Workplace changes and increased longevity have heightened the need for retirement planning specialists. Specialists are beginning to focus more holistically on life planning and addressing the challenges of technology and the needs of low-income adults. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This guidebook on retirement planning helps potential retirees by raising important issues in such areas as changing roles and relationships, health and fitness, meaningful use of time, working options, financial and estate planning, and housing and lifestyle. The first section, on attitude and role adjustments, discusses support systems, changing…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This guidebook raises important issues for older workers to think about in planning for retirement. Sections of the book explore such areas as the following: changing roles and relationships; health and fitness; meaningful use of time, with a sampler of activities from which one may choose; working options, including a brief description of a…
Knopf, Winfield G.
A number of economic and social factors suggest that this is an appropriate time for colleges and universities to review employee retirement plans. Information that employees should have for retirement planning is reviewed, and basic principles for institutions to use in selecting a pension company are outlined. (MSE)
Morrison, Malcolm H.
A survey of male hourly-wage earners indicates employees face serious problems in planning for income security in retirement. Retirement preparation programs that supply information and technical planning expertise are needed to assist employees in realistic retirement planning. (EA)
Points out that retirement planning seminars often are designed to impart the economic and pragmatic aspects while neglecting feelings that accompany this and other major life transitions. Indicates that consideration must be given to the social and psychological implications of retirement. (JOW)
Fields, Cheryl D.
Options available to college faculty for planning their retirement benefits are described, including defined benefit plans, defined contribution plans, and methods for customizing a pension plan. Data for 1993 on American households owning interest-earning assets (passbook savings, money market deposit accounts, certificates of deposit, checking…
Explores the relationship between retirement planning and demographic and attitudinal factors. One-third of the sample had planned for retirement. Planning was more common among males and high-status individuals. (Author)
Kersten, Thomas A.
For teachers, in particular, the importance of early retirement investing has never been more critical. The reality is that, decades from now, when teachers arrive at retirement age, their current state teacher retirement plan may have changed substantially. As a result, they do not want to reach retirement and regret that they never considered…
The author (1) identifies groups involved in retirement planning, (2) describes recent accomplishments within the field, (3) recommends ways to address unmet needs, and (4) identifies emerging trends. Trends in retirement planning include early retirement, differentiation between married and single prospective retirees, and competition for…
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E; Davey, Adam; Martin, Lauren
The recent recession constitutes one of the macro forces that may have influenced workers' retirement plans. We evaluate a multilevel model that addresses the influence of macro-, meso-, and micro-level factors on retirement plans, changes in these plans, and expected retirement age. Using data from Waves 8 and 9 of the Health and Retirement Study (N=2,618), we find that individuals with defined benefit plans are more prone to change toward plans to stop work before the stock market declined, whereas the opposite trend holds for those without pensions. Debts, ability to reduce work hours, and firm unionization also influenced retirement plans. Findings suggest retirement planning education may be particularly important for workers without defined pensions, especially in times of economic volatility. PMID:25651572
Fitzpatrick, Edmund W.
Describes the National Council on the Aging (NCOA)-Industry Consortium Retirement Planning Program, which consists of eight modules corresponding to eight major areas of retirement planning: life-style planning, financial planning, new careers, leisure time, health, interpersonal relationships, living arrangements, and community services. (SK)
McKenna, Judy; Nickols, Sharon Y.
Discusses factors that influence women in their daily living (economic and demographic factors, feelings about mathematics ability, risk taking, and locus of control), retirement planning concerns of midlife women, retirement planning strategies and the role of educators in this planning, and social-psychological strategies. (CT)
As school districts continue to seek administrative efficiencies and cost reductions in the wake of severe budget pressures, the resources they devote to creating or expanding retirement plan consortia is increasing. Understanding how to structure a retirement plan consortium is paramount to successfully achieving the many objectives of…
Chronister, Jay L.; Baldwin, Roger G.
This analysis of the retirement plans of college and university faculty and staff used data from the 1993 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty. It first determined the proportion of faculty who are age 55 or older by institutional type, discipline, gender, and minority/nonminority status and then analyzed their retirement plans using the same…
In 2005, TIAA-CREF sponsored its first-ever "Retirement Confidence Survey of College and University Faculty" to discover the answer to this question: How well are faculty members taking advantage of employer-sponsored pension plans and saving for retirement? An additional objective of the project was to compare the survey's findings for higher…
Shobe, Marcia A.; Sturm, Stephanie L.
Given the growing interest in a privatized Social Security system and the lack of adequate retirement planning among many people in the United States, many households are often ill prepared for retirement. The outlook for low-income populations is even bleaker because they are often not privy to the same financial education and asset-building…
Schnee, Edward J.; And Others
Greater attention has been focused on the role that employer-sponsored retirement plans and individual savings must play in ensuring retirement income security. Alternative tax retirement planning opportunities currently available to college personnel are explored. (MLW)
Austin, Ron; Shepherd, Steve
Myths persist about retirement income solutions in defined contribution (DC) plans. The authors put six common myths to the test: (1) that few plans offer a retirement income option, (2) that retirement is solely a product decision, (3) that retirement income options lack fiduciary clarity, (4) that it's difficult to implement a retirement income option, (5) that retirement income options can be viewed similarly to an asset class and (6) that retirement solutions are too difficult to communicate to participants. They explain why some chatter on the topic of retirement income solutions in DC plans is unfounded. PMID:27017796
Nuss, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Charles
Long-range career planning is difficult in the student affairs profession because of the lack of clearly defined career tracks and inherent job insecurities. The authors present and discuss strategies for planning for retirement and other late career options. (Author)
This Issue Brief addresses three questions raised by recent trends in personal saving: How are national savings measured and what is the meaning of the trends in measured personal saving rates, given what is included and what is not included in those measures? What is the effect of retirement saving programs--in particular, 401(k) plans and individual retirement accounts (IRAs)--on personal saving levels? What are the implications of existing saving behavior for the retirement income security of today's workers? The National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA), the most commonly referenced gauge of personal saving, is a widely misunderstood measure. One could argue that a complete measure of saving would include increases in wealth through capital gains, but NIPA does not factor accrued and realized capital gains on stocks and other assets into the saving rate. By one measure, accounting for capital gains results in an aggregate personal saving rate of 33 percent--more than double the rate of four decades ago. A major policy question is the impact of tax-qualified retirement saving plans (i.e., IRAs and 401(k) plans) on personal saving rates. Empirical analysis of this issue is extremely challenging and findings have been contradictory. These programs now represent an enormous store of retirement-earmarked wealth in tax-deferred vehicles: Combined, such tax-deferred retirement accounts currently have assets of about $4 trillion. Ninety percent of IRA contributions are now the result of "rollovers" as employees leave employer plans, like 401(k) plans. While leakage from the system remains a challenge, the majority of the assets in the system can be expected to be available to fund workers' retirements. One could argue that, from a retirement income security perspective, workers in general are better off because IRA and 401(k) programs exist. Surely, many of the dollars in these programs would have been saved even without the programs; but they would not necessarily
Because of the changes in tax laws, accounting guidelines, and economic conditions, the "shelf life" of many retirement plans has expired. Financial managers need to examine the effects these changes have had on retirement plan funding, especially the effects the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987 has produced. By using an evaluation method that examines the basic issues involved in retirement plan funding, financial managers can determine whether or not their retirement programs can continue to meet hospital objectives. This is the last article in a series on retirement plans. The first article in this series discussed the issues that affect the design of retirement plans. PMID:10302737
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG36 Hybrid Retirement Plans Correction In rule document 2010-25941 beginning on page 64123 in the issue of Tuesday, October 19, 2010, make the...
... were published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64123) providing guidance relating to certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code that apply to hybrid defined benefit pension... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BG36 Hybrid Retirement Plans; Correction AGENCY:...
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This single person's retirement guide begins with an introduction that addresses the challenges of single living, the high dividends that planning pays, and the importance of attitude. Section II explores the changing roles and relationships in one's life, including aging parents, adult children, and a personal support network. Section III focuses…
Donaldson, Tarryn; Earl, Joanne K.; Muratore, Alexa M.
Extending earlier research, this study explores individual (e.g. demographic and health characteristics), psychosocial (e.g. mastery and planning) and organizational factors (e.g. conditions of workforce exit) influencing retirement adjustment. Survey data were collected from 570 semi-retired and retired men and women aged 45 years and older.…
Mangan, Katherine S.
New federal tax law requiring employees to pay taxes on a large sum of money at one time rather than over the course of retirement makes college retirement "buyout plans" no longer feasible and hampers colleges' efforts to thin faculty ranks after the uncapping of the mandatory retirement age. (MSE)
This article examines the development of Japanese voluntary employer-sponsored retirement plans with an emphasis on recent trends. Until 2001, companies in Japan offered retirement benefits as lump-sum severance payments and/or benefits from one of two types of defined benefit (DB) pension plans. One type of DB plan was based on the occupational pension model used in the United States before the adoption of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA), but lacked the funding, vesting, and other protective features contained in ERISA. The other type of DB plan allowed companies to opt out of the earnings-related portion of social security, commonly referred to as "contracting out." Landmark laws passed in 2001 introduced a new generation of occupational retirement plans to employers and employees. One law increased funding requirements and enhanced employee protections for employer-sponsored DB plans, while a second law introduced defined contribution (DC) plans for several reasons, chiefly to increase retirement savings and help boost Japanese financial markets. These laws complemented earlier changes in the tax code and financial accounting standards already affecting employer-sponsored retirement plans. As a result, new retirement plan designs will replace most prereform era company retirement plans by 2012. In 2001, the experience of 401(k) plans in the United States, where 42 million participants had accumulated more than $1.8 trillion in assets over 20 years, attracted considerable attention among Japanese lawmakers finalizing provisions of the DC pension law. Even with government support and encouragement from the financial services industry, Japanese companies have not adopted these new DC plans in large numbers. As a result, occupational retirement plans in Japan have remained predominantly DB-a surprising development in light of the shift in a number of countries from DB to DC plans observed in recent decades. However, recent proposals to
Yeung, Dannii Y
The impacts of four types of pre-retirement planning activities (financial, health, social life, and psychological planning) on retirement adjustment were investigated in a sample of Chinese retirees residing in Hong Kong. This study consisted of two phases of data collection, pre-retirement and post-retirement phases. Pre-retirement planning behaviors and psychological health (including attitudes toward retirement, adjustment to retirement, anxiety toward retirement, psychological well-being (PWB), and psychological distress) six months before and after retirement were measured. The final sample consisted of 90 Hong Kong Chinese retirees. Compared with the pre-retirement phase, retirees exhibited more positive attitudes toward retirement and better adjustment after they had actually retired, whereas their level of anxiety and psychological distress remained low over time. Pre-retirement planning was found to be predictive of changes in psychological health, though its impact was not always positive depending on the type of planning activities. In particular, greater psychological planning was associated with positive attitudes toward retirement and better PWB, whereas more social life planning activities were associated with greater psychological distress. In addition to financial and health planning, psychological planning activities should also be prompted to facilitate a smooth adjustment to retirement. PMID:23072256
This bibliography cites title, source/publisher, availability, and cost for information and materials on various aspects of pre-retirement planning. Materials may be specifically for the elderly/retired person or of general interest. Bibliographies and periodicals are included. These materials and information are listed under twenty-three…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This guidebook addresses retirement planning for midlife women. Section 1 presents the woman an opportunity to assess herself today in terms of the roles she plays in various aspects of her life and in her relationships with others. It asks her to consider some of her plans, dreams, and things she would like to do in an ideal retirement situation.…
Glass, J. Conrad, Jr.; Kilpatrick, Beverly B.
Many women fail to plan for retirement due to economic constraints, interrupted career paths, lower earnings, gender bias, gender-role socialization, self-esteem, role definition, locus of control, or risk tolerance. Retirement education must address women's specific issues regarding financial planning. (SK)
Gunay, Gulay; Bener, Ozgun
This research was conducted in Ankara province for the purpose of examining the status of planning in preparation for retirement as an individual and as a family of individuals who show differences in educational level. Individuals who lived in Ankara province, who were 3 years from retirement according to age limit, and who had social security…
Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.
Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)
Goda, Gopi Shah; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty
We study the effect of incorporating heterogeneity into default rules by examining the choice between retirement plans at a firm that transitioned from a defined benefit (DB) to a defined contribution (DC) plan. The default plan for existing employees varied discontinuously depending on their age. Employing regression discontinuity techniques,…
Purpose: This study examines sex differences among Baby Boom workers in the likelihood of coverage by an employer-provided retirement plan. Design and Methods: This study used a sample of Baby Boom workers drawn from the 2009 Current Population Survey. Independent variables were selected to replicate as closely as possible those in two 1995…
Poterba, James; Rauh, Joshua; Venti, Steven; Wise, David
The private pension structure in the United States, once dominated by defined benefit (DB) plans, is currently divided between defined contribution (DC) and DB plans. Wealth accumulation in DC plans depends on the participant's contribution behavior and on financial market returns, while accumulation in DB plans is sensitive to a participant's labor market experience and to plan parameters. This paper simulates the distribution of retirement wealth under representative DB and DC plans. It uses data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to explore how asset returns, earnings histories, and retirement plan characteristics contribute to the variation in retirement wealth outcomes. We simulate DC plan accumulation by randomly assigning individuals a share of wages that they and their employer contribute to the plan. We consider several possible asset allocation strategies, with asset returns drawn from the historical return distribution. Our DB plan simulations draw earnings histories from the HRS, and randomly assign each individual a pension plan drawn from a sample of large private and public defined benefit plans. The simulations yield distributions of both DC and DB wealth at retirement. Average retirement wealth accruals under current DC plans exceed average accruals under private sector DB plans, although DC plans are also more likely to generate very low retirement wealth outcomes. The comparison of current DC plans with more generous public sector DB plans is less definitive, because public sector DB plans are more generous on average than their private sector counterparts. PMID:21057597
Hershey, Douglas A.; Mowen, John C.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.
