Science.gov

Sample records for retired steam generator

  1. SCC analysis of Alloy 600 tubes from a retired steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2013-09-01

    Steam generators (SG) equipped with Alloy 600 tubes of a Korean nuclear power plants were replaced with a new one having Alloy 690 tubes in 1998 after 20 years of operation. To set up a guide line for an examination of the other SG tubes, a metallographic examination of the defected tubes was carried out. A destructive analysis on 71 tubes was addressed, and a relation among the stress corrosion crack (SCC) defect location, defect depth, and location of the sludge pile was obtained. Tubes extracted from the retired SG were transferred to a hot laboratory. Detailed nondestructive analysis examinations were taken again at the laboratory, and the tubes were then destructively examined. The types and sizes of the cracks were characterized. The location and depth of the SCC were evaluated in terms of the location and height of the sludge. Most axial cracks were in the sludge pile, whereas the circumferential ones were around the top of the tube sheet (TTS) or below the TTS. Average defect depth of the axial cracks was deeper than that of the circumferential ones. Axial cracks at tube support plate (TSP) seem to be related with corrosion/sludge in crevice like at the TTS region. Circumferential cracks at TSP seem to be caused by tube denting at the upper part of the TSP. Tubes not having clear ECT signals for quantifying an ECT data-base. Tubes having no ECT signal. Tubes with a large ECT signal. Tubes with various types and sizes of flaws (primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC), outside diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC), Pit). Tubes with distinct PWSCC or ODSCC. Tubes were extracted from the RSG based on the field ECT with the criteria, and transferred to a hot laboratory at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for destructive examination. A comprehensive ECT inspection was performed again at the hot laboratory to confirm the location of the cracks obtained from a field inspection. These exact locations of the defects were marked on the

  2. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, James E.

    1987-01-01

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances.

  3. Steam generator support system

    DOEpatents

    Moldenhauer, J.E.

    1987-08-25

    A support system for connection to an outer surface of a J-shaped steam generator for use with a nuclear reactor or other liquid metal cooled power source is disclosed. The J-shaped steam generator is mounted with the bent portion at the bottom. An arrangement of elongated rod members provides both horizontal and vertical support for the steam generator. The rod members are interconnected to the steam generator assembly and a support structure in a manner which provides for thermal distortion of the steam generator without the transfer of bending moments to the support structure and in a like manner substantially minimizes forces being transferred between the support structure and the steam generator as a result of seismic disturbances. 4 figs.

  4. Steam generator performance degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lovett, J.T.; Dow, B.L. )

    1991-09-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the range and severity of steam generator performance degradation effects experienced by PWRs in the United States. The survey results were tabulated and correlated with steam generator age and design. Operating experience at several PWRs was examined in detail. The operating experience at US PWRs was compared to that of PWRs in Japan and Germany. Possible causes for the performance degradation were postulated and evaluated. The sensitivity of steam generator output pressure to changes in various parameters (such as fouling factor, average reactor coolant temperature, and percentage of steam generator tubes plugged) was calculated. These calculations were used in the evaluation of possible causes of steam generator performance degradation. Several deposit exfoliation scenarios were evaluated in terms of the calculated effect on fouling factor trends and associated steam generator output pressure trends. 15 refs., 32 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  6. CORCO downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1982-03-01

    The opening of a new frontier in steaming moved forward in Jan. 1982 when a CORCO (Chemical Oil Recovery Co.) generator described as the first commercial down-hole steam generator went into operation in Kern County's Devils Den field, 60 miles northwest of Bakersfield, CA. A major reason for selecting the down-hole generator for the Devils Den field is that along with steam the unit puts away flue gas resulting from combustion. There is no pressure to speak of in the escudo, and it is hoped that the inert gas will build up bottom-hole pressure to assist in oil recovery. Another reason is that the down-hole generator, rated for 7 million btu/hr, makes it possible to tailor steam injection to the well's requirements. The advantages and disadvantages of the CORCO generator are described, along with its application in the Kern River field.

  7. STEAM GENERATOR GROUP PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R. A.; Lewis, M

    1985-09-01

    This report is a summary of progress in the Surry Steam Generator Group Project for 1984. Information is presented on the analysis of two baseline eddy current inspections of the generator. Round robin series of tests using standard in-service inspection techniques are described along with some preliminary results. Observations are reported of degradation found on tubing specimens removed from the generator, and on support plates characterized in-situ. Residual stresses measured on a tubing specimen are reported. Two steam generator repair demonstrations are described; one for antivibration bar replacement, and one on tube repair methods. Chemical analyses are shown for sludge samples removed from above the tube sheet.

  8. STEAM GENERATOR FOR NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Kinyon, B.W.; Whitman, G.D.

    1963-07-16

    The steam generator described for use in reactor powergenerating systems employs a series of concentric tubes providing annular passage of steam and water and includes a unique arrangement for separating the steam from the water. (AEC)

  9. Aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.

    1986-08-12

    An aerodynamic heated steam generating apparatus is described which consists of: an aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator adapted to be located on the leading edge of an airframe of a hypersonic aircraft and being responsive to aerodynamic heating of water by a compression shock airstream to produce steam pressure; an expansion shock air-cooled condensor adapted to be located in the airframe rearward of and operatively coupled to the aerodynamic heat immersion coil steam generator to receive and condense the steam pressure; and an aerodynamic heated steam injector manifold adapted to distribute heated steam into the airstream flowing through an exterior generating channel of an air-breathing, ducted power plant.

  10. ADVANCED STEAM GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Geo. A.; Casleton, Kent H.; Lewis, Robie E.; Rogers, William A.; Woike, Mark R.; Willis; Brian P.

    2001-11-06

    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultra-low or ''zero''-emissions power generation systems. In some proposed concepts, nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with another diluent such as carbon dioxide or steam. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO{sub 2} and steam or water streams. The concentrated CO{sub 2} stream could then serve as input to a CO{sub 2} sequestration process or utilized in some other way. Some of these concepts are illustrated in Figure 1. This project is an investigation of one approach to ''zero'' emission power generation. Oxy-fuel combustion is used with steam as diluent in a power cycle proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc. (CES) [1,2]. In oxy-fuel combustion, air separation is used to produce nearly pure oxygen for combustion. In this particular concept, the combustion temperatures are moderated by steam as a diluent. An advantage of this technique is that water in the product stream can be condensed with relative ease, leaving a pure CO{sub 2} stream suitable for sequestration. Because most of the atmospheric nitrogen has been separated from the oxidant, the potential to form any NOx pollutant is very small. Trace quantities of any minor pollutants species that do form are captured with the CO{sub 2} or can be readily removed from the condensate. The result is a nearly zero-emission power plant. A sketch of the turbine system proposed by CES is shown in Figure 2. NETL is working with CES to develop a reheat combustor for this application. The reheat combustion application is unusual even among oxy-fuel combustion applications. Most often, oxy-fuel combustion is carried out with the intent of producing very high temperatures for heat transfer to a product. In the reheat case, incoming steam is mixed with the oxygen and natural gas fuel to control the temperature of the output stream to about

  11. Downhole steam generator shows merit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    Production from a 5-spot pattern in Kern River Field reached 25,000 bbl during a 5-month test of a down-hole steam generator-equivalent to the amount of oil expected if steam injection from the conventional source had been continued. The test evaluated the down-hole generator as a steam source relatively free of atmospheric pollutants. The biggest objection to steam recovery of heavy crude is the volume of combustion products vented to the atmosphere, and these frequently contain small amounts of sulfur compounds. One big advantage of generating steam down hole is elimination of heat losses in the injection well. The practical limit for conventional steam injection is in a reservoir approximately 2,500 ft deep; the down-hole generator should operate economically to 6,000 ft. The test proved the feasibility of the method, and cleared the way for a series of down-hole generator installation and retrieval tests.

  12. Steam generator tube integrity program

    SciTech Connect

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  13. Steam generators, turbines, and condensers. Volume six

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume six covers steam generators (How steam is generated, steam generation in a PWR, vertical U-tube steam generators, once-through steam generators, how much steam do steam generators make.), turbines (basic turbine principles, impulse turbines, reaction turbines, turbine stages, turbine arrangements, turbine steam flow, steam admission to turbines, turbine seals and supports, turbine oil system, generators), and condensers (need for condensers, basic condenser principles, condenser arrangements, heat transfer in condensers, air removal from condensers, circulating water system, heat loss to the circulating water system, factors affecting condenser performance, condenser auxiliaries).

  14. Downhole steam generation: material studies

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchamp, E.K.; Weirick, L.J.; Muir, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    One enhanced oil recovery technique for extracting heavy crude from deep reservoirs by steam at the bottom of an injection well. Development of a downhole steam generator that will produce steam and inject it into formations at depths greater than 2500 feet is one objective of a Department of Energy/Sandia National Laboratories development effort - Project DEEP STEAM. Extensive material studies have been performed in support of Project DEEP STEAM; current efforts are devoted primarily to the selection and evaluation of materials for use in downhole steam generators. This paper presents observations of the performance of candidate metals and refractory ceramics (combustor liners) during tests of two prototypic, high pressure, diesel/air combustion, direct contact, downhole steam generators. The first downhole test of such a generator provides data on the performance of various metals (304L, 310 and 316S stainless steels and plain carbon steel) exposed for several weeks to a warm, aerated saltwater environment. A number of corrosion mechanisms acted to cause severely degraded perforance of some of the metals. Several refractory liner designs were evaluated during ground level tests of a generator having a ceramic-lined combustion chamber. Of the two refractories employed, alumina and silicon carbide, the alumina liners exhibited more serious surface degradation and corrosion.

  15. Steam generator hand hole shielding.

    PubMed

    Cox, W E

    2000-05-01

    Seabrook Station is an 1198 MWE Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) that began commercial operation in 1990. Expensive and dose intensive Steam Generator Replacement Projects among PWR operators have led to an increase in steam generator preventative maintenance. Most of this preventative maintenance is performed through access ports in the shell of the steam generator just above the tube sheet known as secondary side hand holes. Secondary side work activities performed through the hand holes are typically performed without the shielding benefit of water in the secondary side of the steam generator. An increase in cleaning and inspection work scope has led to an increase in dose attributed to steam generator secondary side maintenance. This increased work scope and the station goal of maintaining personnel radiation dose ALARA led to the development of the shielding concept described in this article. This shield design saved an estimated 2.5 person-rem (25 person-Smv) the first time it was deployed and is expected to save an additional 50 person-rem (500 person-mSv) over the remaining life of the plant. PMID:10770158

  16. NUCLEAR FLASH TYPE STEAM GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Johns, F.L.; Gronemeyer, E.C.; Dusbabek, M.R.

    1962-09-01

    A nuclear steam generating apparatus is designed so that steam may be generated from water heated directly by the nuclear heat source. The apparatus comprises a pair of pressure vessels mounted one within the other, the inner vessel containing a nuclear reactor heat source in the lower portion thereof to which water is pumped. A series of small ports are disposed in the upper portion of the inner vessel for jetting heated water under pressure outwardly into the atmosphere within the interior of the outer vessel, at which time part of the jetted water flashes into steam. The invention eliminates the necessity of any intermediate heat transfer medium and components ordinarily required for handling that medium. (AEC)

  17. Direct firing downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Binsley, R.L.; Wagner, W.R.; Wright, D.E.

    1982-06-29

    Direct firing downbole steam generator basically comprises an injector assembly axially connected with a combustion chamber. Downstream of the combustion chamber and oriented so as to receive its output is a heat exchanger wherein preheated water is injected into the heat exchanger through a plurality of one-way valves, vaporized and injected through a nozzle, packer and check valve into the well formation.

  18. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described.

  19. Fast fluidized bed steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Bryers, Richard W.; Taylor, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    A steam generator in which a high-velocity, combustion-supporting gas is passed through a bed of particulate material to provide a fluidized bed having a dense-phase portion and an entrained-phase portion for the combustion of fuel material. A first set of heat transfer elements connected to a steam drum is vertically disposed above the dense-phase fluidized bed to form a first flow circuit for heat transfer fluid which is heated primarily by the entrained-phase fluidized bed. A second set of heat transfer elements connected to the steam drum and forming the wall structure of the furnace provides a second flow circuit for the heat transfer fluid, the lower portion of which is heated by the dense-phase fluidized bed and the upper portion by the entrained-phase fluidized bed.

  20. Downhole steam generator: field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Eson, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Excessive air pollution and heat losses up to 32% in the surface lines and out the stacks of conventional generators are reasons why conventional steam generation is efficient. These problems are addressed and overcome through the use of a direct-fired down-hole steam generator (DSG). By performing the combustion process at high pressure, and then adding water, a mixture of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and steam is discharged directly into the heavy oil reservoir. This study documents a series of field tests of a direct-fired DSG showing its ability to produce and inject high quality steam into heavy oil reservoirs without the need for expensive stack scrubbers to remove sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/), as well as sophisticated nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) control techniques. Results from the 6-in. diameter, 6-ft long, 7.1-mmBtu/hr DSG showed that corrosion can be controlled and production can be improved dramatically in actual field tests in California heavy oil reservoirs.

  1. New downhole steam generator tested

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1981-07-01

    Completion of 2 field tests of a new-model down-hole steam generator paves the way for further evaluation and development of a system destined to increase California's heavy oil production. Current air pollution restrictions there prevent installation of conventional steam generators in several areas of interest to oil operators. The current series of tests, conducted by Chemical Oil Recovery Co. (CORCO) of Bakersfield, California, follows an earlier prototype operation conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the US Department of Energy. The CORCO tests were conducted on the surface with the generator's output going into Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production Co.'s overland-Riokern Well No. 80, located in the Kern River field 4 miles north of Bakersfield. The first test was concluded with just under 1000 bbl of steam injected, less than planned due to a higher-than-expected injection pressure. The unit operated at less than 25% capacity because of the air compressor limitation. Compressor output was only 285 psi, not enough to inject the desired volumes into the reservoir. Test data shows that injection amounted to 150 bpd of 90 to 95% quality steam at 225-psi wellhead pressure. After injection, the well was shut in for 3 days to allow soaking, then put on production. Initial production was 40 bopd at 175 F.

  2. Steam drive recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, E. S.; Hopkins, D. N.

    1984-09-18

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  3. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Nopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1984-10-23

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well.

  4. Direct firing downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, W.R.; Wright, D.E.; Binsley, R.L.

    1982-06-29

    A direct firing down-hole steam generator is composed of an injector assembly axially connected with a combustion chamber. Downstream of the combustion chamber and oriented so as to receive its output is a heat exchanger where preheated water is injected into the heat exchanger through a number of one-way valves. The heated water is vaporized and injected through a nozzle, packer, and check valve into the well formation. 9 claims.

  5. Steam generators and related auxiliaries

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, D.L.

    1986-04-01

    The current capability of the power generation industry to supply steam generating equipment for large central fossil stations is much lower than that of several years ago. Volatile energy prices make it very difficult to predict long-term demand changes, but current conditions strongly suggest that demand forecasts and orders will increase from current levels. This combination of circumstances strongly suggest that, while not a certainty, the potential for material and equipment shortages is a very real possibility that belongs in any current assessment of the future of the industry.

  6. Alcohol LOX Steam Generator Test Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Dommers, M.

    2004-10-01

    At the DLR test centre in Lampoldshausen there is a long experience in the development of rocket steam generators as a main subsystem for the altitude simulation. The rocket steam generators make it possible to supply the required quantities of steam at short notice with reduced investment and operating costs. The rocket steam generators are based on the combustion of liquid oxygen (LOX) and ethyl alcohol (ALC). The paper deals with the experience of the development of the steam generators and the operation at the altitude simulation P1.0 for satellite propulsion and P4.2 for altitude simulation of AESTUS upper stage engine.

  7. RPV steam generator pressure boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.

    1996-03-01

    As the types of SG tube degradation affecting PWR SGs has changed, and improvements in tube inspection and repair technology have occurred, current SG regulatory requirements and guidance have become increasingly out of date. This regulatory situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis, however to resolve this problem in the long term, the NRC has begun development of a performance-based rule. As currently structured, the proposed steam generator rule would require licensees to implement SG programs that monitor the condition of the steam generator tubes against accepted performance criteria to provide reasonable assurance that the steam generator tubes remain capable of performing their intended safety functions. Currently the staff is developing three performance criteria that will ensure the tubes can continue to perform their safety function and therefore satisfy the SG rule requirements. The staff, in developing the criteria, is striving to ensure that the performance criteria have the two key attributes of being (1) measurable (enabling the tube condition to be {open_quotes}measured{close_quotes} against the criteria) and (2) tolerable (ensuring that failures to meet the criteria do not result in unacceptable consequences). A general description of the criteria are: (1) Structural integrity criteria: Ensures that the structural integrity of the SG tubes is maintained for the operating cycle consistent with the margins intended by the ASME Code. (2) Leakage integrity criteria: Ensures that postulated accident leakages and the associated dose releases are limited relative to 10 CFR Part 50 guidelines and 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix A GDC 19. (3) Operational leakage criteria: Ensures that the operating unit will be shut down as a defense-in depth measure when operational SG tube leakage exceeds established leakage limits.

  8. Steam generator tubing NDE performance

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, G.; Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator (SG) non-destructive examination (NDE) is a fundamental element in the broader SG in-service inspection (ISI) process, a cornerstone in the management of PWR steam generators. Based on objective performance measures (tube leak forced outages and SG-related capacity factor loss), ISI performance has shown a continually improving trend over the years. Performance of the NDE element is a function of the fundamental capability of the technique, and the ability of the analysis portion of the process in field implementation of the technique. The technology continues to improve in several areas, e.g. system sensitivity, data collection rates, probe/coil design, and data analysis software. With these improvements comes the attendant requirement for qualification of the technique on the damage form(s) to which it will be applied, and for training and qualification of the data analysis element of the ISI process on the field implementation of the technique. The introduction of data transfer via fiber optic line allows for remote data acquisition and analysis, thus improving the efficiency of analysis for a limited pool of data analysts. This paper provides an overview of the current status of SG NDE, and identifies several important issues to be addressed.

  9. Circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Karwoski, K.J.

    1997-04-01

    On April 28, 1995, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) issued Generic Letter (GL) 95-03, {open_quote}Circumferential Cracking of Steam Generator Tubes.{close_quote} GL 95-03 was issued to obtain information needed to verify licensee compliance with existing regulatory requirements regarding the integrity of steam generator tubes in domestic pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). This report briefly describes the design and function of domestic steam generators and summarizes the staff`s assessment of the responses to GL 95-03. The report concludes with several observations related to steam generator operating experience. This report is intended to be representative of significant operating experience pertaining to circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes from April 1995 through December 1996. Operating experience prior to April 1995 is discussed throughout the report, as necessary, for completeness.

  10. Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carp, Frances M., Ed.

    This comprehensive look at retirement as a transitional life stage was instituted by the Federal Government in order to initiate theory building in this much neglected area. Conferences participated in by experts were held at intervals so as to maximize interactive thinking. Following this give and take, participants formulated theoretical models…

  11. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Kadokami, E.

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  12. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, James F.; Koenig, John F.

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  13. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOEpatents

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  14. Horizontal steam generators: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Ryzhov, S. B.; Davidenko, S. E.

    2011-03-01

    Main results of the 40-year experience gained from operation of horizontal steam generators in VVER-type reactor installations used in Russia and many foreign countries are described. Existing unresolved problems are pointed out.

