Science.gov

Sample records for retort ash residue

  1. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite. PMID:23528998

  2. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. PMID:19896769

  3. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  4. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  5. NICKEL SPECIATION OF RESIDUAL OIL ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R827649C002
    Title: Nickel Speciation Of Residual Oil Ash
    Investigators: Kevin C. Galbreath, John Won, Frank E. Huggins, Gerald P. Huffman, Christopher J. Zygarlicke, Donald L. Toman
    Institution: University of North Dakota<...

  6. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  7. Belgian MSWI fly ashes and APC residues: a characterisation study.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) produces different sorts of residues, bottom ash, fly ashes and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues. Generally, fly ashes and APC residues are mixed at the MSWI plant and manage as a sole residue. In this study, fly ashes and APC residues have been sampled separately at different Belgian MSWI plant and analysed by X-ray fluorescence in order to highlight the composition differences that may appear between the solids. Ca and Cl are found to be the major elements in most of the samples. Lithophilic elements, such as Al and Si, are richer in furnace and boiler ashes, as can be expected. Leaching tests also show differences between the residues; leachates from furnace and boiler ashes are alkaline while those from bag filter residues present a pH value of 6, which impacts the leaching of heavy metals (Pb and Zn). The results suggest that it could be advantageous to manage fly ashes and APC residues separately by adjusting the treatment to their specificities. PMID:22244614

  8. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  9. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  10. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  11. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  12. 46 CFR 148.330 - Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings... Materials § 148.330 Zinc ashes; zinc dross; zinc residues; zinc skimmings. (a) The shipper must inform the cognizant Coast Guard Captain of the Port in advance of any cargo transfer operations involving zinc...

  13. Immobilization of Harmful Elements in Fly Ash from Direct Combustion of Automobile Shredder Residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Ryo; Ariyama, Tatsuro

    A direct combustion method of automobile shredder residue at high temperature is considered to be an effective process, because the volume of residue can be reduced and many valuable metals can be recovered. However, the fly ash containing large amounts of heavy metals and fluorine are generated inevitably by this process. Therefore, the treatment for detoxification of this fly ash is significantly important. It is found in the present research that cement is effective on the immobilization of harmful elements in the fly ash. The hydrothermal treatment of the solidified mixture of fly ash, cement and water is also superior in the immobilization effect.

  14. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  15. Reburning Characteristics of Residual Carbon in Fly Ash from CFB Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. H.; Luo, H. H.; Chen, H. P.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.

    The content of residual carbon in fly ash of CFB boilers is a litter high especially when low-grade coal, such as lean coal, anthracite coal, gangue, etc. is in service, which greatly influences the efficiency of boilers and fly ash further disposal. Reburn of fly ash through collection, recirculation in CFB furnace or external combustor is a possibly effective strategy to decrease the carbon content, mainly depending on the residual carbon reactivity. In this work, the combustion properties of residual carbon in fly ash and corresponding original coal from large commercial CFB boilers (Kaifeng (440t/h), and Fenyi (410t/h), all in china) are comparably investigated through experiments. The residual carbon involved was firstly extracted and enriched from fly ash by means of floating elutriation to mitigate the influence of ash and minerals on the combustion behavior of residual carbon. Then, the combustion characteristic of two residual carbons and the original coal particles was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA, STA409C from Nestch, Germany). It was observed that the ignition temperature of the residual carbon is much higher than that of original coal sample, and the combustion reactivity of residual carbon is not only dependent on the original coal property, but also the operating conditions. The influence of oxygen content and heating rate was also studied in TGA. The O2 concentration is set as 20%, 30%, 40% and 70% respectively in O2/N2 gas mixture with the flow rate of 100ml/min. It was found that higher oxygen content is favor for decreasing ignition temperature, accelerating the combustion rate of residual carbon. And about 40% of oxygen concentration is experimentally suggested as an optimal value when oxygen-enriched combustion is put into practice for decreasing residual carbon content of fly ash in CFB boilers.

  16. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from incinerator ash residues

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of a novel and state-of-the-art patent-pending processes developed jointly by Forrester Environmental Services Inc. (FESI) and Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) for the extraction and recovery of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals from heavy metal bearing wastes including but not limited to solid waste incinerator bottom ash, flyash and combined ash. The heavy metal extraction and recovery processes were found to be capable of high percentage of heavy metals extraction and recovery at a relatively low cost under bench scale and full-scale refuse incinerator facility conditions. This paper presents empirical data from bench scale studies only, as the full-scale data is currently under review. The ash product remaining after extraction passed all TCLP regulatory limits and retained only minimal Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn content and other water insoluble heavy metal compounds. Results of heavy metals recovery and low cost from ongoing field applications of this technology are consistent with the bench scale data presented within this paper.

  17. Dating and sourcing fuel ash residues from Cladh Hallan, South Uist, Scotland, using magnetic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C.; Batt, C. M.

    Mineral magnetic and archaeomagnetic measurements have been carried out on fire ash deposits from a central hearth within a circular dwelling at the Late Bronze/Early Iron Age settlement site of Cladh Hallan on South Uist, Scotland. Archaeomagnetic methods date the hearths to 560-700 BC and 650-850 BC, the earliest archaeomagnetic dates produced for the Western Isles of Scotland. A range of mineral magnetic measurements have been carried out on a continually sampled profile through the hearths/ash build-ups displaying differences between the two main ash build-ups and floors. The mineral magnetic results have also been used to assess fuel sources through the application of techniques based on modern ash residues. The results show a marked change in fuel source from well-humified peat to a more mixed fuel, with a high proportion of fibrous-upper peat/peat turf.

  18. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  19. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  20. ALTERATION OF CARDIAC ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY BY WATER-LEACHABLE COMPONENTS OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alteration of cardiac electrical activity by water-leachable components
    of residual oil fly ash (ROFA)

    Desuo Wang, Yuh-Chin T. Huang*, An Xie, Ting Wang

    *Human Studies Division, NHEERL, US EPA
    104 Mason Farm Road, Chapel Hill, NC 27599
    Department of Basic ...

  1. HIGH TEMPERATURE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN RESIDUAL OIL ASH AND DISPERSED KAOLINITE POWDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential use of sorbents to manage ultrafine ash aerosol emissions from residual oil combustion was investigated using a downfired 82-kW-rated laboratory-scale refractory-lined combustor. The major constituents were vanadium (V), iron (Fe), nickel, (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Of the...

  2. Effects of water washing on removing organic residues in bottom ashes of municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential toxicity and odourous nature, the residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerators are recently gaining attention as an important issue of resources recovery apart from their complex mixture of organic counterpart. Studies of the organic fractions in municipal solid waste incinerator residues have been limited. In this study, extended solid-phase extraction of the water-washed bottom ash and liquid-phase extraction of the washing water were carried out with regard to bottom ash samples from three mass-burning incinerators in Taipei County (Taiwan) during four consecutive seasons of year 2008-2009. Supercritical fluid extraction and Soxtec extraction techniques along with GC-MS were successfully used to characterize the residual organics in weathered and washed bottom ashes. Supercritical fluid extraction provided the quantification of aliphatics and aromatic compounds such as hexanoic acid and benzaldehyde, respectively. Soxtec extraction was useful for qualitative analysis of aromatic and aliphatic groups in the ashes and many of which were odourous and toxic compounds. By mixing one unit weight (g) bottom ash with two unit volume (mL) water for 15 min, total organic carbon in the bottom ash was greatly reduced (e.g., from 4.1 to 1.8 wt.%). Among the removed were foul odour-causing compounds such as pyridine and quinoline derivatives, while some aromatic compounds such as 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and low-molecular-weight aliphatics such as hexanoic acid remained. The results here suggest that washing with water can be an effective pre-treatment step for removing odour-causing and environmental concerned organics. PMID:21112610

  3. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  4. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fly ash during coal and residual char combustion in a pressurized fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Hongcang Zhou; Baosheng Jin; Rui Xiao; Zhaoping Zhong; Yaji Huang

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fly ash, the combustion of coal and residual char was performed in a pressurized spouted fluidized bed. After Soxhlet extraction and Kuderna-Danish (K-D) concentration, the contents of 16 PAHs recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in coal, residual char, and fly ash were analyzed by a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with fluorescence and diode array detection. The experimental results show that the combustion efficiency is lower and the carbon content in fly ash is higher during coal pressurized combustion, compared to the residual char pressurized combustion at the pressure of 0.3 MPa. Under the same pressure, the PAH amounts in fly ash produced from residual char combustion are lower than that in fly ash produced from coal combustion. The total PAHs in fly ash produced from coal and residual char combustion are dominated by three- and four-ring PAHs. The amounts of PAHs in fly ash produced from residual char combustion increase and then decrease with the increase of pressure in a fluidized bed. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  6. Environmental impact of the use of fly ash and FGD residues in earthworks. Research notes

    SciTech Connect

    Eskola, P.; Mroueh, U.M.

    1998-12-31

    The goal of this project was to assess the environmental impact of using fly ash and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) residues (produced by pulverized coal-fired power plants which employ semi dry scrubbing technology) in earthworks. The use of fly ash and FGD residues was compared with the use of natural minerals (sand, gravel and macadam) in road construction and clay stabilization. The assessment includes the following environmental effects caused by extraction, production and transportation of raw materials and the road construction process: energy and fuel consumption, consumption of raw materials, emissions into air, leaching of impurities, noise, dust emissions, land use and accident risks. The environmental impacts were assessed for a 1 km long road over a period of 50 years.

  7. Carbon speciation in ash, residual waste and contaminated soil by thermal and chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Robinson, Ryan; Brännvall, Evelina; Nordmark, Désirée; Bjurström, Henrik; Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders; Ecke, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Carbon in waste can occur as inorganic (IC), organic (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) each having distinct chemical properties and possible environmental effects. In this study, carbon speciation was performed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), chemical degradation tests and the standard total organic carbon (TOC) measurement procedures in three types of waste materials (bottom ash, residual waste and contaminated soil). Over 50% of the total carbon (TC) in all studied materials (72% in ash and residual waste, and 59% in soil) was biologically non-reactive or EC as determined by thermogravimetric analyses. The speciation of TOC by chemical degradation also showed a presence of a non-degradable C fraction in all materials (60% of TOC in ash, 30% in residual waste and 13% in soil), though in smaller amounts than those determined by TGA. In principle, chemical degradation method can give an indication of the presence of potentially inert C in various waste materials, while TGA is a more precise technique for C speciation, given that waste-specific method adjustments are made. The standard TOC measurement yields exaggerated estimates of organic carbon and may therefore overestimate the potential environmental impacts (e.g. landfill gas generation) of waste materials in a landfill environment. PMID:20630737

  8. Characteristics of residual organics in municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Ching; Yen, Jui-Hung; Lateef, Shaik Khaja; Hong, Pui-Kwan Andy; Lin, Cheng-Fang

    2010-10-15

    Although heavy metals in bottom ash have been a primary issue in resource recovery of municipal solid waste incinerator residues in past decades, less studied are potentially toxic and odorous organic fractions that exist as they have not been completely oxidized during the mass burn process. Using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and soxtec extraction (SE) techniques, this study investigated the characteristics of un-oxidized organic residues contained in bottom ash from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Taiwan during 2008-2009. All together 99 organics were identified in bottom ash samples using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Among the identified organics, aromatic compounds were most frequently detected. No polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were extracted by SFE or SE. Several phthalates (e.g., phthalic acid isobutyl tridec-2-yn-1-yl ester, dibutyl phthalate and 2-butoxyethyl butyl benzene-1,2-dicarboxylate), organic phosphates (e.g., octicizer and phosphoric acid isodecyl diphenyl ester), and aromatics and amines including pyridine, quinoline derivatives, chloro- and cyano-organics were successfully extracted. Aromatic amines (e.g., 1-nitro-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydro-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid diethylamide and 3-bromo-N-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl)-propanamide) and aromatic compounds (other than amines) (e.g., 7-chloro-4-methoxy-3-methylquinoline and 2,3-dihydro-N-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl indole-2-one) are probably the major odorous compounds in bottom ash. This work identifies organic pollutants in incinerated bottom ash that have received far less attention than their heavy metals counterpart. PMID:20605069

  9. Dioxins, metals, and fish toxicity in ash residue from space heaters burning used motor oil.

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon; Stone, Alex

    2007-06-01

    Ash residue, generated from burning used motor oil, is a complex and ubiquitous waste stream. Ash samples were collected from space heaters and analyzed for dioxins (N=10), expressed as toxic equivalents (TEQ), and heavy metals (N=9). TEQ averaged 148-164 ng kg(-1) (standard deviation [SD] 385-416 ng kg(-1)), depending on methods used for non-detects (NDs) and toxic equivalency factors (TEFs). It is notable that median TEQ (2.89-3.49 ng kg(-1)) was about 50 fold lower, reflecting the influence of several high end values on the mean. The proportion of NDs among 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in each sample averaged 38.2% (range 0-94.1%). Total metals averaged 103,000 mg kg(-1) (SD 26,600 mg kg(-1)), with Zn, Cu, and Pb contributing 89.3%, 6.4%, and 3.0% of the total, respectively. Rainbow trout bioassays resulted in median mortalities of 3.2% and 42.0% (respective SD 25.3% and 43.2%) at ash concentrations of 10 and 100 mg l(-1), respectively. Nominal concentrations of several metals (e.g., Cu, Zn) in the fish bioassay exceeded their reported median lethal concentrations (LC50s) for the test species. Multiple regressions (Bonferroni P<0.05) demonstrated that most of the variance in fish mortality could be accounted for by pH, metals (e.g., As, Cd, Pb), and TEQ. Mean TEQ concentration in used oil ash ranked on the high end of TEQ content in other environmental matrices, including wood ash, cement kiln dust, biosolids, and soils. Overall, these results suggest that suitable disposal methods are needed for ash generated from burning used motor oil. PMID:17350666

  10. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  11. Characterization and treatment of by-product waters from selected oil shale retorting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Poulson, R.; Niss, N.; Laya, C.

    1987-12-01

    Oil shale retorting by-product waters from four surface retorting pilot tests and three simulated modified in situ retorting pilot tests were characterized for inorganic and organic chemical constituents. Eastern and western US shales were retorted for the tests. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium thiosulfate, various pyridines, and phenolic species were among the principal contaminants in the retort by-product water. The water also contains total dissolved solids up to 7000 ppM. When steam was used as a source of heat for oil shale retorting, the condensate that formed diluted the concentrations of contaminants, especially mineral dissolved solids, in the by-product water. The combined water treatment steps of hot-gas stripping followed by wet air oxidation at 600/degree/F (315/degree/C) and 2000 psi for 30 minutes removed 99% of the total organic carbon in the retort by-product water, producing a colorless and almost odor-free water. In one treatment test, the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced from 3400 mg/L to less than 20 mg/L, with the 20 mg/L TOC remaining consisting of low molecular weight carboxylic acids. Only a partial TOC reduction occurred, with various alkylpyridines remaining as residuals when the retort waters were subjected to wet air oxidation as the only treatment step. Electrocoagulation as an initial water treatment step removed less than 30% of the TOC. 10 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Bioaccessibility and health risk of heavy metals in ash from the incineration of different e-waste residues.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xiao-Qing; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Shentu, Jia-Li; Long, Yu-Yang; Feng, Yi-Jian; Shen, Chen-Chao

    2015-03-01

    Ash from incinerated e-waste dismantling residues (EDR) may cause significant health risks to people through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact exposure pathways. Ashes of four classified e-waste types generated by an incineration plant in Zhejiang, China were collected. Total contents and the bioaccessibilities of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in ashes were measured to provide crucial information to evaluate the health risks for incinerator workers and children living in vicinity. Compared to raw e-waste in mixture, ash was metal-enriched by category incinerated. However, the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) indicates the bioaccessibilities of Ni, Pb, and Zn were less than 50 %. Obviously, bioaccessibilities need to be considered in noncancer risk estimate. Total and PBET-extractable contents of metal, except for Pb, were significantly correlated with the pH of the ash. Noncancer risks of ash from different incinerator parts decreased in the order bag filter ash (BFA) > cyclone separator ash (CFA) > bottom ash (BA). The hazard quotient for exposure to ash were decreased as ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. Pb in ingested ash dominated (>80 %) noncancer risks, and children had high chronic risks from Pb (hazard index >10). Carcinogenic risks from exposure to ash were under the acceptable level (<10(-6)) both for children and workers. Exposure to ash increased workers' cancer risks and children's noncancer risks. Given the risk estimate is complex including toxicity/bioaccessibility of metals, the ways of exposure, and many uncertainties, further researches are required before any definite decisions on mitigating health risks caused by exposure to EDR incinerated ash are made. PMID:25249049

  13. Availability of residual phosphorus from broiler litter ash and layer manure ash amended soil for Paspalum vaginatum uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized by several scientists that poultry litter ash could be used as a slow releasing phosphorus fertilizer that will become available over time. To test this hypothesis, a greenhouse study was conducted using a broiler litter ash, layer manure ash and calcium phosphate to determ...

  14. Ecological risk assessment for residual coal fly ash at Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee: Site setting and problem formulation.

    PubMed

    Walls, Suzanne J; Jones, Daniel S; Stojak, Amber R; Carriker, Neil E

    2015-01-01

    A baseline ecological risk assessment (BERA) was performed for residual ash in the Watts Bar Reservoir following a release of fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. The site consists of parts of 3 rivers in eastern Tennessee comprising over 32 river kilometers. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if residual ash negatively impacts maintenance and reproduction of balanced communities or populations of potentially exposed ecological receptor groups in these rivers. This introductory article summarizes the site and environmental setting, assessment and measurement endpoints, risk characterization methods, and the study approach. Subsequent articles describe ecological risks to fish, benthic invertebrates, aquatic- and riparian-feeding wildlife, and aerial-feeding insectivores; and the role ecological risk characterization played in determining the most effective management of the residual ash, setting project remediation objectives and targets, and designing long-term monitoring to measure the effectiveness of the selected removal action. PMID:25234753

  15. The soda-ash roasting of chromite ore processing residue for the reclamation of chromium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, M. P.; Tathavadkar, V. D.; Calvert, C. C.; Jha, A.

    2001-12-01

    Sodium chromate is produced via the soda-ash roasting of chromite ore with sodium carbonate. After the reaction, nearly 15 pct of the chromium oxide remains unreacted and ends up in the waste stream, for landfills. In recent years, the concern over environmental pollution from hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) from the waste residue has become a major problem for the chromium chemical industry. The main purpose of this investigation is to recover chromium oxide present in the waste residue as sodium chromate. Cr2O3 in the residue is distributed between the two spinel solid solutions, Mg(Al,Cr)2O4 and γ-Fe2O3. The residue from the sodium chromate production process was analyzed both physically and chemically. The compositions of the mineral phases were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The influence of alkali addition on the overall reaction rate is examined. The kinetics of the chromium extraction reaction resulting from the residue of the soda-ash roasting process under an oxidizing atmosphere is also investigated. It is shown that the experimental results for the roasting reaction can be best described by the Ginstling and Brounshtein (GB) equation for diffusion-controlled kinetics. The apparent activation energy for the roasting reaction was calculated to be between 85 and 90 kJ·mol-1 in the temperature range 1223 to 1473 K. The kinetics of leaching of Cr3+ ions using the aqueous phase from the process residue is also studied by treating the waste into acid solutions with different concentrations.

  16. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  17. Recovery of high purity zinc from filter ash produced during the thermal treatment of waste and inerting of residual materials.

    PubMed

    Schlumberger, Stefan; Schuster, Michael; Ringmann, Stefan; Koralewska, Ralf

    2007-12-01

    The method described below recovers zinc, a valuable metal that is present in high concentrations in filter ash from the thermal treatment of waste, and returns the filter ash stripped of heavy metals to the combustion process in order to destroy organic substances. On an industrial scale, the heavy metals in the filter ash were mobilized by means of hydrochloric acid in the acidic fluids produced in the flue-gas scrubbing process without the addition of further chemicals. A pilot plant for implementing the selective reactive extraction (SRE) method on the ash extracts, using a highly selective complexant, was operated over a period of several months in order to obtain a concentrated, high-purity zinc salt solution (mono metal solution). A zinc depletion rate of 99.8% in the aqueous extract was achieved using mixer-settler units. The residual zinc concentration in the waste water was then < 2 mg L(-1). By stripping the loaded organic phase, a concentrated, high-purity mono metal solution with 190 g L(-1) zinc was obtained. Zinc metal with a purity > 99.99% is then separated by means of electrolysis. To destroy organic substances present in the filter ash, particularly dioxins and furans, the extracted filter ash cake was returned to the combustion process together with household waste. Plant operation, raw and pure gas parameters, and quality of the bottom ash produced were not impacted by such recirculation. The profitability of the overall process is attributable both to the recovery of valuable zinc metal and to the cost savings made in waste water treatment and in the disposal of the waste combustion residues because the remaining mixture of filter ash and bottom ash can be reused in a combined form. This method therefore supports the sustainable and economically viable reuse of filter ash. PMID:18229749

  18. Effects of MIS retorting on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, N.E.

    1983-04-01

    Occidental Petroleum Corporation has conducted field tests on the modified-in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting technology for a number of years at its Logan Wash site near De Beque, Colorado. A total of 8 major retorts have been burned, the last three of which were commercial sized. Concurrent with process development research, a significant program was undertaken to study the effects of the MIS technology on the environment. Groundwater was examined before, during and after the major retorting experiments by means of an extensive monitoring network. This network was comprised of monitoring wells at various distances from the retorting operation. Both alluvial wells and deep bedrock wells were examined. Water quality in local seeps and springs was also monitored. Almost eighty chemical and physical parameters of the water samples have been examined. Analyses of these data have shown no contamination of the groundwaters by the MIS retorts. The quality of water exiting MIS retorts during and after the retorting period has also been followed. Data from Retorts 1 through 6 show that the species mobilized by retorting are rapidly removed, and concentrations of chemicals in ''leachate'' from the retorts quickly approach the same range of values as seen in natural groundwaters. Statistical analyses have been made of both the retort waters and the groundwaters. Based on the results of these analyses a list of key variables has been identified whose measurement is most likely to identify contamination problems.

  19. The influence of electrodialytic remediation on dioxin (PCDD/PCDF) levels in fly ash and air pollution control residues.

    PubMed

    Dias-Ferreira, Celia; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Jensen, Pernille E

    2016-04-01

    Fly ash and Air Pollution Control (APC) residues collected from three municipal solid waste incinerators in Denmark and Greenland were treated by electrodialytic remediation at pilot scale for 8-10 h. This work presents for the first time the effect of electrodialytic treatment on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and how these levels impact on the valorization options for fly ash and APC residue. PCDD/PCDF levels in the original residues ranged between 4.85 and 197 ng g(-1), being higher for the electrostatic precipitator fly ash. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) varied ten fold, ranging 0.18-2.0 ng g(-1) I-TEQ, with penta and hexa-homologs being most significant for toxicity. After the electrodialytic treatment PCDD/PCDF levels increased in the residues (between 1.4 and 2.0 times). This does not mean PCDD/PCDF were synthesized, but else that soluble materials dissolve, leaving behind the non-water soluble compounds, such as PCDD/PCDF. According to the Basel Convention, PCDD/PCDF levels in these materials is low (<15 μg WHO-TEQ kg(-1)) and the fly ash and APC residue could eventually be valorized, for instance as construction material, provided end-of-waste criteria are set and that a risk assessment of individual options is carried out, including the end-of-life stage when the materials become waste again. PMID:26826780

  20. Residual organic matter and microbial respiration in bottom ash: Effects on metal leaching and eco-toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ilyas, A; Persson, K M; Persson, M

    2015-09-01

    A common assumption regarding the residual organic matter, in bottom ash, is that it does not represent a significant pool of organic carbon and, beyond metal-ion complexation process, it is of little consequence to evolution of ash/leachate chemistry. This article evaluates the effect of residual organic matter and associated microbial respiratory processes on leaching of toxic metals (i.e. arsenic, copper, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony and zinc), eco-toxicity of ash leachates. Microbial respiration was quantified with help of a respirometric test equipment OXITOP control system. The effect of microbial respiration on metal/residual organic matter leaching and eco-toxicity was quantified with the help of batch leaching tests and an eco-toxicity assay - Daphnia magna. In general, the microbial respiration process decreased the leachate pH and eco-toxicity, indicating modification of bioavailability of metal species. Furthermore, the leaching of critical metals, such as copper and chromium, decreased after the respiration in both ash types (fresh and weathered). It was concluded that microbial respiration, if harnessed properly, could enhance the stability of fresh bottom ash and may promote its reuse. PMID:25999368

  1. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)<2.5μm) and coarse PM or PM2.5+ (AD between 2.5μm and 50μm). The iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. PMID:27125683

  2. Assessing ecological risks to the fish community from residual coal fly ash in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rigg, David K.; Wacksman, Mitch N.; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Baker, Tyler F.; Adams, Marshall; Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen

    2014-12-18

    For this research, extensive site-specific biological and environmental data were collected to support an evaluation of risks to the fish community in Watts Bar Reservoir from residual ash from the December 2008 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston ash release. This paper describes the approach used and results of the risk assessment for the fish community, which consists of multiple measurement endpoints (measures of exposure and effects) for fish. The lines of evidence included 1) comparing postspill annual fish community assessments with nearby prespill data and data from other TVA reservoirs, 2) evaluating possible effects of exposures of fish eggs andmore » larval fish to ash in controlled laboratory toxicity tests, 3) evaluating reproductive competence of field-exposed fish, 4) assessing individual fish health through physical examination, histopathology, and blood chemistry, 5) comparing fish tissue concentrations with literature-based critical body residues, and 6) comparing concentrations of ash-related contaminants in surface waters with US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Ambient Water Quality Standards for Fish and Aquatic Life. These measurement endpoints were treated as independent lines of evidence that were integrated into an overall weight-of-evidence estimate of risk to the fish community. Collectively, the data and analysis presented here indicate that ash and ash-related constituents pose negligible risks to the fish communities in Watts Bar Reservoir. This conclusion contradicts the predictions by some researchers immediately following the ash release of devastating effects on the aquatic ecology of Watts Bar Reservoir. The information presented in this article reaffirms the wisdom of carefully evaluating the evidence before predicting probable ecological effects of a major event such as the TVA Kingston ash release. Lastly, this study demonstrates that a thorough and detailed investigation using multiple measurement endpoints

  3. Assessing ecological risks to the fish community from residual coal fly ash in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, David K.; Wacksman, Mitch N.; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Baker, Tyler F.; Adams, Marshall; Greeley, Jr., Mark Stephen

    2014-12-18

    For this research, extensive site-specific biological and environmental data were collected to support an evaluation of risks to the fish community in Watts Bar Reservoir from residual ash from the December 2008 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston ash release. This paper describes the approach used and results of the risk assessment for the fish community, which consists of multiple measurement endpoints (measures of exposure and effects) for fish. The lines of evidence included 1) comparing postspill annual fish community assessments with nearby prespill data and data from other TVA reservoirs, 2) evaluating possible effects of exposures of fish eggs and larval fish to ash in controlled laboratory toxicity tests, 3) evaluating reproductive competence of field-exposed fish, 4) assessing individual fish health through physical examination, histopathology, and blood chemistry, 5) comparing fish tissue concentrations with literature-based critical body residues, and 6) comparing concentrations of ash-related contaminants in surface waters with US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Ambient Water Quality Standards for Fish and Aquatic Life. These measurement endpoints were treated as independent lines of evidence that were integrated into an overall weight-of-evidence estimate of risk to the fish community. Collectively, the data and analysis presented here indicate that ash and ash-related constituents pose negligible risks to the fish communities in Watts Bar Reservoir. This conclusion contradicts the predictions by some researchers immediately following the ash release of devastating effects on the aquatic ecology of Watts Bar Reservoir. The information presented in this article reaffirms the wisdom of carefully evaluating the evidence before predicting probable ecological effects of a major event such as the TVA Kingston ash release. Lastly, this study demonstrates that a thorough and detailed investigation using multiple measurement endpoints is needed

  4. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  5. Simultaneous utilization of soju industrial waste for silica production and its residue ash as effective cationic dye adsorbent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soju industrial waste is an important biomass resource. The present study is aimed to utilize soju industrial waste for silica extraction, and residual ash as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of Methylene Blue (MB) from aqueous solution. High percentage of pure amorphous nanosilica was obtained ...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF AIR EMISSIONS AND RESIDUAL ASH FROM OPEN BURNING OF ELECTRONIC WASTES DURING SIMULATED RUDIMENTALRY RECYCLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and residual ash measurements were made from open, uncontrolled combustion of electronic waste (e-waste) during simulations of practices associated with rudimentary e-waste recycling operations. Circuit boards and insulated wires were separately burned to simulate p...

  7. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN HUMAN AND RAT VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) AND VANADIUM (V)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression profiles in human and rat vascular endothelial cells exposed to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or vanadium (V).
    Srikanth S. Nadadur, Darrell W. Winsett and Daniel L. Costa, US EPA, ORD, NHEERL (ETD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch), Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

  8. RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) AND VANADIUM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory


    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and vanadium-induced gene expression profiles in human vascular endothelial cells.
    Srikanth S. Nadadur, Urmila P. Kodavanti, Mary Jane Selgrade and Daniel L. Costa, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch, ETD, NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, N...

  9. PERSISTENCE OF PULMONARY INJURY FOLLOWING INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PERSISTENCE OF PULMONARY INJURY FOLLOWING INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. WP Watkinson1, LB Wichers2, JP Nolan1, UP Kodavanti1, MC Schladweiler1, R Hauser3, DW Winsett1, AD Ledbetter1, and DL Costa1. 1USEPA, ORD/NHEERL/ETD/PTB...

  10. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DW Winsett2, DL Costa2, and WP Watkinson2. 1UNC Sch...

  11. EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INSTILLATION OF RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) ON CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE (SH) RATS. LB Wichers1, JP Nolan2, DW Winsett2, AD Ledbetter2, UP Kodavanti2, MCJ Schladweiler2, R Hauser3, DC Christiani3, DL Costa2, ...

  12. The impact of forest residue removal and wood ash amendment on the growth of the ectomycorrhizal external mycelium.

    PubMed

    Hagerberg, David; Wallander, Håkan

    2002-02-01

    Intensive harvesting of forest residues for energy production may lead to the depletion of organic matter and mineral nutrients in the forest floor. In order to restore nutrient content wood ash has been suggested as a fertiliser. Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi are involved in the nutrient uptake of forest trees and this study investigates the influence of intensive harvesting and wood ash fertilisation on the external EM mycelium in forest soil. Nylon mesh bags filled with sand were buried in September 1997 in field plots which had or had not been intensively harvested. The effect of wood ash on the production of external EM mycelium was studied in mesh bags amended with wood ash. Mesh bags were retrieved in May and October 1998. The relative amount of fungal mycelia in the mesh bags was estimated with phospholipid fatty acid analysis. The fungi colonising the mesh bags were mainly (>90%) ectomycorrhizal. Fungal biomass in the mesh bags was low in the spring but high in the autumn. No significant effect on EM fungal biomass was observed in the mesh bags collected from intensively harvested plots compared with those from control plots, but wood ash amendment resulted in 2.4 times more EM fungal biomass (P<0.05). The effect of external EM mycelium on the dissolution of wood ash was studied in mesh bags filled with wood ash, using mesh bags buried in soil isolated from roots as EM-free controls. The external EM mycelium had no effect on the dissolution rate of the wood ash. 80% of the potassium was lost from the wood ash within a month, whereas no phosphorus was lost during the experimental period (up to 13 months). PMID:19709193

  13. 4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. VIEW SOUTH FROM RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  14. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  15. Production of lightweight aggregates from mining residues, heavy metal sludge, and incinerator fly ash.

    PubMed

    Huang, Su-Chen; Chang, Fang-Chih; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lee, Ming-Yu; Wang, Chu-Fang; Lin, Jyh-Dong

    2007-06-01

    In this study, artificial lightweight aggregate (LWA) manufactured from recycled resources was investigated. Residues from mining, fly ash from an incinerator and heavy metal sludge from an electronic waste water plant were mixed into raw aggregate pellets and fed into a tunnel kiln to be sintered and finally cooled rapidly. Various feeding and sintering temperatures were employed to examine their impact on the extent of vitrification on the aggregate surface. Microstructural analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were also performed. The results show that the optimum condition of LWA fabrication is sintering at 1150 degrees C for 15 min with raw aggregate pellets fed at 750 degrees C. The rapidly vitrified surface envelops the gas produced with the increase in internal temperature and cooling by spraying water prevents the aggregates from binding together, thus forming LWA with specific gravity of 0.6. LWA produced by sintering in tunnel kiln shows good vitrified surface, low water absorption rate below 5%, and low cylindrical compressive strength of 4.3 MPa. In addition, only trace amounts of heavy metals were detected, making the LWA non-hazardous for construction use. PMID:17118542

  16. Residual oil fly ash amplifies allergic cytokines, airway responsiveness, and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gavett, S H; Madison, S L; Stevens, M A; Costa, D L

    1999-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution may increase symptom severity in allergic asthmatics. To examine possible interaction, or greater than additive responses, between PM effects and allergic responses, an ovalbumin-sensitized and challenged (OVA) mouse model of allergic airways disease was utilized. After challenge, mice were intratracheally instilled with saline vehicle or 3 mg/kg (approximately 60 microg) residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a transition metal-rich emission source PM sample. Physiological and inflammatory responses were examined 1, 3, 8, and 15 d later. In response to intravenously administered methacholine, ROFA increased total respiratory system resistance and decreased compliance 1 d after exposure, whereas effects of OVA lasted at least 15 d after exposure. Significant interactions between OVA and ROFA were mainly observed 8 d after challenge and exposure, especially with respect to compliance. A strong interaction (p < 0.01) between OVA and ROFA exposure resulted in 8-fold (1 d) and 3-fold (3 d) increases in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid eosinophil numbers. A similarly strong interaction (8-fold) was observed in BAL fluid interleukin-4 (IL-4) 1 d after challenge and exposure. Significant though less strong interactions were also found with respect to IL-4 and IL-5 by 3 d postchallenge/exposure. This study shows that allergen challenge and exposure to emission source particulate matter containing relatively high levels of transitions metals can interact to increase Th2 cytokine production, eosinophil recruitment, and airway hyperresponsiveness in previously sensitized mice. PMID:10588603

  17. Selective dissolution and characterization of trace elements in hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Sorini, S.S.

    1986-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solid phase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated in the laboratory under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO/sub 3/-extractable, H/sub 2/O-extractable, NaOH-extractable, EDTA-extractable, HNO/sub 3/-extractable, and residual (nonextractable) phases. This procedure is purported to identify trace elements that reside in the soluble, easily exchangeable, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, sulfide, and silicate phases, respectively. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale are compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. The trace elements examined in this study included barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. The extractabilities of the major elements - aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, and silicon - were also examined to provide evidence of solid phase elemental associations with trace elements. A significant result of this study is that the mineralogical residencies of trace elements in retorted oil shale were altered in response to hydration and recarbonation. Thus, the behavior of trace elements in retorted oil shale disposal environments may not be adequately predicted through the application of extraction procedures that assess potential trace element leachability. The results of this study also justify the further characterization of trace element selective extractabilities using procedures that partition trace elements residing in the HNO/sub 3/-extractable and residual fractions. 21 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Multielement residues in tissues of guinea pigs fed sweet clover grown on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Furr, K; Stoewsand, G S; Bache, C A; Gutenmann, W A

    1975-05-01

    Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) was harvested from fly ash dumped in a landfill site at Lansing, NY. This clover was chopped, dried, and formulated at 45% into an otherwise purified diet and fed to six guinea pigs for 90 days. Control sweet clover was harvested from gravelly subsoil and processed and fed to another group of guinea pigs for the same period. Samples of fly ash, gravelly subsoil, sweet clover, liver, kidneys, and left-rear gastrocnemius muscle of all guinea pigs were freeze-dried and analyzed for 35 elements by neutron activation analysis. The fly ash contained 28 elements at higher levels than the gravelly subsoil, while the clover harvested from fly ash contained 19 elements in increased amounts over those in the clover harvested from the gravel soil. Growth rate of both groups of guinea pigs was similar. Rubidium and selenium were present at higher levels in the tissues of guinea pigs fed the fly ash clover. PMID:1130838

  19. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N.; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously. PMID:25309454

  20. Time course of pulmonary burden in mice exposed to residual oil fly ash.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Giovanna Marcella Cavalcante; Nagato, Lilian Katiê da Silva; Fagundes, Sheila da Silva; Dos Santos, Flávia Brandão; Calheiros, Andrea Surrage; Malm, Olaf; Bozza, Patricia Torres; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário N; Faffe, Débora Souza; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo; Zin, Walter Araujo

    2014-01-01

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a common pollutant in areas where oil is burned. This particulate matter (PM) with a broad distribution of particle diameters can be inhaled by human beings and putatively damage their respiratory system. Although some studies deal with cultured cells, animals, and even epidemiological issues, so far a comprehensive analysis of respiratory outcomes as a function of the time elapsed after exposure to a low dose of ROFA is wanted. Thus, we aimed to investigate the time course of mechanical, histological, and inflammatory lung changes, as well as neutrophils in the blood, in mice exposed to ROFA until 5 days after exposure. BALB/c mice (25 ± 5 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups and intranasally instilled with either 10 μL of sterile saline solution (0.9% NaCl, CTRL) or ROFA (0.2 μg in 10 μL of saline solution). Pulmonary mechanics, histology (normal and collapsed alveoli, mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, and ultrastructure), neutrophils (in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) were determined at 6 h in CTRL and at 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after ROFA exposure. ROFA contained metal elements, especially iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorines. Lung resistive pressure augmented early (6 h) in the course of lung injury and other mechanical, histological and inflammatory parameters increased at 24 h, returning to control values at 120 h. Blood neutrophilia was present only at 24 and 48 h after exposure. Swelling of endothelial cells with adherent neutrophils was detected after ROFA instillation. No neutrophils were present in the lavage fluid. In conclusion, the exposure to ROFA, even in low doses, induced early changes in pulmonary mechanics, lung histology and accumulation of neutrophils in blood of mice that lasted for 4 days and disappeared spontaneously. PMID:25309454

  1. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  2. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

  3. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  4. Oil shale retorting in the first commercial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Three commercial projects based on oil shale mining and surface retorting are reviewed. In Colorado, Exxon and Tosco are partners in the construction of a plant which will utilize TOSCO II retorts. Nearby, Union Oil Company is constructing the first module of a large complex using its own process. Each project is described briefly, the several retorting processes are discussed, and the rationale for the retort selection in each case is considered. 8 refs.

  5. Metals accumulations during thermal processing of sewage sludge - characterization of bottom ash and air pollution control (APC) residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasina, Monika; Kowalski, Piotr R.; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing mass of sewage sludge, problems in its management have appeared. Over years sewage sludge was landfilled, however due to EU directives concerning environmental issues this option is no longer possible. This type of material is considered hazardous due to highly concentrated metals and harmful elements, toxic organic substances and biological components (e.g. parasites, microbes). Currently in Europe, incineration is considered to be the most reasonable method for sewage sludge treatment. As a result of sludge incineration significant amount of energy is recovered due to high calorific value of sewage sludge but bottom ash and APC residues are being produced. In this study we show the preliminary results of chemical and mineral analyses of both bottom ash and APC residues produced in fluidized bed boiler in sewage sludge incineration plant in Poland, with a special emphasis on metals which, as a part of incombustible fraction can accumulate in the residual materials after thermal processing. The bottom ash was a SiO2-P2O5-Fe2O3-CaO-Al2O3 dominated material. Main mineral phases identified in X-ray diffraction patterns were: quartz, feldspar, hematite, and phosphates (apatite and scholzite). The bottom ash was characterized by high content of Zn - 4472 mg kg‑1, Cu - 665.5 mg kg‑1, Pb - 138 mg kg‑1, Ni - 119.5 mg kg‑1, and interestingly high content of Au - 0.858 mg kg‑1 The APC residues composition was dominated by soluble phases which represent more than 90% of the material. The XRD patterns indicated thenardite, halite, anhydrite, calcite and apatite as main mineral phases. The removal of soluble phases by dissolution in deionised water caused a significant mass reduction (ca. 3% of material remained on the filters). Calcite, apatite and quartz were main identified phases. The content of metals in insoluble material is relatively high: Zn - 6326 mg kg‑1, Pb - 514.3 mg kg‑1, Cu - 476.6 mg kg‑1, Ni - 43.3 mg kg‑1. The content of Cd

  6. Stabilization/solidification of a municipal solid waste incineration residue using fly ash-based geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Luna Galiano, Y; Fernández Pereira, C; Vale, J

    2011-01-15

    The stabilization/solidification (S/S) of a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash containing hazardous metals such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn or Ba by means of geopolymerization technology is described in this paper. Different reagents such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, sodium silicate, potassium silicate, kaolin, metakaolin and ground blast furnace slag have been used. Mixtures of MSWI waste with these kinds of geopolymeric materials and class F coal fly ash used as silica and alumina source have been processed to study the potential of geopolymers as waste immobilizing agents. To this end, the effects of curing conditions and composition have been tested. S/S solids are submitted to compressive strength and leaching tests to assess the results obtained and to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. Compressive strength values in the range 1-9 MPa were easily obtained at 7 and 28 days. Concentrations of the metals leached from S/S products were strongly pH dependent, showing that the leachate pH was the most important variable for the immobilization of metals. Comparison of fly ash-based geopolymer systems with classical Portland cement stabilization methods has also been accomplished. PMID:20943314

  7. Ash Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Maurice R.

    Ash refers to the inorganic residue remaining after either ignition or complete oxidation of organic matter in a foodstuff. A basic knowledge of the characteristics of various ashing procedures and types of equipment is essential to ensure reliable results. Two major types of ashing are used: dry ashing, primarily for proximate composition and for some types of specific mineral analyses; wet ashing (oxidation), as a preparation for the analysis of certain minerals. Microwave systems now are available for both dry and wet ashing, to speed the processes. Most dry samples (i.e., whole grain, cereals, dried vegetables) need no preparation, while fresh vegetables need to be dried prior to ashing. High-fat products such as meats may need to be dried and fat extracted before ashing. The ash content of foods can be expressed on either a wet weight (as is) or on a dry weight basis. For general and food-specific information on measuring ash content, see references (1-11).

  8. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  9. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods. PMID:26396305

  10. The effect of low-NO{sub x} combustion on residual carbon in fly ash and its adsorption capacity for air entrainment admixtures in concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, K.H.; Jensen, A.D.; Dam-Johansen, K.

    2010-02-15

    Fly ash from pulverized coal combustion contains residual carbon that can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to control the air entrainment in concrete. This is a problem that has increased by the implementation of low-NO{sub x} combustion technologies. In this work, pulverized fuel has been combusted in an entrained flow reactor to test the impact of changes in operating conditions and fuel type on the AEA adsorption of ash and NO{sub x} formation. Increased oxidizing conditions, obtained by improved fuel-air mixing or higher excess air, decreased the AEA requirements of the produced ash by up to a factor of 25. This was due to a lower carbon content in the ash and a lower specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon. The latter was suggested to be caused by changes in the adsorption properties of the unburned char and a decreased formation of soot, which was found to have a large AEA adsorption capacity based on measurements on a carbon black. The NO{sub x} formation increased by up to three times with more oxidizing conditions and thus, there was a trade-off between the AEA requirements of the ash and NO{sub x} formation. The type of fuel had high impact on the AEA adsorption behavior of the ash. Ashes produced from a Columbian and a Polish coal showed similar AEA requirements, but the specific AEA adsorptivity of the carbon in the Columbian coal ash was up to six times higher. The AEA requirements of a South African coal ash was unaffected by the applied operating conditions and showed up to 12 times higher AEA adsorption compared to the two other coal ashes. This may be caused by larger particles formed by agglomeration of the primary coal particles in the feeding phase or during the combustion process, which gave rise to increased formation of soot. (author)

  11. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill. PMID:18603362

  12. JV Task 5 - Evaluation of Residual Oil Fly Ash As A Mercury Sorbent For Coal Combustion Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Patton

    2006-12-31

    The mercury adsorption capacity of a residual oil fly ash (ROFA) sample collected form Florida Power and Light Company's Port Everglades Power Plant was evaluated using a bituminous coal combustion flue gas simulator and fixed-bed testing protocol. A size-segregated (>38 {micro}g) fraction of ROFA was ground to a fine powder and brominated to potentially enhance mercury capture. The ROFA and brominated-ROFA were ineffective in capturing or oxidizing the Hg{sup 0} present in a simulated bituminous coal combustion flue gas. In contrast, a commercially available DARCO{reg_sign} FGD initially adsorbed Hg{sup 0} for about an hour and then catalyzed Hg{sup 0} oxidation to produce Hg{sup 2+}. Apparently, the unburned carbon in ROFA needs to be more rigorously activated in order for it to effectively capture and/or oxidize Hg{sup 0}.