After 1 year, the efficacy of three retirement seminars (financial planning information, n=30; financial goal-setting, n=25; combined information and goal-setting, n=25) was measured. Compared to those of 26 controls, goal clarity, planning, and savings practices of seminar participants were most changed. Strongest impact was on those in combined…
Adams, Gary A.
A study of 172 older workers found that career commitment and occupational-goal attainment play a central role in planned retirement age. Age and retirement-income satisfaction had the most significant relationship to planned retirement age. Job satisfaction was not strongly related to retirement intentions. (SK)
In his book Planning to the Years Ahead, Lester I. Tenney, PhD, professor emeritus at Arizona State University, Tempe, links Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs to retirement planning. According to Maslow, economic and security needs can be achieved through a family environment (eg, food clothing, shelter), and social acceptance, self-worth, and self-satisfaction can be achieved from social interaction, work, or leisure activities. After the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter have been achieved, people are able to move to the next level of achieving safety and security. The level of dependency that people have on satisfying these needs through work will determine how well they are at adapting to retirement. The more people depend on work alone, the harder will be the adjustment; people who are less dependent on work will find retirement easier to accept. PMID:2619297
Ning, Meng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Min
Objectives We examined the level of agreement between biomedical and self-reported measurements of hypertension and diabetes in a Chinese national community sample, and explored associations of the agreement and possible contextual effects among provinces and geographic regions in China. Design Secondary analysis of a cohort sample. Setting and participants Community samples were drawn from the national baseline survey of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2011–2012) through multistage probability sampling, which included households with members 45 years of age or above with a total sample size of 17 708 individuals. Outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity and κ were used as measurements of agreements or validity; variance of validity measures among provinces and communities was estimated using random-effects models. Results Self-reports for hypertension and diabetes showed high specificity (96.3% and 98.3%, respectively) but low sensitivity (56.3% and 61.5%, respectively). Agreement between self-reported data and biomedical measurements was moderate for both hypertension (κ 0.57) and diabetes (κ 0.65), with respondents who were older, of higher socioeconomic status, better educated and who had hospital admissions in the past 12 months showing stronger agreements than their counterparts. Large and significant variations in the sensitivity among provinces for hypertension, and among communities for both hypertension and diabetes, could neither be attributed to the effects of respondents’ characteristics nor to the contextual effects of city–village differences. Conclusions As a considerable number of people in the overall sample were unaware of their conditions, self-reports will lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes. However, in more developed communities or provinces, self-reported data can be a reliable estimate of the prevalence of the two conditions. Further investigations of
Newman, Mary Elizabeth
Studies seem to indicate that preparation for retirement is the key to its success. Planning includes these basic ingredients: (1) maintaining regular health habits; (2) role flexibility--the retiree needs a healthy self image not bound to the self-as-worker; (3) activity that is constructive and personally meaningful; and (4) continuance of…
Phillips, Ione D.
Discusses the need for retirement planning and offers suggestions for building a nest egg. Suggests that pensions are not sufficient and that other investments are crucial to ensure a comfortable retirement. Includes resources and a plan for saving. (JOW)
Japanese American Citizens League, San Francisco, CA.
This document presents a report on the Nisei Retirement Planning Conference. First, a history of the organization of the conference is provided. Then, a series of working papers on the Nisei and retirement are given. These papers address issues such as the following: 1) retirement as a national concern, 2) general retirement issues (physical…
Jennings, Penelope R.; Jennings, William P.; Phillips, G. Michael
While financial planning students are expected to be able to understand client retirement plans, subtle differences in cost-of-living adjustments can have major impact on the success of client retirement plans. This teaching note compares the cost-of-living adjustments in the largest government sponsored retirement systems and a hypothetical…
The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.
Carp, Frances M., Ed.
This comprehensive look at retirement as a transitional life stage was instituted by the Federal Government in order to initiate theory building in this much neglected area. Conferences participated in by experts were held at intervals so as to maximize interactive thinking. Following this give and take, participants formulated theoretical models…
...This document contains final regulations providing guidance relating to certain provisions of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) that apply to hybrid defined benefit pension plans. These regulations provide guidance on changes made by the Pension Protection Act of 2006, as amended by the Worker, Retiree, and Employer Recovery Act of 2008. These regulations affect sponsors, administrators,......
Benner, Larry; And Others
In both industry and government, the current response to the problems of retirement is the development of programs for pre-retirement counseling and planning. A group of older workers who were offered a comprehensive retirement planning program by their company was examined to determine reasons for both attendance and non-attendance in the…
Heller, Michael; King, Francis P.
This paper describes a method of projecting inflation-adjusted (real) retirement benefit replacement ratios for defined contribution retirement plans such as TIAA-CREF (Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association--College Retirement Equities Fund). The illustrated ratios are comparable to the ratios in defined benefit plans that result…
documentation baseline rather than to ensure the ability to reestablish an operational production system. The remainder of this document describes the planning for the removal of the identified systems from service at Hanford, The retirement requirements, planning schedules and costs are covered in the body of the document.
Noone, Jack H.; Stephens, Christine; Alpass, Fiona
Although a substantial proportion of the western population is approaching retirement age, little is known about how they are preparing for the future. Much attention has been paid to the consumption of educational material and retirement wealth in the present literature, but the process of retirement planning has been ignored. S. L. Friedman and…
van Dam, Karen; van der Vorst, Janine D. M.; van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.
This study investigated the early retirement intentions of 346 older Dutch employees by extending the theory of planned behavior with anticipated work conditions. The results showed that employees who felt a pressure from their spouse to retire early had a strong intention to leave the work force before the official retirement age, that is 65.…
Stawski, Robert S.; Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.
Retirement counselors, financial service professionals, and retirement intervention specialists routinely emphasize the importance of developing clear goals for the future; however, few empirical studies have focused on the benefits of retirement goal setting. In the present study, the extent to which goal clarity and financial planning activities…
... church plan described in section 414 (d) or (e). (4) Filing requirements. Information relating to the... benefit need not be a nonforfeitable benefit within the meaning of section 411(a) for the filing... subject to filing requirement. The term “employee retirement benefit plan” means a plan to which...
[A Program to Prepare Older Workers for Retirement and Interest Community Groups in Pre-Retirement Planning.] Second Annual Report, September 1, 1968 to August 31, 1969. Drake University Pre-Retirement Planning Center.
Drake Univ., Des Moines, IA. Pre-Retirement Planning Center.
The project was designed to develop, and evaluate the effectiveness of a pre-retirement planning program. The project, in its second year of operation, has had 575 participants who attended a seven-week series of programs covering the topics of employment after retirement, estate planning, company fringe benefits, continuing education,…
Griffin, Barbara; Loe, David; Hesketh, Beryl
This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a…
Zitzow, Darryl; King, Donald N.
In an effort to assess the retirement preparedness of Midwestern populations above the age of 28, the King Pre-Retirement Checklist was administered to a sampling of 458 persons randomly selected and proportionally stratified by geographic location and community size. Factors examined were financial, social, family cohesion, mobility/health,…
Keele, Shanna; Alpert, Patricia T
This integrative literature review examined the current research on RN retirement. The review identified 3 critical gaps in knowledge: (a) minimal knowledge regarding the economic impact on RN retirement, (b) incomplete information regarding the demographics of RN retirement, and (c) a scarcity of prospective longitudinal RN workforce studies. Future research must address these gaps to better address RN workforce sustainability. PMID:26426132
McKenna, Judy Sheaks; Nickols, Sharon Y.
A study examined the retirement planning of women between 40 and 55 years of age within the framework of family resource management. Personal characteristics inhibiting retirement planning were fear of financial risk, lack of perceived personal control, unwillingness to take risks, lack of belief in control of one's own life, and math anxiety.…
... under the retirement plans for District of Columbia teachers, police officers, and firefighters. See 75 FR 71047. ] The original comment period closed on January 21, 2011. By letter dated January 14, 2011... June 30, 1997, under the retirement plans for District of Columbia teachers, police officers,...
Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan Antonio; Depolo, Marco; Alcover, Carlos-Maria; Morales, J. Francisco
In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between retirement planning, retirement decision and their antecedent and consequences. Our review of the literature generated 341 independent samples obtained from 99 primary studies with 188,222 participants. A small effect size (ES) for antecedents of retirement…
Kock, Tan Hoe; Yoong, Folk Jee
This article draws upon expected retirement age cohorts as a main determinant to financial planning preparation in Malaysia. The return rate was 55% from 600 questionnaires distributed. Five hypotheses were analyzed using hierarchical and stepwise regression analysis. The results revealed that expected retirement age cohort variables made…
Forsyth, Suzanne; Barker, Paul D.
The American Council on Education's 2-year process of investigation, study, and selection that resulted in the council's movement from TIAA/CREF as its only available retirement plan, to a total of 15 retirement options offered by two insured annuity companies and two mutual fund companies is described. (MLW)
Gustman, A L; Steinmeier, T L
of benefits from deferred claiming in their measure of the gain to deferring retirement. On the one hand, early retirees are seen not to defer benefit acceptance despite the actuarial advantage. On the other hand, later retirees are said to defer their retirement in order to gain the advantage of deferring benefit acceptance. Our empirical analysis is based on data from the first four waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a longitudinal survey of 12,652 respondents from 7,607 households with at least one respondent who was born from 1931 to 1941. Our analysis also uses linked pension and Social Security data together with respondents' records from the HRS. We also evaluate a number of specific features of retirement models and suggest improvements. We develop a measure of the future value of pensions and Social Security--the premium value--that is not subject to a problem plaguing other measures in that it handles the accrual of benefits under defined contribution plans very well. We also introduce a new definition of retirement status that blends information on objective hours worked with subjective self-reports of retirement status. Our findings also explore the effects of Social Security incentives on partial retirement and consider the importance of incorporating partial retirement in any study of the relation of Social Security to retirement behavior. PMID:12428511
...) that was published in the Federal Register on Tuesday, October 19, 2010 (75 FR 64197) providing... publication of the notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-132554-08), which was the subject of FR Doc. 2010-25942... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI16 Additional Rules Regarding Hybrid Retirement...
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Okereke, Olivia I; Kawachi, Ichiro; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H
To investigate whether a positive transition into retirement may be associated with later cognitive aging, we included a subset of 4,926 Nurses' Health Study participants who retired from work at ages 60-69, then provided a subjective assessment of the change in overall quality of life (QOL) with retirement. Subsequently (range: 1 month to 4.7 years later), when all were aged 70+ years, they completed a baseline telephone cognitive battery evaluating global cognition, episodic memory, and executive function. They had up to three follow-up cognitive assessments. Controlling for various occupational factors before retirement and socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health-related factors as of the baseline cognitive assessment, we used generalized linear models for repeated measures to estimate mean differences in rates of cognitive decline across categories of QOL transition at retirement: "worse", "same", or "better". Over a median 6 years of follow-up, the global cognitive score change was -0.123 on average. Compared with women who reported no change in QOL at retirement (31%), women who reported improvement (61%) showed a significantly slower rate of cognitive decline (difference = +0.011 95% CI = 0.004, 0.019). This mean difference was equivalent to that observed between women who were 2 years apart in age. No significant differences in cognitive decline rates were observed for the women who reported worsened QOL (8%). Secondary analyses to address possible reverse causation showed robust associations. A positive transition into retirement was associated with better maintenance of cognitive function over time in aging women. These findings need to be replicated in other populations. PMID:27060944
Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Okereke, Olivia I.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.
To investigate whether a positive transition into retirement may be associated with later cognitive ageing, we included a subset of 4,926 Nurses’ Health Study participants who retired from work at ages 60–69, then provided a subjective assessment of the change in overall quality of life (QOL) with retirement. Subsequently (range: 1 month to 4.7 years later), when all were aged 70+ years, they completed a baseline telephone cognitive battery evaluating global cognition, episodic memory and executive function. They had up to three follow-up cognitive assessments. Controlling for various occupational factors before retirement and socioeconomic, lifestyle, and health-related factors as of the baseline cognitive assessment, we used generalized linear models for repeated measures to estimate mean differences in rates of cognitive decline across categories of QOL transition at retirement: “worse”, “same” or “better”. Over a median 6 years of follow-up, the global cognitive score change was −0.123 on average. Compared with women who reported no change in QOL at retirement (31%), women who reported improvement (61%) showed a significantly slower rate of cognitive decline (difference= +0.011 95% CI =0.004, 0.019). This mean difference was equivalent to that observed between women who were 2 years apart in age. No significant differences in cognitive decline rates were observed for the women who reported worsened QOL (8%). Secondary analyses to address possible reverse causation showed robust associations. A positive transition into retirement was associated with better maintenance of cognitive function over time in aging women. These findings need to be replicated in other populations. PMID:27060944
A Guide to Planning Your Retirement Finances. A Report by the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Retirement Income and Employment of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.
