125, and extends proximally for a maximum distance of 17.6 cM. We suggest this represents a consistent phenotype associated with some deletions at 2q37 and that genes important for skeletal and neurodevelopment lie within this region. Screening for deletions at this locus should be considered in individuals with brachymetaphalangia and mental retardation. Furthermore, 2q37 represents a candidate region for type E brachydactyly. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Aerobic Fitness for the Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Dan

    1981-01-01

    The booklet discusses the aerobic fitness capacities of severely/profoundly retarded students and discusses approaches for improving their fitness. An initial section describes a method for determining the student's present fitness level on the basis of computations of height, weight, blood pressure, resting pulse, and Barach Index and Crampton…

  10. RESPONSES OF BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN TO LEARNING TASKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARRIER, NEIL A.; AND OTHERS

    THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG THE VARIABLES OF INTELLIGENCE, LEARNING TASK PERFORMANCE, EMOTIONAL TENSION, AND TASK MOTIVATION WERE STUDIED. ABOUT 120 BRIGHT, NORMAL, AND RETARDED CHILDREN PERFORMED SIX TRIALS OF NUMBER LEARNING, CONCEPT FORMATION, PROBLEM SOLVING, PERCEPTUAL-MOTOR COORDINATION, AND VERBAL LEARNING TASKS. DURING THE LEARNING SESSIONS,…

  11. Effects of an Educational Program for Parents of Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warfield, Grace J.

    Examined were the effects of an educational program for 61 mothers of elementary school aged retarded children. The Sheltering Arms Parent Interview Schedule was used to elicit responses about the specific program and its recalled influences on the mothers' personal lives; the program's effectiveness in easing family problems; and the degree to…

  12. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.

  13. Importance of Typologies for Science and Service in Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Deborah J.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    This commentary on a previous article that described the use of topological thinking in the field of mental retardation discusses appropriate scientific uses of typologies, what categories are and how they are used in social and biomedical sciences, and the importance of typologies for scientific and practical progress. (Contains extensive…

  14. Psychopathology in Children and Adolescents with ASD without Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caamaño, Marta; Boada, Leticia; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Moreno, Carmen; Llorente, Cloe; Moreno, Dolores; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes subclinical psychopathology in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) without mental retardation with no comorbid disorder, assessed by an extensive general psychopathology interview. The K-SADS-PL was administered to a group of 25 patients with ASD (mean age = 12.80 ± 2.86 years) and 25 healthy controls…

  15. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  16. Innovative green technique for preparing of flame retardant cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its environmentally benign character, microwave-assisted or supercritical carbon dioxide high pressure reactors are considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical reactions. In this paper, an innovative approach for preparation of flame retardant cotton fabric ...

  17. Green Flame Retardant Cotton Highlofts for Mattresses and Upholstered Furniture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric is environmentally-friendly because it is from a natural renewable resource, biodegradable, economical, employing greige cotton that is soft to touch. Greige unbleached cotton is cheaper and softer than bleached cotton, thus, increasing its marketability par...

  18. Language Assessment Tools for Mentally Retarded Adults: Survey and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickett, Joyce M.; Flynn, Pauline T.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis of surveys completed by 50 speech/language pathologists at facilities serving mentally retarded adults revealed that a wide array of language assessment instruments were used. The need to examine many commercial tests (developed and standardized on children) for adults is stressed. (CL)

  19. Career Opportunities in the Field of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenbud, Robert E., Comp.

    Addressed to high school and college students interested in working with the mentally retarded, the booklet describes opportunities in the field. Careers considered include 16 in health and health related services, four in education, seven in social and rehabilitative services, and six in administration and coordination of services. Research…

  20. Japanese Studies on Attitudes towards Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tachibana, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    Review of Japanese studies on attitudes toward persons with mental retardation first notes origins in increased support for special classes in schools. Reported findings focus on items most affecting attitude differences, gender differences, effect of contact, educational differences, and age differences. A unique sociological study in a fishery…

  1. Sterilization of the Mentally Ill and the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors, Washington, DC.

    Reported were the results of a survey on the sterilization of the mentally ill and the mentally retarded. Thirty-three states responded to the survey. It was found that 17 states have a sterilization statute, but the existence of the statute was explained not to mean that the procedure was used. Sixteen states responded that they did not have a…

  2. Parents' Attitudes toward Sterilization of Their Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lucille; Zarfas, Donald E.

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven parents' attitudes toward sterilization and the sexuality of their retarded offspring were identified. Parent and child characteristics associated with these attitudes were investigated. Findings indicated that parents substantially concurred with the principle of sterilization (71 percent for involuntary, 67 percent for…

  3. Depression, Anxiety, and Relevant Cognitions in Persons with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Elizabeth; Bihm, Elson M.; Lammers, William J.

    2003-01-01

    This study assessed depression, anxiety, and relevant cognitions in 46 adults with borderline, mild, or moderate mental retardation. Consistent with research on other groups, self-reports of depression and anxiety were highly correlated and cognitions were strong predictors of negative affect. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses offered…

  4. Retarded action principle and self-financing portfolio dynamics

    E-print Network

    Dmitry Lesnik

    2015-09-30

    We derive a consistent differential representation for the dynamics of a self-financing portfolio for different hedging strategies. In the basis of the derivation there is the so called "retarded action principle", which represents the causality in the evolution of dependent stochastic variables. We demonstrate this principle on example of a vanilla and a storage option.

  5. EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED PROJECT, ORANGE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WALDEN, ROYCE B.

    PREPARED BY TEACHERS OF THE RETARDED, THIS CURRICULUM GUIDE OUTLINES AN ELEMENTARY ACTIVITY UNIT ON HOME AND COMMUNITY LIVING AND A SECONDARY UNIT ON THE CITRUS INDUSTRY. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS ARE LISTED. ADMINISTRATIVE GUIDELINES ON CLASS UNITS, STUDENT PLACEMENT, AND TEACHER QUALIFICATIONS ARE INCLUDED. (MY)

  6. PBDE FLAME RETARDANTS: TOXICOLOGY, HEALTH EFFECTS, AND RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants have been routinely added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Global production of PBDEs has reached 67,000 metric tons per year. Recently concer...

  7. Arsenic Occurrence, Mobility, and Retardation in Sandstone and

    E-print Network

    Sahai, Nita

    Arsenic Occurrence, Mobility, and Retardation in Sandstone and Dolomite Formations of the Fox River of groundwater arsenic (100 µg L-1 ) 1.3 × 10-6 M) are found in the Fox River Valley, eastern Wisconsin, shown previously to cause elevated arsenic in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical and chemical analyses

  8. Mental Retardation FY 1983. Special Report to Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The paper reviews mental retardation research activities of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHHD) and the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS). Research activities are cited to illustrate the scope of NICHHD's efforts in a variety of biomedial areas. Activities are…

  9. Teaching Athletic Skills to Students Who Are Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuvo, Anthony J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate procedures to teach four moderately and severely mentally retarded students the standing long jump and the 50-yard dash, using task analysis and a training package of prompts and response consequences. Results showed acquisition and maintenance of the two athletic skills. (Author/CL)

  10. Motor Fitness Testing Manual for the Moderately Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Leon; Londeree, Ben

    The manual provides instructions for adapting the Special Fitness Test and the Special Fitness Test Award System for moderately retarded children. It is noted that major purposes of the test and award system are to motivate youngsters to participate actively in physical education and recreation activities and give them feelings of accomplishment…

  11. Current Issues in Mental Retardation and Human Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Donald J., Ed.

    Presented are four papers from a conference on mental retardation and families (1971). In the first paper, research is cited to show that current educational programs do not adequately exploit children's potential, and that child centered programs which ignore family/community influence do not significantly influence children's adjustment and…

  12. Operating experiences of retardant bombers during firefighting operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, J. W., Jr.; Morris, G. J.; Avery, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Data are presented on operational practices and maneuver accelerations experienced by two Douglas DC-6B airplanes converted to retardant bombers and used in firefighting operations. The data cover two fire seasons in the mountainous regions of the northwestern United States.

  13. Fragile X Syndrome: A Common Etiology of Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, R. Curtis; Simensen, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    The article describes physical, intellectual, and psychological characteristics of members of 29 families (N=129) affected either directly or as carriers of fragile X syndrome (a form of mental retardation). Little correlation was found between tested intellect and frequency of fragile sites on the chromosome. (Author/JW)

  14. Sexual preferences and recidivism of sex offenders with mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Rice, Marnie E; Harris, Grant T; Lang, Carol; Chaplin, Terry C

    2008-12-01

    By some accounts, sex offenders with mental retardation commit sex offenses against children because the offenders lack sexual knowledge or are socially and intellectually immature rather than because of sexually deviant interests. By other accounts, these offenders exhibit pedophilic sexual interests. In this study, phallometrically determined sexual interests, recidivism, and choices of victims of 69 sex offenders with mental retardation are examined and compared with those of 69 sex offenders of average or higher IQ. Consistent with hypotheses, sex offenders with mental retardation exhibit more deviant preferences for prepubertal children, male children, and young children than do the comparison offenders. They are also more likely to have had a prepubertal victim, a prepubertal male victim, and a very young victim. They are no more likely than the comparison offenders to exhibit preferences for extremely coercive sex with children or to exhibit deviant adult activity preferences, nor are they more likely to recidivate violently. Results support the idea that pedophilia is a disorder of neurodevelopment and point to the importance of risk assessments that include assessing sexual preferences among sex offenders with mental retardation. PMID:19020337

  15. Group Therapy Readiness Using Operant Techniques with Mental Retardates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Marc J.

    Following 4 weeks of unsuccessful conventional therapy, five trainable mentally retarded males (CA 7-12 years) were placed in a behavior modification group-therapy-readiness program (BMP). Immediate gratification, short range delayed gratification, and long range delayed gratification were used. Teachers were encouraged to continue the BMP in…

  16. College Juniors' Reactions to Tutoring Adolescent Trainable Retarded Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minkoff, Jack; Sellin, Donald

    1973-01-01

    Fourteen college juniors in special education tutored a small group of adolescent trainable mentally retarded (TMR) students during an 8-week period to determine whether tutorial experience would increase self confidence for teaching TMR students and to compare self with external ratings of teaching ability. (MC)

  17. The Mentally Retarded and the Law Project CAMIO, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    Reviewed are statutory and case laws affecting arrest, prosecution, and treatment of the mentally retarded (MR) offender as part of Project CAMIO, (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the MR and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which…

  18. "School Retardation" in Mexico from 1920 to 1960: Conceptual Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Josefina Granja

    2012-01-01

    Educational concepts, such as enrolment, attendance, passing or failing students, school retardation, and school desertion, which made it possible to describe the course of children through the school system, went through a gradual process, beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century and throughout the first decades of the twentieth. In…

  19. Evaluating and Developing Vocational Potential of Institutionalized Retarded Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnicky, Joseph J., Ed.; Kahn, Harris, Ed.

    Vocational performance predictors were tested with 437 mildly retarded students (mean age 18 1/2, mean IQ 64) in a five-stage training situation progressing from half to full day and from on to off campus. Findings demonstrated considerable overlap as well as some independence among measures. High degrees of reliability and intercorrelation were…

  20. RECREATION FOR THE MENTALLY RETARDED--A COMMUNITY BASED PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRENBAUM, ARNOLD; SCHWARTZ, ARTHUR L.

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVE OF THIS 3-YEAR RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT WAS TO TEST THE FEASIBILITY OF EXTENDING THE RESPONSIBILITIES OF COMMUNITY WORK AGENCIES IN NEW YORK TO INCLUDE THE MENTALLY RETARDED. THE 13 PARTICIPATING GROUP WORK AGENCIES RECEIVED FINANCIAL SUPPORT WAS WELL AS CONSULTATIVE, INTAKE, AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING SERVICES FROM…

  1. Fire-and smoke-retardant polyesters and elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, S. Y.; Ingham, J. D.; Lawson, D. D.; Mosesman, M.

    1978-01-01

    Test results indicate that most effective fire-and smoke-retardant fillers are inorganic hydrates and carbonates that release water and/or carbon dioxide. Most effective filler tested was hydrated sodium silicate. Effectiveness is due to high water content and formation of viscous molten glass when heated. Glass tends to inhibit polymer combustion and to promote formation of char residue.

  2. Electrical power generation from salinity gradients using pressure retarded osmosis

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, A.F.; Yourstone, W.H.

    1983-08-01

    The use of a pressure retarded osmosis system (PRO) to generate electricity form naturally available or artificially generated salt is described. Variations in overall system efficiency are analyzed in terms of freshwater and brine flow rates, fluid pressure levels, and membrane permeability. It is shown that the PRO system is economically competitive with other alternative energy systems.

  3. NOVEL 'GREENER' ROUTES TO HALOGEN-FREE FLAME RETARDANT MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increased use of polymeric materials in numerous applications over the past decade has prompted a surge in the need for additives in the polymer industry. Flame retardant (FR) materials are additives that are used to control or reduce/eliminate the risk of fire in flammabl...