  15. Downhole steam generator subject of Sandia tests

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The first field test of a down-hole steam generator developed to inject hot steam directly into deeply buried heavy oil reservoirs began in mid-April near Long Beach, CA. The 23-ft-long, 6-in.-diameter generator, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, will produce up to 800 cu ft of 500 F steam a minute (1.2 MW thermal) at the bottom of a 2500-ft well. Goals of the test are to demonstrate the feasibility of operating the generator at realistic depths and to determine its overall performance and environmental impact. Development of the generator is part of the US Department of Energy's Project Deep Steam to identify techniques for recovering heavy oil from deeply buried (greater than 2500 ft) reservoirs.

  16. US PWR steam generator management: An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Welty, C.S. Jr.

    1997-02-01

    This paper provides an overview on the status of steam generator management activities in US PWRs, and includes: (1) an overview of the impact of steam generator problems; (2) a brief discussion of historical damage trends and the current damage mechanism of most concern; (3) a discussion of the elements of {open_quotes}steam generator management{close_quotes}; and (4) a description of the approach being followed to implement a degradation-specific protocol for tubing inspection and repair. This paper was prepared in conjunction with another paper presented during the Plenary Session of this Conference, {open_quotes}Steam Generator Degradation: Current Mitigation Strategies for Controlling Corrosion{close_quotes}, and is provided as a supplement to that material.

  17. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  18. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  19. 49 CFR 229.114 - Steam generator inspections and tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator inspections and tests. 229.114... Generators § 229.114 Steam generator inspections and tests. (a) Periodic steam generator inspection. Except as provided in § 229.33, each steam generator shall be inspected and tested in accordance...

  20. Sullair low pressure downhole steam generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingler, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    Scientists and engineers are continually searching for techniques to release more oil from known reservoirs to improve productivity and lessen dependence on new finds. Based on a record of success dating to the early 1960s, thermal methods, and in particular methodology for steam treating deep reservoirs, have become an area of intense activity. In the U.S. alone, it has been reported that ca 300,000 bopd was produced in 1981 by traditional surface steam methods. Of the thermal techniques emerging, downhole steam generation is of particular interest in this discussion. 11 references.

  1. Electric-arc steam plasma generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Radko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Investigation results on the arc plasmatorch for water-steam heating are presented. The construction arrangement of steam plasma generator with copper electrodes of the stepped geometry was firstly implemented. The energy characteristics of plasmatorch and erosion of electrodes reflect the features of their behavior at arc glow in the plasma-forming environment of steam. The results of numerical study of the thermal state of the composite copper-steel electrodes had a significant influence on optimization of anode water-cooling aimed at improvement of its operation life.

  2. CRBRP steam-generator design evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, W.R.; Gillett, J.E.; Lagally, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    The overall design of the CRBRP Steam Generator is briefly discussed. Two areas of particular concern are highlighted and considerations leading to the final design are detailed. Differential thermal expansion between the shell and the steam tubes is accommodated by the tubes flexing in the curved section of the shell. Support of the tubes by the internals structure is essential to permit free movement and minimize tube wear. Special spacer plate attachment and tube hole geometry promote unimpeded axial movement of the tubes by allowing individual tubes to rotate laterally and by providing lateral movement of the spacer plates relative to the adjacent support structure. The water/steam heads of the CRBRP Steam Generator are spherical heads welded to the lower and upper tubesheets. They were chosen principally because they provide a positively sealed system and result in more favorable stresses in the tubesheets when compared to mechanically attached steamheads.

  3. Operational experiences of a downhole steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, B. W.

    The US Department of Energy supported the development of downhole steam generators for enhanced oil recovery as a part of Project DEEP STEAM. A final step in the development program was to deploy a downhole steam generator in the field to demonstrate its reliable operation and to evaluate the effect of the combined steam/exhaust products effluent on the reservoir. Sandia National Laboratories entered into an agreement with the City of Long Beach to place two direct contact, high pressure combustors in the Wilmington Field in Long Beach, California. These units one downhole and the other on the surface, have now been operated for a few months and gas communication with the production wells measured. The operational experience of this field experiment are discussed.

  4. Operational experiences of a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has supported the development of downhole steam generators for enhanced oil recovery as a part of Project DEEP STEAM. A final step in the development program was to deploy a downhole steam generator (DHSG) in the field to demonstrate its reliable operation and to evaluate the effect of the combined steam/exhaust products effluent on the reservoir. Sandia National Laboratories entered into an agreement with the City of Long Beach to place two direct contact, high pressure combustors in the Wilmington Field in Long Beach, California. These units one downhole and the other on the surface, have now been operated for a few months and gas communication with the production wells measured. The operational experience of this field experiment are discussed.

  5. Downhole steam generator at Kern River

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1980-05-01

    Testing of a prototype down-hole steam generator for use in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations has begun at a heavy oil reservoir in the Kern River oil field in California. Steam and combustion gases are directed into an 800-ft-deep reservoir through a standard surface steam delivery system, although the system is designed to function at depths to 4500 ft. Present steam injection techniques require one-third of the oil recovered to be used to fuel the injection system, and the boilers require scrubbers to control emissions to specifications. The down-hole system is expected to use only 2/3 as much fuel as the conventional systems and to have less impact on air quality.

  6. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  7. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  8. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  9. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  10. 49 CFR 229.105 - Steam generator number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam generator number. 229.105 Section 229.105..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Steam Generators § 229.105 Steam generator number. An identification number shall be marked on the steam...

  11. Downhole steam generator for heavy oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The HI-KO steam generator (HI-KO DSG) is operated electronically and is designed to operate efficiently and cost effectively at any depth, temperature, and injection pressure with minimal labor and maintenance. The generator is transported easily and is free of pollutants, both above and below ground. Moreover, the well needs no special cement job to prepare it for steaming; nor are corrosive gases created in the liner. The HI-KO DSG operates at ca 100% efficiency. Being controlled from the surface, the btu's and temperature going into the formation are monitored at all times.

  12. Feasibility evaluation of a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.E.; Binsley, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    A discussion is presented of a downhole steam generator (DHSG); benefits and features are described. The work was done under the management of Sandia Laboratories as part of the U.S. DOE's Project Deep Steam. The effort began with a comparison of alternate ways of generating steam downhole. The most economical was found to be the indirect system, where heat from low-pressure (approximately 5-atm (500-kPal))combustion of fuel oil and air is transferred to high pressure water. A feasibility test unit was constructed and tested extensively; results are described. Comparative economic analyses indicate that the DHSG is competitive with conventional systems even at moderate depths. Below 2,500 ft (762 m) it is a clear choice. 3 refs.

  13. Workshop Proceedings: Pitting in Steam Generator Tubing

    SciTech Connect

    1984-10-01

    A two-day workshop focused on the probable causes of steam generator pitting at two nuclear plants and on whether pitting is a low-temperature or a high-temperature phenomenon. Participants also heard descriptions of various pit-resistant metals that are suitable for tube sleeving.

  14. Revised evaluation of steam generator testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    A scoping evaluation was made of various facility alternatives for test of LMFBR prototype steam generators and models. Recommendations are given for modifications to EBR-II and SCTI (Sodium Components Test Installation) for prototype SG testing, and for few-tube model testing. (DLC)

  15. Characterization of PWR steam generator deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Varrin, R. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    Restoring the thermal performance of the steam generators often requires the utility to remove deposits by expensive chemical means. This work demonstrates that careful characterization of secondary side deposit samples can reveal their chemical and physical properties which in turn contribute to an overall assessment of the need for and extent of steam generator inspection and maintenance. More specifically, knowledge of deposit characteristics can contribute to: (1) determination of the source of corrosion products, (2) assessment of feedwater chemistry control strategies, (3) prediction of rates of tube degradation, and (4) evaluation of degraded heat transfer performance or flow instabilities. Despite the relationships between deposits and steam generator operation and performance, few utilities elect to perform the types of characterizations which are suitable for the determination of the specific chemical and physical nature of their particular deposits. One of the principal goals of this document is to encourage utilities to consider deposit characterization an integral part of an overall effort to assess and maintain the material condition of the steam generators at their plant. This document includes a review of the nature of deposits and relates deposit characteristics to a variety of secondary side phenomena including corrosion and fouling. Candidate techniques for revealing relevant deposit properties are provided so that inferences regarding the role of deposits in promoting or causing these phenomena at their plant can be developed.

  16. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B.

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  17. Steam Generator Group Project. Annual report, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Lewis, M.

    1984-02-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) is an NRC program joined by additional sponsors. The SGGP utilizes a steam generator removed from service at a nuclear plant (Surry 2) as a vehicle for research on a variety of safety and reliability issues. This report is an annual summary of progress of the program for 1982. Information is presented on the Steam Generator Examination Facility (SGEF), especially designed and constructed for this research. Loading of the generator into the SGEF is then discussed. The report then presents radiological field mapping results and personnel exposure monitoring. This is followed by information on field reduction achieved by channel head decontaminations. The report then presents results of a secondary side examination through shell penetrations placed prior to transport, confirming no change in generator condition due to transport. Decontamination of the channel head is discussed followed by plans for eddy current testing and removal of the plugs placed during service. Results of a preliminary profilometry examination are then provided.

  18. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  19. 40 CFR 60.4105 - Retired unit exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Budget Trading Program General Provisions § 60.4105 Retired unit exemption. (a)(1) Any Hg Budget unit that is permanently retired shall be exempt from the Hg Budget Trading... section shall become effective the day on which the Hg Budget unit is permanently retired. Within 30...

  20. Solar steam generation by heat localization.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Hadi; Ni, George; Marconnet, Amy Marie; Loomis, James; Yerci, Selcuk; Miljkovic, Nenad; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Currently, steam generation using solar energy is based on heating bulk liquid to high temperatures. This approach requires either costly high optical concentrations leading to heat loss by the hot bulk liquid and heated surfaces or vacuum. New solar receiver concepts such as porous volumetric receivers or nanofluids have been proposed to decrease these losses. Here we report development of an approach and corresponding material structure for solar steam generation while maintaining low optical concentration and keeping the bulk liquid at low temperature with no vacuum. We achieve solar thermal efficiency up to 85% at only 10 kW m(-2). This high performance results from four structure characteristics: absorbing in the solar spectrum, thermally insulating, hydrophilic and interconnected pores. The structure concentrates thermal energy and fluid flow where needed for phase change and minimizes dissipated energy. This new structure provides a novel approach to harvesting solar energy for a broad range of phase-change applications. PMID:25043613

  1. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  2. Evaluation of alternatives in downhole steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    The objective is to evaluate two alternative approaches, taken by Sandia and World Energy Systems in their development of downhole steam generators, in terms of the requirements for commercialization and the technical and economic goals which each one must reach in order to satisfy those requirements. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The high-pressure downhole steam generator being developed by Sandia has potential for commercialization for production of heavy oil in the next few years. (2) The critical performance parameter is oil yield and can be expressed in terms of bbl oil/million Btu of steam generated; the yield which is required for clear economic attractiveness of the high-pressure generator is 1.2 bbl/10/sup 6/ Btu which corresponds to 5.3 bbl steam/bbl oil. (3) The downhole hydrogen/oxygen burner being developed by World Energy Systems has potential for commercialization for production of resources which are now unproducible or uneconomical. (4) The critical performance provided in nearly 1100 pre- and post-training forms returned by the solarr and 201 stream sediment samples. Statistical and areal distributions of uranium and possible uranium-related variables are displayed. A generalized geologic map of the survey area is provided, and pertinent geologic factors which may be of significance in evaluating the potential for uranium mineralization are briefly discussed. Ground water data indicate that high uranium values occur almost exclusively in the western portion of the quadrangle along the eastern portion of the Williston Basin. These high uranium values occur primarily in Pleistocene delta deposits and in glacial outwash and till. Groundwater in this area is geographically associated with high values of calcium, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, strontium, sulfate, and total alkalinity. Stream sediment data indicate high uranium value the relative concentration of Sm/sup 2 +/ and Sm/sup 3 +/ ions changes with the change of composition.

  3. Determination of steam wetness in the steam-generating equipment of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorburov, V. I.; Gorburov, D. V.; Kuz'min, A. V.

    2012-05-01

    Calculation and experimental methods for determining steam wetness in horizontal steam generators for nuclear power stations equipped with VVER reactors, namely, the classic salt technique and calculations based on operating parameters are discussed considered and compared.

  4. Completion system for downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Vandevier, J.E.

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes an apparatus for providing electrical power to a downhole steam generator in a cased well. The method consists of: a packer supported on a string of tubing, the packer having means for sealing against casing in the well and at least one conduit extending longitudinally through the packer; a connector box mounted below the lower end of the packer, the connector box having a connector plate containing a plurality of passages; a plurality of feed through electrical connectors mounted in insulators in the passages in the connector plate; support means for mounting the steam generator below the connector box; an aperture located in the sidewall of the tubing immediately above the packer; an electrical cable extending from the surface alongside the tubing into the aperture and through the conduit into the connector box, the electrical cable having a plurality of electrical conductors, each of which ends in a terminal that is electrically connected to one of the electrical connectors; and electrical conductors extending between the steam generator and engaging a lower end of each electrical connector in the connection plate.

  5. Data analysis for steam generator tubing samples

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of the Improved Eddy-Current ISI for Steam Generators program is to upgrade and validate eddy-current inspections, including probes, instrumentation, and data processing techniques for inservice inspection of new, used, and repaired steam generator tubes; to improve defect detection, classification and characterization as affected by diameter and thickness variations, denting, probe wobble, tube sheet, tube supports, copper and sludge deposits, even when defect types and other variables occur in combination; to transfer this advanced technology to NRC`s mobile NDE laboratory and staff. This report provides a description of the application of advanced eddy-current neural network analysis methods for the detection and evaluation of common steam generator tubing flaws including axial and circumferential outer-diameter stress-corrosion cracking and intergranular attack. The report describes the training of the neural networks on tubing samples with known defects and the subsequent evaluation results for unknown samples. Evaluations were done in the presence of artifacts. Computer programs are given in the appendix.

  6. 45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. EARLY STEAM GENERATING UNIT USED TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY FOR MANUFACTURING OPERATIONS AND FOR THE TOWN OF RAINELLE. STEAM ENGINE IS A HAMILTON CORLISS. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  7. Proceedings: 2003 Steam Generator Secondary Side Management Conference

    SciTech Connect

    2003-06-01

    With more utilities replacing steam generators and applying for (and receiving) license renewal and uprates, it is imperative that we coordinate our efforts for improved steam generator management. This report contains the work presented at EPRI's 2003 Steam Generator Secondary Side Management Conference, where 35 papers were presented on current issues, research, and utility experiences involving corrosion product generation and transport, deposit control and mitigation, deposit consolidation and removal, and short- and long-term strategic planning.

  8. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.

    1982-01-01

    It has long been recognized that the application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil-bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generation, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generation are discussed.

  9. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhold steam generation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. This paper compares the technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses, with (a) thermally efficient delivery (through insulated strings) of surface generated steam, (b) low pressure combustion downhole steam generatjion, (c) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation using air as the oxygen source, and (d) high pressure combustion downhole steam generation substituting pure oxygen for air. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality. Therefore, a parametric analysis has been performed which examines varying depths, injection rates and steam qualities. Results indicate that the technologies are not readily distinguishable for low injectivity reservoirs in which conventional steam drives are feasible. However, high injection rates produce a notable cost difference between high pressure combustion systems and the other technologies. Issues that must be addressed before gaining further insight into the economic viability of downhole steam generatjion are discussed. (JMT)

  10. Comparative evaluation of surface and downhole steam-generation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, C.

    The application of heat to reservoirs containing high API gravity oils can substantially improve recovery. Although steam injection is currently the principal thermal recovery method, heat transmission losses associated with delivery of the steam from the surface generators to the oil bearing formation has limited conventional steam injection to shallow reservoirs. The objective of the Department of Energy's Project DEEP STEAM is to develop the technology required to economically produce heavy oil from deep reservoirs. The tasks included in this effort are the development and evaluation of thermally efficient delivery systems and downhole steam generation systems. The technical and economic performance of conventional surface steam drives, which are strongly influenced by heat losses are compared. The selection of a preferred technology based upon either total efficiency or cost is found to be strongly influenced by reservoir depth, steam mass flow rate, and sandface steam quality.

  11. Mathematical modeling of control system for the experimental steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podlasek, Szymon; Lalik, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Sornek, Krzysztof; Kupski, Robert; Raś, Anita

    2016-03-01

    A steam generator is an essential unit of each cogeneration system using steam machines. Currently one of the cheapest ways of the steam generation can be application of old steam generators came from army surplus store. They have relatively simple construction and in case of not so exploited units - quite good general conditions, and functionality of mechanical components. By contrast, electrical components and control systems (mostly based on relay automatics) are definitely obsolete. It is not possible to use such units with cooperation of steam bus or with steam engines. In particular, there is no possibility for automatically adjustment of the pressure and the temperature of the generated steam supplying steam engines. Such adjustment is necessary in case of variation of a generator load. The paper is devoted to description of improvement of an exemplary unit together with construction of the measurement-control system based on a PLC. The aim was to enable for communication between the steam generator and controllers of the steam bus and steam engines in order to construction of a complete, fully autonomic and maintenance-free microcogeneration system.

  12. Nuclear steam-generator transplant total rises

    SciTech Connect

    Smock, R.

    1982-09-01

    Several utilities with pressurized water reactors (PWRs) are replacing leaking and corroded steam generators. Over half the PWRs face corrosion problems that will cost $50 million to $100 million per unit to correct. An alternative approach of installing new tube sleeves has only had one application. Corrosion prevention still eludes utilities, whose problems differ. Westinghouse units were the first to experience corrosion problems because they have almost all operated for a decade or more. Some advances in condenser and steam-generator technology should extend the component life of younger units, and some leaking PWR tubes can be plugged. Operating differences may explain why PWRs have operated for over 20 years on submarines using phosphate water chemistry, while the use of de-aerators in the secondary-systems of foreign PWRs may explain their better performance. Among the corrective steps recommended by Stone and Webster are tighter chemistry control, better plant layup practices, revamping secondary-system hardware, condensate polishing, and de-aerators. Research continues to find the long-term preventative. 2 tables. (DCK)

  13. Advanced Eddy current NDE steam generator tubing.

    SciTech Connect

    Bakhtiari, S.

    1999-03-29

    As part of a multifaceted project on steam generator integrity funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out research on the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). A particular area of interest is the impact of advanced eddy current (EC) NDE technology. This paper presents an overview of work that supports this effort in the areas of numerical electromagnetic (EM) modeling, data analysis, signal processing, and visualization of EC inspection results. Finite-element modeling has been utilized to study conventional and emerging EC probe designs. This research is aimed at determining probe responses to flaw morphologies of current interest. Application of signal processing and automated data analysis algorithms has also been addressed. Efforts have focused on assessment of frequency and spatial domain filters and implementation of more effective data analysis and display methods. Data analysis studies have dealt with implementation of linear and nonlinear multivariate models to relate EC inspection parameters to steam generator tubing defect size and structural integrity. Various signal enhancement and visualization schemes are also being evaluated and will serve as integral parts of computer-aided data analysis algorithms. Results from this research will ultimately be substantiated through testing on laboratory-grown and in-service-degraded tubes.

  14. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOEpatents

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  15. Vapor generator steam drum spray head

    DOEpatents

    Fasnacht, Jr., Floyd A.