This committee print provides workers with a general overview of the steps involved in planning retirement income and encourages them to start laying down concrete financial plans now for their retirement years. It begins by outlining a framework for planning retirement finances. These specific steps are discussed: gathering information on current…
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distribution requirements for individual... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-8 Distribution requirements for individual retirement plans. The following...
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports on distributions from individual... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-7 Reports on distributions from individual retirement plans. (a) Requirement of report....
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution requirements for individual... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-8 Distribution requirements for individual retirement plans. The following questions...
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reports on distributions from individual... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-7 Reports on distributions from individual retirement plans. (a) Requirement...
Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.
Since 2002, public school teachers in Florida have been permitted to choose between a defined benefit (DB) and a defined contribution (DC) retirement plan. We exploit this unique policy environment to study new teachers' revealed preferences over pension plan structures. Roughly 30 percent of teachers hired between 2003 and 2008 selected the DC…
Strate, John M.
Examines post-retirement benefit increases in 76 large state pension plans and the impact of such increases on the purchasing power and adequacy of pension benefits. Although nearly all plans increased benefits for retirees, increases were much less than needed to maintain the purchasing power of pension benefits. (Author/JAC)
There is an increasing expectation that the private-sector should provide needed solutions to pressing problems in long-term care. Long-term care insurance has figured prominently in recent discussions. Within the long-term care insurance market, the potential of the employer in making such insurance available to employees has been discussed extensively. This paper traces the increasing convergence of retirement planning and long-term care planning at the work place. The long-term care insurance market has come a long way, and the employer-sponsored segment of the market has recorded the highest rate of growth in recent times. Furthermore, the employer-sponsored market is beginning to diversify. Low take-up rates still remain a problem. Recent rapid growth of the market coupled with the federal government's involvement as an employer offering long-term care insurance is bound to expand the market further. PMID:15148046
Wilson, Kwesi Nkum; Aggrey, Ellen Aba Munkua
The purpose of the study was to explore retirement planning, challenges, and counseling among teachers of public schools in the Sekondi Circuit in the Western Region, Ghana. A sample of 50 teachers was selected through convenience sampling. Only teachers who expressed interest in participating in the study were sampled. The main instrument for…
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eligibility for enrollment as enrolled agent or enrolled retirement plan agent. 10.4 Section 10.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Governing...
... Plan No. 4 of 1978 (43 FR 47713), the Secretary of the Treasury has interpretive jurisdiction over the... April 11, 1988 (53 FR 11876), as part of a package of regulations that also included proposed... cross-testing rules applicable to cash balance plans (67 FR 76123). The 2002 proposed regulations...
Shanafelt, Tait D.; Raymond, Marilyn; Kosty, Michael; Satele, Daniel; Horn, Leora; Pippen, John; Chu, Quyen; Chew, Helen; Clark, William Benton; Hanley, Amy E.; Sloan, Jeff; Gradishar, William J.
Purpose To evaluate satisfaction with work-life balance (WLB) and career plans of US oncologists. Methods The American Society of Clinical Oncology conducted a survey of US oncologists evaluating satisfaction with WLB and career plans between October 2012 and March 2013. The sample included equal numbers of men and women from all career stages. Results Of 2,998 oncologists contacted, 1,490 (49.7%) returned surveys. From 1,117 oncologists (37.3% of overall sample) completing full-length surveys, we evaluated satisfaction with WLB and career plans among the 1,058 who were not yet retired. The proportion of oncologists satisfied with WLB (n = 345; 33.4%) ranked lower than that reported for all other medical specialties in a recent national study. Regarding career plans, 270 oncologists (26.5%) reported a moderate or higher likelihood of reducing their clinical work hours in the next 12 months, 351 (34.3%) indicated a moderate or higher likelihood of leaving their current position within 24 months, and 273 (28.5%) planned to retire before 65 years of age. Multivariable analyses found women oncologists (odds ratio [OR], 0.458; P < .001) and those who devoted greater time to patient care (OR for each additional hour, 0.977; P < .001) were less likely to be satisfied with WLB. Satisfaction with WLB and burnout were the strongest predictors of intent to reduce clinical work hours and leave current position on multivariable analysis. Conclusion Satisfaction with WLB among US oncologists seems lower than for other medical specialties. Dissatisfaction with WLB shows a strong relationship with plans to reduce hours and leave current practice. Given the pending US oncologist shortage, additional studies exploring interactions among WLB, burnout, and career satisfaction and their impact on career and retirement plans are warranted. PMID:24616305
Fahy, Patrick J.; Spencer, Bob; Halinski, Tara
The Centre for Distance Education, Athabasca University, commenced a survey of all graduates of its two programs, the master of distance education (MDE) degree, and the graduate diploma (GD) in technology, in late 2006. Alumni were asked how program completion had affected their careers, and their plans for the future. A total of 84 graduates…
... retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. 31.3306(b)(2)-1... Payments under employers' plans on account of retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or... dependents), on account of: (1) An employee's retirement, (2) Sickness or accident disability of an...
... retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. 31.3306(b)(2)-1... Payments under employers' plans on account of retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or... dependents), on account of: (1) An employee's retirement, (2) Sickness or accident disability of an...
... retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or hospitalization expenses, or death. 31.3306(b)(2)-1... Payments under employers' plans on account of retirement, sickness or accident disability, medical or... dependents), on account of: (1) An employee's retirement, (2) Sickness or accident disability of an...
Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.
This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709
Neville, Stephen; Henrickson, Mark
A global increase in older people will also mean an increase in the numbers of lesbian, gay and bisexual people requiring residential support. All health practitioners working with older people need to be aware of the existence of older lesbian, gay and bisexual people in order to provide health care that is appropriate. This study describes lesbian, gay and bisexual people's accommodation plans for old age through a cross-sectional quantitative survey design. Participants were recruited through mainstream and lesbian, gay and bisexual media and venues. A total of 2269 participants completed the 133-item survey. When asked about what accommodation plans they had for their older years lesbian, gay and bisexual people identified that they were least likely to choose living in a retirement community/facility. However, if unable to live independently the majority of respondents identified they would prefer to live in a retirement facility that specifically catered for people who did not identify as heterosexual. This study has found that the residential support sector needs to be prepared to provide a health service that is person-centred, free from discriminatory practices and meets the needs of all health consumers regardless of sexual orientation. PMID:21129111
Joo, So-hyun; Grable, John E.
Results of an analysis of the 1998 Retirement Confidence Survey (n=711) showed that women who had higher incomes, exhibited better financial behaviors, had more positive attitudes toward retirement, and exhibited a higher level of risk tolerance were more likely to seek professional help when making retirement decisions. (Contains 49 references.)…
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments under certain employers' plans after retirement, disability, or death. 31.3306(b)(10)-1 Section 31.3306(b)(10)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION...
... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payments under certain employers' plans after retirement, disability, or death. 31.3121(a)(13)-1 Section 31.3121(a)(13)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION...
.... See 26 CFR part 300. (7) Forms. Forms required for renewal may be obtained by sending a written... Revenue Service will publish in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see 26 CFR 601.601(d)(2)(ii)(b)) and on the... Revenue Code and effective tax administration. (ii) Enrolled retirement plan agents. To qualify...
... under the provisions of this part. (b) Enrollment as a retirement plan agent upon examination. The... any practitioner under the provisions of this part. (c) Designation as a registered tax return... practitioner under the provisions of this part. (d) Enrollment of former Internal Revenue......
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application to become an enrolled agent, enrolled retirement plan agent, or registered tax return preparer. 10.5 Section 10.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PRACTICE BEFORE THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Governing Authority to Practice §...
... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Failure to file information with respect to employee retirement benefit plan. 301.6652-3 Section 301.6652-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts,...
LATEST SCF DATA: This Issue Brief assesses the current status of Americans' savings for retirement by examining the incidence of individual account plans among families, as well as the average amount of assets accumulated in these accounts. The 2007 Survey of Consumer Finances (SCF), the Federal Reserve Board's triennial survey of wealth, is the basis for this study, as it is a leading source of data on Americans' wealth, provides detailed information on retirement plan incidence and account balances among families, and is the latest available. ACCOUNTING FOR THE ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: While 2007 SCF is the most comprehensive and current survey of Americans' finances, its timing was unfortunate due to the significant downturn in the economy in 2008 just after the survey was released. To account for that change, this analysis provides estimates of the changes in asset values from the end of 2007 to mid-June 2009 for individual account plan balances. The account balances of the defined contribution plans and IRAs are adjusted based on the asset allocation reported within the plans by using equity market returns and bond market returns from January 1, 2008, to June 19, 2009. MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLANS: Among all families with a defined contribution plan in 2007, the median (mid-point) plan balance was $31,800, up 16 percent from 2004. According to EBRI estimates, this dropped 16.4 percent (to $26,578) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. Losses were higher for families with more than $100,000 a year in income (down 22 percent) or having a net worth in the top 10 percent (down 28 percent). MEDIAN ASSET LEVELS FOR IRA/KEOGH PLANS: Among all families with an IRA/Keogh plan, the median value of their plan was $34,000 in 2007, up 3 percent from 2004. EBRI estimates this median value dropped 15 percent (to $28,955) from year-end 2007 to mid-June 2009. LESS THAN HALF OF ALL FAMILIES HAVE A RETIREMENT PLAN THROUGH A CURRENT JOB: In 2007, 40.6 percent of
Vance, Jack O.
Discusses the disadvantages of compulsory retirement at age 65 for senior business executives and suggests several possible ways companies can make good use of the experience and expertise of retirement-age executives. (Available from Business Horizons, School of Business, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47401; $2.50, single copy) (JG)
Adams, Gary A.; Rau, Barbara L.
In this article we note that in the coming years, a larger number of people will be experiencing retirement for a longer period of time than ever before and that despite this fact, many will find themselves unprepared for this stage of their lives. We review the literature on retirement preparation, structuring our review around the key questions…
Concern over the impending retirement of several top-level managers led a county agency to engage in efforts aimed at more efficient succession management. Administrators developed plans to prevent the loss of invaluable knowledge and wisdom accompanying retirement of experienced agency leaders. The agency's Director of Finance (DoF) was one of the first key figures projected to retire, and a succession plan was implemented to transfer his knowledge for use after his departure. The knowledge transfer process involved three stages, including: (1) employing the DoF as teacher, having him develop curricula and conduct trainings; (2) engaging the DoF as mentor, allowing an existing staff member and the DoF's successor to shadow and be coached by the DoF; and (3) developing a knowledge management system that could be used after the DoF departed. This case study describes the knowledge transfer process and experiences shared by the DoF and this agency. PMID:22409615
Luecke, Randall W; Reinstein, Alan
Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) No. 143 requires organizations to recognize a liability for an asset retirement obligation when it is incurred--even if that occurs far in advance of the asset's planned retirement. For example, organizations must recognize future costs associated with medical equipment disposal that carries hazardous material legal obligations. PMID:12735191
Whitaker, Elizabeth A.; Bokemeier, Janet L.; Loveridge, Scott
Individual savings are critical for retirement as government and employer-based provisions fade or become less secure. Rural communities are vulnerable given their higher proportion of elderly and more who rely on Social Security. Using a telephone survey of working-age residents in Michigan's rural Upper Peninsula, this research investigates…
This sixth in a series of six packages of instructional materials developed by the Pre-Retirement Rehearsal Project contains a student's pre-retirement booklet specifically intended for adults with limited reading ability and teacher's guide, which consider financial planning for retirement, including such topics as types of income, Social…
Brady, E. Michael, Ed.
Intended for persons in their 50s and 60s who are seriously thinking about retirement and younger people who want to learn about aging and retirement, this book was developed as a companion piece to the training program offered to business and nonprofit organizations by the University of Southern Maine retirement planning team. Most of the…
Aging and Work: A Journal on Age, Work and Retirement, 1980
A survey of the nation's largest corporations on their attitudes toward retirement and older workers revealed a heightened awareness of inflation's effect on retirees and of the need for retirement planning programs. Though few such programs presently exist, interest in employer-employee cooperation in retirement preparation is rising. (SK)
Leung, Cindy S. Y.; Earl, Joanne K.
The scientific investigation of the relationship between resources and retirement well-being is impeded by the lack of proper measurement of resources. This study reports on the development of an inventory that assesses resources relevant to retirement well-being. The 35-item Retirement Resources Inventory (RRI) is a self-report measure consisting…
Eck, R. L.
Eligibility for disability retirement is discussed. General guidelines and a few standards are given. Usually the same basic medical principles apply to the evaluation of claims for disability retirement as apply to determining medical suitability for initial employment.