  4. Mental Retardation: Topics of Today--Issues of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The monograph examines issues affecting the future of handicapped people generally, and mentally retarded people specifically. E. Meyen introduces the volume and describes how the issues were identified. H. Turnbull and P. Barber, in "Perspectives on Public Policy," discuss such issues as defederalization, redefinition of handicaps, and…

  5. Molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling for fragile X mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, U B; Phadke, S R; Mittal, B

    2004-03-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent cause of inherited mental retardation. It is caused by a dynamic mutation: the progressive expansion of polymorphic (CGG)n trinucleotide repeats located in the promoter region of the FMRI gene at Xq27.3. The cloning of the FMRI gene and the elucidation of the molecular basis of the fragile X syndrome is of great importance for the diagnosis and understanding of this unusual type of mutation. Although extensively studied, the mechanism behind the transition from stable normal (CGG)n alleles to the carrier state (an unstable premutation) and from premutation to mutation is partially understood. The clinical diagnosis of fragile X mental retardation (FXMR) is not possible as dysmorphic features are subtle. Molecular diagnosis by Southern Blot is the confirmatory test that makes carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis possible. As the risk of recurrence of FXMR is high in the family and carrier relatives, an identification of fragile X positive children, and offering carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis to the families is very important. It is possible by screening mentally retarded children and adults even if there is no family history of mental retardation or typical behavioral or physical features associated with the fragile X phenotype. In this review we have discussed the method for the diagnosis and counseling of the families. The complexities due to premutation and the variable severity of manifestations in carrier females need to be understood while counseling fragile X families. PMID:15069237

  6. Practitioner Review: Psychopharmacology in Children and Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handen, Benjamin L.; Gilchrist, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background: The use of psychotropic medication to treat children and adults with mental retardation (MR) has a long and extensive history. There are no identified medications to address specific cognitive deficits among persons with MR. Instead, psychotropic medications are used to treat specific behavioral symptoms and/or psychiatric syndromes.…

  7. Individuals with Mental Retardation from the Perspective of Turkish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güner Yildiz, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the attitude of Turkish people towards the mentally retarded. The working group was composed of 329 male and female staff in various places of employment in Eskisehir provincial center, 87 non-working women living in Eskisehir provincial center and 49 non-working women living in Mugla provincial center. Research…

  8. Prevalence of classical phenylketonuria in mentally retarded individuals in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghiasvand, N M; Aledavood, A; Ghiasvand, R; Seyedin Borojeny, F; Aledavood, A R; Seyed, S; Miner, W; Saeb Taheri, G R

    2009-12-01

    Using Guthrie Biological Inhibition Assay, 4963 mentally retarded individuals housed in 31 cities and towns across the country were screened for PKU. The average prevalence of classical PKU in the study population was 2.1%, which is higher than that reported for most mentally retarded populations in other countries prior to the implementation of a nationwide newborn screening programme for PKU. The prevalence of PKU in 1814 mentally retarded inmates housed in shelters in Tehran was 2.81%, and the prevalence of the disease in 3149 inmates sheltered in other cities and towns was 1.68%. It appears that most of the difference between the prevalence of PKU in these two populations is due to a unique PKU referral pattern in Iran. The high prevalence of PKU in the mentally retarded population in Iran could be indicative of a high incidence of the disease among Iranian neonates. This in turn appears to be positively influenced by both a high frequency of the PKU allele and a high rate of consanguinity in the country. Our finding suggests that instead of limited local screening programmes in the country, a nationwide screening programme for PKU, especially if coupled with screening for congenital hypothyroidism, would be highly cost-effective and warranted. PMID:19768570

  9. Work Status Trends for People with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Dana Scott; Butterworth, John

    1997-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes evidence on the work status of successful rehabilitations/closures for people with mental retardation in light of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992, which strengthened the focus of state vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs on community employment outcomes. Data analyzed were drawn from the Rehabilitation…

  10. Mortality among Individuals with Mental Retardation Living in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of mortality in a population of 1,300 people with mental retardation living in the community revealed that 14 people died over a 4-year period. Cause of death was avoidable in three patients. The sentinel health event methodology and case-by-case mortality reviews are recommended for monitoring avoidable deaths in community residential…

  11. A Job Retention Model for Individuals with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fornes, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    This structured literature review examines the literature and addresses issues of job retention for adult workers with moderate to mild mental retardation (MR), investigating the relationships between work-related social behaviors, self-determination, person-job congruency of individuals with MR, and their job performance and job satisfaction with…

  12. Project Job: Vocational Training Program for Mentally Retarded Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Development for Exceptional Individuals, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A vocational training program for trainable mentally retarded youth and adults provided instruction on functional skills, travel training, and independent living skills in addition to supervised performance in part time jobs in the community. The program expanded into small business subsidiaries for boat cleaning and detailing and marine serving.…

  13. Programs for the Handicapped. Mental Retardation Hospital Improvement Program, 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC. Secretary's Committee on Mental Retardation.

    A list is given of the 99 projects funded for fiscal year 1969 by the Mental Retardation Hospital Improvement Program (HIP), a direct grant program designed to stimulate improved services to the mentally handicapped in state institutions by demonstrating innovative techniques. Information provided specifies grantee institution and address (by…

  14. Mental Health and Mental Retardation Services in Nevada. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, J. S.; And Others

    Summarized are the findings and recommendations of a 2-year study of all major services and service delivery systems in Nevada for persons with mental health disorders, mentally retarded persons, and abusers of alcohol and other drugs. Considered are the following areas of basic service needs: prevention of the mentally handicapping conditions,…

  15. Neck retardation and enhanced energy absorption in metalelastomer bilayers

    E-print Network

    Hutchinson, John W.

    triaxiality, both of which promote ductile fracture. In uniaxial tension, the onset of necking in a uniform strain at the onset of necking in a bar in uniaxial tension is e = N. This is also the necking strainNeck retardation and enhanced energy absorption in metal­elastomer bilayers Zhenyu Xue *, John W

  16. International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Jean, Ed.

    Proceedings from the International Summit on Prevention of Mental Retardation from Biomedical Causes are provided. After a list of participants and summary of the highlights of the conference, the keynote address by H. Moser is presented. The following 13 papers are provided along with workshop recommendations and a list of main points elicited…

  17. IQ and the Death Penalty: Verifying Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Denis William

    Whether or not subjects can simulate mental retardation, a consideration that has implications in criminal cases, was studied using 21 adult Caucasian males between 20 and 30 years of age, largely comprised of students and staff employees of the University of New Mexico. Subjects were asked to give genuine and simulated responses to two major test…

  18. Silica Fume as a Radon Retardant from Concrete

    E-print Network

    Yu, Peter K.N.

    Silica Fume as a Radon Retardant from Concrete K . N . Y U , * , R . V . B A L E N D R A N is a radioactive gas that can be generated from concrete. Its concentration is enhanced in indoor environments to be the radon source in concrete. Recently, silica fume is introduced as a partial substitution in Portland

  19. Administrative Issues in Institutions for the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles C.; Swartz, Jon D.

    Designed primarily for administrators of both public and private institutions for the mentally retarded, the volume offers guidelines for coping with three areas of modification of institutional image, daily operational problems concerning manpower and equipment, and future demands upon institutions. Brief exercises following some of the readings…

  20. Education and Training of the Young Retarded Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijou, Sidney W.; Grimm, Jeffrey A.

    Described is an educational method based on the application of behavioral theory said to be effective in teaching academic and personal-social behaviors to young retarded children. Reading, spelling, arithmetic, writing, and language programs are presented in moderate detail and are explained to adhere to heuristic procedure of identifying the…

  1. Biobehavioral State and Orienting: Implications for Educating Profoundly Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainforth, Beverly

    1982-01-01

    Literature is reviewed on biobehavioral state and orienting (the reflex alerting to a novel stimuli and resulting in physiological arousal) in an attempt to identify conditions that are prerequisite to or facilitate learning in the profoundly retarded. Several areas are identified where further research is needed. (Author)

  2. Presidential Address 1991: Mental Retardation: New Realities, New Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruininks, Robert H.

    1991-01-01

    This presidential address discusses realities that may alter political, social, and economic priorities in the future; examines how these realities will affect the lives of people with mental retardation and their families; and addresses ideas for responding to these realities and promoting greater opportunities and quality of life for citizens…

  3. Housekeeping Management Assistant Manual for Training of the Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Research and Training Center in Mental Retardation.

    Presented is an instructional guide for teaching mentally retarded persons to become housekeeping assistants. Listed are tasks, objectives, and background information for the following six units: general safety procedures; daily duties (general cleaning, use of supply carts, and bathroom cleaning); laundry procedures (including use of washer and…

  4. Validation of a Weight Reduction Treatment Package for the Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotatori, Anthony F.; And Others

    Five studies are reviewed which indicated the effectiveness on weight loss by mentally retarded persons of a treatment program stressing self control. The intervention included procedures which increased the dieter's self awareness of overeating behavior patterns and body weight, reduced food cues, reduced eating rates, increased activity level…

  5. Sexual Health and Behavior of Mentally Retarded Pupils in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsutsumi, Angela Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    Sex education has always been a controversial topic. Although sex education at schools has improved in general, sex education for mentally retarded pupils still encounters prejudice and conservatism as a result of several misconceptions about the subject. This research was performed in the form of a survey of opinions about sex education in…

  6. Career Development for Adolescents and Young Adults with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, John; Milson, Amy; Cocco, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Career development activities by professional school counselors at the elementary, middle, and high school levels can help students with mental retardation make meaningful career choices as adults. School counselors can be advocates and providers of career development activities that link the individualized educational process for students with…

  7. The flame retardant properties of cyanuric chloride derivatives in cotton textile applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyanuric chloride derivatives are promising flame retardants in cotton textile applications due to their ease of synthesis, high yield, and excellent flame retardant properties as measured by thermogravimetric analyses, limiting oxygen index, and vertical flame testing. Scanning electron microscopic...

  8. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands...continued nationwide aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands...The Forest Service is working to restore fire-adapted ecosystems through...

  9. 75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ...Natural Resources Conservation Service Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental...statement is not being prepared for the Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental...The project proposes to rehabilitate the Magma FRS to provide for continued flood...

  10. Ventricular ejection force in growth-retarded fetuses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Capponi, A; Rinaldo, D; Arduini, D; Romanini, C

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether in growth-retarded fetuses secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency the cardiac ventricles exert a force different from that of appropriately grown fetuses. Doppler echocardiographic studies were performed in 156 appropriately grown fetuses (gestational age 18-38 weeks) and in 72 growth-retarded fetuses (gestational age 24-36 weeks) free from structural and chromosomal abnormalities and characterized by Doppler changes in the umbilical artery and middle cerebral artery suggesting uteroplacental insufficiency as the most likely etiology of the growth defect. Right and left ventricular ejection force values were calculated from velocity waveforms recorded at the level of aortic and pulmonary valves, according to Newton's second law of motion. In appropriately grown fetuses, left and right ventricular ejection force values significantly increased with advancing gestation and the two ventricles exerted similar force. In growth-retarded fetuses, the ventricular ejection force was significantly and symmetrically decreased in both ventricles. Among growth-retarded fetuses, a poorer perinatal outcome was observed in those fetuses in which the ejection force of both ventricles was below the 5th centile of the normal limits for gestation. In 12 growth-retarded fetuses followed longitudinally during the last week preceding intrauterine death or Cesarean section due to antepartum heart-rate late decelerations, a significant decrease of ejection force was found in both ventricles. Finally, a significant relationship was found between the severity of acidosis and right and left ventricular ejection force values in 22 fetuses in which Doppler recordings were performed immediately before cordocentesis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7600206

  11. Process for spinning flame retardant elastomeric compositions. [fabricating synthetic fibers for high oxygen environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions comprised of either spandex type polyurethane having halogen containing polyols incorporated into the polymer chain, conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture with flame retardant additives, or fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives were developed. Methods are described for preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials and manufactured articles as well as nonelastic materials such as polybenzimidazoles, fiberglass, and nylons, for high oxygen environments.

  12. Neuronal regulation of pre-mRNA splicing by polypyrimidine tract binding proteins, PTBP1 and PTBP2.

    PubMed

    Keppetipola, Niroshika; Sharma, Shalini; Li, Qin; Black, Douglas L

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing patterns are regulated by RNA binding proteins that assemble onto each pre-mRNA to form a complex RNP structure. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein, PTB, has served as an informative model for understanding how RNA binding proteins affect spliceosome assembly and how changes in the expression of these proteins can control complex programs of splicing in tissues. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of splicing regulation by PTB and its function, along with its paralog PTBP2, in neuronal development. PMID:22655688

  13. Mutations in ZDHHC9, Which Encodes a Palmitoyltransferase of NRAS and HRAS, Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation Associated with a Marfanoid Habitus

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, F. Lucy; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Edkins, Sarah; Tofts, Calli; O’Meara, Sarah; Teague, Jon; Butler, Adam; Stevens, Claire; Barthorpe, Syd; Buck, Gemma; Cole, Jennifer; Dicks, Ed; Gray, Kristian; Halliday, Kelly; Hills, Katy; Hinton, Jonathon; Jones, David; Menzies, Andrew; Perry, Janet; Raine, Keiran; Shepherd, Rebecca; Small, Alexandra; Varian, Jennifer; Widaa, Sara; Mallya, Uma; Moon, Jenny; Luo, Ying; Shaw, Marie; Boyle, Jackie; Kerr, Bronwyn; Turner, Gillian; Quarrell, Oliver; Cole, Trevor; Easton, Douglas F.; Wooster, Richard; Bobrow, Martin; Schwartz, Charles E.; Gecz, Jozef; Stratton, Michael R.; Futreal, P. Andrew

    2007-01-01

    We have identified one frameshift mutation, one splice-site mutation, and two missense mutations in highly conserved residues in ZDHHC9 at Xq26.1 in 4 of 250 families with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). In three of the families, the mental retardation phenotype is associated with a Marfanoid habitus, although none of the affected individuals meets the Ghent criteria for Marfan syndrome. ZDHHC9 is a palmitoyltransferase that catalyzes the posttranslational modification of NRAS and HRAS. The degree of palmitoylation determines the temporal and spatial location of these proteins in the plasma membrane and Golgi complex. The finding of mutations in ZDHHC9 suggests that alterations in the concentrations and cellular distribution of target proteins are sufficient to cause disease. This is the first XLMR gene to be reported that encodes a posttranslational modification enzyme, palmitoyltransferase. Furthermore, now that the first palmitoyltransferase that causes mental retardation has been identified, defects in other palmitoylation transferases become good candidates for causing other mental retardation syndromes. PMID:17436253

  14. Part I. improve flame retardant textile. Part II. novel approach layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textile.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical rea...