  13. Ecological risk assessment for residual coal fly ash at Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee: Limited alteration of riverine-reservoir benthic invertebrate community following dredging of ash-contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Buys, David J; Stojak, Amber R; Stiteler, William; Baker, Tyler F

    2015-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities were assessed after the December 2008 release of approximately 4.1 million m(3) coal fly ash from a disposal dredge cell at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Roane County, Tennessee, USA. Released ash filled the adjacent embayments and the main channel of the Emory River, migrating into reaches of the Emory, Clinch, and Tennessee Rivers. Dredging was completed in summer 2010, and the benthic community sampling was conducted in December 2010. This study is part of a series that supported an Ecological Risk Assessment for the Kingston site. Benthic invertebrate communities were sampled at transects spread across approximately 20 miles of river that includes both riverine and reservoirlike conditions. Community composition was assessed on a grab sample and transect basis across multiple cross-channel transects to gain an understanding of the response of the benthic community to a fly ash release of this magnitude. This assessment used invertebrate community metrics, similarity analysis, geospatial statistics, and correlations with sediment chemistry and habitat. The community composition was reflective of a reservoir system, with dominant taxa being insect larva, bivalves, and aquatic worms. Most community metric results were similar for ash-impacted areas and upstream reference areas. Variation in the benthic community was correlated more with habitat than with sediment chemistry or residual ash. Other studies have reported that a benthic community can take several years to a decade to recover from ash or ash-related constituents. Although released ash undoubtedly had some initial impacts on the benthic community in this study, the severity of these effects appears to be limited to the initial smothering of the organisms followed by a rapid response and the initial start of recovery postdredging. PMID:25158124

  14. DIFFERENTIAL TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVATION AD GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES IN HUMAN VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS ON EXPOSURE TO RESIDUAL OIL FLY ASH (ROFA) AND VANADIUM

    EPA Science Inventory


    Differential transcription factor activation and gene expression profiles in human vascular endothelial cells on exposure to residual oil fly ash (ROFA) and vanadium.
    Srikanth S. Nadadur and Daniel L. Costa, US EPA, ORD, NHEERL (ETD, Pulmonary Toxicology Branch), Research ...

  15. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  16. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  17. Polychlorobenzenes and polychlorinated biphenyls in ash and soil from several industrial areas in North Vietnam: residue concentrations, profiles and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Hue; Nguyen, Thi Thu Thuy; Nguyen, Hoang Tung

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated benzenes (PCBzs) including penta- and hexachlorobenzene can be unintentionally formed from thermal processes in different industrial activities, and very little information is available on the contamination and emission characteristics of these new persistent organic pollutants from industries in Vietnam. In this study, contamination of PCBzs (including penta- and hexachlorobenzene, named PeCBz and HCB, respectively) and PCBs (including CB-28, 52, 101, 153, 138, 180) in fly ash, bottom ash and soil from combustion processes of waste incineration, metallurgy (steel making and zinc production) and cement production from several provinces in the Northern Vietnam, including Hai Duong, Hanoi, Bac Ninh, Hai Phong and Thai Nguyen, was preliminary investigated. The PCBzs concentrations in fly ash, bottom ash and soil ranged from 2.7 to 100 ng g(-1), from 2.7 to 159 ng g(-1) and from 0.28 to 33.9 ng g(-1), respectively. Relatively high residues of PeCBz in fly ash and bottom ash from municipal waste incinerators in some provinces from the Northern Vietnam were encountered. Total PCBs concentrations ranged from 18.0 to 8260 ng g(-1), from 1.0 to 10600 ng g(-1) and from 14.5 to 130 ng g(-1) for the fly ash, bottom ash and soil, respectively. Daily intakes of PeCBz, HCB and PCBs through soil ingestion and dermal exposure estimated for children ranged 0.33-9.93 (mean 3.14), 0.39-21.1 (mean 4.9) and 6.09-1530 ng/kg bw/day (mean 346), respectively; and these intakes were about 4.7-5.4 times higher than those estimated for adult. The intakes of PeCBz and HCB were relatively low, while those for PCBs exceeded WHO TDI for some samples. PMID:26049895

  18. Fungal leaching of valuable metals from a power plant residual ash using Penicillium simplicissimum: Evaluation of thermal pretreatment and different bioleaching methods.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M; Rastegar, S O; Azargoshasb, H

    2016-06-01

    Each year a tremendous volume of V-Ni rich ashes is produced by fuel oil consuming power plants throughout the world. Recovery of precious metals existing in these ashes is very important from both economic and environmental aspects. The present research was aimed at investigating bioleaching potential of Penicillium simplicissimum for the recovery of metals from power plant residual ash (PPR ash) using different bioleaching methods such as one-step, two-step, and spent-medium bioleaching at 1% (w/v) pulp density. Furthermore, the effects of thermal pretreatment on leaching of V, Ni, and Fe, as major elements present in PPR ash, were studied. Thermal pretreatment at various temperatures removed the carbonaceous and volatile fraction of the ash and affected the fungal growth and metal leachability. The highest extraction yields of V and Ni were achieved for the original PPR ash, using spent-medium bioleaching in which nearly 100% of V and 40% of Ni were extracted. The maximum extraction yield of Fe (48.3%) was obtained for the pretreated PPR ash at 400°C by spent-medium bioleaching. In addition, the fungal growth in pure culture was investigated through measurement of produced organic acids via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chemical leaching experiments were performed, using commercial organic acids at the same concentrations as those produced under optimum condition of fungal growth (5237ppm citric, 3666ppm gluconic, 1287ppm oxalic and 188ppm malic acid). It was found that in comparison to chemical leaching, bioleaching improved V and Ni recovery up to 19% and 12%, respectively. Moreover, changes in physical and chemical properties as well as morphology of the samples utilizing appropriate analytical methods such as XRF, XRD, FTIR, and FE-SEM were comprehensively investigated. PMID:27095291

  19. LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

  20. Chemical speciation of Fe and Ni in residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter using X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked residual oil fly ash fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (ROFA PM(2.5)) to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. Bioavailable transition metals within PM have been cited as one of the components that induce such illnesses. By combining synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy with leaching experiment, we studied the effect of residual oil compositions and combustion conditions on the speciation of Fe and Ni in ROFA PM(2.5) and the implication of these species for human health and environment. PM(2.5) samples were obtained from two types of combustors, a fire tube boiler (FTB) and a refractory line combustor (RLC). The study reveals that only Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O is present in RLC PM(2.5) while Fe(2)(SO(4))(3)·nH(2)O predominates in FTB PM(2.5) with inclusion of varying amounts of nickel ferrite. The finding that RLC PM(2.5) is more bioavailable and hence more toxic than FTB PM(2.5) is significant. The reduction of toxicity of FTB PM(2.5) is due to the immobilization of a portion of Fe and Ni in the formation of an insoluble NiFe(2)O(4). This may explain the variation of toxicity from exposure to different ROFA PM(2.5). Additionally, the speciation data are sought for developing emission inventories for source apportionment study and understanding the mechanism of PM formation. PMID:23126560

  1. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  2. Hydraulic calculations for a modified in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of a numerical model and the aquifer-retort system used to investigate hydraulics in the vicinity of a modified in-situ retort. The model is used to analyze several cases involving different physical and geohydrological parameters, and possible applications of the model to in-situ oil shale recovery are discussed.

  3. Soluble metals in residual oil fly ash alter innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses to bacterial infection in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Jenny R. . E-mail: jur6@cdc.gov; Young, Shih-Houng; Castranova, Vincent; Antonini, James M.

    2007-06-15

    The soluble metals of the pollutant, residual oil fly ash (ROFA), have been shown to alter pulmonary bacterial clearance in rats. The goal of this study was to determine the potential effects on both the innate and adaptive lung immune responses after bacterial infection in rats pre-exposed to the soluble metals in ROFA. Sprague-Dawley rats were intratracheally dosed (i.t.) at day 0 with ROFA (R-Total) (1.0 mg/100 g body weight), the soluble fraction of ROFA (R-Soluble), the soluble sample subject to a chelator (R-Chelex), or phosphate-buffered saline (Saline). On day 3, rats were administered an i.t. dose of 5 x 10{sup 4} Listeria monocytogenes. On days 6, 8, and 10, bacterial pulmonary clearance was monitored and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed on days 3 (pre-infection), 6, 8, and 10. A concentrated first fraction of lavage fluid was retained for analysis of lactate dehydrogenase and albumin to assess lung injury. BAL cell number, phenotype, and production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) were assessed, and a variety of cytokines were measured in the BAL fluid. Rats pre-treated with R-Soluble showed elevated lung injury/cytotoxicity and increased cellular influx into the lungs. R-Soluble-treatment also altered ROS, RNS, and cytokine levels, and caused a degree of macrophage and T cell inhibition. These effects of R-Soluble result in increased pulmonary bacterial burden after infection. The results suggest that soluble metals in ROFA increase lung injury and inflammation, and alter both innate and adaptive pulmonary immune responses.

  4. Hippocampus lipid peroxidation induced by residual oil fly ash intranasal instillation versus habituation to the open field.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Ana Claudia; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Barros, Helena Maria Tannhauser; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of particulate matter (PM) inhalation on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. It has been reported that air pollution may affect the central nervous system and decrease cognitive function. In rats, residual oil fly ash (ROFA) instillation causes decreased motor activity and increased lipid peroxidation in the striatum and the cerebellum. Our objective was to determine whether chronic instillation of particles induces changes in learning and memory in rats and whether oxidants in the hippocampus may contribute to these adverse effects. Forty-five-day-old male Wistar rats were exposed to ROFA by intranasal instillation and were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) at 150 mg/kg i.p. for 30 days. Control groups were exposed to ROFA, NAC, or neither. On days 1, 8, and 30 of the protocol, rats were submitted to the open field test to evaluate habituation. After the last open field session, the rats were killed by decapitation. The hippocampus was used to determine lipid peroxidation (LP) by the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances test. ROFA instillation induced an increase in LP in the hippocampus compared to all treatment groups (p = .012). NAC treatment blocked these changes. All of the treatment groups presented a decrease in the frequency of peripheral walking (p = .001), rearing (p = .001), and exploration (p = .001) over time. Our study demonstrates that exposure to particles for 30 days and/or NAC treatment do not modify habituation to an open field, a simple form of learning and memory in rats, and that oxidative damage induced by ROFA does not modulate these processes. PMID:20017596

  5. In vivo short-term exposure to residual oil fly ash impairs pulmonary innate immune response against environmental mycobacterium infection.

    PubMed

    Delfosse, Verónica C; Tasat, Deborah R; Gioffré, Andrea K

    2015-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that pollution derived from industrial and vehicular transportation induces adverse health effects causing broad ambient respiratory diseases. Therefore, air pollution should be taken into account when microbial diseases are evaluated. Environmental mycobacteria (EM) are opportunist pathogens that can affect a variety of immune compromised patients, which impacts significantly on human morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) pre-exposure on the pulmonary response after challenge with opportunistic mycobacteria by means of an acute short-term in vivo experimental animal model. We exposed BALB/c mice to ROFA and observed a significant reduction on bacterial clearance at 24 h post infection. To study the basis of this impaired response four groups of animals were instilled with (a) saline solution (Control), (b) ROFA (1 mg kg(-1) BW), (c) ROFA and EM-infected (Mycobacterium phlei, 8 × 10(6) CFU), and (d) EM-infected. Animals were sacrificed 24 h postinfection and biomarkers of lung injury and proinflammatory madiators were examined in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Our results indicate that ROFA was able to produce an acute pulmonary injury characterized by an increase in bronchoalveolar polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells influx and a rise in O2 (-) generation. Exposure to ROFA before M. phlei infection reduced total cell number and caused a significant decline in PMN cells recruitment (p < 0.05), O2 (-) generation, TNFα (p < 0.001), and IL-6 (p < 0.001) levels. Hence, our results suggest that, in this animal model, the acute short-term pre-exposure to ROFA reduces early lung response to EM infection. PMID:25915594

  6. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D.; Paz, M.L.; Vanasco, V.; Tasat, D.; González Maglio, D.H.; and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  7. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  8. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Thomas F.; Moore, Dennis F.

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  9. Effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on yield, nutrient uptake, heavy metal content and residual fertility in a rice-mustard cropping sequence under acid lateritic soils.

    PubMed

    Rautaray, S K; Ghosh, B C; Mittra, B N

    2003-12-01

    A field experiment was conducted for two years in sandy loam acid lateritic soil to study the direct effect of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers on rice (Oryza sativa) and their residual effect on mustard (Brassica napus var glauca) grown in sequence. Rice yields were higher when fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers were used in an integrated manner as compared to sole application of chemical fertilizers. Yields of mustard were also higher under the residual effect of the former rather than the latter. However, this beneficial residual effect under integrated nutrient sources was inadequate for the mustard crop in the low fertility test soil. Hence, direct application of fertilizers was needed, in addition to residual fertility. The effect of fly ash on mean rice equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was highest (up to 14%) when it was used in combination with organic wastes and chemical fertilizers. While the yield increase was 10% when it was used in combination with only chemical fertilizers. The minimum yield advantage, 3%, occurred when fly ash was applied alone. The equivalent yield of the rice-mustard cropping sequence was equally influenced by either of the organic wastes. Cadmium and Ni content in rice grain and straw were less under the direct effect of fly ash. The residual effect on mustard was similar for Ni content in seed and stover; however, Cd content was increased. Beneficial residual soil chemical properties in terms of pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K were noted for integrated nutrient treatments involved fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers as compared to continuous use of only chemical fertilizers. Application of fly ash alone was effective in raising soil available P. Thus, integrated use of fly ash, organic wastes and chemical fertilizers was beneficial in improving crop yield, soil pH, organic carbon and available N, P and K in sandy loam acid lateritic soil. PMID:14575950

  10. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  11. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  12. 2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED DIRECTLY BEHIND THE GABLED PORTION OF OF THE 1859 FACADE ADDITION. THE COAL STORAGE FACILITY/BOILER HOUSE IS TO THE RIGHT OF THE RETORT HOUSE. THE OFFICES ARE IN THE THE THREE STORY BUILDING ON THE CORNER, TO THE RIGHT OF THE 1859 FACADE. - Buffalo Gas Light Company, 249 West Genesee Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans: Removal from flue gas and distribution in ash/residue of a refuse-derived fuel combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Brna, T.G.; Kilgroe, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The paper gives results of an early-1989 investigation of the effect of changing combustion and flue gas cleaning (FGC) system variables on the performance of these systems. Using information from earlier characterization tests at the same site (Mid-Connecticut facility in Hartford), performance data on a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) combustor and its lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (FGC) system were obtained under good, intermediate, and poor combustor operation and high, normal, and low sulfur dioxide (SO2) control by the FGC system. The independent combustion system variables included steam load, air supply rate, and its distribution. For the FGC system, the outlet gas temperature from the spray dryer absorber served as an easily measurable surrogate for the approach to saturation temperature, while SO2 concentration in the flue gas at the fabric filter outlet continuously represented the lime stoichiometry. Test data included acid gas, trace organic, trace metal, and particulate concentrations, as well as material collection for the determination of ash/residue composition and production rates. In addition, process data and RDF feed and ash/residue generation rates were obtained. Correlations between combustion conditions and furnace emission of organic pollutants are presented.

  14. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  15. MERCURY MASS DISTRIBUTION DURING LABORATORY AND SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury mass in oil shale retort offgas was quantified in a series of laboratory retorting experiments and in a simulated modified in-situ (MIS) retorting experiment. Accurate quantitative determinations of offgas Hg mass were made possible by the use of a continuous on-lin...

  16. Effects of particle size and coating on decomposition of alumina-extracted residue from high-alumina fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zehua; Ma, Shuhua; Tang, Zhenhua; Wang, Xiaohui; Zheng, Shili

    2016-05-01

    The effective removal of alkali in the alumina-extracted reside (AER) obtained by extracting alumina from high-alumina fly ash is the premise for realizing the utilization of the silicon component in the fly ash. Sodium was removed from the AER by a decomposition reaction. The effects of the particle size and reactant coating on the decomposition reaction of AER were studied, and the results showed that by decreasing the particle size, the decomposition reaction rate of AER could be enhanced obviously and the Na2O content of the products could be decreased effectively. In addition, the process and mechanism of the decomposition reaction of AER and the reaction kinetics were investigated. The results revealed that the decomposition reaction of AER started from the outer surface of the AER particles. The reaction kinetics corresponded with shrinking unreacted core models. Furthermore, the decomposition reaction rate of AER could be enhanced obviously by decreasing the particle size because the effect of product layer diffusion was weakened when the particle size of AER was decreased. PMID:26844406

  17. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  18. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  19. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  20. Interaction of acid mine drainage with Ordinary Portland Cement blended solid residues generated from active treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash.

    PubMed

    Gitari, Wilson M; Petrik, Leslie F; Key, David L; Okujeni, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash (FA) has been investigated as a possible treatment agent for Acid mine drainage (AMD) and established to be an alternative, cheap and economically viable agent compared to the conventional alkaline agents. However, this treatment option also leads to generation of solid residues (SR) that require disposal and one of the proposed disposal method is a backfill in coal mine voids. In this study, the interaction of the SR with AMD that is likely to be present in such backfill scenario was simulated by draining columns packed with SR and SR + 6% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) unsaturated with simulated AMD over a 6 month period. The evolving geochemistry of the liquid/solid (L/S) system was evaluated in-terms of the mineral phases likely or controlling contaminants attenuation at the different pH regimes generated. Stepwise acidification of the percolates was observed as the drainage progressed. Two pH buffer zones were observed (7.5-9 and 3-4) for SR and (11.2-11.3 and 3.5-4) for SR + 6% OPC. The solid residue cores (SR) appeared to have a significant buffering capacity, maintaining a neutral to slightly alkaline pH in the leachates for an extended period of time (97 days: L/S 4.3) while SR + 6% OPC reduced this neutralization capacity to 22 days (L/S 1.9). Interaction of AMD with SR or SR + 6% OPC generated alkaline conditions that favored precipitation of Fe, Al, Mn-(oxy) hydroxides, Fe and Ca-Al hydroxysulphates that greatly contributed to the contaminants removal. However, precipitation of these phases was restricted to the pH of the leachates remaining at neutral to circum-neutral levels. Backfill of mine voids with SR promises to be a feasible technology for the disposal of the SR but its success will greatly depend on the disposal scenario, AMD generated and the alkalinity generating potential of the SR. A disadvantage would be the possible re-dissolution of the precipitated phases at pH < 4 that would release the contaminants back to the water column

  1. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  2. 4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CASTIRON RETORTS AT TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CAST-IRON RETORTS AT TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING PORTION OF HOT BLAST STOVE AND TURNED HEAD. - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  3. 1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort rings in foreground were once located in Engine Room Building. See photo WA-131-A-2. Building on left is Machine Shop. Boiler Building is in front of stack. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  4. Residual oil fly ash induces cytotoxicity and mucin secretion by guinea pig tracheal epithelial cells via an oxidant-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, N; Dreher, K L; Dye, J A; Li, Y; Richards, J H; Martin, L D; Adler, K B

    2000-03-15

    Inhalation of ambient air particulate matter (PM) is associated with pulmonary injury and inflammation. Using primary cultures of guinea pig tracheal epithelial (GPTE) cells as an in vitro model of airway epithelium, we examined effects of exposure to suspensions of six different emission and ambient air PM samples: residual oil fly ash (ROFA) from an electrical power plant; fly ash from a domestic oil burning furnace (DOFA); ambient air dust from St. Louis (STL), Ottawa (OT), and Washington, DC (WDC); and volcanic ash from the eruption of Mount Saint Helens (MSH) in 1980. Effects of these particulates on cell viability (assessed via LDH assay), secretion of mucin (measured by a monoclonal antibody-based ELISA), and steady-state mRNA levels of the mucin gene MUC2 were determined. ROFA was the most toxic of the dusts tested, as it significantly increased LDH release following a 24-h incubation with 50 microg/cm(2) ROFA. ROFA also enhanced MUC2 mRNA after 4-h exposure, and mucin secretion after 8 h. ROFA-induced mucin secretion and cytotoxicity were attenuated by the oxidant scavenger, dimethylthiourea (DMTU). ROFA exposure also depleted cells of glutathione (GSH). Relatedly, depletion of intracellular GSH by treatment of the cells with buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) also provoked mucin secretion, as well as enhancing the secretory effect of ROFA when the two agents were added together. L-NMA, the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, did not affect ROFA-induced mucin secretion. Of the soluble transition metals in ROFA (nickel, iron, vanadium), only vanadium individually, or combinations of the metals containing vanadium, provoked secretion. The results suggest ROFA enhances mucin secretion and generates toxicity in vitro to airway epithelium via a mechanism(s) involving generation of oxidant stress, perhaps related to depletion of cellular antioxidant capacity. Deleterious effects of inhalation of ROFA in the respiratory tract in vivo may relate to these cellular

  5. Life cycle assessment of disposal of residues from municipal solid waste incineration: recycling of bottom ash in road construction or landfilling in Denmark evaluated in the ROAD-RES model.

    PubMed

    Birgisdóttir, H; Bhander, G; Hauschild, M Z; Christensen, T H

    2007-01-01

    Two disposal methods for MSWI bottom ash were assessed in a new life cycle assessment (LCA) model for road construction and disposal of residues. The two scenarios evaluated in the model were: (i) landfilling of bottom ash in a coastal landfill in Denmark and (ii) recycling of bottom ash as subbase layer in an asphalted secondary road. The LCA included resource and energy consumption, and emissions associated with upgrading of bottom ash, transport, landfilling processes, incorporation of bottom ash in road, substitution of natural gravel as road construction material and leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash in road as well as in landfill. Environmental impacts associated with emissions to air, fresh surface water, marine surface water, groundwater and soil were aggregated into 12 environmental impact categories: Global Warming, Photochemical Ozone Formation, Nutrient Enrichment, Acidification, Stratospheric Ozone Depletion, Human Toxicity via air/water/soil, Ecotoxicity in water/soil, and a new impact category, Stored Ecotoxicity to water/soil that accounts for the presence of heavy metals and very persistent organic compounds that in the long-term might leach. Leaching of heavy metals and salts from bottom ash was estimated from a series of laboratory leaching tests. For both scenarios, Ecotoxicity(water) was, when evaluated for the first 100 yr, the most important among the twelve impact categories involved in the assessment. Human Toxicity(soil) was also important, especially for the Road scenario. When the long-term leaching of heavy metals from bottom ash was evaluated, based on the total content of heavy metals in bottom ash, all impact categories became negligible compared to the potential Stored Ecotoxicity, which was two orders of magnitudes greater than Ecotoxicity(water). Copper was the constituent that gave the strongest contributions to the ecotoxicities. The most important resources consumed were clay as liner in landfill and the

  6. Evaluation of a zirconium additive for the mitigation of molten ash formation during combustion of residual fuel oil

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    Florida Power & Light Company (FP&L) currently fires a residual fuel oil (RFO) containing catalyst fines, which results in a troublesome black aluminosilicate liquid phase that forms on heat-transfer surfaces, remains molten, and flows to the bottom of the boiler. When the unit is shut down for a scheduled outage, this liquid phase freezes to a hard black glass that damages the contracting waterwalls of the boiler. Cleaning the boiler bottom and repairing damaged surfaces increase the boiler downtime, at a significant cost to FP&L. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) proposed to perform a series of tests for FP&L to evaluate the effectiveness of a zirconium additive to modify the mechanism that forms this liquid phase, resulting in the formation of a dry refractory phase that may be easily handled during cleanup of the boiler.

  7. Microbial Stimulation by Mycoplasma fermentans Synergistically Amplifies IL-6 Release by Human Lung Fibroblasts in Response to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA) and Nickel

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Barchowsky, Aaron; Nemec, Antonia A.; Fabisiak, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Mycoplasma (MP), such as the species M. fermentans, possess remarkable immunoregulatory properties and can potentially establish chronic latent infections with little signs of disease. Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a complex and diverse component of air pollution associated with adverse health effects. We hypothesized that MP modulate the cellular responses induced by chemical stresses such as residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a type of PM rich in transition metals. We assessed the release of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a prototypic immune-modulating cytokine, in response to PM from different sources in human lung fibroblasts (HLF) deliberately infected with M. fermentans. We found that M. fermentans and ROFA together synergistically stimulated production of IL-6 compared to either stimuli alone. Compared to several other PM, ROFA appeared most able to potentiate IL-6 release. The potentiating effect of live MP infection could be mimicked by M. fermentans-derived macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), a known Toll-like receptor-2 agonist. The aqueous fraction of ROFA also contained potent IL-6 inducing activity in concert with MALP-2, and exposure to several defined metal salts indicated that Ni and, to a lesser extent V, (but not Cu) could synergistically act with MALP-2 to induce IL-6. These data indicate that microorganisms like MP can interact with environmental stimuli such as PM-derived metals to synergistically activate signaling pathways that control lung cell cytokine production and, thus, can potentially modulate adverse health effects of PM exposure. PMID:15229366

  8. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  9. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  10. Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

    1980-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

  11. Process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.C.; Gaiao, U.; Novicki, R.E.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes a process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: (a) contacting the solid particles with superheated steam; (b) transporting, in an upward direction, the mixture obtained in the previous step, at a gas velocity close to the critical impact velocity, through a vertical multi-tube reactor, immersed in a vertical furnace, held at a temperature in the range from 800/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C; (c) heating the obtained mixture to the solids' pyrolysis temperature, by means of the heat generated by the burning of fuel inside the vertical furnace and supplied to the mixture through the walls of the reactor; (d) removing the products from the reactor, separating the solid phase from the retorting products, by forcing the products to pass through primary and secondary separators; (e) removing the gaseous phase from the retorting products exiting the secondary separator thus effecting a second separation stage, for the obtaining of fuel gas and oil the process further characterized in that spaced static devices are provided within the multi-tube reactor tube, so as to cause the solid particles to come close to the walls of the reactor, as a consequence of the superheated steam flow redistribution in order to increase heat transfer between the vertical furnace and the reactor walls.

  12. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature. PMID:24426066

  13. Hydrogeologic consequences of the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mehran, M.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Fox, J.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study is aimed at studying the possible alteration of the groundwater regime in and around the C-a and the C-b tracts due to the proposed MIS strategies. Results suggest that mine-inflow rates will gradually increase with time and that the phreatic surface will be drawn down significantly over several square kilometers around the C-a and C-b tracts. These drawdowns could have profound effects on the shallow groundwater and surface water supplies. The expected inflow rates may vary from 0.15 to 1.4 m/sup 3//s at the C-a tract and from 0.5 to 0.9 m/sup 3//s at the C-b tract. The computations suggest that over a 30-y period of activity at the C-a tract, the water table in the vicinity of a tributary to the Yellow Creek may be drawn down by as much as 31 m. Similarly, 60 years of MIS retorting at the C-b tract may draw down the water table in the vicnity of the Piceance Creek by 100 m or more. The studies indicate that in an expanding mine, the inflows are likely to be concentrated in the neighborhood of newly excavated regions where hydraulic gradients will be highest. It has been estimated that inflow into individual retorts may vary from 0.15 x 10/sup -3/ to 0.95 x 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//s. These infow rates may or may not have significant effects on combustion efficiency, depending upon such factors as shale richness, uniformity of flow, and steam-air ratio. Higher porosities, lower residual saturations, and higher permeabilities will tend to increase mine inflows. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  15. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts §...

  16. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  17. Estimation of retorted phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps by thermal process.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun-Su; Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2016-04-01

    The degree of thermal stabilization of phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) manufactured by three companies (A, B, C) was estimated by examining mercury content in phosphor powder with retorting time, retorting temperature and rotational speed of drum. Mercury content of phosphor powders from spent fluorescent lamps manufactured by A, B and C companies as samples in thermal experiments was 4031mg/kg, 3522mg/kg and 3172mg/kg, respectively. In the thermal experiments, the optimal conditions for retorting time, retorting temperature, and rotational speed were determined at 6h, 400°C, and 2.0rpm, respectively. With thermal processing at the optimal conditions, mercury content of all samples for retorted phosphor powder was less than 3.0mg/kg, while efficiency of thermal process to control mercury content was higher than 99.9%. Leaching tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korea Extraction Test (KET) were subsequently carried out to verify if retorted phosphor powder is hazardous waste. Leaching concentrations of mercury for all samples of retorted phosphor powder were satisfied with regulatory levels in both leaching tests. Hence, retorted phosphor powders at the optimal conditions are considered to be non-hazardous wastes. PMID:26882866

  18. OXIDES OF NITROGEN/AMMONIA CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The retorting of oil shale yields several undesirable pollutants. The nitrogen in the shale and the reducing conditions under which the retorting is carried out results in the formation of sizeable amounts of ammonia in the gas stream. If not removed, the ammonia will make a sign...

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY: FIELD AND ANALYTICAL DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  2. Reactive oxygen species produced by NADPH oxidase and mitochondrial dysfunction in lung after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Magnani, Natalia D.; Marchini, Timoteo; Vanasco, Virginia; Tasat, Deborah R.; Alvarez, Silvia; Evelson, Pablo

    2013-07-01

    Reactive O{sub 2} species production triggered by particulate matter (PM) exposure is able to initiate oxidative damage mechanisms, which are postulated as responsible for increased morbidity along with the aggravation of respiratory diseases. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the major sources of reactive O{sub 2} species involved in lung O{sub 2} metabolism after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ashes (ROFAs). Mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight), and lung samples were analysed 1 h after instillation. Tissue O{sub 2} consumption and NADPH oxidase (Nox) activity were evaluated in tissue homogenates. Mitochondrial respiration, respiratory chain complexes activity, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and ATP production rates, mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative damage markers were assessed in isolated mitochondria. ROFA exposure was found to be associated with 61% increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption, a 30% increase in Nox activity, a 33% increased state 3 mitochondrial O{sub 2} consumption and a mitochondrial complex II activity increased by 25%. During mitochondrial active respiration, mitochondrial depolarization and a 53% decreased ATP production rate were observed. Neither changes in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production rate, nor oxidative damage in isolated mitochondria were observed after the instillation. After an acute ROFA exposure, increased tissue O{sub 2} consumption may account for an augmented Nox activity, causing an increased O{sub 2}{sup ·−} production. The mitochondrial function modifications found may prevent oxidative damage within the organelle. These findings provide new insights to the understanding of the mechanisms involving reactive O{sub 2} species production in the lung triggered by ROFA exposure. - Highlights: • Exposure to ROFA alters the oxidative metabolism in mice lung. • The augmented Nox activity contributes to the high tissue O{sub 2} consumption. • Exposure to ROFA

  3. Ash in the Soil System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, P.

    2012-04-01

    Ash is the organic and inorganic residue produced by combustion, under laboratory and field conditions. This definition is far away to be accepted. Some researchers consider ash only as the inorganic part, others include also the material not completely combusted as charcoal or biochar. There is a need to have a convergence about this question and define clear "what means ash". After the fire and after spread ash onto soil surface, soil properties can be substantially changed depending on ash properties, that can be different according to the burned residue (e.g wood, coal, solid waste, peppermill, animal residues), material treatment before burning, time of exposition and storage conditions. Ash produced in boilers is different from the produced in fires because of the material diferent propertie and burning conditions. In addition, the ash produced in boilers is frequently treated (e.g pelletization, granulation, self curing) previously to application, to reduce the negative effects on soil (e.g rapid increase of pH, mycorrhiza, fine roots of trees and microfauna). These treatments normally reduce the rate of nutrients dissolution. In fires this does not happen. Thus the implications on soil properties are logically different. Depending on the combustion temperature and/or severity, ash could have different physical (e.g texture, wettability) and chemical properties (e.g amount and type of total and leached nutrients) and this will have implications on soil. Ash can increase and decrease soil aggregation, wettablity and water retention, bulk density, runoff and water infiltration. Normally, ash increases soil pH, Electrical Conductivity, and the amount of some basic nutrients as calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium. However it is also a potential source of heavy metals, especially if ash pH is low. However the effect of ash on soil in space and time depends especially of the ash amount and characteristics, fire temperature, severity, topography, aspect

  4. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  5. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of analytical methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C2 to C10. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominant organic constituents of the process retort water.

  6. Numerical analysis of the process of combustion and gasification of the polydisperse coke residue of high-ash coal under pressure in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    A.Y. Maistrenko; V.P. Patskov; A.I. Topal; T.V. Patskova

    2007-09-15

    A numerical analysis of the process of 'wet' gasification of high-ash coal under pressure in a low-temperature fluidized bed has been performed. The applicability of the previously developed computational model, algorithm, and program for the case under consideration has been noted. The presence of 'hot spots' (short-time local heatings) at different points of the bed has been confirmed.

  7. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  8. 77 FR 25206 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  9. Application of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration technology using retort reactors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Liu, Biao; Chen, Yingquan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    To introduce application status and illustrate the good utilisation potential of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration using retort reactors, the properties of major products and the economic viability of commercial factories were investigated. The capacity of one factory was about 3000t of biomass per year, which was converted into 1000t of charcoal, 950,000Nm(3) of biogas, 270t of woody tar, and 950t of woody vinegar. Charcoal and fuel gas had LHV of 31MJ/kg and 12MJ/m(3), respectively, indicating their potential for use as commercial fuels. The woody tar was rich in phenols, while woody vinegar contained large quantities of water and acetic acid. The economic analysis showed that the factory using this technology could be profitable, and the initial investment could be recouped over the factory lifetime. This technology offered a promising means of converting abundant agricultural biomass into high-value products. PMID:26476166

  10. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  11. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  12. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  13. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  14. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  15. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  16. Maximization of organic acids production by Aspergillus niger in a bubble column bioreactor for V and Ni recovery enhancement from power plant residual ash in spent-medium bioleaching experiments.

    PubMed

    Rasoulnia, P; Mousavi, S M

    2016-09-01

    Spent-medium bioleaching of V and Ni from a power plant residual ash (PPR ash) was conducted using organic acids produced by Aspergillus niger. The production of organic acids in a bubble column bioreactor was optimized through selecting three most influencing factors. Under optimum condition of aeration rate of 762.5(ml/min), sucrose concentration of 101.9(g/l) and inoculum size of 40(ml/l), respectively 17,185, 4539, 1042 and 502(ppm) of oxalic, gluconic, citric and malic acids were produced. Leaching experiments were carried out using biogenic produced organic acids under leaching environment temperature of 60°C and rotary shaking speed of 135rpm, with various pulp densities of 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 9(%w/v). The results showed that biogenic produced organic acids leached V much more efficiently than Ni so that even at high pulp density of 9(%w/v), 83% of V was recovered while Ni recovery yield was 30%. PMID:27295250

  17. Postburn lithology and mineralogy at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a retort 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. [Core samples from near the in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Mason, G.M.; Fahy, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide basic data on some of the characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort after processing. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into Rio Blanco's Tract C-a retort 1 in the western part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The retort operation had been completed nearly four years before the coring, and the cavity and mine workings had been flooded by groundwater for almost one year. Cores were characterized by lithologic description, x-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Drilling and logging records indicate as much as 35 to 40 feet of roof rock has collapsed into the retort since the burn was terminated. A water-filled attic cavity 46 to 62 feet high exists at the top of the retort. One core hole penetrated 377 feet of rubble in the retort and floor rock with numerous fractures below the retort. Most of the material recovered from the retort consisted of highly altered, fused and vesicular rock. Lesser amounts of carbonized, oxidized and moderately heated-altered oil shale were recovered from the upper and lower parts. Raw shale roof fall at the top and unretorted oil shale rubble at the bottom are also present. Thermal alteration has produced high-temperature silicate minerals from the original mixtures of carbonate and silicate minerals in the raw oil shale. Adequate material was recovered from the retort contents to provide valuable data on the lithologic, mineralogic, and physical characteristics of the MIS retort. 19 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Ash Aggregates in Proximal Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porritt, L. A.; Russell, K.

    2012-12-01

    Ash aggregates are thought to have formed within and been deposited by the eruption column and plume and dilute density currents and their associated ash clouds. Moist, turbulent ash clouds are considered critical to ash aggregate formation by facilitating both collision and adhesion of particles. Consequently, they are most commonly found in distal deposits. Proximal deposits containing ash aggregates are less commonly observed but do occur. Here we describe two occurrences of vent proximal ash aggregate-rich deposits; the first within a kimberlite pipe where coated ash pellets and accretionary lapilli are found within the intra-vent sequence; and the second in a glaciovolcanic setting where cored pellets (armoured lapilli) occur within <1 km of the vent. The deposits within the A418 pipe, Diavik Diamond Mine, Canada, are the residual deposits within the conduit and vent of the volcano and are characterised by an abundance of ash aggregates. Coated ash pellets are dominant but are followed in abundance by ash pellets, accretionary lapilli and rare cored pellets. The coated ash pellets typically range from 1 - 5 mm in diameter and have core to rim ratios of approximately 10:1. The formation and preservation of these aggregates elucidates the style and nature of the explosive phase of kimberlite eruption at A418 (and other pipes?). First, these pyroclasts dictate the intensity of the kimberlite eruption; it must be energetic enough to cause intense fragmentation of the kimberlite to produce a substantial volume of very fine ash (<62 μm). Secondly, the ash aggregates indicate the involvement of moisture coupled with the presence of dilute expanded eruption clouds. The structure and distribution of these deposits throughout the kimberlite conduit demand that aggregation and deposition operate entirely within the confines of the vent; this indicates that aggregation is a rapid process. Ash aggregates within glaciovolcanic sequences are also rarely documented. The

  19. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  20. A plan for hydrologic investigations of in situ, oil-shale retorting near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Larson, L.R.; Wallace, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of shale oil by the in-situ retort process may cause hydrologic impacts, the most significant being ground-water contamination and possible transport of contaminants into surrounding areas. Although these impacts are site-specific, many of the techniques used to investigate each retort operation commonly will be the same. The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a study of hydrologic impacts in the area of an in-situ retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, as a means of refining and demonstrating these techniques. Geological investigations include determining the areal extent and thickness of aquifers. Emphasis will be placed on determining lithologic variations from geophysical logging. Hydrologic investigations include mapping of potentiometric surfaces, determining rates of ground-water discharge, and estimating aquifer properties by analytical techniques. Water-quality investigations include monitoring solute migration from the retort site and evaluating sampling techniques by standard statistical procedures. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model will be developed to predict future movement of the water plume away from the retort. (USGS)

  1. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  2. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  3. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  4. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  5. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1979-12-07

    A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  6. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  7. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  8. Rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xu; Rong, Le; Ng, Wei Cheng; Ong, Cynthia; Baeg, Gyeong Hun; Zhang, Wenlin; Lee, Si Ni; Li, Sam Fong Yau; Dai, Yanjun; Tong, Yen Wah; Neoh, Koon Gee; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-04-01

    The solid residues including bottom ashes and fly ashes produced by waste gasification technology could be reused as secondary raw materials. However, the applications and utilizations of these ashes are very often restricted by their toxicity. Therefore, toxicity screening of ash is the primary condition for reusing the ash. In this manuscript, we establish a standard for rapid screening of gasification ashes on the basis of in vitro and in vivo testing, and henceforth guide the proper disposal of the ashes. We used three different test models comprising human cell lines (liver and lung cells), Drosophila melanogaster and Daphnia magna to examine the toxicity of six different types of ashes. For each ash, different leachate concentrations were used to examine the toxicity, with C0 being the original extracted leachate concentration, while C/C0 being subsequent diluted concentrations. The IC50 for each leachate was also quantified for use as an index to classify toxicity levels. The results demonstrated that the toxicity evaluation of different types of ashes using different models is consistent with each other. As the different models show consistent qualitative results, we chose one or two of the models (liver cells or lung cells models) as the standard for rapid toxicity screening of gasification ashes. We may classify the gasification ashes into three categories according to the IC50, 24h value on liver cells or lung cells models, namely "toxic level I" (IC50, 24h>C/C0=0.5), "toxic level II" (C/C0=0.05ashes generated in gasification plants every day. Subsequently, appropriate disposal methods can be recommended for each toxicity category. PMID:26923299

  9. Exposure to residual concentrations of elements from a remediated coal fly ash spill does not adversely influence stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Michelle L.; Hopkins, William A.; Hallagan, John J.; Jackson, Brian P.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities often produce pollutants that can affect the physiology, growth and reproductive success of wildlife. Many metals and trace elements play important roles in physiological processes, and exposure to even moderately elevated concentrations of essential and non-essential elements could have subtle effects on physiology, particularly during development. We examined the effects of exposure to a number of elements from a coal fly ash spill that occurred in December 2008 and has since been remediated on the stress and immune responses of nestling tree swallows. We found that nestlings at the site of the spill had significantly greater blood concentrations of Cu, Hg, Se and Zn in 2011, but greater concentrations only of Se in 2012, in comparison to reference colonies. The concentrations of elements were below levels of significant toxicological concern in both years. In 2011, we found no relationship between exposure to elements associated with the spill and basal or stress-induced corticosterone concentrations in nestlings. In 2012, we found that Se exposure was not associated with cell-mediated immunity based on the response to phytohaemagglutinin injection. However, the bactericidal capacity of nestling plasma had a positive but weak association with blood Se concentrations, and this association was stronger at the spill site. Our results indicate that exposure to these low concentrations of elements had few effects on nestling endocrine and immune physiology. The long-term health consequences of low-level exposure to elements and of exposure to greater element concentrations in avian species require additional study. PMID:27293639

  10. FRONT ELEVATION OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS 2.5 BY 4FOOT RETORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS 2.5 BY 4-FOOT RETORT, USED TO FLASH MERCURY FROM GOLD. MERCURY VAPOR THEN CONDENSED ON INSIDE OF HOOD AND WAS COLLECTED FOR REUSE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  11. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  12. PROCESSING IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS WITH A STRETFORD PLANT AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's transportable Stretford process pilot plant on a 700-acfm slipstream of in-situ shale oil retort offgas to investigate H2S removal efficiency and process compatibility. This was the fourth application of the pilot plant which had demonstrated ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: PHASES I AND II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil shale retorting is a synthetic fuel production technology on the verge of commercialization in the United States. In order to ensure that the emerging oil shale industry will have minimal adverse effects upon surface and/or groundwater where recoverable reserves of oil shale ...

  14. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  15. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasiblity of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Tatterson, D.F.; Vasalos, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process successfully tested in 1.5 ton/day pilot plant in Amoco Research Center is discussed. Emphasis is given on information showing the application of cold flow unit results in the interpretation of retort product yields.

  16. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  17. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  18. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  19. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  20. MONITORING GROUNDWATER QUALITY: THE IMPACT OF IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the initial phase of a research program which will develop a planning methodology for the design and implementation of cost-effective groundwater quality monitoring programs for modified in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting. This initial phase includes (1) a rev...

  1. ALKALINE SCRUBBING OF IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's mobile wet scrubber on a 200-acfm slipstream of Geokinetics' retort offgas to investigate the H2S removal efficiency and selectivity (percent H2S removal/percent CO2 removal) as a function of liquid/gas contact time, alkaline solution OH(minus...

  2. Investigation of tracer and steam tests on the Western Research Institute 150-ton retort

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.; Merriam, N.W.; Covell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Gas tracer and steam front velocities in addition to flow model calculations are used to characterize rubble bed structure in an oil shale retort. The gas tracer method is shown to have superior resolution to the steam front method in detecting rubble bed variations. The tracer method is potentially less expensive. Recommendations for further research are made.

  3. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  4. Characterization of retorted oil shale and application to a model of leachate generation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.; Feerer, J.L.; Morelli, P.J.; Peterson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    A characterization of the porous media properties of spent oil shale is presented. Mercury porosimetry, BET nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on unconsolidated powders, consolidated chunks, and compacted powder pellets of oil shale retorted in the TOSCO, Paraho, and Lawrence Livermore experimental retorts. All results indicated that retorted oil shale has a unimodal pore size distribution. Mean pore sizes ranged from 5.0 microns for powders to 1.0 micron for compacted powder pellets to 0.5 microns for consolidated chunks. Surface area porosity, and permeability data are also presented. Dispersion and capacitance of leachate flowing through retorted TOSCO oil shale were measured using a sucrose tracer and a specially designed leaching column. Tracer breakout curves were best simulated using a three-parameter capacitance model which assumes leachate flow characterized by flowing fraction, dead space volume, and mass transfer between main channel flow and dead space volume. Two types of generation models were investigated in a mathematical simulation of the leaching experiment. These were an equilibrium model based on the Langmuir approach and a general power-law model based on surface concentration of a given leachate species. Equilibrium isotherms were generated using shaker experiments. Rate coefficients were approximated by a small differential column which was run at shorter residence times. Leachate concentrations were best simulated by the power-law model.

