Science.gov

Sample records for retorted shale stress

  1. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  2. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  3. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  4. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  5. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  6. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  7. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  8. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  9. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  10. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  11. Cyclone oil shale retorting concept. [Use it all retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Harak, A.E.; Little, W.E.; Faulders, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    A new concept for above-ground retorting of oil shale was disclosed by A.E. Harak in US Patent No. 4,340,463, dated July 20, 1982, and assigned to the US Department of Energy. This patent titled System for Utilizing Oil Shale Fines, describes a process wherein oil shale fines of one-half inch diameter and less are pyrolyzed in an entrained-flow reactor using hot gas from a cyclone combustor. Spent shale and supplemental fuel are burned at slagging conditions in this combustor. Because of fines utilization, the designation Use It All Retorting Process (UIARP) has been adopted. A preliminary process engineering design of the UIARP, analytical tests on six samples of raw oil shale, and a preliminary technical and economic evaluation of the process were performed. The results of these investigations are summarized in this report. The patent description is included. It was concluded that such changes as deleting air preheating in the slag quench and replacing the condenser with a quench-oil scrubber are recognized as being essential. The addition of an entrained flow raw shale preheater ahead of the cyclone retort is probably required, but final acceptance is felt to be contingent on some verification that adequate reaction time cannot be obtained with only the cyclone, or possibly some other twin-cyclone configuration. Sufficient raw shale preheating could probably be done more simply in another manner, perhaps in a screw conveyor shale transporting system. Results of the technical and economic evaluations of Jacobs Engineering indicate that further investigation of the UIARP is definitely worthwhile. The projected capital and operating costs are competitive with costs of other processes as long as electric power generation and sales are part of the processing facility.

  12. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  13. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: MODIFIED 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING COMBINED WITH LURGI SURFACE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oil shale PCTM for Modified In Situ Oil Shale Retorting combined with Lurgi Surface Retorting addresses the application of this combination of technologies to the development of oil shale resources in the western United States. This manual describes the combined plant using L...

  14. Oil shale retorting in the first commercial plants

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Three commercial projects based on oil shale mining and surface retorting are reviewed. In Colorado, Exxon and Tosco are partners in the construction of a plant which will utilize TOSCO II retorts. Nearby, Union Oil Company is constructing the first module of a large complex using its own process. Each project is described briefly, the several retorting processes are discussed, and the rationale for the retort selection in each case is considered. 8 refs.

  15. LOGAN WASH FIELD TREATABILITY STUDIES OF WASTEWATERS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treatability studies were conducted on retort water and gas condensate wastewater from modified in-situ oil shale retorts to evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment technologies for removing organic and inorganic contaminants. At retorts operated by Occidental Oil Shale,...

  16. In-situ laser retorting of oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Oil shale formations are retorted in situ and gaseous hydrocarbon products are recovered by drilling two or more wells into an oil shale formation underneath the surface of the ground. A high energy laser beam is directed into the well and fractures the region of the shale formation. A compressed gas is forced into the well that supports combustion in the flame front ignited by the laser beam, thereby retorting the oil shale. Gaseous hydrocarbon products which permeate through the fractured region are recovered from one of the wells that were not exposed to the laser system.

  17. Microbial colonization of retorted shale in field and laboratory studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.E.; McNair, V.M.; Li, S.W.; Garland, T.R.; Wildung, R.E.

    1982-08-01

    The microbial colonization of retorted shale was measured in field lysimeters and laboratory with retorted shale obtained from an above-ground retort operating in the direct heating mode. In field lysimeter studies, total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial colony forming units (cfu), as measured by a selective plating medium in surface horizons of retorted shale and adjacent soils, were similar (3.3 x 10/sup 6/ and 2.7 x 10/sup 6/ bacterial cfu/g dry weight) two months after disposal. However, unlike the soil that exhibited a diverse community, the retorted shale was dominated by a single Micrococcus species that composed 30% of the total bacterial community. After one and two years, the total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the retorted shale and soil were again similar; however, no bacterium dominated either community. A core sample from the field lysimeter indicated microbial colonization to a depth of 150 cm after one year. An increased ratio of anaerobic to aerobic heterotrophic bacterial cfu in the deepest sample (120 to 150 cm) implied the development of anaerobic conditions. In the laboratory, aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were shown capable of using, as the sole source of carbon, retorted shale in liquid cultures. Of the added nutritional amendments, PO/sub 4//sup -3/, NO/sub 3//sup -/ and SO/sub 4//sup -2/, only phosphate markedly altered the colonization of retorted shale in liquid culture; shortening the lag phase of colonization from less than three to seven weeks to less than one week and leading to a greater aerobic heterotrophic population over the incubation interval. The addition of phosphate also led to a aerobic heterotrophic bacterial community composed entirely of Micrococcus species.

  18. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  19. Characterization of in situ oil shale retorts prior to ignition

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Thomas F.; Moore, Dennis F.

    1984-01-01

    Method and system for characterizing a vertical modified in situ oil shale retort prior to ignition of the retort. The retort is formed by mining a void at the bottom of a proposed retort in an oil shale deposit. The deposit is then sequentially blasted into the void to form a plurality of layers of rubble. A plurality of units each including a tracer gas cannister are installed at the upper level of each rubble layer prior to blasting to form the next layer. Each of the units includes a receiver that is responsive to a coded electromagnetic (EM) signal to release gas from the associated cannister into the rubble. Coded EM signals are transmitted to the receivers to selectively release gas from the cannisters. The released gas flows through the retort to an outlet line connected to the floor of the retort. The time of arrival of the gas at a detector unit in the outlet line relative to the time of release of gas from the cannisters is monitored. This information enables the retort to be characterized prior to ignition.

  20. Methods for minimizing plastic flow of oil shale during in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Mallon, Richard G.

    1978-01-01

    In an in situ oil shale retorting process, plastic flow of hot rubblized oil shale is minimized by injecting carbon dioxide and water into spent shale above the retorting zone. These gases react chemically with the mineral constituents of the spent shale to form a cement-like material which binds the individual shale particles together and bonds the consolidated mass to the wall of the retort. This relieves the weight burden borne by the hot shale below the retorting zone and thereby minimizes plastic flow in the hot shale. At least a portion of the required carbon dioxide and water can be supplied by recycled product gases.

  1. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  2. Effects of retorting factors on combustion properties of shale char. 3. Distribution of residual organic matters.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiangxin; Jiang, Xiumin; Cui, Zhigang; Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Junwei

    2010-03-15

    Shale char, formed in retort furnaces of oil shale, is classified as a dangerous waste containing several toxic compounds. In order to retort oil shale to produce shale oil as well as treat shale char efficiently and in an environmentally friendly way, a novel kind of comprehensive utilization system was developed to use oil shale for shale oil production, electricity generation (shale char fired) and the extensive application of oil shale ash. For exploring the combustion properties of shale char further, in this paper organic matters within shale chars obtained under different retorting conditions were extracted and identified using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Subsequently, the effects of retorting factors, including retorting temperature, residence time, particle size and heating rate, were analyzed in detail. As a result, a retorting condition with a retorting temperature of 460-490 degrees C, residence time of <40 min and a middle particle size was recommended for both keeping nitrogenous organic matters and aromatic hydrocarbons in shale char and improving the yield and quality of shale oil. In addition, shale char obtained under such retorting condition can also be treated efficiently using a circulating fluidized bed technology with fractional combustion. PMID:19896769

  3. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  4. Raman/FTIR spectroscopy of oil shale retort gases

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, J H; Monaco, S B; Sanborn, R H; Hirschfeld, T B; Taylor, J R

    1982-08-01

    A Raman facility was assembled in order to aid in the evaluation of the feasibility of using Raman or FTIR spectroscopy for analyzing gas mixtures of interest in oil shale. Applications considered in oil shale research included both retort monitoring and laboratory kinetic studies. Both techniques gave limits of detection between 10 and 1000 ppM for ten representative pertinent gases. Both techniques are inferior as a general analytical technique for oil shale gas analysis in comparison with mass spectroscopy, which had detection limits between 1 and 50 ppM for the same gases. The conclusion of the feasibility study was to recommend that mass spectroscopic techniques be used for analyzing gases of interest to oil shale.

  5. MERCURY MASS DISTRIBUTION DURING LABORATORY AND SIMULATED IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total mercury mass in oil shale retort offgas was quantified in a series of laboratory retorting experiments and in a simulated modified in-situ (MIS) retorting experiment. Accurate quantitative determinations of offgas Hg mass were made possible by the use of a continuous on-lin...

  6. Status of LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    We have investigated the technical and economic barriers facing the introduction of an oil shale industry and we have chosen Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) oil shale retorting as the primary advanced technology of interest. We are investigating this approach through fundamental research, operation of a 4 tonne-per-day, HRS pilot plant and development of an Oil Shale Process (OSP) mathematical model. Over the last three years, from June 1991 to June 1993, we completed a series of runs (H10--H27) using the 4-TPD pilot plant to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the HRS process and answer key scale-up questions. With our CRADA partners, we seek to further develop the HRS technology, maintain and enhance the knowledge base gained over the past two decades through research and development by Government and industry and determine the follow on steps needed to advance the technology towards commercialization. The LLNL Hot-Recycled-Solid process has the potential to improve existing oil shale technology. It processes oil shale in minutes instead of hours, reducing plant size. It processes all oil shale, including fines rejected by other processes. It provides controls to optimize product quality for different applications. It co-generates electricity to maximize useful energy output. And, it produces negligible SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions, a non-hazardous waste shale and uses minimal water.

  7. OXIDES OF NITROGEN/AMMONIA CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL SHALE RETORT EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The retorting of oil shale yields several undesirable pollutants. The nitrogen in the shale and the reducing conditions under which the retorting is carried out results in the formation of sizeable amounts of ammonia in the gas stream. If not removed, the ammonia will make a sign...

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY: FIELD AND ANALYTICAL DATA APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF GEOKINETICS' IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air emissions and water effluents from true in-situ oil shale retorting were physically, chemically and biologically characterized by sampling of Geokinetics Retort No. 17, a pilot-scale unit which produced 30 barrels of crude shale oil per day during testing from July 16 to July...

  10. EVALUATION OF RETORTED OIL SHALE AS A LINER MATERIAL FOR RETORTED SHALE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study considering the possibility of using a spent oil shale itself as a water barrier or liner beneath a spent oil shale waste enbankment. Pertinent properties of unburned Tosco II spent shale and an average mixture of Lurgi spent shale have been me...

  11. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING USING SPENT SHALE ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an investigation of the environmental advantages/disadvantages of absorbing SO2 onto combusted retorted oil shale. The objective of the program was to obtain more information in support of Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting decisions on ...

  12. Method of design for vertical oil shale retorting vessels and retorting therewith

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-01-03

    A method of designing the gas flow parameters of a vertical shaft oil shale retorting vessel involves determining the proportion of gas introduced in the bottom of the vessel and into intermediate levels in the vessel to provide for lateral distribution of gas across the vessel cross section, providing mixing with the uprising gas, and determining the limiting velocity of the gas through each nozzle. The total quantity of gas necessary for oil shale treatment in the vessel may be determined and the proportion to be injected into each level is then determined based on the velocity relation of the orifice velocity and its feeder manifold gas velocity. A limitation is placed on the velocity of gas issuing from an orifice by the nature of the solid being treated, usually physical tests of gas velocity impinging the solid.

  13. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October-December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The burn of Retort 17 was terminated December 10. Retort 18 was ignited November 12. Retort 17 produced 510 bbl during the quarter for the total of 3,775 bbl, while Retort 18 produced 1,187 bbl. The shale oil was analyzed. Environmental studies were done.

  14. Method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit for in situ retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for rubblizing an oil shale deposit that has been formed in alternate horizontal layers of rich and lean shale, including the steps of driving a horizontal tunnel along the lower edge of a rich shale layer of the deposit, sublevel caving by fan drilling and blasting of both rich and lean overlying shale layers at the distal end of the tunnel to rubblize the layers, removing a substantial amount of the accessible rubblized rich shale to permit the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form a column of lean shale, performing additional sublevel caving of rich and lean shale towards the proximate end of the tunnel, removal of a substantial amount of the additionally rubblized rich shale to allow the overlying rubblized lean shale to drop to tunnel floor level to form another column of rubblized lean shale, similarly performing additional steps of sublevel caving and removal of rich rubble to form additional columns of lean shale rubble in the rich shale rubble in the tunnel, and driving additional horizontal tunnels in the deposit and similarly rubblizing the overlying layers of rich and lean shale and forming columns of rubblized lean shale in the rich, thereby forming an in situ oil shale retort having zones of lean shale that remain permeable to hot retorting fluids in the presence of high rubble pile pressures and high retorting temperatures.

  15. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    A process for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700.degree. C. for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  16. Preparation of grout for stabilization of abandoned in-situ oil shale retorts. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1979-12-07

    A process is described for the preparation of grout from burned shale by treating the burned shale in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C to maximize the production of the materials alite and larnite. Oil shale removed to the surface during the preparation of an in-situ retort is first retorted on the surface and then the carbon is burned off, leaving burned shale. The burned shale is treated in steam at approximately 700/sup 0/C for about 70 minutes. The treated shale is then ground and mixed with water to produce a grout which is pumped into an abandoned, processed in-situ retort, flowing into the void spaces and then bonding up to form a rigid, solidified mass which prevents surface subsidence and leaching of the spent shale by ground water.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF OIL SHALE RETORT WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND CONTROL TECHNOLOGY: PHASES I AND II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oil shale retorting is a synthetic fuel production technology on the verge of commercialization in the United States. In order to ensure that the emerging oil shale industry will have minimal adverse effects upon surface and/or groundwater where recoverable reserves of oil shale ...

  18. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  19. In situ oil shale retort with a generally T-shaped vertical cross section

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale and has a production level drift in communication with a lower portion of the fragmented mass for withdrawing liquid and gaseous products of retorting during retorting of oil shale in the fragmented mass. The principal portion of the fragmented mass is spaced vertically above a lower production level portion having a generally T-shaped vertical cross section. The lower portion of the fragmented mass has a horizontal cross sectional area smaller than the horizontal cross sectional area of the upper principal portion of the fragmented mass above the production level.

  20. Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  1. Characterization and treatment of by-product waters from selected oil shale retorting tests

    SciTech Connect

    Nordin, J.S.; Poulson, R.; Niss, N.; Laya, C.

    1987-12-01

    Oil shale retorting by-product waters from four surface retorting pilot tests and three simulated modified in situ retorting pilot tests were characterized for inorganic and organic chemical constituents. Eastern and western US shales were retorted for the tests. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium thiosulfate, various pyridines, and phenolic species were among the principal contaminants in the retort by-product water. The water also contains total dissolved solids up to 7000 ppM. When steam was used as a source of heat for oil shale retorting, the condensate that formed diluted the concentrations of contaminants, especially mineral dissolved solids, in the by-product water. The combined water treatment steps of hot-gas stripping followed by wet air oxidation at 600/degree/F (315/degree/C) and 2000 psi for 30 minutes removed 99% of the total organic carbon in the retort by-product water, producing a colorless and almost odor-free water. In one treatment test, the total organic carbon (TOC) was reduced from 3400 mg/L to less than 20 mg/L, with the 20 mg/L TOC remaining consisting of low molecular weight carboxylic acids. Only a partial TOC reduction occurred, with various alkylpyridines remaining as residuals when the retort waters were subjected to wet air oxidation as the only treatment step. Electrocoagulation as an initial water treatment step removed less than 30% of the TOC. 10 refs., 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Trace element mineral transformations associated with hydration and recarbonation of retorted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solidphase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated with deionized—distilled water under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO3-extractable (easily exchangeable), H2O-extractable (easily adsorbed), NaOh-extractable (organic), EDTA-extractable (carbonate), HNO3-extractable (sulfide), and residual (nonextractable silicate) phases. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale were compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. Trace elements examined in this study were found to reside predominantly in the HNO3-extractable and residual fractions. Hydration of retorted oil shale resulted in a shift in the majority of trace elements from residual to extractable forms. Cobalt, nickel, and zinc extractabilities were not significantly influenced by hydration, whereas antimony increased in the residual fraction. Subjecting retorted oil shale to atmospheric (0.033%) and 10% CO2(g) levels over a nine-month equilibration period resulted in partial and full recarbonation, respectively. As the influence of recarbonation increased, trace elements reverted to residual forms. Vanadium, choromium, copper, zinc, antimony, and molybdenum in the 10% CO2(g) recarbonated material were more resistant to sequential extraction than in retorted oil shale, whereas strontium, barium, and manganese were less resistant to sequential extraction. The extractabilities of cobalt, nickel, and lead were not affected by recarbonation. Recarbonation did not result in a predicted increase in EDTA-extractable trace elements. In general, the amounts of trace elements extracted by EDTA (and

  3. Selective dissolution and characterization of trace elements in hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Sorini, S.S.