Arling, Priscilla A.; Kirby, Jill; Saajasto, Kegan
For college graduates entering the workforce, contributing to an employer-sponsored 401(k) retirement plan can be an important way of saving for the future. However, contribution rates for young people in these plans are far below recommended percentages, leading to concerns about future financial stability for these individuals. Prior work has…
Chronister, Jay L.; Baldwin, Roger G.; Conley, Valerie M.
This study examined retirement and other departure plans of full- and part-time faculty and staff in higher education institutions using data from the 1988 and 1993 National Studies of Postsecondary Faculty. Among the study's findings were: 22 percent of full-time and 38 percent of part-time faculty planned to leave their current position within…
Carnell, Eileen, Ed.; Lodge, Caroline, Ed.
"Retiring Lives" presents fourteen personal real life stories from people at various stages of retiring. Each author recounts their own story about retiring, bringing together many aspects of the experiences: the social, psychological and practical. These inspirational and illustrated stories will encourage the reader to hold up these experiences…
Kessler, Ronald C; Adler, Lenard A; Gruber, Michael J; Sarawate, Chaitanya A; Spencer, Thomas; Van Brunt, David L
The validity of the six-question World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was assessed in a sample of subscribers to a large health plan in the US. A convenience subsample of 668 subscribers was administered the ASRS Screener twice to assess test-retest reliability and then a third time in conjunction with a clinical interviewer for DSM-IV adult ADHD. The data were weighted to adjust for discrepancies between the sample and the population on socio-demographics and past medical claims. Internal consistency reliability of the continuous ASRS Screener was in the range 0.63-0.72 and test-retest reliability (Pearson correlations) in the range 0.58-0.77. A four-category version The ASRS Screener had strong concordance with clinician diagnoses, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.90. The brevity and ability to discriminate DSM-IV cases from non-cases make the six-question ASRS Screener attractive for use both in community epidemiological surveys and in clinical outreach and case-finding initiatives. PMID:17623385
Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S
BACKGROUND Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 year retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective, population-based study STUDY SAMPLE Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 1993–1995 were included (n=1410, mean age=57.8 years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from four EHLS phases (1993–1995, 1998–2000, 2003–2005, and 2009–2010) were analyzed in 2010–2012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those less than 65 years of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. CONCLUSIONS Hearing impairment
Hershey, Douglas A.; Henkens, Kene; van Dalen, Hendrik P.
Current theoretical models support the existence of interactions between the individual and socio-environmental forces when it comes to the formation and enactment of life plans (Friedman & Scholnick, 1997; Shanahan & Elder, 2002). In this investigation, we examine the social, economic, and psychological forces that impact financial planning for…
... Tax Regulations (26 CFR 20.2031-7) or any similar present worth or life expectancy tables as may be...-contingent interest of each plan participant, provided the rules in § 330.5 are satisfied. Deposits eligible... the amount of $250,000 for the non-contingent interest of each plan participant, provided the rules...
... (71 FR 41359) requiring electronic filing of the Form 5500 and Form 5500-SF for plans covered by Title... published a final rule in the Federal Register (72 FR 64710) postponing the effective date of the electronic... Magnetic Media AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed...
Lapkoff, Shelley; Fierst, Edith
Women are at a disadvantage under both Social Security and private employee pension plans because the retirement systems were set up at a time when most women were non-working spouses of employed men, a condition that no longer exists. Today women workers, divorcees, and widows of retirees often find themselves with inadequate retirement benefits…
Hagermoser Sanetti, Lisa M.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.
The evidence-based practice movement has focused on identifying, disseminating, and promoting the adoption of evidence-based interventions. Despite advances in this movement, numerous barriers, such as the lack of treatment integrity assessment methods, remain as challenges in implementation. Accurate teacher self-report could be an efficient…
Coe, Norma B.; Zamarro, Gema
What are the health impacts of retirement? As talk of raising retirement ages in pensions and social security schemes continues around the world, it is important to know both the costs and benefits for the individual, as well as the governments’ budgets. In this paper we use the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) dataset to address this question in a multi-country setting. We use country-specific early and full retirement ages as instruments for retirement behavior. These statutory retirement ages clearly induce retirement, but are not related to an individual’s health. Exploiting the discontinuities in retirement behavior across countries, we find significant evidence that retirement has a health-preserving effect on overall general health. Our estimates indicate that retirement leads to a 35 percent decrease in the probability of reporting to be in fair, bad, or very bad health, and an almost one standard deviation improvement in the health index. While the self-reported health seems to be a temporary impact, the health index indicates there are long-lasting health differences. PMID:21183235
This article reports that across the country, retired superintendents are finding fulfillment as mentors, either formally or informally, spontaneously or planned. Some are paid, but most are volunteers who remember their first year running a school district and want to ease the transition for others. Some want to focus on leadership development.…
Explores retirement and women, many of whom are economically insecure when they retire. Argues that, because of prevailing myth among women that they will be cared for in old age and fear of aging, women often do not aggressively plan for retirement. Contends that women's movement should begin to advocate for women's preparation for realities of…
... a 2014 Gallup poll. Ding said the average retirement age in Australia is just over 63 years. "I think it is important to plan for retired life with a positive mindset," she said. "Some people get anxious about retirement because they may lose a sense of purpose." ...
Wiatrowski, William J.
In recent years, legislative changes, new types of retirement plans, and increases in life expectancy have led to differences in retirement ages. More older adults continue to work. The traditional model of social security, savings, and employer retirement benefits is changing. (Contains 31 notes and references.) (SK)
Jefferson, Anne L.
A study examined effects of early retirement plans (ERP) at Canadian Universities. In response to current conditions within Canadian universities and a Canadian Supreme Court decision upholding mandatory retirement requirements, many universities have sought to encourage faculty retirement through ERPs. In order to study the cost of such programs,…
HRS is a national panel study based on biennial interviews. The study provides a portrait of an aging America's physical and mental health, insurance coverage, financial status, family support systems, labor market status, and retirement planning.
Feldman, Daniel C.; Beehr, Terry A.
The present article organizes prominent theories about retirement decision making around three different types of thinking about retirement: imagining the possibility of retirement, assessing when it is time to let go of long-held jobs, and putting concrete plans for retirement into action at present. It also highlights important directions for…
Liebig, Phoebe S.
The Retirement Equity Act (REA) sets out requirements for joint and survivor annuity coverage for married individuals who participate in federally regulated retirement plans. REA-mandated provisions do not apply to state and local government retirement systems. Because state and local government employees constitute a significant part of the work…
Holden, Karen C.; Hansen, W. Lee
Uncapping the mandatory retirement age is unlikely to alter retirement age by much, but it will lead to substantially higher pensions for faculty members who continue to work. Institutions must monitor retirement-age behavior in order to restructure pension and other benefits appropriately to meet income and retirement objectives. (Author/MSE)
Hurd, Michael D.; Rohwedder, Susann
The simple one-good model of life-cycle consumption requires that consumption be continuous over retirement; yet prior research based on partial measures of consumption or on synthetic panels indicates that spending drops at retirement, a result that has been called the retirement-consumption puzzle. Using panel data on total spending, nondurable spending and food spending, we find that spending declines at small rates at retirement, rates that could be explained by mechanisms such as the cessation of work-related expenses, unexpected retirement due to a health shock or by the substitution of time for spending. We find substantial heterogeneity in spending change at retirement: in the upper half of the wealth distribution spending increased. In the low-wealth population where spending did decline at higher rates, the main explanation for the decline appears to be early retirement due to poor health, possibly augmented by a short planning horizon by a minority of the population. PMID:24524026
Williamson, Marvel L; Cook, Linda; Salmeron, Lois; Burton, Denise
The number of nursing faculty planning to retire by 2020 is alarming. To develop strategies for retaining faculty, researchers asked: What factors influence the decision by nursing faculty to stay in the workforce past retirement age? What barriers could be removed that would encourage faculty to stay longer? Using Giorgi's analysis method, findings from 6 faculty teaching past retirement age revealed key meaning units and grand themes that match Maslow's Hierarchy of Inborn Needs. PMID:20548182
Iams, Howard M.
Many retired persons return to work, to some extent, following their retirement. Data from the 1982 New Beneficiary Survey (NBS) of 4,212 women and 5,307 men were examined to determine the employment of retired-worker beneficiaries who were working 18-30 months after first receiving retired-worker benefits. According to the NBS data, over…
McFadden, Joan R.; Makela, Carole J.
Current income and anticipated income are important considerations in people's preretirement planning for when and where to retire. Community characteristics, suitable and affordable housing, utility costs, and natural resources may be weighed when decisions about where and when to retire are under consideration. If pre-retirees are to carry out…
There is a strong movement toward legal abolition of fixed-age retirement in Canada. Several factors justify the existing practice, but these arguments are unlikely to prevail, and institutions should consider administrative measures such as facilitation of early retirement, modified benefit plans, and more systematic faculty assessment throughout…
AGB Reports, 1978
A TIAA-CREF task force reports that there are steps an institution can take in dealing with the new mandatory retirement laws (not before age 70). They include preretirement counseling, provision of "Sweeteners," severance plans, a phased retirement program, and a continuing relationship with the college for retirees. (Author/LBH)
Khan, H U; Latif, S A
Retirement literally means withdrawing from the service. The retirement age varies from country to country, generally between 55 and 70 years. There are many effects of retirement upon retirees. The physical and mental health may be disrupted or decline or may remain unaffected. Early retirement have an increased mortality than those who retired lately. Mandatory retirement is applicable to certain occupation like military personnel and airline pilot. Life after retirement from service may have many options like retired community, charities, tourism, and care for grand children or devote to a hobby or sports. The responsibilities of the Government, family and society are the key for the betterment of retired persons. Staying healthy, maintaining social support, spiritual life, good finance and making daily routine prevent stress after retirement. PMID:20046191
Understanding the health consequences of retirement is important, as many developed countries have already started raising state pension eligibility age, with the intention to induce postponed retirement. This paper estimates the causal effect of retirement on the health outcomes of older women in Australia, utilising the exogenous variation in retirement induced by the change in age eligibility for the Australian Age Pension. Using a sample of 19,185 observations for 3771 women from waves 2001-2011 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey, we show that retirement status has positive and significant effects on women's self-reported health, physical and mental health outcomes. We also find that longer time spent in retirement confers clear additional health benefits. We show that retirement affects physical and mental health in diverse ways and that the estimated positive health effects of retirement are coincidental with increased post-retirement physical activity and reduced smoking. Our finding that retirement can improve health suggests that the welfare losses from working life prolongation policies will be larger than currently though when we include the cost of the foregone health improvements. PMID:27423068
... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-3 Individual retirement annuities. (a) In general. An individual retirement annuity is an annuity contract or endowment contract... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual retirement annuities. 1.408-3...
... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-3 Individual retirement annuities. (a) In general. An individual retirement annuity is an annuity contract or endowment... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual retirement annuities. 1.408-3...
BOOCOCK, SARANE SPENCE; SPRAGUE, NORMAN
A PILOT PROJECT EXPLORED THE ADAPTATION OF SIMULATION TECHNIQUES TO FOUR RETIREMENT PROBLEMS--FINANCIAL POSITION, PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT (HOUSING CHOICES), HEALTH, AND SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT (PLANNING AND GAINING SKILLS BEFORE RETIREMENT). A PRELIMINARY MODEL OF A GAME IN RETIREMENT FINANCE PRESENTS PLAYERS WITH THREE INVESTMENT SITUATIONS--SAVINGS…
Clark, Robert L.; Quinn, Joseph F.
The average retirement age for men shifted from 70 in 1950 to 65 in 1970 to 62 in 1985. Whether the trend toward early retirement has ended depends on interpretation of changes in the last 2 decades, including elimination of mandatory retirement, modifications in social security and pension plans, and increased longevity. (Contains 18 references.)…
Kan, Leslie; Aldeman, Chad
Retirement savings are often described as a three-legged stool: Social Security, employer retirement plans, and personal savings. For many American workers, Social Security is the most consistent portion of the three-legged model, providing a solid plank of retirement savings. But nationwide, more than 1 million teachers--about 40 percent of all…
... employees in qualified pension or annuity plans. 1.401-14 Section 1.401-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit... qualified pension or annuity plans. (a) Introduction. Under section 401(h) a qualified pension or...
... employees in qualified pension or annuity plans. 1.401-14 Section 1.401-14 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension... qualified pension or annuity plans. (a) Introduction. Under section 401(h) a qualified pension or...
... pursuant to an incentive compensation plan which also provides for the making of other types of payments... earned. A's employer has established an incentive compensation plan for a class of his employees, including A, providing for the payment of deferred compensation on termination of employment,...
... excluded from “wages” even if made pursuant to an incentive compensation plan which also provides for the... the month for which the salary is earned. A's employer has established an incentive compensation plan for a class of his employees, including A, providing for the payment of deferred compensation...
Friedberg, Leora; Webb, Anthony
A comparative analysis of defined benefit pension plans that were more common before 1980s and the defined contribution plans is presented. It is observed that defined benefit pension plans offered age related incentives thereby encouraging people to retire earlier. In contrast, defined contribution plans encourage people to continue with jobs…
Fallon, Berlie J.