  5. FUGITIVE DUST AT THE PARAHO OIL SHALE DEMONSTRATION RETORT AND MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fugitive dust sampling program was conducted at Anvil Points, Colorado, site of the Paraho mining and oil shale retorting operations. High-volume samplers were used extensively for fugitive dust collection, and 175 total suspended particulate calculations are reported for measu...

  6. GROUND WATER--MINERALOGY RELATIONSHIP FOR 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential ground water problems associated with Modified In Situ (MIS) oil shale retorting need to be examined in order to minimize or mitigate possible invasion of spent shale leachates into ground water systems in actively mined or mined and abandoned sites. This background rep...

  7. Occupational-health study at the Geokinetics true in-situ oil-shale retorting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Rom, W.N.; Grier, R.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Voelz, G.L.; Ettinger, H.J.; Wheat, L.D.

    1983-07-01

    An occupational health study was conducted during the burn of the first commercial-size retort employing the Geokinetics, Inc., horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. The study consisted of field industrial hygiene surveys and sampling, and medical evaluation of workers and spouses living at the facility. Industrial hygiene surveys and sampling were conducted during early, middle, and late phases of the 9-month burn of the retort. An attempt was made to sample areas of expected maximum concentrations in order to characterize air contaminants near process units or areas, rather than to sample actual employee exposures. Samples were collected for analysis of dust and a number of selected gases and vapors in air, and limited monitoring was conducted for noise. Limited dust monitoring was also conducted during the drilling of blastholes for another retort. Medical evaluations consisted of medical history, physical examination, pulmonary ventilation function tests, chest x ray, and blood and urine tests (including chromosome evaluations and Ames testing of urine). 30 references.

  8. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected. PMID:19019110

  9. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: LURGI OIL SHALE RETORTING WITH OPEN PIT MINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lurgi oil shale PCTM addresses the Lurgi retorting technology, developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany, in the manner in which this technology may be applied to the oil shales of the western United States. This manual proceeds through a description of ...

  10. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING USING SPENT SHALE ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation of the environmental advantages/disadvantages of absorbing SO2 onto combusted retorted oil shale. The objective of the program was to obtain more information in support of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting decisions on ...

  11. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  12. Can vegetative ash be water repellent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, M. B.; Cerdà, A.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    In most of the literature, ash is referred to as a highly wettable material (e.g. Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Etiegni and Campbell, 1991; Woods and Balfour 2010). However, the contrary was suggested in few articles, albeit with no further quantification (Gabet and Sternberg, 2008; Khanna et al., 1996; Stark, 1977). To clarify this question, water repellency measurements on ash using the Water Drop Penetration Times (WDPT) method were performed on ash from Mediterranean ecosystems and it was found to be water repellent (Bodí et al. 2011). Water repellency on ash from different wildfires ranged from 40 to 10 % occurrence with samples being extreme repellent (lasting more than 3600 s to penetrate). Part of the ash produced in the laboratory was also water repellent. After that, other ash samples had been found water repellent in wildfires in Colorado (unpublished results), Portugal (Gonzalez-Pelayo, 2009), or in prescribed fires in Australia (Bodí et al. 2011b; Petter Nyman, personnal communication). All the samples exhibiting water repellent properties had in common that were combusted at low temperatures, yielding in general ash with dark colour and contents of organic carbon of more than 18 % (Bodí et al. 2011a), although these properties were not exactly proportional to its water repellency occurrence or persistence. In addition, the species studied in Bodí et al. (2011) had been found to produce different levels of WR repellency, being ash from Pinus halepensis more repellent than that from Quercus coccifera and Rosmarins officinalis. Ash from Eucaliptus radiata had been found also very water repellent, as Pinus halepensis (unpublished data). The reasons of the existance of water repellent ash are that the charred residue produced by fire (an also contained in the ash) can contain aromatic compounds that have a lower free energy than water and therefore behave as hydrophobic materials with reduced solubility (Almendros et al., 1992 and Knicker, 2007

  13. Kinetics of beneficiated fly ash by carbon burnout

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Dodoo, J.N.D.; Diaz, A.; Ferguson, W.; Udinskey, J.R. Jr.; Christiana, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called Loss On Ignition (LOI). The concrete producers` day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  14. Resource recovery ash - hazard or resource

    SciTech Connect

    Waffenschmidt, J.G.

    1995-05-01

    Resource Recovery ash quality is dependent, in part, on the quality of the refuse from which it is derived. Based on current recycling, waste diversion practices, projected waste quality, and procedures in place at resource recovery facilities it appears that they will not lead to substantial changes in ash quality in the foreseeable future. A number of reviews regarding the environmental fate of resource recovery ash residues have demonstrated that the leachability is significantly below that predicted by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Numerous demonstration projects have shown that ash can be used in a number of products, including reefs, road bed material, and block formation. Two applications appear to be particularly attractive from an environmental perspective -- ash as MSW landfill cover material and as a mitigatory measure for acid mine drainage caused by strip mining. The use of the scientific method provides us with the ability to assess the environmental effects of ash management, utilization, and disposal. The data base on ash is extensive and demonstrates that ash can be handled and used as a non-hazardous material; all that is required is for public policy to catch up.

  15. Environmental assessment and utilization CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill disposal has generally been accepted as the most common option for ash management in CFB power plants. However, the cost of ash disposal continues to increase due to a reduction in landfill capacity and more stringent environmental regulations. As a result, beneficial uses of CFB ashes (versus landfilling) are being investigated in order to provide a more cost effective ash management program. The chemical and physical characteristics of CFB by-products will influence both their environmental impact and potential utilization options. Compared to conventional pulverized coal boiler ashes, CFB ashes generally have different chemical properties which may limit their utilization for production of Portland cement. Other diverse utilization options have been identified for CFB residues which include: agricultural applications, structural fill, and waste stabilization. Most of these applications have to meet specifications by following certain test methods. The exact utilization options for CFB by-products will depend primarily on the type of fuel being fired, and to a lesser extent, the type of sorbent utilized for sulfur capture. Based on laboratory investigation of ash characteristics, utilization options were concluded for different Foster Wheeler commercial boilers throughout the US and abroad. Based on the results of this study, it was demonstrated that most CFB ashes could be utilized for one or more of the purposes noted above.

  16. Recovery of iron oxide from coal fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Dobbins, Michael S.; Murtha, Marlyn J.

    1983-05-31

    A high quality iron oxide concentrate, suitable as a feed for blast and electric reduction furnaces is recovered from pulverized coal fly ash. The magnetic portion of the fly ash is separated and treated with a hot strong alkali solution which dissolves most of the silica and alumina in the fly ash, leaving a solid residue and forming a precipitate which is an acid soluble salt of aluminosilicate hydrate. The residue and precipitate are then treated with a strong mineral acid to dissolve the precipitate leaving a solid residue containing at least 90 weight percent iron oxide.

  17. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  18. Possibilities of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash utilisation.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Silvie; Koval, Lukáš; Škrobánková, Hana; Matýsek, Dalibor; Winter, Franz; Purgar, Amon

    2015-08-01

    Properties of the waste treatment residual fly ash generated from municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were investigated in this study. Six different mortar blends with the addition of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash were evaluated. The Portland cement replacement levels of the municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash used were 25%, 30% and 50%. Both, raw and washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash samples were examined. According to the mineralogical composition measurements, a 22.6% increase in the pozzolanic/hydraulic properties was observed for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash sample. The maximum replacement level of 25% for the washed municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in mortar blends was established in order to preserve the compressive strength properties. Moreover, the leaching characteristics of the crushed mortar blend was analysed in order to examine the immobilisation of its hazardous contents. PMID:26060198

  19. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOEpatents

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  20. Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Robert S.; Rundberg, Sten I.; Vaughn, James V.; Williams, Thomas P.; Benson, Gregory C.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

  1. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  2. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.S.

    1982-02-16

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  3. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  4. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  5. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Martin M.

    1982-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  6. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasibility of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Vasalos, I.A.; Tatterson, D.F.; Furlong, M.W.; Kowalski, T.L.; So, B.Y.C. )

    1992-06-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process was successfully tested in a 1.5 tons/day retort. A pilot plant previously used for catalytic cracking studies was modified for this purpose. The successful conversion of the existing pilot plant to a retort and the remarkably smooth startup and operation were attributed to the concurrent construction and operation of a full-scale cold flow model to test the design of solid feeders and a unique injector/mixer. Operation of the cold flow model over the range of anticipated pilot plant operating conditions provided pressure drop and solids hold data for the mixer. The process was based on rapid heating of small oil shale particles with a hot heat carrier. key to the process was the design of a mixer, of proprietary geometry, which effects rapid interparticle heat transfer, substantial retorting of oil shale, and rapid removal of the hydrocarbon vapors. Several tests were carried out showing that shale oil yields up to 110% of Fisher assay are feasible by using this unique process scheme. In this paper, data are presented showing the application of cold flow results in the interpretation of pilot plant data such as gas and liquid yields.

  7. Solubility, mobility and plant uptake of toxic elements in retorted oil shales as affected by recarbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a method of lowering the alkalinity of retorted shales and of reducing the solubility of toxic elements. The solubility relationships and mineral transformations associated with recarbonation of retorted shales were evaluated by determining the solubilities of different elements and by using X-ray diffraction analysis. An accurate method of measuring carbonate activity in shale extracts was developed. This method consisted of acidifying shale extracts with concentrated HCI. The evolved CO/sub 2/(g) was trapped in NaOH and titrated to pH 8.5. A computer speciation model was developed to calculate the equilibrium activities of different ions and the CO/sub 2/(g) partial pressure. Recarbonation dissolved silicates, restored the carbonate deficit, and lowered pH to near 8.5 when equilibrium with CaCO/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/(g) partial pressure of approximately 10/sup -4.65/ atm. was attained. Furthermore, recarbonation decreased the solubilities of F, Ba, Cr, Sr, and Mo and lowered their concentrations in shale leachates, showing that recarbonation of spent shales can retard the movement of toxic elements into the groundwater. Tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) seeds placed in Lurgi shale without soil cover failed to germinate. On recarbonated Lurgi shale, plants grew normally without soil cover and accumulated normal levels of As, Se, Ba, B, Cu, Cd, Sr, and Ti. The results suggest that recarbonated retorted shales can be revegetated directly without a soil cover

  8. Modeling study of carbonate decomposition in LLNL`s 4TU pilot oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1994-10-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) 4 tonne-per-day oil shale Pilot Retort (4TU-Pilot) has been modeled to study the degree of carbonate decomposition occurring in the process. The modeling uses a simplified version of the processes occurring in the retort to allow parametric studies to be performed. The primary focus of the work is on the sensitivity of computed carbonate decomposition to the assumed manner in which solid material leaves the retort. It was found that for a variety of assumptions about solid passage and evolution within the process the computed carbonate decomposition varied by only a few percent. It was also determined that using available kinetic expressions based on literature data led to a consistent underestimate of the carbonate decomposition, from 12--17% low on an absolute basis and on a relative basis as much as a factor of seven times too low. A simplified kinetic expression based on limited data from laboratory experiments on the same shale as used in the 4TU-Pilot run was also employed and found to match the pilot results fairly well.

  9. Recovery of useful materials from refuse fuel ash

    SciTech Connect

    Galgana, R.J.; Sutin, G.L.; Mc Nerney, M.; Mahoney, P.F.

    1987-06-02

    A method is described for treating the bottom ash residue resulting from burning a processed refuse fuel to recover metallic and other useful constituent materials from the ash residue. The method comprises: feeding a stream of the ash residue from a stock source thereof to a magnetic separation operation to remove at least the major part of any ferrous materials therein, the separated ferrous materials being delivered to a ferrous metals collection point; the remaining ash residue being passed through a particle size separation operation to separate same into oversize, midsize and undersize fractions; and delivering the oversize fraction to a tramp collection operation, the undersize fraction to an aggregate collection and the midsize fraction to a milling operation of a type wherein brittle non-ductile material is fragmented to provide further size reduction thereof and any ductile material is deformed without any consequential size reduction thereto beyond a certain measure.

  10. Eirich technology for the preparation of ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Eirich, G.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes a mixer manufactured by Maschinenfabrik Gustav Eirich that can be used in the agglomeration of power plant ashes and residues. No matter whether the power plant burns coal, fuel oil, wood, peat, or garbage or whether the power plant plans to dispose or utilize the residue, most flowsheets will contain an agglomeration step. The paper describes some of the uses to which this mixer can be put.

  11. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  12. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, David R.; Velenyi, Louis J.; Pepera, Marc A.; Dolhyj, Serge R.

    1986-01-01

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  13. Magnetism of cigarette ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, Neli; Jordanova, Diana; Henry, Bernard; Le Goff, Maxime; Dimov, Dimo; Tsacheva, Tsenka

    2006-06-01

    Mineral composition of cigarette ashes is well studied in the literature, but no reports are available about the magnetic fraction. Our study presents an investigation of the basic magnetic characteristics of ashes from several commercially available cigarette brands and a wood ash. Magnetic susceptibility, which is a concentration-dependent parameter in case of uniform mineralogy, shows that cigarette ashes contain relatively high amount of magnetic iron minerals, similar to that in wood ash from our study and other literature data. Magnetization data suggest that cigarette ashes contain some 0.1 wt% or lower quantity of magnetite, depending on the brand. Analyses of magnetic mineralogy imply that the main magnetic minerals in ashes from higher quality cigarette brands are magnetite and iron carbide cementite, while in ashes from lower quality brands without additives magnetic minerals are pure and substituted with foreign ions magnetite. Magnetic grain-size analysis shows that cigarette ashes contain significant amount of very fine, nano-meter sized magnetic particles, as well as coarser (up to several microns), magnetically stable grains. Thus, the magnetic study of cigarette ashes proved that these plant ashes possess non-negligible magnetic properties. The results could serve for better elucidation of mineralogy of cigarette ashes as a whole, as well as for future investigation on the presence of magnetic ultra fine particles in cigarette smoke, which may be inhaled in lungs during smoking.

  14. Activation of fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Corbin, D.R.; Velenyi, L.J.; Pepera, M.A.; Dolhyj, S.R.

    1986-08-19

    Fly ash is activated by heating a screened magnetic fraction of the ash in a steam atmosphere and then reducing, oxidizing and again reducing the hydrothermally treated fraction. The activated fly ash can be used as a carbon monoxide disproportionating catalyst useful in the production of hydrogen and methane.

  15. An emerging pollutant contributing to the cytotoxicity of MSWI ash wastes: strontium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tang, Hsing-Chuan; Lin, Kae-Long; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2010-01-15

    In this study, we used the multiple toxicity characteristic leaching procedure to test the long-term leaching behavior of bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). We used the short-term viability percentage of African green monkey kidney cells (Vero cells) as a bioindicator to investigate the cytotoxicity of the leachates from the MSWI ash wastes. We found that strontium was a significant contributor to the cytotoxicity of the bottom ash. PMID:19762147

  16. Advanced ash management technologies for CFBC ash.

    PubMed

    Anthony, E J; Berry, E E; Blondin, J; Bulewicz, E M; Burwell, S

    2003-01-01

    The combustion of high-sulphur coal demands the reduction of sulphur emissions. The sorbent most often used in sulphur capture technology is calcium-based. Ashes from technologies such as circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC), therefore, contain high calcium levels. The use and disposal of these ashes poses challenges, because of highly exothermic reactions with water, high-pH leachates, and excessive expansion of solidified materials. This paper looks at the potential of two post-combustion ash treatment processes, CERCHAR hydration and AWDS disposal, in solving these challenges. A high-sulphur coal-derived CFBC ash is examined, after CERCHAR hydration treatment, in conjunction with a conventionally hydrated ash, in a range of chemical, geotechnical and utilization scenarios. The ashes are used to make no-cement and roller-compacted concrete as well as Ash Water Dense Suspensions (AWDS). The solidified mortar paste from no-cement concrete is subjected to an extensive geochemical examination to determine how solidification progresses and strength develops, from a chemical point of view. PMID:12909091

  17. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2013-03-01

    In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu. PMID:22981781

  18. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  19. Cytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator ash wastes toward mammalian kidney cell lines.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wu-Jang; Tsai, Jia-Lin; Liao, Ming-Huei

    2008-05-01

    In this study, three municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) ash wastes-bottom ash, scrubber residue, and baghouse ash-were extracted using a toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) extractant. These so-called final TCLP extracts were applied to African green monkey kidney cells (Vero), baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21), and pig kidney cells (PK-15), multi-well absorption reader analysis was performed to test how the cytotoxicity of the incineration ashes would affect the digestive systems of animals. Ion-coupled plasma analyses indicated that the baghouse ash extract possessed the highest pH and heavy metal concentration, its cytotoxicity was also the highest. In contrast, the bottom ash and the scrubber residue exhibited very low cytotoxicities. The cytotoxicities of mixtures of baghouse ash and scrubber residue toward the three tested cell lines increased as the relative ratio of the baghouse ash increased, especially for the Vero cells. The slight cytotoxicity of the scrubber residue arose mainly from the presence of Cr species, whereas the high cytotoxicity of the baghouse ash resulted from its high content of heavy metals and alkali ions. In addition, it appears that the dissolved total organic carbon content of these ash wastes can reduce the cytotoxicity of ash wastes that collect in animal cells. PMID:18329068

  20. Ice nucleation by combustion ash particles at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umo, N. S.; Murray, B. J.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Jones, J. M.; Lea-Langton, A. R.; Malkin, T. L.; O'Sullivan, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Williams, A.

    2014-11-01

    Ice nucleating particles can modify cloud properties with implications for climate and the hydrological cycle; hence, it is important to understand which aerosol particle types nucleate ice and how efficiently they do so. It has been shown that aerosol particles such as natural dusts, volcanic ash, bacteria and pollen can act as ice nucleating particles, but the ice nucleating ability of combustion ashes has not been studied. Combustion ashes are major by-products released during the combustion of solid fuels and a significant amount of these ashes are emitted into the atmosphere either during combustion or via aerosolization of bottom ashes. Here, we show that combustion ashes (coal fly ash, wood bottom ash, domestic bottom ash, and coal bottom ash) nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. In order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds, we propose that the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes should be quantified since up to now they have mostly been classified together with mineral dust particles. Also, in reporting ice residue compositions, a distinction should be made between natural mineral dusts and combustion ashes in order to quantify the contribution of combustion ashes to atmospheric ice nucleation.

  1. Ice nucleation by combustion ash particles at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umo, N. S.; Murray, B. J.; Baeza-Romero, M. T.; Jones, J. M.; Lea-Langton, A. R.; Malkin, T. L.; O'Sullivan, D.; Neve, L.; Plane, J. M. C.; Williams, A.

    2015-05-01

    Ice-nucleating particles can modify cloud properties with implications for climate and the hydrological cycle; hence, it is important to understand which aerosol particle types nucleate ice and how efficiently they do so. It has been shown that aerosol particles such as natural dusts, volcanic ash, bacteria and pollen can act as ice-nucleating particles, but the ice-nucleating ability of combustion ashes has not been studied. Combustion ashes are major by-products released during the combustion of solid fuels and a significant amount of these ashes are emitted into the atmosphere either during combustion or via aerosolization of bottom ashes. Here, we show that combustion ashes (coal fly ash, wood bottom ash, domestic bottom ash, and coal bottom ash) nucleate ice in the immersion mode at conditions relevant to mixed-phase clouds. Hence, combustion ashes could play an important role in primary ice formation in mixed-phase clouds, especially in clouds that are formed near the emission source of these aerosol particles. In order to quantitatively assess the impact of combustion ashes on mixed-phase clouds, we propose that the atmospheric abundance of combustion ashes should be quantified since up to now they have mostly been classified together with mineral dust particles. Also, in reporting ice residue compositions, a distinction should be made between natural mineral dusts and combustion ashes in order to quantify the contribution of combustion ashes to atmospheric ice nucleation.

  2. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  4. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Fundamental Study of Low NOx Combustion Fly Ash Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    E. M. Suubert; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R.H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

    1997-05-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  6. FUNDAMENTAL STUDY OF LOW-NOx COMBUSTION FLY ASH UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    ERIC M. SUUBERG; ROBERT H. HURT

    1998-10-19

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over fifty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  7. Fundamental Study of Low-Nox Combustion Fly Ash Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    E. M. Suuberg; I. Kuloats; K. Smith; N. Sabanegh; R. H. Hurt; W. D. Lilly; Y. M. Gao

    1997-11-01

    This study is principally concerned with characterizing the organic part of coal combustion fly ashes. High carbon fly ashes are becoming more common as by-products of low-NOx combustion technology, and there is need to learn more about this fraction of the fly ash. The project team consists of two universities, Brown and Princeton, and an electrical utility, New England Power. A sample suite of over forty fly ashes has been gathered from utilities across the United States, and includes ashes from a coals ranging in rank from bituminous to lignite. The characterizations of these ashes include standard tests (LOI, Foam Index), as well as more detailed characterizations of their surface areas, porosity, extractability and adsorption behavior. The ultimate goal is, by better characterizing the material, to enable broadening the range of applications for coal fly ash re-use beyond the current main market as a pozzolanic agent for concretes. The potential for high carbon-content fly ashes to substitute for activated carbons is receiving particular attention. The work performed to date has already revealed how very different the surfaces of different ashes produced by the same utility can be, with respect to polarity of the residual carbon. This can help explain the large variations in acceptability of these ashes as concrete additives.

  8. True in situ oil shale retorting experiment at Rock Springs site 12

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A. Jr.; Merriam, N.W.; Virgona, J.E.; Parrish, R.L.

    1980-05-01

    A true in situ oil shale fracturing and retorting experiment was conducted near Rock Springs, Wyoming in 1977, 1978, and 1979. A 20-foot (6.1 m) thick zone of oil shale located 200 feet (61 m) below surface was hydraulically and explosively fractured. The fractured oil shale was extensively evaluated using flow tests, TV logging, caliper logging, downhole flow logging, core samples, and tracer tests. Attempts to conduct true in situ retorting tests in portions of the pattern with less than 5 percent void space as measured by caliper logs and less than 1 percent active void space measured by tracer test were curtailed when air could not be injected at desired rates. It is thought the fractures plugged as a result of thermal swelling of the oil shale. Air was injected at programmed rates in an area with 10 percent void measured by caliper log and 1.4 pecent active void measured by tracer test. A burn front was propagated in a narrow path moving away from the location of the production well. The vertical sweep of the burn front was measured at less than 4 feet (1.3 m). The burn front could not be sustained beyond 10 days without use of supplemental fuel. The authors recommend a minimum of 5 percent well-distributed void for attempts to retort 20 gpt (81 L/m ton) oil shale in confined beds. A void space of 5 percent may be roughly equivalent to 5 to 10 percent measured by caliper log and 1.4 percent or more by tracer test.

  9. AL(0) in municipal waste incinerator ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stipp, S. L.; Ronsbo, J. G.; Zunic, T. B.; Christensen, T. H.

    2003-04-01

    Disposal of municipal waste is a challenge to society. Waste volume is substantially decreased by incineration but residual ash usually contains a number of toxic components which must be immobilised to insure environmental protection. One element, chromium, is mobile and toxic in its oxidised state as Cr(VI) but it can be reduced to Cr(III) and immobilised. Reduction can be promoted by ash treatment with Fe(0) or Fe(II), but recent evidence shows that at least some Cr(VI) is reduced spontaneously in the ash. Aspects of ash behaviour suggest metallic aluminium as the reducing agent, but no direct evidence of Al(0) has been found until now. We examined filter ash from an energy-producing, municipal-waste incinerator (Vest-forbrænding) near Copenhagen. X-ray diffraction (XRD) identified expected salts of Na, K and Ca such as halite, sylvite, calcite, anhydrite and gypsum as well as quartz, feldspar and some hematite. Wave-dispersive electron microprobe produced elemen-tal maps of the ash; Al-rich areas were analysed quantitatively by comparison with standards. We identified metallic Al particles, averaging 50 to 100 micrometers in di-ameter, often with a fractured, glassy border of aluminum oxide. The particles were porous, explaining fast Cr(VI) reduction and they contained thin exsolution lamellae of Al-alloys of Pb and Cu or Mn, Fe and Ag, which provide clues of the Al(0) origin in the waste. Sometimes Al(0) occurred inside glassy globes of Al2O3. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) proved that surface Al concentrations on ash particles were below detection, confirming reactivity of the Al(0) bulk. The persistence of reduced Al through the highly oxidising combustion procedure comes as a surprise and is a benefit in the immobilisation of Cr(VI) from municipal-waste incineration residues.

  10. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  11. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOEpatents

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  12. Fly ash as a liming material for cotton.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Gene; Dunn, David

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of fly ash from a coal combustion electric power facility on soil acidity in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field. Fresh fly ash was applied to a Bosket fine sandy loam (fine-loamy, mixed, thermic Mollic Hapludalf) soil with an initial soil pH(salt) of 4.8. The fly ash was equivalent to 42 g kg(-1) calcium carbonate with 97% passing through a 60 mesh (U.S. standard) sieve. Fly ash was applied one day before cotton planting in 1999 at 0, 3.4, 6.7, and 10.1 Mg ha(-1). No fly ash was applied in 2000. Within 60 d of fly ash application in 1999, all rates of fly ash significantly increased soil pH above 6.0. Manganese levels in cotton petioles were reduced significantly by 6.7 and 10.1 Mg ha(-1) of fly ash. Soil boron (B) and sodium (Na) concentrations were significantly increased with fly ash. In 1999, B in cotton leaves ranged from 72 to 84 mg kg(-1) in plots with fly ash applications. However, no visual symptoms of B toxicity in plants were observed. In 1999, cotton lint yield decreased on average 12 kg ha(-1) for each Mg of fly ash applied. In 2000, cotton yields were significantly greater for the residual 3.4 and 6.7 Mg fly ash ha(-1) plots than the untreated check. Due to the adverse yield effects measured in the first year following application, fly ash would not be a suitable soil amendment for cotton on this soil at this time. PMID:14964389

  13. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  14. FIELD STUDIES ON PARAHO RETORTED OIL SHALE LYSIMETERS: LEACHATE, VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal scheme for Paraho retorted shale utilizing lysimeters to simulate a low-elevation (dry site) and a high-elevation (moist site) was constructed. Objectives of the study were to investigate (1) vegetative stabilization of Paraho retored shale, as affected by leaching and...

  15. ALKALINE AND STRETFORD SCRUBBING TESTS FOR H2S REMOVAL FROM IN-SITU OIL RETORT OFFGAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of two mobile pilot-plant scrubbers (one alkaline, the other Stretford) for removing reduced sulfur compounds from the offgas of an in-situ retort at Geokinetics. The alkaline scrubber had a tray tower and a venturi contactor used alterna...

  16. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  17. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Blander, M.; Wai, C.M.; Nagy, Z.

    1983-08-15

    A process is described for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous. The fly ash has a silicate base and contains surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like. The process is carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl/sub 3/ in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl/sub 3/ to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  18. Extraction of trace metals from fly ash

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Wai, Chien M.; Nagy, Zoltan

    1984-01-01

    A process for recovering silver, gallium and/or other trace metals from a fine grained industrial fly ash associated with a process for producing phosphorous, the fly ash having a silicate base and containing surface deposits of the trace metals as oxides, chlorides or the like, with the process being carried out by contacting the fly ash with AlCl.sub.3 in an alkali halide melt to react the trace metals with the AlCl.sub.3 to form compositions soluble in the melt and a residue containing the silicate and aluminum oxide or other aluminum precipitate, and separating the desired trace metal or metals from the melt by electrolysis or other separation techniques.

  19. Effects of chemical composition of fly ash on efficiency of metal separation in ash-melting of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Separation of Pb and Zn from Fe and Cu in ash-melting of municipal solid waste. ► Molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in fly ash affected the metal-separation efficiency. ► The low molar ratio and a non-oxidative atmosphere were better for the separation. - Abstract: In the process of metal separation by ash-melting, Fe and Cu in the incineration residue remain in the melting furnace as molten metal, whereas Pb and Zn in the residue are volatilized. This study investigated the effects of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the metal-separation efficiency of the ash-melting process. Incineration fly ash with different chemical compositions was melted with bottom ash in a lab-scale reactor, and the efficiency with which Pb and Zn were volatilized preventing the volatilization of Fe and Cu was evaluated. In addition, the behavior of these metals was simulated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Depending on the exhaust gas treatment system used in the incinerator, the relationships among Na, K, and Cl concentrations in the incineration fly ash differed, which affected the efficiency of the metal separation. The amounts of Fe and Cu volatilized decreased by the decrease in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the ash, promoting metal separation. The thermodynamic simulation predicted that the chlorination volatilization of Fe and Cu was prevented by the decrease in the molar ratio, as mentioned before. By melting incineration fly ash with the low molar ratio in a non-oxidative atmosphere, most of the Pb and Zn in the ash were volatilized leaving behind Fe and Cu.

  20. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. PMID:21167631

  1. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected. PMID:22840499

  2. Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  3. Geotechnical properties of fly and bottom ash mixtures for use in highway embankments

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.; Prezzi, M.; Salgado, R.

    2005-07-01

    Class F fly ash and bottom ash are the solid residue byproducts produced by coal-burning electric utilities. They are usually disposed of together as a waste in utility disposal sites with a typical disposal rate of 80% fly ash and 20% bottom ash. Direct use of these materials in construction projects consuming large volumes of materials, such as highway embankment construction, not only provides a promising solution to the disposal problem, but also an economic alternative to the use of traditional materials. Representative samples of class F fly and bottom ash were collected from two utility power plants in Indiana and tested for their mechanical properties (compaction, permeability, strength, stiffness, and compressibility). Three mixtures of fly and bottom ash with different mixture ratios (i.e., 50, 75, and 100% fly ash content by weight) were prepared for testing. Test results indicated that ash mixtures compare favorably with conventional granular materials.

  4. Fly-ash utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Lockerby, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The over 200 references in this bibliography cover some of the uses found for fly-ash, which range from the manufacture of bricks and as a new type of concrete to the recovery of aluminum and other valuable ores from the ash. The entries are grouped under seven headings: General, Agriculture, Brickmaking, Cement/Concrete, Land Reclamation, Resource Recovery, and Other.

  5. Evaluation of post-ashed photoresist cleaning using oxidizing chemistries

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, P.J.; Matlock, C.A.

    1997-08-01

    The use of sulfuric acid based chemistries for the removal of photoresist ashing residue was investigated. Samples were prepared by ion-implanting patterned, UV-hardened photoresist. The efficacy of post-ash cleaning was determined by measuring organic, metallic, and particulate surface concentrations. Sulfuric-nitric mixtures and sulfuric-hydrogen peroxide mixtures were highly effective for the removal of metallic contaminants. Neither chemistry was very effective for particulate and organic residue. Highly effective overall cleaning was observed when a sulfuric acid based clean was followed with an RCA-type process sequence. Redundant cleans provided no additional benefits. Post-ash cleaning may be simplified by either reducing the number of sulfuric acid based cleans, or for certain post-ash applications, by replacing them with RCA-type processes.

  6. Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

  7. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, Carlon C.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting such method are disclosed for igniting a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort. The method is conducted by forming a hole through unfragmented formation to the fragmented mass. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the hole. A fuel is introduced into a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The fuel and oxygen-containing gas mix forming a combustible mixture which is ignited for establishing a combustion zone in a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The hot gas generated in the combustion zone is conducted from the hole into the fragmented mass for heating a portion of the fragmented mass above an ignition temperature of oil shale.

  8. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  9. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  10. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Leachability of retorted oil shale by strong complexometric agents. [Sodium citrates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. Water-extractable minor and trace elements were aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, and strontium. Complexometric extraction released detectable amounts of arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, vanadium, and zinc. Other elements of environmental concern, including silver, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, were not detected in excess of the limits of quantitation in complexometric extracts. Based upon the analytical results, it was found that the retorted oil shale mineralogy influenced the extracting solution composition, i.e., when comparing the leachates from the IH and DH samples. Also, the complexometric agents hastened the release of certain constituents into solution compared to water extracts. 17 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Coal ash monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, C.G.; Wormald, M.R.

    1981-07-14

    A monitor for determining the ash content of coal in rail cars consisting of a structure including means for irradiating each car as it passes the structure with a known dose of neutrons, means for detecting and measuring the intensities of gamma -rays emitted by ash-forming elements in the coal, and means for providing an indication of the concentration of the ash-forming elements. There also are included interlocks for ensuring that the neutron source is only operated when a loaded car is in the appropriate position.

  13. Resource recovery ash -- Hazard or resource science and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Waffenschmidt, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Resource recovery ash quality is dependent, in part, on the quality of the refuse from which it is derived. Based on current recycling, waste diversion practices, projected waste quality, and procedures in place at resource recovery facilities it appears that they will not lead to substantial changes in ash quality in the foreseeable future. A number of reviews regarding the environmental fate of resource recovery ash residues have demonstrated that the leachability is significantly below that predicted by the toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure. Numerous demonstration projects have shown that ash can be used in a number of products, including reefs, road bed material, and block formation. Two applications appear to be particularly attractive from an environmental perspective--ash as MSW landfill cover material and as a mitigatory measure for acid mine drainage caused by strip mining. The use of the scientific method provides them with the ability to assess the environmental effects of ash management, utilization, and disposal. The data base on ash is extensive and demonstrates that ash can be handled and used as a non-hazardous material; all that is required is for public policy to catch up.

  14. Thermal enrichment and speciation of copper in rice husk ashes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Ling; Hu, Ming-Jan; Peng, Yen-Hsun

    2010-12-15

    Copper(II) was considerably enriched in the residual ash via thermal treatment of copper-sorbed rice husk at 700-1100°C for 2h, and the copper speciation was quantitatively determined with X-ray absorption spectroscopy. After the thermal process, the resulting ash only represents by weight 18.7-26.4% of the pre-heated samples. Copper content in the ashes is >7% which is far above the required minimum copper content in copper ores for the copper smelting sector, 0.5%. Crystalline SiO(2) is observed only in the ash generated at 1100°C, with more copper in this ash being available for leaching in acidic solution. It is suggested that this is due to the considerable dissimilarity in crystalline structure between copper compounds and crystalline SiO(2). No chemical reaction between copper and SiO(2) is observed in any ash. In fact, we suggest that the SiO(2) crystalline phase repels copper during the thermal process; this would make it easy to extract copper from the ashes. For copper speciation in the ashes, CuO merely represents 0-12% of the total copper, while Cu(2)O and Cu(0) represent 34-42% and 46-63%, respectively. The lower copper oxidation state would be beneficial for the copper smelting process due to less usage of coke. PMID:20869164

  15. Fly ash in landfill top covers - a review.

    PubMed

    Brännvall, E; Kumpiene, J

    2016-01-01

    Increase of energy recovery from municipal solid waste by incineration results in the increased amounts of incineration residues, such as fly ash, that have to be taken care of. Material properties should define whether fly ash is a waste or a viable resource to be used for various applications. Here, two areas of potential fly ash application are reviewed: the use of fly ash in a landfill top cover either as a liner material or as a soil amendment in vegetation layer. Fly ashes from incineration of three types of fuel are considered: refuse derived fuel (RDF), municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and biofuel. Based on the observations, RDF and MSWI fly ash is considered as suitable materials to be used in a landfill top cover liner. Whereas MSWI and biofuel fly ashes based on element availability for plant studies, could be considered suitable for the vegetation layer of the top cover. Responsible application of MSWI ashes is, however, warranted in order to avoid element accumulation in soil and elevation of background values over time. PMID:26701627

  16. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  17. Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

  18. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOEpatents

    Beaufrere, A.H.

    1982-04-30

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas fired furnances or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  19. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by the process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistent mutants (1-2 times background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delcate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  20. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  1. Why is Coal Ash of Concern and How to Assess Potential Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's new test methods - the leaching environmental assessment framework (LEAF) are discussed including how they have been used to evaluate fly ash and scrubber residues. Work to evaluate high-volume encapsulated use of fly ash in cementitious material is also described.

  2. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF OIL FLY ASH AND RELEVANCE TO AMBIENT AIR PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle bur...

  3. Plasma torch burns bright for fly-ash vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Tardy, P.; Labrot, M.; Pineau, D.

    1994-12-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration generates two main kinds of residues--bottom ash and fly ash. Bottom ash usually is nontoxic and can be disposed in nontoxic waste landfills or, as in France, used as road aggregates after passing toxicity characteristic leaching procedures tests. Fly ash consists of fine particles separated from exhaust gases in incinerator-gas cleaning systems. Fly ash generally contains heavy metals (such as lead, cadmium and mercury) and semivolatile organic compounds. These toxics are readily leachable and will pollute groundwater if carelessly disposed in landfills. Fly-ash storage regulations in Europe have become increasingly restrictive. For example, since December 1992, fly ash in France must be landfilled in special ''final waste storage centers.'' These new regulations and difficulties associated with opening new storage centers have resulted in a sharp rise in dumping costs. In this context, new treatment processes are being developed that eventually will enhance the value of the end-product. Vitrification yields the best results of all processing methods, because the end-product is chemically inert.

  4. The use of coal fly ash for soil stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.H.; Brown, M.A.; Sorini, S.S.; Huntington, G.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the potential use of Wyoming subbituminous coal fly ash materials for cementation of soil materials. Specimens made from Laramie River (LR) fly ash had higher unconfined compression strength and more brittleness than the Specimens made with Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash. However, soil/DJ fly ash mixtures that were cured for 28 days had relatively good strengths without the brittleness that the LR specimens developed. These characteristics of the DJ fly ash may be important attributes for road stabilization applications. The detailed mineralogical evaluation provides some insight into which minerals may enhance development of strength in these materials. In general, selective dissolution of the soil/fly ash mixtures shows that many of the potentially toxic elements (e.g., B, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) are associated with the sulfide phase (HNO{sub 3} extractable) and with the residual material. In this study, the dynamics of elemental release from the element pools did not result in toxic conditions. The formation of colloidal material capable of mobilizing potentially toxic elements was not found in the soil/fly ash mixtures. Apparently, the high pH of the materials enhanced immobilization of the high molecular weight material.

  5. Thermal behaviour of ESP ash from municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Wilson, N; Voncken, J H L

    2009-07-15

    Stricter environmental regulations demand safer treatment and disposal of incinerator fly ashes. So far no sound technology or a process is available for a sustainable and ecological treatment of the waste incineration ashes, and only partial treatment is practised for temporary and short-term solutions. New processes and technology need to be developed for comprehensive utilization and detoxification of the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator residues. To explore the efficiency of thermal stabilisation and controlled vitrification, the thermal behaviour of electrostatic precipitator (ESP) ash was investigated under controlled conditions. The reaction stages are identified with the initial moisture removal, volatilization, melting and slag formation. At the temperature higher than 1100 degrees C, the ESP ashes have a quicker weight loss, and the total weight loss reaches up to 52%, higher than the boiler ash. At 1400 degrees C a salt layer and a homogeneous glassy slag were formed. The effect of thermal treatment on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ESP ash was evaluated with the availability-leaching test. The leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly lowered than that of the original ash. PMID:19150174

  6. Ash melting system and reuse of products by arc processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kinto, Koichiro

    1996-12-31

    To form a resource recycling society and to extend the life of landfill sites, the melting process of municipal waste incinerator residue is estimated to be the best way of recycling products as resources. This paper presents a recent application of an arc melting system and utilization of its products. Five plants are now operating satisfactorily and two are under construction. Total capacity of these corresponds to the largest in the world. The slag and metal from these plants are under trial utilization. Pb and Zn recovery methods from the condensate have been developed. The arc melting process of fly ash mixed with bottom ash has been certified and the mechanical properties and chemical stability of fly ash mixed slag was found to be equivalent to bottom ash slag, both fulfilling the regulations.

  7. Alkali activation processes for incinerator residues management.

    PubMed

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Barbieri, Luisa; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-08-01

    Incinerator bottom ash (BA) is produced in large amount worldwide and in Italy, where 5.1 millionstons of municipal solid residues have been incinerated in 2010, corresponding to 1.2-1.5 millionstons of produced bottom ash. This residue has been used in the present study for producing dense geopolymers containing high percentage (50-70 wt%) of ash. The amount of potentially reactive aluminosilicate fraction in the ash has been determined by means of test in NaOH. The final properties of geopolymers prepared with or without taking into account this reactive fraction have been compared. The results showed that due to the presence of both amorphous and crystalline fractions with a different degree of reactivity, the incinerator BA geopolymers exhibit significant differences in terms of Si/Al ratio and microstructure when reactive fraction is considered. PMID:23756039

  8. Potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Havukainen, Jouni; Nguyen, Mai Thanh; Hermann, Ludwig; Horttanainen, Mika; Mikkilä, Mirja; Deviatkin, Ivan; Linnanen, Lassi

    2016-03-01

    All life forms require phosphorus (P), which has no substitute in food production. The risk of phosphorus loss from soil and limited P rock reserves has led to the development of recycling P from industrial residues. This study investigates the potential of phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge and manure ash by thermochemical treatment (ASH DEC) in Finland. An ASH DEC plant could receive 46-76 kt/a of sewage sludge ash to produce 51-85 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P2O5 content of 13-18%, while 320-750 kt/a of manure ash could be supplied to produce 350-830 kt/a of a P-rich product with a P content of 4-5%. The P2O5 potential in the total P-rich product from the ASH DEC process using sewage sludge and manure ash is estimated to be 25-47 kt/a, which is significantly more than the P fertilizer demand in Finland's agricultural industries. The energy efficiency of integrated incineration and the ASH DEC process is more dependent on the total solid content and the subsequent need for mechanical dewatering and thermal drying than on the energy required by the ASH DEC process. According to the results of this study, the treated sewage sludge and manure ash using the ASH DEC process represent significant potential phosphorus sources for P fertilizer production. PMID:26810030

  9. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material

    SciTech Connect

    Valle-Zermeño, R. del; Formosa, J.; Chimenos, J.M.; Martínez, M.; Fernández, A.I.

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► A concrete formulation was optimized using Bottom Ash and APC ash. ► 10% of APC ash achieves good compromise between economic and performance aspects. ► The crushed concrete was evaluated as secondary building granular material. ► The environmental behavior allows its use as secondary material. ► The abrasion resistance is not good enough for its use as a road sub-base material. - Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured.

  10. Engineering Model for Ash Formation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-02

    Ash deposition is controlled by the impaction and sticking of individual ash particles to heat transfer surfaces. Prediction of deposition therefore requires that the important factors in this process be predictable from coal and operational parameters. Coal combustion, boiler heat transfer, ash formation, ash particle aerodynamic, and ash particle sticking models are all essential steps in this process. The model described herein addresses the prediction of ash particle size and composition distributions based upon combustionmore » conditions and coal parameters. Key features of the model include a mineral redistribution routine to invert CCSEM mineralogical data, and a mineral interaction routine that simulates the conversion of mineral matter into ash during coal burning and yields ash particle size and composition distributions.« less

  11. Chemical properties of heavy metals in typical hospital waste incinerator ashes in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Wang, Kaisheng; Zhu, Jianxin

    2009-03-01

    Incineration has become the main mechanism for hospital waste (HW) disposal in China after the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003. However, little information is available on the chemical properties of the resulting ashes. In the present study, 22HW ash samples, including 14 samples of bottom ash and eight samples of fly ash, were collected from four typical HW incineration plants located across China. Chemical analysis indicated that the HW ashes contained large amounts of metal salts of Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na with a concentration range of 1.8-315gkg(-1). Furthermore, the ashes contained high concentrations of heavy metals such as Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, Sb, Sn, Sr, Zn with a vast range of 1.1-121,411mgkg(-1), with higher concentrations found in the fly ash samples. Sequential extraction results showed that Ba, Cr, Ni and Sn are present in the residual fraction, while Cd existed in the exchangeable and carbonate fractions. As, Mn, Zn existed in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction, Pb was present in the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions, and Cu was present in the organic matter fraction. Furthermore, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) results indicated that leached amounts of Cd, Cu and Pb from almost all fly ash samples exceeded the USEPA regulated levels. A comparison between the HW ashes and municipal solid waste (MSW) ash showed that both HW bottom ash and fly ash contained higher concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ti, and Zn. This research provides critical information for appropriate HW incineration ash management plans. PMID:18990557

  12. Developing the Geokinetics/Department of Energy horizontal in situ retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under a cooperative agreement between Geokinetics Inc., and the US Department of Energy, spanning on eight year period. A large body of experimental data was generated which has been previously reported in a series of published and unpublished reports, as indicated in Chapter VII. The report summarizes research work performed from April of 1975 to August 15, 1985, but emphasizes data generated during the final three years of the project, when five large retorts were tested. The report draws conclusions based upon the total program, including work performed by Geokinetics prior to entering into the Cooperative Agreement, and presents the initial parameters useful for scaleup and design of a commercial scale operation, including data useful for assessing the environmental impacts and criteria for mitigation of such impacts. Specific details concerning the various aspects of the program may be obtained from the many previous reports that have been generated from the date of project initiation. A list of these reports is presented in Chapter VII. 28 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  13. Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.; Lekas, J.M.; Strickland, F.G.