    1986-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the influence of hydration and recarbonation on the solid phase distribution of trace elements in retorted oil shale. The oil shale samples were retorted by the Paraho direct heating process and equilibrated in the laboratory under controlled carbon dioxide conditions. A sequential extraction technique was then used to fractionate trace elements into soluble, KNO/sub 3/-extractable, H/sub 2/O-extractable, NaOH-extractable, EDTA-extractable, HNO/sub 3/-extractable, and residual (nonextractable) phases. This procedure is purported to identify trace elements that reside in the soluble, easily exchangeable, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, sulfide, and silicate phases, respectively. The chemical fractions present in retorted oil shale and hydrated and recarbonated retorted oil shale are compared to identify trace element mineralogical changes that may occur in retorted oil shale disposal environments. The trace elements examined in this study included barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, strontium, vanadium, and zinc. The extractabilities of the major elements - aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, and silicon - were also examined to provide evidence of solid phase elemental associations with trace elements. A significant result of this study is that the mineralogical residencies of trace elements in retorted oil shale were altered in response to hydration and recarbonation. Thus, the behavior of trace elements in retorted oil shale disposal environments may not be adequately predicted through the application of extraction procedures that assess potential trace element leachability. The results of this study also justify the further characterization of trace element selective extractabilities using procedures that partition trace elements residing in the HNO/sub 3/-extractable and residual fractions. 21 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. GROUND WATER--MINERALOGY RELATIONSHIP FOR 'IN SITU' OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential ground water problems associated with Modified In Situ (MIS) oil shale retorting need to be examined in order to minimize or mitigate possible invasion of spent shale leachates into ground water systems in actively mined or mined and abandoned sites. This background rep...

  5. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL: LURGI OIL SHALE RETORTING WITH OPEN PIT MINING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Lurgi oil shale PCTM addresses the Lurgi retorting technology, developed by Lurgi Kohle and Mineralotechnik GmbH, West Germany, in the manner in which this technology may be applied to the oil shales of the western United States. This manual proceeds through a description of ...

  6. Method for attenuating seismic shock from detonating explosive in an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Studebaker, Irving G.; Hefelfinger, Richard

    1980-01-01

    In situ oil shale retorts are formed in formation containing oil shale by excavating at least one void in each retort site. Explosive is placed in a remaining portion of unfragmented formation within each retort site adjacent such a void, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward such a void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. This produces a large explosion which generates seismic shock waves traveling outwardly from the blast site through the underground formation. Sensitive equipment which could be damaged by seismic shock traveling to it straight through unfragmented formation is shielded from such an explosion by placing such equipment in the shadow of a fragmented mass in an in situ retort formed prior to the explosion. The fragmented mass attenuates the velocity and magnitude of seismic shock waves traveling toward such sensitive equipment prior to the shock wave reaching the vicinity of such equipment.

  7. Solubility, mobility and plant uptake of toxic elements in retorted oil shales as affected by recarbonation

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to develop a method of lowering the alkalinity of retorted shales and of reducing the solubility of toxic elements. The solubility relationships and mineral transformations associated with recarbonation of retorted shales were evaluated by determining the solubilities of different elements and by using X-ray diffraction analysis. An accurate method of measuring carbonate activity in shale extracts was developed. This method consisted of acidifying shale extracts with concentrated HCI. The evolved CO/sub 2/(g) was trapped in NaOH and titrated to pH 8.5. A computer speciation model was developed to calculate the equilibrium activities of different ions and the CO/sub 2/(g) partial pressure. Recarbonation dissolved silicates, restored the carbonate deficit, and lowered pH to near 8.5 when equilibrium with CaCO/sub 3/ and CO/sub 2/(g) partial pressure of approximately 10/sup -4.65/ atm. was attained. Furthermore, recarbonation decreased the solubilities of F, Ba, Cr, Sr, and Mo and lowered their concentrations in shale leachates, showing that recarbonation of spent shales can retard the movement of toxic elements into the groundwater. Tall wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum) seeds placed in Lurgi shale without soil cover failed to germinate. On recarbonated Lurgi shale, plants grew normally without soil cover and accumulated normal levels of As, Se, Ba, B, Cu, Cd, Sr, and Ti. The results suggest that recarbonated retorted shales can be revegetated directly without a soil cover

  8. Method for forming an in situ oil shale retort with horizontal free faces

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.; Fernandes, Robert J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort is provided. A horizontally extending void is excavated in unfragmented formation containing oil shale and a zone of unfragmented formation is left adjacent the void. An array of explosive charges is formed in the zone of unfragmented formation. The array of explosive charges comprises rows of central explosive charges surrounded by a band of outer explosive charges which are adjacent side boundaries of the retort being formed. The powder factor of each outer explosive charge is made about equal to the powder factor of each central explosive charge. The explosive charges are detonated for explosively expanding the zone of unfragmented formation toward the void for forming the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles having a reasonably uniformly distributed void fraction in the in situ oil shale retort.

  9. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil-shale-retorting process. Fourth annual report, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Geokinetics in situ shale oil project is a cooperative venture between Geokinetics Inc. and the US Department of Energy. The objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conducted at a field site, Kamp Kerogen, located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. This Fourth Annual Report covers work completed during the calendar year 1980. During 1980 one full-size retort was blasted. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned. A total of 4891 barrels of oil was produced during the year.

  10. Investigation of the Geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Retort No. 18 produced 3479 barrels of oil during the quarter for a total of 4528 barrels to date. Chromatographic analyses of Retort No. 18 shale oil by the GKI analytical laboratory indicated variation in the oil from the wells near the air-in end and from the air-out end of the retort. Shale oil has been blended with Altamont crude (the Roosevelt refinery's normal feedstock); the distillation, API gravity, pour point, flash point, Naptha and Cat Gas were not affected by the shale oil. The diesel off the crude unit changed from water white to yellow, however, and a fine grayish-brown precipitate formed. Re-entry drilling was performed on Retorts No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23 during the quarter; tracer tests were run by Sandia Laboratories on Retorts No. 19, No. 21, No. 22, and No. 23. Blasthole drilling began on Retort No. 25.

  11. Determination of polar organic solutes in oil-shale retort water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Stuber, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of analytical methods were used to quantitatively determine polar organic solutes in process retort water and a gas-condensate retort water produced in a modified in situ oil-shale retort. Specific compounds accounting for 50% of the dissolved organic carbon were identified in both retort waters. In the process water, 42% of the dissolved organic carbon consisted of a homologous series of fatty acids from C2 to C10. Dissolved organic carbon percentages for other identified compound classes were as follows: aliphatic dicarboxylic acids, 1.4%; phenols, 2.2%; hydroxypyridines, 1.1%; aliphatic amides, 1.2%. In the gas-condensate retort water, aromatic amines were most abundant at 19.3% of the dissolved organic carbon, followed by phenols (17.8%), nitriles (4.3%), aliphatic alcohols (3.5%), aliphatic ketones (2.4%), and lactones (1.3%). Steam-volatile organic solutes were enriched in the gas-condensate retort water, whereas nonvolatile acids and polyfunctional neutral compounds were predominant organic constituents of the process retort water.

  12. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    DOEpatents

    Burton, III, Robert S.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  13. Gas seal for an in situ oil shale retort and method of forming thermal barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, R.S.

    1982-02-16

    A gas seal is provided in an access drift excavated in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The access drift is adjacent an in situ oil shale retort and is in gas communication with the fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale formed in the in situ oil shale retort. The mass of formation particles extends into the access drift, forming a rubble pile of formation particles having a face approximately at the angle of repose of fragmented formation. The gas seal includes a temperature barrier which includes a layer of heat insulating material disposed on the face of the rubble pile of formation particles and additionally includes a gas barrier. The gas barrier is a gas-tight bulkhead installed across the access drift at a location in the access drift spaced apart from the temperature barrier.

  14. INTEGRATION OF HIGH TEMPERATURE GAS REACTORS WITH IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson; Michael G. McKellar; Lee O. Nelson

    2011-05-01

    This paper evaluates the integration of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to an in situ oil shale retort operation producing 7950 m3/D (50,000 bbl/day). The large amount of heat required to pyrolyze the oil shale and produce oil would typically be provided by combustion of fossil fuels, but can also be delivered by an HTGR. Two cases were considered: a base case which includes no nuclear integration, and an HTGR-integrated case.

  15. PROCESSING IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS WITH A STRETFORD PLANT AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's transportable Stretford process pilot plant on a 700-acfm slipstream of in-situ shale oil retort offgas to investigate H2S removal efficiency and process compatibility. This was the fourth application of the pilot plant which had demonstrated ...

  16. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasiblity of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Furlong, M.W.; Tatterson, D.F.; Vasalos, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process successfully tested in 1.5 ton/day pilot plant in Amoco Research Center is discussed. Emphasis is given on information showing the application of cold flow unit results in the interpretation of retort product yields.

  17. MONITORING GROUNDWATER QUALITY: THE IMPACT OF IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the initial phase of a research program which will develop a planning methodology for the design and implementation of cost-effective groundwater quality monitoring programs for modified in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting. This initial phase includes (1) a rev...

  18. Characterization of retorted oil shale and application to a model of leachate generation and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.; Feerer, J.L.; Morelli, P.J.; Peterson, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    A characterization of the porous media properties of spent oil shale is presented. Mercury porosimetry, BET nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on unconsolidated powders, consolidated chunks, and compacted powder pellets of oil shale retorted in the TOSCO, Paraho, and Lawrence Livermore experimental retorts. All results indicated that retorted oil shale has a unimodal pore size distribution. Mean pore sizes ranged from 5.0 microns for powders to 1.0 micron for compacted powder pellets to 0.5 microns for consolidated chunks. Surface area porosity, and permeability data are also presented. Dispersion and capacitance of leachate flowing through retorted TOSCO oil shale were measured using a sucrose tracer and a specially designed leaching column. Tracer breakout curves were best simulated using a three-parameter capacitance model which assumes leachate flow characterized by flowing fraction, dead space volume, and mass transfer between main channel flow and dead space volume. Two types of generation models were investigated in a mathematical simulation of the leaching experiment. These were an equilibrium model based on the Langmuir approach and a general power-law model based on surface concentration of a given leachate species. Equilibrium isotherms were generated using shaker experiments. Rate coefficients were approximated by a small differential column which was run at shorter residence times. Leachate concentrations were best simulated by the power-law model.

  19. FUGITIVE DUST AT THE PARAHO OIL SHALE DEMONSTRATION RETORT AND MINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A fugitive dust sampling program was conducted at Anvil Points, Colorado, site of the Paraho mining and oil shale retorting operations. High-volume samplers were used extensively for fugitive dust collection, and 175 total suspended particulate calculations are reported for measu...

  20. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, April, May, June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-08-01

    The Retort No. 18 burn was terminated on May 11, 1980. A total of 5547 barrels of shale oil or 46 percent of in-place resource was recovered from the retort. The EPA-DOE/LETC post-burn core sampling program is underway on Retort No. 16. Eleven core holes (of 18 planned) have been completed to date. Preliminary results indicate excellent core recovery has been achieved. Recovery of 702 ft of core was accomplished. The Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit application was submitted to the EPA regional office in Denver for review by EPA and Utah air quality officials. The application for an Underground Injection Control (UIC) permit to authorize GKI to inject retort wastewater into the Mesa Verde Formation is being processed by the State of Utah. A hearing before the Board of Oil, Gas and Mining is scheduled in Salt Lake City, Utah, for July 22, 1980. Re-entry drilling on Retort No. 24 is progressing and placement of surface equipment is underway. Retort No. 25 blasthole drilling was completed and blast preparations are ongoing. Retort No. 25 will be blasted on July 18, 1980. The retort will be similar to Retort No. 24, with improvements in blasthole loading and detonation. US Patent No. 4,205,610 was assigned to GKI for a shale oil recovery process. Rocky Mountain Energy Company (RME) is evaluating oil shale holdings in Wyoming for application of the GKI process there.

  1. Evaluation of physical-chemical and biological treatment of shale oil retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; Wong, A.L.; Wakamiya, W.

    1982-09-01

    Bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate conventional physical-chemical and biological treatment processes for removal of pollutants from retort water produced by in situ shale oil recovery methods. Prior to undertaking these studies, very little information had been reported on treatment of retort water. A treatment process train patterned after that generally used throughout the petroleum refining industry was envisioned for application to retort water. The treatment train would consist of processes for removing suspended matter, ammonia, biodegradable organics, and nonbiodegradable or refractory organics. The treatment processes evaluated include anaerobic digestion and activated sludge for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; activated carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; steam stripping for ammonia removal; and chemical coagulation, sedimentation and filtration for removal of suspended matter. Preliminary cost estimates are provided.

  2. Application of a cold flow model in testing the feasibility of an oil shale retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Vasalos, I.A.; Tatterson, D.F.; Furlong, M.W.; Kowalski, T.L.; So, B.Y.C. )

    1992-06-01

    An oil shale fluid bed process was successfully tested in a 1.5 tons/day retort. A pilot plant previously used for catalytic cracking studies was modified for this purpose. The successful conversion of the existing pilot plant to a retort and the remarkably smooth startup and operation were attributed to the concurrent construction and operation of a full-scale cold flow model to test the design of solid feeders and a unique injector/mixer. Operation of the cold flow model over the range of anticipated pilot plant operating conditions provided pressure drop and solids hold data for the mixer. The process was based on rapid heating of small oil shale particles with a hot heat carrier. key to the process was the design of a mixer, of proprietary geometry, which effects rapid interparticle heat transfer, substantial retorting of oil shale, and rapid removal of the hydrocarbon vapors. Several tests were carried out showing that shale oil yields up to 110% of Fisher assay are feasible by using this unique process scheme. In this paper, data are presented showing the application of cold flow results in the interpretation of pilot plant data such as gas and liquid yields.

  3. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.L.; Mallon, R.G.; Walton, O.R.

    1983-09-21

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus are disclosed in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  4. Process for oil shale retorting using gravity-driven solids flow and solid-solid heat exchange

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  5. A plan for hydrologic investigations of in situ, oil-shale retorting near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.; Zimmerman, E.A.; Larson, L.R.; Wallace, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The recovery of shale oil by the in-situ retort process may cause hydrologic impacts, the most significant being ground-water contamination and possible transport of contaminants into surrounding areas. Although these impacts are site-specific, many of the techniques used to investigate each retort operation commonly will be the same. The U.S. Geological Survey has begun a study of hydrologic impacts in the area of an in-situ retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, as a means of refining and demonstrating these techniques. Geological investigations include determining the areal extent and thickness of aquifers. Emphasis will be placed on determining lithologic variations from geophysical logging. Hydrologic investigations include mapping of potentiometric surfaces, determining rates of ground-water discharge, and estimating aquifer properties by analytical techniques. Water-quality investigations include monitoring solute migration from the retort site and evaluating sampling techniques by standard statistical procedures. A ground-water-flow and solute-transport model will be developed to predict future movement of the water plume away from the retort. (USGS)

  6. Water Usage for In-Situ Oil Shale Retorting – A Systems Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D. Mattson; Larry Hull; Kara Cafferty

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an insitu retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The major water consumption was during the remediation of the insitu retorting zone.

  7. Acid mine drainage potential of raw, retorted, and combusted Eastern oil shale: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.; Reddy, K.J.

    1987-09-01

    In order to manage the oxidation of pyritic materials effectively, it is necessary to understand the chemistry of both the waste and its disposal environment. The objective of this two-year study was to characterize the acid production of Eastern oil shale waste products as a function of process conditions, waste properties, and disposal practice. Two Eastern oil shales were selected, a high pyrite shale (unweathered 4.6% pyrite) and a low pyrite shale (weathered 1.5% pyrite). Each shale was retorted and combusted to produce waste products representative of potential mining and energy conversion processes. By using the standard EPA leaching tests (TCLP), each waste was characterized by determining (1) mineralogy, (2) trace element residency, and (3) acid-base account. Characterizing the acid producing potential of each waste and potential trace element hazards was completed with laboratory weathering studies. 32 refs., 21 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Determining the locus of a processing zone in an in situ oil shale retort by sound monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Elkington, W. Brice

    1978-01-01

    The locus of a processing zone advancing through a fragmented permeable mass of particles in an in situ oil shale retort in a subterranean formation containing oil shale is determined by monitoring for sound produced in the retort, preferably by monitoring for sound at at least two locations in a plane substantially normal to the direction of advancement of the processing zone. Monitoring can be effected by placing a sound transducer in a well extending through the formation adjacent the retort and/or in the fragmented mass such as in a well extending into the fragmented mass.