For those who accept retirement as we now know it in America, the system awaits with all its entrapments. For those who are against retirement, there are many attractive alternatives worth the struggle of swimming upstream. (Author)
Lytle, Megan C.; Foley, Pamela F.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.
This paper reviews selected career development theories as well as theories specifically focused on retirement, with an emphasis on their application to retirement decisions and vocational behavior in multicultural populations. Theories are evaluated based on whether: (a) retirement was considered a stage of working life, (b) work satisfaction, motivation, and other work variables at retirement age were addressed, (c) work choices at retirement age were included, and (d) cultural and other minority status issues were either directly considered in the work/retirement decision or if the model could be reasonably applied to retirement across cultures. We provide specific recommendations for research and practice with the aim of helping practitioners and scholars conceptualize the current concerns older adults face in their working lives and during retirement planning. PMID:26101455
Furgeson, Joshua; Strauss, Robert P.; Vogt, William B.
The retirement behavior of Pennsylvania public school teachers in 1997-98 and 1998-99, a period when state early retirement incentives were temporarily increased, is modeled using a choice framework that emphasizes both pecuniary and nonpecuniary factors of the retirement decision under a defined benefit retirement plan. We find each to have large…
Yakoboski, P; Ostuw, P; Hicks, J
This Issue Brief presents the findings of the 1998 Retirement Confidence Survey (RCS). The survey tracks Americans' retirement planning and saving behavior and their confidence regarding various aspects of their retirement. It also categorizes workers and retirees into six distinct groups, based on their very different views on retirement, retirement planning, and saving. The six personality types identified in the RCS are Deniers (10 percent of the population), Strugglers (9 percent), Impulsives (20 percent), Cautious Savers (21 percent), Planners (23 percent), and Retiring Savers (17 percent). The survey shows that working Americans have become more focused on retirement; 45 percent have tried to determine how much they need to save before they retire, up from 32 percent in 1996. Americans' growing attention to their retirement has not increased their retirement income confidence. Since 1993, the portion of working Americans who are very confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably throughout retirement has consistently ranged from 20 percent to 25 percent. Sixty-three percent of Americans have begun to save for retirement. Fifty-five percent of those not saving for retirement say it is reasonably possible for them to save $20 per week (over $1,000 per year). In addition, 57 percent of workers who have begun to save say that it is reasonably possible for them to save an additional $20 per week. The findings demonstrate the continuing need for broad-based educational efforts designed to make retirement savings a priority for individuals. The good news is the evidence that education can have a real impact at the individual level. For the first time the 1998 RCS examined retirement planning, saving, and attitudes across ethnic groups (African-Americans, Hispanic-Americans, Asian-Americans, and whites). African-Americans are the least confident that they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement. African-Americans and Hispanic
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of retirement bonds. 1.405-3 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.405-3 Taxation of retirement..., profit-sharing, or stock bonus plan, employer contributions on behalf of his common-law employees under...
The landscape of public education retirement plans is in an upheaval. A variety of economic, demographic, and political factors make it increasingly difficult for defined-benefit pension plans alone to provide educators with an adequate retirement. As a result, for the nearly seven million educators in America's public primary and secondary…
Crombez, Geert; Van der Mispel, Celien; Verloigne, Maite; Van Stappen, Vicky; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
Background Web-based interventions typically have small intervention effects on adults’ health behavior because they primarily target processes leading to an intention to change leaving individuals in an intention-behavior gap, they often occur without contact with health care providers, and a limited amount of feedback is provided only at the beginning of these interventions, but not further on in the behavior change process. Therefore, we developed a Web-based intervention (“MyPlan 1.0”) to promote healthy behavior in adults. The intervention was based on a self-regulation perspective that also targets postintentional processes and guides individuals during all phases of behavior change. Objective The study investigated the effectiveness of MyPlan1.0 on fruit and vegetable intake of Flemish adults visiting general practice (3 groups: control group, intervention group recruited by researchers, and intervention group recruited and guided by general practitioners [GPs]). Second, it examined whether there was a larger intervention effect for the intervention group guided by GPs compared to the intervention group recruited by researchers. Methods Adults (≥18 years) were recruited in 19 Flemish general practices. In each general practice, patients were systematically allocated by a researcher either for the intervention group (researchers’ intervention group) or the waiting-list control group that received general advice. In a third group, the GP recruited adults for the intervention (GPs intervention group). The two intervention groups filled in evaluation questionnaires and received MyPlan 1.0 for a behavior of choice (fruit, vegetable, or physical activity). The waiting-list control group filled in the evaluation questionnaires and received only general information. Self-reported fruit and vegetable intake were assessed at baseline (T0), 1 week (T1), and 1 month (T2) postbaseline. Three-level (general practice, adults, time) linear regression models were
Issues concerning college faculty/staff retirement and coping with changes in lifestyle are discussed, including financial planning, psychological adjustment, relocating vs. maintaining current housing, planning for travel, health care, health and life insurance needs, maintenance of an acceptable standard of living, protecting resources against…
Moss, Arthur J; Greenberg, Henry; Dwyer, Edward M; Klein, Helmut; Ryan, Daniel; Francis, Charles; Marcus, Frank; Eberly, Shirley; Benhorin, Jesaia; Bodenheimer, Monty; Brown, Mary; Case, Robert; Gillespie, John; Goldstein, Robert; Haigney, Mark; Krone, Ronald; Lichstein, Edgar; Locati, Emanuela; Oakes, David; Thomsen, Poul Erik Bloch; Zareba, Wojciech
An increasing number of academic senior physicians are approaching their potential retirement in good health with accumulated clinical and research experience that can be a valuable asset to an academic institution. Considering the need to let the next generation ascend to leadership roles, when and how should a medical career be brought to a close? We explore the roles for academic medical faculty as they move into their senior years and approach various retirement options. The individual and institutional considerations require a frank dialogue among the interested parties to optimize the benefits while minimizing the risks for both. In the United States there is no fixed age for retirement as there is in Europe, but European physicians are initiating changes. What is certain is that careful planning, innovative thinking, and the incorporation of new patterns of medical practice are all part of this complex transition and timing of senior academic physicians into retirement. PMID:23621971
Cooley, Eileen L; Adorno, Gail
in the 21st century, as more women are employed full-time and couples increasingly share egalitarian values, more women continue employment after their partners have voluntarily retired. However, we know very little about the experiences of this growing population of women. We asked working women with retired partners to share their advice for other women who may face this developmental transition. Open-ended responses from 97 women were analyzed to identify pertinent issues and themes. Four primary content areas were identified: time management, division of household labor, financial planning, and communication. Communication between partners was both a topic of concern as well as the solution suggested to resolve conflicts or differences that may arise when women live with a retired partner. It is expected that future changes in the workforce and improvements in the gender balance within relationships will continue to impact experiences for working women with retired partners. PMID:26933760
Fitzpatrick, Maria D.; Lovenheim, Michael F.
As public budgets have grown tighter over the past decade, states and school districts have sought ways to control the growth of spending. One increasingly common strategy employed to rein in costs is to offer experienced teachers with high salaries financial incentives to retire early. Although early retirement incentive (ERI) programs have been…
Fishman, Seth Matthew
With the graying of the professoriate continuing and the massive number of baby boomers entering retirement age, universities and college administrations need to adequately prepare for retirement. This is beginning to cause some staffing shortages in the faculty pipeline as well as the loss of institutional history and professional knowledge.…
Maloney, Wendi A.
This article talks about the retired faculty members from different types of institutions around the country that were interviewed to find out how well their preparations for retirement are serving them now. Like other state employees in California, faculty members at public institutions participate in the California Public Employees' Retirement…
June, Audrey Williams
This article reports on the University of North Carolina's "phased-retirement" plan, which lets professors formally ease their way into retirement. The challenges of personnel planning in the North Carolina system, made tougher when higher education was stripped of a mandatory retirement age 14 years ago, have lessened because the program has…
TAX PROPOSALS: Currently, the combination of worker and employer contributions in a defined contribution plan is capped by the federal tax code at the lesser of $49,000 per year or 100 percent of a worker's compensation (participants over age 50 can make additional "catch-up" contributions). As part of the effort to lower the federal deficit and reduce federal "tax expenditures," two major reform proposals have surfaced that would change current tax policy toward retirement savings: A plan that would end the existing tax deductions for 401(k) contributions and replace them with a flat-rate refundable credit that serves as a matching contribution into a retirement savings account. The so-called "20/20 cap," included by the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform in their December 2010 report, "The Moment of Truth," which would limit the sum of employer and worker annual contributions to the lower of $20,000 or 20 percent of income, the so-called "20/20 cap." IMPACT OF PERMANENTLY MODIFYING THE EXCLUSION OF EMPLOYEE CONTRIBUTIONS FOR RETIREMENT SAVINGS PLANS FROM TAXABLE INCOME: If the current exclusion of worker contributions for retirement savings plans were ended in 2012 and the total match remains constant, the average reductions in 401(k) accounts at Social Security normal retirement age would range from a low of 11.2 percent for workers currently ages 26-35 in the highest-income groups, to a high of 24.2 percent for workers in that age range in the lowest-income group. IMPACT OF "20/20 CAP": Earlier EBRI analysis of enacting the 20/20 cap starting in 2012 showed it would, as expected, most affect those with high income. However, EBRI also found the cap would cause a significant reduction in retirement savings by the lowest-income workers as well, and younger cohorts would experience larger reductions given their increased exposure to the proposal. IMPORTANCE OF EMPLOYER-SPONSORED RETIREMENT PLANS AND AUTO-ENROLLMENT: A key factor in future
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.
Purpose: This article expands on earlier analyses that assessed whether the recent recession influenced retirement expectations. Design and Methods: Acknowledging that planning for retirement is a complex process influenced by personal preferences, resources, economic factors, institutional policies, and social norms, we test more comprehensive models than those used in previous studies, using data from the 2006 and 2008 waves (Waves 8 and 9) of the Health and Retirement Study. Results: Our results confirm that economic changes impinge on retirement expectations, but they also show stronger influences of other factors such as debts and the work environment. Implications: As the baby boom cohorts approach retirement age, it will be important to better understand how workers consider macro factors such as the state of the economy and firm-level factors and personal finances when planning for retirement. PMID:23448961
... CFR 346.1(c). (ii) If a retirement bond is redeemed after the close of the taxable year in which the... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retirement bonds. 1.409-1 Section 1.409-1...) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.409-1 Retirement bonds. (a) In...
Green, Robert G.
Describes and compares two self-report measures of family competence: the Family Awareness Scales (FAS) (Green and Kolevzon, late 1970s) and the Self-Report Family Inventory (SFI) (Beavers, 1983). Discusses reliability and validity. Their focus on the "insider" (family member) is different from the traditional examination of family competence from…
Gure, Tanya R.; McCammon, Ryan J.; Cigolle, Christine T.; Koelling, Todd M.; Blaum, Caroline S.; Langa, Kenneth M.
Background Little research has been conducted on the predictors of the self-report or patient awareness of HF in a population-based survey. Objective: 1) test agreement between Medicare administrative and Health and Retirement Study (HRS) survey data and 2) determine predictors associated with self-report of HF, using a validated Medicare claims algorithm as the reference standard. We hypothesized that those who self-reported HF were more likely to have a higher number of HF-related claims. Methods and Results Secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2004 wave of the HRS linked to 2002-04 Medicare claims (n=5,573 respondents ≥ 67 years old). Concordance between self-report of HF in the HRS and Medicare claims was calculated. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors associated with self-report HF. HF prevalence by self-report was 4.6%. Self-report of HF and claims agreement was 87% (k=0.34). The presence of >1 HF inpatient claim was associated with greater odds of self-report (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.23-3.00). Greater odds of self-reporting HF was also associated with ≥ 4 HF claims (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.36-5.52). Blacks and Hispanics were least likely to self-report HF compared to whites (blacks, OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14-0.55; Hispanics: OR 0.30; 95% CI: 0.11-0.83) in the final model. Conclusions Self-report of HF is an insensitive method for accurately identifying HF cases, especially in those with less severe disease and who are non-white. There may be limited awareness of HF among older minority patients despite having clinical encounters with during which HF is coded as a diagnosis. PMID:22592753
Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack
Americans' confidence in their ability to retire comfortably is stagnant at historically low levels. Just 14 percent are very confident they will have enough money to live comfortably in retirement (statistically equivalent to the low of 13 percent measured in 2011 and 2009). Employment insecurity looms large: Forty-two percent identify job uncertainty as the most pressing financial issue facing most Americans today. Worker confidence about having enough money to pay for medical expenses and long-term care expenses in retirement remains well below their confidence levels for paying basic expenses. Many workers report they have virtually no savings and investments. In total, 60 percent of workers report that the total value of their household's savings and investments, excluding the value of their primary home and any defined benefit plans, is less than $25,000. Twenty-five percent of workers in the 2012 Retirement Confidence Survey say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. In 1991, 11 percent of workers said they expected to retire after age 65, and by 2012 that has grown to 37 percent. Regardless of those retirement age expectations, and consistent with prior RCS findings, half of current retirees surveyed say they left the work force unexpectedly due to health problems, disability, or changes at their employer, such as downsizing or closure. Those already in retirement tend to express higher levels of confidence than current workers about several key financial aspects of retirement. Retirees report they are significantly more reliant on Social Security as a major source of their retirement income than current workers expect to be. Although 56 percent of workers expect to receive benefits from a defined benefit plan in retirement, only 33 percent report that they and/or their spouse currently have such a benefit with a current or previous employer. More than half of workers (56 percent) report they and/or their spouse have not tried
...The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is proposing to implement phased retirement, a new human resources tool that allows full-time employees to work a part-time schedule while beginning to draw retirement benefits. Section 100121 of the ``Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act,'' or ``MAP-21,'' authorizes phased retirement under the Civil Service Retirement System and the......