    1991-05-01

    A series of field experiments was carried out to gather preliminary information on the use of propellant charges to create horizontal fractures in oil shale beds for in situ retorting. Development of a propellant tool specifically designed to create horizontal fractures, and testing of various sizes and designs of the tool to create fractures in oil shale beds were carried out simultaneously. Ten prototype tools with energy yields from 2 pounds to 60 pounds were fired at depths ranging from 10 feet to 60 feet. Ten preshot observation holes and 13 postshot core holes were used to gather information and to serve as injection wells to inject air into the formation for permeability tests. Most shots vented large volumes of gas or water from observation holes 13 to 20 feet distant, indicating that a horizontal fracture communicating from the shot point to the observation hole had been created. Shot-related horizontal fracturing was noted in most core holes at the same depth as the shot point. Air injection tests on all holes showed a significant increase in permeability after the shots.

  14. Effects of stripped oil shale retort water on fishes, birds, and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Nystrom, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus Water), coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix Teminck and Schlegal), fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas Rafinesque), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) were subjected to various exposures of stripped oil shale retort water (SRW). Chronic low-level exposures of all experimental animals to SRW revealed no adverse histological effects attributable to SRW. Also, production and development of second generation fathead minnows and coturnix quail exposed to SRW was normal. Subacute exposure of rainbow trout to SRW produced ultrastructural changes detected by transmission, scanning, and freeze fracture electron microscopy) in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues. The gills showed a swelling of secondary lamellae, disorganization of normal tissue architecture, and sloughing of respiratory cells. The liver contained lamellar bodies not seen in the controls. Relatively large, electron dense, membrane-bounded deposits were present in proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Sodium arsenite (a significant component of SRW) was shown to cause swelling of granular endosplasmic reticulum in quail liver tissue with an acute exposure. This effect could be related to the fact that arsenic inhibits ATP production, which would decrease the ability of the sodium pumps to maintain a normal osmotic balance.

  15. Shale oil from the LLNL pilot retort: Metal ions as markers for water and dust

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Duewer, T.I.; King, K.J.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A metal ion found primarily in one of the three phases (oil, water, or dust) can serve as a marker for that phase. Emulsified water contains most of the magnesium detected in a shale oil. Extraction with saturated salt solution removes most of that Mg. The Mg content of retort water and the percentage of water in the oil (by ASTM D-4006) provides a good estimate of an oil`s Mg content. Mineral matter elements with poorly water soluble carbonates (or oxides) at pH 8 (calcium, for example) serve as markers for dust. When the water is separated from the main and light oil fractions before adding the heavy fraction containing dust, a much drier oil can be obtained. However, when done in this way, a powder containing Ca and Si remains in the oil; it cannot be completely removed even by filtering through a 0.24-{mu} frit. Iron, and certain other transition metal ions, is quite oil soluble. Extraction with dilute nitric acid to remove basic amines reduces the Fe content of shale oil. Unlike carboxylate- complexed metal ions in crude oils, the iron in shale oil does not extract efficiently into an aqueous EDTA solution (pH 5.9). Distillation of shale oil leaves most of the iron and other metals behind in the vacuum residum. Shale oil corrodes the hottest condenser`s steel interior; this is the chief source of iron in the oil.

  16. RECLAMATION OF ALKALINE ASH PILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to develop methods for reclaiming ash disposal piles for the ultimate use as agricultural or forest lands. The ashes studied were strongly alkaline and contained considerable amounts of salts and toxic boron. The ashes were produced from burning bit...

  17. Reuse potential of low-calcium bottom ash as aggregate through pelletization.

    PubMed

    Geetha, S; Ramamurthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Coal combustion residues which include fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag is one of the major pollutants as these residues require large land area for their disposal. Among these residues, utilization of bottom ash in the construction industry is very low. This paper explains the use of bottom ash through pelletization. Raw bottom ash could not be pelletized as such due to its coarseness. Though pulverized bottom ash could be pelletized, the pelletization efficiency was low, and the aggregates were too weak to withstand the handling stresses. To improve the pelletization efficiency, different clay and cementitious binders were used with bottom ash. The influence of different factors and their interaction effects were studied on the duration of pelletization process and the pelletization efficiency through fractional factorial design. Addition of binders facilitated conversion of low-calcium bottom ash into aggregates. To achieve maximum pelletization efficiency, the binder content and moisture requirements vary with type of binder. Addition of Ca(OH)(2) improved the (i) pelletization efficiency, (ii) reduced the duration of pelletization process from an average of 14-7 min, and (iii) reduced the binder dosage for a given pelletization efficiency. For aggregate with clay binders and cementitious binder, Ca(OH)(2) and binder dosage have significant effect in reducing the duration of pelletization process. PMID:20400282

  18. Characterization of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash before and after electrodialytic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, A. J.; Gardner, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    A MSWI fly ash was characterized with respect to leaching properties (pH-static leaching, availability test), mineralogy (X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD)), and morphology and element distribution (scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX)) before and after electrodialytic treatment to study possible changes in the ash characteristics due to the treatment. It was shown that although a significant amount of the initially present heavy metals had been removed from the ash during the electrodialytic treatment, the leachability of several of the residual metals had actually increased, presumably due to mineral dissolution and chelating of metals by residual citrate in the ash. Ammonium citrate had been added to the ash before and during electrodialytic treatment to increase the heavy metal desorption. The morphology and mineralogy of the ash was also altered as a result of the treatment. XRPD examinations showed that a depletion of CI, Na and K in the treated ash was due to wash-out of the highly soluble minerals sylvite (KCI) and halite (NaCI). Indications of formation of secondary minerals (Ca-sulphates, ettringite) and precipitation of Ca-citrate in the treated ash were also seen. SEM investigations confirmed a changed morphology in the treated ash; probably due to the formation of secondary minerals.

  19. ASH and NASH.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, F; Ciccia, S; Marino, M; Bedogni, G; Bellentani, S

    2011-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) have a similar pathogenesis and histopathology but a different etiology and epidemiology. NASH and ASH are advanced stages of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). NAFLD is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver (steatosis), without any other evident causes of chronic liver diseases (viral, autoimmune, genetic, etc.), and with an alcohol consumption ≤20-30 g/day. On the contrary, AFLD is defined as the presence of steatosis and alcohol consumption >20-30 g/day. The most common phenotypic manifestations of primary NAFLD/NASH are overweight/obesity, visceral adiposity, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia and hypertension. The prevalence of NAFLD in the general population in Western countries is estimated to be 25-30%. The prevalence and incidence of NASH and ASH are not known because of the impossibility of performing liver biopsy in the general population. Up to 90% of alcoholics have fatty liver, and 5-15% of these subjects will develop cirrhosis over 20 years. The risk of cirrhosis increases to 30-40% in those who continue to drink alcohol. About 10-35% of alcoholics exhibit changes on liver biopsy consistent with alcoholic hepatitis. Natural histories of NASH and ASH are not completely defined, even if patients with NASH have a reduced life expectancy due to liver-related death and cardiovascular diseases. The best treatment of AFLD/ASH is to stop drinking, and the most effective first-line therapeutic option for NAFLD/NASH is non-pharmacologic lifestyle interventions through a multidisciplinary approach including weight loss, dietary changes, physical exercise, and cognitive-behavior therapy. PMID:21734385

  20. Assessment of mobility and bioavailability of contaminants in MSW incineration ash with aquatic and terrestrial bioassays.

    PubMed

    Ribé, V; Nehrenheim, E; Odlare, M

    2014-10-01

    Incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a waste treatment method which can be sustainable in terms of waste volume reduction as well as a source of renewable energy. In the process fly and bottom ash is generated as a waste material. The ash residue may vary greatly in composition depending on the type of waste incinerated and it can contain elevated levels of harmful contaminants such as heavy metals. In this study, the ecotoxicity of a weathered, untreated incineration bottom ash was characterized as defined by the H14 criterion of the EU Waste Framework Directive by means of an elemental analysis, leaching tests followed by a chemical analysis and a combination of aquatic and solid-phase bioassays. The experiments were conducted to assess the mobility and bioavailability of ash contaminants. A combination of aquatic and terrestrial bioassays was used to determine potentially adverse acute effects of exposure to the solid ash and aqueous ash leachates. The results from the study showed that the bottom ash from a municipal waste incineration plant in mid-Sweden contained levels of metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, which exceeded the Swedish EPA limit values for inert wastes. The chemical analysis of the ash leachates showed high concentrations of particularly Cr. The leachate concentration of Cr exceeded the limit value for L/S 10 leaching for inert wastes. Filtration of leachates prior to analysis may have underestimated the leachability of complex-forming metals such as Cu and Pb. The germination test of solid ash and ash leachates using T. repens showed a higher inhibition of seedling emergence of seeds exposed to the solid ash than the seeds exposed to ash leachates. This indicated a relatively low mobility of toxicants from the solid ash into the leachates, although some metals exceeded the L/S 10 leaching limit values for inert wastes. The Microtox® toxicity test showed only a very low toxic response to the ash leachate exposure, while the D. magna

  1. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  2. Hygroscopic properties of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathem, T. L.; Kumar, P.; Nenes, A.; Dufek, J.; Sokolik, I. N.; Trail, M.; Russell, A.

    2011-06-01

    Limited observational data exists on the physical interactions between volcanic ash particles and water vapor; yet it is thought that these interactions can strongly impact the microphysical evolution of ash, with implications for its atmospheric lifetime and transport, as well as formation of water and ice clouds. In this study, we investigate for the first time, the hygroscopic properties of ultra-fine volcanic ash (<125 μm diameter) from the eruptions of Mt. St. Helens in 1980, El Chichón in 1982, Tungurahua in 2006, Chaitén in 2008, Mt. Redoubt in 2009, and Eyjafjallajökull in 2010. The hygroscopicity of the ash particles is quantified by their ability to uptake water and nucleate into cloud drops under controlled levels of water vapor supersaturation. Evidence presented strongly suggests that ash uptakes water efficiently via adsorption and a simple parameterization of ash hygroscopicity is developed for use in ash plume and atmospheric models.

  3. Hyperspectral imaging based procedures applied to bottom ash characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2007-09-01

    Bottom ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs) is mainly land filled or used as material for the foundation of road in European countries. Bottom ash is usually first crushed to below 40 mm and separated magnetically to recover the steel scrap. The remaining material contains predominantly sand, sinters and pieces of stone, glass and ceramics, which could be used as building material if strict technical and environmental requirements are respected. The main problem is the presence of residual organic matter in the ash and the large surface area presented by the fine fraction that creates leaching values, for elements such as copper, that are above the accepted levels for standard building materials. Main aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility offered by hyperspectral imaging to identify organic matter inside the residues in order to develop control/selection strategies to be implemented inside the bottom ash recycling plant. Reflectance spectra of selected bottom ash samples have been acquired in the VIS-NIR field (400- 1000 nm). Results showed as the organic content of the different samples influences the spectral signatures, in particular an inverse correlation between reflectance level and organic matter content was found.

  4. Laboratory study of the effects of combustion gases on retorting of Green River oil shale with superheated steam

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, A.L.; Bullen, E.A.; Jacobs, H.R.

    1983-04-01

    The leached zone of the Parachute Creek member of the Piceance Basin in the Green River Formation has a unique natural porosity that makes it a likely source for in-situ production of oil from oil shale by injection of superheated steam. The Equity Oil Co. of Salt Lake City, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Energy, carried out field tests using surface generated steam. Difficulties in delivering steam of sufficiently high temperature to the formation resulted in an experiment which was only marginally successful yielding less than 1 percent of the estimated 300,000 barrels of oil in place. In 1981, personnel at Sandia National Laboratory suggested that a downhole steam generator which could produce steam at temperatures in excess of 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) at depth could well solve the temperature problem. In order to evaluate the effects of combustion gases which would be injected along with steam, should a downhole steam generator be used, laboratory studies have been completed using steam diluted with CO/sub 2/ and with CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ as the heating medium. Results of experiments in an autoclave reactor and in a laboratory retort are reported. The temperature, residence time, and partial pressure of steam are the parameters which effect oil yield and oil quality. Oil properties are reported for several experimental conditions and include oil yield, boiling point distributions, pour points, gravity, and elemental and hydrocarbon-type analyses. Both the autoclave and laboratory retort experiments indicate that CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ do not take a reactive part in the formation of oils except as they dilute the steam. However, the presence of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous atmosphere during retorting does promote a low-temperature transformation of dolomite to calcite in the inorganic matrix of the oil shale.

  5. Stabilize ash using Clemson`s sintering process (Part 1 -- Phase 1 results): Mixed waste fly ash stabilization. Innovative technology summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-12-01

    Incineration of applicable Department of Energy (DOE) mixed wastes has produced a secondary waste stream of radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous fly ash that also requires treatment before land disposal. Unlike bottom ash, fly ash usually contains constituents making efficient stabilization difficult. For example, fly ash from the DOE Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) contains volatile metals, metal salts, high concentrations of zinc, and unburned organic residues. All of these constituents can effect the stabilization process. The Department of Energy, and in particular the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) of EM-50, has stated the need for improved stabilization methods would accept a higher ash waste loading while meeting waste form disposal criteria. These alternative stabilization technologies should include delivery systems to minimize worker exposure and minimize secondary waste generation, while maximizing operational flexibility and radionuclide containment. Currently, the standard practice for stabilizing ash is mixing with Portland cement at room temperature. This standard practice produces a significant increase of waste material volume or has difficulty in adequately stabilizing the components in the fly ash to ensure regulatory requirements are consistently satisfied. To address these fly ash stabilization shortcomings, the MWFA, a DOE/EM-50 program, invested in the development of several fly ash stabilization alternatives, including the Clemson University sintering method.

  6. Chemical properties of rare earth elements in typical medical waste incinerator ashes in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Zhang, Jingxin

    2008-10-30

    Medical waste (MW) ashes from different types of MW incinerators were examined to detect the characteristics and environmental impact of rare earth elements (REEs). The results showed that total REE contents in the ash samples ranged from 10.2 to 78.9 mg/kg. REEs in bottom ash were apparently higher than those in fly ash. Average REE contents in the ashes followed the sequence of Ce>La>Nd>Y>Gd>Pr>Sm>Dy>Er>Yb>Ho>Eu>Tb>Lu>Tm. Some of the elements, such as Sm, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb in the ash samples were in normal or nearly normal distribution, but Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Eu, Gd, Tb, Tm, Lu were not normally distributed, indicating some of the ash samples were enriched with these elements. Crust-normalized REE patterns indicated that two types of the MW ashes were obviously enriched with Gd and La. Sequential extraction results showed that REEs in the ash mainly presented as residual fraction, while exchangeable and carbonate fractions were relatively low. DTPA- and EDTA-extraction tests indicated that REEs in the MW ashes were generally in low bioavailability. PMID:18329796

  7. Thermal treatment and vitrification of boiler ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Xiao, Y; Voncken, J H L; Wilson, N

    2008-06-15

    Boiler ash generated from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators is usually classified as hazardous materials and requires special disposal. In the present study, the boiler ash was characterized for the chemical compositions, morphology and microstructure. The thermal chemical behavior during ash heating was investigated with thermal balance. Vitrification of the ash was conducted at a temperature of 1400 degrees C in order to generate a stable silicate slag, and the formed slag was examined with chemical and mineralogical analyses. The effect of vitrification on the leaching characteristics of various elements in the ash was evaluated with acid leaching. The study shows that the boiler ash as a heterogeneous fine powder contains mainly silicate, carbonate, sulfates, chlorides, and residues of organic materials and heavy metal compounds. At elevated temperatures, the boiler ash goes through the initial moisture removal, volatilization, decomposition, sintering, melting, and slag formation. At 1400 degrees C a thin layer of salt melt and a homogeneous glassy slag was formed. The experimental results indicate that leaching values of the vitrified slag are significantly reduced compared to the original boiler ash, and the vitrification could be an interesting alternative for a safer disposal of the boiler ash. Ash compacting, e.g., pelletizing can reduce volatilization and weight loss by about 50%, and would be a good option for the feed preparation before vitrification. PMID:18077086

  8. Means and method for producing hydrocarbons from an earth formation during the RF retorting of a hydrocarbon stratum

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, K.D.

    1987-01-27

    A method is described for obtaining hydrocarbon liquid from a hydrocarbon strata of an earth formation traversed by a borehole, the hydrocarbon strata being subjected to RF electromagnetic energy retorting, comprising the steps of: (a) forming metal tubing so as to create a tubing coil having a predetermined electrical inductance, (b) connecting straight metal tubing with the metal tubing of step (a) so that the tubing of steps (a) and (b) form a production string, and (c) pumping the hydrocarbon liquid from the borehole through the production string to the surface of the earth formation.

  9. Behaviour of cement-treated MSWI bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Pecqueur, G; Crignon, C; Quénée, B

    2001-01-01

    MSWI bottom ash is the residue of combustion. The use of bottom ash in road construction is wide spread. French legislation forbids the disposal of resuable waste in special landfill from 2002. Moreover, "arrêté du 9 mai 1994" provides environmental criteria (leaching threshold, etc.), and evaluates this material according to utilisation in road construction. In such application, bottom ash is often treated with binder to improve its mechanical features. Nevertheless, bottom ash is subject to chemical problems. These problems induce an expansion which brings about cracking and finally road destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate the swelling potential of MSWI bottom ash prior utilisation. This is one of the aims of the European contract "Mashroad" (contract BRST CT97-5150). This study involved 4 years of work on cement-treated MSWI bottom ash. It examined different tests that show the importance of oxidation of aluminium in the swelling reaction and the efficiency of different treatments. Different binders were used in order to have different proportions of clinker. The kinetic aspects of aluminium-binder reaction were also studied. Finally, we present a special cell to measure the swelling pressure of these materials is presented. PMID:11280513

  10. Fly ash reinforced thermoplastic vulcanizates obtained from waste tire powder.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, V; Xiu, Zhang Zhen; Xu, Deng; Lee, Sung Hyo; Kim, Jin Kuk; Kang, Dong Jin; Bang, Dae-Suk

    2009-03-01

    Novel thermoplastic composites made from two major industrial and consumer wastes, fly ash and waste tire powder, have been developed. The effect of increasing fly ash loadings on performance characteristics such as tensile strength, thermal, dynamic mechanical and magnetic properties has been investigated. The morphology of the blends shows that fly ash particles have more affinity and adhesion towards the rubbery phase when compared to the plastic phase. The fracture surface of the composites shows extensive debonding of fly ash particles. Thermal analysis of the composites shows a progressive increase in activation energy with increase in fly ash loadings. Additionally, morphological studies of the ash residue after 90% thermal degradation shows extensive changes occurring in both the polymer and filler phases. The processing ability of the thermoplastics has been carried out in a Monsanto processability testing machine as a function of shear rate and temperature. Shear thinning behavior, typical of particulate polymer systems, has been observed irrespective of the testing temperatures. Magnetic properties and percolation behavior of the composites have also been evaluated. PMID:18838261

  11. Effects of thermal maturation on steroid hydrocarbons as determined by hydrous pyrolysis of Phosphoria Retort Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Bjorøy, M.; Dolcater, D. L.

    1986-09-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Phosphoria Retort Shale generate bitumen extracts and expelled oils that have steroid hydrocarbons with m/z 217-, 231-, and 253-mass Chromatographic distributions that are similar to those of bitumens and crude oils in the natural system. These experiments agree with the natural observations that diasteroid hydrocarbons increase relative to their regular counterparts with increasing thermal stress, while their C 27 through C 29 proportionality shows a slight enrichment in C 27. Relative concentrations of 20S to 20R configurations of 24-ethyl-14α,17α-cholestane show the expected increase with increasing thermal stress into the early part of the primary oil generation stage, but thereafter decrease with increasing thermal stress. If this reversal is found in high maturity sections of the natural system, the utility of this transformation as a maturity index will be limited. Triaromatic- to monoaromatic-steroid hydrocarbon concentrations increase with increasing thermal stress as observed in the natural system. Preferred migration of monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons from bitumen extracts to expelled oils places considerable doubt on currently employed kinetic models for this aromatization reaction. As in the natural system, the experiments show relative concentrations of low-molecular weight- to high-molecular weight-triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons to increase with increasing thermal stress. Assuming a first-order reaction rate, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for this apparent side-chain cleavage reaction are 175.59 kJ mol -1 and 2.82 × 10 13hr-1, respectively. These kinetic parameters are geologically reasonable and are similar to those for the overall generation of expelled oil.

  12. Irrigation experiments with produced waters from the retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    The research described herein was conducted by Geokinetics to qualitatively assess the tolerance of native and certain introduced species of vegetation to irrigation with produced water from the retorting of oil shale. Two separate experiments were conducted at the Kamp Kerogen field site in Uintah County, Utah. The results indicate possible effects on vegetation that a prolonged exposure to produced water would have. The two simple experiments were initiated during the summer of 1979. It was expected that irrigation with produced water would eventually result in detrimental effects to the plants receiving it; the concentrations of boron, molybdenum, arsenic, oil and other constituents in untreated production waters are high enough to likely cause damage to plants. In one experiment a 27 foot by 27 foot plot of native vegetation was irrigated with one inch of produced water per week for five weeks using a lawn sprinkler. Grasses and shrubs within the test plot appeared to have died; germination of annual plants was greatly inhibited. In the other experiment, 30 container-grown seedlings ranging in height from 0.3 feet to 3.0 feet were transplanted. Six species of broadleaf, deciduous trees not native to the test site were represented by five seedlings each. All 30 trees received well water irrigation for one month, after which four trees of each species were irrigated with produced water for seven weeks. One tree of each species continued to receive well water throughout the experiment; only two of those trees survived the summer of 1979. All six species appeared to have been adversely affected by produced water. The horse chesnut trees were the hardiest of the species planted. Most of the 30 trees, including those irrigated with well water, did not survive the winter season.

  13. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  14. ASH EMISSIVITY CHARACTERIZATION AND PREDICTION

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Charlene R. Crocker

    1999-12-01

    The increased use of western subbituminous coals has generated concerns regarding highly reflective ash disrupting heat transfer in the radiant zone of pulverized-fuel boilers. Ash emissivity and reflectivity is primarily a function of ash particle size, with reflective deposits expected to consist of very small refractory ash materials such as CaO, MgO, or sulfate materials such as Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For biomass fuels and biomass-coal blends, similar reflectivity issues may arise as a result of the presence of abundant organically associated calcium and potassium, which can transform during combustion to fine calcium, and potassium oxides and sulfates, which may act as reflective ash. The relationship of reflectivity to ash chemistry is a second-order effect, with the ash particle size distribution and melting point being determined by the size and chemistry of the minerals present in the starting fuel. Measurement of the emission properties of ash and deposits have been performed by several research groups (1-6) using both laboratory methods and measurements in pilot- and full-scale combustion systems. A review of the properties and thermal properties of ash stresses the important effect of ash deposits on heat transfer in the radiant boiler zone (1).

  15. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  16. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-03-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200-2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines.

  17. Dry bottom ash removal -- Ash cooling vs. boiler efficiency effects

    SciTech Connect

    Carrea, E.; Scavizzi, G.C.; Barsin, J.

    1998-07-01

    The current wet method of removing boiler bottom ash from coal fired utility boilers quenches the ash which in turn heats the water, evaporates a portion of it adding to the gas weights moved through the steam generator. The newer dry ash removal systems use a portion of the combustion air to cool ash and thus return some of the otherwise lost latent heat back to the furnace. There has been some debate concerning the overall effect upon boiler efficiency. For example when a large quantity of ash cooling air is required and the resulting decrease in air side air heater mass flow could result in an elevate stack gas temperature thus negating the efficiency enhancing dry bottom ash effect expected. The presentation will present actual data form operating units and provide various heat balances to demonstrate the actual performance conditions that have been achieved.

  18. Volcanic ash melting under conditions relevant to ash turbine interactions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenjia; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Kueppers, Ulrich; Cimarelli, Corrado; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of volcanic ash by jet engines is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for aircraft operation. The high temperatures (1,200–2,000 °C) typical of jet engines exacerbate the impact of ash by provoking its melting and sticking to turbine parts. Estimation of this potential hazard is complicated by the fact that chemical composition, which affects the temperature at which volcanic ash becomes liquid, can vary widely amongst volcanoes. Here, based on experiments, we parameterize ash behaviour and develop a model to predict melting and sticking conditions for its global compositional range. The results of our experiments confirm that the common use of sand or dust proxy is wholly inadequate for the prediction of the behaviour of volcanic ash, leading to overestimates of sticking temperature and thus severe underestimates of the thermal hazard. Our model can be used to assess the deposition probability of volcanic ash in jet engines. PMID:26931824

  19. Effects of Sediment Containing Coal Ash from the Kingston Ash Release on Embryo-Larval Development in the Fathead Minnow, Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820)

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen; Elmore, Logan R; McCracken, Kitty; Sherrard, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The largest environmental release of coal ash in U.S. history occurred in December 2008 with the failure of a retention structure at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant in East Tennessee. A byproduct of coal-burning power plants, coal ash is enriched in metals and metalloids such as selenium and arsenic with known toxicity to fish including embryonic and larval stages. The effects of contact exposure to sediments containing up to 78 % coal ash from the Kingston spill on the early development of fish embryos and larvae were examined in 7-day laboratory tests with the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). No significant effects were observed on hatching success, incidences of gross developmental abnormalities, or embryo-larval survival. Results suggest that direct exposures to sediment containing residual coal ash from the Kingston ash release may not present significant risks to fish eggs and larvae in waterways affected by the spill.

  20. Circle of Ashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Circle of Ashes

    This plot tells astronomers that a pulsar, the remnant of a stellar explosion, is surrounded by a disk of its own ashes. The disk, revealed by the two data points at the far right from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, is the first ever found around a pulsar. Astronomers believe planets might rise up out of these stellar ashes.

    The data in this plot, or spectrum, were taken by ground-based telescopes and Spitzer. They show that light from around the pulsar can be divided into two categories: direct light from the pulsar, and light from the dusty disk swirling around the pulsar. This excess light was detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera. Dust gives off more infrared light than the pulsar because it's cooler.

    The pulsar, called 4U 0142+61, was once a massive star, until about 100,000 years ago, when it blew up in a supernova explosion and scattered dusty debris into space. Some of that debris was captured into what astronomers refer to as a 'fallback disk,' now circling the leftover stellar core, or pulsar. The disk resembles protoplanetary disks around young stars, out of which planets are thought to be born.

    The data have been corrected to remove the effects of light scattering from dust that lies between Earth and the pulsar.

    The ground-based data is from the Keck I telescope atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  1. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  2. Modeling volcanic ash dispersal

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-22

    Explosive volcanic eruptions inject into the atmosphere large amounts of volcanic material (ash, blocks and lapilli). Blocks and larger lapilli follow ballistic and non-ballistic trajectories and fall rapidly close to the volcano. In contrast, very fine ashes can remain entrapped in the atmosphere for months to years, and may affect the global climate in the case of large eruptions. Particles having sizes between these two end-members remain airborne from hours to days and can cover wide areas downwind. Such volcanic fallout entails a serious threat to aircraft safety and can create many undesirable effects to the communities located around the volcano. The assessment of volcanic fallout hazard is an important scientific, economic, and political issue, especially in densely populated areas. From a scientific point of view, considerable progress has been made during the last two decades through the use of increasingly powerful computational models and capabilities. Nowadays, models are used to quantify hazard scenarios and/or to give short-term forecasts during emergency situations. This talk will be focused on the main aspects related to modeling volcanic ash dispersal and fallout with application to the well known problem created by the Eyjafjöll volcano in Iceland. Moreover, a short description of the main volcanic monitoring techniques is presented.

  3. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  4. MSW fly ash stabilized with coal ash for geotechnical application.

    PubMed

    Kamon, M; Katsumi, T; Sano, Y

    2000-09-15

    The solidification and stabilization of municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash for the purpose of minimizing the geo-environmental impact caused by toxic heavy metals as well as ensuring engineering safety (strength and soaking durability) are experimentally evaluated. The mixtures of MSW fly ash stabilized with cement and fluidized bed combustion coal fly ash (FCA) were used for unconfined compressive strength tests, leachate tests, and soaking tests. The behavior of soluble salts contained in the MSW fly ash significantly affects strength development, soaking durability, and the hardening reaction of the stabilized MSW fly ash mixtures. The cement stabilization of the MSW fly ash does not have enough effect on strength development and soaking durability. The addition of cement only contributes to the containment of heavy metals due to the high level of alkalinity. When using FCA as a stabilizing agent for MSW fly ash, the mixture exhibits high strength and durability. However, the Cd leachate cannot be prevented in the early stages of curing. Using a combination of cement and FCA as a MSW fly ash stabilizer can attain high strength, high soaking durability, and the containment of heavy metals. The stabilized MSW fly ash with cement and FCA can be practically applied to embankments. PMID:10936538

  5. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  6. An atlas of volcanic ash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.

    1974-01-01

    Volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions were studied, using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each ash type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and eruption type. The ashes are best placed into two broad genetic categories: magnetic and hydrovolcanic (phreatomagmatic). Ashes from magmatic eruptions are formed when expanding gases in the magma form a froth that loses its coherence as it approaches the ground surface. During hydrovolcanic eruptions, the magma is chilled on contact with ground or surface waters, resulting in violent steam eruptions. Within these two genetic categories, ashes from different magma types can be characterized. The pigeon hole classification used here is for convenience; there are eruptions which are driven by both phreatic and magmatic gases.

  7. Power-plant fly-ash utilization: a chemical processing perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The 1976 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) deals with the management of solid and hazardous wastes, and encourages energy and resource recovery. Recent research has indicated that solid wastes from coal combustion, including fly ash, could be classified as hazardous under present EPA definitions. The seriousness of this possibility has been recognized and new rules for coal ash waste disposal are being considered. Ames Laboratory research on fly ash utilization as an alternative to disposal includes extraction of metals from the ash and discovery of uses for the process residues. Recovery of alumina and iron oxides by physical and chemical processing would permit large scale utilization of fly ash and help reduce dependency on imports. One of the processes investigated uses a lime-soda sinter method to form soluble aluminate compounds from mixtures of fly ash, limestone, and soda ash. The aluminates are extracted, treated to remove silicates, and precipitated: the precipitate is calcined to metallurgical grade alumina. The extract residue shows promise as a raw material for the production of Portland cement. Process economics are presented, and the effects of alumina and silica contents of the fly ash, sintering temperatures and time, and sales credits for by-products are discussed.

  8. Adsorbable organic halogens (AOXs) in solid residues from hazardous and clinical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Durmusoglu, Ertan; Bakoglu, Mithat; Karademir, Aykan; Kirli, Lale

    2006-01-01

    Trace concentrations of a variety of chemicals remain in solid residues following combustion even in properly designed and operated incinerators. In the present study, the adsorbable organic halogen (AOX) levels of the solid residues, i.e., bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake, were investigated during a 82-day of continuous operation of a Hazardous and Clinical Waste Incinerator. The distribution of halogens in the waste input prior to the incineration was also determined. The AOX levels measured in bottom ash, fly ash and filter cake were in the range of 0.014-1.879, 0.012-0.263, and 0.004-0.062 mg-Cl(-)/kg, respectively. The AOX levels are significantly low in the fly ash and filter cake due to the post-combustion process in the incinerator. At the end of the 82 days, the total AOX output in the bottom ash, fly ash, and filter cake were 571, 3.71, and 6.26 g, respectively. The partitioning of the total AOX in solid residues was 98.28, 0.64, and 1.08% for the bottom ash, fly ash and filter cake, respectively. This shows that the bottom ash is more contaminated with AOX than the other two residues. PMID:16835121

  9. Effects of in-situ oil-shale retorting on water quality near Rock Springs, Wyoming, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Plafcan, M.; Lowham, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental in-situ retorting techniques (methods of extracting shale oil without mining) were used from 1969 to 1979 by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) at a test area near Rock Springs in southwestern Wyoming. The retorting experiments at site 9 have produced elevated concentrations of some contaminants in the ground water. During 1988 and 1989, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, conducted a site characterization study to evaluate the chemical contamination of ground water at the site. Water samples from 34 wells were analyzed; more than 70 identifiable organic compounds were detected using a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analytical methods. This report provides information that can be used to evaluate possible remedial action for the site. Remediation techniques that may be applicable include those techniques based on removing the contaminants from the aquifer and those based on immobilizing the contaminants. Before a technique is selected, the risks associated with the remedial action (including the no-action alternative) need to be assessed, and the criteria to be used for decisions regarding aquifer restoration need to be defined. 31 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  11. Biologic effects of oil fly ash.

    PubMed Central

    Ghio, Andrew J; Silbajoris, Robert; Carson, Johnny L; Samet, James M

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated increased human morbidity and mortality with elevations in the concentration of ambient air particulate matter (PM). Fugitive fly ash from the combustion of oil and residual fuel oil significantly contributes to the ambient air particle burden. Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is remarkable in the capacity to provoke injury in experimental systems. The unique composition of this emission source particle makes it particularly useful as a surrogate for ambient air PM in studies of biologic effects testing the hypothesis that metals mediate the biologic effects of air pollution particles. A majority of the in vitro and animal model investigations support the postulate that transition metals present in ROFA (especially vanadium) participate in Fenton-like chemical reactions to produce reactive oxygen species. This is associated with tyrosine phosphorylation, nuclear factor kappa B and other transcription factor activation, induction of inflammatory mediator expression, and inflammatory lung injury. It is also evident that vanadium accounts for a significant portion of the biologic activity of ROFA. The extrapolation of this body of investigation on ROFA to the field of ambient air PM is difficult, as particles in numerous environments have such small amounts of vanadium. PMID:11834466

  12. Ameliorative effect of fly ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhumbla, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    Agronomic effectiveness and environmental impact of fly ashes used to reclaim pyritic acid mine spoils were investigated in the laboratory and field. Mine spoils at two abandoned sites were amended with three rates of fly ash, three rates of rock phosphate, and seeded with alfalfa and wheat. Application of fly ash decreased bulk density and increased moisture retention capacity of spoils. Fly ash application reduced cation exchange capacity, acidity, toxic levels of Al, Fe, and Mn in soils by buffering soil pH at 6.5, and retarded pyrite oxidation. The reduction in cation exchange capacity was compensated by release of plant nutrients through diffusion and dissolution of plerospheres in fly ash. Improvement of spoil physical, chemical and microbial properties resulted in higher yield, more nitrogen fixation, and utilization of P from rock phosphate by alfalfa. Laboratory investigations demonstrated that neutralization potential and the amounts of amorphous oxides of iron were more important for classifying fly ashes than the total elemental analysis presently used in a taxonomic classification system. Contamination of the food chain through plant removal of Mo and As in fly ash treated mine spoils was observed only for Mo and only for the first year of cropping. Plant available As and Mo decreased with time. Laboratory leaching and adsorption studies and a field experiment showed that trace metals do not leach from fly ashes at near neutral pH and more oxyanions will leach from fly ashes with low neutralization potential and low amounts of amorphous oxides of iron.

  13. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. [Quarterly report], October 1, 1995--January 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01

    The objective is to investigate the kinetics of beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the beneficiation of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7--2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash beneficiation have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550--750{degrees}C. The P{sub 02} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively.

  14. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    produced ash has significant and not always constructive pedological, ecological, hydrological and geomorphological effects and impacts (Shakesby, 2011). Abundant scientific information is assembled either from control fires by collecting samples before and after wildfire event, or conducting laboratory experiments exanimating data under truly isolated conditions (Lugassi et al., 2013). However, an integration and synthesis of the knowledge about ash including deeper understanding of inter-correlation between chemical, physical and morphological compounds in open post-burn environment and its possible interactions in soil formation or impact on soil composition are highly needed. The main aim of the presented study was to advance the science of soil-fire relationship by recognizing the remains ash as a new soil-forming factor, on par with the traditionally recognized factors: parent material, topography, time, climate, organisms, and recently recognized human activity as the sixth factor. This research was conducted to develop new methods to assess impacts and quantify the contributions/influences of post-fire products, mainly ash, on soil composition and soil properties in post-burned environment. We conducted several controlled experiments using 40 soil samples (typical Mediterranean Rendzina soil, pH 6.84, a grayish-brown, humus- and free calcium carbonate- rich, intra-zonal). The samples include bare soils and different types and loads of forest litter, were exposed to different temperatures (200° C, 400° C and 600° C) in a muffle furnace for 2 hours (Pereira et al. 2011) as fire temperature plays a key role in determining ash properties. The ash produced at a low temperatures (50% carbon and retains many of the structural characteristics of the parent material. At higher temperatures, the residue ash is greyish, consisted of very fine particles that preserve almost none of the original structural characteristics of the fuel (Woods and Balfour, 2008) creating

  15. Characteristics of boron accumulation by fly ash application in paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul Bi; Lee, Yong Bok; Lee, Chang Hoon; Hong, Chang Oh; Kim, Pil Joo; Yu, Chan

    2008-09-01

    Fly ash has a high content of plant available silicate which is strongly needed for rice cultivation in Korea. One concern for plants grown on soils amended with fly ash is boron (B) toxicity because most of the fresh fly ash contains considerable B. This study was conducted in paddy soil to determine B uptake by rice and characteristics of B accumulation in soil after fly ash application (0, 40, 80, and 120 Mg fly ash ha(-1)). In all fly ash treatments, B content in rice leaves and available B in soil at all growing stage were higher than those of control, but were not exceeded a toxicity levels. Boron occluded in amorphous Fe and Al oxides comprised ca. 20-39% of total B and was not affected by fly ash application. Most of the B was accumulated by fly ash application as a residual B which is plant-unavailable form, comprised >60% of the total B in soil. Thus, fly ash can be a good soil amendment for rice production without B toxicity. PMID:18194862

  16. Can ash clog soil pores?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne; Stoof, Cathelijne; Gevaert, Anouk; Gevaert, Anouk; Baver, Christine; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica; Morales, Veronica; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Martin, Deborah; Steenhuis, Tammo; Steenhuis, Tammo

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire can greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events, and ash is thought to play a large role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire. Although ash can store rainfall and thereby reduce runoff and erosion for a limited period after wildfires, it has also been hypothesized to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Several researchers have attributed the commonly observed increase in runoff and erosion after fire to the potential pore-clogging effect of ash. Evidence is however incomplete, as to date, research has solely focused on identifying the presence of ash in the soil, with the actual flow processes associated with the infiltration and pore-clogging of ash remaining a major unknown. In several laboratory experiments, we tested the hypothesis that ash causes pore clogging to the point that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs. We first visualized and quantified pore-scale infiltration of water and ash in sand of a range of textures and at various infiltration rates, using a digital bright field microscope capturing both photo and video. While these visualization experiments confirm field and lab observation of ash washing into soil pores, we did not observe any clogging of pores, and have not been able to create conditions for which this does occur. Additional electrochemical analysis and measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity indicate that pore clogging by ash is not plausible. Electrochemical analysis showed that ash and sand are both negatively charged, showing that attachment of ash to sand and any resulting clogging is unlikely. Ash also had quite high saturated conductivity, and systems where ash was mixed in or lying on top of sand had similarly high hydraulic conductivity. Based on these various experiments, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that pore clogging by ash contributes to the frequently observed increase in post-fire runoff, at least for the medium to coarse sands

  17. Fly ash quality and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, L.E.; Lachner, L.; Wenzel, G.B.; Beer, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    The quality of fly ash is of considerable importance to fly ash utilizers. The fly ash puzzolanic activity is one of the most important properties that determines the role of fly ash as a binding agent in the cementing process. The puzzolanic activity, however is a function of fly ash particle size and chemical composition. These parameters are closely related to the process of fly ash formation in pulverized coal fired furnaces. In turn, it is essential to understand the transformation of mineral matter during coal combustion. Due to the particle-to-particle variation of coal properties and the random coalescence of mineral particles, the properties of fly ash particles e.g. size, SiO{sub 2} content, viscosity can change considerably from particle to particle. These variations can be described by the use of the probability theory. Since the mean values of these randomly changing parameters are not sufficient to describe the behavior of individual fly ash particles during the formation of concrete, therefore it is necessary to investigate the distribution of these variables. Examples of these variations were examined by the Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) for particle size and chemical composition for Texas lignite and Eagel Butte mineral matter and fly ash. The effect of combustion on the variations of these properties for both the fly ash and mineral matter were studied by using a laminar flow reactor. It is shown in our paper, that there are significant variations (about 40-50% around the mean values) of the above-listed properties for both coal samples. By comparing the particle size and chemical composition distributions of the mineral matter and fly ash, it was possible to conclude that for the Texas lignite mineral matter, the combustion did not effect significantly the distribution of these properties, however, for the Eagel Butte coal the combustion had a major impact on these mineral matter parameters.

  18. Pesticide adsorptivity of aged particulate matter arising from crop residue burns.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaning; Sheng, Guangyao

    2003-08-13

    Particulates (ashes) arising from the burning of crop residues are potentially effective adsorbents for pesticides in agricultural soils. To determine the long-term adsorptive sustainability of ashes, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) ash was aged under environmentally relevant conditions (in CaCl(2) solution at room temperature and pH 7) in soil extract for 1 month and in a soil (1% ash) for a period of up to 12 months. The aged ash and ash-amended soil were used to sorb diuron from water. The diuron sorption was also measured in the presence of atrazine as a competing pesticide. There was no observed microbial impact on the stability of the wheat ash in soil. All isotherms with the ash were nonlinear type-I curves, suggestive of the surface adsorption. On a unit mass basis, the ash in soil extract was 600-10000 times more effective than the soil in sorbing diuron. Adsorption of dissolved soil organic matter (DOM) during aging on the ash surfaces reduced the diuron adsorption by 50-60%. Surface competition from the atrazine adsorption also reduced the ash adsorption of diuron by 10-30%. A total of 55-67% reduction in diuron sorption by the ash-amended soil was observed. Due to its high initial adsorptivity, the ash fraction of the aged ash-amended soil contributed >50% to the total diuron sorption. Thus, the wheat ash aged in the soil remained highly effective in adsorbing diuron. As crop residues are frequently burned in the field, pesticides in agricultural soils may be highly immobilized due to the presence of ashes. PMID:12903968

  19. Effects of coal fly ash on tree swallow reproduction in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Walls, Suzanne J; Meyer, Carolyn B; Iannuzzi, Jacqueline; Schlekat, Tamar H

    2015-01-01

    Coal-fly ash was released in unprecedented amounts (4.1 × 10(6) m(3) ) into the Emory River from the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant on Watts Bar Reservoir in Tennessee. Tree swallows were exposed to ash-related constituents at the ash release via their diet of emergent aquatic insects, whose larval forms can accumulate constituents from submerged river sediments. Reproduction of tree swallow colonies was assessed over a 2-year period by evaluating whether 1) ash constituent concentrations were elevated in egg, eggshell, and nestling tissues at colonies near ash-impacted river reaches compared to reference colonies, 2) production of fledglings per nesting female was significantly lower in ash-impacted colonies versus reference colonies, and 3) ash constituent concentrations or diet concentrations were correlated with nest productivity measures (clutch size, hatching success, and nestling survival, and fledglings produced per nest). Of the 26 ash constituents evaluated, 4 (Se, Sr, Cu, and Hg) were significantly elevated in tissues potentially from the ash, and 3 (Se, Sr, and Cu) in tissues or in swallow diet items were weakly correlated to at least one nest-productivity measure or egg weight. Tree swallow hatching success was significantly reduced by 12%, but fledgling production per nest was unaffected due to larger clutch sizes in the impacted than reference colonies. Bioconcentration from the ash to insects in the diet to tree swallow eggs appears to be low. Overall, adverse impacts of the ash on tree swallow reproduction were not observed, but monitoring is continuing to further ensure Se from the residual ash does not adversely affect tree swallow reproduction over time. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2015;11:56-66. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25345977

  20. Volcanic ash - Terrestrial versus extraterrestrial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A principal difference between terrestrial and extraterrestrial lavas may consist in the greater ability of terrestrial lavas to form thin films (like those of soap bubbles) and hence foams. It would follow that, in place of the pumice and spiny shards found in terrestrial volcanic ash, an extraterrestrial ash should contain minute spherules. This hypothesis may help to explain lunar microspherules.