  9. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  10. AUTO-OXIDATION POTENTIAL OF RAW AND RETORTED OIL SHALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses an EPA sponsored study to assess the potential environmental impacts of leachates from raw mined western oil shales. The study was undertaken as a cooperative effort of the Environmental Protection Agency, Colorado State University, Rio Blanco Oil Shale Compa...

  11. Method and apparatus for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Burton, Robert S.; Rundberg, Sten I.; Vaughn, James V.; Williams, Thomas P.; Benson, Gregory C.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is provided for igniting an in situ oil shale retort having an open void space over the top of a fragmented mass of particles in the retort. A conduit is extended into the void space through a hole in overlying unfragmented formation and has an open end above the top surface of the fragmented mass. A primary air pipe having an open end above the open end of the conduit and a liquid atomizing fuel nozzle in the primary air pipe above the open end of the primary air pipe are centered in the conduit. Fuel is introduced through the nozzle, primary air through the pipe, and secondary air is introduced through the conduit for vortical flow past the open end of the primary air pipe. The resultant fuel and air mixture is ignited for combustion within the conduit and the resultant heated ignition gas impinges on the fragmented mass for heating oil shale to an ignition temperature.

  12. Withdrawal of gases and liquids from an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Siegel, Martin M.

    1982-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort is formed within a subterranean formation containing oil shale. The retort contains a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. A production level drift extends below the fragmented mass, leaving a lower sill pillar of unfragmented formation between the production level drift and the fragmented mass. During retorting operations, liquid and gaseous products are recovered from a lower portion of the fragmented mass. A liquid outlet line extends from a lower portion of the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar for conducting liquid products to a sump in the production level drift. Gaseous products are withdrawn from the fragmented mass through a plurality of gas outlet lines distributed across a horizontal cross-section of a lower portion of the fragmented mass. The gas outlet lines extend from the fragmented mass through the lower sill pillar and into the production level drift. The gas outlet lines are connected to a gas withdrawal manifold in the production level drift, and gaseous products are withdrawn from the manifold separately from withdrawal of liquid products from the sump in the production level drift.

  13. Effects of thermal maturation on steroid hydrocarbons as determined by hydrous pyrolysis of Phosphoria Retort Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewan, M. D.; Bjorøy, M.; Dolcater, D. L.

    1986-09-01

    Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Phosphoria Retort Shale generate bitumen extracts and expelled oils that have steroid hydrocarbons with m/z 217-, 231-, and 253-mass Chromatographic distributions that are similar to those of bitumens and crude oils in the natural system. These experiments agree with the natural observations that diasteroid hydrocarbons increase relative to their regular counterparts with increasing thermal stress, while their C 27 through C 29 proportionality shows a slight enrichment in C 27. Relative concentrations of 20S to 20R configurations of 24-ethyl-14α,17α-cholestane show the expected increase with increasing thermal stress into the early part of the primary oil generation stage, but thereafter decrease with increasing thermal stress. If this reversal is found in high maturity sections of the natural system, the utility of this transformation as a maturity index will be limited. Triaromatic- to monoaromatic-steroid hydrocarbon concentrations increase with increasing thermal stress as observed in the natural system. Preferred migration of monoaromatic steroid hydrocarbons from bitumen extracts to expelled oils places considerable doubt on currently employed kinetic models for this aromatization reaction. As in the natural system, the experiments show relative concentrations of low-molecular weight- to high-molecular weight-triaromatic steroid hydrocarbons to increase with increasing thermal stress. Assuming a first-order reaction rate, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for this apparent side-chain cleavage reaction are 175.59 kJ mol -1 and 2.82 × 10 13hr-1, respectively. These kinetic parameters are geologically reasonable and are similar to those for the overall generation of expelled oil.

  14. True in situ oil shale retorting experiment at Rock Springs site 12

    SciTech Connect

    Long, A. Jr.; Merriam, N.W.; Virgona, J.E.; Parrish, R.L.

    1980-05-01

    A true in situ oil shale fracturing and retorting experiment was conducted near Rock Springs, Wyoming in 1977, 1978, and 1979. A 20-foot (6.1 m) thick zone of oil shale located 200 feet (61 m) below surface was hydraulically and explosively fractured. The fractured oil shale was extensively evaluated using flow tests, TV logging, caliper logging, downhole flow logging, core samples, and tracer tests. Attempts to conduct true in situ retorting tests in portions of the pattern with less than 5 percent void space as measured by caliper logs and less than 1 percent active void space measured by tracer test were curtailed when air could not be injected at desired rates. It is thought the fractures plugged as a result of thermal swelling of the oil shale. Air was injected at programmed rates in an area with 10 percent void measured by caliper log and 1.4 pecent active void measured by tracer test. A burn front was propagated in a narrow path moving away from the location of the production well. The vertical sweep of the burn front was measured at less than 4 feet (1.3 m). The burn front could not be sustained beyond 10 days without use of supplemental fuel. The authors recommend a minimum of 5 percent well-distributed void for attempts to retort 20 gpt (81 L/m ton) oil shale in confined beds. A void space of 5 percent may be roughly equivalent to 5 to 10 percent measured by caliper log and 1.4 percent or more by tracer test.

  15. FIELD STUDIES ON PARAHO RETORTED OIL SHALE LYSIMETERS: LEACHATE, VEGETATION, MOISTURE, SALINITY, AND RUNOFF, 1977-1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    A disposal scheme for Paraho retorted shale utilizing lysimeters to simulate a low-elevation (dry site) and a high-elevation (moist site) was constructed. Objectives of the study were to investigate (1) vegetative stabilization of Paraho retored shale, as affected by leaching and...

  16. Documentation of INL’s In Situ Oil Shale Retorting Water Usage System Dynamics Model

    SciTech Connect

    Earl D Mattson; Larry Hull

    2012-12-01

    A system dynamic model was construction to evaluate the water balance for in-situ oil shale conversion. The model is based on a systems dynamics approach and uses the Powersim Studio 9™ software package. Three phases of an in situ retort were consider; a construction phase primarily accounts for water needed for drilling and water produced during dewatering, an operation phase includes the production of water from the retorting process, and a remediation phase water to remove heat and solutes from the subsurface as well as return the ground surface to its natural state. Throughout these three phases, the water is consumed and produced. Consumption is account for through the drill process, dust control, returning the ground water to its initial level and make up water losses during the remedial flushing of the retort zone. Production of water is through the dewatering of the retort zone, and during chemical pyrolysis reaction of the kerogen conversion. The document discusses each of the three phases used in the model.

  17. Occupational-health study at the Geokinetics true in-situ oil-shale retorting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Rom, W.N.; Grier, R.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Voelz, G.L.; Ettinger, H.J.; Wheat, L.D.

    1983-07-01

    An occupational health study was conducted during the burn of the first commercial-size retort employing the Geokinetics, Inc., horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. The study consisted of field industrial hygiene surveys and sampling, and medical evaluation of workers and spouses living at the facility. Industrial hygiene surveys and sampling were conducted during early, middle, and late phases of the 9-month burn of the retort. An attempt was made to sample areas of expected maximum concentrations in order to characterize air contaminants near process units or areas, rather than to sample actual employee exposures. Samples were collected for analysis of dust and a number of selected gases and vapors in air, and limited monitoring was conducted for noise. Limited dust monitoring was also conducted during the drilling of blastholes for another retort. Medical evaluations consisted of medical history, physical examination, pulmonary ventilation function tests, chest x ray, and blood and urine tests (including chromosome evaluations and Ames testing of urine). 30 references.

  18. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this study were to determine the best available control technology (BACT) for control of sulfur emissions from oil shale processing facilities and then to develop a design for a mobile slipstream pilot plant that could be used to test and demonstrate that techno...

  19. Modeling study of carbonate decomposition in LLNL`s 4TU pilot oil shale retort

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C.B.

    1994-10-14

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) 4 tonne-per-day oil shale Pilot Retort (4TU-Pilot) has been modeled to study the degree of carbonate decomposition occurring in the process. The modeling uses a simplified version of the processes occurring in the retort to allow parametric studies to be performed. The primary focus of the work is on the sensitivity of computed carbonate decomposition to the assumed manner in which solid material leaves the retort. It was found that for a variety of assumptions about solid passage and evolution within the process the computed carbonate decomposition varied by only a few percent. It was also determined that using available kinetic expressions based on literature data led to a consistent underestimate of the carbonate decomposition, from 12--17% low on an absolute basis and on a relative basis as much as a factor of seven times too low. A simplified kinetic expression based on limited data from laboratory experiments on the same shale as used in the 4TU-Pilot run was also employed and found to match the pilot results fairly well.

  20. Unsaturated flow modeling of a retorted oil shale pile.

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, F.W.; Freshley, M.D.; Gee, G.W.

    1982-10-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the capabilities of the UNSAT1D model for assessing this potential threat to the environment by understanding water movement through spent shale piles. Infiltration, redistribution, and drainage of water in a spent shale pile were simulated with the UNSAT1D model for two test cases: (1) an existing 35 m pile; and (2) a transient pile growing at a rate of 10 m/year for 5 years. The first test case simulated three different layering scenarios with each one being run for 1 year. The second test case simulated two different initial moisture contents in the pile with each simulation being run for 30 years. Grand Junction and Rifle, Colorado climatological data were used to provide precipitation and potential evapotranspiration for a wet (1979) and dry (1976) year, respectively. Hydraulic properties obtained from the literature on Paraho process spent shale soil, and clay were used as model input parameters to describe water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics. Plant water uptake was not simulated in either test case. The two test cases only consider the evaporation component of evapotranspiration, thereby maximizing the amount of water infiltrating into the pile. The results of the two test cases demonstrated that the UNSAT1D model can adequately simulate flow in a spent shale pile for a variety of initial and boundary conditions, hydraulic properties, and pile configurations. The test cases provided a preliminary sensitivity analysis in which it was shown that the material hydraulic properties, material layering, and initial moisture content are the principal parameters influencing drainage from the base of a pile. 34 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  2. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  3. Postburn lithology and mineralogy at Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company's Tract C-a retort 1, Rio Blanco County, Colorado. [Core samples from near the in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Mason, G.M.; Fahy, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    An investigation was conducted to provide basic data on some of the characteristics of a modified in situ (MIS) oil shale retort after processing. Samples of retort contents and overburden were obtained from three core holes drilled into Rio Blanco's Tract C-a retort 1 in the western part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado. The retort operation had been completed nearly four years before the coring, and the cavity and mine workings had been flooded by groundwater for almost one year. Cores were characterized by lithologic description, x-ray diffraction, and optical microscopy. Drilling and logging records indicate as much as 35 to 40 feet of roof rock has collapsed into the retort since the burn was terminated. A water-filled attic cavity 46 to 62 feet high exists at the top of the retort. One core hole penetrated 377 feet of rubble in the retort and floor rock with numerous fractures below the retort. Most of the material recovered from the retort consisted of highly altered, fused and vesicular rock. Lesser amounts of carbonized, oxidized and moderately heated-altered oil shale were recovered from the upper and lower parts. Raw shale roof fall at the top and unretorted oil shale rubble at the bottom are also present. Thermal alteration has produced high-temperature silicate minerals from the original mixtures of carbonate and silicate minerals in the raw oil shale. Adequate material was recovered from the retort contents to provide valuable data on the lithologic, mineralogic, and physical characteristics of the MIS retort. 19 refs., 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Fluidized-bed retorting of Colorado oil shale: Topical report. [None

    SciTech Connect

    Albulescu, P.; Mazzella, G.

    1987-06-01

    In support of the research program in converting oil shale into useful forms of energy, the US Department of Energy is developing systems models of oil shale processing plants. These models will be used to project the most attractive combination of process alternatives and identify future direction for R and D efforts. With the objective of providing technical and economic input for such systems models, Foster Wheeler was contracted to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates for commercial scale processing plants to produce syncrude from oil shales via various routes. This topical report summarizes the conceptual design of an integrated oil shale processing plant based on fluidized bed retorting of Colorado oil shale. The plant has a nominal capacity of 50,000 barrels per operating day of syncrude product, derived from oil shale feed having a Fischer Assay of 30 gallons per ton. The scope of the plant encompasses a grassroots facility which receives run of the mine oil shale, delivers product oil to storage, and disposes of the processed spent shale. In addition to oil shale feed, the battery limits input includes raw water, electric power, and natural gas to support plant operations. Design of the individual processing units was based on non-confidential information derived from published literature sources and supplemented by input from selected process licensors. The integrated plant design is described in terms of the individual process units and plant support systems. The estimated total plant investment is similarly detailed by plant section and an estimate of the annual operating requirements and costs is provided. In addition, the process design assumptions and uncertainties are documented and recommendations for process alternatives, which could improve the overall plant economics, are discussed.

  5. Studying the possibility of separate and joint combustion of Estonian shales and oil shale retort gas at thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Attikas, Raivo; Zaichenko, M. N.; Pleshanov, K. A.; Ionkin, I. L.

    2015-10-01

    Results from investigations of joint and separate combustion of shale with a low heating value and oil shale retort gas (OSRG) are presented. The question about the possibility of further using shale as basic fuel is presently placed on the agenda. This matter is connected with the fact that the environmental regulations are imposing increasingly more stringent limits on emissions of harmful substances and that a decrease in the shale heating value is predicted. An adequate mathematical model of one of the TP-101 boilers installed at the Estonian power plant was developed and verified for carrying out investigations. Criteria for determining the reliability, efficiency, and environmental safety of equipment operation were formulated based on the operating chart, regulatory documents, and environmental requirements. Assessment of the possibility of boiler operation and the boiler unit as a whole in firing shale with a low calorific value has shown that despite fulfilling the required superheated steam parameters, quite a number of limitations relating to reliable operation of the boiler are not complied with. In addition, normal operation of forced-draft equipment and mills is possible only at low loads. For operation with joint combustion of shale and OSRG, the fractions of degraded-quality shale and OSRG (by heat) at which reliable and efficient operation of the boiler and boiler unit is ensured in the entire working range of loads with fulfilling the environmental standards are determined. Proposals on modifying the equipment for joint combustion of shale and OSRG are formulated. Boiler operation with firing OSRG as main fuel was modeled for three versions of furnace waterwall thermal efficiency with a view to estimate possible changes of boiler operation in carrying out waterwall cleaning operations. Calculation results have shown that operation of the boiler and boiler unit meeting the elaborated criteria is possible in the entire working range of loads with

  6. Post Retort, Pre Hydro-treat Upgrading of Shale Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, John

    2012-09-30

    Various oil feedstocks, including oil from oil shale, bitumen from tar sands, heavy oil, and refin- ery streams were reacted with the alkali metals lithium or sodium in the presence of hydrogen or methane at elevated temperature and pressure in a reactor. The products were liquids with sub- stantially reduced metals, sulfur and nitrogen content. The API gravity typically increased. Sodi- um was found to be more effective than lithium in effectiveness. The solids formed when sodium was utilized contained sodium sulfide which could be regenerated electrochemically back to so- dium and a sulfur product using a "Nasicon", sodium ion conducting membrane. In addition, the process was found to be effective reducing total acid number (TAN) to zero, dramatically reduc- ing the asphaltene content and vacuum residual fraction in the product liquid. The process has promise as a means of eliminating sulfur oxide and carbon monoxide emissions. The process al- so opens the possibility of eliminating the coking process from upgrading schemes and upgrad- ing without using hydrogen.

  7. Shale oil from the LLNL pilot retort: Metal ions as markers for water and dust

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Duewer, T.I.; King, K.J.; Baldwin, D.E.; Cena, R.J.

    1993-12-31

    A metal ion found primarily in one of the three phases (oil, water, or dust) can serve as a marker for that phase. Emulsified water contains most of the magnesium detected in a shale oil. Extraction with saturated salt solution removes most of that Mg. The Mg content of retort water and the percentage of water in the oil (by ASTM D-4006) provides a good estimate of an oil`s Mg content. Mineral matter elements with poorly water soluble carbonates (or oxides) at pH 8 (calcium, for example) serve as markers for dust. When the water is separated from the main and light oil fractions before adding the heavy fraction containing dust, a much drier oil can be obtained. However, when done in this way, a powder containing Ca and Si remains in the oil; it cannot be completely removed even by filtering through a 0.24-{mu} frit. Iron, and certain other transition metal ions, is quite oil soluble. Extraction with dilute nitric acid to remove basic amines reduces the Fe content of shale oil. Unlike carboxylate- complexed metal ions in crude oils, the iron in shale oil does not extract efficiently into an aqueous EDTA solution (pH 5.9). Distillation of shale oil leaves most of the iron and other metals behind in the vacuum residum. Shale oil corrodes the hottest condenser`s steel interior; this is the chief source of iron in the oil.