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual retirement accounts. 1.408-2 Section 1.408-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-2 Individual retirement accounts. (a) In general....
Ferguson, Wayne S.
Early retirement plans are perceived as being beneficial to school staff and financially advantageous to schools. Four out of the five assumptions on which these perceptions are based are incorrect. The one correct assumption is that early retirement will make affirmative action programs move ahead more rapidly. The incorrect assumptions are: (1)…
Shkop, Yitzchak M.; Shkop, Esther M.
In a recent survey, most managers and blue-collar workers indicated that the availability of job modifications would alter their retirement plans. Such an alternative can alleviate some job-related problems of older workers and permit an organization to capitalize fully upon these employees' skills. (SK)
Smith, Justin L.
Concerns over fiscal and personal appropriateness for public retirement pensions have become prevalent within conversations throughout the United States. However, with some important exceptions (e.g., DeArmond and Goldhaber, 2010) limited research has focused upon perceptions of teachers who receive these pension plans. As such, the purpose of…
National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.
The National Education Association (NEA) Retirement and Benefits Forum is an annual event where leaders, lobbyists, researchers, and trustees of retirement and health and welfare plans meet to learn about and discuss current and future retirement and benefits issues. This report of the 1990 forum contains 10 selected papers and a welcoming speech…
Hernaes, Erik; Markussen, Simen; Piggott, John; Vestad, Ola L
The relationship between retirement and mortality is studied with a unique administrative data set covering the full population of Norway. A series of retirement policy changes in Norway reduced the retirement age for a group of workers but not for others. Difference-in-differences estimation based on monthly birth cohorts and treatment group status show that the early retirement programme significantly reduced the retirement age; this holds true also when we account for programme substitution, for example into the disability pension. Instrumental variables estimation results show no effect on mortality of retirement age; neither do estimation results from a hazard rate model. PMID:23542020
Health plays a vital role in the decision making process of retirement for an employee. The changes in retirement expectations are driven to a much greater degree by change in health rather than change in income or wealth.
Payne, Barbara; Brewer, Earl D. C.
The Protestant ministers' occupational characteristics affect their retirement experience. Unlike most retirees, Protestant ministers tend to experience residential and church moves. A national study was conducted to examine the effects of retirement experienced by retired ministers and anticipated by active ministers of the Presbyterian Church in…
Matthews, Janet R.
During the 1960s, there was extensive hiring of college and university faculty members. This large group of professors are now at or nearing retirement age. Concerns about the economy, the availability of good health insurance, increased life expectancy, and removal of mandatory retirement laws may influence decisions about when to retire.…
... 08:00 am EDT Event Impact: The ASDC Java Order Tool was officially retired on Wednesday, May 14, 2014. The HTML Order Tool and additional options are available from our Order Data Page . Please update all bookmarks. ...
Buddy, Juanita Warren
Many library media specialists are deciding to return to the workplace after retiring from full-time employment. This article focuses on general information about the trend of retirees acquiring retirement jobs, how and why retired library media specialists return to work, their perceptions of challenges facing library media programs, and advice…
Alaudin, Ros Idayuwati; Ismail, Noriszura; Isa, Zaidi
Adequacy of retirement income is very important to maintain a comfortable living standard during retirement. Under a life cycle model, assets are mainly accumulated during an individual's work life to finance consumption after retirement. A generally accepted goal of retirement planning is to provide enough income during retirement to prevent the level of living from dropping much below the pre-retirement level. Retirement wealth can be defined as adequate if the total retirement income is equal or greater than the desired total retirement consumption (or needs). In this study, retirement adequacy is projected using the Malaysian Household Income Survey (HIS) 2009 data which is based on 5881 sample of households and contains information on income, demographic and socioeconomic status of each household. Besides the projection of retirement adequacy, a regression of the ratio of projected wealth to needs (or wealth-needs ratio) is performed to investigate the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of retirement adequacy in Malaysia. The results show that 69% of households in Malaysia are adequately prepared for retirement.
Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between financial hardship and self-reported oral health for older men and women. Methods. We focused on adults in the 2008 Health and Retirement Study (n = 1359). The predictor variables were 4 financial hardship indicators. We used Poisson regression models to estimate the prevalence ratio of poor self-reported oral health. Results. In the non–gender-stratified model, number of financial hardships was not significantly associated with self-reported oral health. Food insecurity was associated with a 12% greater prevalence of poor self-reported oral health (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.21). In the gender-stratified models, women with 3 or more financial hardships had a 24% greater prevalence of poor self-reported oral health than women with zero (95% CI = 1.09, 1.40). Number of hardships was not associated with self-reported oral health for men. For men, skipping medications was associated with 50% lower prevalence of poor self-reported oral health (95% CI = 0.32, 0.76). Conclusions. Number of financial hardships was differentially associated with self-reported oral health for older men and women. Most financial hardship indicators affected both genders similarly. Future interventions to improve vulnerable older adults’ oral health should account for gender-based heterogeneity in financial hardship experiences. PMID:23327271
Didehbani, Nyaz; Munro Cullum, C; Mansinghani, Sethesh; Conover, Heather; Hart, John
We examined the relationship between a remote history of concussions with current symptoms of depression in retired professional athletes. Thirty retired National Football League (NFL) athletes with a history of concussion and 29 age- and IQ-matched controls without a history of concussion were recruited. We found a significant correlation between the number of lifetime concussions and depressive symptom severity using the Beck Depression Inventory II. Upon investigating a three-factor model of depressive symptoms (affective, cognitive, and somatic; Buckley et al., 2001) from the BDI-II, the cognitive factor was the only factor that was significantly related to concussions. In general, NFL players endorsed more symptoms of depression on all three Buckley factors compared with matched controls. Findings suggest that the number of self-reported concussions may be related to later depressive symptomology (particularly cognitive symptoms of depression). PMID:23644673
Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.
Studies examining the association between retirement and health have produced mixed results. This may be due to previous studies treating retirement as merely a change in job status rather than a transition associated with stereotypes or societal beliefs (e.g., retirement is a time of mental decline or retirement is a time of growth). To examine whether these stereotypes are associated with health, we studied retirement stereotypes and survival over a 23-year period among 1,011 older adults. As predicted by stereotype embodiment theory, it was found that positive stereotypes about physical health during retirement showed a survival advantage of 4.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.88, p = .022) and positive stereotypes about mental health during retirement tended to show a survival advantage of 2.5 years (hazard ratio = 0.87, p = .034). Models adjusted for relevant covariates such as age, gender, race, employment status, functional health, and self-rated health. These results suggest that retirement preparation could benefit from considering retirement stereotypes. PMID:27346893
Pokorny, S B; Jason, L A; Schoeny, M; Curie, C J; Townsend, S M
A sample of 6,370 students in Grades 6 to 8 completed a questionnaire on their attitudes and use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. A subsample showed questionable data based on three criteria: missing responses, invalid responses, and inconsistent responses. Analysis indicated that this subsample was significantly different from the main group on demographic variables and self-reported life-time tobacco use. Results support efforts to identify and eliminate invalid data. PMID:11729537
Bloom, David E.; Canning, David; Moore, Michael
We develop an optimizing life-cycle model of retirement with perfect capital markets. We show that longer healthy life expectancy usually leads to later retirement, but with an elasticity less than unity. We calibrate our model using data from the US and find that, over the last century, the effect of rising incomes, which promote early retirement, has dominated the effect of rising lifespans. Our model predicts continuing declines in the optimal retirement age, despite rising life expectancy, provided the rate of real wage growth remains as high as in the last century. PMID:24954970
RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY IMPROVED SLIGHTLY IN 2013: Due to the increase in financial market and housing values during 2013, the probability that Baby Boomers and Generation Xers would NOT run short of money in retirement increases between 0.5 and 1.6 percentage points, based on the Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) Retirement Readiness Ratings (RRRs). ELIGIBILITY FOR PARTICIPATION IN AN EMPLOYER-SPONSORED DEFINED CONTRIBUTION PLAN REMAINS ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT FACTORS FOR RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: RRR values double for Gen Xers in the lowest-income quartile when comparing those with 20 or more years of future eligibility with those with no years of future eligibility, while those in the middle income quartiles experience increases in RRR values by 27.1-30.3 percentage points. FUTURE SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFITS MAKE A HUGE DIFFERENCE FOR THE RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY OF SOME HOUSEHOLDS, ESPECIALLY GEN XERS IN THE LOWEST-INCOME QUARTILE: If Social Security benefits are subject to proportionate decreases beginning in 2033 (according to the values in Figure 8), the RRR values for those households will drop by more than 50 percent: from 20.9 percent to 10.3 percent. LONGEVITY RISK AND STOCHASTIC HEALTH CARE RISK ARE ASSOCIATED WITH HUGE VARIATIONS IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY: For both of these factors, a comparison between the most "risky" quartile with the least risky quartile shows a spread of approximately 30 percentage points for the lowest income range, approximately 25 to 40 percentage points for the highest income range, and even larger spreads for those in the middle income ranges. A GREAT DEAL OF THE VARIABILITY IN RETIREMENT INCOME ADEQUACY COULD BE MITIGATED BY APPROPRIATE RISK-MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AT OR NEAR RETIREMENT AGE: For example, the annuitization of a portion of the defined contribution and IRA balances may substantially increase the probability of not running short of money in retirement. Moreover, a well-functioning market in long
Mills, Jeremy F.; Kroner, Daryl G.
Offenders are assumed by many to employ socially desirable responding (SDR) response styles when completing self-report measures. Contrary to expectations, prior research has shown that accounting for SDR in self-report measures of antisocial constructs does not improve the relationship with outcome. Despite this, many self-report measures…
Jenny, Hans H.; And Others
Changes in higher education employee benefit plans brought about by the extension of the mandatory retirement age to 70 are the focus of the monograph. Chapter one summarizes the volume and presents some major recommendations that institutions may find helpful in benefit and personnel planning. Chapter two sketches the meaning of the new law (1978…
Bradford, Leland P.
Gives recommendations for both long-range preparation and last-minute preretirement planning. Methods are being developed that can alert those facing retirement to the emotional difficulties they may face and help them plan ways of coping with problems. Difficulties include sense of belonging, socialization problems, achievement problems and…
A national retirement policy that coordinates Medicare, Social Security, and private pension reforms could make substantial progress in dealing with problems related to the baby-boom generation's retirement. Such a policy should include (1) better-designed work incentives for older persons--for example, a $10,000 "retirement bonus" option, paid by Social Security and Medicare, for each year of delayed retirement; (2) allowing workers without employer-sponsored pensions to use Social Security's payroll contribution system to invest in pension accounts; (3) expansion of private long-term care insurance by allowing pension-plan assets to be used for paying premiums; and (4) placing a higher priority on financing for basic Medicare and Social Security benefits than on taxpayer-financed subsidies of far more generous pension benefits. PMID:9926647
Draayer, Donald R.
The hunger for significance in life never ends. What changes in one's retirement is how one fills that need. For most school administrators, introspection and investigation into possibilities for post-retirement years begin prior to one's resignation; however, the intensity of thought, feeling, and deliberation moves to a much higher plane once…
Hodkinson, Phil; Ford, Geoff; Hodkinson, Heather; Hawthorn, Ruth
This article draws upon a major qualitative empirical research investigation in Great Britain to explore the relationships between retirement and learning. Though retirement is frequently viewed as an event leading to a life stage, our data show that it can perhaps be best understood as a lengthy process. This process begins well before actual…
Fasang, Anette Eva
How do social policies shape life courses, and which consequences do different life course patterns hold for individuals? This article engages the example of retirement in Germany and Britain to analyze life course patterns and their consequences for income inequality. Sequence analysis is used to measure retirement trajectories. The liberal…
Richter Lagha, Regina Anne
Self-report is currently used as an indicator of professional practice in a variety of fields, including medicine and education. Important to consider, therefore, is the ability of self-report to accurately capture professional practice. This study investigated how well professionals' self-reports of behavior agreed with an expert observer's…
NSTec Environmental Restoration
This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the
NSTec Environmental Restoration
This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative
Harris, David J.