  1. Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, is an invasive beetle from Asia that has caused large scale ash (Fraxinus spp.) mortality in North America. This book chapter reviews the taxonomy, biology, life history of this invasive pest and its associated natural enemies in both its native ...

  2. Leaching of Mixtures of Biochar and Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana Randolph; Amonette, J. E.; Drake, Meghan M; Brown, Steven D; Schadt, Christopher Warren

    2009-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments.2, 5, 6 Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis7-9, 12 (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion1, 13, 14 have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations.10, 11, 16 Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and reduces available aluminum.3, 17 Combinations of these benefits likely lead to the observed increased yields for crops including corn and sugarcane.17 with biochar addition to soil. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) 8, 17 than do unammended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way.18 Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes.15 Here, we are examining the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluating leaching of organic carbon and metals from the mixtures.

  3. MSWI boiler fly ashes: magnetic separation for material recovery.

    PubMed

    De Boom, Aurore; Degrez, Marc; Hubaux, Paul; Lucion, Christian

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, ferrous materials are usually recovered from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash by magnetic separation. To our knowledge, such a physical technique has not been applied so far to other MSWI residues. This study focuses thus on the applicability of magnetic separation on boiler fly ashes (BFA). Different types of magnet are used to extract the magnetic particles. We investigate the magnetic particle composition, as well as their leaching behaviour (EN 12457-1 leaching test). The magnetic particles present higher Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni concentration than the non-magnetic (NM) fraction. Magnetic separation does not improve the leachability of the NM fraction. To approximate industrial conditions, magnetic separation is also applied to BFA mixed with water by using a pilot. BFA magnetic separation is economically evaluated. This study globally shows that it is possible to extract some magnetic particles from MSWI boiler fly ashes. However, the magnetic particles only represent from 23 to 120 g/kg of the BFA and, though they are enriched in Fe, are composed of similar elements to the raw ashes. The industrial application of magnetic separation would only be profitable if large amounts of ashes were treated (more than 15 kt/y), and the process should be ideally completed by other recovery methods or advanced treatments. PMID:21306886

  4. Glass-ceramics from municipal incinerator fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, A.R.; Petitmermet, M.; Wintermantel, E.

    1997-11-01

    In countries where the population density is high and the availability of space for landfilling is limited, such as the west-European countries and Japan, the significance of municipal solid waste incineration, as part of the waste management strategy, is continuously increasing. In Germany and Switzerland, for example, more than {approximately}40% of unrecycled waste is being or will be incinerated. Also, in other countries, including the US, the importance of waste incineration will increase in the next few years. Although incineration reduces the volume of the waste by {approximately} 90%, it leaves considerable amounts of solid residues, such as bottom and boiler ashes, and filter fly ashes. Consequently, new technological options for the decontamination and/or inertization of incinerator filter fly ash are being developed with the objective of rendering a product that can be reused or, at least, be deposited in standard landfill sites with no risk. The proposed alternatives include immobilization by cement-based techniques, wet chemical treatments and thermal treatments of vitrification. Of these, vitrification is the most promising solution, because, if residues are melted at temperatures > 1,300 C, a relatively inert glass is produced. In the present investigation, glass-ceramics were obtained by a controlled crystallization heat treatment of vitrified incinerator filter fly ashes. The mechanical and other technical properties of the products were measured with special emphasis on assessing their in vitro toxic potential.

  5. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Diaz, A.

    1997-06-01

    The presence of carbon in fly ash requires an increase in the dosage of the air-entraining admixture for concrete mix, and may cause the admixture to lose efficiency. Specifying authorities for the concrete producers have set maximum allowable levels of residual carbon. These levels are the so called {open_quotes}Loss On Ignition{close_quotes} (LOI). The concrete producer`s day-to-day purchasing decisions sets the LOI at 4%. The objective of the project is to investigate the kinetics of oxidation of residual carbon present in coal fly ash as a possible first step toward producing low-carbon fly ash from high-carbon, low quality fly ash.

  6. Beneficial uses of CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Young, L.J.; Cotton, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Coal-fired generation accounts for almost 55 percent of the electricity produced in the United States. It has been estimated that over 90 million tons of coal combustion waste by-products were generated in 1990. Currently, only 30% of coal combustion waste is recycled for various beneficial applications. The remaining waste is primarily managed in landfills and surface impoundments. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion technology will play an important role in supplying power for future load growth and Title 4 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments compliance. CFB ash by-products have many beneficial uses. This paper describes potential applications of CFB ashes based on the ash characteristics. The beneficial uses of CFB ash discussed in this study include agricultural applications, acidic waste stabilizer, ash rock, sludge stabilizer, strip mine reclamation, and structural fill.

  7. Trace elements in coal ash

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deonarine, Amrika; Kolker, Allan; Doughten, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    In this fact sheet, the form, distribution, and behavior of trace elements of environmental interest in samples of coal fly ash were investigated in response to concerns about element mobility in the event of an ash spill. The study includes laboratory-based leaching experiments to examine the behavior of trace elements, such as arsenic (As) and chromium (Cr), in response to key environmental factors including redox conditions (degree of oxygenation), which are known to vary with depth within coal ash impoundments and in natural ecosystems. The experiments show that As dissolves from samples of coal fly ash into simulated freshwater under both oxic (highly oxygenated) and anoxic (poorly oxygenated) conditions, whereas dissolved Cr concentrations are very redox dependent. This U.S. Geological Survey research helps define the distribution of elements such as As in coal ash and shows that element mobility can vary considerably under different conditions expected in the environment.

  8. Kinetics of fly ash beneficiation by carbon burnout. Quarterly report, January--March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dodoo, J.N.; Okoh, J.M.; Yilmaz, E.

    1996-09-01

    The three year project that was proposed is a joint venture between Delmarva Power, a power generating company on the eastern shore of Maryland, and the University of Maryland Eastern Shore. The studies have focused on the benefication of fly ash by carbon burnout. The increasing use of coal fly ash as pozzolanic material in Portland cement concrete means that there is the highest economic potential in marketability of large volumes of fly ash. For the concrete industry to consider large scale use the fly ash must be of the highest quality. This means that the residual carbon content of the fly ash must have an acceptable loss on ignition (LOI) value, usually between 7-2% residual carbon. The economic gains to be had from low-carbon ash is a fact that is generally accepted by the electricity generating companies. However, since the cost of producing low-carbon in large quantities, based on present technology, far outweighs any financial gains, no electrical power company using coal as its fuel at present considers the effort worthwhile. The concrete industry would use fly ash in cement concrete mix if it can be assured of its LOI value. At present no utility company would give such assurance. Hence with several million tons of fly ash produced by a single power plant per year all that can be done is to dump the fly ash in landfills. The kinetics of fly ash benefication have been investigated in the zone II kinetic regime, using a Cahn TG 121 microbalance in the temperature 550-750{degrees}C. The P{sub O{sub 2}} and total surface area dependence of the reaction kinetics were determined using a vacuum accessory attached to the microbalance and a surface area analyzer (ASAP 2010), respectively. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Mercury leaching characteristics of waste treatment residues generated from various sources in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2013-07-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) leaching characteristics of the waste treatment residues (fly ash, bottom ash, sludge, and phosphor powder) generated from various sources (municipal, industrial, medical waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerator, oil refinery, coal-fired power plant, steel manufacturing plant, fluorescent lamp recycler, and cement kiln) in Korea were investigated. First, both Hg content analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing was conducted for 31 collected residue samples. The Hg content analysis showed that fly ash from waste incinerators contained more Hg than the other residue samples. However, the TCLP values of fly ash samples with similar Hg content varied widely based on the residue type. Fly ash samples with low and high Hg leaching ratios (RL) were further analyzed to identify the major factors that influence the Hg leaching potential. Buffering capacity of the low-RL fly ash was higher than that of the high-RL fly ash. The Hg speciation results suggest that the low-RL fly ashes consisted primarily of low-solubility Hg compounds (Hg2Cl2, Hg(0) or HgS), whereas the high-RL fly ashes contain more than 20% high-solubility Hg compounds (HgCl2 or HgSO4). PMID:23680269

  10. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part I. Eight plant species and their response to Omega 9 oil-shale retort water. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; sandreed; pointvetch

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-11-01

    Growth response to water collected from an in situ oil shale retort experiment was studied. The purposes were to: (1) evaluate effect of retort water on plants; (2) document effective parameters for detecting differences in plant growth by species. A self feeding hydroponic system was utilized to subject different dilutions of oil shale retort water to plants grown in horticulture grade perlite under greenhouse conditions for 10 weeks. Parameters measured included: (1) leaf area, (2) total dry weight, (3) shoot weight, (4) root weight, (5) root/shoot ratio, and (6) shoot/leaf area ratio. Seven grass and one forb species were utilized as test plants. Results showed growth to be impaired, species to respond differently to retort water, and parameters measured to vary as to their ability to detect change in growth response.

  11. Trace elements, leaching, and health risks from municipal-waste combustion ash

    SciTech Connect

    Wiles, C.; Kosson, D.S.

    1989-10-12

    Combustion of municipal solid waste results in significant reduction of mass and volume (approximately 80% and 90% respectively) with recovery of usable energy in the form of steam or electricity. However, inorganic species including toxic metals and salts are concentrated in the incinerator residuals. Bottom ash and fly ash have been the focus of considerable controversy because of the potential leaching of salts and trace species such as lead, cadmium and other metals. The paper will present current data describing ash properties, leaching and treatment alternatives. USEPA's current program of testing for evaluating treatment and reuse methods will also be described.

  12. Design and scale-up of a heavy-metals recovery process from municipal-solid-waste-incinerator residues

    SciTech Connect

    Legiec, I.A.

    1991-01-01

    Bottom ash, fly ash or fly ash and scrubber residue, and combined ash was obtained from three facilities and characterized for chemical composition and buffering capacities. Equilibrium extractions utilizing an acidic, inorganic salt solution investigated the leaching dependency on pH and provided insight to the structure of the ash. Sequential batch extractions were carried out to increase metallic and salt species concentrations by adding ash to recycled extract and to observe the solubility limitations and interaction of these species upon full recycle of an extract stream. A model was derived for the lead extraction dependency on equilibrium pH for three fly ash residuals. The extraction patterns were compared to the solubilization and chloride complexation of several complex lead minerals. The empirical rate of neutralization was also determined. Bottom and combined ash studies were carried out to evaluate separation and subsequent treatment processes. Another alternative process, soluble salts recovery from fly ash or fly ash and scrubber residue, also was investigated. A continuous laboratory scale pilot plant was designed and operated to treat ashes at a rate of 1 kilogram/hour. The pilot plant was operated in a single pass mode and the residence time distribution of the reactor was evaluated. A secondary investigation observed the effect of recycle streams on the extraction efficiency. Three conceptual processes were designed for heavy metals recovery from combustion residuals, separation and subsequent treatment of bottom or combined ash, and the soluble salts recovery from fly ash or fly ash scrubber residuals at the pilot scale of 20 tons per day. The primary economic analysis of all three processes are presented.

  13. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.; Fei, Y.; Carter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. Along with the major activity of assembling the components of the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas this quarter. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  14. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Daniel Molin, Camilla Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the thermal treatment methods for ashes and residues from WtE plants. • We review the results from extensive laboratory work on vitrification, melting and vaporization of ash. • We analyze the results from the extensive patent literature on thermal treatment. • We review industrial concepts for thermal treatment of ash. - Abstract: Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field.

  15. Sorptivity of fly ash concretes

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    A factorial experiment was designed to measure the sorptivity of cement and fly ash concretes in order to compare the durability of fly ash concrete against the cement concrete. Sorptivity measurements based on the capillary movement of water was made on three grades of cement concrete and six grades of fly ash mixes. The effect of curing was also studied by treating the samples in two curving conditions. A functional relationship of sorptivity against the strength, curing condition and fly ash content has been presented. The results were useful to analyze the factors influencing the durability of cement and fly ash concretes and to explain why some of the previously reported findings were contradictory. Curing conditions have been found to be the most important factor that affected the durability properties of fly ash concrete. When proper curing was provided, a mix with 40% fly ash was found to reduce the sorptivity by 37%. Under inadequate curing the sorptivity was found to increase by 60%. The influence of curing on cement concrete was found to be of much less importance.

  16. MARKET ASSESSMENT AND TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BED COMBUSTION ASH USE

    SciTech Connect

    A.E. Bland; T.H. Brown

    1997-04-01

    Western Research Institute, in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute, Foster Wheeler International, Inc. and the US Department of Energy, has undertaken a research and demonstration program designed to examine the market potential and the technical feasibility of ash use options for PFBC ashes. Ashes from the Foster Wheeler Energia Oy pilot-scale circulating PFBC tests in Karhula, Finland, combusting (1) low-sulfur subbituminous and (2) high-sulfur bituminous coal, and ash from the AEP's high-sulfur bituminous coal-fired bubbling PFBC in Brilliant, Ohio, were evaluated in laboratory and pilot-scale ash use testing at WR1. The technical feasibility study examined the use of PFBC ash in construction-related applications, including its use as a cementing material in concrete and use in cement manufacturing, fill and embankment materials, soil stabilization agent, and use in synthetic aggregate production. Testing was also conducted to determine the technical feasibility of PFBC ash as a soil amendment for acidic and sodic problem soils and spoils encountered in agricultural and reclamation applications. The results of the technical feasibility testing indicated the following conclusions. PFBC ash does not meet the chemical requirements as a pozzolan for cement replacement. However, it does appear that potential may exist for its use in cement production as a pozzolan and/or as a set retardant. PFBC ash shows relatively high strength development, low expansion, and low permeability properties that make its use in fills and embankments promising. Testing has also indicated that PFBC ash, when mixed with low amounts of lime, develops high strengths, suitable for soil stabilization applications and synthetic aggregate production. Synthetic aggregate produced from PFBC ash is capable of meeting ASTM/AASHTO specifications for many construction applications. The residual calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate in the PFE3C ash has been shown to be of value in

  17. Volcanic ash in deep marine sediment: A comparison of dispersed ash and adjacent ash layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudder, R. P.; Murray, R. W.; Kutterolf, S.; Schindlbeck, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The presence of dispersed volcanic ash in pelagic marine sediment (as differentiated from ash found in discrete layers) has been known since the 1970's. Most previous studies have assessed the dispersed component through sedimentological and petrographic methods. As part of an effort to quantitatively determine the amount, and chemical composition, of dispersed ash in pelagic sediments, we are undertaking a systematic study of the western Pacific marine sediments. ODP Site 1149 (Leg 185), located immediately east of the Izu-Bonin Arc, consists of aluminosilicate clay and large amounts of volcanic ash (>75 ash layers described in units I and II). In addition to the ash layers, there is abundant dispersed ash (20 - 50% of the bulk). Using a multi-elemental geochemical and statistical approach we can characterize and quantify this dispersed ash component, and thus complement the original ash layer record by a novel dataset. At Site 1149, our previous work based on refractory trace element end members of potential sources (from the literature) indicate that Chinese Loess, Ryukyu Dacite (Japan), and an average of Izu-Bonin Front Arc material yield the best mixing to explain the bulk sedimentary composition (Scudder et al., 2009, EPSL, 284, 639-648). Contribution of a significant distal Ryukyu Arc component to the sediment eastward of Izu-Bonin (i.e., Site 1149) is surprising, yet is required by our chemical results, and is consistent with the previous work of Egeberg et al. (1992). While Scudder et al. (2009) was based on a small number of samples (~15 samples for complete major, trace, and REE analysis) and a modest element menu, we here present the results from an expansive suite of analyses (>80 samples) allowing us to test the effect of sample number on the statistical results and achieve additional quantitative resolution of volcanic and upper crustal sources (e.g., loess). This further improves our statistical ability to resolve temporal changes that may be

  18. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames. Final technical report, September 30, 1992--January 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Chenevert, B.; Park, Jungsung; Hoffman, D.A.; Butcher, E.K.

    1996-07-19

    Coal ash, and particularly fine fly ash, remain one of the principal practical and environmental problems in coal-based power generation. In particular, submicron aerosols are identified with direct inhalation risk. Submicron ash is thought to arise from mineral vaporization during char combustion, followed by nucleation, condensation and coagulation to yield an aerosol. While aerosols are predominantly made out of volatile alkali minerals, they also can include refractory oxides that are chemically reduced to more volatile forms within the char particle and vaporized. Most of the ash of size greater than 1 {mu}m is generated by agglomeration of mineral as the char particle bums out. These two principal mechanisms are thought to account for most of the ash generated in coal combustion. Previous research has shown that various forms of coal treatment can influence the yields of fine ash from combustion. The research reported here investigates various forms of treatment, including physical coal cleaning, aerodynamic sizing, degree of grinding, and combinations of these on both aerosol yields and on yields of fine residual ash (1-4 {mu}m). The work also includes results from the combustion of artificial chars that include individual mineral elements. This research shows that these various forms of coal treatment can significantly change ash characteristics. While none of the treatments affected the bulk of the residual ash size distribution significantly, the yield of the ash aerosol mode (d<0.5 {mu}m) and fine residual ash mode (1-4 {mu}m) are changed by the treatments.

  19. Dioxin and fly ash free incineration by ash pelletization and reburning.

    PubMed

    Kobylecki, R P; Ohira, K; Ito, I; Fujiwara, N; Horio, M

    2001-11-01

    Dioxins (DXNs) in municipal waste incinerator fly ash were effectively reduced by pelletizing the mixture of ash, cement, and sodium phosphate and reburning the pellets in a laboratory scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) furnace. Three types of pellets--A, B and C, of various sizes and compositions were used in the experiments. The efficiency of DXN reduction in the pellet matrix was proportional to the incineration time, temperature, and degree of pellet incineration. At 700 degrees C and incineration time sufficient for a complete burnout, the efficiency of DXN reduction in the pellets of type A and C was found to be 99.9% and 99.7%, respectively. Correspondingly, the DXN concentration in the pellets decreased from 862 ng TEQ/kg to 0.9 ng TEQ/kg for pellets A and 2.2 ng TEQ/kg for pellets C. The residual concentration of coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) was below 0.2 ng TEQ/kg and 0.4 ng TEQ/kg, respectively. Assuming a tortuosity factor of tau = 3 and the reaction rate constants of 0.013 m/s (at 700 degrees C) and 0.025 m/s (at 800 degrees C), the experimental pellet incineration times were reasonably predicted by using the shrinking core model. Possible DXN evaporation from the pellets was also studied. The amount of DXNs in the flue gas captured by an impinger trap was less than 3% when the reactor was operated at 700 and 800 degrees C. The described method of fly ash pelletization and reburning seems to be a relatively easy and inexpensive way to reduce both the emission of DXNs and the amount of fly ash. PMID:11718348

  20. Landfilling ash/sludge mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Benoit, J.; Eighmy, T.T.; Crannell, B.S.

    1999-10-01

    The geotechnical properties of a mixture of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash and municipal wastewater treatment plant sludge was investigated for a proposed ash/sludge secure landfill. The components as well as mixtures ranging from 10:1 to 5:1 (ash:sludge, by volume) were evaluated, where appropriate, for a number of geotechnical index and mechanical properties including particle size, water content, specific gravity, density-moisture relationships, shear strength, and compressibility. The results from a compactibility study and stability analysis of the proposed landfill were used to help approve a landfill codisposal concept; a full-scale facility was constructed and is currently operating successfully.

  1. Mobility of organic carbon from incineration residues

    SciTech Connect

    Ecke, Holger Svensson, Malin

    2008-07-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may affect the transport of pollutants from incineration residues when landfilled or used in geotechnical construction. The leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and air pollution control residue (APC) from the incineration of waste wood was investigated. Factors affecting the mobility of DOC were studied in a reduced 2{sup 6-1} experimental design. Controlled factors were treatment with ultrasonic radiation, full carbonation (addition of CO{sub 2} until the pH was stable for 2.5 h), liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, pH, leaching temperature and time. Full carbonation, pH and the L/S ratio were the main factors controlling the mobility of DOC in the bottom ash. Approximately 60 weight-% of the total organic carbon (TOC) in the bottom ash was available for leaching in aqueous solutions. The L/S ratio and pH mainly controlled the mobilization of DOC from the APC residue. About 93 weight-% of TOC in the APC residue was, however, not mobilized at all, which might be due to a high content of elemental carbon. Using the European standard EN 13 137 for determination of total organic carbon (TOC) in MSWI residues is inappropriate. The results might be biased due to elemental carbon. It is recommended to develop a TOC method distinguishing between organic and elemental carbon.

  2. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  3. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  4. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  5. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  6. 49 CFR 230.69 - Ash pans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ash pans. 230.69 Section 230.69 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Ash Pans § 230.69 Ash pans. Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than...

  7. Speciation of Selenium, Arsenic, and Zinc in Class C Fly Ash

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Yun; Giammar, Daniel E.; Huhmann, Brittany L.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2011-11-17

    A major environmental concern associated with coal fly ash is the mobilization of trace elements that may contaminate water. To better evaluate proper use of fly ash, determine appropriate disposal methods, and monitor postdisposal conditions, it is important to understand the speciation of trace elements in fly ash and their possible environmental impact. The speciation of selenium, arsenic, and zinc was determined in five representative Class C fly ash samples from combustion of sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal using synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy to provide an improved understanding of the mechanisms of trace element association with the fly ash. Selenium in all fly ash samples occurs predominantly as Se(IV), with the exception of one sample, in which there was a minor amount of Se(0). Se(0) is likely associated with the high content of unburned coal in the sample. Arsenic exists in the fly ash as a single phase most consistent with calcium pyroarsenate. In contrast, zinc occurs as two distinct species in the silicate glass matrix of the fly ash. This work demonstrates that residual carbon in fly ash may reduce potential Se mobility in the environment by retaining it as less soluble elemental Se instead of Se(IV). Further, this work suggests that As and Zn in Class C fly ash will display substantially different release and mobilization behaviors in aquatic environments. While As release will primarily depend upon the dissolution and hydrolysis of calcium pyroarsenate, Zn release will be controlled by the dissolution of alkaline aluminosilicate glass in the ash.

  8. Reclamation and revegetation of fly ash disposal sites - Challenges and research needs.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J

    2009-01-01

    Coal-fired power generation is a principal energy source throughout the world. Approximately, 70-75% of coal combustion residues are fly ash and its utilization worldwide is only slightly above 30%. The remainder is disposed of in landfills and fly ash basins. It is desirable to revegetate these sites for aesthetic purposes, to stabilize the surface ash against wind and water erosion and to reduce the quantity of water leaching through the deposit. Limitations to plant establishment and growth in fly ash can include a high pH (and consequent deficiencies of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and P), high soluble salts, toxic levels of elements such as B, pozzalanic properties of ash resulting in cemented/compacted layers and lack of microbial activity. An integrated organic/biotechnological approach to revegetation seems appropriate and should be investigated further. This would include incorporation of organic matter into the surface layer of ash, mycorrhizal inoculation of establishing vegetation and use of inoculated legumes to add N. Leaching losses from ash disposal sites are likely to be site-specific but a sparse number of studies have revealed enriched concentrations of elements such as Ca, Fe, Cd, Pb, and Sb in surrounding groundwater. This aspect deserves further study particularly in the longer-term. In addition, during weathering of the ash and deposition of organic matter during plant growth, a soil will form with properties vastly different to that of the parent ash. In turn, this will influence the effect that the disposal site has on the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, the effects of ash weathering and organic matter accumulation over time on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the developing ash-derived soil are not well understood and require further study. PMID:18706753

  9. Experimental Study on Ash-Returned Reactor of CFB Atmospheric Air Gasifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shihong, Zhang; Luning, Tian; Xianrong, Zhou; Hanping, Chen; Haiping, Yang; Xianhua, Wang

    In an attempt to improve the gasification efficiency and decrease the carbon content in fly ash of atmospheric air CFB gasifiers, an innovatory equipment by name ash-returned reactor is put forward by SKLCC. Ash-returned reactor is an ash-returned apparatus on line of ash circulation, typically like "U" type valve in CFB boilers, with additional function of some extent combustion of residual carbon and increase the furnace inlet temperature of returning ash, and hence the coal conversion of gasifiers is enhanced. As to its configuration compared to conventional "U" type valve, ash-returned rector has two distinguished features of several times of height scale of fluidizing transportation region to meet the combustion reaction time need and appropriate heat transfer tube bundles arranged in the region to moderate the local temperature so as to avoid slagging. And hence, corresponding to the structure renovation, the material transportation and regulation performance of ash-returned reactor is primarily investigated through a series of experiments in a cold lab-scale facility in this paper. The heat transfer characteristic of the tube bundles is then researched and its influential factors are further discussed. These works lay a foundation on the following study of hot state experiments and industrial applications.

  10. California bearing ratio behavior of soil-stabilized class F fly ash systems

    SciTech Connect

    Leelavathamma, B.; Mini, K.M.; Pandian, N.S.

    2005-11-01

    Fly ash is a finely divided mineral residue resulting from the combustion of coal in power plants that occupies large extents of land and also causes environmental problems. Hence, concerted attempts are being made to effectively use fly ash in an environmentally friendly way instead of dumping. Several studies have been carried out for its bulk utilization, such as its addition to improve the California bearing ratio (CBR) of soil in roads and embankments. But a thorough mixing of fly ash with soil may not be possible in the field. Hence a study has been carried out on the CBR behavior of black cotton soil and Raichur fly ash (which is class F) in layers and compared with the same in mixes. The results show that the CBR values of soil-fly ash mixes are better than layers, as expected. To improve the strength of layers, cement is used as an additive to fly ash. The results show that black cotton soil can be improved with stabilized fly ash, solving its strength problem as well as the disposal problem of fly ash.

  11. Morphology and petrography of volcanic ashes.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heiken, G.

    1972-01-01

    Study of volcanic ash samples collected from a variety of recent eruptions using petrography, chemical analyses, and scanning electron microscopy to characterize each type and to relate ash morphology to magma composition and the type of eruption. The ashes are placed in the broad genetic categories of magmatic and phreatomagmatic. The morphology of ash particles from magmatic eruptions of high viscosity magma is governed primarily by vesicle density and shape. Ash particles from eruptions of low viscosity magmas are mostly droplets. The morphology of ash particles from phreatomagmatic eruptions is controlled by stresses within the chilled magma which result in fragmentation of the glass to form small blocky or pyramidal glass ash particles.

  12. Alkali ash material: a novel fly ash-based cement.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hossein; Brendley, William

    2003-08-01

    The United States generates 110 million t of coal ash annually. Approximately 70 million t of this coal ash is fly ash, of which 27% is recycled and the remaining 73% is landfilled. Disposal of such a huge quantity of ash poses a significant environmental problem. A new cementitious material has been developed, called alkali ash material (AAM), which is used to produce concrete for construction. AAM can be used to create a variety of concrete strengths and could revolutionize the concrete product manufacturing industry due to its economic advantage. AAM contains 40-95% Class F fly ash and is used as cement to bind sand, stone, and fibers creating concrete. AAM concrete has been tested for strength, durability, mechanical properties, and, most importantly, economic viability. AAM concrete is economically and technically viable for many construction applications. Some properties include rapid strength gain (90% of ultimate in 1 d), high ultimate strengths (110 MPa or 16,000 psi in 1 d), excellent acid resistance, and freeze-thaw durability. AAM's resistance to chemical attack, such as sulfuric (H2SO4), nitric (HNO3), hydrochloric (HCl), and organic acids, is far better than portland cement concrete. AAM is resistant to freeze-thaw attack based on ASTM C-666 specifications. Potential immediate applications of AAM are blocks, pipe, median barriers, sound barriers, and overlaying materials. Eventual markets are high strength construction products, bridge beams, prestressed members, concrete tanks, highway appurtenances, and other concrete products. PMID:12966995

  13. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  14. Risks of toxic ash from artisanal mining of discarded cellphones.

    PubMed

    Hibbert, Kathleen; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2014-08-15

    The potential environmental and human health impacts of artisanal mining of electronic waste through open incineration were investigated. A market-representative set of cellphones was dismantled into four component categories-batteries, circuit boards, plastics and screens. The components were shredded, sieved and incinerated at 743-818 °C. The concentrations of 17 metals were determined using U.S. EPA methods 6010C (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry; 6020A (inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, or 7471B and 7470A (cold-vapor atomic absorption). EPA Method 8270 (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was used to identify polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. EPA Method 8082A was used to measure polychlorinated biphenyls and EPA Method 8290 was used for dioxin/furans in the residue ash. The life cycle assessment model USEtox(®) was used to estimate impacts of the ash residue chemicals on human health and the ecosystem. Among metals, copper in printed circuit boards had the highest ecotoxicity impact (1610-1930PAFm(3)/kg); Beryllium in plastics had the highest impact on producing non-cancer diseases (0.14-0.44 cases/kg of ash); and Nickel had the largest impact on producing cancers (0.093-0.35 cases/kg of ash). Among organic chemicals, dioxins from incinerated batteries produced the largest ecotoxicological impact (1.07E-04 to 3.64E-04PAFm(3)/kg). Furans in incinerated batteries can generate the largest number of cancers and non-cancer diseases, representing 8.12E-09 to 2.28E-08 and 8.96E-10 and 2.52E-09 cases/kg of ash, respectively. The results reveal hazards of burning discarded cellphones to recover precious metals, and pinpoints opportunities for manufacturers to reduce toxic materials used in specific electronic components marketed globally. PMID:24937657

  15. Wildfire ash: its production and hydro-eco-geomorphic effects in forested landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doerr, S. H.; Bodi, M.; Santin, C.; Balfour, V.; Woods, S.; Mataix-Solera, J.; Cerda, A.; Shakesby, R.

    2012-12-01

    Fire, whether ignited naturally or by humans, is one of the most important disturbance agents in many of the world's forested ecosystems. Amongst its direct consequences is the deposition of a range of solid and largely powdery residues on the ground consisting of charred organic material including charcoal and residual mineral material. This fragile 'ash' layer can be removed in large quantities from hillslopes within days by wind or water erosion, with the latter facilitating its transfer to the hydrological system. Probably as a result of its ephemeral nature and not being soil, vegetation or litter, ash has seen limited attention in studies on hydrological impacts of wildfire. Those few studies available show that ash can substantially affect the hydrological system. When present on hillslopes as a water-absorbent layer, it can reduce surface runoff, protect soil against rainsplash erosion, and its leachates can reportedly reduce soil erodibility by promoting flocculation of dispersed clays. In contrast, however, ash can also increase surface runoff by blocking soil pores or by forming a crust. Furthermore, ash is thought capable of promoting debris flows. Its net effect probably depends on the nature of the ash and soil including their respective water repellency levels, the pore size distribution of the soil, and general terrain and rainfall characteristics. Being very mobile, ash can be the source of substantial organic and inorganic sediment inputs, and of solute influxes into the fluvial system. These can affect water quality sometimes with detrimental effects on aquatic organisms and domestic water supply. This presentation aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge base regarding the production and potential effects of wildfire ash on the hydrological system in and beyond forested landscapes..The late Scott Woods examining a thick ash layer following a severe fire in a conifer forest. Montana, USA.

  16. Vitrification of Rocky Flats ash followed by encapsulation in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    McKibben, J.M.; Land, B.; Strachan, D.M.; Perez, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Approximately 10 to 20 metric tons of plutonium in the US is in the form of scrap, residues, oxides, ash, metal, sludge, compounds, etc. This paper describes a relatively simple concept of stabilizing most of this type of plutonium by converting it into encapsulated glass. A full-scale hot demonstration of the concept is proposed, in which Rocky Flats ash would be vitrified and sealed in small cans, followed by encapsulation of the cans in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canisters with high-level waste glass. The proposal described in this paper offers an integrated national approach for early stabilization and disposition of the nation`s plutonium-bearing residues.

  17. Leaching behavior and possible resource recovery from air pollution control residues of fluidized bed combustion of municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Z.; Andersson, B.A.; Steenari, B.M.

    1999-07-01

    Ash residues are generated at several points during combustion of municipal solid waste (MSW), i.e., in cyclones, electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Such residues are of a complex physical and chemical nature and are often enriched in soluble salts and heavy metals such as Pb, Cd and Zn. Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of MSW is a relatively new technique and very little information is available about the leaching behavior of its residues. In this study, the total elemental composition, mineralogy and leaching behavior of cyclone and bag-house filter ashes from a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boiler fired with municipal solid waste have been investigated. In addition, the possibilities of recovery heavy metals from these ashes were studied. The long-term leaching behavior of the ash constituents was evaluated using a two-step batch leaching test known as the CEN-test, whereas short and medium term leaching behavior was evaluated using a Column test. The extraction of elements from cyclone and filter ashes with various acidic solutions was also investigated. The leaching behavior of acid washed ashes was evaluated using the CEN test. The cyclone ash was mainly composed of aluminosilicate minerals, whereas the filter ash consisted of chlorides and hydroxides of alkali and alkaline earth metals. The concentration of heavy metals such as Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb was higher in the filter ash than in the cyclone ash. The leached amounts of sulfates and Pb from the cyclone ash decreased with leaching test contact time, indicating the formation of secondary mineral phases. Large amounts of chlorides, sulfates, Ca, Cu and Pb were leached from the filter ash. Acid extraction removed large amounts ({gt}50%) of Zn, Pb and Cu from the filter ash and approximately 56% of the total amount of Zn present in the cyclone ash. An efficient removal of heavy metal species from these types of ashes can probably be achieved by application of a recycling or multi-step process.

  18. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  19. ITER helium ash accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, J.T.; Hillis, D.L.; Galambos, J.; Uckan, N.A. ); Dippel, K.H.; Finken, K.H. . Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik); Hulse, R.A.; Budny, R.V. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1990-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} in determining the level of He ash accumulation in future reactor systems. Results of the first tokamak He removal experiments have been analysed, and a first estimate of the ratio {upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E} to be expected for future reactor systems has been made. The experiments were carried out for neutral beam heated plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak, at KFA/Julich. Helium was injected both as a short puff and continuously, and subsequently extracted with the Advanced Limiter Test-II pump limiter. The rate at which the He density decays has been determined with absolutely calibrated charge exchange spectroscopy, and compared with theoretical models, using the Multiple Impurity Species Transport (MIST) code. An analysis of energy confinement has been made with PPPL TRANSP code, to distinguish beam from thermal confinement, especially for low density cases. The ALT-II pump limiter system is found to exhaust the He with maximum exhaust efficiency (8 pumps) of {approximately}8%. We find 1<{upsilon}{sub He}/{upsilon}{sub E}<3.3 for the database of cases analysed to date. Analysis with the ITER TETRA systems code shows that these values would be adequate to achieve the required He concentration with the present ITER divertor He extraction system.

  20. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  1. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible. PMID:21733619

  2. Control methods for mitigating biomass ash-related problems in fluidized beds.

    PubMed

    Vamvuka, D; Zografos, D; Alevizos, G

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment of biomass combustion technologies in the Cretan energy system will play an important role and will contribute to the local development. The main biomass fuels of Crete are the agricultural residues olive kernel and olive tree wood. Future applications of these biofuels may create, among others, operational problems related to ash effects. In this regard, the thermal behavior of the ashes during lab-scale fluidized bed combustion tests was examined, in terms of slagging/fouling and agglomeration of bed material. Control methodologies for mitigating ash problems were applied, such as leaching the raw fuels with water and using different mineral additives during combustion. The ashes and the bed material were characterized in terms of mineralogical, chemical and morphological analyses and the slagging/fouling and agglomeration propensities were determined. The results showed that fly ashes were rich in Ca, Si and Fe minerals and contained substantial amounts of alkali, falling within the range of "certain or probable slagging/fouling". Leaching of the raw fuels with water resulted in a significant reduction of the problematic elements K, Na, Cl and S in the fly ashes. The use of fuel additives decreased the concentrations of alkali and iron minerals in the fly ashes. With clay additives calcium compounds were enriched in the bottom ash, while with carbonate additives they were enriched in the fly ash. Fuel additives or water leaching reduced the slagging/fouling potential due to alkali. Under the conditions of the combustion tests, no signs of ash deposition or bed agglomeration were noticed. PMID:17826986

  3. Ash deposit characterisation in a large-scale municipal waste-to-energy incineration plant.

    PubMed

    Phongphiphat, Awassada; Ryu, Changkook; Finney, Karen N; Sharifi, Vida N; Swithenbank, Jim

    2011-02-15

    The deposition of ash - combustion residues - on superheaters and heat exchanger surfaces reduce their efficiency; this phenomenon was investigated for a large-scale waste-to-energy incineration facility. Over a period of six months, ash samples were collected from the plant, which included the bottom ash and deposits from the superheater, as well as flyash from the convective heat exchanger, the economiser and fabric filters. These were analysed for particle size, unburned carbon, elemental composition and surface morphology. Element partitioning was evident in the different combustion residues, as volatile metals, such as cadmium, antimony and arsenic, were found to be depleted in the bottom ash by the high combustion temperatures (1000+°C) and concentrated/enriched in the fabric filter ash (transferred by evaporation). Non-volatile elements by contrast were distributed equally in all locations (transported by particle entrainment). The heat exchanger deposits and fabric filter ash had elevated levels of alkali metals. 82% of flyash particles from the fabric filter were in the submicron range. PMID:21146293

  4. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde. PMID:16053116

  5. Fly ash chemical classification based on lime

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.

    2007-07-01

    Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Reaction rate kinetics for in situ combustion retorting of Michigan Antrim oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Mickelson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined using a thermogravimetric analysis method. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were evaluated from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. The reaction was found to be second-order with an activation energy of 252.2 kJ/mole, and with a frequency factor of 9.25 ?? 1015 sec-1. Pyrolysis kinetics were not affected by heating rates between 0.01 to 0.67??K/s. No evidence of any reactions among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173??K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatilization rate of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale. Carbonaceous residues which were prepared by heating the oil shale at a rate of 0.166??K/s to temperatures between 923??K and 1073??K, had the highest reactivities when oxidized at 0.166??K/s in a gas having 21 volume percent oxygen. Oxygen chemisorption was found to be the initial precursor to the oxidation process. The kinetics governing oxygen chemisorption is (Equation Presented) where X is the fractional coverage. The oxidation of the carbonaceous residue was found also to be second-order. The activation energy and the frequency factor determined from isothermal experiments were 147 kJ/mole and 9.18??107 sec-1 respectively, while the values of these parameters obtained from a nonisothermal experiment were 212 kJ/mole and 1.5??1013 sec-1. The variation in the rate constants is attributed to the fact that isothermal and nonisothermal analyses represent two different aspects of the combustion process.

  7. Aggregate material formulated with MSWI bottom ash and APC fly ash for use as secondary building material.

    PubMed

    del Valle-Zermeño, R; Formosa, J; Chimenos, J M; Martínez, M; Fernández, A I

    2013-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain a granular material formulated with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) bottom ash (BA) and air pollution control (APC) fly ash to be used as secondary building material. Previously, an optimum concrete mixture using both MSWI residues as aggregates was formulated. A compromise between the environmental behavior whilst maximizing the reuse of APC fly ash was considered and assessed. Unconfined compressive strength and abrasion resistance values were measured in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. From these results, the granular mixture was not suited for certain applications owing to the high BA/APC fly ash content and low cement percentages used to reduce the costs of the final product. Nevertheless, the leaching test performed showed that the concentrations of all heavy metals were below the limits established by the current Catalan legislation for their reutilization. Therefore, the material studied might be mainly used in embankments, where high mechanical properties are not needed and environmental safety is assured. PMID:23102641

  8. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  9. Ash in fire affected ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah

    2015-04-01

    Ash in fire affected ecosystems Ash lefts an important footprint in the ecosystems and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to ecosystems recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected ecosystems" currently in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected ecosystems from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of

  10. Aluminium recovery from waste incineration bottom ash, and its oxidation level.

    PubMed

    Biganzoli, Laura; Grosso, Mario

    2013-09-01

    The recovery of aluminium (Al) scraps from waste incineration bottom ash is becoming a common practice in waste management. However, during the incineration process, Al in the waste undergoes oxidation processes that reduce its recycling potential. This article investigates the behaviour of Al scraps in the furnace of two selected grate-fired waste-to-energy plants and the amount recoverable from the bottom ash. About 21-23% of the Al fed to the furnace with the residual waste was recovered and potentially recycled from the bottom ash. Out of this amount, 76-87% was found in the bottom ash fraction above 5 mm and thus can be recovered with standard eddy current separation technology. These values depend on the characteristics and the mechanical strength of the Al items in the residual waste. Considering Al packaging materials, about 81% of the Al in cans can be recovered from the bottom ash as an ingot, but this amount decreases to 51% for trays, 27% for a mix of aluminium and poly-laminated foils and 47% for paper-laminated foils. This shows that the recovery of Al from the incineration residues increases proportionally to the thickness of the packaging. PMID:23831779

  11. Use of metakaolin to stabilize sewage sludge ash and municipal solid waste incineration fly ash in cement-based materials.

    PubMed

    Cyr, M; Idir, R; Escadeillas, G

    2012-12-01

    The landfilling of municipal incineration residues is an expensive option for municipalities. This work evaluates an alternative way to render waste inert in cement-based materials by combining the reduction of waste content with the immobilization properties of metakaolin (MK). The functional and environmental properties of ternary and quaternary binders using cement, metakaolin, and two industrial by-products from combustion processes (MSWIFA - Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Fly Ash and SSA - Sewage Sludge Ash) were evaluated. The binders were composed of 75% cement, 22.5% metakaolin and 2.5% residue. Results on the impact of residues on the functional and environmental behavior of mortars showed that the mechanical, dimensional and leaching properties were not affected by the residues. In particular, the use of metakaolin led to a significant decrease in soluble fractions and heavy metals released from the binder matrix. The results are discussed in terms of classification of the leaching behavior, efficiency and role of metakaolin in the immobilization of heavy metals in of MSWIFA and SSA, and the pertinence of the dilution process. PMID:23122733

  12. Wildfire Ash: Chemical Composition, Ash-Soil Interactions and Environmental Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Hamzi, Seham; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    produced ash has significant and not always constructive pedological, ecological, hydrological and geomorphological effects and impacts (Shakesby, 2011). Abundant scientific information is assembled either from control fires by collecting samples before and after wildfire event, or conducting laboratory experiments exanimating data under truly isolated conditions (Lugassi et al., 2013). However, an integration and synthesis of the knowledge about ash including deeper understanding of inter-correlation between chemical, physical and morphological compounds in open post-burn environment and its possible interactions in soil formation or impact on soil composition are highly needed. The main aim of the presented study was to advance the science of soil-fire relationship by recognizing the remains ash as a new soil-forming factor, on par with the traditionally recognized factors: parent material, topography, time, climate, organisms, and recently recognized human activity as the sixth factor. This research was conducted to develop new methods to assess impacts and quantify the contributions/influences of post-fire products, mainly ash, on soil composition and soil properties in post-burned environment. We conducted several controlled experiments using 40 soil samples (typical Mediterranean Rendzina soil, pH 6.84, a grayish-brown, humus- and free calcium carbonate- rich, intra-zonal). The samples include bare soils and different types and loads of forest litter, were exposed to different temperatures (200° C, 400° C and 600° C) in a muffle furnace for 2 hours (Pereira et al. 2011) as fire temperature plays a key role in determining ash properties. The ash produced at a low temperatures (50% carbon and retains many of the structural characteristics of the parent material. At higher temperatures, the residue ash is greyish, consisted of very fine particles that preserve almost none of the original structural characteristics of the fuel (Woods and Balfour, 2008) creating

  13. Dealing with the aftermath of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident: decontamination of radioactive cesium enriched ash.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Durga; Tanaka, Hisashi; Hakuta, Yukiya; Minami, Kimitaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu; Umeoka, Kuniyoshi; Kamimura, Ryuichi; Hayashi, Yukie; Ouchi, Masatoshi; Kawamoto, Tohru

    2013-04-16

    Environmental radioactivity, mainly in the Tohoku and Kanto areas, due to the long living radioisotopes of cesium is an obstacle to speedy recovery from the impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Although incineration of the contaminated wastes is encouraged, safe disposal of the Cs enriched ash is the big challenge. To address this issue, safe incineration of contaminated wastes while restricting the release of volatile Cs to the atmosphere was studied. Detailed study on effective removal of Cs from ash samples generated from wood bark, household garbage, and municipal sewage sludge was performed. For wood ash and garbage ash, washing only with water at ambient conditions removed radioactivity due to (134)Cs and (137)Cs, retaining most of the components other than the alkali metals with the residue. However, removing Cs from sludge ash needed acid treatment at high temperature. This difference in Cs solubility is due to the presence of soil particle originated clay minerals in the sludge ash. Because only removing the contaminated vegetation is found to sharply decrease the environmental radioactivity, volume reduction of contaminated biomass by incineration makes great sense. In addition, need for a long-term leachate monitoring system in the landfill can be avoided by washing the ash with water. Once the Cs in solids is extracted to the solution, it can be loaded to Cs selective adsorbents such as Prussian blue and safely stored in a small volume. PMID:23484742

  14. Regeneratively cooled coal combustor/gasifier with integral dry ash removal

    DOEpatents

    Beaufrere, Albert H.