  8. Apparatus and method for igniting an in situ oil shale retort

    DOEpatents

    Chambers, Carlon C.

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting such method are disclosed for igniting a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles in an in situ oil shale retort. The method is conducted by forming a hole through unfragmented formation to the fragmented mass. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the hole. A fuel is introduced into a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The fuel and oxygen-containing gas mix forming a combustible mixture which is ignited for establishing a combustion zone in a portion of the hole spaced apart from the fragmented mass. The hot gas generated in the combustion zone is conducted from the hole into the fragmented mass for heating a portion of the fragmented mass above an ignition temperature of oil shale.

  9. Self-cementing properties of oil shale solid heat carrier retorting residue.

    PubMed

    Talviste, Peeter; Sedman, Annette; Mõtlep, Riho; Kirsimäe, Kalle

    2013-06-01

    Oil shale-type organic-rich sedimentary rocks can be pyrolysed to produce shale oil. The pyrolysis of oil shale using solid heat carrier (SHC) technology is accompanied by large amount of environmentally hazardous solid residue-black ash-which needs to be properly landfilled. Usage of oil shale is growing worldwide, and the employment of large SHC retorts increases the amount of black ash type of waste, but little is known about its physical and chemical properties. The objectives of this research were to study the composition and self-cementing properties of black ash by simulating different disposal strategies in order to find the most appropriate landfilling method. Three disposal methods were simulated in laboratory experiment: hydraulic disposal with and without grain size separation, and dry dumping of moist residue. Black ash exhibited good self-cementing properties with maximum compressive strength values of >6 MPa after 90 days. About 80% of strength was gained in 30 days. However, the coarse fraction (>125 µm) did not exhibit any cementation, thus the hydraulic disposal with grain size separation should be avoided. The study showed that self-cementing properties of black ash are governed by the hydration of secondary calcium silicates (e.g. belite), calcite and hydrocalumite. PMID:23528998

  10. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING USING SPEND SHALE ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a detailed engineering evaluation of the potential for using an absorption on spent shale process (ASSP) for controlling sulfur emissions from oil shale plants. The evaluation analyzes the potential effectiveness and cost of absorbing SO2 on combusted s...

  11. High liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, Thomas T.

    1990-01-01

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process.

  12. A high liquid yield process for retorting various organic materials including oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Coburn, T.T.

    1988-07-26

    This invention is a continuous retorting process for various high molecular weight organic materials, including oil shale, that yields an enhanced output of liquid product. The organic material, mineral matter, and an acidic catalyst, that appreciably adsorbs alkenes on surface sites at prescribed temperatures, are mixed and introduced into a pyrolyzer. A circulating stream of olefin enriched pyrolysis gas is continuously swept through the organic material and catalyst, whereupon, as the result of pyrolysis, the enhanced liquid product output is provided. Mixed spent organic material, mineral matter, and cool catalyst are continuously withdrawn from the pyrolyzer. Combustion of the spent organic material and mineral matter serves to reheat the catalyst. Olefin depleted pyrolysis gas, from the pyrolyzer, is enriched in olefins and recycled into the pyrolyzer. The reheated acidic catalyst is separated from the mineral matter and again mixed with fresh organic material, to maintain the continuously cyclic process. 2 figs.

  13. Leachability of retorted oil shale by strong complexometric agents. [Sodium citrates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. Water-extractable minor and trace elements were aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, and strontium. Complexometric extraction released detectable amounts of arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, vanadium, and zinc. Other elements of environmental concern, including silver, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, were not detected in excess of the limits of quantitation in complexometric extracts. Based upon the analytical results, it was found that the retorted oil shale mineralogy influenced the extracting solution composition, i.e., when comparing the leachates from the IH and DH samples. Also, the complexometric agents hastened the release of certain constituents into solution compared to water extracts. 17 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  15. Initial evaluation of fracturing oil shale with propellants for in situ retorting, Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.; Lekas, J.M.; Strickland, F.G.

    1991-05-01

    A series of field experiments was carried out to gather preliminary information on the use of propellant charges to create horizontal fractures in oil shale beds for in situ retorting. Development of a propellant tool specifically designed to create horizontal fractures, and testing of various sizes and designs of the tool to create fractures in oil shale beds were carried out simultaneously. Ten prototype tools with energy yields from 2 pounds to 60 pounds were fired at depths ranging from 10 feet to 60 feet. Ten preshot observation holes and 13 postshot core holes were used to gather information and to serve as injection wells to inject air into the formation for permeability tests. Most shots vented large volumes of gas or water from observation holes 13 to 20 feet distant, indicating that a horizontal fracture communicating from the shot point to the observation hole had been created. Shot-related horizontal fracturing was noted in most core holes at the same depth as the shot point. Air injection tests on all holes showed a significant increase in permeability after the shots.

  16. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by the process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistent mutants (1-2 times background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delcate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  17. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  18. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  19. Explosively produced fracture of oil shale. Progress report, July-September 1981. [Field experiments; computer models; retort stability

    SciTech Connect

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is conducting rock fragmentation research in oil shale to develop the blasting technologies and designs required to create a rubble bed for a modified in situ retort. This report outlines our first field experiments at the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado. These experiments are part of a research program, sponsored by the Laboratory through the Department of Energy and by a Consortium of oil companies. Also included are some typical numerical calculations made in support of proposed field experiments. Two papers detail our progress in computer modeling and theory. The first presents a method for eliminating hourglassing in two-dimensional finite-difference calculations of rock fracture without altering the physical results. The second discusses the significant effect of buoyancy on tracer gas flow through the retort. A paper on retort stability details a computer application of the Schmidt graphical method for calculating fine-scale temperature gradients in a retort wall. The final paper, which describes our approach to field experiments, presents the instrumentation and diagnostic techniques used in rock fragmentation experiments at Anvil Points Mine.

  20. Effects of stripped oil shale retort water on fishes, birds, and mammals

    SciTech Connect

    Nystrom, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus Water), coturnix quail (Coturnix coturnix Teminck and Schlegal), fathead minnows (Pimphales promelas Rafinesque), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) were subjected to various exposures of stripped oil shale retort water (SRW). Chronic low-level exposures of all experimental animals to SRW revealed no adverse histological effects attributable to SRW. Also, production and development of second generation fathead minnows and coturnix quail exposed to SRW was normal. Subacute exposure of rainbow trout to SRW produced ultrastructural changes detected by transmission, scanning, and freeze fracture electron microscopy) in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues. The gills showed a swelling of secondary lamellae, disorganization of normal tissue architecture, and sloughing of respiratory cells. The liver contained lamellar bodies not seen in the controls. Relatively large, electron dense, membrane-bounded deposits were present in proximal tubule cells of the kidney. Sodium arsenite (a significant component of SRW) was shown to cause swelling of granular endosplasmic reticulum in quail liver tissue with an acute exposure. This effect could be related to the fact that arsenic inhibits ATP production, which would decrease the ability of the sodium pumps to maintain a normal osmotic balance.

  1. Method for establishing a combustion zone in an in situ oil shale retort having a pocket at the top

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1980-01-01

    An in situ oil shale retort having a top boundary of unfragmented formation and containing a fragmented permeable mass has a pocket at the top, that is, an open space between a portion of the top of the fragmented mass and the top boundary of unfragmented formation. To establish a combustion zone across the fragmented mass, a combustion zone is established in a portion of the fragmented mass which is proximate to the top boundary. A retort inlet mixture comprising oxygen is introduced to the fragmented mass to propagate the combustion zone across an upper portion of the fragmented mass. Simultaneously, cool fluid is introduced to the pocket to prevent overheating and thermal sloughing of formation from the top boundary into the pocket.

  2. Irrigation experiments with produced waters from the retorting of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    The research described herein was conducted by Geokinetics to qualitatively assess the tolerance of native and certain introduced species of vegetation to irrigation with produced water from the retorting of oil shale. Two separate experiments were conducted at the Kamp Kerogen field site in Uintah County, Utah. The results indicate possible effects on vegetation that a prolonged exposure to produced water would have. The two simple experiments were initiated during the summer of 1979. It was expected that irrigation with produced water would eventually result in detrimental effects to the plants receiving it; the concentrations of boron, molybdenum, arsenic, oil and other constituents in untreated production waters are high enough to likely cause damage to plants. In one experiment a 27 foot by 27 foot plot of native vegetation was irrigated with one inch of produced water per week for five weeks using a lawn sprinkler. Grasses and shrubs within the test plot appeared to have died; germination of annual plants was greatly inhibited. In the other experiment, 30 container-grown seedlings ranging in height from 0.3 feet to 3.0 feet were transplanted. Six species of broadleaf, deciduous trees not native to the test site were represented by five seedlings each. All 30 trees received well water irrigation for one month, after which four trees of each species were irrigated with produced water for seven weeks. One tree of each species continued to receive well water throughout the experiment; only two of those trees survived the summer of 1979. All six species appeared to have been adversely affected by produced water. The horse chesnut trees were the hardiest of the species planted. Most of the 30 trees, including those irrigated with well water, did not survive the winter season.

  3. Laboratory study of the effects of combustion gases on retorting of Green River oil shale with superheated steam

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, A.L.; Bullen, E.A.; Jacobs, H.R.

    1983-04-01

    The leached zone of the Parachute Creek member of the Piceance Basin in the Green River Formation has a unique natural porosity that makes it a likely source for in-situ production of oil from oil shale by injection of superheated steam. The Equity Oil Co. of Salt Lake City, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Energy, carried out field tests using surface generated steam. Difficulties in delivering steam of sufficiently high temperature to the formation resulted in an experiment which was only marginally successful yielding less than 1 percent of the estimated 300,000 barrels of oil in place. In 1981, personnel at Sandia National Laboratory suggested that a downhole steam generator which could produce steam at temperatures in excess of 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) at depth could well solve the temperature problem. In order to evaluate the effects of combustion gases which would be injected along with steam, should a downhole steam generator be used, laboratory studies have been completed using steam diluted with CO/sub 2/ and with CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ as the heating medium. Results of experiments in an autoclave reactor and in a laboratory retort are reported. The temperature, residence time, and partial pressure of steam are the parameters which effect oil yield and oil quality. Oil properties are reported for several experimental conditions and include oil yield, boiling point distributions, pour points, gravity, and elemental and hydrocarbon-type analyses. Both the autoclave and laboratory retort experiments indicate that CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ do not take a reactive part in the formation of oils except as they dilute the steam. However, the presence of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous atmosphere during retorting does promote a low-temperature transformation of dolomite to calcite in the inorganic matrix of the oil shale.

  4. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  5. FINGERPRINTING INORGANIC ARSENIC AND ORGANOARSENIC COMPOUNDS IN IN SITU OIL SHALE RETORT AND PROCESS VOTERS USING A LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPH COUPLED WITH AN ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER AS A DETECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Fish, Richard H.; Brinckman, Frederick E.; Jewett, Kenneth L.

    1981-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic and organoarsenic compounds were speciated in seven oil shale retort and process waters, including samples from simulated, true and modified in situ processes, using a high performance liquid chromatograph automatically coupled to a graphite furnace atomic absorption detector. The molecular forms of arsenic at ppm levels (({micro}g/mL) in these waters are identified for the first time, and shown to include arsenate, methylarsonic acid and phenylarsonic acid. An arsenic-specific fingerprint chromatogram of each retort or process water studied has significant impliestions regarding those arsenical species found and those marginally detected, such as dimethylarsinic acid and the suspected carcinogen arsenite. The method demonstrated suggests future means for quantifying environmental impacts of bioactive organometal species involved in oil shale retorting technology.

  6. ALKALINE SCRUBBING OF IN-SITU OIL SHALE RETORT OFFGAS AT GEOKINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of EPA's mobile wet scrubber on a 200-acfm slipstream of Geokinetics' retort offgas to investigate the H2S removal efficiency and selectivity (percent H2S removal/percent CO2 removal) as a function of liquid/gas contact time, alkaline solution OH(minus...

  7. Effects of in-situ oil-shale retorting on water quality near Rock Springs, Wyoming, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner-Lunsford, J.B.; Eddy, C.A.; Plafcan, M.; Lowham, H.W.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental in-situ retorting techniques (methods of extracting shale oil without mining) were used from 1969 to 1979 by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) at a test area near Rock Springs in southwestern Wyoming. The retorting experiments at site 9 have produced elevated concentrations of some contaminants in the ground water. During 1988 and 1989, the US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, conducted a site characterization study to evaluate the chemical contamination of ground water at the site. Water samples from 34 wells were analyzed; more than 70 identifiable organic compounds were detected using a combination of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analytical methods. This report provides information that can be used to evaluate possible remedial action for the site. Remediation techniques that may be applicable include those techniques based on removing the contaminants from the aquifer and those based on immobilizing the contaminants. Before a technique is selected, the risks associated with the remedial action (including the no-action alternative) need to be assessed, and the criteria to be used for decisions regarding aquifer restoration need to be defined. 31 refs., 23 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, July, August, September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-01-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited using a new procedure and 47 days of operation were completed in the quarter. For retort No. 28 air injection and off gas piping and manifolding was completed along with the installation of electrical and instrumentation wiring. The off gas processing plant for the two retorts was completed and an initial shakedown run made.

  9. Oil shale mining cost analysis. Volume I. Surface retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, B.S.; English, L.M.; Metz, R.D.; Lewis, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An Oil Shale Mining Economic Model (OSMEM) was developed and executed for mining scenarios representative of commercially feasible mining operations. Mining systems were evaluated for candidate sites in the Piceance Creek Basin. Mining methods selected included: (1) room-and-pillar; (2) chamber-and-pillar, with spent shale backfilling; (3) sublevel stopping; and (4) sublevel stopping, with spent shale backfilling. Mines were designed to extract oil shale resources to support a 50,000 barrels-per-day surface processing facility. Costs developed for each mining scenario included all capital and operating expenses associated with the underground mining methods. Parametric and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the sensitivity of mining cost to changes in capital cost, operating cost, return on investment, and cost escalation.

  10. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  11. Reaction rate kinetics for in situ combustion retorting of Michigan Antrim oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostam-Abadi, M.; Mickelson, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The intrinsic reaction rate kinetics for the pyrolysis of Michigan Antrim oil shale and the oxidation of the carbonaceous residue of this shale have been determined using a thermogravimetric analysis method. The kinetics of the pyrolysis reaction were evaluated from both isothermal and nonisothermal rate data. The reaction was found to be second-order with an activation energy of 252.2 kJ/mole, and with a frequency factor of 9.25 ?? 1015 sec-1. Pyrolysis kinetics were not affected by heating rates between 0.01 to 0.67??K/s. No evidence of any reactions among the oil shale mineral constituents was observed at temperatures below 1173??K. However, it was found that the presence of pyrite in oil shale reduces the primary devolatilization rate of kerogen and increases the amount of residual char in the spent shale. Carbonaceous residues which were prepared by heating the oil shale at a rate of 0.166??K/s to temperatures between 923??K and 1073??K, had the highest reactivities when oxidized at 0.166??K/s in a gas having 21 volume percent oxygen. Oxygen chemisorption was found to be the initial precursor to the oxidation process. The kinetics governing oxygen chemisorption is (Equation Presented) where X is the fractional coverage. The oxidation of the carbonaceous residue was found also to be second-order. The activation energy and the frequency factor determined from isothermal experiments were 147 kJ/mole and 9.18??107 sec-1 respectively, while the values of these parameters obtained from a nonisothermal experiment were 212 kJ/mole and 1.5??1013 sec-1. The variation in the rate constants is attributed to the fact that isothermal and nonisothermal analyses represent two different aspects of the combustion process.

  12. POLLUTION CONTROL TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR UNISHALE B AND UNISHALE C OIL SHALE RETORTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the Unishale B and C oil shale plants, characterizes the waste streams produced in each medium, and generally discusses the commercially available controls that can be applied to the plant waste streams. Several controls are examined in more detail for each m...

  13. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part I. Eight plant species and their response to Omega 9 oil-shale retort water. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; sandreed; pointvetch

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-11-01

    Growth response to water collected from an in situ oil shale retort experiment was studied. The purposes were to: (1) evaluate effect of retort water on plants; (2) document effective parameters for detecting differences in plant growth by species. A self feeding hydroponic system was utilized to subject different dilutions of oil shale retort water to plants grown in horticulture grade perlite under greenhouse conditions for 10 weeks. Parameters measured included: (1) leaf area, (2) total dry weight, (3) shoot weight, (4) root weight, (5) root/shoot ratio, and (6) shoot/leaf area ratio. Seven grass and one forb species were utilized as test plants. Results showed growth to be impaired, species to respond differently to retort water, and parameters measured to vary as to their ability to detect change in growth response.