  15. American Association on Mental Retardation 157 VOLUME 110, NUMBER 3: 157163 MAY 2005 AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION Voluntary Orienting Among Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome and MA was used to examine voluntary visual orienting among children and adolescents with trisomy 21 Down syndrome SOA conditions, indicating intact orienting among children with Down syndrome. This finding is further

  16. American Association on Mental Retardation 231 VOLUME 109, NUMBER 3: 231236 MAY 2004 AMERICAN JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    reported for several neurode- velopmental syndromes. In adults with Down syndrome, for example JOURNAL ON MENTAL RETARDATION The Relationship Between Age and IQ in Adults With Williams Syndrome Yvonne age and IQ was evaluated in a cross-sectional sample of 80 individuals with Williams syndrome (17

  17. Development of fiber reactive, non-halogenated flame retardant on cotton fabrics and the enhanced flame retardancy by covalent bonding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US law requires flame resistant properties on apparel or house hold items to prevent or minimize the fire damage. The objective of this research was to develop a non-halogenated flame retardant for application onto cotton fabrics. These treated fabrics can then be used in clothes or beddings to ...

  18. Contribution of twin pregnancy to perinatal mortality and fetal growth retardation; reversal of growth retardation after birth.

    PubMed Central

    Manlan, G.; Scott, K. E.

    1978-01-01

    A survey of factors associated with perinatal mortality in 511 twins and fetal growth retardation and its reversal in 262 twins is presented. The incidence of stillbirth was almost 50% higher in twins than in singletons and the neonatal mortality was six times as high. Eighty percent of the neonatal deaths occurred in infants born prior to or at 30 weeks of gestation; 93% of the deaths were in infants weighing less than 1500 g and 75% occurred within 48 hours of birth. Fetal malnutrition was the main cause of stillbirth, and respiratory distress syndrome and asphyxia neonatorum were the main causes of neonatal death. One quarter of the twins had fetal growth retardation, a prevalence 10 times that in singletons. In almost all, the growth retardation was reversed by high-energy feedings. Although twins represented only 1% of all pregnancies and 2% of live births, they composed 12% of infants with early neonatal death and 17% of growth-retarded infants. A program is suggested for reduction of twin mortality and morbidity. PMID:630496

  19. Part I. Improved flame retardant textiles. Part II. Novel approach to layer-by-layer processing for flame retardant textiles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, new approaches for flame retardant textile by using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and layer-by-layer processing will be discussed. Due to its environmentally benign character, the scCO2 is considered in green chemistry as a substitute for organic solvents in chemical re...

  20. Increased Lead and Cadmium Burdens among Mentally Retarded Children and Children with Borderline Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Mike; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between subtoxic metal levels and mild mental retardation and borderline intelligence was investigated through comparison of hair metal concentrations in 135 secondary students with mild retardation or borderline intelligence. Children in the retarded/borderline group had significantly higher lead and cadmium concentrations.…

  1. Mental Retardation: The Known and the Unknown. Information as of February 1, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Committee on Mental Retardation, Washington, DC.

    The report of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation deals with three goal areas: minimum occurrence of disability, adequate and humane service systems, and assurance of full citizenship for the retarded. Considered in an initial section are the background, definition, prevalence, and incidence of mental retardation. Reviewed is research…

  2. 75 FR 52713 - Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Forest Service Nationwide Aerial Application of Fire Retardant on National Forest System Lands AGENCY... aerial application of fire retardant on National Forest System lands. The responsible official for this.... Comments may also be sent via e- mail to FireRetardantEIS@fs.fed.us . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  3. Weight Survey on Adult Persons with Mental Retardation Living in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hove, Oddbjorn

    2004-01-01

    Prevalence of underweight and obesity were investigated in 282 mentally retarded persons living on the West Coast of Norway. Data collected in this survey suggest that people with severe mental retardation were more likely to be underweight and people with mild mental retardation were more likely to be obese. Compared to persons of average…

  4. The Effects on Motor Performance of Setting an Overt Level of Aspiration by Mentally Retarded Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozar, Bill

    This study investigates the effects of setting an overt level of aspiration on the standing long jump performance of mildly and moderately retarded institutionalized children. Thirty-three mildly retarded and seven moderately retarded students were randomly assigned to either an overt level of aspiration (OLA) group or a control group. Each…

  5. Diagnostic test for prenatal identification of Down's syndrome and mental retardation and gene therapy therefor

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Desmond J. (Oakland, CA); Rubin, Edward M. (Berkeley, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A a diagnostic test useful for prenatal identification of Down syndrome and mental retardation. A method for gene therapy for correction and treatment of Down syndrome. DYRK gene involved in the ability to learn. A method for diagnosing Down's syndrome and mental retardation and an assay therefor. A pharmaceutical composition for treatment of Down's syndrome mental retardation.

  6. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  7. Mental Retardation and the Problem of "Normality": Self-Determination and Identity Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. David

    2007-01-01

    The meaning of the category and concept of mental retardation is explored through the words of a fictional character, and the accounts of real people who have been injured and stigmatized by the label. Examples of the extremes to which people have gone to avoid or escape the term mental retardation are provided. The classification of retardation

  8. People with Mental Retardation in the Criminal Justice System. ARC Q&A #101-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Leigh Ann

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system. Questions and answers address the following topics: the number of people with mental retardation in the criminal justice system (2 to 10 percent of the prison population is mentally retarded); whether…

  9. Insulin reverses the growth retardation effect of phorbol ester in chicken embryos during organogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Girbau, M.; Bassas, L.; Roth, J.; de Pablo, F. )

    1989-01-01

    The tumor promoting phorbol esters can affect early embryonic development by causing interference with the normal pathways of cellular growth and differentiation. The present study was designed to: (a) define a time in organogenesis when a vertebrate embryo model, the chicken, was sensitive to the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoil-13-acetate (TPA), and (b) attempt a rescue of the embryos disturbed by TPA with simultaneous addition of insulin. In embryos treated at days 2 and 3 of development, TPA caused dose-dependent mortality. Survivors were biochemically retarded as indicated by their decreased weight, protein, DNA, RNA, total creatine kinase, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol contents. When intermediated doses of TPA were applied together with insulin the embryonic growth disturbance was largely antagonized. These data, generated with an in vivo whole embryo, support the strong link between the mode of action of insulin and signal transduction mechanisms typical of phorbol esters.

  10. Mutations in the BRWD3 Gene Cause X-Linked Mental Retardation Associated with Macrocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Field, Michael ; Tarpey, Patrick S. ; Smith, Raffaella ; Edkins, Sarah ; O’Meara, Sarah ; Stevens, Claire ; Tofts, Calli ; Teague, Jon ; Butler, Adam ; Dicks, Ed ; Barthorpe, Syd ; Buck, Gemma ; Cole, Jennifer ; Gray, Kristian ; Halliday, Kelly ; Hills, Katy ; Jenkinson, Andrew ; Jones, David ; Menzies, Andrew ; Mironenko, Tatiana ; Perry, Janet ; Raine, Keiran ; Richardson, David ; Shepherd, Rebecca ; Small, Alexandra ; Varian, Jennifer ; West, Sofie ; Widaa, Sara ; Mallya, Uma ; Wooster, Richard ; Moon, Jenny ; Luo, Ying ; Hughes, Helen ; Shaw, Marie ; Friend, Kathryn L. ; Corbett, Mark ; Turner, Gillian ; Partington, Michael ; Mulley, John ; Bobrow, Martin ; Schwartz, Charles ; Stevenson, Roger ; Gecz, Jozef ; Stratton, Michael R. ; Andrew Futreal, P. ; Lucy Raymond, F. 

    2007-01-01

    In the course of systematic screening of the X-chromosome coding sequences in 250 families with nonsyndromic X-linked mental retardation (XLMR), two families were identified with truncating mutations in BRWD3, a gene encoding a bromodomain and WD-repeat domain–containing protein. In both families, the mutation segregates with the phenotype in affected males. Affected males have macrocephaly with a prominent forehead, large cupped ears, and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability. No truncating variants were found in 520 control X chromosomes. BRWD3 is therefore a new gene implicated in the etiology of XLMR associated with macrocephaly and may cause disease by altering intracellular signaling pathways affecting cellular proliferation. PMID:17668385

  11. Disruption of the Serine/Threonine Kinase 9 Gene Causes Severe X-Linked Infantile Spasms and Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Kalscheuer, Vera M.; Tao, Jiong; Donnelly, Andrew; Hollway, Georgina; Schwinger, Eberhard; Kübart, Sabine; Menzel, Corinna; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Tommerup, Niels; Eyre, Helen; Harbord, Michael; Haan, Eric; Sutherland, Grant R.; Ropers, Hans-Hilger; Gécz, Jozef

    2003-01-01

    X-linked West syndrome, also called “X-linked infantile spasms” (ISSX), is characterized by early-onset generalized seizures, hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. Recently, we have shown that the majority of the X-linked families with infantile spasms carry mutations in the aristaless-related homeobox gene (ARX), which maps to the Xp21.3-p22.1 interval, and that the clinical picture in these patients can vary from mild mental retardation to severe ISSX with additional neurological abnormalities. Here, we report a study of two severely affected female patients with apparently de novo balanced X;autosome translocations, both disrupting the serine-threonine kinase 9 (STK9) gene, which maps distal to ARX in the Xp22.3 region. We show that STK9 is subject to X-inactivation in normal female somatic cells and is functionally absent in the two patients, because of preferential inactivation of the normal X. Disruption of the same gene in two unrelated patients who have identical phenotypes (consisting of early-onset severe infantile spasms, profound global developmental arrest, hypsarrhythmia, and severe mental retardation) strongly suggests that lack of functional STK9 protein causes severe ISSX and that STK9 is a second X-chromosomal locus for this disorder. PMID:12736870

  12. Splicing mutation in the ATR-X gene can lead to a dysmorphic mental retardation phenotype without {alpha}-thalassemia

    SciTech Connect

    Villard, L.; Lossi, A.M.; Fontes, M.

    1996-03-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from Xq13 that codes for a putative regulator of transcription (XNP) and has now been shown to be the gene involved in the X-linked {alpha}-thalassemia with mental retardation (ATR-X) syndrome. The widespread expression and numerous domains present in the putative protein suggest that this gene could be involved in other phenotypes. The predominant expression of the gene in the developing brain, as well as its association with neuron differentiation, indicates that mutations of this gene might result in a mental retardation (MR) phenotype. In this paper we present a family with a splice junction mutation in XNP that results in the skipping of an exon and in the introduction of a stop codon in the middle of the XNP-coding sequence. Only the abnormal transcript is expressed in two first cousins presenting the classic ATR-X phenotype (with {alpha}-thalassemia and HbH inclusions). In a distant cousin presenting a similar dysmorphic MR phenotype but not having thalassemia, {approximately}30% of the XNP transcripts are normal. These data demonstrate that the mode of action of the XNP gene product on globin expression is distinct from its mode of action in brain development and facial morphogenesis and suggest that other dysmorphic mental retardation phenotypes, such as Juberg-Marsidi or some sporadic cases of Coffin-Lowry, could be due to mutations in XNP. 20 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Plasma-enhanced synthesis of green flame retardant cellulosic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totolin, Vladimir

    The natural fiber-containing fabrics and composites are more environmentally friendly, and are used in transportation (automobiles, aerospace), military applications, construction industries (ceiling paneling, partition boards), consumer products, etc. Therefore, the flammability characteristics of the composites based on polymers and natural fibers play an important role. This dissertation presents the development of plasma assisted - green flame retardant coatings for cellulosic substrates. The overall objective of this work was to generate durable flame retardant treatment on cellulosic materials. In the first approach sodium silicate layers were pre-deposited onto clean cotton substrates and cross linked using low pressure, non-equilibrium oxygen plasma. A statistical design of experiments was used to optimize the plasma parameters. The modified cotton samples were tested for flammability using an automatic 45° angle flammability test chamber. Aging tests were conducted to evaluate the coating resistance during the accelerated laundry technique. The samples revealed a high flame retardant behavior and good thermal stability proved by thermo-gravimetric analysis. In the second approach flame retardant cellulosic materials have been produced using a silicon dioxide (SiO2) network coating. SiO 2 network armor was prepared through hydrolysis and condensation of the precursor tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), prior coating the substrates, and was cross linked on the surface of the substrates using atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) technique. Due to protection effects of the SiO2 network armor, the cellulosic based fibers exhibit enhanced thermal properties and improved flame retardancy. In the third approach, the TEOS/APP treatments were extended to linen fabrics. The thermal analysis showed a higher char content and a strong endothermic process of the treated samples compared with control ones, indicating a good thermal stability. Also, the surface analysis proved the existence of the silica-based coatings on all treated cellulosic substrates after intense ultrasound washes. The results obtained in this work allow us to conclude that silica-based coatings used in conjunction with plasma processes have high potential to obtain green flame retardant cellulosic materials with potential applications in the development of upholstered furniture, clothing and military applications.