    1983-10-04

    A coal combustor/gasifier is disclosed which produces a low or medium combustion gas for further combustion in modified oil or gas fired furnaces or boilers. Two concentric shells define a combustion volume within the inner shell and a plenum between them through which combustion air flows to provide regenerative cooling of the inner shell for dry ash operation. A fuel flow and a combustion air flow having opposed swirls are mixed and burned in a mixing-combustion portion of the combustion volume and the ash laden combustion products flow with a residual swirl into an ash separation region. The ash is cooled below the fusion temperature and is moved to the wall by centrifugal force where it is entrained in the cool wall boundary layer. The boundary layer is stabilized against ash re-entrainment as it is moved to an ash removal annulus by a flow of air from the plenum through slots in the inner shell, and by suction on an ash removal skimmer slot.

  15. Physical and chemical characterization of ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Jin, Limei; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2013-07-01

    In this study we analyzed the characteristics of bottom and fly ashes from a municipal solid waste incinerator in China. The physical properties of particle size distribution and morphology were evaluated. At the chemical level, the chemical composition, heavy metal leaching behavior and BCR sequential extraction procedure (the Community Bureau of Reference, now the European Union 'Measurement and Testing Programme') were determined. The main mineralogical crystalline phases in raw and leached bottom and fly ashes were also identified. For the bottom ashes, the concentration of heavy metals showed a slight decrease with an increase in particle size, and most of the heavy metal concentrations in fly ashes were higher than those in bottom ashes. The results of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure indicated that, among the metals, the concentrations of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in fly ash leachate exceeded thresholds, while the concentrations of studied heavy metals in bottom ash leachate were all below the regulatory limit. The BCR results indicated that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) were predominant for cadmium and zinc; in contrast, the largest amount of Pb, Cu and manganese were associated with iron/manganese oxide, organic matter/sulfide fractions, or were residual. PMID:23618902

  16. Reduction of carbon content in waste-tire combustion ashes by bio-thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.C.; Lee, W.J.; Shih, S.I.; Mou, J.L.

    2009-07-01

    Application of bio-catalyst (NOE-7F) in thermal treatment can adequately dispose dark-black fly ashes from co-combustion of both waste tires and coal. After thermal treatment of fly ashes by adding 10% NOE-7F, the carbon contents reduced by 37.6% and the weight losses increased by 405%, compared with the fly ashes without mixing with NOE-7F. The combustion behaviors of wasted tires combustion fly ashes with NOE-7F were also investigated by both thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results verify that NOE-7F has positive effects on the combustion of residual carbon and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) enhance the energy release and reduce the toxicity during the process of thermal treatment. Furthermore, using NOE-7F to dispose high-carbon content fly ashes did improve the compressive strength of fly ashes and concrete mixtures. Therefore, NOE-7F is a promising additive which could decrease treatment cost of high-carbon content fly ashes and reduce the amount of survival toxic PAHs.

  17. Induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes by coal fly ash in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, P.K.; Singh, Y.; Tyagi, S.R.; Misra, U.K.

    1987-12-01

    The effect of intratracheal administration of fly ash, its benzene-extracted residue and the benzene extract has been studied on the activities of hepatic mixed-function oxidases in the rat. Fly ash and its fractions significantly increased the levels of cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b/sub 5/, cytochrome b/sub 5/ reductase, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and glutathione S-transferase in a dose-dependent manner. Phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene treatment along with the administration of fly ash or its fractions showed an additive effect on the activities of the mixed-function oxidases. The observed effects were due to chemical component, i.e., organic and inorganic fractions of fly ash, and not due to its particulate nature. This was shown by the administration of glass beads, which did not cause any alteration in the activities of hepatic mixed-function oxidases.

  18. Liquidus (Ca+Mg)-rich exsolution phases in low-sulfur fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, J.T.; Meeker, G.M.

    1999-07-01

    Ca- and Mg-rich fly ash samples from an electric power plant burning low-sulfur Powder River Coal were analyzed using optical petrographic microscope (OPM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron microprobe analyzer (EMPA), and Gandolfi and bulk-powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Abundant Ca and Mg in the fly ash, probably originating from dispersed authigenic and residual minerals in the coal feed stock, flux the molten fly ash, effectively allowing many crystalline phases to achieve ordering, to separate from each other, and to grow to appreciable size (>10{micro}m) in the brief time (<20 sec) they spend at high temperature. Phases identified from the (Ca+Mg)-rich fly ash are listed in a table and shown in figures.

  19. Metallic elements fractionation in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, Piotr R.; Kasina, Monika; Michalik, Marek

    2016-04-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues are represented by three main materials: bottom ash, fly ash and air pollution control (APC) residues. Among them ˜80 wt% is bottom ash. All of that materials are products of high temperature (>1000° C) treatment of waste. Incineration process allows to obtain significant reduction of waste mass (up to 70%) and volume (up to 90%) what is commonly used in waste management to reduce the amount need to be landfilled or managed in other way. Incineration promote accumulation non-combustible fraction of waste, which part are metallic elements. That type of concentration is object of concerns about the incineration residues impact on the environment and also gives the possibility of attempts to recover them. Metallic elements are not equally distributed among the materials. Several factors influence the process: melting points, volatility and place and forms of metallic occurrence in the incinerated waste. To investigate metallic elements distribution in MSWI residues samples from one of the biggest MSW incineration plant in Poland were collected in 2015. Chemical analysis with emphasis on the metallic elements content were performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The bottom ash was a SiO2-CaO-Al2O3-Fe2O3-Na2O rich material, whereas fly ash and APC residues were mostly composed of CaO and SiO2. All of the materials were rich in amorphous phase occurring together with various, mostly silicate crystalline phases. In a mass of bottom ash 11 wt% were metallic elements but also in ashes 8.5 wt% (fly ash) and ˜4.5 wt% (APC residues) of them were present. Among the metallic elements equal distribution between bottom and fly ash was observed for Al (˜3.85 wt%), Mn (770 ppm) and Ni (˜65 ppm). In bottom ash Fe (5.5 wt%), Cr (590 ppm) and Cu (1250 ppm) were concentrated. These values in comparison to fly ash were 5-fold higher for Fe, 3-fold for Cu and 1.5-fold for

  20. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    PubMed

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  1. Mid-tertiary ash flow tuff cauldrons, southwestern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elston, W. E.

    1984-09-01

    Characteristics of 28 known or suspected mid-Tertiary ash-flow tuff cauldrons in New Mexico are described. The largest region is 40 km in diameter, and erosional and block faulting processes have exposed levels as far down as the plutonic roots. The study supports a five-stage process: precursor, caldera collapse, early post-collapse, volcanism, major ring-fracture volcanism, and hydrothermal activity. The stages can repeat or the process can stop at any stage. Post-collapse lavas fell into two categories: cauldron lavas, derived from shallow defluidized residues of caldera-forming ash flow tuff eruption, and framework lavas, evolved from a siliceous pluton below the cauldron complex. The youngest caldera was shallow and formed from asymmetric subsidence and collapse of the caldera walls.

  2. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  3. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  4. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  5. 46 CFR 148.225 - Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be disposed of as prescribed in 33 CFR parts 151.55 through 151.77. ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). 148.225 Section... § 148.225 Calcined pyrites (pyritic ash, fly ash). (a) This part does not apply to the shipment...

  6. COMPARISON OF LEACHABLE TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS IN COAL GASIFIER ASH WITH LEVELS IN POWER PLANT ASH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a comparison of the levels of 14 trace elements in leachates from three types of ash of a common origin coal. The 1-year study was conducted at the Kosovo plant in Obilic, Yugoslavia, comparing coal gasifier ash with fly ash and bottom ash from a coal-f...

  7. Organic constituents in process water from the in-situ retorting of oil from oil-shale kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Raphaelian, L A; Harrison, W

    1981-02-01

    Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) was performed on the acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid- and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of a composite sample of raw process water collected from separator Tank 6 by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Of the 160 extractable and chromatographable organic compounds tentatively identified, the following compound classes were found (listed in decreasing order of abundance): quinolines and lower fatty acids, aminoindoles, neutral oxygenated heterocyclics, pyridines, pyrroles, pyrazoles, phenols, and alkanes. Noticeably absent or in low concentration were alkyl benzenes and alkenes. Assuming 100% extraction efficiency, these organics constitute approximately 0.035% of the retort water; approximately 50% of this amount is represented by the quinolines, fatty acids, aminoindoles, and oxygenated heterocyclics. The following differences were noted in the composition of the particulate and liquid extracts of the neutral and base fractions, respectively: (1) alkanes are a major portion of the particulates, whereas oxygenated hereocyclics are most prominent in the liquid; and (2) aminoindoles are only a minor portion of the particulates, but are prominent in the liquid phase. The concentration of a compound occurring in both the liquid and particulate extracts is approximately 40 to 100 times higher in the liquid than in the particulate extract.

  8. Rising from the ashes: Coal ash in recycling and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Naquin, D.

    1998-02-01

    Beneficial Ash Management (BAM, Clearfield, Pa.) has won an environmental award for its use of ash and other waste to fight acid mine drainage. The company`s workers take various waste materials, mainly fly ash from coal-burning plants, to make a cement-like material or grouting, says Ernest Roselli, BAM president. The grouting covers the soil, which helps prevent water from contacting materials. This, in turn, helps control chemical reactions, reducing or eliminating formation of acid mine drainage. The company is restoring the 1,400-acre Bark Camp coal mine site near Penfield in Clearfield County, Pa. Under a no-cost contract with the state of Pennsylvania, BAM is using boiler slag, causticizing byproducts (lime) and nonreclaimable clarifier sludge from International Paper Co. (Erie, Pa.). The mine reclamation techniques developed and monitored at the site include using man-made wetlands to treat acid mine drainage and testing anhydrous ammonia as a similar treatment agent. BAM researches and tests fly ash mixed with lime-based activators as fill material for land reclamation, and develops and uses artificial soil material from paper mill and tannery biosolids.

  9. Transcriptomic Signatures of Ash (Fraxinus spp.) Phloem

    PubMed Central

    Mamidala, Praveen; Bonello, Pierluigi; Herms, Daniel A.; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-01-01

    Background Ash (Fraxinus spp.) is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA). The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis), a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra), green (F. pennsylvannica) and white (F. americana) are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica) is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3) revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. Conclusions and Significance The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis, and in future

  10. Temporal evolution of wildfire ash and its implications for water pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Otero, Xose L.; Chafer, Chris J.

    2015-04-01

    Ash, the burnt residue generated from combustion of vegetation, litter and surface soil, covers the ground after every wildfire. The effects of wildfire ash on the post-fire landscape are many and very diverse. It is a source of nutrients and can, therefore, help the recovery of vegetation after fire. Furthermore, in its initial state, the ash layer on the ground can protect the bare soil from rain splash erosion and can act as an adsorbent layer, preventing or delaying post-fire water erosion by runoff. However, when the adsorbent capability of the ash layer is exceeded, this highly erodible material can be transported into the hydrological network and be a major contributor to water contamination. Most previous studies on post-fire erosion and water contamination have focused on soil erosion and associated sediment transfer and overlooked the ash component or, when considered, ash has been included as an unidentified part of the eroded sediment. One of the reasons for overlooking this key post-fire component is the difficulty of ash sampling before it is lost by wind or water erosion or altered by aging on-site. Here we compare the water contamination potential of ash obtained from two fires in the dry eucalyptus forest environment of the Sydney tablelands, Australia: i) 'aged ash' produced during the severe Balmoral wildfire and sampled two months after the event (Jan. 2014) and ii) 'fresh ash' sampled immediately after a high-intensity experimental fire in the same region (Sept. 2014). At the time of sampling, neither of the ash types had been affected by water erosion, however, the aged ash had been subjected to rainfall events and, potentially, to wind erosion during the two months of exposure. Vegetation type, fuel loads and fire severity, determined using remote sensing and on-site observations, were comparable between both areas sampled. Ash physicochemical properties differed, with 'fresh ash' having higher pH and EC values and higher concentration of

  11. Batch test assessment of waste-to-energy combustion residues impacts on precipitate formation in landfill leachate collection systems.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Antonio J; Levine, Audrey D; Rhea, Lisa R

    2008-01-01

    Disposal practices for bottom ash and fly ash from waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities include emplacement in ash monofills or co-disposal with municipal solid waste (MSW) and residues from water and wastewater treatment facilities. In some cases, WTE residues are used as daily cover in landfills that receive MSW. A recurring problem in many landfills is the development of calcium-based precipitates in leachate collection systems. Although MSW contains varying levels of calcium, WTE residues and treatment plant sludges have the potential to contribute concentrated sources of leachable minerals into landfill leachates. This study was conducted to evaluate the leachability of calcium and other minerals from residues generated by WTE combustion using residues obtained from three WTE facilities in Florida (two mass-burn and one refuse-derived fuel). Leaching potential was quantified as a function of contact time and liquid-to-solid ratios with batch tests and longer-term leaching tests using laboratory lysimeters to simulate an ash monofill containing fly ash and bottom ash. The leachate generated as a result of these tests had total dissolved solid (TDS) levels ranging from 5 to 320 mg TDS/g ash. Calcium was a major contributor to the TDS values, contributing from 20 to 105 g calcium/kg ash. Fly ash was a major contributor of leachable calcium. Precipitate formation in leachates from WTE combustion residues could be induced by adding mineral acids or through gas dissolution (carbon dioxide or air). Stabilization of residual calcium in fly ashes that are landfilled and/or the use of less leachable neutralization reagents during processing of acidic gases from WTE facilities could help to decrease the calcium levels in leachates and help to prevent precipitate formation in leachate collection systems. PMID:18236791

  12. The calcination process in a system for washing, calcinating, and converting treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash into raw material for the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2011-07-01

    Calcination is the second step in a washing-calcination-conversion system in which treated municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash and bottom ash can be reused as raw material in the cement industry and can decompose or stabilize hazardous compounds, reduce residue amounts, and alter residue characteristics. In this research, only fly ash is discussed. Chloride reduction is important if treated fly ash is to be reused in cement; however, the relationship between washed fly ash properties and chloride reduction by calcination is not well understood. This study used washed residues of three types of fly ash-raw fly ash (RFA) from the boiler or economizer of an incineration system, fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) for acid removal (CaFA), and fly ash collected in a bag filter injected with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) for acid removal (NaFA)-in calcination experiments with varying temperature (400-1100 degrees C) and atmosphere (100% nitrogen [N2] at 25 mL/min or 10% oxygen [O2] [90% N2] at fluxes of 25, 50, and 75 mL/min). From the perspective of chloride reduction, heating to 1000 degrees C with 1-hr heating time, 1-hr holding time, and an atmosphere of 10% O2/90% N2 was most suitable for calcination. Under these conditions, chloride levels were reduced by 91, 52, and 96% in washed residues of RFA, CaFA, and NaFA, respectively. Among the washed residues, the weight of the washed residue of NaFA decreased the most. PMID:21850828

  13. Characteristics of element distributions in an MSW ash melting treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sekito, T; Dote, Y; Onoue, K; Sakanakura, H; Nakamura, K

    2014-09-01

    Thermal treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a common practice in waste volume reduction and resource recovery. For the utilization of molten slag for construction materials and metal recovery, it is important to understand the behavior of heavy metals in the melting process. In this study, the correlation between the contents of elements in feed materials and MSW molten slag and their distributions in the ash melting process, including metal residues, are investigated. The hazardous metal contents in the molten slag were significantly related to the contents of metals in the feed materials. Therefore, the separation of products containing these metals in waste materials could be an effective means of producing environmentally safe molten slag with a low hazardous metals content. The distribution ratios of elements in the ash melting process were also determined. The elements Zn and Pb were found to have a distribution ratio of over 60% in fly ash from the melting furnace and the contents of these metals were also high; therefore, Zn and Pb could be potential target metals for recycling from fly ash from the melting furnace. Meanwhile, Cu, Ni, Mo, Sn, and Sb were found to have distribution ratios of over 60% in the metal residue. Therefore, metal residue could be a good resource for these metals, as the contents of Cu, Ni, Mo, Sn, and Sb in metal residue are higher than those in other output materials. PMID:24863626

  14. Improved leaching test methods for environmental assessment of coal ash and recycled materials used on construction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants will result in lower emissions of mercury and other pollutants. Fly ash, flue gas desulfurization gypsum, and other air pollution control residues are used in agricultural, commercial, and engineering applications. Resea...

  15. Utilization of fly ash in metallic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, P.K.; Guo, R.Q.; Golden, D.M.

    1996-10-01

    Fly ash particles have been successfully dispersed into aluminum alloy to make aluminum alloy-fly ash composites (Ashalloy) at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Additions of solid and hollow particles of fly ash reduce the cost and density of aluminum castings while increasing their performance. Ashalloy represents a candidate material for high value added use of fly ash, while reducing the disposal volumes of fly ash for the electric utility industry and making the US foundries more competitive. The fly ash particle distribution in the matrix aluminum alloy and the microstructure of aluminum-fly ash composite was determined. Selected properties of cast aluminum-fly ash composites are also presented in this paper. Mechanical properties of aluminum-fly ash composites show that the composite possesses higher hardness and higher elastic modulus compared to the matrix alloy. The flow behavior of molten aluminum-fly ash slurries along with the components cast in aluminum-fly ash composites will be presented. Fly ash containing metal components have potential applications in covers, shrouds, casings, manifolds, valve covers, garden furniture, engine blocks in automotive, small engine and electromechanical industry sector.

  16. Impact of Collection Equipment on Ash Variability of Baled Corn Stover Biomass for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    William Smith; Jeffery Einerson; Kevin Kenney; Ian J. Bonner

    2014-09-01

    Cost-effective conversion of agricultural residues for renewable energy hinges not only on the material’s quality but also the biorefinery’s ability to reliably measure quality specifications. The ash content of biomass is one such specification, influencing pretreatment and disposal costs for the conversion facility and the overall value of a delivered lot of biomass. The biomass harvest process represents a primary pathway for accumulation of soil-derived ash within baled material. In this work, the influence of five collection techniques on the total ash content and variability of ash content within baled corn stover in southwest Kansas is discussed. The equipment tested included a mower for cutting the corn stover stubble, a basket rake, wheel rake, or shred flail to gather the stover, and a mixed or uniform in-feed baler for final collection. The results showed mean ash content to range from 11.5 to 28.2 % depending on operational choice. Resulting impacts on feedstock costs for a biochemical conversion process range from $5.38 to $22.30 Mg-1 based on the loss of convertible dry matter and ash disposal costs. Collection techniques that minimized soil contact (shred flail or nonmowed stubble) were shown to prevent excessive ash contamination, whereas more aggressive techniques (mowing and use of a wheel rake) caused greater soil disturbance and entrainment within the final baled material. Material sampling and testing were shown to become more difficult as within-bale ash variability increased, creating uncertainty around feedstock quality and the associated costs of ash mitigation.

  17. Effect of industrial residue combinations on availability of elements.

    PubMed

    Brännvall, Evelina; Zamora, Carles Belmonte; Sjöblom, Rolf; Kumpiene, Jurate

    2014-07-15

    Industrial residues, such as fly ashes and biosolids, contain elements (e.g., N, P, K, S, Ca and Zn) that make them a viable alternative for synthetic fertilizers in forestry and agriculture. However, the use of these materials is often limited due to the presence of potentially toxic substances. It is therefore necessary to assess and, when warranted, modify the chemical and physical form of these and similar waste materials before any advantages are taken of their beneficial properties. Biofuel fly ash, municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, biosolids, peat, peat residues and gypsum board waste were combined in various proportions, and this resulted in increased leaching of N, P, S, Cu and Mn, but decreased leaching of Ca, K, Mg, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Al, As and Pb. Chemical fractionation revealed that elements Ca, K, Mg, S and Mn were predominantly exchangeable, while the rest of the elements were less mobile. Cadmium was mostly exchangeable in MSWI fly ash, but less mobile in biofuel fly ash mixtures. Recycling of MSWI fly ash in the mixtures with fertilizers is considerably less attractive, due to the high levels of salts and exchangeable Cd. PMID:24887119

  18. Crop residues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop residues [e.g., corn (Zea mays) stover and small grain straw] are sometimes excluded when discussing cellulosic energy crops per se, but because of the vast area upon which they are grown and their current role in the development of cellulosic energy systems. This chapter focuses on current cor...

  19. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  20. A comparison between sludge ash and fly ash on the improvement in soft soil

    SciTech Connect

    Deng-Fong Lin; Kae-Long Lin; Huan-Lin Luo

    2007-01-15

    In this study, the strength of soft cohesive subgrade soil was improved by applying sewage sludge ash as a soil stabilizer. Test results obtained were compared with earlier tests conducted on soil samples treated with fly ash. Five different proportions of sludge ash and fly ash were mixed with soft cohesive soil, and tests such as pH value, compaction, California bearing ratio, unconfined compressive strength (UCS), and triaxial compression were performed to understand soil strength improvement because of the addition of both ashes. Results indicate that pH values increase with extending curing age for soil with sludge ash added. The UCS of sludge ash/soil were 1.4 2 times better than untreated soil. However, compressive strength of sludge ash/soil was 20 30 kPa less than fly ash/soil. The bearing capacities for both fly ash/soil and sludge ash/soil were five to six times and four times, respectively, higher than the original capacity. Moreover, the cohesive parameter of shear strength rose with increased amounts of either ash added. Friction angle, however, decreased with increased amounts of either ash. Consequently, results show that sewage sludge ash can potentially replace fly ash in the improvement of the soft cohesive soil. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Petrographic characterization of economizer fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Valentim, B.; Hower, J.C.; Soares, S.; Guedes, A.; Garcia, C.; Flores, D.; Oliveira, A.

    2009-11-15

    Policies for reducing NOx emissions have led power plants to restrict O{sub 2}, resulting in high-carbon fly ash production. Therefore, some potentially useful fly ash, such as the economizer fly ash, is discarded without a thorough knowledge of its composition. In order to characterize this type of fly ash, samples were collected from the economizer Portuguese power plant burning two low-sulfur bituminous coals. Characterization was also performed on economizer fly ash subsamples after wet sieving, density and magnetic separation. Analysis included atomic absorption spectroscopy, loss-on-ignition, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, optical microscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Identifying glass compositions in fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aughenbaugh, Katherine; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four Class F fly ashes were studied with a scanning electron microscope; the glassy phases were identified and their compositions quantified using point compositional analysis with k-means clustering and multispectral image analysis. The results showed that while the bulk oxide contents of the fly ashes were different, the four fly ashes had somewhat similar glassy phase compositions. Aluminosilicate glasses (AS), calcium aluminosilicate glasses (CAS), a mixed glass, and, in one case, a high iron glass were identified in the fly ashes. Quartz and iron crystalline phases were identified in each fly ash as well. The compositions of the three main glasses identified, AS, CAS, and mixed glass, were relatively similar in each ash. The amounts of each glass were varied by fly ash, with the highest calcium fly ash containing the most of calcium-containing glass. Some of the glasses were identified as intermixed in individual particles, particularly the calcium-containing glasses. Finally, the smallest particles in the fly ashes, with the most surface area available to react in alkaline solution, such as when mixed with portland cement or in alkali-activated fly ash, were not different in composition than the large particles, with each of the glasses represented. The method used in the study may be applied to a fly ash of interest for use as a cementing material in order to understand its potential for reactivity.

  3. Boiler wood ash as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, C.C.

    1996-12-31

    Each of the 88 pulp and paper mills in the southeastern United States produces an average of 43 t of boiler ash daily (47 US tons). Forty percent is wood ash, 5% is coal ash, and the remaining is a combination ash. An analysis of boiler ash from 14 Alabama pulp and paper mills averaged 38% CaCO3 equivalent with a dry density of 500 kg m{sup -3}. Most agricultural soils in the southeastern US require periodic application of ground limestone in order to maintain productivity. Using boiler wood ash and combination ash as an alternative to ground limestone is agronomically productive, environmentally safe, and fiscally sound for both the ash producer and the landowner/ farmer. While plant, nutrient content of ash is variable, it should be considered as an incidental source of plant nutrients for field crops. Metals and phytotoxic components are very low. Extensive research has been reported on the value and safety of wood-fired boiler ashes. Nevertheless, research and development projects continue in efforts to assure safe use of boiler wood ash as an alternative soil liming material.

  4. Ash fusion study of West Virginia coals

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, K.C., Smith, C.J.; Hohn, M.E.

    1984-12-01

    As more industries and utilities convert to coal, ash fusion information becomes more important for boiler design (waste disposal systems). For example, burning a low fusion temperature coal can cause slagging - the buildup of molten ash on boiler waterwall tubes. Not only is boiler efficiency lowered, but downtime is also increased. Recently, potential buyers of West Virginia coal have inquired frequently about ash fusion. However, the amount of information in the West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey's data base is limited to data from about 800 samples, 50% of which were collected in five counties. Thus, the survey is conducting a study of ash fusion temperatures for the state's coals, to increase available data and its geographic coverage. A Leco AF-500 automated ash fusion analyzer was used in this study, which addresses: 1) reliability of results from an automated analyzer, 2) comparison of automated data with conventional data, 3) techniques of sample preparation, high-temperature ashing, and cone preparation, 4) ash-fusion trends in the state, and 5) research developments. The research sought to develop for West Virginia coal a statistical correlation model relating ash-elemental data with fusion data, and to investigate the relationship between ash color and fusion temperature. (Light-colored ashes generally have higher fusion temperatures than darker ashes.)

  5. Utilization of lignite ash in concrete mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.; Karslioglu, S.; Ayas, A.

    1995-12-01

    In this article 11 ashes from various Turkish lignite sources were studied to show the effects upon lignite ash quality for use as a mineral admixture in concrete. The lignite ashes were classified into two general types (Class A and Class B) based on total of silica, alumina, and iron oxide. Total content of the three major oxides must be more than 50% for Class A lignite ash and more than 70% for Class B lignite ash. When 25% of the cement was replaced by LA-1 (Class A) lignite ash, based on 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material, the 28-day compressive strength increased 24.3% compared to the control mix. The optimal lignite ash replacement was 25% at 300 kg/m{sup 3} cementitious material.

  6. Gasification of ash-containing solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, G.

    1983-03-01

    Ash-contaminated solid or semi-solid fuel is passed into the bottom zone of a fluidized bed gasifier, preferably containing cao to fix labile sulfur moieties, and gasified at a temperature below the ash-softening point. The resulting char and ash of relatively low size and/or weight pass to a top zone of the bed wherein the char is gasified at a temperature above the ash-softening point whereby a substantial proportion of the ash sticks to and agglomerates with solids in the top zone until the particle size and/or weight of the resulting agglomerates causes them to sink to the bottom of the gasifier from where they can be recovered. The hot gases leaving the top of the gasifying bed have a reduced burden of entrained ash, and may be cooled to prevent any entrained ash adhering to downstream equipment through which the gases pass.

  7. ACAA fly ash basics: quick reference card

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    Fly ash is a fine powdery material created when coal is burned to generate electricity. Before escaping into the environment via the utility stacks, the ash is collected and may be stored for beneficial uses or disposed of, if necessary. The use of fly ash provides environmental benefits, such as the conservation of natural resources, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and eliminating the needed for ash disposal in landfills. It is also a valuable mineral resource that is used in construction and manufacturing. Fly ash is used in the production of Portland cement, concrete, mortars and stuccos, manufactured aggregates along with various agricultural applications. As mineral filler, fly ash can be used for paints, shingles, carpet backing, plastics, metal castings and other purposes. This quick reference card is intended to provide the reader basic source, identification and composition, information specifically related to fly ash.

  8. Toxicological evaluation of the effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on two marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, K.L.; Nelson, W.G.; Curley, J.L. )

    1993-10-01

    The toxicological effects of waste-to-energy ash-concrete on survivorship, growth, and fecundity (end-point parameters) of Mysidopsis bahia and on survivorship and growth of Menidia beryllina were evaluated with the 7-d static-renewal toxicity test. Leachate and elutriate solutions were prepared from experimental ash-concrete test cylinders constructed from concrete with additions of either bottom ash (mix BA), mixed bottom ash and scrubber residue, or mixed bottom ash and fly ash (60:40%, mix BA:FA). Control experiments with concrete (without ash) and pH (7-9.5) were conducted to assess any toxic effects of the stabilization process. pH did not affect end-point parameters of Mysidopsis bahia or Menidia beryllina. However, the 100% elutriate solution made from concrete reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia. For experiments with ash-concrete test cylinders with the BA mixture, 10-d leachate solution reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia and the 100% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia and Manidia beryllina. With the BA:SR mixture, the 100 and 50% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Menidia beryllina. The BA:FA 10- and 5-d leachate solutions and the 100, 50, and 25% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Menidia beryllina. The BA:FA 10- and 5-d leachate solutions and the 100, 50, 25% elutriate solutions reduced survivorship of Mysidopsis bahia.

  9. Comparison of two types of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ashes with different alkaline reagents in washing experiments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenfen; Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we propose a "washing-calcination-conversion of washed fly ash into cement material with bottom ash" (WCCB) system to reduce the amount of fly ash that must be specially treated so it can be used as raw cement material. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) is widely used in air-pollution control devices of incinerators while sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is not. We conducted single-, double-, and triple-washing experiments to compare the washing characteristics of two types of fly ash. Unlike NaHCO3 fly ash, Ca(OH)2 fly ash has almost twice as much washed residue and almost 2.5 times more chlorine after the same washing procedure. After washing once, the washing frequency is also important for NaHCO3 fly ash, while the mixing time and liquid/solid ratio are more critical for Ca(OH)2 fly ash. The use of NaHCO3 is more suitable for the WCCB system. PMID:18539449

  10. Leaching optimization of municipal solid waste incineration ash for resource recovery: A case study of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinfeng; Steenari, Britt-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) may be quite cumbersome to handle. Some ash fractions contain organic pollutants, such as dioxins, as well as toxic metals. Additionally, some of the metals have a high value and are considered as critical to the industry. Recovery of copper, zinc and lead from MSWI ashes, for example, will not only provide valuable metals that would otherwise be landfilled but also give an ash residue with lower concentrations of toxic metals. In this work, fly ash and bottom ash from an MSWI facility was used for the study and optimization of metal leaching using different solutions (nitric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid) and parameters (temperature, controlled pH value, leaching time, and liquid/solid ratio). It was found that hydrochloric acid is relatively efficient in solubilizing copper (68.2±6.3%) and zinc (80.8±5.3%) from the fly ash in less than 24h at 20°C. Efficient leaching of cadmium and lead (over 92% and 90% respectively) was also achieved. Bottom ash from the same combustion unit was also characterized and leached using acid. The metal yields were moderate and the leachates had a tendency to form a gelatinous precipitate, which indicates that the solutions were actually over-saturated with respect to some components. This gel formation will cause problems for further metal purification processes, e.g. solvent extraction. PMID:26463013

  11. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  12. A HIGH TEMPERATURE TEST FACILITY FOR STUDYING ASH PARTICLE CHARACTERISTICS OF CANDLE FILTER DURING SURFACE REGENERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.; Rincon, J.

    2002-09-19

    Hot gas particulate filtration is a basic component in advanced power generation systems such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC). These systems require effective particulate removal to protect the downstream gas turbine and also to meet environmental emission requirements. The ceramic barrier filter is one of the options for hot gas filtration. Hot gases flow through ceramic candle filters leaving ash deposited on the outer surface of the filter. A process known as surface regeneration removes the deposited ash periodically by using a high pressure back pulse cleaning jet. After this cleaning process has been done there may be some residual ash on the filter surface. This residual ash may grow and this may lead to mechanical failure of the filter. A High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) was built to investigate the ash characteristics during surface regeneration at high temperatures. The system is capable of conducting surface regeneration tests of a single candle filter at temperatures up to 1500 F. Details of the HTTF apparatus as well as some preliminary test results are presented in this paper. In order to obtain sequential digital images of ash particle distribution during the surface regeneration process, a high resolution, high speed image acquisition system was integrated into the HTTF system. The regeneration pressure and the transient pressure difference between the inside of the candle filter and the chamber during regeneration were measured using a high speed PC data acquisition system. The control variables for the high temperature regeneration tests were (1) face velocity, (2) pressure of the back pulse, and (3) cyclic ash built-up time.

  13. An overview on characterization, utilization and leachate analysis of biomedical waste incinerator ash.

    PubMed

    Rajor, Anita; Xaxa, Monika; Mehta, Ratika; Kunal

    2012-10-15

    Solid waste management is one of the major global environmental issues, as there is continuous increase in industrial globalization and generation of waste. Solid wastes encompass the heterogeneous mass of throwaways from the urban community as well as the homogeneous accumulations of agricultural, industrial and mineral wastes. Biomedical waste pose a significant impact on health and environment. A proper waste management system should be required to dispose hazardous biomedical waste and incineration should be the best available technology to reduce the volume of this hazardous waste. The incineration process destroys pathogens and reduces the waste volume and weight but leaves a solid material called biomedical waste ash as residue which increases the levels of heavy metals, inorganic salts and organic compounds in the environment. Disposal of biomedical waste ash in landfill may cause contamination of groundwater as metals are not destroyed during incineration. The limited space and the high cost for land disposal led to the development of recycling technologies and the reuse of ash in different systems. In order to minimize leaching of its hazardous components into the environment several studies confirmed the successful utilization of biomedical waste ash in agriculture and construction sector. This paper presents the overview on the beneficial use of ash in agriculture and construction materials and its leachate characteristics. This review also stressed on the need to further evaluate the leachate studies of the ashes and slag for their proper disposal and utilization. PMID:22647736

  14. Improving the quality of waste-derived char by removing ash.

    PubMed

    Hwang, I H; Nakajima, D; Matsuto, T; Sugimoto, T

    2008-01-01

    This study characterized and removed ash from waste-derived char to improve the quality of char as fuel. Municipal solid waste (MSW) and automobile shredder residue (ASR) were carbonized at 450 degrees C and at 500 degrees C, respectively, in a rotary kiln with a nitrogen atmosphere for 1h. MSW and ASR char were subjected to sieving and pulverization-sieving to screen incombustibles and the ash-rich fraction, after which float-sink separation, froth floatation, and oil agglomeration were applied to remove ash from the char. The established target quality was (1) less than 30% ash content and (2) more than 20,000 kJ/kg heating value. However, the rate of combustibles recovery had to be lowered to produce a good quality of char along with a high heating value. MSW char attained the targeted quality level using froth floatation or oil agglomeration, whereas, neither separation method was able to make ASR-derived char satisfy the target. Based on the assumption that particle properties of char are determined by the weight ratio of combustibles and ash, the densities of combustibles and ash in char were estimated using the results of float-sink separation, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and elemental content. To verify the above assumption, an energy dispersive X-ray/scanning electron microscope (EDX/SEM) analyzer was used to observe char particles. PMID:17317141

  15. Encapsulation of mixed radioactive and hazardous waste contaminated incinerator ash in modified sulfur cement

    SciTech Connect

    Kalb, P.D.; Heiser, J.H. III; Colombo, P.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the process waste streams incinerated at various Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contain traces of both low-level radioactive (LLW) and hazardous constituents, thus yielding ash residues that are classified as mixed waste. Work is currently being performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop new and innovative materials for encapsulation of DOE mixed wastes including incinerator ash. One such material under investigation is modified sulfur cement, a thermoplastic developed by the US Bureau of Mines. Monolithic waste forms containing as much as 55 wt % incinerator fly ash from Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) have been formulated with modified sulfur cement, whereas maximum waste loading for this waste in hydraulic cement is 16 wt %. Compressive strength of these waste forms exceeded 27.6 MPa. Wet chemical and solid phase waste characterization analyses performed on this fly ash revealed high concentrations of soluble metal salts including Pb and Cd, identified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as toxic metals. Leach testing of the ash according to the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) resulted in concentrations of Pb and Cd above allowable limits. Encapsulation of INEL fly ash in modified sulfur cement with a small quantity of sodium sulfide added to enhance retention of soluble metal salts reduced TCLP leachate concentrations of Pb and Cd well below EPA concentration criteria for delisting as a toxic hazardous waste. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martin, Deborah A.; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    Fire transforms fuels (i.e. biomass, necromass, soil organic matter) into materials with different chemical and physical properties. One of these materials is ash, which is the particulate residue remaining or deposited on the ground that consists of mineral materials and charred organic components. The quantity and characteristics of ash produced during a wildland fire depend mainly on (1) the total burned fuel (i.e. fuel load), (2) fuel type and (3) its combustion completeness. For a given fuel load and type, a higher combustion completeness will reduce the ash organic carbon content, increasing the relative mineral content, and hence reducing total mass of ash produced. The homogeneity and thickness of the ash layer can vary substantially in space and time and reported average thicknesses range from close to 0 to 50 mm. Ash is a highly mobile material that, after its deposition, may be incorporated into the soil profile, redistributed or removed from a burned site within days or weeks by wind and water erosion to surface depressions, footslopes, streams, lakes, reservoirs and, potentially, into marine deposits.

  17. Effect of leaching behaviour by quenching of bottom ash from MSW incineration.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Franco; Genon, Giuseppe

    2011-10-01

    Bottom ashes (BA) obtained from a municipal solid waste incineration plant, have shown different pH and lead concentrations in leachate for different lines. In order to explain this behaviour, combustion tests were performed concerning the lines and the effect of the type of wastes. The BA obtained from the same waste has shown the same raw chemical composition, but different leachate characteristics for the different lines. The bottom ash from different wastes burned on the same line instead showed very similar leachate behaviour. The results suggest that the quality of leach ate depends on the plant and process conditions (in particular the ash quenching phase) and not on the composition of the waste. During ash quenching, the formation and dissolution of soluble alkalis depends on the washing ratio and on the residence time. A different washing degree leads to a different residual alkalinity in the bottom ash, and consequently to a different value of leachate pH with different metal releases. Therefore, with the practical aim of establishing the best conditions for the final disposal of bottom ash, a careful planning of this phase could be proposed as an alternative to a weathering process. PMID:21057006

  18. FINAL REPORT. AQUEOUS ELECTROCHEMICAL MECHANISMS IN ACTINIDE RESIDUE PROCESSING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plutonium and uranium residues (e.g., incinerator ash, combustibles, and sand/slag/crucibles) resulting from the purification and processing of nuclear materials constitute an enormous volume of lean processing waste and represent a significant fraction of the U. S. Department of...

  19. Ultrasonic ash/pyrite liberation

    SciTech Connect

    Yungman, B.A.; Buban, K.S.; Stotts, W.F.

    1990-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a coal preparation concept which employed ultrasonics to precondition coal prior to conventional or advanced physical beneficiation processes such that ash and pyrite separation were enhanced with improved combustible recovery. Research activities involved a series of experiments that subjected three different test coals, Illinois No. 6, Pittsburgh No. 8, and Upper Freeport, ground to three different size fractions (28 mesh [times] 0, 200 mesh [times] 0, and 325 mesh [times] 0), to a fixed (20 kHz) frequency ultrasonic signal prior to processing by conventional and microbubble flotation. The samples were also processed by conventional and microbubble flotation without ultrasonic pretreatment to establish baseline conditions. Product ash, sulfur and combustible recovery data were determined for both beneficiation processes.

  20. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  1. Heavy metals leaching in Indian fly ash.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Fly ash is an industrial waste generated from thermal power plants. Fly ash constitutes 80-85% of the total ash produced. A small part of fly ash is utilised in some sectors such as construction materials, building engineering, road, back fill, agriculture, selective engineering and processing useful materials. A large part of fly ash produced is disposed of with very high environmental risk. In the present paper, laboratory leaching test has been used to determine the potential mobility of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ni in fly ash samples, collected from Chandrapura Thermal Power Plant, Jharkhand and Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Plant, Andhra Pradesh, in order to assess their leachability when these wastes are disposed of. A cascade-leaching test was used at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) ranging between 20 and 100. Both fly ash samples exhibited neutral reactions, as indicated by pH values <11.75 and >7.0 at L/S=10 and contact time of 10 minutes. The percentage of leached amounts found to follow the trend Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd for fly ash from Chandrapura and Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd for fly ash from Ramagundam. Effect of pH on metals released from ash surface in aqueous solution followed a predictable pattern of decreasing release with increasing pH. PMID:19295096

  2. Volcanic Ash on Slopes of Karymsky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A volcanic eruption can produce gases, lava, bombs of rock, volcanic ash, or any combination of these elements. Of the volcanic products that linger on the land, most of us think of hardened lava flows, but volcanic ash can also persist on the landscape. One example of that persistence appeared on Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula in spring 2007. On March 25, 2007, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the area around the Karymsky Volcano. In this image, volcanic ash from earlier eruptions has settled onto the snowy landscape, leaving dark gray swaths. The ash stains are confined to the south of the volcano's summit, one large stain fanning out toward the southwest, and another toward the east. At first glance, the ash stain toward the east appears to form a semicircle north of the volcano and sweep back east. Only part of this dark shape, however, is actually volcanic ash. Near the coast, the darker color may result from thicker vegetation. Similar darker coloring appears to the south. Volcanic ash is not really ash at all, but tiny, jagged bits of rock and glass. These jagged particles pose serious health risks to humans and animals who might inhale them. Likewise, the ash poses hazards to animals eating plants that have been coated with ash. Because wind can carry volcanic ash thousands of kilometers, it poses a more far-reaching hazard than other volcanic ejecta. Substantial amounts of ash can even affect climate by blocking sunlight. Karymsky is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. It is one of many active volcanoes on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, which is part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Rim. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  3. Phosphorus and cadmium availability in soil fertilized with biosolids and ashes.

    PubMed

    Kumpiene, Jurate; Brännvall, Evelina; Wolters, Martin; Skoglund, Nils; Čirba, Stasys; Aksamitauskas, Vladislovas Česlovas

    2016-05-01

    The recycling of hygienized municipal sewage sludge (biosolids) to soil as the source of phosphorus (P) is generally encouraged. The use of biosolids, however, has some concerns, such as the presence of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements, and the possible presence of pathogens, hormones and antibiotics. Organic substances are destroyed during combustion whereas trace elements could partly be separated from P in different ash fractions. Biomass combustion waste (ash) can instead be considered as an alternative P source. This study evaluates and compares the impact of biosolids and their combustion residues (ashes), when used as fertilizers, on P and Cd solubility in soil, plant growth and plant uptake of these elements. Biosolids were also amended with K and Ca to improve the composition and properties of P in ashes, and incinerated at either 800 °C or 950 °C. Combustion of biosolids improved the Cd/P ratio in ashes by 2-5 times, compared with the initial biosolids. The low Cd content in ashes (4-9 mg Cd (kg P)(-1)) makes this material a particularly attractive alternative to mineral fertilizers. Significantly higher pore water P (as well as total N) was measured in soils containing biosolids, but plants produced a higher biomass in soil fertilized with ashes. The K and Ca amendments prior to biosolids combustion generally decreased the total Cd in ash, but had little effect on P and Cd uptake and biomass growth. Similarly, the combustion temperature had negligible effect on these factors as well. PMID:26933903

  4. Geochemical modeling and assessment of leaching from carbonated municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Qi; Jamro, Imtiaz Ali; Li, Rundong; Li, Yanlong; Li, Shaobai; Luan, Jingde

    2016-06-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ashes are characterized by high calcium oxide (CaO) content. Carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption by MSWI fly ash was discussed based on thermogravimetry (TG)/differential thermal analysis (DTA), minerology analysis, and adapting the Stenoir equation. TG/DTA analysis showed that the weight gain of the fly ash below 440 °C was as high as 5.70 %. An adapted Stenoir equation for MSWI fly ash was discussed. The chloride in MSWI fly ash has a major impact on CO2 adsorption by MSWI fly ash or air pollution control (APC) residues. Geochemical modeling of the critical trace elements copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and antimony (Sb) before and after carbonation was performed using a thermodynamic equilibrium model for solubility and a surface complexation model for metal sorption. Leaching of critical trace elements was generally found to be strongly dependent on the degree of carbonation attained, and their solubility appeared to be controlled by several minerals. Adsorption on ferrum (Fe) and aluminum (Al) colloids was also responsible for removal of the trace elements Cd, Pb, and Sb. We used Hakanson's potential ecological risk index (HPERI) to evaluate the risk of trace element leaching in general. The results demonstrate that the ecological risk showed a V-shaped dependency on pH; the optimum pH of the carbonated fly ash was found to be 10.3-11, resulting from the optimum carbonation (liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio = 0.25, carbonation duration = ∼30-48 h). The dataset and modeling results presented here provide a contribution to assessing the leaching behavior of MSWI fly ash under a wide range of conditions. PMID:26965281

  5. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.I.; Mishulovich, A.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. Currently only about 30% of the 5 million tons of these coal combustion residues generated in Illinois each year are utilized, mainly as aggregate. These residues are composed largely Of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. The process being developed in this program will use the residues directly in the manufacture of cement products. Therefore, a much larger amount of residues can be utilized. To achieve the above objective, in the first phase (current year) samples of coal combustion residues will be blended and mixed, as needed, with a lime or cement kiln dust (CKD) to adjust the CaO composition. Six mixtures will be melted in a laboratory-scale furnace at CTL. The resulting products will then be tested for cementitious properties. Two preliminary blends have been tested. One blend used fly ash with limestone, while the other used fly ash with CKD. Each blend was melted and then quenched, and the resulting product samples were ground to a specific surface area similar to portland cement. Cementitious properties of these product samples were evaluated by compression testing of 1-inch cube specimens. The specimens were formed out of cement paste where a certain percentage of the cement paste is displaced by one of the sample products. The specimens were cured for 24 hours at 55{degrees}C and 100% relative humidity. The specimens made with the product samples obtained 84 and 89% of the strength of a pure portland cement control cube. For comparison, similar (pozzolanic) materials in standard concrete practice are required to have a compressive strength of at least 75% of that of the control.