Retirement is a normal phenomenon which is not a crisis for most people. However, those who have previously had difficulty coping with major life events may be expected to experience difficulties at this time of life. Some will experience mild symptoms of anxiety, as part of an adjustment reaction to late life. A minority will suffer a significant depressive reaction. In most of these cases, however, other significant life events and factors will have triggered breakdown. In the milder cases psychotherapy is the main treatment of choice, either individually or conjointly with the spouse. Antidepressant drugs and other physical treatments may have a part to play in some cases. Imagesp529-a PMID:21283348
Dideriksen, Mette; Soegaard, Cristina; Nielsen, Rasmus O
Dideriksen, M, Soegaard, C, and Nielsen, RO. Validity of self-reported running distance. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1592-1596, 2016-It is unclear whether there is a difference between subjective evaluation and objective global positioning systems (GPS) measurement of running distance. The purpose of this study was to investigate if such difference exists. A total of 100 participants (51% men; median age, 41.5; body mass, 78.1 kg ±13.8 SD) completed a run of free choice, then subjectively reported the distance in kilometer (km). This information was subsequently compared with the distance derived from a nondifferential GPS watch using paired t-tests and Bland-Altman's 95% limits of agreement. No significant difference was found between the mean paired differences between subjective evaluations and GPS measurements (1.86%, 95% confidence interval = -1.53%; 5.25%, p = 0.96). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement revealed considerable variation (lower limit = -28% and upper limit = 40%). Such variation exceeds the clinical error range of 10%. In conclusion, the mean running distance (km) is similar between self-reporting and GPS measurements. However, researchers should consider using GPS measurements in favor of subjective reporting of running distance because of considerable variation on an individual level. PMID:26479023
... financial obligations to you (in his or her capacity as a partner) except to make the retirement payments... set out in 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-(17) and the conditions in paragraph (b) of this section are met....
... set out in 26 CFR 1.1402(a)-(17) and the conditions in paragraph (b) of this section are met. The... partner in the DEF partnership, retired from the partnership as of December 31, 1976. The taxable year...
Quinn, Joseph F; Cahill, Kevin E
We have entered a new world of retirement income security in America, with older individuals more exposed to market risk and more vulnerable to financial insecurity than prior generations. This reflects an evolution that has altered the historical vision of a financially secure retirement supported by Social Security, a defined-benefit pension plan, and individual savings. Today, 2 of these 3 retirement income sources-pensions and savings-are absent or of modest importance for many older Americans. Retirement income security now often requires earnings from continued work later in life, which exacerbates the economic vulnerability of certain segments of the population, including persons with disabilities, the oldest-old, single women, and individuals with intermittent work histories. Because of the unprecedented aging of our society, further changes to the retirement income landscape are inevitable, but policymakers do have options to help protect the financial stability of older Americans. We can begin by promoting savings at all (especially younger) ages and by removing barriers that discourage work later in life. For individuals already on the cusp of retirement, more needs to be done to educate the public about the value of delaying the receipt of Social Security benefits. Inaction now could mean a return to the days when old age and poverty were closely linked. The negative repercussions of this would extend well beyond traditional economic measures, as physical and mental health outcomes are closely tied to financial security. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159439
Polivka, Larry; Luo, Baozhen
The origins and trajectory of the crisis in the United States retirement security system have slowly become part of the discussion about the social, political, and economic impacts of population aging. Private sources of retirement security have weakened significantly since 1980 as employers have converted defined benefits precisions to defined contribution plans. The Center for Retirement Research (CRR) now estimates that over half of boomer generation retirees will not receive 70-80% of their wages while working. This erosion of the private retirement security system will likely increase reliance on the public system, mainly Social Security and Medicare. These programs, however, have increasingly become the targets of critics who claim that they are not financially sustainable in their current form and must be significantly modified. This article will focus on an analysis of these trends in the erosion of the United States retirement security system and their connection to changes in the United States political economy as neoliberal, promarket ideology, and policies (low taxes, reduced spending, and deregulation) have become dominant in the private and public sectors. The neoliberal priority on reducing labor costs and achieving maximum shareholder value has created an environment inimical to maintain the traditional system of pension and health care benefits in both the private and public sectors. This article explores the implications of these neoliberal trends in the United States economy for the future of retirement security. PMID:26035594
Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam
Purpose: Retirement is often treated as a voluntary transition, yet selected circumstances can restrict choice in retirement decision processes. We investigated conditions under which retirees perceive their retirement as "forced" rather than "wanted." Methods: Analyses relied on Waves 1-4 of the Health and Retirement Survey (N = 1,160; 572 men…
... this section, an employee or Member who has not attained the minimum retirement age, and who, after... following the date on which the individual attains the minimum retirement age or, if later, (ii) A date the... retirement age, and is reemployed before filing an application for retirement based on that separation,...
Sargent, Leisa D.; Bataille, Christine D.; Vough, Heather C.; Lee, Mary Dean
This study uses metaphor analysis to examine the meanings of retirement for a group of 35 retired Canadian executives and managers. Our analysis identified eight metaphors relating to the meanings of retirement. The findings provide us with a range of insights into the experience of retirement, from loss of purpose and identity to liberation from…
Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj
Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…
Across the nation, schools increasingly are tapping into a vast resource pool--retired educators. The potential effects of the retirement boom--baby boomers reaching retirement age--have been well documented. An April 2009 "New York Times" article estimates that by 2013, more than one-third of the nation's 3.2 million teachers could retire. One…
Discusses four areas of reading instruction that the author (a retired distinguished educator) believes have been neglected or misunderstood: Sylvia Ashton-Warner's Key Vocabulary, the Alphabetic Principle, transmogrification of spoken to written language, and individualized reading. (SR)
One important area of activities for which retiring workers could be prepared is undoubtedly that which lies in the field of social services in which trade unions everywhere are increasingly engaged. (SSH)
... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure statements for individual retirement... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.408-6 Disclosure statements for individual retirement arrangements. (a) In general—(1)...
Jenny, Hans H.
The adequacy of pension plans for persons retiring from colleges and universities is considered. Data are presented showing that people who retired in the late 1960s and early 1970s from higher education institutions at ages 65 and 68 spent most of their working lives earning less than $10,000 a year. The phenomenon of low pensions in an age of…
Ogunbameru, Olakunle A.; Asa, Sola
This study investigated the effect of preretirement education on the retirement transition plans of workers in Nigeria. The sample includes preretirees of Wema Bank PLC and the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority who participated in preretirement education workshops. The study shows that a majority of workers would prefer to retire at the normal…
Logie, Robert H
Reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, learning and retrieval, inhibition, switching, updating, or multitasking are often referred to as higher cognition, thought to require control processes or the use of a central executive. However, the concept of an executive controller begs the question of what is controlling the controller and so on, leading to an infinite hierarchy of executives or "homunculi". In what is now a QJEP citation classic, Baddeley [Baddeley, A. D. (1996). Exploring the central executive. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 5-28] referred to the concept of a central executive in cognition as a "conceptual ragbag" that acted as a placeholder umbrella term for aspects of cognition that are complex, were poorly understood at the time, and most likely involve several different cognitive functions working in concert. He suggested that with systematic empirical research, advances in understanding might progress sufficiently to allow the executive concept to be "sacked". This article offers an overview of the 1996 article and of some subsequent systematic research and argues that after two decades of research, there is sufficient advance in understanding to suggest that executive control might arise from the interaction among multiple different functions in cognition that use different, but overlapping, brain networks. The article concludes that the central executive concept might now be offered a dignified retirement. PMID:26821744
Baxter, S; Johnson, M; Payne, N; Buckley-Woods, H; Blank, L; Hock, E; Daley, A; Taylor, A; Pavey, T; Mountain, G; Goyder, E
It has been argued that transition points in life, such as the approach towards, and early years of retirement present key opportunities for interventions to improve the health of the population. Research has also highlighted inequalities in health status in the retired population and in response to interventions which should be addressed. We aimed to conduct a systematic review to synthesise international evidence on the types and effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity among people around the time of retirement. A systematic review of literature was carried out between February 2014 and April 2015. Searches were not limited by language or location, but were restricted by date to studies published from 1990 onwards. Methods for identification of relevant studies included electronic database searching, reference list checking, and citation searching. Systematic search of the literature identified 104 papers which described study populations as being older adults. However, we found only one paper which specifically referred to their participants as being around the time of retirement. The intervention approaches for older adults encompassed: training of health care professionals; counselling and advice giving; group sessions; individual training sessions; in-home exercise programmes; in-home computer-delivered programmes; in-home telephone support; in-home diet and exercise programmes; and community-wide initiatives. The majority of papers reported some intervention effect, with evidence of positive outcomes for all types of programmes. A wide range of different measures were used to evaluate effectiveness, many were self-reported and few studies included evaluation of sedentary time. While the retirement transition is considered a significant point of life change, little research has been conducted to assess whether physical activity interventions at this time may be effective in promoting or maintaining activity, or reducing health
...The Farm Credit Administration (FCA, us, we, or our) proposes to amend our regulations related to Farm Credit System (System) bank and association disclosures to shareholders and investors. The proposed rule would require reporting of supplemental retirement plans, a discussion of the link between senior officer compensation and performance, and timely and transparent reporting to shareholders......
... ORDERS AND LEGAL PROCESSES AFFECTING THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN ACCOUNTS Retirement Benefits Court Orders § 1653... or conflicting language used elsewhere could cause the order to be rejected. Example (1). ORDERED: is... account of as of . Note: The following optional language can be used in conjunction with any of the...
Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen
Research examining maladaptive responses to trauma routinely relies on spontaneous self-report to index intrusive thoughts, which assumes people accurately recognize and report their intrusive thoughts. However, "mind-wandering" research reveals people are not always meta-aware of their thought content: they often fail to notice shifts in their attention. In two experiments, we exposed subjects to trauma films, then instructed them to report intrusive thoughts during an unrelated reading task. Intermittently, we asked whether they were thinking about the trauma. As expected, subjects often spontaneously reported intrusive thoughts. However, they were also "caught" engaging in unreported trauma-oriented thoughts. The presence and frequency of intermittent probes did not influence self-caught intrusions. Both self-caught and probe-caught intrusions were related to an existing tendency toward intrusive cognition, film-related distress, and thought suppression attempts. Our data suggest people may lack meta-awareness of trauma-related thoughts, which has implications for theory, research and treatment relating to trauma-related psychopathology. PMID:24993526
Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Borda, Miguel German; Arciniegas, Antonio
Objectives: To determine the frequency of vaccination in older adults within the city of Bogotá and to estimate the association with sociodemographic and health factors. Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from the SABE-Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional population-based study that included a total of 2,000 persons aged 60 years. Weighted percentages for self-reported vaccination [influenza, pneumococcal, tetanus] were determined. The association between vaccination and covariates was evaluate by logistic regression models. Results: A total of 73.0% of respondents received influenza, 57.8% pneumococcal and 47.6% tetanus vaccine. Factors independently associated with vaccination included: 1- age (65-74 years had higher odds of receiving vaccinations, compared to 60-64 years); 2- socioeconomic status (SES) (higher SES had lower odds of having influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, compared to those with lower SES); 3- health insurance (those with contributive or subsidized health insurance had higher odds (between 3 and 5 times higher) of having vaccinations, compared to those with no insurance); 4- older adults with better functional status (greater Lawton scores) had increased odds for all vaccinations; 5- older adults with higher comorbidity had increased odds for influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations. Conclusion: Vaccination campaigns should be strengthened to increase vaccination coverage, especially in the group more reticent to vaccination or vulnerable to reach it such as the disabled elder. PMID:27226661
Berger, Jean-Louis; Karabenick, Stuart A.
Despite their significant contributions to research on self-regulated learning, those favoring online and trace approaches have questioned the use of self-report to assess learners' use of learning strategies. An important rejoinder to such criticisms consists of examining the validity of self-report items. The present study was designed to assess…
Sobell, Linda C.; Sobell, Mark B.
Examined whether population type and question type differentially affected validity of alcoholics' self-reports. Alcoholics gave highly valid self-reports. Question type differentially affected the validity of subjects' interview answers, as fewer invalid answers were given to demographic questions. Population type did not significantly affect…
St. Peter, Claire C.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.; Massullo, Joel P.
Sleep insufficiency is a major public health concern, yet the accuracy of self-reported sleep measures is often poor. Self-report may be useful when direct measurement of nonverbal behavior is impossible, infeasible, or undesirable, as it may be with sleep measurement. We used feedback and positive reinforcement within a small-n multiple-baseline…
Bowman, Nicholas A.
Despite the widespread use of self-reported gains to assess college student learning and development, these measures may not be valid indicators of student growth in most circumstances. However, some evidence suggests that self-reported gains may assess student outcomes more accurately at certain types of colleges and universities. This study used…
Paulhus, Delroy L.; And Others
Describes a study using self-report measures of students' responses to auditory and visual stimuli to measure distractibility in task performance among 224 Canadian undergraduates. Findings show the absence of any link between self-reported distractibility and actual performance. Study shows correlations between personality type and…
There are multiple approaches to measuring physical activity. Among these are direct observation, electronic monitoring, direct and indirect calorimetry, and self-report instruments. Self-report instruments are the most practical and cost effective option for use with a large group. In a study by Motl, Dishman, Dowda, and Pate (2004), two groups…
Lytle, Megan C.
Increasingly, older workers in the United States remain in the workforce beyond retirement age, meaning the term “retirement” might include at least some form of workforce participation. Although the proportions of women and individuals from racial and ethnic minority groups working past the age of 65 has significantly increased (Wegman & McGee, 2004); few scholars have examined the retirement career phase from a multicultural perspective. This special issue will critically review vocational literature as well as provide specific recommendations for research and practice with the aim of helping scholars and practitioners conceptualize the current concerns older adults across cultures (e.g., women and racial/ethnic minorities, among others) face during retirement planning. PMID:26101454
Crowe, Robert L.