    1978-07-18

    A typical embodiment of the invention provides a combination feedwater and "cooldown" water spray head that is centrally disposed in the lower portion of a nuclear power plant steam drum. This structure not only discharges the feedwater in the hottest part of the steam drum, but also increases the time required for the feedwater to reach the steam drum shell, thereby further increasing the feedwater temperature before it contacts the shell surface, thus reducing thermal shock to the steam drum structure.

  16. Remote installation of PWR steam generator nozzle dams

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, A.

    1994-12-31

    Funded by a grant from the US Department of Energy, prototype equipment for remote installation of steam generator nozzle dams has been developed. The new nozzle dam design eliminates the need for personnel entry into the steam generator bowl and does not require installation of a sophisticated robotic arm. An innovative new bolt allows simple remote attachment to the existing nozzle seal ring in Westinghouse-type steam generators. Installation is performed manually away from the high radiation emanating from the steam generator manway.

  17. Status of steam generator tubing integrity at Jaslovske Bohunice NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Cepcek, S.

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator represents one of the most important component of nuclear power plants. Especially, loss of tubing integrity of steam generators can lead to the primary coolant leak to secondary circuit and in worse cases to the unit shut down or to the PTS events occurrence. Therefore, to ensure the steam generator tubing integrity and the current knowledge about tube degradation propagation and development is of the highest importance. In this paper the present status of steam generator tubing integrity in operated NPP in Slovak Republic is presented.

  18. Development of a downhole steam generator system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This report describes the development of a downhole steam generator system for use in enhanced oil recovery. The system is composed of four major components: A state-of-the-art review indicated that advances in technology would be necessary in two areas (high pressure combustion and high temperature packer seals) in order to fabricate a field-worthy system. As a result, two tasks were undertaken which resulted in the development of a novel ceramic-lined combustor and a unique all-metal packer. These elements were incorporated into an overall system design. Key system components were built and tested in the laboratory. The program culminated in a successful simulated downhole test of the entire system, less tube string, at Sandia National Laboratories. 5 references, 41 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Steam generator issues in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Strosnider, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Alloy 600 steam generator tubes in the US have exhibited degradation mechanisms similar to those observed in other countries. Effective programs have been implemented to address several degradation mechanisms including: wastage; mechanical wear; pitting; and fatigue. These degradation mechanisms are fairly well understood as indicated by the ability to effectively mitigate/manage them. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the dominant degradation mechanism in the US. SCC poses significant inspection and management challenges to the industry and the regulators. The paper also addresses issues of research into SCC, inspection programs, plugging, repair strategies, water chemistry, and regulatory control. Emerging issues in the US include: parent tube cracking at sleeve joints; detection and repair of circumferential cracks; free span cracking; inspection and cracking of dented regions; and severe accident analysis.

  20. Comments on US LMFBR steam generator base technology

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The development of steam generators for the LMFBR was recognized from the onset by the AEC, now DOE, as a difficult, challenging, and high-priority task. The highly reactive nature of sodium with water/steam requires that the sodium-water/steam boundaries of LMFBR steam generators possess a degree of leak-tightness reliability not normally attempted on a commercial scale. In addition, the LMFBR steam generator is subjected to high fluid temperatures and severe thermal transients. These requirements place great demand on materials, fabrication processes, and inspection methods; and even greater demands on the designer to provide steam generators that can meet these demanding requirements, be fabricated without unreasonable shop requirements, and tolerate off-normal effects.

  1. Steam generator tube inspection in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Shigetaka

    1997-02-01

    Steam generator tube inspection was first carried out in 1971 at Mihama Unit-1 that is first PWR plant in Japan, when the plant was brought into the first annual inspection. At that time, inspection was made on sampling basis, and only bobbin coil probe was used. After experiencing various kinds of tube degradations, inspection method was changed from sampling to all number of tubes, and various kinds of probes were used to get higher detectability of flaw. At present, it is required that all the tubes shall be inspected in their full length at each annual inspection using standard bobbin coil probe, and some special probes for certain plants that have susceptibility of occurrence of flaw. Sleeve repaired portion is included in this inspection. As a result of analyses of eddy current testing data, all indications that have been evaluated to be 20% wall thickness or deeper shall be repaired by either plugging or sleeving, where flaw morphology is to be a wastage or wear. Other types of flaw such as IGA/SCC are not allowed to be left inservice when those indications are detected. These inspections are performed according to inspection procedures that are approved by regulatory authority. Actual inspections are witnessed by the Japan Power engineering and inspection corporation (JAPEIC)`s inspectors during data acquisition and analysis, and they issue inspection report to authority for review and approval. It is achieved high safety performance of steam generator through this method of inspections, however. some tube leakage problems were experienced in the past. To prevent recurrence of such events, government is conducting development and verification test program for new eddy current testing technology.

  2. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    assessment review and then on to the stakeholder cost benefit analysis (if model qualifications are met) leading to a final plant retirement decision. This application via the model and guide, in turn, will lead electric utilities to explore system upgrade import opportunities and mitigation measures versus building new replacement generation facilities. United States nuclear reactors are licensed for 40 years with a 20 year extension available prior to the expiration date (EIA, 2013). Since late 2012, electric power companies have announced the early retirement of four uneconomical nuclear power plants while other studies have indicated that as many as 70 percent of United States nuclear power plants are potentially at risk for early retirement (Crooks, 2014 and Cooper, 2013). A high percentage of these aforementioned nuclear plants have operating licenses that will not expire until 2030 and beyond. Thus, for the most part, replacement power contingency planning has not been initiated for these plants or is still in preliminary stages. The recent nuclear plant retirements are the first since 1998 (EIA, 2013). Decisions to retire the plants involved concerns over maintenance and repair costs as well as declining profitability (EIA, 2013). In addition, the Energy Information Administration (2010-2012) released data that demonstrated that the worst 25 percent of United States nuclear plants are far more expensive to operate and generate electricity than new gas plants. It is equally important to understand and explain the economic and power replacement implications to both ratepayers and end-users. A SONGS case study analysis will review the economic, operational and political challenges that SCE faced leading to the retirement decision of SONGS. As preface to the case study, replacement steam generators (RSGs) were installed in Unit 2 in 2009 and in Unit 3 in 2010. In January 2012, while Unit 2 was down for routine maintenance, a small leak was discovered inside a steam

  3. Generator of steam plasma for gasification of solid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An'shakov, A. S.; Urbakh, E. K.; Rad'ko, S. I.; Urbakh, A. E.; Faleev, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    A structural design of an electric-arc steam plasma torch (plasmatron) with copper tubular electrodes has been proposed and implemented. Operational parameters are determined for the stable generation of steam plasma. Experimental data are presented on the energy characteristics of the plasma generator with the capacity up to 100 kW.

  4. Large-eddy simulation of turbulence in steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, T.G.; Hassan, Y.A. ); Steininger D.A. )

    1989-11-01

    A major problem associated with steam generators is excessive tube vibration caused by turbulent-flow buffeting and fluid-elastic excitation. Vibration can lead to tube rupture or wear, necessitating tube plugging and reducing the availability of the steam generator. The fluid/structure interaction phenomenon that causes fluid-elastic tube excitation is unknown at present. The current investigation defines the spectral characteristics of turbulent flow entering the Westinghouse D4 steam generator tube bundles using the large-eddy simulation (LES) technique. Due to the recent availability of supercomputers, LES is being considered as a possible engineering design analysis tool. The information from this study will provide input for defining the temporally fluctuating forces on steam generator tube banks. The GUST code was used to analyze the water box of a Westinghouse model D4 steam generator.

  5. Direct steam generation in line-focus solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, E. K.; Murphy, L. M.

    1983-01-01

    The performance benefits of the direct (in situ) generation of steam in the receiver tube of a line focus solar collector were assessed. Compared to existing technology using steam flash or unfired boiler systems, the in situ technique could produce 25% more steam at a reduced delivery cost. It is indicated that two phase flow instabilities, if present, can be readily controlled, and that the possibility of freezing is not an impediment to using water in cold climates.

  6. Steam generator tube integrity flaw acceptance criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Cochet, B.

    1997-02-01

    The author discusses the establishment of a flaw acceptance criteria with respect to flaws in steam generator tubing. The problem is complicated because different countries take different approaches to the problem. The objectives in general are grouped in three broad areas: to avoid the unscheduled shutdown of the reactor during normal operation; to avoid tube bursts; to avoid excessive leak rates in the event of an accidental overpressure event. For each degradation mechanism in the tubes it is necessary to know answers to an array of questions, including: how well does NDT testing perform against this problem; how rapidly does such degradation develop; how well is this degradation mechanism understood. Based on the above information it is then possible to come up with a policy to look at flaw acceptance. Part of this criteria is a schedule for the frequency of in-service inspection and also a policy for when to plug flawed tubes. The author goes into a broad discussion of each of these points in his paper.

  7. Estimation of retired mobile phones generation in China: A comparative study on methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bo; Yang, Jianxin; Lu, Bin; Song, Xiaolong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The sales data of mobile phones in China was revised by considering the amount of smuggled and counterfeit mobile phones. • The estimation of retired mobile phones in China was made by comparing some relevant methods. • The advanced result of estimation can help improve the policy-making. • The method suggested in this paper can be also used in other countries. • Some discussions on methodology are also conducted in order for the improvement. - Abstract: Due to the rapid development of economy and technology, China has the biggest production and possession of mobile phones around the world. In general, mobile phones have relatively short life time because the majority of users replace their mobile phones frequently. Retired mobile phones represent the most valuable electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) in the main waste stream because of such characteristics as large quantity, high reuse/recovery value and fast replacement frequency. Consequently, the huge amount of retired mobile phones in China calls for a sustainable management system. The generation estimation can provide fundamental information to construct the sustainable management system of retired mobile phones and other waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). However, the reliable estimation result is difficult to get and verify. The priority aim of this paper is to provide proper estimation approach for the generation of retired mobile phones in China, by comparing some relevant methods. The results show that the sales and new method is in the highest priority in estimation of the retired mobile phones. The result of sales and new method shows that there are 47.92 million mobile phones retired in 2002, and it reached to 739.98 million in China in 2012. It presents an increasing tendency with some fluctuations clearly. Furthermore, some discussions on methodology, such as the selection of improper approach and error in the input data, are also conducted in order to

  8. Solar installation for process steam generation for a refinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, L. D.; Hudson, S.; Pytlinski, J. T.; Lumsdaine, E.; Bridgers, F.

    A solar thermal system for steam generation in a refinery is presented. The system is installed in the Southern Union Refinery in Hobbs, New Mexico, U.S.A. The refinery processes 36,000 BPSD of crude oil (42 U.S. gallon barrels of product fuels per steam day). The solar system is a two loop system. A heat transfer oil (Therminol T-55) circulates through an array of parabolic collectors of 936 sq m area while saturated steam at 190 C/12 kg/sq m is generated in the steam generator loop. The steam flow is 658 kg/hr. A data acquisition system (ODAS) was designed and assembled to evaluate the solar system's thermal performance. It is expected that on an annual basis the solar system will provide a thermal process heat equivalent to 93,400 cu m of natural gas.

  9. Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

  10. Experience in the repair of steam generator auxiliary feedwater nozzle

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.K.N.

    1996-12-01

    The auxiliary feedwater nozzle is quite often subjected to more thermal stress cycles and other loading mechanisms during their service life than the material was designed and fabricated for at the nozzle of the earlier steam generators in many nuclear plants. During plant operation, the auxiliary feedwater nozzle outlet is exposed to the hot steam from the generator side, while the auxiliary feedwater piping which contains subcooled water from the inlet often induces water hammer as a result of the steam-water mixing phenomena. The thermal cycles and the steam bubble collapse at the nozzle may cause cracking in the nozzle liner and interior surface of the nozzle, and subsequently results in structural damage to the steam generator. This presentation is intended to share the lessons learned from the evaluation of the nozzle condition and the subsequent modification and repair made to the auxiliary feedwater nozzle at the Palisades Nuclear Plant. Other nuclear plant owners may benefit from this experience.

  11. 60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. BOILER CHAMBER No. 1, D LOOP STEAM GENERATOR AND MAIN COOLANT PUMP LOOKING NORTHEAST (LOCATION OOO) - Shippingport Atomic Power Station, On Ohio River, 25 miles Northwest of Pittsburgh, Shippingport, Beaver County, PA

  12. Estimating probable flaw distributions in PWR steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.A.; Turner, A.P.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes methods for estimating the number and size distributions of flaws of various types in PWR steam generator tubes. These estimates are needed when calculating the probable primary to secondary leakage through steam generator tubes under postulated accidents such as severe core accidents and steam line breaks. The paper describes methods for two types of predictions: (1) the numbers of tubes with detectable flaws of various types as a function of time, and (2) the distributions in size of these flaws. Results are provided for hypothetical severely affected, moderately affected and lightly affected units. Discussion is provided regarding uncertainties and assumptions in the data and analyses.

  13. Downhole steam-generator study. Volume 2: Design summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    A detailed design of a low pressure combustion, indirect contact, downhole steam generator was prepared. The design is based on analysis and experiments conducted previously (reported in Vol. I). The generator is sized to operate in a 7-inch casing and deliver 350 bbl/d of 80% quality steam at a pressure of 1500 psia. Included in this report are a description of the design, the expected range of operating conditions, and a suggested installation procedure.

  14. Downhole steam-generator study. Volume II. Design summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    A detailed design of a low pressure combustion, indirect contact, downhole steam generator was prepared. The design is based on analysis and experiments conducted previously (reported in Vol. I). The generator is sized to operate in a 7-inch casing and deliver 350 bbl/d of 80% quality steam at a pressure of 1500 psia. Included in this report are a description of the design, the expected range of operating conditions, and a suggested installation procedure.

  15. MINET validation study using steam generator test data

    SciTech Connect

    Van Tuyle, G.J.; Guppy, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    Three steam generator transient test cases that were simulated using the MINET computer code are described, with computed results compared against experimental data. The MINET calculations closely agreed with the experiment for both the once-through and the U-tube steam generator test cases. The effort is part of an ongoing effort to validate the MINET computer code for thermal-hydraulic plant systems transient analysis, and strongly supports the validity of the MINET models.

  16. Proceedings: Support-Structure Corrosion in Steam Generators

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    This report documents an EPRI workshop held in Boston in May 1982 to discuss support structure corrosion in steam generators. Designed to present information on available materials and designs for support structures and to determine utility needs, the workshop covered crevice corrosion rates for alloy steels and carbon steel, results from examinations of support plate segments removed from steam generators, and models for corrosion and salt hideout in crevices.

  17. EPRI research related to the steam turbine generator

    SciTech Connect

    Lansing, N.

    1983-11-01

    This document summarizes current EPRI work related to steam turbine-generators (ST-G's) in terms of individual research activities. It was prepared for the EPRI Steam-Turbine Generator Coordinating Committee to provide a guide to these activities primarily for the benefit of utilities as well as others concerned with ST-G's. Generally, the summaries describe the status of the work as of December 31, 1982, but some status descriptions are more recent.

  18. Automated Diagnosis and Classification of Steam Generator Tube Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gabe V. Garcia

    2004-10-01

    A major cause of failure in nuclear steam generators is tube degradation. Tube defects are divided into seven categories, one of which is intergranular attack/stress corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC). Defects of this type usually begin on the outer surface of the tubes and propagate both inward and laterally. In many cases these defects occur at or near the tube support plates. Several different methods exist for the nondestructive evaluation of nuclear steam generator tubes for defect characterization.

  19. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOEpatents

    Mangus, James D.

    1983-01-01

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  20. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasko, Frank

    assessment review and then on to the stakeholder cost benefit analysis (if model qualifications are met) leading to a final plant retirement decision. This application via the model and guide, in turn, will lead electric utilities to explore system upgrade import opportunities and mitigation measures versus building new replacement generation facilities. United States nuclear reactors are licensed for 40 years with a 20 year extension available prior to the expiration date (EIA, 2013). Since late 2012, electric power companies have announced the early retirement of four uneconomical nuclear power plants while other studies have indicated that as many as 70 percent of United States nuclear power plants are potentially at risk for early retirement (Crooks, 2014 and Cooper, 2013). A high percentage of these aforementioned nuclear plants have operating licenses that will not expire until 2030 and beyond. Thus, for the most part, replacement power contingency planning has not been initiated for these plants or is still in preliminary stages. The recent nuclear plant retirements are the first since 1998 (EIA, 2013). Decisions to retire the plants involved concerns over maintenance and repair costs as well as declining profitability (EIA, 2013). In addition, the Energy Information Administration (2010-2012) released data that demonstrated that the worst 25 percent of United States nuclear plants are far more expensive to operate and generate electricity than new gas plants. It is equally important to understand and explain the economic and power replacement implications to both ratepayers and end-users. A SONGS case study analysis will review the economic, operational and political challenges that SCE faced leading to the retirement decision of SONGS. As preface to the case study, replacement steam generators (RSGs) were installed in Unit 2 in 2009 and in Unit 3 in 2010. In January 2012, while Unit 2 was down for routine maintenance, a small leak was discovered inside a steam

  1. Summary of DEEP STEAM downhole steam generator development activities. [Kern River and Long Beach field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.B.; Fox, R.L.; Mulac, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the concept and goals of the DOE program, DEEP STEAM, as related to the development of a downhole steam generator for deep heavy oil recovery will be discussed. Additionally, the past, present and future activities of the development program being carried out at Sandia National Laboratories will be discussed. These include evaluation studies, surface testing at Bakersfield, CA, a run-in test at Hobbs, NM, and status of field testing at Long Beach, CA. The Long Beach test includes both a downhole diesel-air generator and a surface diesel-oxygen generator. 7 figures.

  2. 2. Credit PEM. View of Martinsburg Power Company steam generating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit PEM. View of Martinsburg Power Company steam generating plant. From right to left: original 1889 generating building, transformer room, new generating room and, adjacent to draft stack is boiler room addition. Photo c. 1911. - Dam No. 4 Hydroelectric Plant, Potomac River, Martinsburg, Berkeley County, WV

  3. Steam as turbine blade coolant: Experimental data generation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsen, B.; Engeda, A.; Lloyd, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Steam as a coolant is a possible option to cool blades in high temperature gas turbines. However, to quantify steam as a coolant, there exists practically no experimental data. This work deals with an attempt to generate such data and with the design of an experimental setup used for the purpose. Initially, in order to guide the direction of experiments, a preliminary theoretical and empirical prediction of the expected experimental data is performed and is presented here. This initial analysis also compares the coolant properties of steam and air.

  4. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  5. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs. Cormos, C. C. Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  6. Steam generator tube integrity program: Annual report, August 1995--September 1996. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K.E.; Kupperman, D.S.; Majumdar, S.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

    1998-02-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of the program in August 1995 through September 1996. The program is divided into five tasks: (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on ISI (inservice-inspection) technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, (4) tube removals from steam generators, and (5) program management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of facilities and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate failure pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Results are reported in Task 2 on closed-form solutions and finite-element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe responses for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. In Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe-accident conditions. Crack behavior and stability are also being modeled to provide guidance for test facility design, develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the acquisition of tubes and tube sections from retired steam generators for use in the other research tasks. Progress on the acquisition of tubes from the Salem and McGuire 1 nuclear plants is reported.