  6. Vitrification of municipal solid waste incineration fly ash using biomass ash as additives.

    PubMed

    Alhadj-Mallah, Moussa-Mallaye; Huang, Qunxing; Cai, Xu; Chi, Yong; Yan, JianHua

    2015-01-01

    Thermal melting is an energy-costing solution for stabilizing toxic fly ash discharged from the air pollution control system in the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant. In this paper, two different types of biomass ashes are used as additives to co-melt with the MSWI fly ash for reducing the melting temperature and energy cost. The effects of biomass ashes on the MSWI fly ash melting characteristics are investigated. A new mathematical model has been proposed to estimate the melting heat reduction based on the mass ratios of major ash components and measured melting temperature. Experimental and calculation results show that the melting temperatures for samples mixed with biomass ash are lower than those of the original MSWI fly ash and when the mass ratio of wood ash reaches 50%, the deformation temperature (DT), the softening, hemisphere temperature (HT) and fluid temperature (FT) are, respectively, reduced by 189°C, 207°C, 229°C, and 247°C. The melting heat of mixed ash samples ranges between 1650 and 2650 kJ/kg. When 50% wood ash is mixed, the melting heat is reduced by more than 700 kJ/kg for the samples studied in this paper. Therefore, for the vitrification treatment of the fly ash from MSW or other waste incineration plants, wood ash is a potential fluxing assistant. PMID:25220259

  7. The Occurrence of Quartz in Coal Fly Ash Particles.

    PubMed

    Meij, R; Nagengast, S; Te Winkel, H

    2000-01-01

    In spite of the presence of quartz, coal fly ash can be considered as a nuisance or inert dust. Respirable crystalline silica (e.g., quartz) is notorious for the induction of, for example, progressive massive fibrosis (PMF); besides, in 1997 the IARC stated that crystalline silica in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources is carcinogenic to humans. Quartz is present in both coal and residual ash. Ash originates from combustion of pulverised coal and, once removed from the flue gases by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it is called pulverized fuel ash (PFA). Thus, occupational exposure to PFA could also include exposure to silica. However, epidemiological studies did not show evidence of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). In vitro tests demonstrated that PFA is less toxic than silica, and in vivo data of PFA did not support the importance of silica content for toxicity. Commissioned by the Dutch coal-fired power plants, KEMA has started a research project to determine the quartz content in coal and the corresponding PFA. It appears that on average 50% of the a-quartz in coal is found again in the total fraction of PFA (D50(ae) 31 µm, where Dsotae) is the aerodynamically mass median diameter), whereas 16% is found in an even finer fraction (D50(ae) 10 µm). The remaining part of the quartz is embedded in a glass phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with x-ray microanalyses (XMA) of cross-sections of 11,130 ash particles showed that quartz in PFA is present as unmelted sand particles. These quartz particles are angularly shaped. However, two types are to be distinguished: free coarse angular quartz particles (not respirable) and small angular quartz particles within the PFA particles. From the SEM/XMA results, it has to be concluded that the quartz in the respirable fraction is predominantly present within the original molten PFA particle. Since the effects of quartz are surface related, this elucidates the negative results of quartz

  8. Biological responses of agricultural soils to fly-ash amendment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Sharma, Bhavisha; Sarkar, Abhijit; Sengupta, Chandan; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi

    2014-01-01

    The volume of solid waste produced in the world is increasing annually, and disposing of such wastes is a growing problem. Fly ash (FA) is a form of solid waste that is derived from the combustion of coal. Research has shown that fly ash may be disposed of by using it to amend agricultural soils. This review addresses the feasibility of amending agricultural field soils with fly ash for the purpose of improvings oil health and enhancing the production of agricultural crops. The current annual production of major coal combustion residues (CCRs) is estimated to be -600 million worldwide, of which about 500 million t (70-80%) is FA (Ahmaruzzaman 2010). More than 112 million t of FA is generated annually in India alone, and projections show that the production (including both FA and bottom ash) may exceed 170 million t per annum by 2015 (Pandey et al. 2009; Pandey and Singh 20 I 0). Managing this industrial by-product is a big challenge, because more is produced each year, and disposal poses a growing environmental problem.Studies on FA clearly shows that its application as an amendment to agricultural soils can significantly improve soil quality, and produce higher soil fertility. What FA application method is best and what level of application is appropriate for any one soil depends on the following factors: type of soil treated, crop grown, the prevailing agro climatic condition and the character of the FA used. Although utilizing FA in agricultural soils may help address solid waste disposal problems and may enhance agricultural production, its use has potential adverse effects also. In particular, using it in agriculture may enhance amounts of radionuclides and heavy metals that reach soils, and may therefore increase organism exposures in some instances. PMID:24984834

  9. EVALUATION OF SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION RESIDUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Investigations were carried out to compare and evaluate solidification/stabilization (S/S) processes to treat residues from combustion (MWC). ull factorial experimental design was used to processes to treat bottom ash, air pollution control (APC) residue, The 5 S/S processes incl...

  10. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  11. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  12. Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash: hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, V; Mentnech, M S; Stettler, L E; Dollberg, D D; Green, F H

    1983-04-01

    Volcanic ash samples from four Mount St. Helens' volcanic eruptions were subjected to mineralogical, analytical, and hemolytic studies in order to evaluate their potential for cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity. Plagioclase minerals constituted the major component of the ash with free crystalline silica concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 7.2%. The in vitro hemolytic activity of the volcanic ash was compared to similar concentrations of cytotoxic and inert minerals. The ash was markedly hemolytic, exhibiting an activity similar to chrysotile asbestos, a known fibrogenic agent. The hemolysis of the different ash samples varied with particle size but not with crystalline silica concentration. The results of these studies taken in conjunction with the results of our animal studies indicate a fibrogenic potential of volcanic ash in heavily exposed humans. PMID:6832120

  13. Volcanic ash: toxicity to isolated lung cells.

    PubMed

    Castranova, V; Bowman, L; Shreve, J M; Jones, G S; Miles, P R

    1982-02-01

    Samples of volcanic ash from Mount St. Helens were collected from Spokane, Washington, after the major eruption of May 18, 1980. The toxicity of ash to the lung was estimated by monitoring the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure on various physiological parameters of isolated lung cells. Volcanic ash had little effect on O2 consumption of rabbit type II pneumocytes, O2 consumption or superoxide release of resting rat alveolar macrophages, or membrane integrity of rat alveolar macrophages. Ash also caused no significant lipid peroxidation in rat lung microsomes. However, volcanic ash did inhibit superoxide anion release from zymosan-stimulated rat alveolar macrophages. Since superoxide is an antibacterial substance, this result suggests that exposure to volcanic ash may adversely affect the ability of alveolar macrophages to protect the lung from infection. PMID:6281450

  14. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  15. Effects of fly ash particle size on strength of Portland cement fly ash mortars

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogdu, K.; Tuerker, P.

    1998-09-01

    Fly ashes do not have the same properties for different size fractions. It can be accepted that the effect of a fly ash on mortar strength is a combined effect of its size fractions. Therefore, it was concluded that by separating the size fractions and replacing cement with them, the combined bulk effect of a fly ash on strength can be better analyzed. In this study, different size fractions of fly ash were used to replace cement partially in standard compressive strength mortars. The authors attempted to interpret the strength of Portland cement-fly ash mortars in terms of the chemical, mineralogical, morphological, and physical properties of different fly ash size fractions used. Strengths of the mortars were compared at 2, 7, 28, and 90 days. Also strength of mortars with all-in ash (original ash containing all the fractions) were estimated by using strength of mortars with size fractions and the suitability of this estimation was discussed.

  16. Hazards Associated With Recent Popocatepetl Ash Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, A.; Martin, A.; Espinasa-Pereña, R.; Ferres, D.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatepetl has been producing ash from small eruptions since 1994. Until 2012 about 650 small ash emissions have been recorded at the monitoring system of Popocatépetl Volcano. Ash consists mainly of glassy lithic clasts from the recent crater domes, plagioclase and pyroxene crystals, and in major eruptions, olivine and/or hornblende. Dome forming eruptions produced a fine white ash which covers the coarser ash. This fine ash consists of plagioclase, glass and cristobalite particles mostly under15 microns. During the recent crisis at Popocatépetl, April and May2012 ash fell on villages to the east and west of the volcano, reaching Mexico City (more than 20 million people) and Puebla (2 million people). In 14 cases the plumes had heights over 2 km, the largest on May 2 and 11 (3 and 4 km in height, respectively). Heavier ash fall occurred on April 13, 14, 20, and 23 and May 2, 3, 5, 11, 14, 23, 24 and 25. A database for ash fall was constructed from April 13 with field observations, reports emitted by the Centro Nacional de Comunicaciones (CENACOM), ash fall advisories received at CENAPRED and alerts from the Servicios a la Navegación en el Espacio Aéreo Mexicano (SENEAM). This aim of this database is to calculate areas affected by the ash and estimate the ash fall volume emitted by Popocatépetl in each of these events. Heavy ash fall from the May 8 to May 11 combined with reduced visibility due to fog forced to closure of the Puebla airport during various periods of time, for up to 13 hours. Domestic and international flights were cancelled. Ash eruptions have caused respiratory conditions in the state of Puebla, to the east of the volcano, since 1994 (Rojas et al, 2001), but because of the changing wind conditions in the summer mainly, some of these ash plumes go westward to towns in the State of Mexico and even Mexico City. Preliminary analyses of these eruptions indicate that some ash emissions produced increased respiratory noninfectious problems

  17. Proceedings: Tenth international ash use symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the 1993 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the tenth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. these symposia support the mission of the American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) to promote coal ash use in a variety of markets through technology transfer and commercialization. the 82 papers were submitted to ACAA by authors from sixteen countries. this volume 1 contains reports on the following: waste stabilization, aggregate, agriculture, structural fill, mine reclamation, aquatic uses, and environmental concerns. individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  18. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition. PMID:25935297

  19. Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    10 May 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a summertime view of the south polar residual cap of Mars. In this image, mesas composed largely of solid carbon dioxide are separated from one another by irregularly-shaped depressions. The variation in brightness across this scene is a function of several factors including, but not limited to, varying proportions of dust and solid carbon dioxide, undulating topography, and differences in the roughness of the slopes versus the flat surfaces.

    Location near: 86.7oS, 343.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  20. Effect of different binders on the physico-chemical, textural, histological, and sensory qualities of retort pouched buffalo meat nuggets.

    PubMed

    Devadason, I Prince; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Babji, Y

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of 4 binders, namely corn starch, wheat semolina, wheat flour, and tapioca starches, were evaluated to improve the quality of buffalo meat nuggets processed in retort pouches at F(0) 12.13. Incorporation of corn starch in buffalo meat nuggets produced more stable emulsion than other binders used. Product yield, drip loss, and pH did not vary significantly between the products with different binders. Shear force value was significantly higher for product with corn starch (0.42 +/- 0.0 Kg/cm(3)) followed by refined wheat flour (0.36 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), tapioca starch (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)), and wheat semolina (0.32 +/- 0.010 Kg/cm(3)). Type of binder used had no significant effect on frying loss, moisture, and protein content of the product. However, fat content was higher in products with corn starch when compared to products with other binders. Texture profile indicated that products made with corn starch (22.17 +/- 2.55 N) and refined wheat flour (21.50 +/- 0.75 N) contributed firmer texture to the product. Corn starch contributed greater chewiness (83.8 +/- 12.51) to the products resulting in higher sensory scores for texture and overall acceptability. Products containing corn starch showed higher sensory scores for all attributes in comparison to products with other binders. Panelists preferred products containing different binders in the order of corn starch (7.23 +/- 0.09) > refined wheat flour (6.48 +/- 0.13) > tapioca starch (6.45 +/- 0.14) > wheat semolina (6.35 +/- 0.13) based on sensory scores. Histological studies indicated that products with corn starch showed dense protein matrix, uniform fat globules, and less number of vacuoles when compared to products made with other binders. The results indicated that corn flour is the better cereal binder for developing buffalo meat nuggets when compared to all other binders based on physico-chemical and sensory attributes. PMID:20492199

  1. Firearms discharge residue sample collection techniques.

    PubMed

    Goleb, J A; Midkiff, C R

    1975-10-01

    Critical comparisons of Ba and Sb in firearms discharge residue were made on samples collected by three independent collection technqiues. Collection materials studied were transparent adhesive tape, (Scotch Brand), a solution of cellulose acetate in acetone ("Film Lift"), and plastic-shafted cotton swabs wetted with dilute nitric acid. Flameless atomic absorption analyses were performed with a Jarrell-Ash Model 810 instrument equipped with a tantalum strip atomizer. Tape and cotton swabs gave comparable positive indications of residue, with frequencies of 90 and 80%, respectively. The plastic Film Lift gave fewer positives, with a frequency of 50%. With the transparent tape lift, gunshot residue particles are discernible, making nondestructive microscopic identification possible prior to destructive elemental analysis. PMID:1176924

  2. Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2007-12-15

    Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P.

    2006-08-15

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

  4. Fly ash leachate generation and qualitative trends at Ohio test sites

    SciTech Connect

    Solc, J.; Foster, H.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy, the environmental impact and potential contamination from landfilled fly ash (coal conversion solid residues - CCSRs) have been studied at field sites in Ohio. The progressive increase of moisture content within pilot cells over depth and time facilitated intensive chemical processes and generation of highly alkaline (pH of 10 to 12) leachate. Chemistry of pore water from lysimeters and ASTM leachate from fly ash and soil cores indicate the leachate potential to migrate out of deposit and impact the pore water quality of surrounding soils. Na, SO{sub 4} and, particularly, K, Cl, pH, and EC appeared to be valuable indicator parameters for tracking potential leachate transport both within the cells and below the ash/soil interface.

  5. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes.

    PubMed

    Skodras, G; Prokopidou, M; Sakellaropoulos, G P

    2006-08-01

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischeri) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. PMID:16841309

  6. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett

    2012-05-15

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with a quantity of spray dryer ash (SDA) and water to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and form a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 40%, and in some cases less than 20%, of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. An optional alkaline activator may be mixed with the fly ash and SDA to facilitate the geopolymerization reaction. The alkaline activator may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  7. [Effects of stabilization treatment on migration and transformation of heavy metals in mineral waste residues].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shu-Hua; Chen, Zhi-Liang; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Pan, Wei-Bin; Peng, Xiao-Chun; Che, Rong; Ou, Ying-Juan; Lei, Guo-Jian; Zhou, Ding

    2014-04-01

    Different forms of heavy metals in soil will produce different environmental effects, and will directly influence the toxicity, migration and bioavailability of heavy metals. This study used lime, fly ash, dried sludge, peanut shells as stabilizers in the treatment of heavy metals in mineral waste residues. Morphological analyses of heavy metal, leaching experiments, potted plant experiments were carried out to analyze the migration and transformation of heavy metals. The results showed that after adding stabilizers, the pH of the acidic mineral waste residues increased to more than neutral, and the organic matter content increased significantly. The main existing forms of As, Pb, and Zn in the mineral waste residues were the residual. The contents of exchangeable and organic matter-bound As decreased by 65.6% and 87.7% respectively after adding fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells. Adding lime, fly ash and peanut shells promoted the transformation of As from the Fe-Mn oxide-bound to the carbonate-bound, and adding lime and fly ash promoted the transformation of Pb and Zn from the exchangeable, Fe-Mn oxide-bound, organic matter-bound to the residual. After the early stage of the stabilization treatment, the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate had varying degrees of decline, and adding peanut shells could reduce the contents of As, Pb and Zn in the leachate further. Among them, the content of As decreased most significantly after treatment with fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shells, with a decline of 57.4%. After treatment with lime, fly ash and peanut shells, the content of Zn decreased most significantly, by 24.9%. The addition of stabilizers was advantageous to the germination and growth of plants. The combination of fly ash, dried sludge and peanut shell produced the best effect, and the Vetiveria zizanioides germination rate reached 76% in the treated wasted mineral residues. PMID:24946616

  8. Interaction of planar and nonplanar organic contaminants with coal fly ash: Effects of polar and nonpolar solvent solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, R.M.; Ryba, S.A.; Cantwell, M.G.; Gundersen, J.L.; Tien, R.; Perron, M.M.

    2006-08-15

    Coal fly ash has a very high sorption capacity for a variety of anthropogenic contaminants and has been used to cleanse wastewater of pollutants for approximately 40 years. Like other black carbons, the planar structure of the residual carbon in fly ash results in elevated affinities for planar organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The present study was performed to understand better the mechanisms affecting the strong interaction between planar contaminants and coal fly ash. The removal of 10 PCBs and 10 PAHs by several fly ashes and other sorbents was evaluated under different experimental conditions to highlight the intermolecular forces influencing adsorption. Varying fly ash concentration and solvent system composition indicated that dispersive interactions were most prevalent. For the PCBs, empirical results also were compared to molecular modeling estimates of the energy necessary for the PCB molecule to assume a planar conformation (PCe). The PCe levels ranged from 8 to 25 kcal/mol, depending on the degree of ortho-substituted chlorination of the PCB. A significant correlation between PCe and PCB removal from solution was observed for the fly ashes and activated carbon, whereas the nonplanar sorbent octadecyl (C{sub 18}) indicated no relationship. These findings demonstrate the strong interaction between black carbon fly ash and planar organic contaminants. Furthermore, as exemplified by the PCBs, these results show how this interaction is a function of a contaminant's ability to assume a planar conformation.

  9. The impact of thermal treatment and cooling methods on municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash with an emphasis on Cl.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kawano, Takashi; Kakuta, Yoshitada

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom-ash products possess qualifications to be utilized in cement production. However, the instant use of bottom ash is inhibited by a number of factors, among which the chlorine (Cl) content is always strictly restricted. In this paper, the unquenched MSWI bottom ash was used as the experimental substance, and the influences of thermal treatment and cooling methods on the content and existence of Cl in the ash residues were investigated. The characterization of the MSWI bottom-ash samples examined by utilizing X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The experimental results show that as a function of thermal treatment, the reduction rate of Cl is slight below 15.0%, which is relatively low compared with water washing process. Different cooling methods had impacts on the existing forms of Cl. It was understood that most of Cl existed in the glass phase if the bottom ash was air cooled. Contrarily in case of water-quenched bottom ash, Cl could also be accumulated in the newly-formed quench products as chloride salts or hydrate substances such as Friedel's salt. PMID:26895375

  10. 10 Risk to Ash from Emerald Ash Borer: Can Biological Control Prevent the Loss of Ash Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ash trees were once relatively free of serious, major diseases and insect pests in North America until the arrival of EAB, which was first detected in North America in Michigan in 2002. As of February 2014, EAB had been detected in 22 U.S. states and two Canadian provinces, killing millions of ash ...

  11. Leaching of mixtures of biochar and fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Palumbo, Anthony V.; Porat, Iris; Phillips, Jana R.; Amonette, James E.; Drake, Meghan M.; Brown, Steven D.; Schadt, Christopher W.

    2009-06-22

    Increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, especially CO2, and their effects on global temperature have led to interest in the possibility of carbon storage in terrestrial environments. Both the residual char from biomass pyrolysis (biochar) and fly ash from coal combustion have the potential to significantly expand terrestrial sequestration options. Both biochar and fly ash also have potentially beneficial effects on soil properties. Fly ash has been shown to increase porosity, water-holding capacity, pH, conductivity, and dissolved SO42-, CO32-, Cl- and basic cations. Adding biochar to soil generally raises pH, increases total nitrogen and total phosphorous, encourages greater root development, improves cation exchange capacity and decreases available aluminum. A combination of these benefits likely is responsible for observed increases in yields for crops such as corn and sugarcane. In addition, it has been found that soils with added biochar emit lower amounts of other greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) than do unamended soils. Biochar and fly ash amendments may be useful in promoting terrestrial carbon sequestration on currently underutilized and degraded lands. For example, about 1% of the US surface lands consist of previously mined lands or highway rights-of-way. Poorly managed lands could count for another 15% of US area. Biochar and fly ash amendments could increase productivity of these lands and increase carbon storage in the soil. Previous results showed minimal leaching of organic carbon and metals from a variety of fly ashes. In the present study, we examined the properties of mixtures of biochar, fly ash, and soil and evaluated the leaching of organic carbon and metals from these mixtures. The carbon sorption experiments showed release of carbon from biochar, rather than sorption, except at the highest concentrations in the Biochar HW sample. Similar results were obtained by others for oxidative leaching of bituminous coal, in

  12. Changes of the ash structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peer, Václav; Friedel, Pavel; Janša, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the article is to appraisal of the changes in the structure of the ash due to the addition of compounds capable of the eutectics composition change. For the transformation were used limestone and dolomite dosed in amounts of 2, 5 and 10 wt.% with pellets of spruce wood, willow wood and refused derived fuel. Combustion temperatures of the mixtures were adjusted according to the temperatures reached during the using of fuels in power plants, i.e. 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200 °C.

  13. Soil quality in a cropland soil treated with wood ash containing charcoal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omil, Beatriz; Balboa, Miguel A.; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia; Arias-González, Ander; Vega, Jose A.; Merino, Agustin

    2014-05-01

    The strategy of the European Union "Europe 2020" states that by 2020, 20% of final energy consumption must come from renewables. In this scenario, there is an increasing use of biomass utilization for energy production. Indeed, it is expected that the production of wood-ash will increase in coming years. Wood ash, a mixture of ash and charcoal, generated as a by-product of biomass combustion in power plants, can be applied to soil to improve the soil quality and crop production. Since the residue contains significant content of charcoal, the application of mixed wood ash may also improve the SOM content and soil quality in the long term, in soils degraded as a consequence of intensive management. The objective of this study was asses the changes in SOM quality and soil properties in a degraded soils treated with wood ash containing charcoal. The study was carried out in a field devoted to cereal crops during the last decades. The soil was acidic (pH 4.5) with a low SOC content (3 %) and fine texture. The experiment was based on a randomised block design with four replicates. Each block included the following four treatments: Control, 16 Mg fly wood ash ha-1, 16 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (16 Mg) and 32 Mg mixed wood ash ha-1 (32 Mg). The application was carried out once. The ash used in the study was obtained from a thermal power plant and was mainly derived from the combustion of Pinus radiata bark and branches. The wood ash is highly alkaline (pH= 10), contains 10 % of highly condensed black carbon (atomic H/C ratio < 0.5 and T50 en DSC= 500 ºC). The evolution of SOM properties were monitored over three years by solid state 13C CPMAS NMR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). These techniques were applied in bulk samples and aggregates of different sizes. The changes in microbial activity were studied by analysis of microbial biomass C and basal respiration. The soil bacterial community was studied by the Biolog method. Several physical properties, such soil

  14. Phosphorus recovery from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, Yuliya; Fedje, K Karlfeldt

    2013-06-01

    The potential of phosphorus (P) recycling from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residue is investigated. Vast and ever increasing amounts of incineration residues are produced worldwide; these are an environmental burden, but also a resource, as they are a major sink for the material flows of society. Due to strict environmental regulations, in combination with decreasing landfilling space, the disposal of the MSWI residues is problematic. At the same time, resource scarcity is recognized as a global challenge for the modern world, and even more so for future generations. This paper reports on the methods and efficiency of P extraction from MSWI fly ash by acid and base leaching and precipitation procedures. Phosphorus extracted from the MSWI residues generated each year could meet 30% of the annual demand for mineral phosphorus fertiliser in Sweden, given a recovery rate of 70% achieved in this initial test. The phosphorus content of the obtained product is slightly higher than in sewage sludge, but due to the trace metal content it is not acceptable for application to agricultural land in Sweden, whereas application in the rest of the EU would be possible. However, it would be preferable to use the product as a raw material to replace rock phosphate in fertilizer production. Further development is currently underway in relation to procedure optimization, purification of the phosphorus product, and the simultaneous recovery of other resources. PMID:23490361

  15. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  16. Building a Comprehensive Collection of Ash Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) has conserved seed collections of ash germplasm at the USDA-ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station (NCRPIS) in Ames, IA since the 1970s. When Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) was introduced into southeastern MI, the NCRPIS maintained a relatively...

  17. Scientists Outline Volcanic Ash Risks to Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-01-01

    The ash clouds that belched out of Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull volcano last spring and dispersed over much of Europe, temporarily paralyzing aviation, were vast smoke signal warnings about the hazard that volcanic ash poses for air traffic around the world. At a 15 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, two experts with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) presented an overview of the damage airplanes can sustain from rock fragment- and mineral fragment-laden ash, an update on efforts to mitigate the hazard of ash, and an outline of further measures that are needed to address the problem. Between 1953 and 2009, there were 129 reported encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds, according to a newly released USGS document cited at the briefing. The report, “Encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds: A compilation of known incidents, 1953-2009,” by Marianne Guffanti, Thomas Casadevall, and Karin Budding, indicates that 26 encounters involved significant damage to the airplanes; nine of those incidents resulted in engine shutdown during flight. The report, which does not focus on the effects on airplanes of cumulative exposure to dilute ash and does not include data since 2009, indicates that “ash clouds continue to pose substantial risks to safe and efficient air travel globally.”

  18. Energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr. (Inventor); Suitor, Jerry W. (Inventor); Dubis, David (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to an energy efficient continuous flow ash lockhopper, or other lockhopper for reactor product or byproduct. The invention includes an ash hopper at the outlet of a high temperature, high pressure reactor vessel containing heated high pressure gas, a fluidics control chamber having an input port connected to the ash hopper's output port and an output port connected to the input port of a pressure letdown means, and a control fluid supply for regulating the pressure in the control chamber to be equal to or greater than the internal gas pressure of the reactor vessel, whereby the reactor gas is contained while ash is permitted to continuously flow from the ash hopper's output port, impelled by gravity. The main novelty resides in the use of a control chamber to so control pressure under the lockhopper that gases will not exit from the reactor vessel, and to also regulate the ash flow rate. There is also novelty in the design of the ash lockhopper shown in two figures. The novelty there is the use of annular passages of progressively greater diameter, and rotating the center parts on a shaft, with the center part of each slightly offset from adjacent ones to better assure ash flow through the opening.

  19. FATE OF INHALED FLY ASH IN HAMSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine pulmonary deposition, translocation, and clearance of inhaled fly ash, hamsters received a single 95-min nose-only exposure to neutron-activated fly ash. Over a period of 99 days postexposure, the hamsters were sacrificed in groups of six animals. Lungs, liver, kidne...

  20. A MECHANISM FOR ASH ASSISTED SLUDGE DEWATERING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of various additives to improve the dewaterability of activated sludge was determined and the surface properties of additives characterized in order to arrive at a mechanism for ash conditioning of activated sludge. The primary additives investigated were fly ash and ...

  1. Typical pollutants in bottom ashes from a typical medical waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Chen, Mengjun; Liu, Zhengang; Wu, Da Bo Jianzhi

    2010-01-15

    Incineration of medical waste (MW) is an important alternative way for disposal of this type of hazardous waste, especially in China because of the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndromes (SARs) in 2003. Thus, far, fly ash has received much attention but less attention has been paid to bottom ash. In this study, bottom ash samples were collected from a typical MW incinerator, and typical pollutants including heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the ash were examined. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy results indicated that CaO, SiO(2) and Al(2)O(3) were the main components of the bottom ash. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy showed that the ash contained large amounts of heavy metals, including Zn, Ti, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni and Sn. Most of the heavy metals (e.g., Ba, Cr, Ni, and Sn) presented in the residual fraction; whereas Mn, Pb and Zn presented in Fe-Mn oxides fraction, and Cu in organic-matter fraction. Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests indicated that the leached amounts of heavy metals were well below the limits. The sum of 16 US EPA priority PAHs (Sigma PAHs) varied from 10.30 to 38.14 mg kg(-1), and the total amounts of carcinogenic PAHs ranged between 4.09 and 16.95 mg kg(-1), exceeding the limits regulated by several countries. This research provides basic information for the evaluation of the environmental risk of MW incinerator bottom ash. PMID:19748182

  2. A STUDY ON ASH PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISITICS OF CANDLE FILTER SURFACE REGENERATION AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Vasudevan, V.; Kang, B.S-J.; Johnson, E.K.

    2002-09-19

    Ceramic barrier filtration is a leading technology employed in hot gas filtration. Hot gases loaded with ash particle flow through the ceramic candle filters and deposit ash on their outer surface. The deposited ash is periodically removed using back pulse cleaning jet, known as surface regeneration. The cleaning done by this technique still leaves some residual ash on the filter surface, which over a period of time sinters, forms a solid cake and leads to mechanical failure of the candle filter. A room temperature testing facility (RTTF) was built to gain more insight into the surface regeneration process before testing commenced at high temperature. RTTF was instrumented to obtain pressure histories during the surface regeneration process and a high-resolution high-speed imaging system was integrated in order to obtain pictures of the surface regeneration process. The objective of this research has been to utilize the RTTF to study the surface regeneration process at the convenience of room temperature conditions. The face velocity of the fluidized gas, the regeneration pressure of the back pulse and the time to build up ash on the surface of the candle filter were identified as the important parameters to be studied. Two types of ceramic candle filters were used in the study. Each candle filter was subjected to several cycles of ash build-up followed by a thorough study of the surface regeneration process at different parametric conditions. The pressure histories in the chamber and filter system during build-up and regeneration were then analyzed. The size distribution and movement of the ash particles during the surface regeneration process was studied. Effect of each of the parameters on the performance of the regeneration process is presented. A comparative study between the two candle filters with different characteristics is presented.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of zeolites prepared from industrial fly ash.

    PubMed

    Franus, Wojciech; Wdowin, Magdalena; Franus, Małgorzata

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the possibility of using fly ash to produce synthetic zeolites. The synthesis class F fly ash from the Stalowa Wola SA heat and power plant was subjected to 24 h hydrothermal reaction with sodium hydroxide. Depending on the reaction conditions, three types of synthetic zeolites were formed: Na-X (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 75 °C), Na-P1 (20 g fly ash, 0.5 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaOH, 95 °C), and sodalite (20 g fly ash, 0.8 dm(3) of 5 mol · dm(-3) NaOH + 0.4 dm(3) of 3 mol · dm(-3) NaCl, 95 °C). As synthesized materials were characterized to obtain mineral composition (X-ray diffractometry, Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometry), adsorption properties (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, N2 isotherm adsorption/desorption), and ion exchange capacity. The most effective reaction for zeolite preparation was when sodalite was formed and the quantitative content of zeolite from X-ray diffractometry was 90 wt%, compared with 70 wt% for the Na-X and 75 wt% for the Na-P1. Residues from each synthesis reaction were the following: mullite, quartz, and the remains of amorphous aluminosilicate glass. The best zeolitic material as characterized by highest specific surface area was Na-X at almost 166 m(2) · g(-1), while for the Na-P1 and sodalite it was 71 and 33 m(2) · g(-1), respectively. The ion exchange capacity decreased in the following order: Na-X at 1.8 meq · g(-1), Na-P1 at 0.72 meq · g(-1), and sodalite at 0.56 meq · g(-1). The resulting zeolites are competitive for commercially available materials and are used as ion exchangers in industrial wastewater and soil decontamination. PMID:24838802

  4. Briquetting of charcoal from sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (scbfa) as an alternative fuel.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, S R; Pena, A F V; Miguel, A G

    2010-05-01

    Brazil is the largest worldwide producer of alcohol and sugar from sugar-cane and has an extensive alternative program for car fuel which is unique. The objective of this work is to offer one management option of a solid residue produced by this industrial segment. The pressed sugar-cane bagasse is burned to produce steam and electricity by cogeneration. The combustion yields both bottom and fly ashes which contain high amounts of silicon oxide as a major component. Fly ash which contains a high volume (>30% by weight) of charcoal was used in this work. The ash was sieved to separate the thick charcoal from inorganic materials which are concentrated in the thinner fraction. The briquettes were hand pressed using charcoal mixed with a binder (starch) obtained from cassava flour (a tropical root). The results (density, mechanical resistance) obtained with 8% by weight of starch binder are presented here. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to characterize the ashes and the briquettes. The results show that sugar-cane bagasse fly ash (SCBFA) can be used to produce briquettes with an average density of 1.12gcm(-3) and an average calorific value of 25,551kJ/kg. PMID:20133118

  5. Heavy metal immobilization during the codisposal of municipal solid waste bottom ash and wastewater sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Eighmy, T.T.; Guay, M.A.; McHugh, S.; Kinner, N.E.; Ballestero, T.P. )

    1988-01-01

    One of the problems attendant to the incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) is the siting and design of secure landfills to receive combustion residues from the incineration process. The authors have completed a study for a solid waste cooperative that was interested in codisposing MSW bottom ash and wastewater sludges. This codisposal scheme was initiated to address severe ash disposal problems within the Lamprey Regional Solid Waste Cooperative, and a severe sludge disposal problem in the City of Somersworth, NH, a member of the Cooperative and host city to the proposed codisposal site. The design of the landfill indicated that mixtures of bottom ash and combined sludges would range between 10:1 and 5:1 (by volume). An assessment of the leachate characteristics over time was required to address issues of pretreatment requirements, groundwater monitoring, and the potential sequestration and mobilization of heavy metals from the ash by organic ligands present in the sludge. This paper focuses on the biogeochemical conditions in the ash/sludge matrix that are conductive to the immobilization of heavy metals within the matrix via sulfide or polysulfide precipitation.

  6. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araujo

    2010-06-15

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement.

  7. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.

    PubMed

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. PMID:20163947

  8. Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim Hougaard Pedersen; Merc Casanovas Meli; Anker Degn Jensen; Kim Dam-Johansen

    2009-01-15

    The residual carbon in fly ash produced from pulverized coal combustion can adsorb the air-entraining admixtures (AEAs) added to enhance air entrainment in concrete. This behavior of the ash can be suppressed by exposing the fly ash to oxidizing species, which oxidizes the carbon surface and thus prevents the AEA to be adsorbed. In the present work, two fly ashes have been ozonated in a fixed bed reactor and the results showed that ozonation is a potential post-treatment method that can lower the AEA requirements of a fly ash up to 6 times. The kinetics of the carbon oxidation by ozone was found to be fast. A kinetic model has been formulated, describing the passivation of carbon, and it includes the stoichiometry of the ozone consumption (0.8 mol of O{sub 3}/kg of C) and an ineffective ozone loss caused by catalytic decomposition. The simulated results correlated well with the experimental data. 28 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Existence of Cl in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and dechlorination effect of thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuo; Saffarzadeh, Amirhomayoun; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kawano, Takashi

    2014-02-28

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is widely used in Japan, through which large amount of incineration residues are produced. The recycle/reuse of the incineration residues is troubled by many factors. This paper studied the MSWI bottom ash with the principal focus on Cl. Both bulk analysis and microanalysis methods have been carried out. The bulk analysis disclosed a particle-size dependent pattern of the Cl content in the bottom ash and the insoluble Cl is essentially in the form of Friedel's salt (3CaO·Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)·10H(2)O). The microanalysis revealed that Cl preferentially exists in the quench phase of the individual bottom ash particle. Since Friedel's salt and the other quench products are thermally unstable, a series of thermal treatments were carried out to decompose such Cl-bearing phases. The experimental results showed the total Cl content in the MSWI bottom ash was reduced by 55.46% after a 4-h heating process at 1000°C. The removal of the soluble Cl (originally as alkali salts) by the thermal process was found to be more effective. However, the insoluble Cl content in the heated sample was barely lowered owing to the formation of calcium chlorocalumite (11CaO·7Al(2)O(3)·CaCl(2)) in the course of heating. PMID:24462890

  10. Worldwide high-volume coal ash utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Manz, O.E.

    1996-10-01

    The utilization of coal ash in concrete is the most extensive and widespread throughout the world, as compared to other uses of ash. However, in addition to the use in 1992 of over 39 million tons of coal ash in concrete, there were over 40 billion tons used in structural, land, or embankment fill; almost 7 million tons for pavement base course or subgrade; over 40 million tons for filler for mines, quarries or pits; almost 3 million tons for soil amendment; over 1.8 million tons for lightweight aggregate; and over 7 million tons for aerated blocks. In 1992, China had the largest production of coal ash as well as the largest utilization. Russian and the US had the second and third largest production. Russia, Germany, US, and Poland were next to China in utilization. This paper summarizes recent coal ash production and utilization in the world and presents a country-by-country survey of the high-volume users.

  11. Construction procedures using self hardening fly ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, S. I.; Parker, D. G.

    1980-07-01

    Fly ash produced in Arkansas from burning Wyoming low sulfur coal is self-hardening and can be effective as a soil stabilizing agent for clays and sands. The strength of soil-self hardening fly ash develops rapidly when compacted immediately after mixing. Seven day unconfined compressive strengths up to 1800 psi were obtained from 20% fly ash and 80% sand mixtures. A time delay between mixing the fly ash with the soil and compaction of the mixture reduced the strength. With two hours delay, over a third of the strength was lost and with four hours delay, the loss was over half. Gypsum and some commercial concrete retarders were effective in reducing the detrimental effect of delayed compaction. Adequate mixing of the soil and fly ash and rapid compaction of the mixtures were found to be important parameters in field construction of stabilized bases.

  12. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Akgerman, A.; Zardkoohi, M.

    1996-03-01

    Adsorption isotherms for adsorption of phenol, 3-chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol from water onto fly ash were determined. These isotherms were modeled by the Freundlich isotherm. The fly ash adsorbed 67, 20, and 22 mg/g for phenol, chlorophenol, and 2,4-dichlorophenol, respectively, for the highest water phase concentrations used. The affinity of phenolic compounds for fly ash is above the expected amount corresponding to a monolayer coverage considering that the surface area of fly ash is only 1.87 m{sup 2}/g. The isotherms for contaminants studied were unfavorable, indicating that adsorption becomes progressively easier as more solutes are taken up. Phenol displayed a much higher affinity for fly ash than 3-chlorophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol.

  13. Proceedings: Ninth international ash use symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the 1991 International Coal Ash Use Symposium, the ninth in a series since 1967, is to publicize innovations in coal ash technology. These symposia support the mission of the American Ash Association (established originally as the National Ash Association after the first symposium) to promote coal ash technology transfer and commercial utilization. The three-volume publication contains 80 papers, presented at seventeen sessions during the January 1991 event. Volume 1 contains papers related to concrete and related products like cellular concrete, and aggregates. Volume 2 covers the growing market in waste stabilization/solidification and aquatic uses. This volume (Volume 2) brings together papers on a variety of high-volume uses, and R D projects. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Fly Ash Amendments Catalyze Soil Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Amonette, James E.; Kim, Jungbae; Russell, Colleen K.; Palumbo, A. V.; Daniels, William L.

    2003-09-15

    We tested the effects of four alkaline fly ashes {Class C (sub-bituminous), Class F (bituminous), Class F [bituminous with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) products], and Class F (lignitic)} on a reaction that simulates the enzyme-mediated formation of humic materials in soils. The presence of FGD products completely halted the reaction, and the bituminous ash showed no benefit over an ash-free control. The sub-bituminous and lignitic fly ashes, however, increased the amount of polymer formed by several-fold. The strong synergetic effect of these ashes when enzyme is present apparently arises from the combined effects of metal oxide co-oxidation (Fe and Mn oxides), alkaline pH, and physical stabilization of the enzyme (porous silica cenospheres).

  15. Properties and Leachability of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated with Fly Ash and Bottom Ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Jamaluddin, Norwati; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    The process of combustion in coal-fired power plant generates ashes, namely fly ash and bottom ash. Besides, coal ash produced from coal combustion contains heavy metals within their compositions. These metals are toxic to the environment as well as to human health. Fortunately, treatment methods are available for these ashes, and the use of fly ash and bottom ash in the concrete mix is one of the few. Therefore, an experimental program was carried out to study the properties and determine the leachability of selfcompacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash. For experimental study, self-compacting concrete was produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a replacement for sand with the ratios of 10%, 20%, and 30% respectively. The fresh properties tests conducted were slump flow, t500, sieve segregation and J-ring. Meanwhile for the hardened properties, density, compressive strength and water absorption test were performed. The samples were then crushed to be extracted using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure and heavy metals content within the samples were identified accordingly using Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The results demonstrated that both fresh and hardened properties were qualified to categorize as self-compacting concrete. Improvements in compressive strength were observed, and densities for all the samples were identified as a normal weight concrete with ranges between 2000 kg/m3 to 2600 kg/m3. Other than that, it was found that incorporation up to 30% of the ashes was safe as the leached heavy metals concentration did not exceed the regulatory levels, except for arsenic. In conclusion, this study will serve as a reference which suggests that fly ash and bottom ash are widely applicable in concrete technology, and its incorporation in self-compacting concrete constitutes a potential means of adding value to appropriate mix and design.

  16. Investigation on Leaching Behaviour of Fly Ash and Bottom Ash Replacement in Self-Compacting Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Ikhmal Haqeem Hassan, Mohd; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al

    2016-06-01

    Fly ash and bottom ash are some of the waste generated by coal-fired power plants, which contains large quantities of toxic and heavy metals. In recent years, many researchers have been interested in studying on the properties of self-compacting concrete incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash but there was very limited research from the combination of fly ash and bottom ash towards the environmental needs. Therefore, this research was focused on investigating the leachability of heavy metals of SCC incorporated with fly ash and bottom ash by using Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure and Static Leaching Test. The samples obtained from the coal-fired power plant located at Peninsula, Malaysia. In this study, the potential heavy metals leached out from SCC that is produced with fly ash as a replacement for Ordinary Portland Cement and bottom ash as a substitute for sand with the ratios from 10% to 30% respectively were designated and cast. There are eight heavy metals of concern such as As, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Mn and Fe. The results indicated that most of the heavy metals leached below the permissible limits from the United States Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization limit for drinking water. As a conclusion, the minimum leaching of the heavy metals from the incorporation of fly ash and bottom ash in self-compacting concrete was found in 20% of fly ash and 20% of bottom ash replacement. The results also indicate that this incorporation could minimize the potential of environmental problems.

  17. Treatment process for MSW combustion fly ash laboratory and pilot plant experiments.

    PubMed

    Wilewska-Bien, M; Lundberg, M; Steenari, B-M; Theliander, H

    2007-01-01

    Fly ash from combustion of municipal solid waste sometimes contains large amounts of soluble salts, such as NaCl, even though the content of soluble toxic metal compounds is relatively low. Removal of the salts by washing with water has been suggested as a method to increase the stability of this type of ash. In the work presented here, a simple washing process was studied and evaluated. The process includes three steps: leaching with water, filtration and displacement washing. Basic data were obtained in laboratory experiments and used in the construction of pilot plant equipment at a full size fluidized bed boiler, where a side-stream of the cyclone ash was treated. The process was designed to minimize the water consumption while obtaining an effective removal of salts and a stable ash residue. In order to achieve this, recirculation of leaching liquor was used and the displacement washing was adjusted to become close to ideal. The results showed that an ash/water slurry with a liquid to solid ratio as low as 3 could be handled without difficulty in the mixing, pumping and filtration units. Washing of the filter cake at a liquid to solid ratio of 0.5 removed the major part of the remaining dissolved salts in the pore liquid. About 90% of the chloride content was removed from the ash, whereas the contents of Na, K, Ca, Cd, Pb and a number of other minor elements were removed by 10-30%. Before treatment, the results of ash leaching tests were sometimes too high for chloride (2003/33/EC), but the treatment reduced the amount of soluble chlorides to far below the limit values. The leachability of most metals was reduced or unaffected by the ash treatment. For Na, K and Cl, it was less than 10% of the value for the untreated ash. However, the results showed that some ash components may be mobilized by the washing. Antimony is the most important due to its toxicity. PMID:17157492

  18. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2013-01-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  19. Treatment of fly ash for use in concrete

    DOEpatents

    Boxley, Chett; Akash, Akash; Zhao, Qiang

    2012-05-08

    A process for treating fly ash to render it highly usable as a concrete additive. A quantity of fly ash is obtained that contains carbon and which is considered unusable fly ash for concrete based upon foam index testing. The fly ash is mixed with an activator solution sufficient to initiate a geopolymerization reaction and for a geopolymerized fly ash. The geopolymerized fly ash is granulated. The geopolymerized fly ash is considered usable fly ash for concrete according to foam index testing. The geopolymerized fly ash may have a foam index less than 35% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash, and in some cases less than 10% of the foam index of the untreated fly ash. The activator solution may contain an alkali metal hydroxide, carbonate, silicate, aluminate, or mixtures thereof.