  14. Molecular evolution of cyclin proteins in animals and fungi

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The passage through the cell cycle is controlled by complexes of cyclins, the regulatory units, with cyclin-dependent kinases, the catalytic units. It is also known that cyclins form several families, which differ considerably in primary structure from one eukaryotic organism to another. Despite these lines of evidence, the relationship between the evolution of cyclins and their function is an open issue. Here we present the results of our study on the molecular evolution of A-, B-, D-, E-type cyclin proteins in animals and fungi. Results We constructed phylogenetic trees for these proteins, their ancestral sequences and analyzed patterns of amino acid replacements. The analysis of infrequently fixed atypical amino acid replacements in cyclins evidenced that accelerated evolution proceeded predominantly during paralog duplication or after it in animals and fungi and that it was related to aromorphic changes in animals. It was shown also that evolutionary flexibility of cyclin function may be provided by consequential reorganization of regions on protein surface remote from CDK binding sites in animal and fungal cyclins and by functional differentiation of paralogous cyclins formed in animal evolution. Conclusions The results suggested that changes in the number and/or nature of cyclin-binding proteins may underlie the evolutionary role of the alterations in the molecular structure of cyclins and their involvement in diverse molecular-genetic events. PMID:21798004

  15. Characterisation of Lipid Changes in Ethylene-Promoted Senescence and Its Retardation by Suppression of Phospholipase D? in Arabidopsis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yanxia; Li, Weiqi

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) both accelerate senescence of detached Arabidopsis leaves. We previously showed that suppression of Phospholipase D? (PLD?) retarded ABA-promoted senescence. Here, we report that ethylene-promoted senescence is retarded in detached leaves lacking PLD?. We further used lipidomics to comparatively profile the molecular species of membrane lipids between wild-type and PLD?-knockout (PLD?-KO) Arabidopsis during ethylene-promoted senescence. Lipid profiling revealed that ethylene caused a decrease in all lipids levels, except phosphatidic acid (PA), caused increases in the ratios of digalactosyl diglyceride/monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and caused degradation of plastidic lipids before that of extraplastidic lipids in wild-type plants. The accelerated degradation of plastidic lipids during ethylene-promoted senescence in wild-type plants was attenuated in PLD?-KO plants. No obvious differences in substrate and product of PLD?-catalyzed phospholipid hydrolysis were detected between wild-type and PLD?-KO plants, which indicated that the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by suppressing PLD? might not be related to the role of PLD? in catalyzing phospholipid degradation. In contrast, higher plastidic lipid content, especially of MGDG, in PLD?-KO plants was crucial for maintaining photosynthetic activity. The lower relative content of PA and higher PC/PE ratio in PLD?-KO plants might contribute to maintaining cell membrane integrity. The integrity of the cell membrane in PLD?-KO plants facilitated maintenance of the membrane function and of the proteins associated with the membrane. Taking these findings together, higher plastidic lipid content and the integrity of the cell membrane in PLD?-KO plants might contribute to the retardation of ethylene-promoted senescence by the suppression of PLD?. PMID:26648950

  16. PICK1 Deficiency Impairs Secretory Vesicle Biogenesis and Leads to Growth Retardation and Decreased Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Anna M.; Jin, Chunyu; Rickhag, Mattias; Lund, Viktor K.; Jensen, Morten; Bhatia, Vikram; Sørensen, Gunnar; Madsen, Andreas N.; Xue, Zhichao; Møller, Siri K.; Woldbye, David; Qvortrup, Klaus; Huganir, Richard; Stamou, Dimitrios; Kjærulff, Ole; Gether, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Secretory vesicles in endocrine cells store hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin before their release into the bloodstream. The molecular mechanisms governing budding of immature secretory vesicles from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent maturation remain unclear. Here, we identify the lipid binding BAR (Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs) domain protein PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase 1) as a key component early in the biogenesis of secretory vesicles in GH-producing cells. Both PICK1-deficient Drosophila and mice displayed somatic growth retardation. Growth retardation was rescued in flies by reintroducing PICK1 in neurosecretory cells producing somatotropic peptides. PICK1-deficient mice were characterized by decreased body weight and length, increased fat accumulation, impaired GH secretion, and decreased storage of GH in the pituitary. Decreased GH storage was supported by electron microscopy showing prominent reduction in secretory vesicle number. Evidence was also obtained for impaired insulin secretion associated with decreased glucose tolerance. PICK1 localized in cells to immature secretory vesicles, and the PICK1 BAR domain was shown by live imaging to associate with vesicles budding from the TGN and to possess membrane-sculpting properties in vitro. In mouse pituitary, PICK1 co-localized with the BAR domain protein ICA69, and PICK1 deficiency abolished ICA69 protein expression. In the Drosophila brain, PICK1 and ICA69 co-immunoprecipitated and showed mutually dependent expression. Finally, both in a Drosophila model of type 2 diabetes and in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice, we observed up-regulation of PICK1 mRNA expression. Our findings suggest that PICK1, together with ICA69, is critical during budding of immature secretory vesicles from the TGN and thus for vesicular storage of GH and possibly other hormones. The data link two BAR domain proteins to membrane remodeling processes in the secretory pathway of peptidergic endocrine cells and support an important role of PICK1/ICA69 in maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. PMID:23630454

  17. Hypoparathyroidism-retardation-Dysmorphism (HRD) syndrome--a review.

    PubMed

    Hershkovitz, Eli; Parvari, Ruti; Diaz, George A; Gorodischer, Rafael

    2004-12-01

    Hypoparathyroidism, retardation, and dysmorphism (HRD) is a newly recognized genetic syndrome, described in patients of Arab origin. The syndrome consists of permanent congenital hypoparathyroidism, severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, and profound global developmental delay. The patients are susceptible to severe infections including life-threatening pneumococcal infections especially during infancy. The main dysmorphic features are microcephaly, deep-set eyes or microphthalmia, ear abnormalities, depressed nasal bridge, thin upper lip, hooked small nose, micrognathia, and small hands and feet. A single 12-bp deletion (del52-55) in the second coding exon of the tubulin cofactor E (TCFE) gene, located on the long arm of chromosome 1, is the cause of HRD among Arab patients. Early recognition and therapy of hypocalcemia is important as is daily antibiotic prophylaxis against pneumococcal infections. PMID:15645691

  18. Fragile X-Linked Mental Retardation and Macro-orchidism

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Byron C.; Glover, Thomas W.; Kaiser-McCaw, Barbara; Hecht, Frederick

    1982-01-01

    A fragile site near the end of the long arm (q) of the X chromosome appears to be directly related to the gene responsible for the mental retardation found among males and some females who possess this variant X chromosome. Macro-orchidism is present in most males studied. Other mild phenotypic similarities may exist. The expression of the fragile X (fra[X]) chromosome is dependent on the concentration of folic acid and thymidine in the culture medium, which partly explains why fra(X) was not noted earlier and connected promptly with X-linked mental retardation. Whereas prenatal diagnosis is now possible, genetic counseling is complicated by recent reports of “intellectually normal” fra(X) males. Further studies are needed to form solid conclusions about intellectual deficits, learning behavior or personality characteristics of fra(X) persons. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:7179944

  19. Power-spectral-density relationship for retarded differential equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    The power spectral density (PSD) relationship between input and output of a set of linear differential-difference equations of the retarded type with real constant coefficients and delays is discussed. The form of the PSD relationship is identical with that applicable to unretarded equations. Since the PSD relationship is useful if and only if the system described by the equations is stable, the stability must be determined before applying the PSD relationship. Since it is sometimes difficult to determine the stability of retarded equations, such equations are often approximated by simpler forms. It is pointed out that some common approximations can lead to erroneous conclusions regarding the stability of a system and, therefore, to the possibility of obtaining PSD results which are not valid.

  20. Fabrication of cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chengyu

    2013-07-25

    A simple and facile method for fabricating the cotton fabric with superhydrophobicity and flame retardancy is described in the present work. The cotton fabric with the maximal WCA of 160° has been prepared by the covalent deposition of amino-silica nanospheres and the further graft with (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The geometric microstructure of silica spheres was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, diverse performances of superhydrophobic cotton textiles have been evaluated as well. The results exhibited the outstanding superhydrophobicity, excellent waterproofing durability and flame retardancy of the cotton fabric after treatment, offering a good opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications. PMID:23768579

  1. Comparison of Metrics from Retarded Integrals and Transverse Traceless Subgauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, R. A.; Modanese, G.

    2013-07-01

    The time-varying gravitational field produced by a Weber bar is used to explore physical and mathematical features of the linearized Einstein equation. We present a self-contained formal framework for the treatment of the linear field, that is applicable to several sources for which the standard quadrupolar formulas are not adequate. The expressions for retarded integrals reveal a singularity associated with boundary conditions. Results from the transverse traceless subgauge are compared with the radiation calculated from retarded integrals. Lienard-Wiechert potentials are used in a treatment of the Weber bar as a collection of point particles and further possible applications are outlined. The Riemann tensor clarifies the transition from near-field geodesic forces to tidal forces in the far field.

  2. Fetishistic Transvestism in a Patient with Mental Retardation and Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Velayudhan, Rajmohan; Khaleel, Asfia; Sankar, Nideesh; Kumar, Manoj; Kazhungil, Firoz; Raghuram, Thazhe Mangool

    2014-01-01

    Fetishistic transvestism is a disorder of sexual preference associated with fantasies and sexual urges to dress in opposite gender clothing as a means of arousal and as an adjunct to masturbation and coitus. The disorder has been reported in people with learning disabilities. The disorder has been reported in a young male with dull normal intelligence. Transvestism though has been described in schizophrenia and psychosis and fetishism has been described in the course of simple schizophrenia, there are no reports of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis. A case of fetishistic transvestism in a patient with mental retardation and psychosis with treatment and relevant review of literature is reported. PMID:24860226

  3. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability)

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Osnat; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-01-01

    Flame-retardants (FR) are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes. PMID:19440395

  4. Efficient composite broadband polarization retarders and polarization filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimova, E.; Ivanov, S. S.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    A new type of broadband polarization half-wave retarder and narrowband polarization filters are described and experimentally tested. Both, the retarders and the filters are designed as composite stacks of standard optical half-wave plates, each of them twisted at specific angles. The theoretical background of the proposed optical devices was obtained by analogy with the method of composite pulses, known from the nuclear and quantum physics. We show that combining two composite filters built from different numbers and types of waveplates, the transmission spectrum is reduced from about 700 nm to about 10 nm width.We experimentally demonstrate that this method can be applied to different types of waveplates (broadband, zero-order, multiple order, etc.).

  5. Histidine decarboxylase activity in fetal intrauterine growth-retarded rats.

    PubMed

    Kwong, M S; Moore, T C; Lemmi, C A; Oh, W; Thibeault, D W

    1976-08-01

    Fetal intrauterine growth retardation was induced in nine rats at 17 days' gestation by ligating the blood supply to one of the uterine horn. The 27 festuses from the uterine vessel ligated side were the intrauterine growth retarded fetuses (IUGR) and the 37 fetuses from the nonligated side were controls. The mean weight of the IUGR fetuses was 3.4 +/- 0.3 g which was significantly smaller (P less than 0.005) than the mean weight of the control fetuses, 4.0 +/- 0.3 g. Whole body histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity was assayed by a radioisotope method. The HDC activity per g tissue was not correlated to body weight in the control fetuses. This is in contrast to the IUGR festuses in which the HDC per g tissue was significantly and inversely related to body weight (r - 0.48, P less than 0.001). PMID:940700

  6. A nerve growth factor peptide retards seizure development and inhibits neuronal sprouting in a rat model of epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, K; Van der Zee, C E; Ross, G M; Chapman, C A; Stanisz, J; Riopelle, R J; Racine, R J; Fahnestock, M

    1995-01-01

    Kindling, an animal model of epilepsy wherein seizures are induced by subcortical electrical stimulation, results in the upregulation of neurotrophin mRNA and protein in the adult rat forebrain and causes mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus. Intraventricular infusion of a synthetic peptide mimic of a nerve growth factor domain that interferes with the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors resulted in significant retardation of kindling and inhibition of mossy fiber sprouting. These findings suggest a critical role for neurotrophins in both kindling and kindling-induced synaptic reorganization. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7568161

  7. Quality-of-Life Assessment for Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Lynda

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been an explosion of interest in issues related to quality of life (QoL). While QoL for persons with mental retardation has long been an interest, and there is a foundation for the assessment of QoL for this population, there is still much to be done. This article describes QoL assessment for persons with mental…

  8. Effects of retardation in relativistic equations with confining interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maung, Khin Maung; Kahana, David E.; Norbury, John W.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for solving two body relativistic bound state equations in momentum space with a confining interaction. A total of six different three dimensional reductions of the Bethe-Salpeter equations are studied with particular emphasis placed on the competing roles of relativistic kinematics and retardation. The results indicate that these two effects counteract each other and this sheds some light on why nonrelativistic models of meson spectroscopy have been quite successful.