  7. Research of laser cleaning technology for steam generator tubing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Suixa; Luo, Jijun; Xu, Jun; Yuan, Bo

    2010-10-01

    Surface cleaning based on the laser-induced breakdown of gas and subsequent shock wave generation can remove small particles from solid surfaces. Accordingly, several studies in steam generator tubes of nuclear power plants were performed to expand the cleaning capability of the process. In this work, experimental apparatus of laser cleaning was designed in order to clean heat tubes in steam generator. The laser cleaning process is monitored by analyzing acoustic emission signal experimentally. Experiments demonstrate that laser cleaning can remove smaller particles from the surface of steam generator tubes better than other cleaning process. It has advantages in saving on much manpower and material resource, and it is a good cleaning method for heat tubes, which can be real-time monitoring in laser cleaning process of heat tubes by AE signal. As a green cleaning process, laser cleaning technology in equipment maintenance will be a good prospect.

  8. Subcooled choked flow through steam generator tube cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Brian J.

    The work presented here describes an experimental investigation into the choked flow of initially subcooled water through simulated steam generator tube cracks at pressures up to 6.9 MPa. The study of such flow is relevant to the prediction of leak flow rates from a nuclear reactor primary side to secondary side through cracks in steam generator tubes. An experimental approach to measuring such flow is de- scribed. Experimental results from data found in literature as well as the data collected in this work are compared with predictions from presented models as well as predictions from the thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5. It is found that the homogeneous equilibrium model underpredicts choked flow rates of subcooled water through slits and artificial steam generator tube cracks. Additional modeling of thermal non-equilibrium improves the predictibility of choking mass flux for homogeneous models, however they fail to account for the characteristics of the two-phase pressure drop. An integral modeling approach is enhanced using a correlation developed from the data herein. Also, an assessment of the thermal-hydraulics code RELAP5 is performed and it’s applicability to predict choking flow rates through steam generator tube cracks is addressed. This assessment determined that the Henry & Fauske model, as coded in RELAP5, is best suited for modeling choked flow through steam generator tube cracks. Finally, an approach to applying choked flow data that is not at the same thermo-dynamic conditions as a prototype is developed.

  9. Apparatus and methods of reheating gas turbine cooling steam and high pressure steam turbine exhaust in a combined cycle power generating system

    DOEpatents

    Tomlinson, Leroy Omar; Smith, Raub Warfield

    2002-01-01

    In a combined cycle system having a multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator, a gas turbine and steam turbine, steam for cooling gas turbine components is supplied from the intermediate pressure section of the heat recovery steam generator supplemented by a portion of the steam exhausting from the HP section of the steam turbine, steam from the gas turbine cooling cycle and the exhaust from the HP section of the steam turbine are combined for flow through a reheat section of the HRSG. The reheated steam is supplied to the IP section inlet of the steam turbine. Thus, where gas turbine cooling steam temperature is lower than optimum, a net improvement in performance is achieved by flowing the cooling steam exhausting from the gas turbine and the exhaust steam from the high pressure section of the steam turbine in series through the reheater of the HRSG for applying steam at optimum temperature to the IP section of the steam turbine.

  10. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  11. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-06-28

    An apparatus is claimed for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  12. A PDE model of a waterwalls steam generation process.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel A; Suárez, Dionisio A; Moreno, Jaime A

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a model of a forced circulation waterwalls steam generator, derived from first principles. The distributed parameter criteria were applied to the heat transfer process and to the steam production inside the waterwalls. The model is capable of representing swell and shrink effects as well as the condensation-vaporization phenomena that take place inside the waterwall tubes, when large drum steam pressure variations are introduced. The swell and shrink effects are responsible for water displacement from the waterwalls to the drum and from the drum to the waterwalls. Open loop simulated test were produced with the steam pressure disturbance. Closed loop tests, including the models of the drum level and the combustion system and their control systems are presented. PMID:18692846

  13. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  14. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  15. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). 54... ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS General Requirements § 54.01-10 Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)). (a) Pressure vessels in which steam is generated are classed as “Unfired Steam Boilers” except...

  16. Design with constructal theory: Steam generators, turbines and heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sung

    This dissertation shows that the architecture of steam generators, steam turbines and heat exchangers for power plants can be predicted on the basis of the constructal law. According to constructal theory, the flow architecture emerges such that it provides progressively greater access to its currents. Each chapter shows how constructal theory guides the generation of designs in pursuit of higher performance. Chapter two shows the tube diameters, the number of riser tubes, the water circulation rate and the rate of steam production are determined by maximizing the heat transfer rate from hot gases to riser tubes and minimizing the global flow resistance under the fixed volume constraint. Chapter three shows how the optimal spacing between adjacent tubes, the number of tubes for the downcomer and the riser and the location of the flow reversal for the continuous steam generator are determined by the intersection of asymptotes method, and by minimizing the flow resistance under the fixed volume constraints. Chapter four shows that the mass inventory for steam turbines can be distributed between high pressure and low pressure turbines such that the global performance of the power plant is maximal under the total mass constraint. Chapter five presents the more general configuration of a two-stream heat exchanger with forced convection of the hot side and natural circulation on the cold side. Chapter six demonstrates that segmenting a tube with condensation on the outer surface leads to a smaller thermal resistance, and generates design criteria for the performance of multi-tube designs.

  17. Enhanced oil recovery using direct downhole steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    High pressure, direct contact steam generators are capable of producing high quality steam and inert combustion gas from a compact apparatus. The combination of steam and inert gas is attractive for many enhanced recovery operations. Direct contact steam generators can be utilized to produce steam with gases either on the surface or down hole. The utilization of these devices down hole can reduce capital and operating costs and eliminate delivery heat loss at the expense of a loss of accessibility. These devices are usually referred to as down-hole generators, even if operated on the surface. The current state of technology of these generators has evolved from a series of field test demonstrations to commercial deployment. The results obtained from demonstration tests conducted in reservoirs ranging from 250 to 800 m in depth showed that these devices could be operated successfully in the oil field for long periods of time. Subsequent to the successful demonstrations, commercial equipment has been deployed in various reservoir conditions. The results from both demonstration tests and current commercial operations are discussed.

  18. Proceedings of steam generator sludge deposition in recirculating and once through steam generator upper tube bundle and support plates

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, R.L. ); Harvego, E.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The development of remedial measures of shot peening have given nuclear utilities viable measures to address primary water stress corrosion cracking to extend steam generator life. The nuclear utility industry is now faced with potential replacement of steam generators in nuclear power plants due to stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attach in crevice locations on the secondary side of steam generators at tube support plates and at the crevice at the top of the tube sheet. Significant work has been done on developing and understanding of the effects of sludge buildup on the corrosion process at these locations. This session was envisioned to provide a forum for the development of an understanding of the mechanisms which control the transport and deposition of sludge on the secondary side of steam generators. It is hoped that this information will aid utilities in monitoring the progression of fouling of these crevices by further knowledge in where to look for the onset of support plate crevice fouling. An understanding of the progression of fouling from upper tube support plates to those lower in the steam generator where higher temperatures cause the corrosion process to initiate first can aid the nuclear utility industry in developing remedial measures for this condition and in providing a forewarning of when to apply such remedial measures.

  19. Overview of steam generator tube degradation and integrity issues

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Shack, W.J.; Muscara, J.

    1996-10-01

    The degradation of steam generator tubes in pressurized water nuclear reactors continues to be a serious problem. Primary water stress corrosion cracking is commonly observed at the roll transition zone at U-bends, at tube denting locations, and occasionally in plugs and sleeves. Outer-diameter stress corrosion cracking and intergranular attack commonly occur near the tube support plate crevice, near the tube sheet in crevices or under sludge piles, and occasionally in the free span. A particularly troubling recent trend has been the increasing occurrence of circumferential cracking at the RTZ on both the primary and secondary sides. Segmented axial cracking at the tubes support plate crevices is also becoming more common. Despite recent advances in in-service inspection technology, a clear need still exists for quantifying and improving the reliability of in- service inspection methods with respect to the probability of detection of the various types of flaws and their accurate sizing. Improved inspection technology and the increasing occurrence of such degradation modes as circumferential cracking, intergranular attack, and discontinuous axial cracking have led to the formulation of a new performance-based steam generator rule. This new rule would require the development and implementation of a steam generator management program that monitors tube condition against accepted performance criteria to ensure that the tubes perform the required safety function over the next operating cycle. The new steam generator rule will also be applied to severe accident conditions to determine the continued serviceability of a steam generator with degraded tubes in the event of a severe accident. Preliminary analyses are being performed for a hypothetical severe accident scenario to determine whether failure will occur first in the steam generator tubes, which would lead to containment bypass, or instead in the hot leg nozzle or surge line, which would not.

  20. Steam drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator and anti clay-swelling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D.N.; Snavely, E.S.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a method of recovering viscous oil from a subterranean, permeable, viscous oil-containing formation, the formation being penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one spaced-apart production well, the wells in fluid communication with a substantial portion of the formation. The method consists of injecting a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion containing an anti clay-swelling agent under pressure into a downhole steam generator in the injection well; injecting substantially pure oxygen into the steam generator under pressure via the injection well which contacts the pressurized hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion containing an anti clay-swelling agent in the steam generator thereby effecting spontaneous combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel to generate a mixture of steam and combustion gases that pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity; and recovering fluids including oil from the formation via the production well. Or the method can continue injecting the pressurized mixture of hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion and substantially pure oxygen for a predetermined period of time; and thereafter, discontinuing fluid injection of step (d) and opening the well to production so that fluids including oil are recovered from the formation.

  1. Steam generator group project: Task 13 final report: Nondestructive examination validation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, E.R.; Doctor, P.G.; Ferris, R.H.; Buchanan, J.A.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project (SGGP) was a multi-task effort using the retired-from-service Surry 2A pressurized water reactor steam generator as a test bed to investigate the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy current (EC) inspection equipment and procedures. The information developed provided the technical basis for recommendations for improved in- service inspection and tube plugging criteria of steam generators. This report describes the results and analysis from Task 13--NDE Validation. The primary objective of Task 13 was to validate the EC inspection to detect and size tube defects. Additional objectives were to assess the nature and severity of tube degradation from all regions of the generator and to measure the remaining integrity of degraded specimens by burst testing. More than 550 specimens were removed from the generator and included in the validation studies. The bases for selecting the specimens and the methods and procedures used for specimen removal from the generator are reported. Results from metallurgical examinations of these specimens are presented and discussed. These examinations include visual inspection of all specimens to locate and identify tube degradation, metallographic examination of selected specimens to establish defect severity and burst testing of selected specimens to establish the remaining integrity of service-degraded tubes. Statistical analysis of the combined metallurgical and EC data to determine the probability of detection (POD) and sizing accuracy are reported along with a discussion of the factors which influenced the EC results. Finally, listings of the metallurgical and corresponding EC data bases are given. 12 refs., 141 figs., 24 tabs.

  2. Steam generator tubing development for commercial fast breeder reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, C.E.; Uber, C.F.

    1981-11-01

    The development work to design, manufacture, and evaluate pre-stressed double-wall 2/one quarter/ Cr-1 Mo steel tubing for commercial fast breeder reactor steam generator application is discussed. The Westinghouse plan for qualifying tubing vendors to produce this tubing is described. The results achieved to date show that a long length pre-stressed double-wall tube is both feasible and commercially available. The evaluation included structural analysis and experimental measurement of the pre-stress within tubes, as well as dimensional, metallurgical, and interface wear tests of tube samples produced. This work is summarized and found to meet the steam generator design requirements. 10 refs.

  3. Analysis of thermosyphoning in a steam generator model

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, M.J.; Martinez, G.M.

    1991-10-01

    An analysis of thermosyphoning in a stream generator model is presented. The model considers the transient development of buoyancy-driven steam flow in the steam generator tubing, secondary side heat transfer and an inlet plenum mixing model. Numerical solutions are obtained for conditions intended to simulate the natural circulation phenomena in a 3-Loop pressurized water reactor in a loss-of-coolant accident scenario. The relation between the circulation rate and the heating rate is determined. The sensitivity of the model to various key parameters is examined. 16 refs.

  4. Health and safety impact of steam generator tube degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Marston T.

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the author addresses the problems inherent in evaluating the safety of steam generators with respect to tube rupture as part of a probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) of a reactor plant. He reviews the history of PSA as applied to reactors, and then looks at tube rupture histories as a start toward establishing event frequencies. He considers tube ruptures from the aspect of being an initiating event to being a conditional event to some other event, and then the question of performance of the steam generator in the face of a severe accident in the reactor.

  5. Evaluation of steam generator WWER 440 tube integrity criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Burda, J.

    1997-02-01

    The main corrosion damage in WWER steam generators under operating conditions has been observed on the outer surface of these tubes. An essential operational requirement is to assure a low probability of radioactive primary water leakage, unstable defect development and rupture of tubes. In the case of WWER 440 steam generators the above requirements led to the development of permissible limits for data evaluation of the primary-to-secondary leak measurements and determination of acceptable values for plugging of heat exchange tubes based on eddy current test (ECT) inspections.

  6. PWR steam generator chemical cleaning. Phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Two techniques believed capable of chemically dissolving the corrosion products in the annuli between tubes and support plates were developed in laboratory work in Phase I of this project and were pilot tested in Indian Point Unit No. 1 steam generators. In Phase II, one of the techniques was shown to be inadequate on an actual sample taken from an Indian Point Unit No. 2 steam generator. The other technique was modified slightly, and it was demonstrated that the tube/support plate annulus could be chemically cleaned effectively.

  7. Electropolishing process development for PWR steam generator channel heads

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, R.H.; Graves, P.; Guastaferro, C.T.; Spalaris, C.N. )

    1991-04-01

    A broad range of process parameters was established to smoothen the surface of 309 L weld clad overlay, prototypic of surfaces common is channel heads of replacement PWR (pressurized water reactor) steam generators. Mechanical and electropolishing steps were studied to explore process boundaries, which result in acceptable degree of surface smoothness, without compromising metallurgical properties. Recommended processes and acceptance criteria established in this work, can be applied to electropolish steam generator channel heads. Smooth surfaces are less likely to retain radioactive species, and potentially develop lower radiation fields when these components are placed into service. 7 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Prediction of the combustion characteristics in a downhole steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Naugler, David G.; Mohtadi, M. F.

    1984-02-01

    Downhole steam generation is an attractive alternative to conventional surface steam generation for recovery of heavy oils from deep reservoirs. Downhole steam generation technique has been under development in the past five years in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The main advantages of this method are very high thermal efficiency, flexibility of operation and lower environmental pollution load. In conjunction with experimental work on the development of a downhole steam generator at the University of Calgary, two computer models for prediction of the combustion characteristics in such generators have been developed. The first model is based on the assumption of a balanced reaction and complete combustion of the fuel. It determines the reaction temperature and the enthalpy of the product gases at different pressures, air/fuel ratios and water injection rates. The second model uses a modified version of the Dixon Lewis method to determine equilibrium for all species of the reaction system, including nitrogen oxides. A non-Jacobian numerical method is used for the solution of the resulting system of non-linear equations. The results show that to a fairly good approximation, the reaction temperature and the composition of product gases may be correlated with the main operating variables by simple logarithmic plots. This facilitates extrapolation of the experimental data by the use of allocation transformations.

  9. Design of Steam Generator for 700 MWe IPHWR

    SciTech Connect

    John, Benny; Ghadge, S.G.

    2006-07-01

    The next stage in the Indian Nuclear Power programme consists of building 700 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (IPHWR) units. This involves up-rating of all the plant equipment like Reactor, Steam Generators (SGs), turbo-generator, major pumps etc. The 434 MWth SG used in the current generation 540 MWe IPHWRs, is a mushroom type, inverted U tube, natural circulation steam generator. The challenge, for evolution of the 540 MWth SG design, was to keep the tube diameter, tube pitch and outer diameter of the steam generator sections identical to the 434 MWth SG as far as possible. Further, the temperature difference between the primary inlet and outlet temperatures from SG was also to be maintained equal to that of 434 MWth SG. The paper describes the thermal hydraulic studies carried out for arriving at an optimal process design of 540 MWth SG. The studies were carried out using the validated 1-D code developed in house. The paper covers the issues like, extraction of the extra 106 MWth power, maintenance of a good circulation ratio under all operating conditions, additional capacity requirements of steam separators and accommodation of internals in the given space. (authors)

  10. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  11. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-05-31

    An apparatus is claimed for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  12. Status of the CRBRP steam-generator design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, J.E.; Martinez, R.S.; Murdock, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    Fabrication of the Prototype Unit is near completion and will be delivered to the test site in August, 1981. The Plant Unit design is presently at an advanced stage and will result in steam generator units fully capable of meeting all the requiments of the CRBRP Power Plant.

  13. Steam generators regulatory practices and issues in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendoza, C.; Castelao, C.; Ruiz-Colino, J.; Figueras, J.M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents the actual status of Spanish Steam Generator tubes, actions developed by PWR plant owners and submitted to CSN, and regulatory activities related to tube degradation mechanisms analysis; NDT tube inspection techniques; tube, tubesheet and TSPs integrity studies; tube plugging/repair criteria; preventive and corrective measures including whole SGs replacement; tube leak measurement methods and other operational aspects.

  14. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  15. Eddy-current steam generator data analysis performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.H.

    1993-06-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of eddy current, bobbin coil data analysis of steam generator tubes conducted under the structure of the PWR Steam Generator Examination Guidelines, Individual and team performance measures were obtained from independent analyses of data from 1619 locations in a sample of 199 steam generator tubes. The 92 reportable indications contained in the tube sample, including 64 repairable indications, were attributable to: wear at anti-vibration bars, intergranular attack/stress-corrosion cracking (IGA/SCC) within tube sheet crevice regions, primary-water stress-corrosion cracking (PWSCC) at tube roll transitions, or thinning at cold-leg tube supports. Analyses were conducted by 20 analysts, four each from five vendors of eddy current steam generator examination services. In accordance with the guidelines, site orientation was provided with plant-specific guidelines; preanalysis practice was completed on plant-specific data; analysts were qualified by performance testing; and independent primary-secondary analyses were conducted with resolution of discrepancies (team analyses). Measures of analysis performance included percentages of indications correctly reported, percentages of false reports, and relative operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves presented comprehensive pictures of analysis accuracy generalizable beyond the specific conditions of this study. They also provided single-value measures of analysis accuracy. Conclusions and recommendations were provided relative to analysis accuracy, effect of primary-secondary analyses, analyses of tube sheet crevice regions, establishment of reporting criteria, improvement of examination guidelines, and needed research.