  14. Investigation of the geokinetics horizontal in situ oil shale retorting process. Quarterly report, October, November, December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, K.B.

    1984-03-01

    Retort No. 27 was ignited on August 11, 1983 and by December 31 had completed 139 days of operation and produced 11,420 barrels of oil. Retort No. 28 was ignited on October 18, 1983 and on December 31 had completed 74 days of operation and produced 5,285 barrels of oil. The off-gas processing plants for the two retorts was completed and put through a shakedown run. Concentration levels of H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ in the retort off gas did not warrant plant operation in the fourth quarter. Environmental studies are reported.

  15. Sublethal effects of an in situ oil shale retort water on rainbow trout. [Salmo gairdneri

    SciTech Connect

    Lebsack, M.E.; Anderson, A.D.; Nelson, K.F.; Farrier, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    An in situ oil shale process water (Omega-9 water) was used in sublethal concentrations in flow-through bioassay with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Exposure for 96 hr to 0.3% of Omega-9 water (approximately 70% of the LC50) decreased blood packed cell volume (PCV) and HB concentration. This concentration of Omega-9 water also decreased plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and protein concentration and caused 3-fold increases in plasma NH/sub 3/ levels. Exposure to sublethal concentration of a solution of the 13 major inorganic constituents of Omega-9 water also decreased pcv and plasma AP activity and increased plasma NH/sub 3/ levels. No sublethal effects on blood HB, protein, and alkaline phosphatase occurred at a toxic level <1/5 of the level of the LC50.

  16. Western oil-shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 5: an investigation of dewatering for the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The C-a and the C-b tracts in the Piceance Creek Basin are potential sites for the development of oil shale by the modified in-situ retorting (MIS) process. Proposed development plans for these tracts require the disturbance of over three billion m/sup 3/ of oil shale to a depth of about 400 m (1312 ft) or more below ground level. The study investigates the nature and impacts of dewatering and reinvasion that are likely to accompany the MIS process. The purpose is to extend earlier investigations through more refined mathematical analysis. Physical phenomena not adequately covered in previous studies, particularly the desaturation process, are investigated. The present study also seeks to identify, through a parametric approach, the key variables that are required to characterize systems such as those at the C-a and C-b tracts.

  17. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  18. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  19. Methodology and concepts for the design of surface storage fills at the Anvil Points Oil Shale Retort Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Strohm, W.E. Jr.; Krinitzsky, E.L.

    1983-12-01

    Primary obtectives in design of surface disposal fills for processed and raw oil shales are: (a) to insure long-term physical stability, and (b) to prevent surface runoff, surface erosion, and possible subsurface seepage from degrading the water quality of streams and ground water, it was concluded that the analysis and design of spent shale disposal fills should be based on sound geotechnical engineeering principles, considerable experience, and good judgment. An understanding of the source of variability of spent shale materials and its effect on engineering properties is a first step in developing fill design. A second important step is the assessment of long-term changes in the properties of spent shale within a disposal fill. This assessment requires consideration of possible thermal, hydrochemical, and physical interactions within the fill and between the fill and site environment. The site environment is site-specific and depends on the geological, surface and subsurface hydrological, and geotechnical characteristics of the site. The variability of spent shale materials is a direct function of variations in mineral and chemical composition of the raw shale and of the processes applied. Current technology for the design and construction of spent shale disposal fills has not been proven by experience. A major problem is the large quantities of spent shale generated for surface disposal and the lack of available sites other than large gulches in the oil shale country of the western United States. Conceptual research fill designs developed in this study should be refined and constructed to provide needed information on in situ properties and long-term performance. Research fills planned by others should be augmented to obtain needed information, especially for codisposal of spent shales with treated waste water, raw shale fines, and process dust.

  20. Effects of MIS retorting on groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, N.E.

    1983-04-01

    Occidental Petroleum Corporation has conducted field tests on the modified-in-situ (MIS) oil shale retorting technology for a number of years at its Logan Wash site near De Beque, Colorado. A total of 8 major retorts have been burned, the last three of which were commercial sized. Concurrent with process development research, a significant program was undertaken to study the effects of the MIS technology on the environment. Groundwater was examined before, during and after the major retorting experiments by means of an extensive monitoring network. This network was comprised of monitoring wells at various distances from the retorting operation. Both alluvial wells and deep bedrock wells were examined. Water quality in local seeps and springs was also monitored. Almost eighty chemical and physical parameters of the water samples have been examined. Analyses of these data have shown no contamination of the groundwaters by the MIS retorts. The quality of water exiting MIS retorts during and after the retorting period has also been followed. Data from Retorts 1 through 6 show that the species mobilized by retorting are rapidly removed, and concentrations of chemicals in ''leachate'' from the retorts quickly approach the same range of values as seen in natural groundwaters. Statistical analyses have been made of both the retort waters and the groundwaters. Based on the results of these analyses a list of key variables has been identified whose measurement is most likely to identify contamination problems.

  1. Organic constituents in process water from the in-situ retorting of oil from oil-shale kerogen

    SciTech Connect

    Raphaelian, L A; Harrison, W

    1981-02-01

    Capillary-column gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) was performed on the acid, base, and neutral fractions of liquid- and particulate-phase methylene chloride extracts of a composite sample of raw process water collected from separator Tank 6 by the Laramie Energy Technology Center. Of the 160 extractable and chromatographable organic compounds tentatively identified, the following compound classes were found (listed in decreasing order of abundance): quinolines and lower fatty acids, aminoindoles, neutral oxygenated heterocyclics, pyridines, pyrroles, pyrazoles, phenols, and alkanes. Noticeably absent or in low concentration were alkyl benzenes and alkenes. Assuming 100% extraction efficiency, these organics constitute approximately 0.035% of the retort water; approximately 50% of this amount is represented by the quinolines, fatty acids, aminoindoles, and oxygenated heterocyclics. The following differences were noted in the composition of the particulate and liquid extracts of the neutral and base fractions, respectively: (1) alkanes are a major portion of the particulates, whereas oxygenated hereocyclics are most prominent in the liquid; and (2) aminoindoles are only a minor portion of the particulates, but are prominent in the liquid phase. The concentration of a compound occurring in both the liquid and particulate extracts is approximately 40 to 100 times higher in the liquid than in the particulate extract.

  2. Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay of natural and synthetic crude oils including a Fischer-Retorted Estonian shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    DMSO extracts of a variety of natural and synthetic crude oils were tested for genotoxic activity in the Ames/Salmonella bioassay. Both mutagenic and cytotoxic potentials are cited. Natural crude oils and their refined products and upgraded synfuels are less mutagenic than parent crude shale oils which in turn are less mutagenic than the coal derived distillate blend sample, SRC II. However, this order is not true for cytotoxicity induced by these oil samples; therefore, caution must be exercised in the assessment of their mutagenic potential without consideration of other influential factors including cytotoxicity.

  3. Pyritic waste from precombustion coal cleaning: Amelioration with oil shale retort waste and sewage sludge for growth of soya beans

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, B.G.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Stevens, M.L.

    1994-12-31

    Solid residue from fossil fuel mining and utilization generally present little hazard to human health. However, because of the high volumes generated, they do pose unique disposal problems in terms of land use and potential degradation of soil and water. In the specific case of wastes from precombustion coal cleaning, the materials include sulfur compounds that undergo oxidation when exposed to normal atmospheric conditions and microbial action and then produce sulfuric acid. The wastes also contain compounds of metals and nonmetals at concentrations many times those present in the original raw coal. Additionally, the residues often contain coal particles and fragments that combust spontaneously if left exposed to the air, thus contributing to the air pollution that the coal cleaning process was designed to prevent. Federal and state efforts in the United States to ameliorate the thousands of hectares covered with these wastes have focused on neutralizing the acidity with limestone and covering the material with soil. The latter procedure creates additional degraded areas, which were originally farmland or wildlife habitat. It would seem preferable to reclaim the coal refuse areas without earth moving. The authors describe here experiments with neutralization of coal waste acidity using an alkaline waste derived from the extraction of oil from oil shale to grow soya beans (Glycine max. [L]) on a mixture of wastes and sewage sludge. Yield of plant material and content of nutrients an potentially toxic elements in the vegetation and in the growth mixtures were determined; results were compared with those for plants grown on an agricultural soil, with particular focus on boron.

  4. Hydraulic calculations for a modified in-situ retort

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.G.

    1980-03-01

    This report contains brief descriptions of a numerical model and the aquifer-retort system used to investigate hydraulics in the vicinity of a modified in-situ retort. The model is used to analyze several cases involving different physical and geohydrological parameters, and possible applications of the model to in-situ oil shale recovery are discussed.

  5. Revegetation research on oil shale lands in the Piceance Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Redente, E.F.; Cook, C.W.

    1981-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Satisfactory stands of vegetation failed to establish on unleached retorted shale during two successive years of seeding. All seedings with soil over retorted shale were judged to be successful at the end of three growing seasons, but deep-rooted shrubs that depend upon subsoil moisture may have their growth hampered by the retorted shale substrate. Natural revegetation on areas with various degrees of disturbance shows that natural invasion and succession was slow at best. Invasion of species on disturbed topsoil plots showed that after three years introduced seed mixtures were more effective than native mixtures in occupying space and closing the community to invading species. Fertilizer appears to encourage the invasion of annual plants even after the third year following application. Long-term storage of topsoil without vegetation significantly decreases the mycorrhizal infection potential and, therefore, decreases the relative success of aboveground vegetation and subsequent succession. Ecotypic differentation related to growth and competitive ability, moisture stress tolerance, and reproductive potential have been found in five native shrub species. Germplasm sources of two grasses and two legumes, that have shown promise as revegetation species, have been collected and evaluated for the production of test seed. Fertilizer (nitrogen) when added to the soil at the time of planting may encourage competition from annual weeds to the detriment of seeded species.

  6. TECHNOLOGICAL OVERVIEW REPORTS FOR EIGHT SHALE OIL RECOVERY PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the document is to supply background information for evaluation of environmental impacts and pollution control technologies in connection with oil shale development. Six surface retorting processes selected for characterization were: (1) Union Oil Retort B, (2) Par...

  7. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  8. Failure of Anisotropic Shale under Triaxial Stress Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, R. W.; Ambrose, J.; Suarez-Rivera, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Some rocks, such as shales, are highly anisotropic in their mechanical behavior. The value of the maximum principal stress that is needed to cause shear failure in a shale will depend not only on the values of the other two principal stresses, but also on the angle β between the maximum principal stress and the normal to the bedding plane. We have carried out triaxial compression tests on a suite of Mid-Bossier shale samples, at different confining stresses, and at a range of angles β. The data were fit with Jaeger's plane of weakness model, as well as with Pariseau's model for transversely isotropic rocks. After failure, the samples were examined with CT scans, and thin section images, to investigate the trajectory of the failure planes. According to the plane of weakness model, at values of β near 0° or 90°, failure will occur at a stress determined by the Coulomb failure criterion for the 'intact rock', and the failure plane will cut across the bedding planes. At intermediate angles, failure will occur at a stress determined by the strength parameters of the bedding plane, and the failure plane will be parallel to the bedding plane. (As there are two Coulomb strength parameters for the intact rock and for the bedding plane, the plane of weakness model contains four fitting parameters). The data were fit reasonably well with the plane of weakness model, except in the range of 15° < β < 35°. In this range, the rock was weaker than predicted by the model, and the failure 'plane' was much more irregular than would be predicted by a Coulomb-type model. Pariseau's model is an extension of the Drucker-Prager model that satisfies the symmetry requirements for a transversely isotropic material; it contains five arbitrary parameters. Unlike the plane of weakness model, this model predicts a smoothly continuous variation of strength with β. Pariseau's model was found to provide a slightly better fit to the data than did the plane of weakness model. Our current

  9. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part III. Three grass species and their response to Omega 9 and to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands and underground coal gasification. [Basin wildrye; western wheatgrass; alkali sacaton

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-12-01

    In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Three native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. The hypothesis tested was, there is a difference between produced waters diluted by ground water and those where dilution is non-existent and their effect on plant growth. Results indicated that retort water diluted by ground water has a less toxic effect on plant species tested.

  10. Plant response to aqueous effluents derived from in-situ fossil-fuel processing. Part II. Five grass plant species and their response to five produced retort waters: oil shale, tar sands, and underground coal gasification. [Wildrye; wheatgrass; alkali sacaton; alkaligrass

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, Q.D.

    1981-11-01

    In situ produced waters collected from retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil and in-situ coal gasification to produce gas were tested for their effect on plant growth. Five native grass plant species were utilized for monitoring growth response. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area, root/shoot ratio and shoot/leaf area ratio were parameters measured. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and commercial grade perlite as support systems. Measurements were collected after a 10 week growth period. Hypotheses tested were: (a) there is a difference between in situ produced waters, and (b) plant species respond differently to various retort waters. Results indicated that the stated hypotheses were true.

  11. Transport problems of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Yen, T.F.

    1982-08-01

    Commercial recovery of oil from oil shale is based on thermal decomposition of its solid organic materials, mainly kerogen. The term retorting, as applied to oil shale, signifies the process of applying heat to decompose the oil shale into kerogen products and by-products which then yield the shale oil or gas. The major phenomena that need to be understood are the mechanisms through which shale oil is released, the pressure drop across the shale bed, as well as the heat transmission and the mass transport problems. Frequently retorting process is often treated empirically, without benefit of a thorough understanding of the phenomena involved. A summary of recent advances in the modeling of retorting processes is needed to give a status review.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a state of the art description of the oil shale industry. The report particularly relates to oil shale mining, retorting, and refining in Greenville, Colorado. The possible effects of oil shale development on pollution, public health, and population growth ar...

  13. COMPENDIUM REPORTS ON OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document considers the various production processes (mining, retorting, and oil upgrading) and key environmental factors (organic and inorganic characterization, environmental control, and limitations) related to oil shale development. This state-of-the-art survey supports a...

  14. Shale oil recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  15. Geokinetics in situ shale oil recovery project. Third annual report, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    Objective is to develop a true in situ process for recovering shale oil using a fire front moving in a horizontal direction. The project is being conductd at a field site located 70 miles south of Vernal, Utah. During 1979, five retorts were blasted. Four of these were small retorts (approx. 7000 tons), designed to collect data for improving the blast method. The fifth retort was a prototype of a full-sized retort measuring approximately 200 ft on each side. Two retorts, blasted the previous year, were burned, and a third retort was ignited near the end of the year. A total of 5170 bbl of oil was produced during the year.

  16. Stress dependence of permeability of intact and fractured shale cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noort, Reinier; Yarushina, Viktoriya

    2016-04-01

    Whether a shale acts as a caprock, source rock, or reservoir, understanding fluid flow through shale is of major importance for understanding fluid flow in geological systems. Because of the low permeability of shale, flow is thought to be largely confined to fractures and similar features. In fracking operations, fractures are induced specifically to allow for hydrocarbon exploration. We have constructed an experimental setup to measure core permeabilities, using constant flow or a transient pulse. In this setup, we have measured the permeability of intact and fractured shale core samples, using either water or supercritical CO2 as the transporting fluid. Our measurements show decreasing permeability with increasing confining pressure, mainly due to time-dependent creep. Furthermore, our measurements show that for a simple splitting fracture, time-dependent creep will also eliminate any significant effect of this fracture on permeability. This effect of confinement on fracture permeability can have important implications regarding the effects of fracturing on shale permeability, and hence for operations depending on that.