  9. Spanish-Speaking Pupils Classified as Educable Mentally Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, John T.; Plakos, John

    A total of 47 pupils enrolled in grades 3-8 was selected for this study. Of these pupils, 17 were from a rural area and 30 were from an urban area. The pupils selected had to (1) be of Mexican descent, (2) be currently enrolled in educable mentally retarded (EMR) classes, and (3) have evidenced a problem in using the English language due to their…

  10. State of Ohio Curriculum Guide for Moderately Mentally Retarded Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mays, Maxine.

    Provided is a curriculum guide based on the lifelong learning needs of moderately retarded persons. Behavioral objectives are identified at each of six levels of functioning which approximate the mental age levels of 1.5, 3.0, 5.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 8.0 + (adult) years. Sections cover the following persisting life problem areas: (1) developing the…

  11. ErpC, a member of the complement regulator-acquiring family of surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi, possesses an architecture previously unseen in this protein family

    PubMed Central

    Caesar, Joseph J. E.; Johnson, Steven; Kraiczy, Peter; Lea, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is a spirochete responsible for Lyme disease, the most commonly occurring vector-borne disease in Europe and North America. The bacterium utilizes a set of proteins, termed complement regulator-acquiring surface proteins (CRASPs), to aid evasion of the human complement system by recruiting and presenting complement regulator factor H on its surface in a manner that mimics host cells. Presented here is the atomic resolution structure of a member of this protein family, ErpC. The structure provides new insights into the mechanism of recruitment of factor H and other factor H-related proteins by acting as a molecular mimic of host glycosaminoglycans. It also describes the architecture of other CRASP proteins belonging to the OspE/F-related paralogous protein family and suggests that they have evolved to bind specific complement proteins, aiding survival of the bacterium in different hosts. PMID:23722838

  12. Evolutionary Characteristics of Missing Proteins: Insights into the Evolution of Human Chromosomes Related to Missing-Protein-Encoding Genes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Aishi; Li, Guang; Yang, Dong; Wu, Songfeng; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Xu, Ping; He, Fuchu

    2015-12-01

    Although the "missing protein" is a temporary concept in C-HPP, the biological information for their "missing" could be an important clue in evolutionary studies. Here we classified missing-protein-encoding genes into two groups, the genes encoding PE2 proteins (with transcript evidence) and the genes encoding PE3/4 proteins (with no transcript evidence). These missing-protein-encoding genes distribute unevenly among different chromosomes, chromosomal regions, or gene clusters. In the view of evolutionary features, PE3/4 genes tend to be young, spreading at the nonhomology chromosomal regions and evolving at higher rates. Interestingly, there is a higher proportion of singletons in PE3/4 genes than the proportion of singletons in all genes (background) and OTCSGs (organ, tissue, cell type-specific genes). More importantly, most of the paralogous PE3/4 genes belong to the newly duplicated members of the paralogous gene groups, which mainly contribute to special biological functions, such as "smell perception". These functions are heavily restricted into specific type of cells, tissues, or specific developmental stages, acting as the new functional requirements that facilitated the emergence of the missing-protein-encoding genes during evolution. In addition, the criteria for the extremely special physical-chemical proteins were first set up based on the properties of PE2 proteins, and the evolutionary characteristics of those proteins were explored. Overall, the evolutionary analyses of missing-protein-encoding genes are expected to be highly instructive for proteomics and functional studies in the future. PMID:26561870

  13. AtGEN1 and AtSEND1, Two Paralogs in Arabidopsis, Possess Holliday Junction Resolvase Activity1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Bauknecht, Markus; Kobbe, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are physical links between homologous DNA molecules that arise as central intermediary structures during homologous recombination and repair in meiotic and somatic cells. It is necessary for these structures to be resolved to ensure correct chromosome segregation and other functions. In eukaryotes, including plants, homologs of a gene called XPG-like endonuclease1 (GEN1) have been identified that process HJs in a manner analogous to the HJ resolvases of phages, archaea, and bacteria. Here, we report that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a eukaryotic organism, has two functional GEN1 homologs instead of one. Like all known eukaryotic resolvases, AtGEN1 and Arabidopsis single-strand DNA endonuclease1 both belong to class IV of the Rad2/XPG family of nucleases. Their resolvase activity shares the characteristics of the Escherichia coli radiation and UV sensitive C paradigm for resolvases, which involves resolving HJs by symmetrically oriented incisions in two opposing strands. This leads to ligatable products without the need for further processing. The observation that the sequence context influences the cleavage by the enzymes can be interpreted as a hint for the existence of sequence specificity. The two Arabidopsis paralogs differ in their preferred sequences. The precise cleavage positions observed for the resolution of mobile nicked HJs suggest that these cleavage positions are determined by both the substrate structure and the sequence context at the junction point. PMID:25037209

  14. The Pax3 and Pax7 paralogs cooperate in neural and neural crest patterning using distinct molecular mechanisms, in Xenopus laevis embryos

    PubMed Central

    Maczkowiak, Frédérique; Matéos, Stéphanie; Wang, Estee; Roche, Daniel; Harland, Richard; Monsoro-Burq, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Pax3 and Pax7 paralogous genes have functionally diverged in vertebrate evolution, creating opportunity for a new distribution of roles between the two genes and the evolution of novel functions. Here we focus on the regulation and function of Pax7 in the brain and neural crest of amphibian embryos, which display a different pax7 expression pattern, compared to the other vertebrates already described. Pax7 expression is restricted to the midbrain, hindbrain and anterior spinal cord, and Pax7 activity is important for maintaining the fates of these regions, by restricting otx2 expression anteriorly. In contrast, pax3 displays broader expression along the entire neuraxis and Pax3 function is important for posterior brain patterning without acting on otx2 expression. Moreover, while both genes are essential for neural crest patterning, we show that they do so using two distinct mechanisms: Pax3 acts within the ectoderm which will be induced into neural crest, while Pax7 is essential for the inducing activity of the paraxial mesoderm towards the prospective neural crest. PMID:20116373

  15. Interlaboratory study of novel halogenated flame retardants: INTERFLAB.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Goosey, Emma; Riddell, Nicole; Diamond, Miriam L

    2015-09-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) have come under considerable scientific and public scrutiny over the past decade. A lack of reference materials and standardized analytical methods has resulted in questions regarding the variation of measurements from different studies. We evaluated this variation by performing an international interlaboratory study assessing analytical capabilities as well as the accuracy and precision of results for a range of flame retardants (International Flame Retardant Laboratory Study, INTERFLAB). Thirteen international research laboratories participated in a blind interlaboratory comparison of 24 FRs. Results demonstrate good precision within replicates of test mixtures from individual laboratories, but problematic accuracy for several FRs and laboratories. Large ranges in the values reported for decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), tris(1,3-dichloropropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) (>50 % relative standard deviations among measured values) and large deviations from the reference values (>25 % bias in accuracy) suggest potential problems for comparability of results. DBDPE, HBCD, and TBBPA had significantly poorer accuracy and precision, suggesting that current analytical methods are not providing reliable results for these FRs. PMID:26134984

  16. Chemical regulation on fire: rapid policy advances on flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Cordner, Alissa; Mulcahy, Margaret; Brown, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Chemicals that are widely used in consumer products offer challenges to product manufacturers, risk managers, environmental regulators, environmental scientists, and the interested public. However, the factors that cause specific chemicals to rise to the level of regulatory, scientific, and social movement concern and scrutiny are not well documented, and scientists are frequently unclear about exactly how their research impacts policy. Through a case study of advocacy around flame retardant chemicals, this paper traces the pathways through which scientific evidence and concern is marshaled by both advocacy groups and media sources to affect policy change. We focus our analysis around a broad coalition of environmental and public health advocacy organizations and an investigative journalism series published in 2012 in the Chicago Tribune. We demonstrate that the Tribune series both brought the issue to a wider public audience and precipitated government action, including state policy revisions and federal Senate hearings. We also show how a broad and successful flame retardant coalition developed, leveraged a media event, and influenced policy at multiple institutional levels. The analysis draws on over 110 in-depth interviews, literature and Web site reviews, and observations at a flame retardant manufacturing company, government offices, and scientific and advocacy conferences. PMID:23713659

  17. Kidney transplants from young children and the mentally retarded.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, David

    2004-01-01

    Kidney donation by young children and the mentally retarded has been supported by court decisions, arguments based on obligations inherent in family relationships, an array of contextual factors, and the principle of beneficence. These justifications for taking organs from people who cannot protect themselves are problematic and must be weighed against our obligation to protect the vulnerable. A compromise solution is presented that strongly protects young children and the mentally retarded but does not abdicate all responsibility to relieve suffering. Guidelines are proposed that prohibit the retrieval of kidneys from young children and the mentally retarded but permit one exception. They would allow retrieval of a kidney when the consequence to a first order relative with whom the donor has a meaningful and valuable relationship is otherwise imminent death. This would be done in accordance with additional guidelines that minimize harm to the donor. Since most patients with end stage renal disease can be maintained on dialysis the need for a kidney to prevent death should be an uncommon occurrence. This compromise is proposed as a solution to a dilemma that exists because two ethical principles are in conflict and one cannot be honored without violating the other. PMID:15637944

  18. X chromosome inactivation and X-linked mental retardation

    SciTech Connect

    Willard, H.F.

    1996-07-12

    The expression of X-linked genes in females heterozygous for X-linked defects can be modulated by epigenetic control mechanisms that constitute the X chromosome inactivation pathway. At least four different effects have been found to influence, in females, the phenotypic expression of genes responsible for X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). First, non-random X inactivation, due either to stochastic or genetic factors, can result in tissues in which one cell type (for example, that in which the X chromosome carrying a mutant XLMR gene is active) dominates, instead of the normal mosaic cell population expected as a result of random X inactivation. Second, skewed inactivation of the normal X in individuals carrying a deletion of part of the X chromosome has been documented in a number of mentally retarded females. Third, functional disomy of X-linked genes that are expressed inappropriately due to the absence of X inactivation has been found in mentally retarded females with structurally abnormal X chromosomes that do not contain the X inactivation center. And fourth, dose-dependent overexpression of X-linked genes that normally {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} X inactivation may account for the mental and developmental delay associated with increasing numbers of otherwise inactive X chromosomes in individuals with X chromosome aneuploidy. 53 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Retarded cosmological gravity and Mach's principle in flat FRW universes

    E-print Network

    Balázs Vet?

    2013-02-19

    The retarded gravitation produced by the matter and energy content of the observable universe is formulated and shown how this cosmological gravity gives rise to inertial forces in accelerated frames of reference. The model is developed for spatially flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universes. The retarded potential of cosmological gravity is determined first in fundamental frames of reference, in Einstein-de Sitter (ES)and in LambdaCDM models. Despite the expansion, the observable universe gives rise to a static, retarded gravitational potential equal to c2 in ES universe, while gravity is weakening during the expansion in LambdaCDM model. In the locally Minkowski spacetime occurring in a small domain of the universe, a covariant Lagrangian of a test body moving in the cosmological gravitational field is derived. Inertial forces are determined from a test body's Euler-Lagrange equation, in Newtonian approximation. The model calculation indicates, that the inertial forces meet exactly the ones observed in ES universe and Mach's principle holds there. In the present-day standard, LambdaCDM model inertial forces are weaker by 10 % than expected.

  20. RECENT ADVANCES IN MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE OF CAUSES OF MENTAL RETARDATION.

    PubMed

    RICHARDS, B W

    1963-12-14

    A steady reduction of mortality owing to advances in medicine has altered the patterns of disease, increasing the proportionate importance of certain types of disease in the very young and the very old.Neonatal and infant mortality rates in mongolism remain very high. The mortality has nevertheless fallen considerably and this may well be so for other diseases causing mental retardation.Despite dramatic advances in the fields of biochemistry and cytogenetics, revealing many new causes of mental retardation, a large proportion of mentally retarded patients are still undiagnosable in respect of etiology.Other principles of causation, not so often discussed in the medical literature, deserve consideration, e.g. isoimmunization due to other antigens than those of the blood groups and diseases due to deficiency of some trace element. Peculiarities of distribution, geographical, seasonal, occupational or social, merit examination, and recent research along these lines has led to significant results. Whole classes of causes may not have occurred to us, and it may prove fruitful in this respect to turn our minds toward less fashionable paths of thought. PMID:14084704

  1. How to use retarded Green's functions in de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Cheong, Lee Yen

    2008-10-15

    We demonstrate in examples that the covariant retarded Green's functions in electromagnetism and linearized gravity work as expected in de Sitter spacetime. We first clarify how retarded Green's functions should be used in spacetimes with spacelike past infinity such as de Sitter spacetime. In particular, we remind the reader of a general formula which gives the field for given initial data on a Cauchy surface and a given source (a charge or stress-energy tensor distribution) in its future. We then apply this formula to three examples: (i) electromagnetism in the future of a Cauchy surface in Minkowski spacetime, (ii) electromagnetism in de Sitter spacetime, and (iii) linearized gravity in de Sitter spacetime. In each example the field is reproduced correctly as predicted by the general argument. In the third example we construct a linearized gravitational field from two equal point masses located at the 'North and South Poles' which is nonsingular on the cosmological horizon and satisfies a covariant gauge condition and show that this field is reproduced by the retarded Green's function with corresponding gauge parameters.