  16. VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FORMER STACK WITH 1955 STEAM GENERATOR BEHIND. BAGASSE CONVEYORS TO LEFT WITH BOILER HOUSE WING’S GABLE END IN LEFT BACKGROUND. A CONDENSATE TANK IS TO THE RIGHT, WITH BOILING HOUSE GABLE END IN THE BACKGROUND. VIEW FROM THE SOUTH - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  17. Effect of surface treatments on radiation buildup in steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    A study of the effect of surface preparation on the radiation buildup of steam generator materials of construction was conducted. The tests consisted of exposing treated manway seal plates to primary reactor coolant during the second through the fifth fuel cycle of the Chinon B1 pressurized water reactor. The pretreatments included: mechanical polishing, electropolishing (either on the as received surface or on a surface which had been previously mechanically polished), and passivation via the RCT (laboratory) process or the Framatome (in situ) process. Radioactivity buildup was determined at the end of each fuel cycle. A selected number of the seal plates were removed from the steam generators after each exposure cycle for destructive examinations. The electropolished surfaces exhibited a significantly lower radioactive buildup rate; an average factor of five less buildup compared to an as-received surface. Passivation of the electropolished surface, especially via the RCT process, reduced the buildup rate still further by a factor of two over the electropolished-only surface. Examination of the surfaces by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, etc., after exposure indicated no detrimental effects on the surface characteristics attributable to the surface treatments. A program has now been instituted to electropolish the steam generator channel heads of all new reactors in France, as well as the steam generators intended for replacement in existing plants. 1 ref., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming

    DOEpatents

    Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

    2013-07-23

    A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

  19. Steam generator tube integrity program: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Bickford, R.L.; Clark, R.A.; Morris, C.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1988-08-01

    The Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program (SGTIP) was a three phase program conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The first phase involved burst and collapse testing of typical steam generator tubing with machined defects. The second phase of the SGTIP continued the integrity testing work of Phase I, but tube specimens were degraded by chemical means rather than machining methods. The third phase of the program used a removed-from-service steam generator as a test bed for investigating the reliability and effectiveness of in-service nondestructive eddy-current inspection methods and as a source of service degraded tubes for validating the Phase I and Phase II data on tube integrity. This report describes the results of Phase II of the SGTIP. The object of this effort included burst and collapse testing of chemically defected pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generator tubing to validate empirical equations of remaining tube integrity developed during Phase I. Three types of defect geometries were investigated: stress corrosion cracking (SCC), uniform thinning and elliptical wastage. In addition, a review of the publicly available leak rate data for steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential SCC and a comparison with an analytical leak rate model is presented. Lastly, nondestructive eddy-current (EC) measurements to determine accuracy of defect depth sizing using conventional and alternate standards is described. To supplement the laboratory EC data and obtain an estimate of EC capability to detect and size SCC, a mini-round robin test utilizing several firms that routinely perform in-service inspections was conducted.

  20. Modeling a Helical-coil Steam Generator in RELAP5-3D for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Piyush Sabharwall; Nolan A. Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Options for the primary heat transport loop heat exchangers for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant are currently being evaluated. A helical-coil steam generator is one heat exchanger design under consideration. Safety is an integral part of the helical-coil steam generator evaluation. Transient analysis plays a key role in evaluation of the steam generators safety. Using RELAP5-3D to model the helical-coil steam generator, a loss of pressure in the primary side of the steam generator is simulated. This report details the development of the steam generator model, the loss of pressure transient, and the response of the steam generator primary and secondary systems to the loss of primary pressure. Back ground on High Temperature Gas-cooled reactors, steam generators, the Next Generation Nuclear Plant is provided to increase the readers understanding of the material presented.

  1. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, R.L.

    1983-04-19

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (Atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  2. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Ronald L.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  3. Packer cooling system for a downhole steam generator assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.; Mooney, F.X.; Vandevier, J.E.

    1989-02-21

    An apparatus is described for providing electrical power to a downhole stream generator in a cased well, comprising in combination: a packer supported on a string of tubing; a connector box; an electrical cable extending from the surface alongside the tubing into the aperture and through the conduit into the connector box; a plurality of electrical conductors extending between the steam generator and engaging a lower end of each electrical connector in the connection plate; and cooling fluid passage means extending through the packer for circulating cooling fluid pumped down from the surface through the packer and back up the well to the surface. The patent also describes a method for installing an operating a steam generator in a well.

  4. Materials development for a fast breeder reactor steam generator concept

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, C.E.; Reynolds, S.D. Jr.; Hebbar, M.A.; Lewis, J.F.; Kiefer, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    The progress achieved since 1977 in the important area of materials and processes development of fast reactor steam generator development is summarized. The two distinguishing features of the proposed Westinghouse-Tampa steam generator concept are the convoluted shell expansion joint (CSEJ) and the double-wall tubing with a third fluid leak detection capability. A 2/one quarter/ Cr-1 Mo low alloy steel will be used for all important parts of the generator including the CSEJ and the tubes. Other areas in which progress was made include tube-to-tubesheet (T/TS) welding, post-weld heat treatment (PWHT), tube expansion, and development of materials specifications for prototype and future plant materials. 8 refs.

  5. Integrity of the tubes used in vertical and horizontal steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergunker, V. D.

    2011-03-01

    Statistical data on experience gained from operation of steam generators around the world are presented, problems arising in vertical and horizontal steam generators are described, and the conditions of heattransfer tubes used in them are compared.

  6. Oxygen-hydrogen torch is a small-scale steam generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maskell, C. E.

    1966-01-01

    Standard oxygen-hydrogen torch generates steam for corrosion-rate analysis of various metals. The steam is generated through local combustion inside a test chamber under constant temperature and pressure control.

  7. Multifunctional Porous Graphene for High-Efficiency Steam Generation by Heat Localization.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshikazu; Tanabe, Yoichi; Han, Jiuhui; Fujita, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Katsumi; Chen, Mingwei

    2015-08-01

    Multifunctional nanoporous graphene is realized as a heat generator to convert solar illumination into high-energy steam. The novel 3D nanoporous graphene demonstrates a highly energy-effective steam generation with an energy conversation of 80%. PMID:26079440

  8. Simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture using trace

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Verdu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A simulation of the OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduced a Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) with a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The result of these simultaneous breaks is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system in loop B because both systems are connected through the SGTR. Good approximation was obtained between TRACE5 results and experimental data. TRACE5 reproduces qualitatively the phenomena that occur in this transient: primary pressure falls after the break, stagnation of the pressure after the opening of the relief valve of the intact steam generator, the pressure falls after the two openings of the PORV and the recovery of the liquid level in the pressurizer after each closure of the PORV. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis has been performed to know the effect of varying the High Pressure Injection (HPI) flow rate in both loops on the system pressures evolution. (authors)

  9. Modifying steam generator corrosion behavior via chemical cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, K.; Neese, K.

    1994-12-31

    A steam generator chemical cleaning program was conducted in Palo Verde nuclear generating station (PVNGS) units 2 and 3 in 1994. This effort represented the first full-bundle chemical cleaning of a recirculating steam generator in the United States. The objectives of the process were: (1) to remove deposits in the upper bundle regions, which were identified by eddy-current analysis and linked to a free-span outside-diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) condition; (2) to remove tube scale deposits that interfere with heat transfer and may contain undesirable contaminants; (3) to remove deposits from the surface of the tube sheet and the flow distribution plate; and (4) to remove deposits from the drilled hole crevices in the FDP, which may be contributing to low recirculation ratios and upper bundle transition boiling. The Electric Power Research Institute/Steam Generator Owners` Group low-temperature process, modified to include {open_quotes}crevice cleaning{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}passivation{close_quotes} steps, was selected as the best method. Babock & Wilcox Nuclear Technologies was selected as the vendor.

  10. Improvements in the simulation of a main steam line break with steam generator tube rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, Sergio; Querol, Andrea; Verdú, Gumersindo

    2014-06-01

    The result of simultaneous Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) and a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is a depressurization in the secondary and primary system because both systems are connected through the SGTR. The OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Test 5 performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproduces these simultaneous breaks in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A simulation of this Test 5 was made with the thermal-hydraulic code TRACE5. Some discrepancies found, such as an underestimation of SG-A secondary pressure during the depressurization and overestimation of the primary pressure drop after the first Power Operated Relief Valve (PORV) opening can be improved increasing the nodalization of the Upper Head in the pressure vessel and meeting the actual fluid conditions of Upper Head during the transient.

  11. Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, M.K.

    1981-01-07

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  12. Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles

    DOEpatents

    Drost, Monte K.

    1982-01-01

    An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

  13. Operating experience at the Shamokin Culm burning steam generation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, P.A.; Laukaitis, J.F.; Lockman, H.W.; Samela, D.; Smith, W.G.; Tsoumpas, G.

    1983-06-01

    After 9200 hours of operation it can be concluded that low grade anthracite culm refuse fuel can be properly combusted in a fluidized-bed boiler. The Shamokin Culm Burning Steam Generation Plant has demonstrated environmental compliance while operating over a wide range of operational variables. As changes in equipment and materials are implemented and other fuels are combusted, it is expected that a further demonstration of the Plant's capabilities will be realized.

  14. Emission controller for indirect fired downhole steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Vrolyk, J. J.

    1985-02-12

    The present invention provides an indirect downhole steam generator system comprising a downhole combustor, a well casing which provides a flue for the exhaust gases of the downhole combustor, and one or more aerosol nozzles situated within the exhaust flue of the well casing for injecting an aerosol limestone dust into the exhaust gases of the combustor as the exhaust gases travel up the flue.

  15. Heat transfer simulation in a helically coiled tube steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanzadeh, Bazargan; Keshavarz, Ali; Ebrahimi, Masood

    2014-01-01

    A symmetric helically coiled tube steam generator that operates by methane has been simulated analytically and numerically. In the analytical method, the furnace has been divided into five zones. The numerical method computes the total heat absorbed in the furnace, while the existing analytical methods compute only the radiation heat transfer. In addition, according to the numerical results, a correlation is proposed for the Nusselt number in the furnace.

  16. Investigation of thermal storage and steam generator issues

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    A review and evaluation of steam generator and thermal storage tank designs for commercial nitrate salt technology showed that the potential exists to procure both on a competitive basis from a number of qualified vendors. The report outlines the criteria for review and the results of the review, which was intended only to assess the feasibility of each design, not to make a comparison or select the best concept.

  17. Heat recovery steam generator outlet temperature control system for a combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Martens, A.; Myers, G.A.; McCarty, W.L.; Wescott, K.R.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a command cycle electrical power plant including: a steam turbine and at least one set comprising a gas turbine, an afterburner and a heat recovery steam generator having an attemperator for supplying from an outlet thereof to the steam turbine superheated steam under steam turbine operating conditions requiring predetermined superheated steam temperature, flow and pressure; with the gas turbine and steam turbine each generating megawatts in accordance with a plant load demand; master control means being provided for controlling the steam turbine and the heat recovery steam generator so as to establish the steam operating conditions; the combination of: first control means responsive to the gas inlet temperature of the heat recovery steam generator and to the plant load demand for controlling the firing of the afterburner; second control means responsive to the superheated steam predetermined temperature and to superheated steam temperature from the outlet for controlling the attemperator between a closed and an open position; the first and second control means being operated concurrently to maintain the superheated steam outlet temperature while controlling the load of the gas turbine independently of the steam turbine operating conditions.

  18. Steam Generator tube integrity -- US Nuclear Regulatory Commission perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, E.L.; Sullivan, E.J.

    1997-02-01

    In the US, the current regulatory framework was developed in the 1970s when general wall thinning was the dominant degradation mechanism; and, as a result of changes in the forms of degradation being observed and improvements in inspection and tube repair technology, the regulatory framework needs to be updated. Operating experience indicates that the current U.S. requirements should be more stringent in some areas, while in other areas they are overly conservative. To date, this situation has been dealt with on a plant-specific basis in the US. However, the NRC staff is now developing a proposed steam generator rule as a generic framework for ensuring that the steam generator tubes are capable of performing their intended safety functions. This paper discusses the current U.S. regulatory framework for assuring steam generator (SG) tube integrity, the need to update this regulatory framework, the objectives of the new proposed rule, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory guide (RG) that will accompany the rule, how risk considerations affect the development of the new rule, and some outstanding issues relating to the rule that the NRC is still dealing with.

  19. Machine vision calibration for a nuclear steam generator robot

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, S.W.; Fallon, J.B.; Reinholtz, C.F.; Abbott, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    Inspection and repair of pressurized water reactor steam generators are among the most costly and schedule-critical activities of a refueling outage. These. tasks are highly automated with robots and special tools. This paper describes a method of improving the calibration of a steam generator robot by adding a machine vision computer to the existing tool-head monocular video. The steam generators are heat exchangers containing several thousand tubes ranging from 20 to 40 m in length. Each tube is 1 to 2 cm in diameter with a wall thickness of {approximately} 1 mm. The tubes are welded into a thick tube sheet that caps a hemispherical or quarter-sphere plenum. Practically all work must be performed robotically because the plenum is a high-radiation area. A robotic arm with precise positioning capability must enter the plenum through a 40-cm passageway. Most arms are anchored to either the passageway or the tube sheet. The arm must identify each of the thousands of tubes by row and column number based on the measured robotic joint angles and the calibrated arm-to-tube sheet spatial transform.

  20. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  1. Selection of materials for sodium fast reactor steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Dubiez-Le Goff, S.; Garnier, S.; Gelineau, O.; Dalle, F.; Blat-Yrieix, M.; Augem, J. M.

    2012-07-01

    Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) is considered in France as the most mature technology of the different Generation IV systems. In the short-term the designing work is focused on the identification of the potential tracks to demonstrate licensing capability, availability, in-service inspection capability and economical performance. In that frame materials selection for the major components, as the steam generator, is a particularly key point managed within a French Research and Development program launched by AREVA, CEA and EDF. The choice of the material for the steam generator is indeed complex because various aspects shall be considered like mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature, interaction with sodium on one side and water and steam on the other side, resistance to wastage, procurement, fabrication, weldability and ability for inspection and in-situ intervention. The following relevant options are evaluated: the modified 9Cr1Mo ferritic-martensitic grade and the Alloy 800 austenitic grade. The objective of this paper is to assess for both candidates their abilities to reach the current SFR needs regarding material design data, from AFCEN RCC-MRx Code in particular, compatibility with environments and manufacturability. (authors)

  2. COMMIX analysis of the sodium heated helical coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Kakarala, C.R.; Burge, S.W.; Sha, W.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the COMMIX-HCSG computer program and compares predictions to data obtained from performance tests on a 76 MWt Helical Coil Steam Generator (HCSG) test unit. COMMIX-HCSG is a multi-dimensional thermal/hydraulic code that models both steady state and transient operation of an HCSG. The code solves a system of Navier-Stokes continuum equations that have been modified with a combination of volume and directional surface porosities and distributed resistances. This formulation properly accounts for the presence of tube bundle, supports, and baffles on the shell side of the steam generator. Turbulence models and heat transfer and pressure drop equations are used as applicable for the different regions including the upper plenum, the tube bundle, and the lower plenum of the HCSG. The data was obtained from performance tests conducted in early 1987 on the 76 MWt HCSG test unit at the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC). The test unit contains over 700 instruments. HCSG development and tests are carried out as part of the Department of Energy program to develop reliable and economical liquid metal heated steam generators.

  3. Numerical investigation of mass transfer in the flow path of the experimental model of the PGV-1500 steam generator's steam receiving section with two steam nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golibrodo, L. A.; Krutikov, A. A.; Nadinskii, Yu. N.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Skibin, A. P.; Sotskov, V. V.

    2014-10-01

    The hydrodynamics of working medium in the steam volume model implemented in the experimental setup constructed at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering was simulated for verifying the procedure of calculating the velocity field in the steam space of steam generators used as part of the reactor plants constructed on the basis of water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER). The numerical calculation was implemented in the environment of the STAR-CCM+ software system with its cross verification in the STAR-CD and ANSYS CFX software systems. The performed numerical investigation served as a basis for substantiating the selection of the computation code and parameters for constructing the computer model of the steam receiving device of the PGV-1500 steam generator experimental model, such as the quantization scheme, turbulence model, and mesh model.

  4. COSTEAM, an industrial steam generation cost model: updated users' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mary; Reierson, James; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is a tool for designers and managers faced with choosing among alternative systems for generating process steam, whether for new or replacement applications. Such a decision requires a series of choices among overall system concepts, component characteristics, fuel types and financial assumptions, all of which are interdependent and affect the cost of steam. COSTEAM takes the user's input on key characteristics of a proposed process steam generation facility, and computes its capital, operating and maintenance costs. Versatility and simplicity of operation are major goals of the COSTEAM system. As a user, you can work to almost any level of detail necessary and appropriate to a given stage of planning. Since the values you specify are retained and used by the computer throughout each terminal session, you can set up a hypothetical steam generation system fixed in all characteristics but one or two of special interest. It is then quick and easy to obtain a series of results by changing only those one or two values between computer runs. This updated version of the Users' Manual contains instructions for using the expanded and improved COSTEAM model. COSTEAM has three technology submodels which address conventional coal, conventional oil and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion. The structure and calculation methods of COSTEAM are not discussed in this guide, and need not be understood in order to use the model. However, you may consult the companion volume of this report, COSTEAM Expansion and Improvements: Design of a Coal-Fired Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Submodel, an Oil-Fired Submodel, and Input/Output Improvements, MTR80W00048, which presents the design details.

  5. Techniques for in-service inspection of heat-transfer tubes in steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    McClung, R.W.; Day, R.A.; Neely, H.H.; Powers, T.

    1981-01-01

    A multifaceted development program is in progress in the United States to study techniques for in-service inspection (ISI) of heat transfer tubes in breeder reactor steam generators. Several steam generator designs are involved. Although there are some similarities in the approaches, many of the details of techniques and capabilities are specific to the steam generator design. This paper describes the ultrasonic, eddy-current and penetrating radiation techniques being studied for the various steam generators, including the Large Leak Test Rig, the Clinch River Breeder Reactor design, and alternate steam generators being developed by Westinghouse and Babcock and Wilcox.

  6. The case for endurance testing of sodium-heated steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Onesto, A.T.; Zweig, H.R.; Gibbs, D.C. . Rocketdyne Division.); Carlson, R.D. ); Rodwell, E. ); Kakarala, C.R. )

    1993-08-01

    After operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) steam generators in U.S. nuclear plants during the past 33 years and plugging thousands of tubes and replacing numerous steam generators at immense costs, utility and steam generator designers are now confident that they can design, build, and operate PWR steam generators successfully. Deployment of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) will likely follow the same scenario if long-term testing is not performed and development completed prior to commercial deployment. A case is made for endurance testing of steam generators to be used in future LMFBRs.

  7. Steam generator tube integrity program leak rate tests. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.A.; Bickford, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    This interim report presents preliminary results on leak rate tests performed on through-wall defected Inconel 600 steam generator tubing. Tube defects included an EDM (electro-discharge machine) notch and IGSCC (intergranular stress corrosion cracks) of various lengths. Tests were conducted at PWR operating temperatures with leakage of hot water/steam into air. A number of IGSCC cracks were unstable under the experiment conditions of these initial tests, continuing to grow until system capacity limitations resulted in decreased pressure differential. However, initial tesing also pointed to a need for reconfiguration of the test apparatus to sustain increased flow and, more importantly, alter the mode of control. The initial test configuration is based on flow control, with pressure differential across the specimen an independent variable. This often results in pressure increases too rapid to establish the initiation of crack instability. A reconfigured system based on pressure control with flow as an independent parameter is being recommended for future tests.

  8. Alternative method for steam generation for thermal oxidation of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegelman, Jeffrey J.

    2010-02-01

    Thermal oxidation of silicon is an important process step in MEMS device fabrication. Thicker oxide layers are often used as structural components and can take days or weeks to grow, causing high gas costs, maintenance issues, and a process bottleneck. Pyrolytic steam, which is generated from hydrogen and oxygen combustion, was the default process, but has serious drawbacks: cost, safety, particles, permitting, reduced growth rate, rapid hydrogen consumption, component breakdown and limited steam flow rates. Results from data collected over a 24 month period by a MEMS manufacturer supports replacement of pyrolytic torches with RASIRC Steamer technology to reduce process cycle time and enable expansion previously limited by local hydrogen permitting. Data was gathered to determine whether Steamers can meet or exceed pyrolytic torch performance. The RASIRC Steamer uses de-ionized water as its steam source, eliminating dependence on hydrogen and oxygen. A non-porous hydrophilic membrane selectively allows water vapor to pass. All other molecules are greatly restricted, so contaminants in water such as dissolved gases, ions, total organic compounds (TOC), particles, and metals can be removed in the steam phase. The MEMS manufacturer improved growth rate by 7% over the growth range from 1μm to 3.5μm. Over a four month period, wafer uniformity, refractive index, wafer stress, and etch rate were tracked with no significant difference found. The elimination of hydrogen generated a four-month return on investment (ROI). Mean time between failure (MTBF) was increased from 3 weeks to 32 weeks based on three Steamers operating over eight months.