The steps necessary to establish most voluntary early retirement incentive plans include establishing a variable-rate incentive, a minimum qualifying salary, a minimum qualifying age, and a method of payment. (Author/IRT)
... conditions of his employer's plan, because of personal injuries or sickness; (3) At the time of the employee... to retire on account of personal injuries or sickness alone, are sufficient for purposes of...
... conditions of his employer's plan, because of personal injuries or sickness; (3) At the time of the employee... to retire on account of personal injuries or sickness alone, are sufficient for purposes of...
Carr, Nicholas A.; Sages, Ronald A.; Fernatt, Frederick R.; Nabeshima, George G.; Grable, John E.
Prior research has found a relationship between the health habits of individuals and their financial well-being. Little research has been conducted, however, to explore the nature of the health-wealth connection. The purpose of this study was to explore and test the association of physical health behaviors, namely exercise and diet, and health…
Conner, Tamlin S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
In this article, we review the differences between momentary, retrospective, and trait self-report techniques and discuss the unique role that ambulatory reports of momentary experience play in psychosomatic medicine. Following a brief historical review of self-report techniques, we discuss the latest perspective which links ambulatory self-reports to a qualitatively different conscious self – the ‘experiencing self’– which is functionally and neuroanatomically different from the ‘remembering’ and ‘believing’ selves measured through retrospective and trait questionnaires. The experiencing self functions to navigate current environments and is relatively more tied to the salience network and corporeal information from the body that regulates autonomic processes. As evidence, we review research showing that experiences measured through ambulatory assessment have stronger associations with cardiovascular reactivity, cortisol response, immune system function, and threat/reward biomarkers compared to memories or beliefs. By contrast, memories and beliefs play important roles in decision making and long-term planning, but they are less tied to bodily processes and more tied to default/long-term memory networks, which minimizes their sensitivity for certain research questions. We conclude with specific recommendations for using self-report questionnaires in psychosomatic medicine and suggest that intensive ambulatory assessment of experiences may provide greater sensitivity for connecting psychological with biological processes. PMID:22582330
Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.
In this paper, we present an analysis of the Arkansas Teacher Retirement System (ATRS) pension plan and an empirical investigation of the behavioral response to that plan, as well as to a possible reform plan. We begin by describing the plan parameters and discussing the incentives these parameters create. We then estimate the effect of pension…
For years, the St. Louis school district has experienced the convergence of two trend lines school superintendents hope never to see: rising employee-pension costs and falling student enrollment. Despite years of fully funding its share of the teacher-pension plan, the proportion of the St. Louis district's budget tied up in paying benefits for…
Helman, Ruth; Copeland, Craig; VanDerhei, Jack
RECORD LOW CONFIDENCE LEVELS: Workers who say they are very confident about having enough money for a comfortable retirement this year hit the lowest level in 2009 (13 percent) since the Retirement Confidence Survey started asking the question in 1993, continuing a two-year decline. Retirees also posted a new low in confidence about having a financially secure retirement, with only 20 percent now saying they are very confident (down from 41 percent in 2007). THE ECONOMY, INFLATION, COST OF LIVING ARE THE BIG CONCERNS: Not surprisingly, workers overall who have lost confidence over the past year about affording a comfortable retirement most often cite the recent economic uncertainty, inflation, and the cost of living as primary factors. In addition, certain negative experiences, such as job loss or a pay cut, loss of retirement savings, or an increase in debt, almost always contribute to loss of confidence among those who experience them. RETIREMENT EXPECTATIONS DELAYED: Workers apparently expect to work longer because of the economic downturn: 28 percent of workers in the 2009 RCS say the age at which they expect to retire has changed in the past year. Of those, the vast majority (89 percent) say that they have postponed retirement with the intention of increasing their financial security. Nevertheless, the median (mid-point) worker expects to retire at age 65, with 21 percent planning to push on into their 70s. The median retiree actually retired at age 62, and 47 percent of retirees say they retired sooner than planned. WORKING IN RETIREMENT: More workers are also planning to supplement their income in retirement by working for pay. The percentage of workers planning to work after they retire has increased to 72 percent in 2009 (up from 66 percent in 2007). This compares with 34 percent of retirees who report they actually worked for pay at some time during their retirement. GREATER WORRY ABOUT BASIC AND HEALTH EXPENSES: Workers who say they very confident in
LEONE, RYAN J.; MORGAN, AMY L.; LUDY, MARY-JON
Most investigations concerning the validity of self-reported anthropometrics focus on weight, height, and body mass index. This study extends those investigations by exploring the impact of self-reporting bias on the disease risk indicators of waist circumference and body fat percentage. Female college freshmen (n=128) self-reported weight and height, then underwent measurements for weight, height, waist circumference, and body fat percentage. Self-reporting bias was defined as self-reported minus directly-assessed anthropometric value. Despite no differences in self-reported versus directly-assessed weight or height for the total group, students with high waist circumference and excess fat under-reported their weight by 2.3±4.4 lb (p<0.05). Self-reporting bias was negatively correlated with waist circumference (r=−0.362; p<0.001) and body fat percentage (r=−0.317; p<0.001). Although many female college freshmen accurately represent their weight, those with excess fat and waist circumference under-reported their weight. This may lead to missed opportunities for risk identification, prevention, and intervention. PMID:27293506
Hill, Catherine L.; Appleton, Sarah L.; Black, Julie; Hoon, Elizabeth; Rudd, Rima E.; Adams, Robert J.; Gill, Tiffany
Self-report of musculoskeletal conditions is often used to estimate population prevalence and to determine disease burden and influence policy. However, self-report of certain musculoskeletal conditions is frequently inaccurate, suggesting inadequate communication to the patient of their diagnosis. The aim of this study is to determine the association between functional health literacy (FHL) and self-reported musculoskeletal conditions in a representative population survey. FHL was measured using Newest Vital Sign in 2824 randomly selected adults. Participants also self-reported medically diagnosed arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis. Multiple logistic regression was adjusted for age and sex. The prevalence of self-reported arthritis, gout, and osteoporosis was 25.2%, 4.9%, and 5.6%, respectively. The prevalence of those at risk for inadequate FHL was 24.0% and high likelihood of inadequate FHL was 21.0%. However, over 50% of respondents with arthritis or gout had at risk/inadequate FHL, increasing to 70% of those self-reporting osteoporosis. After adjustment for age and sex, respondents in the arthritis subgroup of “don't know” and self-reported osteoporosis were significantly more likely to have inadequate FHL than the general population. This study indicates a substantial burden of low health literacy amongst people with musculoskeletal disease. This has implications for provider-patient communication, individual healthcare, population estimates of musculoskeletal disease, and impact of public health messages. PMID:26357571
Bidewell, John; Griffin, Barbara; Hesketh, Beryl
This research examined the influence of delay and anticipated health and enjoyment on the amount of retirement savings sacrificed for early retirement. In addition to testing and supporting predictions that willingness to sacrifice retirement savings would be less with shorter delays to retirement, greater anticipated health, and greater…
Gibson, Rose C.
Examined subsample of nonworking older Black Americans (N=295) from the National Survey of Black Americans sample. Found four factors contributed significantly to respondents' unretired-retired status: indistinct line between lifetime and old age work patterns, view that occasional work is necessary, income from other than private pensions, and…
Flanagan, John C.
It has been proposed that the same type of aptitude and ability tests required for initial job entry be used to indicate whether an individual can continue to perform effectively in that job. A review of the nature of such tests indicates that they would be inappropriate for use in retirement decisions. A proficiency test of the kind used at the…
Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.
The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…
Since knowledge of ego development can be used in professional work, a needed classification of attitudes toward the work ethic is advanced. A radical departure from our retirement policy towards those over 65 years of age requires additional competence on the part of counselors in the field of aging. (Author)
Beck, David E.
Retirement from a career in Colon and Rectal Surgery is usually a personal decision. The details of when, why, and how are individually specific and are shaped by life experience, desires, personal and family commitments, as well as financial considerations. PMID:22654572
Sheppard, Harold L.
The emerging issue will center on costs to the total economy of early retirement for a growing population whose life expectancy is continuing to rise. Available from The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $18.00 annually. (Author/IRT)
Givens, Harrison, Jr.
This paper discusses the issues raised by mandatory retirement, the meaning of the new law, the law's specifics, and the uncertainties still ahead. Available from the The American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104; $18.00 annually. (Author)
This report provides United States corporate and union policymakers with practical information on one alternative work pattern for older employees--phased retirement--from European colleagues who already have implemented or negotiated specific phasing programs. An introduction provides details on the collection of information from companies in…
...The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is adopting its proposed regulations applicable to electronic benefits processing under the Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS), the Federal Employees' Retirement System (FERS), the Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI), the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB), and the Retired Federal Employee Health Benefits (RFEHB) Programs. These......
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore learning for and through retirement from the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: First, "retirement" is considered in the light of the existing literature, demonstrating a complex concept. The paper describes the research project from which a theme of retirement as a learning process has…
Orel, Nancy A.; Landry-Meyer, Laura; Spence, Maria A. S.
Providing the essential care for children and aged relatives has immediate and long-term financial consequences for women, particularly financial insecurity in retirement. Women's caregiving careers are examined in relationship to the impact on retirement. The need for career and retirement education and counseling aimed at women who assume…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Involuntary retirement. 842.206 Section... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-BASIC ANNUITY Eligibility § 842.206 Involuntary retirement... separates from the service involuntarily after completing 25 years of service, or after becoming age 50...
McVittie, Chris; Goodall, Karen
Shultz and Wang (April 2011) drew attention to the ways in which understandings of retirement have changed over time, both in terms of the place of retirement in the lives of individuals and in terms of how retirement can no longer usefully be taken to comprise a single defining event. As the authors pointed out, psychological research has…
Osborne, John W.
Psychological effects of disengagement from a work life and the transition to retirement are discussed. These effects include partial identity disruption, decision paralysis, diminished self trust, experience of a post retirement void, the search for meaningful engagement in society, development of a retirement/life structure, the confluence of…
Baker, Michael; Stabile, Mark; Deri, Chatherine
Many researchers consider survey reports of the incidence of chronic conditions to be more objective than self-assessed measures of global well being. The hypothesis was evaluated by attempting to validate the ''objective, self reported'' measures of health.
Blicher, B; Joshipura, K; Eke, P
Self-report is an efficient and accepted means of assessing many population characteristics, risk factors, and diseases, but has rarely been used for periodontal disease (chronic periodontitis). The availability of valid self-reported measures of periodontal disease would facilitate epidemiologic studies on a much larger scale, allow for integration of new studies of periodontal disease within large ongoing studies, and facilitate lower-cost population surveillance of periodontitis. Several studies have been conducted to validate self-reported measures for periodontal disease, but results have been inconsistent. In this report, we conducted a systematic review of the validation studies. We reviewed the 16 studies that assessed the validity of self-reported periodontal and gingivitis measures against clinical gold standards. Seven of the studies included self-reported measures specific to gingivitis, four included measures only for periodontitis, and five included both gingivitis and periodontal measures. Three of the studies used a self-assessment method where they provided the patient with a detailed manual for performing a self-exam. The remaining 13 studies asked participants to self-report symptoms, presence of periodontal disease itself, or their recollection of a dental health professional diagnosing them or providing treatment for periodontal disease. The review indicates that some measures showed promise, but results varied across populations and self-reported measures. One example of a good measure is, "Has any dentist/hygienist told you that you have deep pockets?", which had a sensitivity of 55%, a specificity of 90%, positive predictive value of 77%, and negative predictive value of 75% against clinical pocket depth. Higher validity could be potentially obtained by the use of combinations of several self-reported questions and other predictors of periodontal disease. PMID:16183785
Eke, P I; Dye, B A; Wei, L; Slade, G D; Thornton-Evans, G O; Beck, J D; Taylor, G W; Borgnakke, W S; Page, R C; Genco, R J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of self-reported measures in predicting periodontitis in a representative US adult population, based on 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data. Self-reported gum health and treatment history, loose teeth, bone loss around teeth, tooth not looking right, and use of dental floss and mouthwash were obtained during in-home interviews and validated against full-mouth clinically assessed periodontitis in 3,743 US adults 30 years and older. All self-reported measures (> 95% item response rates) were associated with periodontitis, and bivariate correlations between responses to these questions were weak, indicating low redundancy. In multivariable logistic regression modeling, the combined effects of demographic measures and responses to 5 self-reported questions in predicting periodontitis of mild or greater severity were 85% sensitive and 58% specific and produced an 'area under the receiver operator characteristic curve' (AUROCC) of 0.81. Four questions were 95% sensitive and 30% specific, with an AUROCC of 0.82 in predicting prevalence of clinical attachment loss ≥ 3 mm at one or more sites. In conclusion, self-reported measures performed well in predicting periodontitis in US adults. Where preferred clinically based surveillance is unattainable, locally adapted variations of these self-reported measures may be a promising alternative for surveillance of periodontitis. PMID:24065636