  17. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission source identification and source-specific pollution control applications. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The present volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplished two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flowsheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Specific pollutants dealt with in the present Volume III are sulfur species, (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/ primarily), particulates, fugitive dust, and arsenic species. The present Volume III is divided into two separate Parts. Part 1 covers: (1) Sulfur species (H/sub 2/S and SO/sub 2/); (2) Particulates and fugitive dust; and (3) Arsenic. Retort off-gas control processes considered include: MDEA; Benfield Process; Physical absorption systems; Sulfinol Process; and The Holmes-Stretford Process. Processes considered for the control of SO/sub 2/ in flue gas are: Wellman-Lord Process; Limestone Slurry Process; Lime Slurry Process; Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121; Lime Slurry Spray Dryer/Fabric Filter Process; Resox Process; Magnesia Slurry Process; Double Alkali Process; Citrate/Phosphate Absorption Process; Ammonia-Ammonium Bisulfite Process; IFP Process; Activated Carbon Process; Catalytic Oxidation processes; Shell/UOP Copper Oxide Process; and Davy S-H Process. For removal of dusts and particulates, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators, afterburners, scrubbers, mist eliminators, fabric filters and sonic agglomeration are evaluated. Wastewater, off-gas, and product oil controls for arsenic removal are also presented. (DMC)

  18. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  19. Plan and justification for a Proof-of-Concept oil shale facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The technology being evaluated is the Modified In-Situ (MIS) retorting process for raw shale oil production, combined with a Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), for the recovery of energy from the mined shale. (VC)

  20. Response of oil shale to fragmentation by cylindrical charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourney, W. L.; Dick, R. D.; Young, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental program that was conducted in 1981 through 1983 in the Anvil Points Oil Shale Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The objective was to examine the response of the kerogen rich oil shale to explosive charges in relatively large scale tests. Due to an alleged shortage of oil at that time the price per barrel of crude oil had reached nearly 40 and the United States was looking at oil shale as a possible source of hydrocarbon fuels. It was the intention of the fragmentation program to develop a modified in situ retort to recover the oil from the fragmented shale. Programs were already underway wherein the oil shale was being mined, transported to the surface, and retorted to remove the oil. This surface retorting resulted in a tremendous amount of spent shale (shale with the kerogen removed) which had to be handled and it was felt that this would lead to serious environmental problems. The scheme being investigated in the program at Anvil Points was one in which about 25% of the shale is mined, moved to the surface, and retorted. The remaining 75% of the shale was to be fragmented in place and an underground retort formed so that the oil could be removed without the necessity of transporting the shale to the surface. A successful method was not developed but the results of the program did provide information on the response of shale to both single hole and multiple hole explosive charges.

  1. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  2. Effects of rock mineralogy and pore structure on stress-dependent permeability of shale samples.

    PubMed

    Al Ismail, Maytham I; Zoback, Mark D

    2016-10-13

    We conducted pulse-decay permeability experiments on Utica and Permian shale samples to investigate the effect of rock mineralogy and pore structure on the transport mechanisms using a non-adsorbing gas (argon). The mineralogy of the shale samples varied from clay rich to calcite rich (i.e. clay poor). Our permeability measurements and scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the permeability of the shale samples whose pores resided in the kerogen positively correlated with organic content. Our results showed that the absolute value of permeability was not affected by the mineral composition of the shale samples. Additionally, our results indicated that clay content played a significant role in the stress-dependent permeability. For clay-rich samples, we observed higher pore throat compressibility, which led to higher permeability reduction at increasing effective stress than with calcite-rich samples. Our findings highlight the importance of considering permeability to be stress dependent to achieve more accurate reservoir simulations especially for clay-rich shale reservoirs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Energy and the subsurface'. PMID:27597792

  3. Gas Shale Ultrasonic Velocity Evolution Induced By Spontaneous Imbibition Under Uniaxial Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Ge, H.; Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Meng, F.

    2014-12-01

    With strong spontaneous capillary imbibitions, shale gas is significantly different from conventional reservoirs. Water is widely adopted in hydraulic fracturing. In order to better understand the imbibition process, wave velocity evolution caused by spontaneous imbibition is studied through experimental investigation. One shale sample comes from an outcrop located in Chongqing named as Cls. The other is YC8, 833.33 meters' depth of Yucan-8 gas well. All samples were cored and polished to cylinders of 25mm in diameter and 50mm in length. After sample preparation, they are dried at 90ºC temperature in an oven-drying for 24 hours.Firstly, samples are saturated with distilled water and n-decane for 24 hours and 48hours respectively, for comparison with the dry samples. After the long-time imbibition,a uniaxial test is conducted at a constant stress rate of 2MPa/minute up to 30MPa. The compressional wave velocities are measured along the longitudinal direction with a classic ultrasonic pulse transmission technique. Arrival times are auto-picked using waveform cross-correlation method. The results are as follows: 1 It is found that significant velocity evolution difference exists between the two shale samples. Water imbibition makes the velocities of Cls lower than that of the dry one. However YC8 shale samples have opposite properties. Theses could not be explained by Gassmann equation and hence needs further research. 2 Stress sensitivity of water saturated Cls sample is larger but in the same order compared with that of the dry one. Maybe It is the response of induced cracks by the water-clay interaction. As to YC8,the stress sensitivities of dry and saturated are nearly the same. 3 n-decane saturation experiment is also conducted on two shale samples. The velocities of saturated Cls shale are larger than that of the dry ones which is different with the water saturation condition. As to YC8, the results are almost the same as water saturated condition. 4 The

  4. System for utilizing oil shale fines

    DOEpatents

    Harak, Arnold E.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

  5. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  6. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  7. Investigation of tracer and steam tests on the Western Research Institute 150-ton retort

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.F.; Moore, D.F.; Merriam, N.W.; Covell, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    Gas tracer and steam front velocities in addition to flow model calculations are used to characterize rubble bed structure in an oil shale retort. The gas tracer method is shown to have superior resolution to the steam front method in detecting rubble bed variations. The tracer method is potentially less expensive. Recommendations for further research are made.

  8. Model capabilities for in-situ oil shale recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hommert, P.J.; Tyner, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    The extensive oil shale reserves of the United States are now under development as an energy source. One of the approaches for extracting oil from shale is the so-called modified in-situ retort. The operation of such retorts for maximum yield requires an understanding of oil loss mechanisms so that operating strategies that minimize these losses can be developed. The present modeling capabilities for describing the behavior and yield from a modified in-situ retort are discussed. It is shown how the advances made in describing retort chemistry have greatly increased the predictive capabilities of these models. Two models that have been subject to comparison with laboratory retorts are described. The first is a one-dimensional model that treats the retort as a packed bed reactor, the second is a quasi-two-dimensional examination of block retorting. Both models are capable of predicting retorting rates, off gas composition and oil yield losses to coking and combustion. The block model, for example, describes conditions where local oil yield losses can be as high as 50%. Areas for further model improvement include additional work on describing retort chemistry, such as the steam/char and gas phase combustion reactions. The major need for modeling now is expansion to multi-dimensional simulation. This is necessary if a predictive capability is to be developed for field situations where sweep efficiency losses and gravitational effects become important.

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON HYDRAULIC CEMENTS FROM SPENT OIL SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.

    1980-04-01

    A process for making hydraulic cements from spent oil shale is described in this paper. Inexpensive cement is needed to grout abandoned in-situ retorts of spent shale for subsidence control, mitigation of leaching, and strengthening the retorted mass in order to recover oil from adjacent pillars of raw shale. A hydraulic cement was produced by heating a 1:1 mixture of Lurgi spent shale and CaCO{sub 3} at 1000 C for one hour. This cement would be less expensive than ordinary portland cement and is expected to fulfill the above requirements.

  10. SNG from eastern oil shale via the HYTORT process

    SciTech Connect

    Feldkirchner, H.L.; Weil, S.A.; Janka, J.C.; Punwani, D.V.

    1980-01-01

    Work has shown that, if retorted in a hydrogen atmosphere at elevated pressures (via the HYTORT Process), eastern Devonian shales can be a potential source of synthetic gaseous or liquid fuels. Experimental work has been done in equipment ranging in size from a small laboratory thermobalannce to a large 1 ton/h process development unit. This work has shown that hydrogen retorting of these shales can give organic carbon recoveries from 2 to 2.5 times those that can be achieved by conventional retorting. This work, supported by process and economic studies, has confirmed the technical and economic feasibility of the HYTORT Process. 6 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Role of spent shale in oil shale processing and the management of environmental residues. Final technical report, January 1979-May 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.L.

    1980-08-15

    The adsorption of hydrogen sulfide on retorted oil shale was studied at 10, 25, and 60/sup 0/C using a packed bed method. Equilibrium isotherms were calculated from the adsorption data and were modeled by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Polanyi equations. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated at three adsorbent loadings and was found to increase with increased loading. A calculated heat of adsorption less than the heat of condensation indicated that the adsorption was primarily due to Van der Waals' forces. Adsorption capacities were also found as a function of oil shale retorting temperature with the maximum uptake occurring on shale that was retorted at 750/sup 0/C.

  12. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory 6-kg retort

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Sklarew, D.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L.; Lepel, E.A.; Robertson, D.E.; Sanders, R.W.

    1985-12-01

    The objective of this program is to determine how retorting process parameters affect the partitioning of Hg, As, Se, and Cd from raw oil shale to spent shale, shale oil, retort water, and offgas. For each of the elements, the objective of this study is to (1) determine the distribution coefficients for each product stream; (2) identify the chemical forms in water, gas, and oil streams, with particular emphasis on inorganic or organometallic species known to be or suspected of being carcinogenic, toxic, or otherwise harmful; (3) investigate the mechanism(s) responsible for mobilization into each product stream for toxic or labile chemical forms identified in item 2 are mobilized into each product stream; and (4) the effect of retorting rate, maximum retorting temperature, and retorting atmosphere on items 1 and 3. A Green River shale from Colorado and a New Albany shale from Kentucky were heated at 1 to 2/sup 0/C/min and at 10/sup 0/C/min to maximum temperatures of 500 and 750/sup 0/C under a nitrogen sweep gas. The product streams were analyzed using a variety of methods including Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy, microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, instrumental neutron activation analysis, high-pressure liquid and silica gel column chromatography, and mercury cold vapor atomic absorption. The results obtained using these analytical methods indicate that the distribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product stream is a function of oil shale type, heating rates, and maximum retorting temperatures. 11 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. LLNL oil shale project review

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

  14. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission-source identification and source-specific pollution-control applications. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplishes two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flow-sheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Volume III is divided into two separate parts. Part II covers mercury; trace metals; carbon monoxide; NO/sub x/; and hydrocarbons. Mercury waste water control technologies discussed include ion exchange, starch complexing, ferrite coprecipitation, evaporation ponds, sulfide precipitation, activated carbon, and specific control processes. Trace metal control processes in waste water discussed include reverse osmosis, starch complexing, sodium borohydride, hydroxide precipitation, ferrite coprecipitation, ion exchange, activated carbon, sulfide precipitation, evaporation ponds, and combined physical-chemical metal removal. Offgas system removal of beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium are also covered. Carbon monoxide control technologies in utility and industrial boilers and in petroleum refineries are covered. Flue gas denitrification processes discussed included noncatalytic and catalytic reduction, adsorption, oxidation, alkalized alumina, electron beam radiation, activated carbon process for NO/sub x/ removal. Hydrocarbon control technologies in waste water and gases are described. (DMC)

  15. Attrition and abrasion models for oil shale process modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Aldis, D.F.

    1991-10-25

    As oil shale is processed, fine particles, much smaller than the original shale are created. This process is called attrition or more accurately abrasion. In this paper, models of abrasion are presented for oil shale being processed in several unit operations. Two of these unit operations, a fluidized bed and a lift pipe are used in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycle-Solid (HRS) process being developed for the above ground processing of oil shale. In two reports, studies were conducted on the attrition of oil shale in unit operations which are used in the HRS process. Carley reported results for attrition in a lift pipe for oil shale which had been pre-processed either by retorting or by retorting then burning. The second paper, by Taylor and Beavers, reported results for a fluidized bed processing of oil shale. Taylor and Beavers studied raw, retorted, and shale which had been retorted and then burned. In this paper, empirical models are derived, from the experimental studies conducted on oil shale for the process occurring in the HRS process. The derived models are presented along with comparisons with experimental results.

  16. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Nitrogen and carbon oxides chemistry in the HRS retorting process

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.G.

    1993-11-12

    The HRS Oil Shale Retort process consists of a pyrolysis section which converts kerogen of the shale to liquid and gaseous products, and a combustion section which burns residual carbon on the shale to heat the process. Average gas concentrations of selected gas phase species were determined from data measured at several placed on the combustion system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hot-Recycled-Solids Retort Pilot Plant for representative rich and lean shale runs. The data was measured on-line and in real time by on-line meters (CO{sub 2}, CO, O{sub 2}), mass spectrometry (CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, NO, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, N{sub 2} and Ar), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, NO, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, SO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and HCN). For both the rich and leans shale runs, the Lift-Pipe Combustor (LFT) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the exit of the LFT) indicative of incomplete combustion and oxidation; the Delayed-Fall Combustor (DFC) exhibited gas concentrations (sampled at the annulus and the exit of the DFC) indicative of much more complete combustion and oxidation. The Fluidized-Bed Combustor exhibited gas concentrations which were controlled to a large extent by the injection atmosphere of the FBC. High levels of nitrogen oxides and low levels of CO were detected when full air injection was used, while high levels of CO and low levels of nitrogen-oxides were detected with partial N{sub 2} injection. Sequential sampling limitations and nitrogen balances are also discussed.

  18. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. II. Comparison of mutagenic effects at five genetic markers induced by retort process water plus near ultraviolet light in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.J.C.; Strniste, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line heterozygous at the adenine phosphoribosyl transferase (APRT) locus was used for selection of induced mutants resistant to 8-azaadenine (8AA), 6-thioguanine (6TG), ouabain (OUA), emetine (EMT) and diphtheria toxin (DIP). The expression times necessary for optimizing the number of mutants recovered at the different loci have been determined using the known direct acting mutagen, far ultraviolet light (FUV), and a complex aqueous organic mixture (shale oil process water) activated with near ultraviolet light (NUV). The results indicate that optimal expression times following treatment with either mutagen was between 2 and 8 days. For CHO cells treated with shale oil process water and subsequently exposed to NUV a linear dose response for mutant induction was observed for all five genetic loci. At 10% surviving fraction of cells, between 35- and 130-fold increases above backgound mutation frequencies were observed for the various markers examined.

  19. Environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mercer, B.W.; Wakamiya, W.; Bell, N.E.; Mason, M.J.; Spencer, R.R.; English, C.J.; Riley, R.G.

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of studies conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory from 1976 to 1982 on environmental control technology for shale oil wastewaters. Experimental studies conducted during the course of the program were focused largely on the treatment and disposal of retort water, particularly water produced by in situ retorting of oil shale. Alternative methods were evaluated for the treatment and disposal of retort water and minewater. Treatment and disposal processes evaluated for retort water include evaporation for separation of water from both inorganic and organic pollutants; steam stripping for ammonia and volatile organics removal; activated sludge and anaerobic digestion for removal of biodegradable organics and other oxidizable substances; carbon adsorption for removal of nonbiodegradable organics; chemical coagulation for removal of suspended matter and heavy metals; wet air oxidation and solvent extraction for removal of organics; and land disposal and underground injection for disposal of retort water. Methods for the treatment of minewater include chemical processing and ion exchange for fluoride and boron removal. Preliminary cost estimates are given for several retort water treatment processes.

  20. Energy recovery by the thermal pyrolysis of processed oil shale: An evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, R.W.; Miller, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Economic recovery of energy from residual carbon on processed oil shales has generated a great deal of interest. The authors present new data and interpretation which show that residual organic carbon content, composition of the retort off-gas and product cut quality are strong functions of retorting conditions.

  1. 4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF AREA EXCAVATED FOR ACCESS TO MERCURY RETORT. VIEW SOUTH FROM RETORT. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  2. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

  3. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L.

    1989-03-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory scale fluidized bed of Green River oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust from raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes, and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rate for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes, and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation: fracture and wear. Fracture of large particles sometimes produced fragments which were small enough to be blown out of the bed. These fragments were much larger than the individual mineral grains in the shale. The fracture mechanism was dominant in the case of raw shale. Dust in the smaller particle-size range was generated by wear. Wear was the dominant mechanisms in the case of burned shale, whereas, for retorted shale, nearly equal amounts of dust were generated by each mechanism. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Industrial hygiene aspects of underground oil shale mining

    SciTech Connect

    Hargis, K.M.; Jackson, J.O.

    1982-01-01

    Health hazards associated with underground oil shale mining are summarized in this report. Commercial oil shale mining will be conducted on a very large scale. Conventional mining techniques of drilling, blasting, mucking, loading, scaling, and roof bolting will be employed. Room-and-pillar mining will be utilized in most mines, but mining in support of MIS retorting may also be conducted. Potential health hazards to miners may include exposure to oil shale dusts, diesel exhaust, blasting products, gases released from the oil shale or mine water, noise and vibration, and poor environmental conditions. Mining in support of MIS retorting may in addition include potential exposure to oil shale retort offgases and retort liquid products. Based upon the very limited industrial hygiene surveys and sampling in experimental oil shale mines, it does not appear that oil shale mining will result in special or unique health hazards. Further animal toxicity testing data could result in reassessment if findings are unusual. Sufficient information is available to indicate that controls for dust will be required in most mining activities, ventilation will be necessary to carry away gases and vapors from blasting and diesel equipment, and a combination of engineering controls and personal protection will likely be required for control of noise. Recommendations for future research are included.

  5. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed of Greenriver oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust form raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rates for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation; fracture and wear.

  6. New Albany shale flash pyrolysis under hot-recycled-solid conditions: Chemistry and kinetics, II

    SciTech Connect

    Coburn, T.T.; Morris, C.J.