  2. Toxicity of new generation flame retardants to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Hartmann, Julia; Soeter, A Marieke; Helmus, Rick; Kools, Stefan A E; de Voogt, Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Parsons, John R; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2013-10-01

    There is a tendency to substitute frequently used, but relatively hazardous brominated flame retardants (BFRs) with halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Consequently, information on the persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity (PBT) of these HFFRs is urgently needed, but large data gaps and inconsistencies exist. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of a wide range of HFFRs to the water flea Daphnia magna was investigated. Our results revealed that four HFFRs were showing no effect at their Sw (saturated water concentration) and three had a low toxicity (EC50>10 mg L(-1)), suggesting that these compounds are not hazardous. Antimony trioxide had a moderate toxicity (EC50=3.01 mg L(-1), 95% CL: 2.76-3.25) and triphenyl phosphate and the brominated reference compound tetra bromobisphenol A were highly toxic to D. magna (EC50=0.55 mg L(-1), 95% CL: 0.53-0.55 and EC50=0.60 mg L(-1), 95% CL: 0.24-0.97 respectively). Aluminum trihydroxide and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) caused limited mortality at Sw (26 and 25% respectively) and have a low solubility (<10 mg L(-1)). Hence, increased toxicity of these compounds may be observed when for instance decreasing pH could increase solubility. By testing all compounds under identical conditions we provided missing insights in the environmental hazards of new generation flame retardants and propose as best candidates for BFR replacements: APP, ALPI, DOPO, MHO, MPP, ZHS and ZS. PMID:23886749

  3. Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Shi; Zhang, Yuanwei; Yang, Weimei; Zheng, Wei; Wang, Liu; Wang, Zheng; Bukhari, Ihtisham; Cooke, Howard J.; Iqbal, Furhan; Shi, Qinghua

    2014-01-01

    Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. PMID:25395169

  4. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201.26 Protection of Environment... receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders—(1) Microphone. The microphone must be... sound level (Ladj ave max) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact—(1) Microphone. The microphone must...

  5. 40 CFR 201.26 - Procedures for the measurement on receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. 201.26 Section 201.26 Protection of Environment... receiving property of retarder and car coupling noise. (a) Retarders—(1) Microphone. The microphone must be... sound level (Ladj ave max) for retarders. (b) Car coupling impact—(1) Microphone. The microphone must...

  6. Photochemical and microbial transformation of emerging flame retardants: cause for concern?

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Hale, Robert C; Letcher, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, flame retardants have attracted mounting environmental concerns. In recent years, an increasing number of studies have been conducted worldwide to investigate flame-retardant sources, environmental distribution, wildlife and human exposure, and toxicity. Data generated have demonstrated that some flame-retardant substances such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to exposed organisms. However, comparatively much less attention has been paid to the mechanisms and products of environmental transformation of flame retardants. This lack of information undermines our understanding of the environmental behavior and fate of flame retardants, as well as the associated risks to environmental and human health. Photochemical and microbial transformation of flame retardants in various matrices and environmental compartments can elevate the toxicological significance of flame retardant exposure, via the formation of, for example, lesser halogenated but more bioaccumulative degradation products and toxic radicals. Such pathways raise concerns related to the environmental safety of some alternative flame retardants that are presumably safe and used to replace PBDEs. To fully assess the environmental risks, more research is needed to investigate the environmental transformation potential of emerging flame retardants including polymeric flame retardants. Enhanced analytical efforts are needed to better characterize transformation products and transient radicals. Additional mesocosm and field studies are needed to elucidate transformation kinetics and consequences under environmentally relevant conditions. PMID:25809099

  7. Growth retardation of Escherichia coli by artificial increase of intracellular ATP.

    PubMed

    Na, Yoon-Ah; Lee, Joo-Young; Bang, Weon-Jeong; Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Su-In; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Jung, Kwang-Hwan; Kim, Jihyun F; Kim, Pil

    2015-06-01

    Overexpression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK) was reported to cause the harboring of higher intracellular ATP concentration in Escherichia coli, accompanied with a slower growth rate. For systematic determination of the relationship between the artificial increase of ATP and growth retardation, PCKWT enzyme was directly evolved in vitro and further overexpressed. The evolved PCK67 showed a 60% greater catalytic efficiency than that of PCKWT. Consequently, the PCK67-overexpressing E. coli showed the highest ATP concentration at the log phase of 1.45 ?mol/gcell, with the slowest growth rate of 0.66 h(-1), while the PCKWT-overexpressing cells displayed 1.00 ?mol/gcell ATP concentration with the growth rate of 0.84 h(-1) and the control had 0.28 ?mol/gcell with 1.03 h(-1). To find a plausible reason, PCK-overexpressing cells in a steady state during chemostat growth were applied to monitor intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Higher amount of intracellular ROS were observed as the ATP levels increased. To confirm the hypothesis of slower growth rate without perturbation of the carbon flux by PCK-overexpression, phototrophic Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) was expressed. The GR-expressing strain under illumination harbored 81% more ATP concentration along with 82% higher ROS, with a 54% slower maximum growth rate than the control, while both the GR-expressing strain under dark and dicarboxylate transporter (a control membrane protein)-expressing strain showed a lower ATP and increased ROS, and slower growth rate. Regardless of carbon flux changes, the artificial ATP increase was related to the ROS increase and it was reciprocally correlated to the maximum growth rate. To verify that the accumulated intracellular ROS were responsible for the growth retardation, glutathione was added to the medium to reduce the ROS. As a result, the growth retardation was restored by the addition of 0.1 mM glutathione. Anaerobic culture even enabled the artificial ATP-increased E. coli to grow faster than control. Collectively, it was concluded that artificial ATP increases inhibit the growth of E. coli due to the overproduction of ROS. PMID:25838237

  8. Classification and toxicity mechanisms of novel flame retardants (NFRs) based on whole genome expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Guan, Miao; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2016-02-01

    Recently some novel alternative flame retardants (NFRs), which have been widely applied to meet demands for mandated flame retardation of products, have been detected in various matrices of the environment. However, knowledge on toxic effects and associated molecular mechanisms of these chemicals was limited. Here, toxic mechanisms of action of six NFRs, bis (2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEHP), chlorendic acid (Het acid), 2,2-bis (bromomethyl)-1,3-propanediol (BMP), tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), tributyl phosphate (TBP) were investigated by use of a library containing ?1820 modified green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing promoter reporter vectors constructed from Escherichia coli K12(E.coli). BEHP, Het acid, BMP, TBEP, TEP, TBP inhibited growth of E. coli with 4 h 10%-inhibition concentrations of 53.0-3102.3 ?M. A total of 119, 44, 26, 131, 62, 103 genes out of 336 genes selected during preliminary screening were significantly altered with fold-changes greater than 1.5 by BEHP, Het acid, BMP, TBEP, TEP and TBP, respectively. GO analyses of responsive genes suggested that RNA and primary metabolism process were involved in molecular mechanisms of toxicity. Chemical clustering based on expression of 62 multi-responsive genes showed that BEHP, TBP and TBEP were grouped together, which is consistent with similarity of their chemical structures, especially for BEHP and TBP. Clustering by molecular descriptors and molecular activity by use of the multivariate classification system ToxCast was consistent with that by profiles of multi-responsive genes. The results of this study demonstrated the utility of the E. coli, whole-cell assay for determining mechanisms of toxic action of chemicals. PMID:26588597

  9. Severe Protein-Calorie Malnutrition and Cognitive Development in Infancy and Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockman, Lois M.; Ricciuti, Henry N.

    1971-01-01

    Following nutritional recovery from severe protein-calorie deficiency, 20 young children evidenced a retarded level of categorization behavior compared to a control group of 19 adequately nourished children from similar socioeconomic background. (NH)

  10. Structural basis of the constitutive activity of protein kinase CK2.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Birgitte B; Guerra, Barbara; Niefind, Karsten; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase CK2 (formerly referred to as casein kinase II) is an evolutionary conserved, ubiquitous protein kinase. In mammals, there are two paralog catalytic subunits, that is, CK2? (A1) and CK2?' (A2), and one CK2? dimer, which together form the heterotetrameric holoenzyme. The presence of full functioning CK2? and CK2? subunits are absolutely mandatory for embryonic development. Total knockouts are lethal. The CK2?' paralog seems to be an exception inasmuch as a total knockout only leads to sterility in male mice. The catalytic subunits are distantly related to the CMGC subfamily of protein kinases, such as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). There are some peculiarities associated with protein kinase CK2, which are not found with most of the other protein kinases: the enzyme is constitutively active, it can use ATP and GTP as phosphoryl donors, and it is found elevated in most tumors investigated and rapidly proliferating tissues. In this review, we explain (i) its constitutive activity at the intramolecular level, and (ii) come forward with a model how this protein kinase could be regulated in cells by a mechanism involving intermolecular interactions. PMID:21036248

  11. New Insights into Functional Roles of the Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Diani, Erica; Lievens, Patricia Marie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Polypyrimidine Tract Binding Protein (PTB) is an intensely studied RNA binding protein involved in several post-transcriptional regulatory events of gene expression. Initially described as a pre-mRNA splicing regulator, PTB is now widely accepted as a multifunctional protein shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm. Accordingly, PTB can interact with selected RNA targets, structural elements and proteins. There is increasing evidence that PTB and its paralog PTBP2 play a major role as repressors of alternatively spliced exons, whose transcription is tissue-regulated. In addition to alternative splicing, PTB is involved in almost all steps of mRNA metabolism, including polyadenylation, mRNA stability and initiation of protein translation. Furthermore, it is well established that PTB recruitment in internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activates the translation of picornaviral and cellular proteins. Detailed studies of the structural properties of PTB have contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of RNA binding by RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) domains. In the present review, we will describe the structural properties of PTB, its paralogs and co-factors, the role in post-transcriptional regulation and actions in cell differentiation and pathogenesis. Defining the multifunctional roles of PTB will contribute to the understanding of key regulatory events in gene expression. PMID:24264039

  12. Allelic Variation in Paralogs of GDP-l-Galactose Phosphorylase Is a Major Determinant of Vitamin C Concentrations in Apple Fruit1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Chagné, David; Laing, William A.; Keulemans, Johan; Davey, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    To identify the genetic factors underlying the regulation of fruit vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid [AsA]) concentrations, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies were carried out in an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars Telamon and Braeburn over three years. QTL were identified for AsA, glutathione, total antioxidant activity in both flesh and skin tissues, and various quality traits, including flesh browning. Four regions on chromosomes 10, 11, 16, and 17 contained stable fruit AsA-QTL clusters. Mapping of AsA metabolic genes identified colocations between orthologs of GDP-l-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and nucleobase-ascorbate transporter within these QTL clusters. Of particular interest are the three paralogs of MdGGP, which all colocated within AsA-QTL clusters. Allelic variants of MdGGP1 and MdGGP3 derived from the cultivar Braeburn parent were also consistently associated with higher fruit total AsA concentrations both within the mapping population (up to 10-fold) and across a range of commercial apple germplasm (up to 6-fold). Striking differences in the expression of the cv Braeburn MdGGP1 allele between fruit from high- and low-AsA genotypes clearly indicate a key role for MdGGP1 in the regulation of fruit AsA concentrations, and this MdGGP allele-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism marker represents an excellent candidate for directed breeding for enhanced fruit AsA concentrations. Interestingly, colocations were also found between MdDHAR3-3 and a stable QTL for browning in the cv Telamon parent, highlighting links between the redox status of the AsA pool and susceptibility to flesh browning. PMID:23001142

  13. Allelic variation in paralogs of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase is a major determinant of vitamin C concentrations in apple fruit.