  20. Classification and categorization of treatment methods for ash generated by municipal solid waste incineration: a case for the 2 greater metropolitan regions of Greece.

    PubMed

    Karagiannidis, A; Kontogianni, St; Logothetis, D

    2013-02-01

    The primary goal of managing MSW incineration residues is to avoid any impact on human health or the environment. Incineration residues consist of bottom ash, which is generally considered as rather harmless and fly ash which usually contains compounds which are potentially harmful for public health. Small quantities of ash (both bottom and fly) are produced currently in Greece, mainly from the healthcare waste incineration facility in Attica region. Once incineration plants for MSW (currently under planning) are constructed in Greece, the produced ash quantities will increase highly. Thus, it is necessary to organize, already at this stage, a roadmap towards disposal/recovery methods of these ash quantities expected. Certain methods, related to the treatment of the future generated ash which are more appropriate to be implemented in Greece are highlighted in the present paper. The performed analysis offers a waste management approach, having 2016 as a reference year for two different incineration rates; 30% and 100% of the remaining MSW after recycling process. The results focus on the two greater regions of Greece: Attica and Central Macedonia. The quantity of potential future ash generation ranges from 137 to 459 kt for Attica region and from 62 to 207 kt for central Macedonia region depending on the incineration rate applied. Three alternative scenarios for the treatment of each kind of ash are compiled and analysed. Metal recovery and reuse as an aggregate in concrete construction proved to be the most advantageous -in terms of economy-bottom ash management scenario. Concerning management of the fly ash, chemical treatment with phosphoric solution addition results to be the lowest total treatment cost and is considered as the most profitable solution. The proposed methodology constitutes a safe calculation model for operators of MSW incineration plants regardless of the region or country they are located in. PMID:23206519

  1. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and in a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.

  2. Removal of introduced inorganic content from chipped forest residues via air classification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Aston, John E.; Westover, Tyler L.; Cherry, Robert S.; Thompson, David N.

    2015-08-04

    Inorganic content in biomass decreases the efficiency of conversion processes, especially thermochemical conversions. The combined concentrations of specific ash forming elements are the primary attributes that cause pine residues to be considered a degraded energy conversion feedstock, as compared to clean pine. Air classification is a potentially effective and economical tool to isolate high inorganic content biomass fractions away from primary feedstock sources to reduce their ash content. In this work, loblolly pine forest residues were air classified into 10 fractions whose ash content and composition were measured. Ash concentrations were highest in the lightest fractions (5.8–8.5 wt%), and inmore » a heavy fraction of the fines (8.9–15.1 wt%). The removal of fractions with high inorganic content resulted in a substantial reduction in the ash content of the remaining biomass in forest thinnings (1.69–1.07 wt%) and logging residues (1.09–0.68 wt%). These high inorganic content fractions from both forest residue types represented less than 7.0 wt% of the total biomass, yet they contained greater than 40% of the ash content by mass. Elemental analysis of the air classified fractions revealed the lightest fractions were comprised of high concentrations of soil elements (silicon, aluminum, iron, sodium, and titanium). However, the elements of biological origin including calcium, potassium, magnesium, sulfur, manganese, and phosphorous were evenly distributed throughout all air classified fractions, making them more difficult to isolate into fractions with high mineral concentrations. Under the conditions reported in this study, an economic analysis revealed air classification could be used for ash removal for as little as $2.23 per ton of product biomass. As a result, this study suggests air classification is a potentially attractive technology for the removal of introduced soil minerals from pine forest residues.« less

  3. Evaluation of agricultural residues for paper manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaide, L.J.; Baldovin, F.L.; Herranz, J.L.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Five agricultural residues-olive tree fellings, wheat straw, sunflower stalks, vine shoots, and cotton stalks-were evaluated for use as raw materials for paper manufacture. The untreated raw materials and their pulps were tested for hot-water solubles, 1%-NaOH solubles, alcohol-benzene extractables, ash, holocellulose, lignin, [alpha]-cellulose, and pentosans. Handsheets were tested for breaking length, stretch, burst index, and tear index. The results showed wheat straw to be the most promising material. Vine shoots showed the least promise.

  4. Ash wettability conditions splash erosion in the postfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo-Rivero, Ángel J.; de Celis, Reyes; García-Moreno, Jorge; Jiménez-Compán, Elizabeth; Alanís, Nancy; Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Zavala, Lorena M.; Jordán, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Soil sustainability and recovery after fire depend on physical, chemical and biological processes and fire severity (Neary et al., 1999; Mataix-Solera and Guerrero, 2007). Fire effects on soils are divided in two types: direct effects, as a consequence of combustion and temperature reached and indirect effects (Neary et al., 1999) as consequence of changes in other ecosystem components, such as decrease in vegetal coverage or ash and partially burned litter contribution including changes in flora (Pausas and Verdú, 2005; Trabaud, 2000). Low intensity fires, during which high temperatures are not reached, affect vegetal coverage but will not cause major impacts on soil. In contrast, prolonged, recurrent, or high-intensity fires may cause important impacts on the soil system functioning (De Celis et al., 2013; DeBano, 1991; Mataix-Solera et al., 2009; Zavala et al., 2014), aggregation (Mataix-Solera et al., 2011), organic matter content and quality (Sevink et al., 1989), water repellency (DeBano, 2000; Doerr et al., 2000), soil nutrients (Stark, 1977), soil erosion (Larsen et al., 2009) and others. In these cases, the restoration period of the initial conditions can be very long and changes may become permanent (DeBano, 1991). During combustion, fuel (biomass, necromass and soil organic matter) is transformed in materials with new physical and chemical properties. After burn, the soil surface is covered by a layer of ash and charred organic residues. Ash has important ecological, hydrological and geomorphological effects, even after being rearranged or mobilized by runoff or wind (Bodí et al., 2014). Ash properties will depend on the burned species, the amount of affected biomass, fuel flammability and structure, temperature and the residence time of thermal peaks (Pereira et al., 2009). Some studies have emphasized the role of ash on soil protection during the after fire period, in which the vegetable coverage could be drastically decreased (Cerd

  5. Identification of data gaps found during the development of a zero-order model for a fluidized-bed retort/combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ammer, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This technical note (TN) reports on the development of a zero-order ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) model for the fluidized-bed retort/combustion of an eastern oil shale. The objective of the work described was to identify data needs and to create a structure for future, more definitive models. New Albany shale was the initial reference eastern shale at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). A literature search on this shale was conducted to find the physical property data required for the ASPEN model. This TN discusses the types of missing or incomplete data, the process being modeled, and how process variables are affected by varying input parameters. The TN also presents recommendations for increasing the reliability of the simulation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

  7. Removal of chloride from fly ash produced in hazardous waste incineration by leaching and displacement washing in a vertical filter press.

    PubMed

    Kinnarinen, Teemu; Huhtanen, Mikko; Penttilä, Mika; Häkkinen, Antti

    2013-02-01

    Fly ash is generated in large quantities by waste incineration processes. Chloride is commonly present in the fly ash produced by the incineration of hazardous materials, such as polyvinylchloride plastic. Major difficulties related to the disposal and handling of fly ash include the high concentration of easily leachable chlorides, heavy metals and toxic compounds. In order to avoid adverse environmental effects from the disposal of fly ash, the content of soluble chlorides must be reduced. One of the most effective options for chloride removal is leaching and displacement washing in a filter press. The primary aim of this study was to obtain efficient removal of chloride from fly ash by utilizing a leaching and displacement washing process, carried out in a filter press. The secondary objective was to obtain high filtration capacities and low filter cake moisture contents. The slurry was prepared by mixing fly ash with water at an ash:water ratio of 1:2 and filtered to separate the solids from the liquid. After solid-liquid separation, most of the dissolved residual chloride was removed from the filter cake by washing the cake with fresh water in the second stage of separation. It was possible to remove up to 98% of the total chloride and to obtain sufficient filtration capacities. The residual moisture content of the filter cakes varied from 22 to 35 wt%, which meant that the cakes could be disposed of in landfill, or possibly utilized as a construction material. PMID:23315365

  8. Characterization of metals released from coal fly ash during dredging at the Kingston ash recovery project.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Averett, D E; Seiter, J M; Lafferty, B; Jones, W T; Hayes, C A; Chappell, M A; Clarke, J U; Steevens, J A

    2013-09-01

    A storage-pond dike failure occurred on December 22, 2008 at the Tennessee Valley Authority Kingston Fossil Plant resulting in the release of over 4million cubic meters (5million cubic yards) of fly ash. Approximately half of the released ash was deposited in the main channel of the Emory River, Tennessee, USA. Remediation efforts of the Emory River focused on hydraulic dredging, as well as mechanical excavation in targeted areas. However, agitation of the submerged fly ash during hydraulic dredging introduces river water into the fly ash material, which could promote dissolution and desorption of metals from the solid fly ash material. Furthermore, aeration of the dredge slurry could alter the redox state of metals in the fly ash material and thereby change their sorption, mobility, and toxicity properties. The research presented here focuses on the concentrations and speciation of metals during the fly ash recovery from the Emory River. Our results indicate that arsenite [As(III)] released from the fly ash material during dredging was slowly oxidized to arsenate [As(V)] in the slurry recovery system with subsequent removal through precipitation or sorption reactions with suspended fly ash material. Concentrations of other dissolved metals, including iron and manganese, also generally decreased in the ash recovery system prior to water discharge back to the river. PMID:23706374

  9. Leaching characteristics of lead from melting furnace fly ash generated by melting of incineration fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the effect of the chemical composition of incineration fly ash on the leaching characteristics of Pb from melting furnace fly ash generated by melting incineration fly ash. Melting furnace fly ash from both a real-scale melting process and lab-scale melting experiments was analyzed. In addition, the theoretical behavior of Cl that affects the leaching characteristics of Pb was simulated by a thermodynamic equilibrium calculation. Proportions of water-soluble Pb in the melting furnace fly ash were correlated with equivalent ratios of total Pb in the ash and Cl transferred to gas. The amount of Cl in the gas increased with an increase in the molar ratio of Cl to Na and K in the incineration fly ash. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that HCl generation is promoted by the increase in the molar ratio, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated a possible presence of PbCl(2) in the melting furnace fly ash. These results implied that the formation of water-soluble PbCl(2) with HCl was affected by the relationships among the amounts of Na, K, and Cl in the incineration fly ash. This is highly significant in determining the leaching characteristics of Pb from the melting furnace fly ash. PMID:22789656

  10. Volcanic ash layer depth: Processes and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacre, H. F.; Grant, A. L. M.; Harvey, N. J.; Thomson, D. J.; Webster, H. N.; Marenco, F.

    2015-01-01

    The long duration of the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption provided a unique opportunity to measure a widely dispersed volcanic ash cloud. Layers of volcanic ash were observed by the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network with a mean depth of 1.2 km and standard deviation of 0.9 km. In this paper we evaluate the ability of the Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment (NAME) to simulate the observed ash layers and examine the processes controlling their depth. NAME simulates distal ash layer depths exceptionally well with a mean depth of 1.2 km and standard deviation of 0.7 km. The dominant process determining the depth of ash layers over Europe is the balance between the vertical wind shear (which acts to reduce the depth of the ash layers) and vertical turbulent mixing (which acts to deepen the layers). Interestingly, differential sedimentation of ash particles and the volcano vertical emission profile play relatively minor roles.

  11. Kohonen's feature maps for fly ash categorization.

    PubMed

    Nataraja, M C; Jayaram, M A; Ravikumar, C N

    2006-12-01

    Fly ash is a common admixture used in concrete and may constitute up to 50% by weight of the total binder material. Incorporation of fly ash in Portland-cement concrete is highly desirable due to technological, economic, and environmental benefits. This article demonstrates the use of artificial intelligence neural networks for the classification of fly ashes in to different groups. Kohonen's Self Organizing Feature Maps is used for the purpose. As chemical composition of fly ash is crucial in the performance of concrete, eight chemical attributes of fly ashes have been considered. The application of simple Kohonen's one-dimensional feature maps permitted to differentiate three main groups of fly ashes. Three one-dimensional feature maps of topology 8-16, 8-24 and 8-32 were explored. The overall classification result of 8-16 topology was found to be significant and encouraging. The data pertaining to 80 fly ash samples were collected from standard published works. The categorization was found to be excellent and compares well with Canadian Standard Association's [CSA A 3000] classification scheme. PMID:17285691

  12. Erodibility of fly ash-treated minesoils

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, J.M.; Sencindiver, J.C.; Singh, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    Fly ash, a by-product of coal-fired power plants, has been used successfully in reclaiming adverse mine sites such as abandoned mine lands by improving minesoil chemical and physical properties. But, the fine sand-silt particle size of fly ash may make it more susceptible to detachment and transport by erosive processes. Furthermore, the high content of silt-size particles in fly ash may make it more susceptable to surface crust formation resulting in reduced infiltration and increased surface runoff and erosion. In the summer of 1989, fly ash/wood waste mixtures were surface applied on two separate mine sites, one with 10% slope and the other 20% slope, in central Preston County, West Virginia. Erosion rates were measured directly using the Linear Erosion/Elevation Measuring Instrument (LEMI). Erosion measurements were taken during the first two growing seasons on both sites. Erosion values were up to five times greater on the fly ash-treated minesoil than on the minesoil without fly ash cover. Mulching with wood chips reduced fly ash erosion to about one-half the loss of the unmulched plots. Erosion was related to both the amount and type of ground cover. Increased vegetative ground cover resulted in reduced erosion. Mosses and fungi appeared to provide better erosion protection than grass-legume cover.

  13. A review of volcanic ash aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. J.; Bonadonna, C.; Durant, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Most volcanic ash particles with diameters <63 μm settle from eruption clouds as particle aggregates that cumulatively have larger sizes, lower densities, and higher terminal fall velocities than individual constituent particles. Particle aggregation reduces the atmospheric residence time of fine ash, which results in a proportional increase in fine ash fallout within 10-100 s km from the volcano and a reduction in airborne fine ash mass concentrations 1000 s km from the volcano. Aggregate characteristics vary with distance from the volcano: proximal aggregates are typically larger (up to cm size) with concentric structures, while distal aggregates are typically smaller (sub-millimetre size). Particles comprising ash aggregates are bound through hydro-bonds (liquid and ice water) and electrostatic forces, and the rate of particle aggregation correlates with cloud liquid water availability. Eruption source parameters (including initial particle size distribution, erupted mass, eruption column height, cloud water content and temperature) and the eruption plume temperature lapse rate, coupled with the environmental parameters, determines the type and spatiotemporal distribution of aggregates. Field studies, lab experiments and modelling investigations have already provided important insights on the process of particle aggregation. However, new integrated observations that combine remote sensing studies of ash clouds with field measurement and sampling, and lab experiments are required to fill current gaps in knowledge surrounding the theory of ash aggregate formation.

  14. Assessment of compost application to coal ash disposal sites to promote the rapid vegetation establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repmann, F.; Slazak, A.; Babic, M.; Schneider, B. U.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2009-04-01

    In the city of Tuzla, located in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a coal fired thermo electric power plant is operated by the company JP ELEKTROPRIVERDA BIH TERMOELEKTRANA "TUZLA". High amounts of ash are produced by the power plant, which are currently disposed into settlement ponds bordered by dams in natural valleys. A total of four ash disposal sites covering an area of approx. 170 ha have been established during the last decades. Due to the fact that residual ash from coal combustion was found to contain a variety of trace elements (Ni, Cr, As, B), it must be assumed that ash disposal of that magnitude constitutes an environmental problem which is investigated within the EU-FP6 / STREP project "Reintegration of Coal Ash Disposal Sites and Mitigation of Pollution in the West Balkan Area" RECOAL. The main hazards relate to soil and groundwater contamination due to leaching toxins, dust dispersion, and toxins entering the food chain as these disposal sites are used for agricultural purposes. In order to rapidly establish a vegetation cover on barren ash dumps that particularly would prevent dust erosion we assessed the applicability of compost, produced from locally available municipal and industrial organic residues as an amendment to ash to improve substrate fertility. The envisaged remediation technology was considered to be a low cost, easy applicable and rapid method capable of substantially enhancing living conditions of residents in the vicinity of the abandoned disposal sites. Various compost application rates were evaluated in the field on experimental site Divkovici I in Tuzla and additionally in the greenhouse environment at Brandenburg Technical University Cottbus. Field and laboratory tests revealed that plant growth and cover rate can substantially be improved by mixing compost into the upper ash layer to a maximum depth of approx. 20 cm. Besides direct growth observations in the field analysis of soil parameters gave evidence that the fertility of ashy

  15. Marine mesocosm bacterial colonisation of volcanic ash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witt, Verena; Cimarelli, Corrado; Ayris, Paul; Kueppers, Ulrich; Erpenbeck, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald; Woerheide, Gert

    2015-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions regularly eject large quantities of ash particles into the atmosphere, which can be deposited via fallout into oceanic environments. Such fallout has the potential to alter pH, light and nutrient availability at local scales. Shallow-water coral reef ecosystems - "rainforests of the sea" - are highly sensitive to disturbances, such as ocean acidification, sedimentation and eutrophication. Therefore, wind-delivered volcanic ash may lead to burial and mortality of such reefs. Coral reef ecosystem resilience may depend on pioneer bacterial colonisation of the ash layer, supporting subsequent establishment of the micro- and ultimately the macro-community. However, which bacteria are involved in pioneer colonisation remain unknown. We hypothesize that physico-chemical properties (i.e., morphology, mineralogy) of the ash may dictate bacterial colonisation. The effect of substrate properties on bacterial colonisation was tested by exposing five substrates: i) quartz sand ii) crystalline ash (Sakurajima, Japan) iii) volcanic glass iv) carbonate reef sand and v) calcite sand of similar grain size, in controlled marine coral reef aquaria under low light conditions for six months. Bacterial communities were screened every month by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis of the 16S-23S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer region. Multivariate statistics revealed discrete groupings of bacterial communities on substrates of volcanic origin (ash and glass) and reef origin (three sands). Analysis of Similarity supported significantly different communities associated with all substrates (p=0.0001), only quartz did not differ from both carbonate and calcite sands. The ash substrate exhibited the most diverse bacterial community with the most substrate-specific bacterial operational taxonomic units. Our findings suggest that bacterial diversity and community composition during colonisation of volcanic ash in a coral reef-like environment is controlled by the

  16. Ash iron mobilization in volcanic eruption plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshyaripour, G.; Hort, M.; Langmann, B.

    2014-12-01

    It has been shown that volcanic ash fertilizes the Fe-limited areas of the surface ocean through releasing soluble iron. As ash iron is mostly insoluble upon the eruption, it is hypothesized that heterogeneous in-plume and in-cloud processing of the ash promote the iron solubilization. Direct evidences concerning such processes are, however, lacking. In this study, a 1-D numerical model is developed to simulate the physicochemical interactions of gas-ash-aerosol in volcanic eruption plumes focusing on the iron mobilization processes at temperatures between 600 and 0 °C. Results show that sulfuric acid and water vapor condense at ~150 and ~50 °C on the ash surface, respectively. This liquid phase then efficiently scavenges the surrounding gases (>95% of HCl, 3-20% of SO2 and 12-62% of HF) forming an extremely acidic coating at the ash surface. The low pH conditions of the aqueous film promote acid-mediated dissolution of the Fe-bearing phases present in the ash material. We estimate that 0.1 to 33% of the total iron available at the ash surface is dissolved in the aqueous phase before the freezing point is reached. The efficiency of dissolution is controlled by the halogen content of the erupted gas as well as the mineralogy of the iron at ash surface: elevated halogen concentrations and presence of Fe2+-carrying phases lead to the highest dissolution efficiency. Findings of this study are in agreement with the data obtained through leaching experiments.

  17. Suppression of fine ash formation in pulverized coal flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kramlich, J.C.; Hoffman, D.A.; Butcher, E.K.

    1993-04-29

    The second major ash producing mechanism is the generation of a submicron aerosol through a vaporization/condensation mechanism. When the ash size distribution is plotted in terms of number density, the submicron mode generally peaks at about 0. 1 [mu]m. When plotted in terms of mass, this mode is sometimes distinct from the residual ash mode, and sometimes merged into it. During diffusion-limited char combustion, the interior of the particle becomes hot and fuel-rich. The non-volatile oxides (e.g., Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], SiO[sub 2], MgO, CaO, Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3]) can be reduced to more volatile suboxides and elements, and partially vaporized. These reoxidize while passing through the boundary layer surrounding the char particle, thus becoming so highly supersaturated that rapid homogeneous nucleation occurs. This high nuclei concentration in the boundary layer promotes more extensive coagulation than would occur if the nuclei were uniformly distributed across the flow field. The vaporization can be accelerated by the overshoot of the char temperature beyond the local gas temperature. Although these particles represent a relatively small fraction of the mass, they can present a large fraction of the surface area. Thus, they are a preferred site for the condensation of the more volatile oxides later in the furnace. This leads to a layering effect in which the refractory oxides are concentrated at the particle core and the more volatile oxides resideat the surface. This also explains the enrichment of the aerosol by volatile oxides that has been noted in samples from practical furnaces. These volatile metal oxides include the majority of the toxic metal contaminants, e.g., mercury, arsenic, selenium and nickel. Risk assessment studies suggest that toxic metal emissions represent a significant portion of the health risk associated with combustion systems.

  18. Characterization of trace elements in chicken and duck litter ash.

    PubMed

    Faridullah; Irshad, Muhammad; Yamamoto, Sadahiro; Honna, Toshimasa; Eneji, A Egrinya

    2009-01-01

    For safe and sustainable management of poultry litter, it is important to evaluate and understand the chemical forms and concentrations of their constituent trace elements during treatment for disposal. This experiment was carried out to compare changes in metal (Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Ni) fractions in chicken and duck litter after incineration at temperatures ranging from 200 to 900 degrees C. The metals were stepwise fractionated into exchangeable, adsorbed, organically bound, carbonate precipitated and residual forms by extracting with 0.5M KNO3, de-ionized water, 0.5M NaOH, 0.05M Na2 EDTA and 4M HNO3, respectively. The content of total metal and other elements (i.e., Ca, Mg and K) were was also determined. Results showed an increasing trend in the total concentrations of metals with increasing temperature with higher amounts in chicken litter ash (CLA) than duck litter ash (DLA). Higher temperatures significantly reduced the levels of H2O-soluble Mn, Zn and Ni and enhanced those of Cu and Pb. The metal fractions extracted by EDTA and HNO3 increased directly with increasing temperature while the fraction extracted with KNO3 and NaOH decreased with ashing. For Cu, Mn, Pb and Ni, the amount extracted varied in the order EDTA>HNO3>NaOH>KNO3>H2O, but the absolute amounts differed between CLA and DLA. Peak concentrations of the total metals were achieved at the highest burning temperature. The amount of H2O soluble Ca and Mg decreased and K increased in both CLA and DLA with temperature. Total and exchangeable forms of cations increased with increasing temperature. Total Ca was highest in DLA, whereas total Mg and K were higher in CLA. This study indicated that incinerating poultry litter before soil application may have mixed effects on the vulnerable metal fractions by increasing or decreasing some fractions, depending on poultry type. PMID:18538557

  19. Thermal treatment of solid residues from WtE units: a review.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Daniel; Molin, Camilla; Hupa, Mikko

    2015-03-01

    Thermal treatment methods of bottom ash, fly ash and various types of APC (air pollution control) residues from waste-to-energy plants can be used to obtain environmentally stable material. The thermal treatment processes are meant to reduce the leachability of harmful residue constituents, destroy toxic organic compounds, reduce residue volume, and produce material suitable for utilization. Fly ash and APC residues often have high levels of soluble salts, particularly chlorides, metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc, and trace levels of organic pollutants such as dioxins and furans. Different thermal treatment methods can be used to either decompose or stabilize harmful elements and compounds in the ash, or separate them from the ash to get a material that can be safely stored or used as products or raw materials. In the present paper, thermal treatment methods, such as sintering, vitrification, and melting have been reviewed. In addition to a review of the scientific literature, a survey has been made of the extensive patent literature in the field. PMID:25592372

  20. Volcanic Ash Transport and Dispersion Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servranckx, R.; Stunder, B.

    2006-12-01

    Volcanic ash transport and dispersion models (VATDM) have been used operationally since the mid 1990's by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) designated Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC) to provide ash forecast guidance. Over the years, significant improvements in the detection and prediction of airborne volcanic ash have been realized thanks to improved models, increases in computing power, 24-hr real time monitoring by VAACs / Meteorological Watch Offices and close coordination with Volcano Observatories around the world. Yet, predicting accurately the spatial and temporal structures of airborne volcanic ash and the deposition at the earth's surface remains a difficult and challenging problem. The forecasting problem is influenced by 3 main components. The first one (ERUPTION SOURCE PARAMETERS) comprises all non-meteorological parameters that characterize a specific eruption or volcanic ash cloud. For example, the volume / mass of ash released in the atmosphere, the duration of the eruption, the altitude and distribution of the ash cloud, the particle size distribution, etc. The second component (METEOROLOGY) includes all meteorological parameters (wind, moisture, stability, etc.) that are calculated by Numerical Weather Prediction models and that serve as input to the VATDM. The third component (TRANSPORT AND DISPERSION) combines input from the other 2 components through the use of VATDM to transport and disperse airborne volcanic ash in the atmosphere as well as depositing it at the surface though various removal mechanisms. Any weakness in one of the components may adversely affect the accuracy of the forecast. In a real-time, operational response context such as exists at the VAACs, the rapid delivery of the modeling results puts some constraints on model resolution and computing time. Efforts are ongoing to evaluate the reliability of VATDM forecasts though the use of various methods, including ensemble techniques. Remote sensing data

  1. Rocky Flats ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-09-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. This test will also gain information on the effects of the glovebox atmosphere (moisture) on the stabilized material. This document provides instructions for testing Rocky Flats Ash in the HC-21C muffle furnace process.

  2. Electrodialytic removal of Cd from biomass combustion fly ash suspensions.

    PubMed

    Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Damoe, Anne J; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2013-04-15

    Due to relatively high concentrations of Cd, biomass combustion fly ashes often fail to meet Danish legislative requirements for recycling as fertilizer. In this study, the potential of using electrodialytic remediation for removal of Cd from four different biomass combustion fly ashes was investigated with the aim of enabling reuse of the ashes. The ashes originated from combustion of straw (two ashes), wood chips, and co-firing of wood pellets and fuel oil, respectively. A series of laboratory scale electrodialytic remediation experiments were conducted with each ash. The initial Cd concentration in the ashes varied between 8.8 mg Cd/kg (co-firing ash) and 64 mg Cd/kg (pre-washed straw ash), and pH varied from 3.7 (co-firing ash) to 13.3 (wood ash). In spite of such large variations between the ashes, the electrodialytic method showed to be sufficiently robust to treat the ashes so the final Cd concentration was below 2.0mg Cd/kg DM in at least one experiment done with each ash. This was obtained within 2 weeks of remediation and at liquid to solid (L/S) ratios of L/S 16 for the pre-washed straw ash and L/S 8 for the straw, co-firing and wood ash. PMID:23454460

  3. Experimental and statistical determination of indicator parameters for the evaluation of fly ash and boiler ash PCDD/PCDF concentration from municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Streibel, T; Nordsieck, H; Neuer-Etscheidt, K; Schnelle-Kreis, J; Zimmermann, R

    2007-04-01

    On-line detectable indicator parameters in the flue gas of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI) such as chlorinated benzenes (PCBz) are well known surrogate compounds for gas-phase PCDD/PCDF concentration. In the here presented work derivation of indicators is broadened to the detection of fly and boiler ash fractions with increased PCDD/PCDF content. Subsequently these fractions could be subject to further treatment such as recirculation in the combustion chamber to destroy their PCDD/PCDF and other organic pollutants' content. Aim of this work was to detect suitable on-line detectable indicator parameters in the gas phase, which are well correlated to PCDD/PCDF concentration in the solid residues. For this, solid residues and gas-phase samples were taken at three MSWI plants in Bavaria. Analysis of the ash content from different plants yielded a broad variation range of PCDD/PCDF concentrations especially after disturbed combustion conditions. Even during normal operation conditions significantly increased PCDD/PCDF concentrations may occur after unanticipated disturbances. Statistical evaluation of gas phase and ash measurements was carried out by means of principal component analysis, uni- and multivariate correlation analysis. Surprisingly, well known indicators for gas-phase PCDD/PCDF concentration such as polychlorinated benzenes and phenols proved to be insufficiently correlated to PCDD/PCDF content of the solid residues. Moreover, no single parameter alone was found appropriate to describe the PCDD/PCDF content of fly and boiler ashes. On the other hand, multivariate fitting of three or four parameters yielded convenient correlation coefficients of at least r=0.8 for every investigated case. Thereby, comprehension of plant operation parameters such as temperatures and air flow alongside concentrations of inorganic compounds in the gas phase (HCl, CO, SO2, NOx) gave the best results. However, the suitable set of parameters suited best for estimation of

  4. Effects of burn temperature on ash nutrient forms and availability from cattail (Typha domingensis) and sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) in the Florida Everglades.

    PubMed

    Qian, Y; Miao, S L; Gu, B; Li, Y C

    2009-01-01

    Plant ash derived from fire plays an important role in nutrient balance and cycling in ecosystems. Factors that determine the composition and availability of ash nutrients include fire intensity (burn temperature and duration), plant species, habitat nutrient enrichment, and leaf type (live or dead leaf). We used laboratory simulation methods to evaluate temperature effects on nutrient composition and metals in the residual ash of sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) and cattail (Typha domingensis), particularly on post-fire phosphorus (P) availability in plant ash. Live and dead leaf samples were collected from Water Conservation Area 2A in the northern Everglades along a soil P gradient, where prescribed fire may be used to accelerate recovery of this unique ecosystem. Significant decreases in total carbon and total nitrogen were detected with increasing fire temperature. Organic matter combustion was nearly complete at temperatures > or = 450 degrees C. HCl-extractable P (average, 50% of total P in the ash) and NH(4)Cl-extractable P (average, 33% of total P in the ash) were the predominant P fractions for laboratory-burned ash. Although a low-intensity fire could induce an elevation of P availability, an intense fire generally resulted in decreased water-soluble P. Significant differences in nutrient compositions were observed between species, habitat nutrient status, and leaf types. More labile inorganic P remained in sawgrass ash than in cattail ash; hence, sawgrass ash has a greater potential to release available P than cattail. Fire intensity affected plant ash nutrient composition, particularly P availability, and the effects varied with plant species and leaf type. Therefore, it is important to consider fire intensity and vegetation community when using a prescribed fire for ecosystem management. PMID:19202015

  5. Efficiencies of metal separation and recovery in ash-melting of municipal solid waste under non-oxidative atmospheres with different reducing abilities.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Tomikawa, Hiroki

    2016-01-15

    Ash-melting of municipal solid waste produces molten metal that contains Fe and Cu, and melting furnace fly ash (MFA) that contains Pb and Zn. To recover the metal from the fly ash, Pb and Zn are extracted from the ash by water or enriched in the ash by washing out salts; this separation depends on their leachability. In this study, we investigated the effects of the reducing ability of the atmosphere on the efficiencies of metal separation during melting and metal recovery in water treatment. Different feedstocks (incineration residues) were melted under N2 or CO + N2 atmospheres. In some of the feedstock materials, volatilization of metallic Cu into MFA was promoted under the atmosphere with greater reducing ability (CO + N2). This increased volatilization inhibited the metal separation in the ash-melting process. Moreover, the higher reducing ability inhibited the formation of water-soluble lead chlorides and decreased the efficiency of metal recovery from the MFA because of the water leaching of the lead compounds. The reducing ability of the atmosphere is difficult to control uniformly in actual ash-melting plants, and we investigated appropriate melting conditions under which the effect of the reducing ability was minimized to promote metal separation and recovery. This minimization was achieved by melting incineration fly ash without additives with Cl gas treatment at 1400 °C. PMID:26496845

  6. Effects of leachant temperature and pH on leachability of metals from fly ash. A case study: Can thermal power plant, province of Canakkale, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baba, Alper; Gurdal, Gulbin; Sengunalp, Fatma; Ozay, Ozgur

    2008-04-01

    Lignite powered electric generation plants result in increasing environmental problems associated with gaseous emissions and the disposal of ash residues. Especially, low quality coals with high ash content cause enormous quantities of both gaseous and solid fly ash emissions. The main problem is related to the disposal of fly ash, which, in many cases, contains heavy metals. It is known that toxic trace metals may leach when fly ash is in contact with water. In this study, fly ash samples obtained from the thermal power plant in the town of Can in Turkey were investigated for leachability of metals under different acidic and temperature conditions. The experimental results show that a decrease in pH of the leachant favors the extraction of metal ions from fly ash. A significant increase in the extraction of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, zinc, lead, mercury, and selenium ions from the ash is attributed to the instability of the mineral phases. These heavy metals concentrations increase with respect to increasing acidic conditions and temperature. Peak concentrations, in general, were found at around 30 degrees C. PMID:17588209

  7. Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans on secondary combustor/boiler ash from a rotary kiln burning hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Addink, R; Altwicker, E R

    2004-10-18

    Ash from the secondary combustor/boiler of a rotary kiln burning hazardous chemical waste was tested in the laboratory for its potential to form polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F). The ash contained only a small quantity of "native" PCDD/F, i.e., formed on the ash in the facility. However, it produced a considerable amount of these compounds when heated in 10% O(2)/N(2) under "de novo" conditions, i.e., with residual carbon (present on the ash as result of incomplete combustion) as the only organic material. The ash yielded PCDD/F for up to 90 min; gave PCDD/F yields proportional to the amount of ash used in the reaction bed; and displayed an optimum temperature range for formation (397-548 degrees C) higher than seen for most municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ashes. The role of copper and iron as catalytic material on the ash is discussed. PMID:15511574

  8. Fly Ash Disposal in Ash Ponds: A Threat to Ground Water Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. K.; Gupta, N. C.; Guha, B. K.

    2016-07-01

    Ground water contamination due to deposition of fly ash in ash ponds was assessed by simulating the disposal site conditions using batch leaching test with fly ash samples from three thermal power plants. The periodic analysis of leachates was performed for selected elements, Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd in three different extraction solutions to determine the maximum amount that can be leached from fly ash. It was observed that at low pH value, maximum metals are released from the surface of the ash into leachate. The average concentration of these elements found in ground water samples from the nearby area of ash ponds shows that almost all the metals except `Cr' are crossing the prescribed limits of drinking water. The concentration of these elements at this level can endanger public health and environment.

  9. System for the pulsed pneumatic transport of ash from ash-collector bins

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Chernyshev; S.N. Kochurov; V.A. Il'in; V.V. Ermakov

    2007-07-15

    Results of investigations of the dependence of the percentage of voids on the shear force of a layer of ash, on the basis of which the design principle of the subassembly for the feed of ash to a transport pipeline is developed, are examined for optimization of ash flows in a pulsed regime. The schematic of a system of pulsed pneumatic transport of ash from the bins of ash collectors, and results of measurements during experimental operation of the system, as well as relationships for the calculation of its dynamic parameters are presented. Conclusions concerning the high reliability of the removal and pneumatic transport of ash over a distance of more than 80 m with minimal air consumption are drawn on the basis of results of the experimental operation.

  10. Get immersed and black in fire ash world. Field Wildgeographers experience.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerdà, Artemi; Misiune, Ieva; Jordan, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Ash is the footprint left by the fire. This residue is very important to landscape recover and is an important source of soil protection after the fire. Get immersed in fire ash world is the same thing of get dirty and do not be recognizable in a fire affected area. To measure ash in the field we have to be careful where to step, how to do the experimental design, collect samples and find with accuracy the places measured before. A good methodology is needed in design field experiments, collect ash samples and monitoring ash evolution (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira and Ubeda, 2010; Pereira et al. 2011; 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015). The objective of this work is to share with the Avatar world the methodologies used when wildgeographers get immersed in fire ash world, including: 1) Identify the best study area 2) Experimental design 3) Sample collection 4) Get dirty and have fun in the field 5) Laboratory, Statistical and spatial analysis Acknoledgements The author are thankful for the support of the projects POSTFIRE (Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-fire management scenarios, CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness; GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857, RECARE (Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care, FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE), funded by the European Commission; and for the COST action ES1306 (Connecteur: Connecting European Connectivity Research), FUEGORED (Spanish Network of Forest Fire Effects on Soils, http://grupo.us.es/fuegored/) and to Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca del DIUE de la Generalitat de Catalunya. References Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Cerdà, A. y Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  12. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO₃ versus Al₂O₃ determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates. PMID:23584038

  13. Environmentally-mediated ash aggregate formation: example from Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Ulrich; Ayris, Paul M.; Bernard, Benjamin; Delmelle, Pierre; Douillet, Guilhem A.; Lavallée, Yan; Mueller, Sebastian B.; Dingwell, Donald B.; Dobson, Kate J.

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic ash is generated during explosive eruptions through an array of different processes; it can be produced in large quantities and can, in some circumstances, have the potential for far-reaching impacts beyond the flanks of the volcano. Aggregation of ash particles can significantly impact the dispersal within the atmosphere, and its subsequent deposition into terrestrial or aquatic environments. However, our understanding of the complex interplay of the boundary conditions which permit aggregation to occur remain incomplete. Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, has been intermittently active since 1999. In August 2006, a series of pyroclastic density currents (PDC) were generated during a series of dry, Vulcanian explosions and travelled down the western and northern flanks of the volcano. In some locations, the related PDC deposits temporarily dammed the Chambo river, and the residual heat within those deposits produced vigorous steam plumes. During several field campaigns (2009-2015), we mapped, sampled, and analysed the related deposits. At the base of the Rea ravine, a large delta fan of PDC deposits had dammed the river over a length of several hundred metres. In several outcrops adjacent to the river and in small erosional gullies we found a peculiar stratigraphic layer (up to ten centimetres thick) at the top of the PDC deposits. As this layer is capped by a thin fall unit of coarse ash that we also find elsewhere at the top of the August 2006 deposits, the primary nature is without doubt. In this unit, we observed abundant ash aggregates up to eight millimetres in diameter within a poorly sorted, ash-depleted lapilli tuff, primarily comprised of rounded pumiceous and scoriaceous clasts of similar size. Leaching experiments have shown that these aggregates contain several hundred ppm of soluble sulphate and chloride salts. Recent laboratory experiments (Mueller et al. 2015) have suggested that in order for accretionary lapilli to be preserved within ash

  14. Effect of ash circulation in gasification melting system on concentration and leachability of lead in melting furnace fly ash.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takashi; Suzuki, Masaru

    2013-11-30

    In some gasification-melting plants, generated melting furnace fly ash is returned back to the melting furnace for converting the ash to slag. This study investigated the effect of such ash circulation in the gasification-melting system on the concentration and leachability of lead in the melting furnace fly ash. The ash circulation in the melting process was simulated by a thermodynamic calculation, and an elemental analysis and leaching tests were performed on a melting furnace fly ash sample collected from the gasification-melting plant with the ash circulation. It was found that by the ash circulation in the gasification-melting, lead was highly concentrated in the melting furnace fly ash to the level equal to the fly ash from the ash-melting process. The thermodynamic calculation predicted that the lead volatilization by the chlorination is promoted by the ash circulation resulting in the high lead concentration. In addition, the lead extraction from the melting furnace fly ash into a NaOH solution was also enhanced by the ash circulation, and over 90% of lead in the fly ash was extracted in 5 min when using 0.5 mol l(-1) NaOH solution with L/S ratio of 10 at 100 °C. Based on the results, a combination of the gasification-melting with the ash circulation and the NaOH leaching method is proposed for the high efficient lead recovery. PMID:24121545

  15. Biotoxicity evaluation of fly ash and bottom ash from different municipal solid waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Chou, Jing-Dong; Wey, Ming-Yen; Liang, Hsiu-Hao; Chang, Shih-Hsien

    2009-08-30

    Different types of municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly and bottom ash were extracted by TCLP and PBET procedures. The biotoxicity of the leachate of fly ash and bottom ash was evaluated by Vibrio fischeri light inhibition test. The results indicate the following: (1) The optimal solid/liquid ratio was 1:100 for PBET extraction because it had the highest Pb and Cu extractable mass from MSWI fly ash. (2) The extractable metal mass from both fly ash and bottom ash by PBET procedure was significantly higher than that by TCLP procedure. (3) The metal concentrations of fly ash leachate from a fluidized bed incinerator was lower than that from mass-burning and mass-burning combined with rotary kiln incinerator. (4) The TCLP and PBET leachate from all MSWI fly ash samples showed biotoxicity. Even though bottom ash is regarded as a non-hazardous material, its TCLP and PBET leachate also showed biotoxicity. The pH significantly influenced the biotoxicity of leachate. PMID:19264394

  16. Potential products from North Dakota lignite fly ash. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G R

    1980-06-01

    Four major areas where fly ash can be used are explored. Concrete building blocks with fly ash replacing 50% of the portland cement have proven to be successful using current ASTM standards. Results in the ceramics area show that a ceramic-like product using fly ash and crushed glass with a small amount of clay as a green binder. Some preliminary results using sulfur ash in building materials are reported and with results of making wallboard from ash. (MHR)

  17. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal system

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-02-28

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  18. Fluidized bed gasification ash reduction and removal process

    DOEpatents

    Schenone, Carl E.; Rosinski, Joseph

    1984-12-04

    In a fluidized bed gasification system an ash removal system to reduce the particulate ash to a maximum size or smaller, allow the ash to cool to a temperature lower than the gasifier and remove the ash from the gasifier system. The system consists of a crusher, a container containing level probes and a means for controlling the rotational speed of the crusher based on the level of ash within the container.

  19. Rocky Flats Ash test procedure (sludge stabilization)

    SciTech Connect

    Funston, G.A.

    1995-06-14

    Rocky Flats Ash items have been identified as the next set of materials to be stabilized. This test is being run to determine charge sizes and soak times to completely stabilize the Rocky Flats Ash items. The information gathered will be used to generate the heating rampup cycle for stabilization. The test will provide information to determine charge sizes, soak times and mesh screen sizes (if available at time of test) for stabilization of Rocky Flats Ash items to be processed in the HC-21C Muffle Furnace Process. Once the charge size and soak times have been established, a program for the temperature controller of the HC-21C Muffle Furnace process will be generated for processing Rocky Flats Ash.

  20. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    Ash is a key component of the forest fires affected land (Cerdà, 1998; Bodí et al., 2011; Pereira et al., 2013a). Ash controls the hydrological processes and determines the water repellency (Dlapa et al., 2012) and the infiltration rates (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008;). Moreover, ash is the key factor on runoff initiation and then on the soil erosion. Little is known about the impact of ash in different ecosystems, but during the last decade a substantial increase in the papers that show the role of ash in the Earth and Soil System were published (Bodí et al., 2012; Pereira et al., 2013b).. Ash is being found as the key component of the post-fire pedological, geomorphological and hydrological response after forest fires (Fernández et al., 2012; Martín et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guénon et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2013c). A recent State-of-the-Art review about wildland fire ash (Bodí et al., 2014) compiles the knowledge regarding the production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects of wildland fire ash. In the present paper we indicate the knowledge gaps detected and suggest topics that need more research effort concerning: i) data collection and analysis techniques: a) To develop standardized sampling techniques that allow cross comparison among sites and avoid inclusion of the underlying soil unless the burned surface soil forms part of the ash layer, b) To develop standardized methods to define and characterize ash, including its color, physical properties such as particle size distribution or density, proportion of pyrogenic C, chemical and biological reactivity and persistence in the environment, c) To validate, calibrate and test measurements collected through remote sensing with on-the-ground measurements. ii) ash production, deposition redistribution and fate: d) To untangle the significance of the effects of maximum temperature reached during combustion versus the duration of heating, e) To understand the production of ash by measuring its