    1990-11-01

    The authors are continuing a study of recycle retorting of eastern and western oil shales using burnt shale as the solid heat carrier. Stripping of adsorbed oil from solid surfaces rather than the primary pyrolysis of kerogen apparently controls the release rate of the last 10--20% of hydrocarbons. Thus, the desorption rate defines the time necessary for oil recovery from a retort and sets the minimum hold-time in the pyrolyzer. A fluidized-bed oil shale retort resembles a fluidized-bed cat cracker in this respect. Recycled burnt shale cokes oil and reduces yield. The kerogen H/C ratio sets an upper limit on yield improvements unless external hydrogen donors are introduced. Steam can react with iron compounds to add to the H-donor pool. Increased oil yield when New Albany Shale pyrolyzes under hot-recycled-solid, steam-fluidization conditions has been confirmed and compared with steam retorting of acid-leached Colorado oil shale. In addition, with retorted, but unburnt, Devonian shale present at a recycle ratio of 3, the authors obtain 50% more oil-plus-gas than with burnt shale present. Procedures to make burnt shale more like unburnt shale can realize some increase in oil yield at high recycle ratios. Reduction with H{sub 2} and carbon deposition are possibilities that the authors have tested in the laboratory and can test in the pilot retort. Also, eastern spent shale burned at a high temperature (775 C, for example) cokes less oil than does spent shale burned at a low temperature (475 C). Changes in surface area with burn temperature contribute to this effect. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Integrated Use of Fluidized Bed Technology for Oil Production from Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siirde, Andres; Martins, Ants

    The plant unit which consists of a fluidized bed retort and CFB furnace for burning the by-products of retorting (semicoke and semicoke gas) is presented in this paper. The oil shale retort consists of a fast fluidized bed shaft, coarse semicoke bit, semicoke separation chamber and cyclone for the separation of fine semicoke particles. The crashed oil shale and hot ash from the CFB ash separator are fed concurrently into the fast fluidized bed shaft. For fluidizing the mixture of oil shale and hot ash particles, the recycle semicoke gas is used. The pyrolysis of oil shale begins in fluidized bed and is completed in the semicoke separation chamber. The coarse semicoke particles are separated from fluidized bed directly while the medium size particles are separated from the gases in the semicoke separation chamber and the finest semicoke particles in the cyclone. All the fractions of semicoke from the fluidized bed retort and semicoke gas from the oil fractionator are burnt in the CFB furnace. The semicoke ash is separated from flue gases in the CFB ash separator. A part of separated hot ash is fed into the fluidized bed retort as a solid heat carrier material and the rest into the furnace through the ash cooler or separated from the process. The retention of sulphur dioxide formed during the semicoke and semicoke gas combustion, is guaranteed for about 99 % due to the high CaO content in the semicoke ash and convenient temperature (about 850°C) in the CFB furnace. The described plant unit is useful for retorting oil shale and other solid hydrocarbon-containing fuels. The advantages of the present retorting process and system are: improved oil yield, greater throughput, lower retorting time, avoidance of moving parts in the retorting zones, reduced downtime, etc. A new plant unit for oil shale oil production has been elaborated and defended by the Estonian Utility Model EE 200700671 UI.

  8. Predicting variations of the least principal stress magnitudes in shale gas reservoirs utilizing variations of viscoplastic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, H.; Zoback, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting variations of the magnitude of least principal stress within unconventional reservoirs has significant practical value as these reservoirs require stimulation by hydraulic fracturing. It is common to approach this problem by calculating the horizontal stresses caused by uniaxial gravitational loading using log-derived linear elastic properties of the formation and adding arbitrary tectonic strain (or stress). We propose a new method for estimating stress magnitudes in shale gas reservoirs based on the principles of viscous relaxation and steady-state tectonic loading. Laboratory experiments show that shale gas reservoir rocks exhibit wide range of viscoplastic behavior most dominantly controlled by its composition, whose stress relaxation behavior is described by a simple power-law (in time) rheology. We demonstrate that a reasonable profile of the principal stress magnitudes can be obtained from geophysical logs by utilizing (1) the laboratory power-law constitutive law, (2) a reasonable estimate of the tectonic loading history, and (3) the assumption that stress ratios ([S2-S3]/[S1-S3]) remains constant due to stress relaxation between all principal stresses. Profiles of horizontal stress differences (SHmax-Shmin) generated based on our method for a vertical well in the Barnett shale (Ft. Worth basin, Texas) generally agrees with the occurrence of drilling-induced tensile fractures in the same well. Also, the decrease in the least principal stress (frac gradient) upon entering the limestone formation underlying the Barnett shale appears to explain the downward propagation of the hydraulic fractures observed in the region. Our approach better acknowledges the time-dependent geomechanical effects that could occur over the course of the geological history. The proposed method may prove to be particularly useful for understanding hydraulic fracture containment within targeted reservoirs.

  9. Effects of organic wastes on water quality from processing of oil shale from the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted during a 6-year research project to determine the nature and effects of organic wastes from processing of Green River Formation oil shale on water quality. Fifty percent of the organic compounds in two retort wastewaters were identified as various aromatic amines, mono- and dicarboxylic acids phenols, amides, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and hydroxypyridines. Spent shales with carbonaceous coatings were found to have good sorbent properties for organic constituents of retort wastewaters. However, soils sampled adjacent to an in situ retort had only fair sorbent properties for organic constituents or retort wastewater, and application of retort wastewater caused disruption of soil structure characteristics and extracted soil organic matter constituents. Microbiological degradation of organic solutes in retort wastewaters was found to occur preferentially in hydrocarbons and fatty acid groups of compounds. Aromatic amines did not degrade and they inhibited bacterial growth where their concentrations were significant. Ammonia, aromatic amines, and thiocyanate persisted in groundwater contaminated by in situ oil shale retorting, but thiosulfate was quantitatively degraded one year after the burn. Thiocyanate was found to be the best conservative tracer for retort water discharged into groundwater. Natural organic solutes, isolated from groundwater in contact with Green River Formation oil shale and from the White River near Rangely, Colorado, were readily distinguished from organic constituents in retort wastewaters by molecular weight and chemical characteristic differences. (USGS)

  10. Oil shale fines process developments in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lisboa, A.C.; Nowicki, R.E. ); Piper, E.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The Petrobras oil shale retorting process, utilizes the particle range of +1/4 inch - 3 1/2 inches. The UPI plant in Sao Mateus do Sul has over 106,000 hours of operation, has processed over 6,200,000 metric tons of shale and has produced almost 3,000,000 barrels of shale oil. However, the nature of the raw oil shale is such that the amount of shale less than 1/4 inch that is mined and crushed and returned to the mine site is about 20 percent, thereby, increasing the cost of oil produced by a substantial number. Petrobras has investigated several systems to process the fines that are not handled by the 65 MTPH UPI plant and the 260 MTPH commercial plant. This paper provides an updated status of each of these processes in regard to the tests performed, potential contributions to an integrated use of the oil shale mine, and future considerations.

  11. Perform research in process development for hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales: Volume 2, Expansion of the Moving-Bed Hydroretorting Data Base for Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    An extensive data base was developed for six Eastern oil shales: Alabama Chattanooga, Indiana New Albany, Kentucky Sunbury, Michigan Antrim, Ohio Cleveland, and Tennessee Chattanooga shales. The data base included the hydroretorting characteristics of the six shales, as well as the retorting characteristics in the presence of synthesis gas and ionized gas. Shale gasification was also successfully demonstrated. Shale fines (20%) can produce enough hydrogen for the hydroretorting of the remaining 80% of the shale. The amount of fines tolerable in a moving bed was also determined. 16 refs., 59 figs., 43 tabs.

  12. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid-bed retorting process. Final report, September 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S.D.; Taulbee, D.N.; Stehn, J.L.; Vego, A.; Robl, T.L.

    1995-02-01

    This summarizes the development of the KENTORT II retorting process, which includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of oil shale. Purpose was to design and test the process at the 50-lb/hr scale. The program included bench- scale studies of coking and cracking reactions of shale oil vapors over processed shale particles to address issues of scaleup associated with solid-recycle retorting. The bench-scale studies showed that higher amounts of carbon coverage reduce the rate of subsequent carbon deposition by shale oil vapors onto processed shale particles; however carbon-covered materials were also active in terms of cracking and coking. Main focus was the 50-lb/hr KENTORT II PDU. Cold-flow modeling and shakedown were done before the PDU was made ready for operation. Seven mass-balanced, steady-state runs were completed within the window of design operating conditions. Goals were achieved: shale feedrate, run duration (10 hr), shale recirculation rates (4:1 to pyrolyzer and 10:1 to combustor), bed temperatures (pyrolyzer 530{degree}C, gasifier 750{degree}C, combustor 830{degree}C), and general operating stability. Highest oil yields (up to 109% of Fischer assay) were achieved for runs lasting {ge} 10 hours. High C content of the solids used for heat transfer to the pyrolysis zone contributed to the enhanced oil yield achieved.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  15. Characterization of oil shale, isolated kerogen, and post-pyrolysis residues using advanced 13 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Birdwell, Justin E.; Chappell, Mark A.; Li, Yuan; Pignatello, Joseph J.; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-01-01

    Characterization of oil shale kerogen and organic residues remaining in postpyrolysis spent shale is critical to the understanding of the oil generation process and approaches to dealing with issues related to spent shale. The chemical structure of organic matter in raw oil shale and spent shale samples was examined in this study using advanced solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Oil shale was collected from Mahogany zone outcrops in the Piceance Basin. Five samples were analyzed: (1) raw oil shale, (2) isolated kerogen, (3) oil shale extracted with chloroform, (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C to mimic surface retorting, and (5) oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C to simulate in-situ retorting. The NMR methods applied included quantitative direct polarization with magic-angle spinning at 13 kHz, cross polarization with total sideband suppression, dipolar dephasing, CHn selection, 13C chemical shift anisotropy filtering, and 1H-13C long-range recoupled dipolar dephasing. The NMR results showed that, relative to the raw oil shale, (1) bitumen extraction and kerogen isolation by demineralization removed some oxygen-containing and alkyl moieties; (2) unpyrolyzed samples had low aromatic condensation; (3) oil shale pyrolysis removed aliphatic moieties, leaving behind residues enriched in aromatic carbon; and (4) oil shale retorted in an open system at 500°C contained larger aromatic clusters and more protonated aromatic moieties than oil shale retorted in a closed system at 360°C, which contained more total aromatic carbon with a wide range of cluster sizes.

  16. Leaching study of oil shale in Kentucky : with a section on Hydrologic reconnaissance of the oil shale outcrop in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Samuel S.; Leist, D.W.; Davis, R.W.; Cordiviola, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Oil shales in Kentucky are rocks of predominantly Devonian age. The most prominant are the Ohio, Chattanooga, and New Albany Shales. A leaching study was done on six fresh oil shale samples and one retorted oil shale sample. Leaching reagents were distilled water, 0.0005 N sulfuric acid, and 0.05 N sulfuric acid. The concentration of constituents in the leachates were highly variable. The concentration of sodium, manganese, and zinc in the retorted shale leachate was several orders of magnitude higher than those of the leachates of fresh shale samples. The major oil shale outcrop covers approximately 1,000 square miles in a horseshoe pattern from Vanceburg, Lewis County , in the east, to Louisville, Jefferson County, in the west. The Kentucky, Red, and Licking Rivers cross the outcrop belt, the Rolling Fork River flows along the strike of the shale in the southwest part of the outcrop, and the Ohio River flows past the outcrop at the ends of the horseshoe. Oil shale does not appear to significantly alter the water quality of these streams. Oil shale is not an aquifer, but seeps and springs found in the shale indicate that water moves through it. Ground water quality is highly variable. (USGS)

  17. Stress-dependence of Porosity and Permeability of Upper Jurassic Bossier Shale: Implications for Gas in Place Calculations and Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Reinhard; Merkel, Alexej; Krooss, Bernhard; Amann-Hildenbrand, Alexandra; Gensterblum, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Information on porosity and permeability at realistic sub-surface (in situ) stress conditions is a prerequisite for successful exploration and production of shale gas. In order to study the effects of elastic pore compressibility on these parameters, porosity and permeability coefficients of three Upper Jurassic Bossier Shale samples were determined at stress levels up to 40 MPa. Pore volume compressibility α was measured using a gas expansion technique by helium (He) expansion from a calibrated volume into the pore system of the confined sample. The recorded decrease in specific pore volume (Vp) with increasing effective stress was fitted by an exponential function: Vp = Vp,0 e (-α σ') Unstressed specific pore volume Vp,0 of the samples corresponds to an unstressed porosity (φ0) between 3 - 7 %. At the in situ effective stress value (σ') of ~60 MPa, Vp had decreased between 8 - 13 %. Steady-state permeability tests were performed with six different gases and external stress levels up to 40 MPa. Apparent gas permeability coefficients (kgas) increase with decreasing mean pore pressure (pm) due to slip flow (Klinkenberg-effect): kgas = k∞ (1 + b/pm) Klinkenberg-corrected (intrinsic) permeability coefficients (k∞) decrease with increasing effective stress while slip factors (b) increase. The experimental results were fitted by exponential expressions: k∞ = k∞,0 e (-αk σ') b = b0 e (-αb σ') Increasing slip factors indicate that the average effective pore diameters of the shale sample are significantly reduced with increasing effective stress. During production of a shale gas reservoir the pore pressure is reduced. Apparent permeability coefficients will increase due to slip flow whereas poro-elastic deformation will lead to a decrease in permeability during production. Based on the parameters derived from the experimental data the permeability coefficients for CH4 were tentatively modelled for a hypothetical production history of a Bossier shale

  18. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  19. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  20. METHOD OF CHEMICAL ANALYSIS FOR OIL SHALE WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several methods of chemical analysis are described for oil shale wastewaters and retort gases. These methods are designed to support the field testing of various pollution control systems. As such, emphasis has been placed on methods which are rapid and sufficiently rugged to per...

  1. Shale-oil-recovery systems incorporating ore beneficiation. Final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.A.; Klumpar, I.V.; Peterson, C.R.; Ring, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    This study analyzed the recovery of oil from oil shale by use of proposed systems which incorporate beneficiation of the shale ore (that is concentration of the kerogen before the oil-recovery step). The objective was to identify systems which could be more attractive than conventional surface retorting of ore. No experimental work was carried out. The systems analyzed consisted of beneficiation methods which could increase kerogen concentrations by at least four-fold. Potentially attractive low-enrichment methods such as density separation were not examined. The technical alternatives considered were bounded by the secondary crusher as input and raw shale oil as output. A sequence of ball milling, froth flotation, and retorting concentrate is not attractive for Western shales compared to conventional ore retorting; transporting the concentrate to another location for retorting reduces air emissions in the ore region but cost reduction is questionable. The high capital and energy cost s results largely from the ball milling step which is very inefficient. Major improvements in comminution seem achievable through research and such improvements, plus confirmation of other assumptions, could make high-enrichment beneficiation competitive with conventional processing. 27 figures, 23 tables.

  2. LEACHING AND SELECTED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF PROCESSED OIL SHALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a column leaching test procedure developed to simulate the leaching of high volume wastes under semi-arid field conditions. The report also presents results obtained when retorted oil shales (Tosco, Paraho, Lurgi) are leached by this procedure. Selected hydr...

  3. Assessment of combustion of oil shale refinery by-products in a TP-101 boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorkin, V. T.; Tugov, A. N.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Mel'nikov, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    The most cost-efficient method for utilization of the oil shale refinery by-products, viz., the retort gas and the shale gasoline, for power generation is combustion of these products in power-generating oil shale-fired boilers. Calculation studies carried out at the Estonian electric power plant in Narva, an enterprise of EESTI ENERGIA, have shown that recycling of the flue gases in the furnace of a TP-101 boiler enables an increase in the portion of the oil shale refinery by-products burned in the boiler from the current 7% to 40%. Recycling of the flue gases is aimed at maintaining the temperatures in the furnace at a level characteristic of combustion of oil shale and reducing the nitric oxide concentration in the retort gas burners' flame. The degree of the flue gas recycling depends on the percentage of the burnt oil shale refinery by-products in the total heat generation and increases with the increasing percentage. For the threshold value of 40% under the rated conditions, the flue gas recycling accounts for 10%. A complete changeover of the boiler to combustion of only the retort gas in place of the oil shale does not seem to be possible, since this will necessitate major modification to the TP-101 boiler heating surfaces. Considering the obtained results, as a pilot project, one boiler furnace was modified by installing six retort gas burners and a flue gas recycling system.