    PubMed

    Mellidou, Ifigeneia; Chagné, David; Laing, William A; Keulemans, Johan; Davey, Mark W

    2012-11-01

    To identify the genetic factors underlying the regulation of fruit vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid [AsA]) concentrations, quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies were carried out in an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple (Malus × domestica) cultivars Telamon and Braeburn over three years. QTL were identified for AsA, glutathione, total antioxidant activity in both flesh and skin tissues, and various quality traits, including flesh browning. Four regions on chromosomes 10, 11, 16, and 17 contained stable fruit AsA-QTL clusters. Mapping of AsA metabolic genes identified colocations between orthologs of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), and nucleobase-ascorbate transporter within these QTL clusters. Of particular interest are the three paralogs of MdGGP, which all colocated within AsA-QTL clusters. Allelic variants of MdGGP1 and MdGGP3 derived from the cultivar Braeburn parent were also consistently associated with higher fruit total AsA concentrations both within the mapping population (up to 10-fold) and across a range of commercial apple germplasm (up to 6-fold). Striking differences in the expression of the cv Braeburn MdGGP1 allele between fruit from high- and low-AsA genotypes clearly indicate a key role for MdGGP1 in the regulation of fruit AsA concentrations, and this MdGGP allele-specific single-nucleotide polymorphism marker represents an excellent candidate for directed breeding for enhanced fruit AsA concentrations. Interestingly, colocations were also found between MdDHAR3-3 and a stable QTL for browning in the cv Telamon parent, highlighting links between the redox status of the AsA pool and susceptibility to flesh browning. PMID:23001142

  14. High temperature set retarded well cement compositions and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, E.F.; Brothers, L.E.; Bour, D.L.

    1991-03-05

    This patent describes a set retarded cement composition which is substantially non-thinning at high temperatures. It comprises: hydraulic cement; sufficient water to form a pumpable slurry; a set retarder comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of a copolymer of 2-acrylamido, 2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylic acid having an average molecular weight below about 5000 and comprising from about 40 to about 60 mole percent AMPS, the copolymer being present in an amount in the range of from about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of cement, lignosulfonates present in an amount in the range of from about 0.1 to about 5% by weight of cement, borates present in an amount in the range of from about 0.2 to about 5% by weight of cement and organic acids present in an amount of from about 0.2 to about 5% by weight of cement; and a galactomannan gum which has been treated with a hydrophobing agent selected from the group consisting of potassium pyroantimonate present on the gum in an amount of from about 0.001 to about 0.3 percent by weight of the gum and compounds capable of liberating borate ions when added to water present on the gum in an amount of from about 0.5 to about 1.0 percent by weight of the gum, whereby the hydration rate of the gum is retarded at temperatures below about 120 degrees F. and at pH levels above about 10, but the hydration rate increases at temperatures above about 120 degrees F., the treated gum being present in the composition in an amount of at least about 0.5% by weight of cement.

  15. Azimuthal phase retardation microscope for visualizing actin filaments of biological cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, In Hee; Shin, Sang-Mo

    2011-09-01

    We developed a new theory-based azimuthal phase retardation microscope to visualize distributions of actin filaments in biological cells without having them with exogenous dyes, fluorescence labels, or stains. The azimuthal phase retardation microscope visualizes distributions of actin filaments by measuring the intensity variations of each pixel of a charge coupled device camera while rotating a single linear polarizer. Azimuthal phase retardation ? between two fixed principal axes was obtained by calculating the rotation angles of the polarizer at the intensity minima from the acquired intensity data. We have acquired azimuthal phase retardation distributions of human breast cancer cell, MDA MB 231 by our microscope and compared the azimuthal phase retardation distributions with the fluorescence image of actin filaments by the commercial fluorescence microscope. Also, we have observed movement of human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells by measuring azimuthal phase retardation distributions.

  16. Persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Waaijers, Susanne L; Kong, Deguo; Hendriks, Hester S; de Wit, Cynthia A; Cousins, Ian T; Westerink, Remco H S; Leonards, Pim E G; Kraak, Michiel H S; Admiraal, Wim; de Voogt, Pim; Parsons, John R

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are synthetic organic materials having a high carbon and hydrogen content, which make them readily combustible. Polymers have many indoor uses and their flammability makes them a fire hazard. Therefore, flame retardants (FRs) are incorporated into these materials as a safety measure. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), which accounted for about 21% of the total world market of FRs, have several unintended negative effects on the environment and human health. Hence, there is growing interest in finding appropriate alternative halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs). Many of these HFFRs are marketed already, although their environ- mental behavior and toxicological properties are often only known to a limited extent, and their potential impact on the environment cannot yet be properly assessed. Therefore, we undertook this review to make an inventory of the available data that exists (up to September 2011) on the physical-chemical properties, pro- duction volumes, persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity (PBT) of a selection of HFFRs that are potential replacements for BFRs in polymers. Large data gaps were identified for the physical-chemical and the PBT properties of the reviewed HFFRs. Because these HFFRs are currently on the market, there is an urgent need to fill these data gaps. Enhanced transparency of methodology and data are needed to reevaluate certain test results that appear contradictory, and, if this does not provide new insights, further research should be performed. TPP has been studied quite extensively and it is clearly persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic. So far, RDP and BDP have demonstrated low to high ecotoxicity and persistence. The compounds ATH and ZB exerted high toxicity to some species and ALPI appeared to be persistent and has low to moderate reported ecotoxicity. DOPO and MPP may be persistent, but this view is based merely on one or two studies, clearly indicating a lack of information. Many degradation studies have been performed on PER and show low persistence, with a few exceptions. Additionally, there is too l ittle information on the bioaccumulation potential of PER. APP mostly has low PBT properties; however, moderate ecotoxicity was reported in two studies. Mg(OH)?, ZHS, and ZS do not show such remarkably high bioaccumulation or toxicity, but large data gaps exist for these compounds also. Nevertheless, we consider the latter compounds to be the most promising among alternative HFFRs. To assess whether the presently reviewed HFFRs are truly suitable alternatives, each compound should be examined individually by comparing its PBT values with those of the relevant halogenated flame retardant. Until more data are available, it remains impossible to accurately evaluate the risk of each of these compounds, including the ones that are already extensively marketed. PMID:22990944

  17. Spectroscopic sensing of NH 3 emissions from flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantrowitz, Frank T.; Foreman, Dale U.; Gutman, William M.; Winkel, R. J.

    A Fourier transform spectrometer system housed in a four-wheel drive vehicle has been developed by the Army Research Laboratory, and recently was used to observe the smoke plume from a large brush fire in the Organ Mountains of south central New Mexico. The spectrometer was approximately 8 km from the fire during data acquisition. After processing, it was apparent that emission spectra from the plume contained ammonia emission lines. Ammonia is believed to have been released by the thermal decomposition of flame retardant chemicals that were being used to contain the fire.

  18. Stability of 2-body orbits in retarded gravitation theory (RGT)

    E-print Network

    C. K. Raju

    2013-12-01

    The recently formulated retarded gravitation theory (RGT) explains the non-Newtonian velocities of stars in spiral galaxies, *without any new hypothesis*, and may hence be tested even in the laboratory. However, doubts have been expressed that those higher rotation velocities in RGT may be due to instabilities. We resolve these doubts by solving the full functional differential equations of RGT for a model 2-body planetary system. The solution is stable and closely agrees with the Newtonian solution for this planetary case. Thus, the big difference between RGT and Newtonian gravity for a spiral galaxy is not due to any instability in RGT.

  19. [Lithium therapy in patients with mild mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Otter, M; van Amelsvoort, T A M J

    2015-01-01

    In the psychiatric treatment of patients with mild learning disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning, signs and symptoms of psychiatric disorders are sometimes misinterpreted as behaviour that reflects problems that are known to patients with mental retardation. We report on two case studies in which lithium therapy made a substantial contribution to (partial) recovery. One patient had bipolar disorder and the other had a major depressive disorder combined with suicidal behaviour. Each patient also had a mild learning disability or borderline intellectual functioning. PMID:26189422

  20. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR): prenatal diagnosis by imaging.

    PubMed

    Falo, Alberto Peréz

    2009-02-01

    The early detection of the IUGR is of great importance. The ultrasounds technique is the gold standard to estimate the foetal size. The combination of some biochemical markers and uterine doppler opens a promising way for an early identification of the IUGR. The estimated foetal weight or the abdominal circumference combined with a doppler of the umbilical artery seems to be the most sensitive and specific method to diagnose a pathological growth retardation due to a foetal placental disfunction. The umbilical doppler and also of the cerebral arteries and the venous doppler besides the biophysical procedures, have to be used to plan the optimal moment for the delivery. PMID:19404230

  1. The application of space program fire retardant technology to housing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Heising, K. W.

    1973-01-01

    A review of the NASA fire research and developed fire retardant materials is presented with the objective to analyze and evaluate the concepts and materials to determine the practical applicability to the housing industry. The report presents the NASA materials, their performance in a fire environment and areas where further evaluation is required. The review establishes where advancements in the state of the art have been achieved and points out reasons why these advancements can not be directly applied to the housing industry in the near future.

  2. Fast switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder

    E-print Network

    B. C. Lim; P. B. Phua; W. J. Lai; M. H. Hong

    2008-01-21

    A fast, switchable electro-optic radial polarization retarder (EO-RPR) fabricated using the electro-optic ceramic PMN-PT is presented. This EO-RPR is useful for fast, switchable generation of pure cylindrical vector beam. When used together with a pair of half-wave plates, the EO-RPR can change circularly polarized light into any cylindrical vector beam of interest such as radially or azimuthally polarized light. Radially and azimuthally polarized light with purities greater than 95% are generated experimentally. The advantages of using EO-RPR include fast response times, low driving voltage and transparency in a wide spectral range (500 -7000 nm).

  3. Law & psychiatry: mental retardation and the death penalty: after Atkins.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-10-01

    In Atkins v. Virginia the U.S. Supreme Court declared execution of persons with mental retardation to constitute cruel and unusual punishment, and thus to be unconstitutional under the Eighth Amendment. However, the Court left all considerations regarding how to implement the decision explicitly to the states. Since Atkins was decided in 2002, legislatures, courts, and mental health experts have struggled with its implementation, highlighting the complexities that can arise when the courts base legal rules on clinical findings. This column reviews the Atkins case and considers the challenges associated with a clinical determination that can have life-or-death consequences for capital defendants. PMID:19797365

  4. Dissolution retardation of solid silica during glass batch-melting

    SciTech Connect

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Marcial, Jose

    2011-07-15

    During glass-batch melting, solid silica (quartz) usually dissolves last. A retardation function was defined as a measure of the progressive inhibition of silica dissolution that occurs during batch melting. This function is based on the comparison of the measured rate of dissolution of silica particles with the hypothetical diffusion-controlled volume flux from regularly distributed particles with uniform concentration layers around them. The severe inhibition of silica dissolution has been attributed to the irregular spatial distribution of silica particles that is associated with the formation of nearly saturated melt at a portion of their surfaces. Irregular shapes and unequal sizes of particles also contribute to their extended lifetime.

  5. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    DeLeon, Iser G; Hagopian, Louis P; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G; Long, Ethan S; Boelter, Eric W

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and brief response blocking (until 5?s without an attempt to remove glasses had elapsed) increased glasses wearing for the others. Partial component analyses revealed that different components of the package were sufficient or necessary to sustain glasses wearing across participants. PMID:18468288

  6. Cumulant expansion of the retarded one-electron Green function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kas, J. J.; Rehr, J. J.; Reining, L.

    2014-08-01

    The cumulant expansion is a powerful approach for including correlation effects in electronic structure calculations beyond the GW approximation. However, the expansion is not generally valid, as current implementations ignore terms that mix particle and hole states and lead to partial occupation numbers of one-electron states. These limitations are corrected here using a cumulant expansion of the retarded one-electron Green's function that includes both particle and hole contributions. The approach provides a consistent framework that improves on the GW approximation to the spectral function without additional computational effort. The method is illustrated with results for the homogeneous electron gas and comparisons to experiment and other methods.

  7. Bioaccumulation of highly hydrophobic organohalogen flame retardants from sediments: application of toxicokinetics and passive sampling techniques.

    PubMed

    Li, Huizhen; Zhang, Baozhong; Wei, Yanli; Wang, Fei; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2014-06-17

    Highly hydrophobic organohalogen flame retardants (HHOFRs) are found ubiquitously in the environment; therefore, a better understanding of their bioavailability is needed. In the current study, bioaccumulation testing using the oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, and passive sampling (solid-phase microextraction (SPME)) were performed to study the bioaccumulation potential of HHOFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), and dechlorane plus (DP), in laboratory-spiked and field-collected sediments. The HHOFRs were bioavailable to L. variegatus even though their biota-sediment accumulation factors were low (0.016 ± 0.002 to 0.48 ± 0.082 g organic carbon/g lipid, syn-DP > anti-DP > deca-BDE > DBDPE). Hydrophobicity and stereoisomerism affected HHOFR bioavailability. Meanwhile, HHOFR concentrations on the SPME fibers (Cf) correlated with those in biota (Cb), suggesting the potential application of SPME in bioavailability prediction for those compounds. The log Cf to log Cb correlation for deca-BDE and DP had a greater intercept than that for polychlorinated biphenyls (data obtained from the literature) although the slopes were similar, while data for DBDPE fell on the regression line for PCBs, implying some uncertainty in application of SPMEs across chemical classes. The increasing sorptive ability of proteins for HHOFRs in comparison to the less-brominated BDEs suggested that protein-binding should be considered when estimating bioaccumulation potential of HHOFRs in benthic invertebrates. PMID:24845805

  8. Retardation of cell growth by avian reovirus p17 through the activation of p53 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.-J.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, J.-W.; Hsu, H.-Y.; Shih, W.-L. . E-mail: shihwl@mail.tcu.edu.tw

    2005-10-21

    The second open reading frame of avian reovirus S1 gene segment encodes a 17 kDa non-structural protein, named p17. The biological role of p17 is fully unknown so far. Using trypan blue dye exclusion and MTT assay, we demonstrated that the ectopic expression of p17 results in the reduction of viable cell number and cell proliferation rate of Vero, BHK, 293, and HeLa cells. Measurement of LDH activity and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that p17 expression did not cause cell death or apoptosis. These data indicated that the p17 possessed the growth retardation function. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that p17-expressing cells induced the expression of CDK inhibitor p21{sup cip1/waf1} in a time- and dose-dependent manner, but the transcripts of CDK inhibitor p15{sup INK4b}, p16{sup INK4a}, or p27{sup kip} were not altered. In the presence of p17, the p53 protein level and p53-driven reporter activity were elevated significantly. Dominant negative p53 alleviated the p21 accumulation, p53 activation, and growth inhibition effect induced by p17. Taken together, these studies revealed a possible intrinsic function of p17 in growth regulation through the activation of p53 and p21{sup cip1/waf1}.