  9. An experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from an experimental study of a VVER reactor's steam generator model operating in the condensing mode are presented. The obtained empirical dependence for calculating the power of heat exchangers operating in the steam condensation mode is presented.

  10. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... known as “Evaporators” or “Heat Exchangers” are not classified as unfired steam boilers. They shall be... this part. (c) An evaporator in which steam is generated shall be fitted with an efficient water...

  11. 46 CFR 54.01-10 - Steam-generating pressure vessels (modifies U-1(g)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... known as “Evaporators” or “Heat Exchangers” are not classified as unfired steam boilers. They shall be... this part. (c) An evaporator in which steam is generated shall be fitted with an efficient water...

  12. The Evaluation of Steam Generator Level Measurement Model for OPR1000 Using RETRAN-3D

    SciTech Connect

    Doo Yong Lee; Soon Joon Hong; Byung Chul Lee; Heok Soon Lim

    2006-07-01

    Steam generator level measurement is important factor for plant transient analyses using best estimate thermal hydraulic computer codes since the value of steam generator level is used for steam generator level control system and plant protection system. Because steam generator is in the saturation condition which includes steam and liquid together and is the place that heat exchange occurs from primary side to secondary side, computer codes are hard to calculate steam generator level realistically without appropriate level measurement model. In this paper, we prepare the steam generator models using RETRAN-3D that include geometry models, full range feedwater control system and five types of steam generator level measurement model. Five types of steam generator level measurement model consist of level measurement model using elevation difference in downcomer, 1D level measurement model using fluid mass, 1D level measurement model using fluid volume, 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass, and 2D level measurement model using power and fluid volume. And we perform the evaluation of the capability of each steam generator level measurement model by simulating the real plant transient condition, the title is 'Reactor Trip by The Failure of The Deaerator Level Control Card of Ulchin Unit 3'. The comparison results between real plant data and RETRAN-3D analyses for each steam generator level measurement model show that 2D level measurement model using power and fluid mass or fluid volume has more realistic prediction capability compared with other level measurement models. (authors)

  13. Ultrasonic guided wave inspection concepts for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, J.L.; Rajana, K.M. ); Carr, F.T. )

    1994-02-01

    Some very exciting and promising results have been obtained with respect to the utilization and guided wave techniques for inspecting steam generator tubing. In addition to some theoretical considerations that were studied recently, work has been carried out in special probe design and development. This special probe is used in demonstration of law detection feasibility, and in understanding the conceptual development of a complete flaw detection system. This includes transducer, pulser-receiver system, and appropriate signal processing and pattern recognition software for reliable inspection. Ultrasonic NDE techniques have progressed quite rapidly during this decade for two principal reasons: advanced signal processing, and the use and understanding of multi-mode ultrasonic wave propagation. Both concepts are useful in the proposed work on guided wave propagation in steam generator tubing. These new directions go beyond the use of normal beam longitudinal waves and angle beam shear waves for inspection. Guided waves such as surface and Lamb waves can be used to monitor larger volumes of material with greater efficiency. The generation of these waves, however, is more complex. Theoretically one can produce a large number of modes in a structure with a simple loading arrangement. However, the generation of sufficient amounts of energy in a specific mode strongly depends on several factors. They include the loading system, angle of attack, probe frequency, frequency bandwidth, and a whole host of special transducer design and instrumentation parameters.

  14. New treatment concept for steam generators technical aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, A.; Wirendal, B.O.; Lindberg, M.

    2007-07-01

    The project that will be described is a co-operation development project (SAGA) between Studsvik and the Ringhals NPP. The objective for this development project was, to show that it is possible to perform effective waste treatment of a Steam Generator(SG), to minimize the volume that in the end will have to be finally disposed of and to recycle as much of the metals as possible. Another objective for the project was to do this in a safe way and without a large dose load to the personnel. The treatment concept contains the whole chain of activities from loading of the steam generator at Ringhals NPP onto the special vessel M/S Sigyn, and the transportation of the SG from Ringhals NPP on the west coast of Sweden to Studsvik on the east coast, to the recycling of the metals and the packing of waste in final packages suitable for disposal. The volume for a final repository before treatment was about 400 m3 for the SG and after treatment the volume for final disposal is < 35 m{sup 3} which gives a volume reduction factor of about 11. The amount of material from the steam generator that has clearance for free release is 75-80 % of the weight. A project is started to analyse the experience from the project above and to come forward with recommendations for how to lower the dose exposure, minimize the secondary waste for final disposal and to decrease the treatment time. Some actions are already taken: - A new larger treatment facility is built at Studsvik, > 1000 m{sup 2}, planned to be operational in April 2007. - Investments in a larger band saw. - Improvements of the blasting equipment. - Improvements of the method of segmentation of the tube bundle. - Improvements of the method of volume reduction for the tube bundle. (authors)

  15. Mechanism of TMI-1 steam-generator failures

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, R.C.; Bandy, R.; Roberge, R.

    1983-01-01

    The low-temperature stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of sensitized Inconel 600 was studied using various borated solutions of sulfur compounds. Sodium thiosulfate and sodium tetrathionate were equally aggressive provided that the alloy was sufficiently severely sensitized. Tetrathionate was more effective on marginally sensitized material. The threshold concentration of thiosulfate was below 10/sup -6/ M. LiOH additions inhibited SCC. Oxygen is necessary for SCC in these solutions. The relevance of the laboratory tests to the steam generator failures is discussed.

  16. Radiological assessment of steam generator repair and replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, M.A.; Rathbun, L.A.; Murphy, D.W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous analyses of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators have been updated based on experience at Surry Units 1 and 2 and Turkey Point Units 3 and 4. The sleeving repairs of degraded tubes at San Onofre Unit 1, Point Beach Unit 2, and R.E. Ginna are also analyzed. Actual occupational doses incurred during application of the various technologies used in repairs have been included, along with radioactive waste quantities and constituents. Considerable progress has been made in improving radiation protection and reducing worker dose by the development of remotely controlled equipment and the implementation of dose reduction strategies that have been successful in previous repair operations.

  17. Design of robust level control system of nuclear steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Na, M. G.

    2007-12-01

    The nuclear steam generator feedwater control system is designed by the robust control methods. The design is divided into two steps. First, the feedwater controller in the feedwater station is designed by H ∞ and MWS methods. Then the controller located on the feedback loop is designed both by classical PID and by robust technique. It is found that the feedback controller of simple PID whose coefficients vary with the power is proper for the system performance. The simulations show that the hybrid system of H ∞ and PID has a good performance with proper stability margins.

  18. Dynamic stability experiments in sodium-heated steam generators. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    France, D.M.; Roy, R.; Carlson, R.D.; Chiang, T.

    1984-01-01

    Seventy-two dynamic stability tests were performed in the sodium-heated boiling-water test facility at Argonne National Laboratory. A full-scale LMFBR steam generator tube was employed as the test section operating over the water parameter ranges of 6.9 to 15.9 MPa pressure and 170 to 800 kg/m/sup 2/.s mass flux. The stability thresholds from the test compared well to the predictions of a modified version of a correlation equation recently published by other investigators. Typical experimental data and the modified correlation equation are presented.

  19. Primary-side deposits on PWR steam-generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, C.A.; Roesmer, J.; Perone, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    The evaluation of analyses of material removed from primary side steam generator tubing samples taken from nuclear plants that had operated for up to 7 effective full power years are presented in this report. The types of analyses incuded radiochemical, chemical, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive x-ray (EDAX) techniques to characterize the surfaces and composition of the tubing material. An evaluation of the data obtained and a comparison with in-core crud data and with values calculated by a mathematical activity transport model (CORA) are also given in the report.

  20. Recent operating experiences with steam generators in Japanese NPPs

    SciTech Connect

    Yashima, Seiji

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Genkai-3 of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc. and the Ikata-3 of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. started commercial operation, and now 22 PWR plants are being operated in Japan. Since the first PWR plant now 22 PWR plants are being operated in was started to operate, Japanese PWR plants have had an operating experience of approx. 280 reactor-years. During that period, many tube degradations have been experienced in steam generators (SGs). And, in 1991, the steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) occurred in the Mihama-2 of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. However, the occurrence of tube degradation of SGs has been decreased by the instructions of the MITI as regulatory authorities, efforts of Electric Utilities, and technical support from the SG manufacturers. Here the author describes the recent SGs in Japan about the following points. (1) Recent Operating Experiences (2) Lessons learned from Mihama-2 SGTR (3) SG replacement (4) Safety Regulations on SG (5) Research and development on SG.

  1. WWER Steam Generators Tubing Performance and Aging Management

    SciTech Connect

    Trunov, Nikolay B.; Davidenko, Stanislav E.; Grigoriev, Vladimir A.; Popadchuk, Valery S.; Brykov, Sergery I.; Karzov, Georgy P.

    2006-07-01

    At WWER NPPs the horizontal steam generators (SGs), are used that differ in design concept from vertical SGs mostly used at western NPPs. Reliable operation of SG heat-exchanging tubes is the crucial worldwide problem for NPP of various types. According to the operation feedback the water chemistry is the governing factor affecting operability of SG tubing. The secondary side corrosion is considered to be the main mechanism of SG heat-exchanging tubes damage at WWER plants. To make the assessment of the tubing integrity the combination of pressure tests and eddy-current tests is used. Assessment of the tubing performance is an important part of SG life extension practice. The given paper deals with the description of the tube testing strategy and the approach to tube integrity assessment based on deterministic and probabilistic methods of fracture mechanics. Requirements for eddy-current test are given as well. Practice of condition monitoring and implementing the database on steam generators operation are presented. The approach to tubes plugging criteria is described. The research activities on corrosion mechanism studies and residual lifetime evaluation are mentioned. (authors)

  2. Modeling of eddy current NDE probe for steam generator tubes.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F. C.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kupperman, D.

    2003-01-29

    Calculations were performed with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element model to describe the response of an eddy current (EC) probe to defects in steam generator (SG) tubing of a nuclear reactor. Such calculations could be very helpful in understanding and interpreting the EC probe response to complex tube/defect geometries associated with longitudinal inner/outer notches, roll transitions, sludge, and through-wall holes in SG tubes. The governing field equations are derived in terms of coupled magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials in the conducting media and total or reduced scalar potentials in the non-conducting regions. To assess the validity of the model, we compared the signal responses for two numerical approaches, stored-energy-and-power-loss approach and magnetic-flux approach for various tube/defect geometries. Simulation results are also presented on the tube/defect geometries for the pancake coil response and the transmitter/receiver (T/R) probe response. The results indicate that the eddy-current NDE modeling is capable of predicting EC probe response to flaws in steam generator tubes.

  3. Robotized system for removal of slime from the bottom of steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherenko, O. V.; Shvarov, V. A.

    2014-02-01

    Reliability of steam generators depends not only on the main technical characteristics and correctness of the operational mode but also on the cleanliness of the heat-exchange surface and the presence of slime precipitated on the bottom. To provide the cleanliness, chemical methods of cleaning the heatexchange surfaces are used. In this article, we consider the process of removal of sediments that are formed precisely on the bottom of the steam generator from its volume. Possible mechanical methods for removal of sediments are presented. The consideration of variants of cleaning approved for acting steam generators showed the efficiency and applicability of the developed installation for the slime removal from steam generators. The main principles of construction of the system for slime removal from the steam generator bottom and constructive features of the installation, which make it possible to implement the stated tasks on the slime removal from the steam generator bottom, are given.

  4. Ah, Retirement! Hmm, Retirement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Jack O.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the disadvantages of compulsory retirement at age 65 for senior business executives and suggests several possible ways companies can make good use of the experience and expertise of retirement-age executives. (Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; $2.50, single copy) (JG)

  5. Development and Transient Analysis of a Helical-coil Steam Generator for High Temperature Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan V. Hoffer; Nolan A. Anderson; Piyush Sabharwall

    2011-08-01

    A high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) is under development by the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Its design emphasizes electrical power production which may potentially be coupled with process heat for hydrogen production and other industrial applications. NGNP is considering a helical-coil steam generator for the primary heat transport loop heat exchanger based on its increased heat transfer and compactness when compared to other steam generators. The safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator is currently under evaluation as part of the development of NGNP. Transients, such as loss of coolant accidents (LOCA), are of interest in evaluating the safety of steam generators. In this study, a complete steam generator inlet pipe break (double ended pipe break) LOCA was simulated by an exponential loss of primary side pressure. For this analysis, a model of the helical-coil steam generator was developed using RELAP5-3D, an INL inhouse systems analysis code. The steam generator model behaved normally during the transient simulating the complete steam generator inlet pipe break LOCA. Further analysis is required to comprehensively evaluate the safety and reliability of the helical-coil steam generator design in the NGNP setting.

  6. Actual operation and regulatory activities on steam generator replacement in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the operating reactors in Japan, and the status of the steam generators in these plants. It reviews plans for replacement of existing steam generators, and then goes into more detail on the planning and regulatory steps which must be addressed in the process of accomplishing this maintenance. The paper also reviews the typical steps involved in the process of removal and replacement of steam generators.

  7. SWAAM-code development and verification and application to steam generator designs

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Y.W.; Valentin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the family of SWAAM codes which were developed by Argonne National Laboratory to analyze the effects of sodium-water reactions on LMR steam generators. The SWAAM codes were developed as design tools for analyzing various phenomena related to steam generator leaks and the resulting thermal and hydraulic effects on the steam generator and the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS). The paper discusses the theoretical foundations and numerical treatments on which the codes are based, followed by a description of code capabilities and limitations, verification of the codes and applications to steam generator and IHTS designs. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Prediction of localized flow velocities and turbulence in a PWR steam generator: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhmiller, J.H.

    1988-05-01

    The Steam Generator Project Office (SGPO) of the Steam Generator Owners Group and Electric Power Research Institute has developed a methodology for prediction of steam generator tube buffeting and associated material wear. Turbulent buffeting of steam generator tubes causes low amplitude vibratory response which results in fretting wear at support locations. Concerns raised at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant regarding the useful life of their steam generators prompted this study, in which the SGPO methodology is applied to analysis of the Westinghouse Model 51 steam generator. The specific intent of this project was to calculate turbulent buffeting forces within the tube bank of an operating Model 51 steam generator as a first step in the overall SGPO tube vibration and wear prediction strategy. Attention is focused on flow in the vicinity of anti-vibration bars (U-bend region) and on the flow that leaves the downcomer to impact against peripheral tubes. Other projects utilized the buffeting forces calculated here to determine tube vibratory response, tube-support plate impact statistics, and material wear rates. Besides successfully calculating hydraulic buffeting loads within the tube bank, the present project has enhanced the SGPO methodology and has identified hitherto unnoticed flow phenomena that occur in the steam generator. Experiments have also been carried out to validate numerical computations of the steam generator flow field.

  9. Magnetic field simulation of magnetic phase detection sensor for steam generator tube in nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Kwon-sang; Son, Derac; Park, Duck-gun; Kim, Yong-il

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic phases and defects are partly produced in steam generator tubes by stress and heat, because steam generator tubes in nuclear power plants are used under high temperature, high pressure, and radioactivity. The magnetic phases induce an error in the detection of the defects in steam generator tubes by the conventional eddy current method. So a new method is needed for detecting the magnetic phases in the steam generator tubes. We designed a new U-type yoke which has two kinds of coils and simulated the signal by the magnetic phases and defects in the Inconnel 600 tube.

  10. [A study on steam generator in solid amine CO2 purification system].

    PubMed

    Zhou, K H; Liu, X Y; Lu, X Y; Ai, S K; Li, S L; Huang, Y

    2001-04-01

    Objective. To solve the key problems of power matching between process of CO2 steam desorption and process of steam generation, as well as water/vapor separation. Method. Solid amine desorption process was studied by thermodynamic analysis and experiments. The distribution rule of desorption energy was found out and then the power consumption of steam generator was decided. Ceramic insert was designed to separate water and vapor making use of surface tension. Finally, the steam generator was designed on system requirements. Result. Experiments proved that the steam generator can satisfy the demand of the system as well as successfully separate water and vapor, in addition, the selected power is suitable. Conclusion. The design on steam generator was right and practicable. PMID:11808568

  11. Steam generator degradation: Current mitigation strategies for controlling corrosion

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.

    1997-02-01

    Steam Generator degradation has caused substantial losses of power generation, resulted in large repair and maintenance costs, and contributed to significant personnel radiation exposures in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) operating throughout the world. EPRI has just published the revised Steam Generator Reference Book, which reviews all of the major forms of SG degradation. This paper discusses the types of SG degradation that have been experienced with emphasis on the mitigation strategies that have been developed and implemented in the field. SG degradation is presented from a world wide perspective as all countries operating PWRs have been effected to one degree or another. The paper is written from a US. perspective where the utility industry is currently undergoing tremendous change as a result of deregulation of the electricity marketplace. Competitive pressures are causing utilities to strive to reduce Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and capital costs. SG corrosion is a major contributor to the O&M costs of PWR plants, and therefore US utilities are evaluating and implementing the most cost effective solutions to their corrosion problems. Mitigation strategies developed over the past few years reflect a trend towards plant specific solutions to SG corrosion problems. Since SG degradation is in most cases an economic problem and not a safety problem, utilities can focus their mitigation strategies on their unique financial situation. Accordingly, the focus of R&D has shifted from the development of more expensive, prescriptive solutions (e.g. reduced impurity limits) to corrosion problems to providing the utilities with a number of cost effective mitigation options (e.g. molar ratio control, boric acid treatment).

  12. Computerized operating cost model for industrial steam generation

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, T.D.

    1983-02-01

    Pending EPA regulations, establishing revised emission levels for industrial boilers are perceived to have an effect on the relative costs of steam production technologies. To aid in the comparison of competitive boiler technologies, the Steam Cost Code was developed which provides levelized steam costs reflecting the effects of a number of key steam cost parameters. The Steam Cost Code is a user interactive FORTRAN program designed to operate on a VAX computer system. The program requires the user to input a number of variables describing the design characteristics, capital costs, and operating conditions for a specific boiler system. Part of the input to the Steam Cost Code is the capital cost of the steam production system. The capital cost is obtained from a program called INDCEPT, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center sponsorship.

  13. Modeling local chemistry in PWR steam generator crevices

    SciTech Connect

    Millett, P.J.

    1997-02-01

    Over the past two decades steam generator corrosion damage has been a major cost impact to PWR owners. Crevices and occluded regions create thermal-hydraulic conditions where aggressive impurities can become highly concentrated, promoting localized corrosion of the tubing and support structure materials. The type of corrosion varies depending on the local conditions, with stress corrosion cracking being the phenomenon of most current concern. A major goal of the EPRI research in this area has been to develop models of the concentration process and resulting crevice chemistry conditions. These models may then be used to predict crevice chemistry based on knowledge of bulk chemistry, thereby allowing the operator to control corrosion damage. Rigorous deterministic models have not yet been developed; however, empirical approaches have shown promise and are reflected in current versions of the industry-developed secondary water chemistry guidelines.

  14. Some aspects of materials development for sodium heated steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, P.; Spalaris, C.N.

    1980-10-01

    A development program was undertaken to support the materials selection for steam generator piping and IHX which are to be used in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Four major topics were reviewed, describing the results obtained as well as the direction of future tests. These topics are: carbon transport in sodium, effect of carbon loss/gain upon materials in the reactor Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS), corrosion fatigue and aqueous corrosion. The results support the initial assumptions made in specifying the use of 2-1/4Cr-1Mo as the construction material for the evaporator and superheater and Type 316 piping of the IHT system. Future direction of the experimental programs is to further verify the materials choice and to also obtain information which will be essential during the plant installation, operation and reliability of the components.

  15. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.

    1983-10-25

    An apparatus for down-hole steam generation employs dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/ oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle, receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve, whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by 2 concentric water channels. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly, and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. (3 claims.

  16. Steam generator retrofits for low sulfur coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Nedelka, G.; Kawecki, D.

    1995-03-01

    The use of Low Sulfur, Powder River Basic Coals is a key component in the utility industry`s strategy to meet the goals and regulations of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The reliable, efficient use of this fuel in an existing steam generator is dependent upon the implementation of cost effective modifications aimed at optimizing the design such that the deleterious effects of slagging and fouling are minimized. In order to properly determine the modifications required for both the physical design and operating practices, it is important to consider the mechanisms and conditions by which slagging and fouling occur with Powder River Basin Fuel. This paper aims to provide its fundamental understanding, as well as the impact of design and operating changes so that a prudent course of action can be charted in determining the feasibility of Powder River Basin Coal conversion.

  17. Melting of the metallic wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Chong-Hun Jung; Pyung-Seob Song; Byung-Youn Min; Wang-Kyu Choi

    2008-01-15

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations results in considerably large amounts of radioactive metallic wastes such as stainless steel, carbon steel, aluminum, copper etc. It is known that the reference 1,000 MWe PWR and 881 MWe PHWR will generate metal wastes of 24,800 ton and 26,500 ton, respectively. In Korea, the D and D of KRR-2 and a UCP at KAERI have been performed. The amount of metallic wastes from the KRR-1 and UCP was about 160 ton and 45 ton, respectively, up to now. These radioactive metallic wastes will induce problems of handling and storing these materials from environmental and economical aspects. For this reason, prompt countermeasures should be taken to deal with the metal wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear facilities. The most interesting materials among the radioactive metal wastes are stainless steel (SUS), carbon steel (CS) and aluminum wastes because they are the largest portions of the metallic wastes generated by dismantling retired nuclear research facilities. As most of these steels are slightly contaminated, if they are properly treated they are able to be recycled and reused in the nuclear field. In general, the technology of a metal melting is regarded as one of the most effective methods to treat metallic wastes from nuclear facilities. In conclusion: The melting of metal wastes (Al, SUS, carbon steel) from a decommissioning of research reactor facilities was carried out with the use of a radioisotope such as cobalt and cesium in an electric arc furnace. In the aluminum melting tests, the cobalt was captured at up to 75% into the slag phase. Most of the cesium was completely eliminated from the aluminum ingot phase and moved into the slag and dust phases. In the melting of the stainless steel wastes, the {sup 60}Co could almost be retained uniformly in the ingot phase. However, we found that significant amounts of {sup 60}Co remained in the slag at up to 15%. However the removal of the cobalt from the ingot phase was

  18. Update-processing steam generator cleaning solvent at Palo Verde

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, G.

    1996-10-01

    Framatome Technologies Inc.(FTI) recently completed the steam generator chemical cleanings at the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station Units 1, 2 and 3. Over 500,000 gallons of low-level radioactive solvents were generated during these cleanings and were processed on-site. Chemical cleaning solutions containing high concentrations of organic chelating wastes are difficult to reduce in volume using standard technologies. The process that was ultimately used at Palo Verde involved three distinct processing steps: The evaporation step was conducted using FTI`s submerged combustion evaporator (SCE) that has also been successfully used at Arkansas Nuclear One - Unit 1, Three Mile Island - Unit 1, and Oconee on similar waste. The polishing step of the distillate used ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) technology that was also used extensively by Ontario Hydro to assist in their processing of chemical cleaning solvent. This technology, equipment, and operations personnel were provided by Zenon Environmental, Inc. The concentrate from the evaporator was absorbed with a special {open_quotes}peat moss{close_quotes} based media that allowed it to be shipped and buried at the Environcare of Utah facility. This is the first time that this absorption media or burial site has been used for chemical cleaning solvent.

  19. 26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric GenerationSteam Stations, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of diagram (from Bernhardt Skrotzki's Electric Generation--Steam Stations, New York, New York, 1956, figure I-1) THE GENERAL WAY IN WHICH ELECTRICITY IS CREATED THROUGH THE STEAM GENERATION PROCESS - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  20. Enviro-Friendly Hydrogen Generation from Steel Mill-Scale via Metal-Steam Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Kesavan, Sathees

    2006-01-01

    An economically viable and environmental friendly method of generating hydrogen for fuel cells is by the reaction of certain metals with steam, called metal-steam reforming (MSR). This technique does not generate any toxic by-products nor contributes to the undesirable greenhouse effect. From the standpoint of favorable thermodynamics, total…

  1. 76 FR 74834 - Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... provided to the NRC on May 6, 2011. On September 30, 2011 (76 FR 60937), the NRC published a request for... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Aging Management Program for Steam Generators AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Program for Steam Generators.'' This LR-ISG provides the NRC staff's evaluation of the suitability...

  2. A simplified mathematical model of a U-tube steam generator under variable load conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskowski, Rafał; Lewandowski, Janusz

    2013-09-01

    A steam generator in a nuclear power plant with a light water reactor is a heat exchanger, in which the heat is being transferred from the primary to the secondary loop (it links the primary and secondary loops). When the power plant is running, the inlet parameters (temperatures and mass flow rates) on both sides of the steam generator can change. It is important to know how the changes of these parameters affect the steam generator performance. The complexity of the processes taking place in the steam generator makes it difficult to create a simulator reflecting its performance under changed conditions. In order to simplify the task, the steam generator was considered as a `black box' with the aim of examining how the changes of the inlet parameters affect the changes of the outlet ones. On the basis of the system (steam generator) response, a simple mathematical model of the steam generator under variable load conditions was proposed. In the proposed model, there are two dimensionless parameters and three constant coefficients. A linear relation between these dimensionless parameters was obtained. The correctness of the model was verified against the data obtained with a steam generator simulator for European Pressured Reactor and AP-600 reactors. A good agreement between the proposed model and the simulator data was achieved.

  3. Evaluation of sulfur hexafluoride and helium for steam generator leak location: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kassen, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Since the use of sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer for identifying sources of primary to secondary leakage in PWR steam generators appeared to offer significant sensitivity advantages, the thermal stability of sulfur hexafluoride in water was evaluated at steam generator operating temperature. Significant decomposition was observed after 2 to 4 hours at temperature. Key decomposition products were fluoride and sulfide ions. Based on this observation and these limited test results, the use of SF/sub 6/ for PWR steam generator leak location can not be recommended at this time. A survey of 15 utilities was conducted in regard to their application experience with the helium tracer-mass spectroscopy technique for steam generator leak location. Although several successful steam generator integrity programs do not include use of this technique, it has proven to be a useful addition to the inspection program at some plants. No corrosion concerns appear to be associated with this technique.

  4. Worldwide assessment of steam-generator problems in pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, H.H.; Lu, S.C.

    1981-09-15

    Objective is to assess the reliability of steam generators of pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants in the United States and abroad. The assessment is based on operation experience of both domestic and foreign PWR plants. The approach taken is to collect and review papers and reports available from the literature as well as information obtained by contacting research institutes both here and abroad. This report presents the results of the assessment. It contains a general background of PWR plant operations, plant types, and materials used in PWR plants. A review of the worldwide distribution of PWR plants is also given. The report describes in detail the degradation problems discovered in PWR steam generators: their causes, their impacts on the performance of steam generators, and the actions to mitigate and avoid them. One chapter is devoted to operating experience of PWR steam generators in foreign countries. Another discusses the improvements in future steam generator design.

  5. Beta spectrum measurements for steam generators at the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, W.E.; Hudson, C.G. )

    1985-04-01

    This paper reports on a study performed during two consecutive outages at the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant to determine the relative responses of instruments and dosimeters to the beta-gamma radiation fields in the steam generators. Eberline RO-7-BM and Ro-2A ion chamber survey instruments were used in the study along with standard and modified Panasonic UD-802 thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and three types of extremity TLDs. The average and maximum beta energies present in the steam generators were estimated by three separate methods. TLD responses to irradiations with steam generator diaphragms were compared to survey instrument responses, and the use of instrument beta correction factors was evaluated. Extremity TLDs were also exposed to a steam generator diaphragm, and apparent beta correction factors were determined. The overall conclusion of the study was that the average beta energy in the steam generators was bout 100 keV and, as a result, normal protective clothing was adequate to protect workers.

  6. Improved eddy-current inspection for steam generator tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, C.V.; Pate, J.R.; Allen, J.D. Jr.; Allen , Knoxville, TN )

    1989-01-01

    Computer programs have been written to allow the analysis of different types of eddy-current probes and their performance under different steam generator test conditions. The probe types include the differential bobbin probe, the absolute bobbin probe, the pancake probe and the reflection probe. The generator test conditions include tube supports, copper deposits, magnetite deposits, denting, wastage, pitting, cracking and IGA. These studies are based mostly on computed values, with the limited number of test specimens available used to verify the computed results. The instrument readings were computed for a complete matrix of the different test conditions, and then the test conditions determined as a function of the readings by a least-squares technique. A comparison was made of the errors in fit and instrument drift for the different probe types. The computations of the change in instrument reading due to the defects have led to an inversion'' technique in which the defect properties can be computed from the instrument readings. This has been done both experimentally and analytically for each of these probe types. 3 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  8. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  9. Indicated and actual mass inventory measurements for an inverted U-tube steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Plessinger, M.P.; Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of actual versus indicated secondary liquid level in a steam generator at steaming conditions are presented. The experimental investigation was performed in two different small scale U-tube-in-shell steam generators at typical pressurized water reactor operating conditions (5-7 MPa; saturated) in the Semiscale facility. During steaming conditions, the indicated secondary liquid level was found to vary considerably from the actual ''bottled-up'' liquid level. These difference between indicated and actual liquid level are related to the frictional pressure drop associated with the two-phase steaming condition in the riser. Data from a series of bottle-up experiments (Simultaneously, the primary heat source and secondary feed and steam are terminated) are tabulated and the actual liquid level is correlated to the indicated liquid level.

  10. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOEpatents

    McDermott, D.J.; Schrader, K.J.; Schulz, T.L.

    1994-05-03

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  11. Mitigation of steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems

    DOEpatents

    McDermott, Daniel J.; Schrader, Kenneth J.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of steam generator tube ruptures in a pressurized water reactor are mitigated by reducing the pressure in the primary loop by diverting reactor coolant through the heat exchanger of a passive heat removal system immersed in the in containment refueling water storage tank in response to a high feed water level in the steam generator. Reactor coolant inventory is maintained by also in response to high steam generator level introducing coolant into the primary loop from core make-up tanks at the pressure in the reactor coolant system pressurizer. The high steam generator level is also used to isolate the start-up feed water system and the chemical and volume control system to prevent flooding into the steam header. 2 figures.

  12. Numerical investigation of three-dimensional flows of steam-water mixture in the housing of the PGV-1000 steam generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroshilin, A. E.; Kroshilin, V. E.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2008-05-01

    Results are given of numerical simulation of three-dimensional pattern of flow of a two-phase steam-water mixture in the house of a PGV-1000 horizontal steam generator obtained using the BAGIRA best-estimate thermohydrodynamic computer codes. The space distributions of velocities and local void fractions in the steam generator housing for different modes of operation of power-generating unit are calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  13. Electroslag Strip Cladding of Steam Generators With Alloy 690

    SciTech Connect

    Consonni, M.; Maggioni, F.; Brioschi, F.

    2006-07-01

    The present paper details the results of electroslag cladding and tube-to-tubesheet welding qualification tests conducted by Ansaldo-Camozzi ESC with Alloy 690 (Alloy 52 filler metal) on steel for nuclear power stations' steam generators shell, tubesheet and head; the possibility of submerged arc cladding on first layer was also considered. Test results, in terms of chemical analysis, mechanical properties and microstructure are reproducible and confidently applicable to production cladding and show that electroslag process can be used for Alloy 52 cladding with exceptionally stable and regular operation and high productivity. The application of submerged arc cladding process to the first layer leads to a higher base metal dilution, which should be avoided. Moreover, though the heat affected zone is deeper with electroslag cladding, in both cases no coarsened grain zone is found due to recrystallization effect of second cladding layer. Finally, the application of electroslag process to cladding of Alloy 52 with modified chemical composition, was proved to be highly beneficial as it strongly reduces hot cracking sensitivity, which is typical of submerged arc cladded Alloy 52, both during tube-to-tubesheet welding and first re-welding. (authors)

  14. Rupture pressure of wear degraded alloy 600 steam generator tubings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seong Sik; Namgung, Chan; Jung, Man Kyo; Kim, Hong Pyo; Kim, Joung Soo

    2008-02-01

    Fretting/wear degradation at the tube support in the U-bend region of a steam generator (SG) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) has been reported. Simulated fretted flaws were machined on SG tubes of 195 mm in length. A pressure test was carried out with the tubes at room temperature by using a high pressure test facility which consisted of a water pressurizing pump, a test specimen section and a control unit. Water leak rates just after a ligament rupture or a burst were measured. Tubes degraded by up to 70% of the tube wall thickness (TW) showed a high safety margin in terms of the burst pressure during normal operating conditions. Tubes degraded by up to 50% of the TW did not show burst. Burst pressure depended on the defect depths rather than on the wrap angles. The tube with a wrap angle of 0° showed a fish mouth fracture, whereas the tube with a 45° wrap angle showed a three way fracture.

  15. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.; Mulac, Anthony J.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  16. Modeling of a horizontal steam generator for the submerged nuclear power station concept

    SciTech Connect

    Palmrose, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    1993-05-01

    A submerged nuclear power station has been proposed as an alternative power station with a relatively low environmental impact for use by both industrialized and developing countries. The station would be placed 10 m above the seabed at a depth of 30--100 m and a distance of 10--30 km from shore. The submerged nuclear power station would be manufactured and refueled in a central facility, thus gaining the economies of factoryfabrication and the flexibility of short-lead-time deployment. To minimize the size of the submerged hull, horizontal steam generators are proposed for the primary-to-secondary heat transfer, instead of the more traditional vertical steam generators. The horizontal steam generators for SNPS would be similar in design to the horizontal steam generators used in the N-Reactors except the tube orientation is horizontal (the tube`s inlet and outlet connection points on the tubesheet are at the same elevation). Previous RELAP5 input decks for horizontal steam generators have been either very simplistic (Loviisa PWR) or used a vertical tube orientation (N-Reactor). This paper will present the development and testing of a RELAP5 horizontal steam generator model, complete with a simple secondary water level control system, that accounts for the dynamic flow conditions which exist inside horizontal steam generators.

  17. Circumferential cracking in steam generator tubes repaired by mechanical sleeving

    SciTech Connect

    Stubbe, J.; Pierson, E.; Laire, C.; Nedden, L. zur; Somville, P.; Royen, P. Van

    1995-12-31

    After one service cycle, leaks were detected in Doel 4 steam generator (SG) tubes repaired by mechanical sleeving (hydraulically + roll expanded). Two tubes were pulled and examined, one of them showing a big leak and the second being, pulled randomly. They both revealed through wall circumferential primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) at the upper hydraulic transition so that it was concluded that the problem was generic. A thorough assessment of the root causes of failure was undertaken, including stress and strain direct measurement by X-ray diffraction and photoelasticity, local stresses and temperature evaluation by calculation and stress corrosion cracking tests. Stress corrosion tests were carried out in 10 % NAOH environment, on mock-ups manufactured from reserve tubing of the plant simulating not only the upper joint but also the complete assembly (two joints). An estimate of the expected life was performed by comparison with reference mock-ups representative of the roll transitions (including the kiss roll). The findings are that the hydraulic expansion may generate high residual stresses, in spite of the very low residual deformations. Concerning, the temperature however, there are some indications that it could be substantially lower at the level of the cracking than at the tube to tubesheet roll transitions, which makes the quantified evaluation somewhat inaccurate. It is concluded that repair by mechanical sleeving is influenced by many parameters, including details of the installation procedure. Lifetime may be very limited when applied to PWSCC sensitive tubes and must be evaluated by appropriate testing. In particular, corrosion mock-ups should represent the entire sleeve, with both joints.

  18. The Streaming Potential Generated by Flow of Wet Steam in Capillary Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Marsden, S.S. Jr.; Tyran, Craig K.

    1986-01-21

    For a constant pressure differential, the flow of wet steam generated electric potentials which increased with time and did not reach equilibrium values. These potentials were found to increase to values greater than 100 volts. The reason for this kind of potential build-up behavior was the presence of tiny flowing water slugs which were interspersed with electrically nonconductive steam vapor slugs. The measured electric potential for wet steam increased with pressure differential, but the relationship was not linear. The increase in potential with pressure drop was attributed both to an increase in fluid flow rate and changes in the wet steam quality.

  19. Physical limits on steam generation by radioactive decay heat

    SciTech Connect

    Chesnut, D.A.

    1991-12-01

    This report briefly discusses the possibilities that flood water contacting the hot radioactive waste and rock at Yucca Mountain could produce enough steam to lift the top of the mountain off the repository.

  20. [Strategies to Cope with the Shortage of Technologists: Facing the Mass-Retirement of the 'Baby-Boomer' Generation].

    PubMed

    Morikane, Keita; Yamada, Miyuki

    2015-03-01

    In Japan, the primary 'baby-boomer' generation, born between 1947 and 1949, is now in its retirement. This has caused a marked shortage of human resources nationwide. Clinical laboratory technologists are no exception, and many clinical laboratories in Japanese healthcare facilities are struggling with management because the number of new graduates, i.e., newly licensed technologists, is mostly fixed and, therefore, their recruitment is becoming more and more competitive. Our laboratory is now facing a wave of mass-retirement associated with our history. In addition, in the early 2000s, there was almost no position for new graduates replacing those retiring because of the change in the social healthcare system as well as our hospital's policy. This resulted in uneven numbers of technologists in generations, and it seemed to be getting worse. Fortunately, five years ago, the direction of social health care was changed and lots of positions became available as a result. We have been trying to recruit new graduates and experienced technologists as well, and were able to hire 18 people. Among them, 8 were non-freshmen. The generation gap has been mostly resolved. We will continue to make our laboratory more attractive not just to new graduates but also to experienced technologists, especially those who wish to return to work after a several-year absence to raise their children. We believe that this will energize our laboratory. PMID:26524865

  1. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  2. Code System for Calculating the Nonlinear Transient Behavior of a Natural Circulation U-Tube Steam Generator with Its Main Steam System.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-04-20

    Version 00 The code is based on a non-linear theoretical model describing the steady-state and transient behavior of a vertical natural-circulation U-tube steam generator together with its main steam system. The steam generator is considered to consist of a heat exchange section, a top plenum, a down-comer region and a main steam system (with a sequence of relief and/or safety valves, isolation, bypass, turbine-trip and turbine-control valves and a steam turbine). Possible perturbations from outsidemore » can be: inlet water temperature, inlet water mass flow and system pressure on the primary side, feedwater temperature, feed-water mass flow and outlet steam mass flow disturbed by actions of the different valves within the main steam system on the secondary side.« less

  3. Thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidenko, N. N.; Trunov, N. B.; Saakov, E. S.; Berezanin, A. A.; Bogomolov, I. N.; Derii, V. P.; Nemytov, D. S.; Usanov, D. A.; Shestakov, N. B.; Shchelik, S. V.