  9. Mediator links epigenetic silencing of neuronal gene expression with x-linked mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Zhou, Haiying; Esteve, Pierre-Olivier; Chin, Hang Gyeong; Kim, Seokjoong; Xu, Xuan; Joseph, Sumy M; Friez, Michael J; Schwartz, Charles E; Pradhan, Sriharsa; Boyer, Thomas G

    2008-08-01

    Mediator occupies a central role in RNA polymerase II transcription as a sensor, integrator, and processor of regulatory signals that converge on protein-coding gene promoters. Compared to its role in gene activation, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms and biological implications of Mediator as a transducer of repressive signals. Here we describe a protein interaction network required for extraneuronal gene silencing comprising Mediator, G9a histone methyltransferase, and the RE1 silencing transcription factor (REST; also known as neuron restrictive silencer factor, NRSF). We show that the MED12 interface in Mediator links REST with G9a-dependent histone H3K9 dimethylation to suppress neuronal genes in nonneuronal cells. Notably, missense mutations in MED12 causing the X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) disorders FG syndrome and Lujan syndrome disrupt its REST corepressor function. These findings implicate Mediator in epigenetic restriction of neuronal gene expression to the nervous system and suggest a pathologic basis for MED12-associated XLMR involving impaired REST-dependent neuronal gene regulation. PMID:18691967

  10. The Electronic Schoolhouse: New Technology in the Education of the Severely Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Gayle; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The authors describe the impact on education of the severely retarded of three major areas of technologic intervention--microcomputer assisted assessment, nonvocal communication, and information prosthetics. (SB)

  11. 75 FR 38768 - Rehabilitation of Floodwater Retarding Structure No. 10 of the Mountain Creek Watershed, Ellis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Mountain Creek Watershed, Ellis County, TX AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service. ACTION: Notice... prepared for the rehabilitation of Floodwater Retarding Structure No. 10 of the Mountain Creek...

  12. Design of broad angular phase retarders for the complete polarization analysis of extreme ultraviolet radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-You; Chen, Shu-Jing; Chen, Zhao-Yang; Ding, Ying-Chun

    2015-11-01

    A method of designing broad angular phase retarders in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region is presented. The design is based on a standard Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm combined with a common merit function. Using this method, a series of broad angular EUV phase retarders were designed using aperiodic Mo/Si multilayers. At photon energy of 90 eV, broad angular phase retarders with 30°, 60°, and 90° phase retardations have been realized in the angular range of 39°–51°. By analyzing and comparing the performances of the designed broad angular phase retarders, we found that the Mo/Si multilayer with more layers could obtain higher phase retardation in broader angular range when used to design the broad angular phase retarder. Broad angular phase retarders possess lower sensitivity toward changing incident angle compared with the traditional phase retarders designed with transmission periodic multilayers, and can be used for the polarization control of broad angular EUV sources. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. JD1517, ZY1349, and 2652014012).

  13. Unique COPII component AtSar1a/AtSec23a pair is required for the distinct function of protein ER export in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yonglun; Chung, Kin Pan; Li, Baiying; Lai, Ching Man; Lam, Sheung Kwan; Wang, Xiangfeng; Cui, Yong; Gao, Caiji; Luo, Ming; Wong, Kam-Bo; Schekman, Randy; Jiang, Liwen

    2015-11-17

    Secretory proteins traffic from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi via the coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicle, which consists of five cytosolic components (Sar1, Sec23-24, and Sec13-31). In eukaryotes, COPII transport has diversified due to gene duplication, creating multiple COPII paralogs. Evidence has accumulated, revealing the functional heterogeneity of COPII paralogs in protein ER export. Sar1B, the small GTPase of COPII machinery, seems to be specialized for large cargo secretion in mammals. Arabidopsis contains five Sar1 and seven Sec23 homologs, and AtSar1a was previously shown to exhibit different effects on ?-amylase secretion. However, mechanisms underlying the functional diversity of Sar1 paralogs remain unclear in higher organisms. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis Sar1 homolog AtSar1a exhibits distinct localization in plant cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing dominant-negative AtSar1a exhibit distinct effects on ER cargo export. Mutagenesis analysis identified a single amino acid, Cys84, as being responsible for the functional diversity of AtSar1a. Structure homology modeling and interaction studies revealed that Cys84 is crucial for the specific interaction of AtSar1a with AtSec23a, a distinct Arabidopsis Sec23 homolog. Structure modeling and coimmunoprecipitation further identified a corresponding amino acid, Cys484, on AtSec23a as being essential for the specific pair formation. At the cellular level, the Cys484 mutation affects the distinct function of AtSec23a on vacuolar cargo trafficking. Additionally, dominant-negative AtSar1a affects the ER export of the transcription factor bZIP28 under ER stress. We have demonstrated a unique plant pair of COPII machinery function in ER export and the mechanism underlying the functional diversity of COPII paralogs in eukaryotes. PMID:26578783

  14. [Flame retardants--use and hazards for human].

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struci?ski, Pawe?; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2002-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are chemicals which added to materials during or after manufacture, inhibit or even suppress the combustion process due to their thermal stability. Large quantities of FRs are added to the plastic material (resins) in variety of electrical and electronic appliances including television and computer casing. The other uses of these compounds include production of building materials, upholstered furniture, textiles, wall covering, carpets, hydraulic fluids as well as vehicles and aircraft. Taking into account the chemical structure, there are five main groups of FRs: brominated, chlorinated, phosphorous-containing, nitrogen-containing (i.e. melamines) and inorganic compounds. Halogenated compounds, especially polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, due to their lipophilic characteristics and persistence have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. There are indications that PBDEs may affect hormone function acting as endocrine disruption and may be toxic for developing brain. These compounds have been associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans, a variety of cancers in rodents and disruption of thyroid hormones balance. Similarly to other persistent halogenated compounds they are also able to affect the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes activity. PBDEs are now found as residues in sediments, wildlife and human (milk, serum adipose tissue) samples. The predominant congeners in environmental samples, including human specimens are two congeners: 47 and 99. Currently, the estimated daily intake of PBDEs by adult humans is equal 51 ng x day-1 while by breast-fed infants equals 110 ng x day-1. PMID:12621885

  15. The retarding force on a fan-cart reversing direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analysed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artefact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in the introductory physics laboratory.

  16. The Retarding Force on a Fan-Cart Reversing Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurora, Tarlok S.; Brunner, Bernard J.

    2012-03-01

    In introductory physics, students learn that an object tossed upward has a constant downward acceleration while going up, at the highest point and while falling down. To demonstrate this concept, a self-propelled fan cart system is used on a frictionless track. A quick push is given to the fan cart and it is allowed to move away on a track under the opposing action of thrust produced by the fan. The cart moves away from the starting point, stops at some distance away and then reverses its motion. Students frequently predict the acceleration of the cart to be constant during the round trip motion. When an experiment was performed, it was found that the cart acceleration was not constant during the round trip. After ruling out any equipment problem, the cart motion was analyzed using Newton's laws with the inclusion of retarding forces. Results showed that the total retarding force was more significant than previously assumed, and it reversed direction during motion. This analysis seems to offer a reasonable explanation for the discrepancy between prediction and observation. In addition, students learned that the discrepancy was due to a real physical effect, and not an artifact of the equipment. This analysis offers a problem solving opportunity in introductory physics laboratory.

  17. Catalytic degradation of brominated flame retardants by copper oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Yecheskel, Y.; Berkowitz, B.

    2013-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been added to various products like plastic, textile, electronics and synthetic polymers at growing rates. In spite of the clear advantages of reducing fire damages, many of these BFRs may be released to the environment after their beneficial use which may lead to contamination of water resources. In this work we present the catalytic degradation of two brominated flame retardants (BFRs), tribromoneopentyl alcohol (TBNPA) and 2,4 dibromophenol (2,4-DBP) by copper oxide nanoparticles (nCuO) in aqueous solution. The degradation kinetics, the debromination, and the formation of intermediates by nCuO catalysis are compared to Fenton oxidation and to reduction by nano zero-valent iron (nZVI). The two studied BFRs are shown to degrade fully by the nCuO system within hours to days. Shorter reaction times showed differences in reaction pathways and kinetics for the two compounds. The 2,4-DBP showed faster degradation than TBNPA, by nCuO catalysis. Relatively high resistance to degradation was recorded for 2,4-DBP with nZVI, yielding 20% degradation after 24 h, while the TBNPA was degraded by 85% within 12 hours. A catalytic mechanism for radical generation and BFR degradation by nCuO is proposed. It is further suggested that H2O2 plays an essential role in the activation of the catalyst.

  18. [The dentofacial complex in hormonal treatment for growth retardation].

    PubMed

    Van Erum, R; Mulier, M G; Carels, C; François, I; de Zegher, F

    1994-01-01

    The greater availability of growth hormone (GH) and the increasing knowledge of growth hormone physiology have led to a wider application of growth hormone treatment. GH is approved for use in the treatment of pituitary deficiency syndromes and, when properly administered at an early stage, is capable of inducing normal skeletal and muscular development. It has also been successfully used to augment growth in patients with Turner syndrome and the effect on the abnormal craniofacial skeleton of these patients is favourable. The not yet generally approved indications for GH therapy are small children after intrauterine growth retardation, patients with renal insufficiency and patients with osteoporosis. Research is done on effects and possible side-effects into different systems e.g. the craniofacial complex. Dentists and orthodontists who treat growth retarded patients must realize that most of these children have a delay in dentofacial development and in dental maturation and that the facial proportions can be thoroughly different from normal patients. The effect of GH therapy on the craniofacial complex and the dental maturation must also be taken into consideration while planning orthodontic or dental treatment. PMID:7899617

  19. Engineering Biodegradable Flame Retardant Wood-Plastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Linxi

    Wood-plastic composites (WPCs), which are produced by blending wood and polymer materials, have attracted increasing attentions in market and industry due to the low cost and excellent performance. In this research, we have successfully engineered WPC by melt blending Polylactic Acid (PLA) and Poly(butylene adipate-co-terphthalate) (PBAT) with recycled wood flour. The thermal property and flammability of the composite are significantly improved by introducing flame retardant agent resorcinol bis(biphenyl phosphate) (RDP). The mechanical and morphological properties are also investigated via multiple techniques. The results show that wood material has increased toughness and impact resistance of the PLA/PBAT polymer matrix. SEM images have confirmed that PLA and PBAT are immiscible, but the incompatibility is reduced by the addition of wood. RDP is initially dispersed in the blends evenly. It migrates to the surface of the sample after flame application, and serves as a barrier between the fire and underlying polymers and wood mixture. It is well proved in the research that RDP is an efficient flame retardant agent in the WPC system.

  20. Retardation of arsenic transport through a Pleistocene aquifer

    PubMed Central

    van Geen, Alexander; Bostick, Benjamín C.; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Mai, Nguyen-Ngoc; Manh, Phu Dao; Viet, Pham Hung; Radloff, Kathleen; Aziz, Zahid; Mey, Jacob L.; Stahl, Mason O.; Harvey, Charles F.; Oates, Peter; Weinman, Beth; Stengel, Caroline; Frei, Felix; Kipfer, Rolf; Berg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater drawn daily from shallow alluvial sands by millions of wells over large areas of South and Southeast Asia exposes an estimated population of over 100 million to toxic levels of arsenic (1). Holocene aquifers are the source of widespread arsenic poisoning across the region (2, 3). In contrast, Pleistocene sands deposited in this region more than ~12,000 years ago mostly do not host groundwater with high levels of arsenic. Pleistocene aquifers are increasingly used as a safe source of drinking water (4) and it is therefore important to understand under what conditions low levels of arsenic can be maintained. Here we reconstruct the initial phase of contamination of a Pleistocene aquifer near Hanoi, Vietnam. We demonstrate that changes in groundwater flow conditions and the redox state of the aquifer sands induced by groundwater pumping caused the lateral intrusion of arsenic contamination over 120 m from Holocene aquifer into a previously uncontaminated Pleistocene aquifer. We also find that arsenic adsorbs onto the aquifer sands and that there is a 16–20 fold retardation in the extent of the contamination relative to the reconstructed lateral movement of groundwater over the same period. Our findings suggest that arsenic contamination of Pleistocene aquifers in South and Southeast Asia as a consequence of increasing levels of groundwater pumping have been delayed by the retardation of arsenic transport. PMID:24025840