    2007-12-01

    The results obtained from combined thermal and chemical tests of the steam generator of Unit 3 at the Kalinin nuclear power station are summarized. The obtained data are compared with the results of thermal and chemical tests carried out on steam generators at other nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors, and recommendations on selecting the steam-generator blowdown schedule are given.

  4. Report covering examination of parts from downhole steam generators. [Combustor head and sleeve parts

    SciTech Connect

    Pettit, F. S.; Meier, G. H.

    1983-08-01

    Combustor head and sleeve parts were examined by using optical and scanning electron metallography after use in oxygen/diesel and air/diesel downhole steam generators. The degradation of the different alloy components is described in terms of reactions with oxygen, sulfur and carbon in the presence of cyclic stresses, all generated by the combustion process. Recommendations are presented for component materials (alloys and coatings) to extend component lives in the downhole steam generators. 9 references, 22 figures, 3 tables.

  5. French Regulatory practice and experience feedback on steam generator tube integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Sandon, G.

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the way the French Safety Authority applies regulatory rules and practices to the problem of steam generator tube cracking in French PWR reactors. There are 54 reactors providing 80% of French electrical consumption. The Safety Authority closely monitors the performance of tubes in steam generators, and requires application of a program which deals with problems prior to the actual development of leakage. The actual rules regarding such performance are flexible, responding to the overall performance of operating steam generators. In addition there is an inservice inspection service to examine tubes during shutdown, and to monitor steam generators for leakage during operation, with guidelines for when generators must be pulled off line.

  6. Chemistry of titanium dioxide in steam generators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weres, O.; Karlsson, E.

    1994-04-01

    This report discusses several forms of TiO{sub 2} and its chemical precursors which have been shown by others to inhibit IGSCC of Alloy 600 when added to a caustic solution near 300{degree}C. The chemical behavior of TiO{sub 2} under steam generator conditions has been studied. The solubility of all forms of TiO{sub 2} is very small and decreases with increasing temperature. At SG temperature, hydrous TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} sol-gel both recrystallize to a less soluble form within two hours. Kinetic modelling indicates that most of the TiO{sub 2} present within a SG will be in this recrystallized, ``final`` form with solubility less than 10ppb. Because the sol-gel and hydrous TiO{sub 2} is rapidly recrystallize within the SG, it is possible that adding a commercially available form of TiO{sub 2} will inhibit IGSCC equally well. Because the solubility of TiO{sub 2} in the SG is very low, TiO{sub 2} enters the sludge pile and the superheated crevices by transport of solid particles. The solubility of TiO{sub 2} is much higher in NaOH solution than in AVT water, and once they have reached the superheated zone within the sludge pile or the crevice, TiO{sub 2} particles probably will react with the caustic (if present) and nickel oxide to form the desired protective film.

  7. Pulsed high-pressure (PHP) drain-down of steam generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrusek, R.A.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes an improved method of draining down contained reactor-coolant water from the inverted vertical U-tubes of at least one vertical-type steam generator in which the upper inverted U-shaped ends of the tubes are closed and the lower ends thereof are open, the steam generator having a channel head at its lower end including a vertical dividing wall defining a primary water inlet side and a primary water outlet side of the generator, the steam generator having chemical volume control system means and residual heat removal system means, and the steam generator being part of a nuclear-powered steam generating system wherein the reactor-coolant water is normally circulated from and back into the reactor via a loop comprising the steam generator and inlet and outlet conduits connected to the lower end of the steam generator, and the reactor being in communication with pressurizer means and comprising the steps of introducing a gas which is inert to the system and which is under pressure above atmospheric pressure into at least one of the downwardly facing open ends of each of the U-tubes from below the tubesheet in which the open ends of the U-tubes are mounted adjacent the lower end of the steam generator while permitting the water to flow out from the open ends of the U-tubes, the improvement in combination therewith for substantially increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of such water removal from the tubes. It includes determining the parameters effecting a first average volumetric rate of removal for a predetermined period of time, infra, of the reactor-coolant water from the inverted vertical U-tubes, the specific unit for the first average volumetric rate expressing properties identical with the properties expressed in a second average volumetric rate maintained in a later mentioned step.

  8. Heat and mass transfer in a steam-generating tube

    SciTech Connect

    Doroshchuk, V.Y.

    1990-01-01

    Reliable data on the distribution of phases of steam-water flow in a channel cross-section, on steam and water velocities, and on void fractions are almost non-existent. This paper reports that by assuming that u{sub 1}/u{sub 3} = square root {rho}{prime}/{rho}{prime}{prime} (where u{sub 1} and u{sub 3} are the velocities of steam in the flow core and of a liquid film near a wall, {rho}{prime}{prime} and {rho}{prime} are the densities of corresponding phases) and by using the limiting void fractions x{sup o}{sub lim}, the above-mentioned flow parameters can be determined analytically for the instant of onset of a heat transfer crisis of the second kind.

  9. Developments in steam generator design for combustion of hog fuel and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P.J.; Lutes, I.G.

    1982-05-01

    The cofiring of coal and hog fuel in industrial steam generators is a feasible alternative that provides greater fuel flexibility to the operator. Equipment specifically designed to be suitable for both fuels is readily available.

  10. Proceedings: Workshop on Thermally Treated Alloy 690 Tubes for Nuclear Steam Generators

    SciTech Connect

    1986-07-01

    Data presented at this workshop confirmed the superior corrosion resistance of thermally treated alloy 690. Pending further testing and optimization procedures, this material appears to be the best choice for manufacture of nuclear steam generator tubes.

  11. Susceptibility of steam generator tubes in secondary conditions: Effects of lead and sulphate

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Briceno, D.; Garcia, M.S.; Castano, M.L.; Lancha, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    IGA/SCC on the secondary side of steam generators is increasing every year, and represents the cause of some steam generator replacements. Until recently, caustic and acidic environments have been accepted as causes of IGA/SCC, particulary in certain environments: in sludge pile on the tube sheet; at support crevices; in free span. Lead and sulfur have been identified as significant impurities. Present thoughts are that some IGA/SCC at support crevices may have occurred in nearly neutral or mildly alkaline environments. Here the authors present experimental work aimed at studying the influence of lead and sulfur on the behaviour of steam generator tube alloys in different water environments typical of steam generators. Most test results ran for at least 2000 hours, and involved visual and detailed surface analysis during and following the test procedures.

  12. Steam generators secondary side chemical cleaning at Point Lepreau using the Siemens high temperature process

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, K.; MacNeil, C.; Odar, S.; Kuhnke, K.

    1997-02-01

    This paper describes the chemical cleaning of the four steam generators at the Point Lepreau facility, which was accomplished as a part of a normal service outage. The steam generators had been in service for twelve years. Sludge samples showed the main elements were Fe, P and Na, with minor amounts of Ca, Mg, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cl, Cu, Ni, Ti, Si, and Pb, 90% in the form of Magnetite, substantial phosphate, and trace amounts of silicates. The steam generators were experiencing partial blockage of broached holes in the TSPs, and corrosion on tube ODs in the form of pitting and wastage. In addition heat transfer was clearly deteriorating. More than 1000 kg of magnetite and 124 kg of salts were removed from the four steam generators.

  13. STEAM PLANT, TRA609. STANDBY DIESEL GENERATOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3589. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    STEAM PLANT, TRA-609. STANDBY DIESEL GENERATOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 3589. Unknown Photographer, 10/29/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Molten salt steam generator subsystem research experiment. Phase I, final report. Volume 2. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    Information is given on: steam generator subsystem requirements specification, pressure boundary code calculations, structural analysis compliance check lists, supplemental elevated temperature rules, system simulation analysis, control system design, and a phase II proposal. (LEW)

  15. Operating experience with California's first coal fired enhanced oil recovery steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, G.B.

    1983-11-01

    This article discusses the experiences of operating Pyropower Corporation's ''Pyroflow'' circulating fluidized bed steam generation plant in Bakersfield, California. The Pyroflow plant is shown to be demonstrating its ability to provide a reliable source of steam for enhanced oil recovery. Actual operating problems have been minimal, and those which have occurred have involved plant auxilliary equipment rather than the steam generator itself. Fluidized bed combustion is the only practical means of burning coal in environmentally sensitive areas such as California without the use of flue gas scrubbing for sulfur dioxide control. This plant operates on the circulating bed concept as distinct from conventional fluidized beds which have a fixed bed depth.

  16. Design and Activation of a LOX/GH Chemical Steam Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Mulkey, C. A.; Taylor, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed description of the design and activation of the LOX/GH fueled chemical steam generator installed in Cell 2 of the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The steam generator uses a liquid oxygen oxidizer with gaseous hydrogen fuel. The combustion products are then quenched with water to create steam at pressures from 150 to 450 psig at temperatures from 350 to 750 deg F (from saturation to piping temperature limits).

  17. A nonlinear dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, M.A.

    1993-07-01

    A dynamic model of a once-through, helical-coil steam generator is presented. The model simulates the advanced liquid metal reactor superheated cycle steam generator with a four-region, moving-boundary, drift-flux model. The model is described by a set of nonlinear differential equations derived from the fundamental equations of conversation of mass, energy, and momentum. Sample results of steady-state and transient calculations are presented.

  18. Proceedings: 1990 EPRI workshop on circumferential cracking of steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, D.B.; Gorman, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    A meeting on circumferential crackling of steam generator tubes was organized to give those working in this area an opportunity to share their results, ideas and plans with regard to determining the causes of circumferential cracks, how to perform inspections for circumferential cracks, and possible remedial approaches to reduce the occurrence of circumferential cracks in PWR steam generator tubes. Topics discussed included: (1) field experience; (2) causative factors and modeling; (3) remedial actions, (4) inspection issues, and (5) licensing/regulatory issues.

  19. Studies of the steam generator degraded tubes behavior on BRUTUS test loop

    SciTech Connect

    Chedeau, C.; Rassineux, B.

    1997-04-01

    Studies for the evaluation of steam generator tube bundle cracks in PWR power plants are described. Global tests of crack leak rates and numerical calculations of crack opening area are discussed in some detail. A brief overview of thermohydraulic studies and the development of a mechanical probabilistic design code is also given. The COMPROMIS computer code was used in the studies to quantify the influence of in-service inspections and maintenance work on the risk of a steam generator tube rupture.

  20. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  1. Disability retirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Eligibility for disability retirement is discussed. General guidelines and a few standards are given. Usually the same basic medical principles apply to the evaluation of claims for disability retirement as apply to determining medical suitability for initial employment.

  2. Stem drive oil recovery method utilizing a downhole steam generator and anti clay-swelling agent

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, D. N.; Snavely, E. S.

    1985-06-11

    Viscous oil is recovered from a subterranean, viscous oil-containing formation by a steam flooding technique wherein steam is generated in a downhole steam generator located in an injection well by spontaneous combustion of a pressurized mixture of a water-soluble fuel such as sugars and alcohols dissolved in water or a stable hydrocarbon fuel-in-water emulsion containing an anti clay-swelling agent and substantially pure oxygen. The generated mixture of steam and combustion gases pass through the formation, displacing oil and reducing the oil's viscosity and the mobilized oil is produced from the formation via a spaced-apart production well. Suitable anti clay-swelling agents include metal halide salts and diammonium phosphate.

  3. Evaluation of sampling plans for in-service inspection of steam generator tubes. Volume 2, Comprehensive analytical and Monte Carlo simulation results for several sampling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, R.J.; Heasler, P.G.; Baird, D.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of three previous studies to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of sampling plans for steam generator tube inspections. An analytical evaluation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were the methods used to evaluate sampling plan performance. To test the performance of candidate sampling plans under a variety of conditions, ranges of inspection system reliability were considered along with different distributions of tube degradation. Results from the eddy current reliability studies performed with the retired-from-service Surry 2A steam generator were utilized to guide the selection of appropriate probability of detection and flaw sizing models for use in the analysis. Different distributions of tube degradation were selected to span the range of conditions that might exist in operating steam generators. The principal means of evaluating sampling performance was to determine the effectiveness of the sampling plan for detecting and plugging defective tubes. A summary of key results from the eddy current reliability studies is presented. The analytical and Monte Carlo simulation analyses are discussed along with a synopsis of key results and conclusions.

  4. Retiring Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…

  5. Rapid Generation of Superheated Steam Using a Water-containing Porous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    Heat treatment by superheated steam has been utilized in several industrial fields including sterilization, desiccation, and cooking. In particular, cooking by superheated steam is receiving increased attention because it has advantages of reducing the salt and fat contents in foods as well as suppressing the oxidation of vitamin C and fat. In this application, quick startup and cut-off responses are required. Most electrically energized steam generators require a relatively long time to generate superheated steam due to the large heat capacities of the water in container and of the heater. Zhao and Liao (2002) introduced a novel process for rapid vaporization of subcooled liquid, in which a low-thermal-conductivity porous wick containing water is heated by a downward-facing grooved heating block in contact with the upper surface of the wick structure. They showed that saturated steam is generated within approximately 30 seconds from room-temperature water at a heat flux 41.2 kW⁄m2. In order to quickly generate superheated steam of approximately 300°C, which is required for cooking, the heat capacity of the heater should be as small as possible and the imposed heat flux should be so high enough that the porous wick is able to dry out in the vicinity of the contact with the heater and that the resulting heater temperature becomes much higher than the saturation temperature. The present paper proposes a simple structured generator to quickly produce superheated steam. Only a fine wire heater is contacted spirally on the inside wall in a hollow porous material. The start-up, cut-off responses and the rate of energy conversion for input power are investigated experimentally. Superheated steam of 300°C is produced in approximately 19 seconds from room-temperature water for an input power of 300 W. The maximum rate of energy conversion in the steady state is approximately 0.9.

  6. Performance benefits of the direct generation of steam in line-focus solar collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, E. K.; Murphy, L. M.

    1983-05-01

    The performance benefits of the direct (in situ) generation of steam in the receiver tube of a line-focus solar collector are assessed in this paper. Compared to existing technology using steam-flash or unfired boiler systems, the in situ technique could reduce the delivered cost of steam in excess of 25 percent. The analysis indicates that two-phase flow instabilities, if present, can be readily controlled, and that the possibility of freezing is not an impediment to the use of water in cold climates.

  7. Some aspects of two-phase flow, heat transfer and dynamic instabilities in medium and high pressure steam generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, H. C.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental data for void fraction, incipient point of boiling, initial point of net vapor generation, bubble dynamics, dryout, two-phase flow pressure drop and density-wave oscillations were obtained in long, sodium heated steam generator tubes of different geometries for a wide range of operating conditions and at medium and high pressures. These data and data from literature taken in sodium and electrically heated steam generator tubes were correlated. Aspects of two-phase flow, heat transfer and density-wave oscillations in these steam generators disclosed include the distribution factor in small- and medium-size diameter steam generator tubes, the characteristic of the transitions at the incipient point of boiling and initial point of net vapor generation, bubble growth during subcooled nucleate flow boiling, the importance of the equivalent length for dryout in non-uniformly heated steam generator tubes and the mechanisms of density-wave oscillations in once-through steam generator tubes.

  8. Corrosion Processes of the CANDU Steam Generator Materials in the Presence of Silicon Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lucan, Dumitra; Fulger, Manuela; Velciu, Lucian; Lucan, Georgiana; Jinescu, Gheorghita

    2006-07-01

    The feedwater that enters the steam generators (SG) under normal operating conditions is extremely pure but, however, it contains low levels (generally in the {mu}g/l concentration range) of impurities such as iron, chloride, sulphate, silicate, etc. When water is converted into steam and exits the steam generator, the non-volatile impurities are left behind. As a result of their concentration, the bulk steam generator water is considerably higher than the one in the feedwater. Nevertheless, the concentrations of corrosive impurities are in general sufficiently low so that the bulk water is not significantly aggressive towards steam generator materials. The impurities and corrosion products existing in the steam generator concentrate in the porous deposits on the steam generator tubesheet. The chemical reactions that take place between the components of concentrated solutions generate an aggressive environment. The presence of this environment and of the tubesheet crevices lead to localized corrosion and thus the same tubes cannot ensure the heat transfer between the fluids of the primary and secondary circuits. Thus, it becomes necessary the understanding of the corrosion process that develops into SG secondary side. The purpose of this paper is the assessment of corrosion behavior of the tubes materials (Incoloy-800) at the normal secondary circuit parameters (temperature = 2600 deg C, pressure = 5.1 MPa). The testing environment was demineralized water containing silicon compounds, at a pH=9.5 regulated with morpholine and cyclohexyl-amine (all volatile treatment - AVT). The paper presents the results of metallographic examinations as well as the results of electrochemical measurements. (authors)

  9. Characterization of oxides on Bruce A NGS liner tubes and steam generator tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.; Burrill, K.A.

    1998-12-31

    Oxide deposits on end-fitting liner tubes and steam generator tubes from the Bruce A Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) were characterized in advance of the decontamination of the heat transport system (HTS) of Bruce Unit 2. Oxide loadings, and Co-60 surface activities and specific activities were determined for the oxides on inlet and outlet end-fitting liner tubes from Bruce Unit l, Bruce Unit 2 and Bruce Unit 4. Oxides on the inner surfaces of steam generator tubes from Bruce NGS Units 1 and 2 were also characterized. The consistency in the deposit characteristics on the inlet liner tubes and steam generator tubes from Bruce A, along with the absence of magnetite on the outlet liner tubes has led to the development of a model for iron transport in the HTS of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The activity transport/fouling mechanism involves flow-accelerated corrosion of the outlet feeder pipes, followed by deposition of iron in the steam generators, along the inlet feeder pipes, on the inlet end fittings, on the inlet fuel bundles and on the inlet region of the pressure tube. The results of loop experiments using decontamination solutions indicated that the oxide was rapidly removed from inlet liner tubes. However, removal of the Cr-rich oxide from the outlet liner tubes was less efficient, requiring the Alkaline Permangante (AP) oxidizing pre-treatment that is typically used in light water reactors (LWRs). The steam generator tubes were effectively decontaminated.

  10. Radiological Assessment of Steam Generator Removal and Replacement: Update and Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Hoenes, G. R.; Mueller, M. A.; McCormack, W. D.

    1980-12-01

    A previous analysis of the radiological impact of removing and replacing corroded steam generators has been updated based on experience gained during steam generator repairs at Surry Unit 2. Some estimates of occupational doses involved in the operation have been revised but are not significantly different from the earlier estimates. Estimates of occupational doses and radioactive effluents for new tasks have been added. Health physics concerns that arose at Surry included the number of persons involved in the operation, tne training of workers, the handling of quantitites.of low-level waste, and the application of the ALARA principle. A review of these problem areas may help in the planning of other similar operations. A variety of processes could be used to decontaminate steam generators. Research is needed to assess these techniques and their associated occupational doses and waste volumes. Contaminated steam generators can be stored or disposed of after removal without significant radiological problems. Onsite storage and intact shipment have the least impact. In-placing retubing, an alternative to steam generator removal, results in occupational doses and effluents similar to those from removal, but prior decontamination of the channel head is needed. The retubing option should be assessed further.