  4. 3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST OF TAILINGS OF MERCURY RETORT. SCOOP FOR EXTRACTING MERCURY VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. (OCTOBER, 1995) - McCormick Group Mine, Mercury Retort, East slope of Buckskin Mountain, Paradise Valley, Humboldt County, NV

  5. Parachute Creek shale-oil program. [Brochure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Union Oil Company has a plan for commercial shale-oil production at the Parachute Creek area of Colorado. This brochure describes the property and the company's concept for room and pillar mining and upflow retorting. Environmental precautions will preserve and restore vegetation on disturbed land and will safeguard local streams and underground basinx. Union will assist local communities to provide housing and services. 17 figures. (DCK)

  6. OCCIDENTAL VERTICAL MODIFIED IN SITU PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF OIL FROM OIL SHALE. PHASE II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Reid M.

    1980-09-01

    The progress presented in this report covers the period June 1, 1980 through August 31, 1980 under the work scope for.Phase II of the DOE/Occidental Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) Cooperative Agreement. The major activities at OOSI 1s Logan Wash site during the quarter were: mining the voids at all levels for Retorts 7, 8 and 8x; completing Mini-Retort (MR) construction; continuing surface facility construction; tracer testing the MR 1 s; conducting Retorts 7 & 8 related Rock Fragmentation tests; setting up and debugging the Sandia B-61 trailer; and preparing the Phase II instrumentation plan.

  7. Hydraulic Aperture Reduction of Shale Fractures Due to Mechanical Stressing, with Characterization of Physical Fracture Evolution Using Comuted Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, D.; Gill, M.; Moore, J.

    2014-12-01

    Flow in fractured shale is a topic of interest for both production from non-traditional fractured shale reservoirs and for estimating the leakage potential of sealing formations above geologic carbon dioxide repositories. The hydraulic aperture of a fracture quantifies how much fluid can be transported through a fracture, similarly to how permeability describes fluid flow through porous media. The advantage of defining the fracture hydraulic aperture as opposed to permeability, is that this property can be easily scaled up to fracture reservoir simulators. Many parameters affect the hydraulic aperture, however, including the fracture roughness, the physical aperture distribution, and the tortuosity of flow paths within the fracture.The computed tomography (CT) and flow facility at NETL has conducted an analysis of the changes in both physical and hydraulic aperture as fractures were subjected to varying external confining stresses. Changes in fracture geometry were tracked through the use of non-destructive CT imaging, allowing the determination of the physical aperture distribution, while hydraulic fracture apertures were derived from experimental fracture flow measurements. In order to evaluate the effects of fracture roughness and geometry, two fractures with different degrees of roughness were used. Tests were conducted with locally sourced shale.Experimental results show that the volume change in the fracture is a non-linear function of the confining pressure, and both physical and hydraulic apertures decrease rapidly as the fracture is first compressed.

  8. Potential small-scale development of western oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.; Renk, R.; Nordin, J.; Chatwin, T.; Harnsberger, M.; Fahy, L.J.; Cha, C.Y.; Smith, E.; Robertson, R.

    1989-10-01

    Several studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine ways to enhance development of western oil shale under current market conditions for energy resources. This study includes a review of the commercial potential of western oil shale products and byproducts, a review of retorting processes, an economic evaluation of a small-scale commercial operation, and a description of the environmental requirements of such an operation. Shale oil used as a blend in conventional asphalt appears to have the most potential for entering today's market. Based on present prices for conventional petroleum, other products from oil shale do not appear competitive at this time or will require considerable marketing to establish a position in the marketplace. Other uses for oil shale and spent shale, such as for sulfur sorbtion, power generation, cement, aggregate, and soil stabilization, are limited economically by transportation costs. The three-state area area consisting of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming seems reasonable for the entry of shale oil-blended asphalt into the commercial market. From a review of retorting technologies and the product characteristics from various retorting processes it was determined that the direct heating Paraho and inclined fluidized-bed processes produce a high proportion of heavy material with a high nitrogen content. The two processes are complementary in that they are each best suited to processing different size ranges of materials. An economic evaluation of a 2000-b/d shale oil facility shows that the operation is potentially viable, if the price obtained for the shale oil residue is in the top range of prices projected for this product. Environmental requirements for building and operating an oil shale processing facility are concerned with permitting, control of emissions and discharges, and monitoring. 62 refs., 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  9. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  10. Shale oil stabilization with a hydroprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    York, E. D.; Johnson, D. M.; Miller, P. B.

    1985-10-22

    A process is provided to produce, stabilize, dedust and upgrade synthetic oil, such as shale oil. In the process, synthetic fuels, such as oil shale, tar sands and diatomite are retorted with heat carrier material to liberate an effluent product stream comprising hydrocarbons and entrained particulates of dust. In order to minimize polymerization of the product stream and agglomerate the dust, the product stream is stabilized, upgraded, and pretreated prior to dedusting, in a hydroprocessor, such as an ebullated bed reactor, with a hydroprocessing gas in the presence of a catalyst. The hydroprocessing gas can be hydrogen, scrubbed fractionator gases, or hydrocarbon-enriched hydroprocessor off gases.

  11. Western states enhanced oil shale recovery program: Shale oil production facilities conceptual design studies report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    This report analyzes the economics of producing syncrude from oil shale combining underground and surface processing using Occidental's Modified-In-Situ (MIS) technology and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Hot Recycled Solids (HRS) retort. These retorts form the basic technology employed for oil extraction from oil shale in this study. Results are presented for both Commercial and Pre-commercial programs. Also analyzed are Pre-commercialization cost of Demonstration and Pilot programs which will confirm the HRS and MIS concepts and their mechanical designs. These programs will provide experience with the circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor (CFBC), the MIS retort, the HRS retort and establish environmental control parameters. Four cases are considered: commercial size plant, demonstration size plant, demonstration size plant minimum CFBC, and a pilot size plant. Budget cost estimates and schedules are determined. Process flow schemes and basic heat and material balances are determined for the HRS system. Results consist of summaries of major equipment sizes, capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates and economic analyses. 35 figs., 35 tabs.

  12. Retort process modelling for Indian traditional foods.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S V; Lele, S S

    2014-11-01

    Indian traditional staple and snack food is typically a heterogeneous recipe that incorporates varieties of vegetables, lentils and other ingredients. Modelling the retorting process of multilayer pouch packed Indian food was achieved using lumped-parameter approach. A unified model is proposed to estimate cold point temperature. Initial process conditions, retort temperature and % solid content were the significantly affecting independent variables. A model was developed using combination of vegetable solids and water, which was then validated using four traditional Indian vegetarian products: Pulav (steamed rice with vegetables), Sambar (south Indian style curry containing mixed vegetables and lentils), Gajar Halawa (carrot based sweet product) and Upama (wheat based snack product). The predicted and experimental values of temperature profile matched with ±10 % error which is a good match considering the food was a multi component system. Thus the model will be useful as a tool to reduce number of trials required to optimize retorting of various Indian traditional vegetarian foods. PMID:26396305

  13. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume II. Oil-shale industry pollutant control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-28

    The present volume is the second major deliverable of the title study. This volume is organized into three parts: (A) Gaseous Effluents Control Technology and Sewage Engineering; (B) Liquid Effluents Control Technology and Sewage Engineering; and (C) Solid Waste Disposal Technology. In Part A, the key types of gaseous effluents and particulates controls are qualitatively described. These types of controls are: Baghouses; Cyclones; Wet Collection Devices; Water Sprays; and Electrostatic Precipitation. In addition to the above control technologies applicable in general to most gaseous effluents and particulates, specific treatment has been given to the control technologies particularly applicable to three specific gaseous pollutants of great concern to the oil shale industry. These pollutants are: Hydrocarbons; NO/sub x/; and Sulfur. Part B qualitatively describes the key types of control technologies applicable to liquid effluents. These technologies are: Ion Exchange; Precipitation and Coagulation (Flocculation); Distillation; Steam Stripping; Sedimentation; Filtration; Adsorption; Reverse Osmosis; Flotation; Air Stripping Ammonia Removal; Stabilization Ponds; Chemical Oxidation; Biological (Trickling) Filtration; Activated Sludge; and Nitrogen (Ammonia) Wastewater Controls. A systematic effort was made in the description of each technology to address two key issues: Operating principles of the controls method and field of applications of the controls method. The Part C of the present study focuses on technologies applicable to treatment of hazardous solid wastes. Again, operating principles and field of application are discussed, whereas numerical performance data are omitted.

  14. Occidental vertical modified in situ process for the recovery of oil from oil shale, Phase 2. Construction, operation, testing, and environmental impact. Final report, August 1981-December 1982. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A.L.; Zahradnik, R.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Occidential Oil Shale, Inc. (OOSI) recently completed the demonstration of mining, rubblization, ignition, and simulataneous processing of two commericalized modified in situ (MIS) retorts at the Logas Wash facility near DeBeque, Colorado. Upon completion of Retort 6 in 1978, Occidential began incorporating all of the knowledge previously acquired in an effort to design two more commercial-sized MIS retorts. Any commercial venture of the future would require the ability to operate simultaneously more than one retort. Thus, Retorts 7 and 8 were developed during 1980 and 1981 through joint funding of the DOE and OOSI in Phase II. Rubblization of the retorts produced an average rubble void of 18.5% in the low grade shale (17 gallons per ton) at the Logan Wash site. After rubblization, bulkheads were constructed, inlet and offgas pipes were installed and connected to surface processing facilities and liquid product handling systems were connected to the retorts. Extensive instrumentation was installed in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories for monitoring the complete operation of the retorts. After pre-ignition testing, Retort 8 was ignited in December of 1981 and Retort 7 was ignited in January of 1982. The retorts were operated without interruption from ignition until mid- November of 1982 at which time inlet gas injection was terminated and water quenching was begun. Total product yield from the two retorts was approximately 200,000 barrels of oil, or 70% of the Fischer Assay oil-in-place in the rubblized rock in the two retrots. Water quenching studies were conducted over a period of several months, with the objective of determining the rate of heat extraction from the retorts as well as determining the quantity and quality of offgas and water coming out from the quenching process. Data from these studies are also included in this Summary Report. 62 figs., 18 tabs.

  15. Oil shale program. Eighteenth quarterly report, April 1980-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, A. L.

    1980-11-01

    Instrumentation and evaluation activities are in progress at two DOE-supported in situ oil shale field projects, namely, the Geokinetics Oil Shale Project near Vernal, Utah, and the Occidental Oil Shale Project near DeBeque, Colorado. In support of these projects, it is necessary to develop new and advanced instrumentation systems and associated deployment, recording and analysis techniques that are unique to the field project needs. A rock mechanics program provides material properties, material response models and computational methods for use in the design analysis, and evaluation functions. In addition, retorting studies are in progress on problems unique to the low void conditions encountered in field experiments.

  16. Geotechnical properties of PARAHO spent shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1982-10-01

    A literature review of available geotechnical properties for PARAHO retorted shale was conducted. Also reported are laboratory measurements made at PNL on key hydraulic properties of the PARAHO retorted shale. The PARAHO material can be compacted in the laboratory to dry densities of 12.1 KN/m/sup 3/ (77.0 pcf) to 17.0 Kn/m/sup 3/ (108.4 pcf) depending on compaction effort. Optimum water content for these densities range from 14.4 to 23.7 percent (dry weight), however, PARAHO can achieve high densities without requiring water for compaction. Water retention characteristics indicate that optimum moisture contents (field capacity) range from 13 to 14% (dry weight). Water contents in excess of these values are likely to drain with time. PARAHO shale can be considered as semipervious to pervious with permeability values of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/s depending on compaction effort. PARAHO shale exhibits self-cementing characteristics. Under normal conditions cementing reactions are slow, with strength gains still indicated after 28 days. The shear strength of PARAHO is comparable to similarly graded gravel with effective angles of internal friction, phi', of 33 to 34 degrees. Depending on compactive effort and gradation of the material, effective cohesion values of 0.09 Mn/m/sup 2/ to 0.19 MN/m/sup 2/ (128.05 psi to 277.45 psi) can be expected.

  17. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  18. Computerized X-ray Microtomography Observations and Fluid Flow Measurements of the Effect of Effective Stress on Fractured Reservoir Seal Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, N.; Crawshaw, J.; Boek, E.

    2014-12-01

    The successful storage of carbon dioxide in geologic formations requires an in-depth understanding of all reservoir characteristics and morphologies. An intact and substantial seal formation above a storage reservoir is required for a significant portion of the initial sealing mechanisms believed to occur during carbon dioxide storage operations. Shales are a common seal formation rock types found above numerous hydrocarbon reservoirs, as well as potential saline aquifer storage locations. Shales commonly have very low permeability, however they also have the tendency to be quite fissile, and the formation of fractures within these seals can have a significant detrimental effect on the sealing potential of a reservoir and amount to large areas of high permeability and low capillary pressures compared to the surrounding intact rock. Fractured shales also have an increased current interest due to the increasing development of shale gas reservoirs using hydraulic fracturing techniques. This work shows the observed changes that occur within fractured pieces of reservoir seal shale samples, along with quarry analogues, using an in-situ micro-CT fluid flow imaging apparatus with a Hassler type core holder. Changes within the preferential flow path under different stress regimes as well as physical changes to the fracture geometry are reported. Lattice Boltzmann flow simulations were then performed on the extracted flow paths and compared to experiment permeability measurements. The preferential flow path of carbon dioxide through the fracture network is also observed and compared to the results two-phase Lattice Boltzmann fluid flow simulations.

  19. Fracture development in Paleozoic shale of Chongqing area (South China). Part two: Numerical simulation of tectonic stress field and prediction of fractures distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Weite; Ding, Wenlong; Zhang, Jinchuan; Zhang, Yeqian; Guo, Ling; Jiu, Kai; Li, Yifan

    2013-10-01

    A tectonics sedimentation evolution has been researched in Southeast Chongqing, and the reasonable Longmaxi shale highstand system tract (HST) and transgressive system tract (TST) geological model were built respectively based on the rock mechanical test and acoustic emission experiment which the samples are from field outcrop and the Yuye-1 well. The Longmaxi shale two-dimension tectonic stress field during the Cenozoic was simulated by the finite element method, and the distribution of fractures was predicted. The research results show that the tectonic stress field and the distribution of fractures were controlled by lithology and structure. As a result of Cretaceous movement, there are trough-like folds (wide spaced synclines), battlement-like folds (similar spaces between synclines and anticlines) and ejective folds (wide spaced anticlines), which are regularly distributed from southeast to northwest in the study area. Since the strain rate and other physical factors such as the viscosity are not taken into account, and the stress intensity is the main factor that determines the tectonic strength. Therefore, the stronger tectonic strength leads the higher stress intensity in the eastern and southeastern study area than in the northwest. The fracture zones are mainly concentrated in the fold axis, transition locations of faults and folds, the regions where are adjacent to faults. The fragile mineral contents (such as siliceous rock, carbonate rock and feldspar) in the shelf facies shale from south of the study area are higher than in the bathyal facies and abyssal facies shale from center of the study area. The shales characterized by low Poisson's ratio and high elastic modulus from south of the study area are easily broken during Cenozoic orogenic movement.

  20. Naval Oil Shale Reserves 1 and 3. Five years of progress on the Oil Shale Predevelopment Program: summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes the predevelopment work done to date, and discusses the work remaining to be accomplished for the policy options pertaining to continuing developmental activities. The work can be divided into three technical areas: resource assessment, technology assessment, and environmental assessment. The resource assessment results show that NOSR 1 could sustain a production rate of 50,000 barrels per day for well over 100 years. NOSR 1 has the largest in-place resource, the third largest recoverable resource, comparable recovery economics, a greater recovery potential with improvements in low-grade recovery technology, and fewer technical, environmental, and institutional impediments to development. An assessment of six mining technologies showed that the only option technically and economically feasible was room and pillar mining. There are approximately 17 options for retorting shale available for screening. These options fall broadly into the categories of surface and in situ retorting, solvent processing, and bioleaching. Processes retained after initial screening consist of only surface retorting options: Lurgi-Ruhrgas, Paraho, Tosco II, Union B, and Superior Circular Grate. Surface retorting is also planned for all nearby oil shale projects. Environmental assessment has focused on two major thrusts: environmental baseline determination and preparation of a programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). 17 figures, 11 tables. (DMC)

  1. Union Oil Company's Parachute Creek shale oil program

    SciTech Connect

    Randle, A.C.; Heckel, T.L.

    1982-05-01

    In the Parachute Creek area of the Piceance Creek Basin in Garfield County, Colorado, Union Oil Company is developing the first commercial shale oil project in the United States. In early 1981, Union began construction of a 12,500-ton-per-day roomand-pillar mine and a surface retort that will produce 10,000 barrels of raw shale oil per day. A 10,000-barrel-per-day upgrading facility, to convert the raw shale oil into a high-quality syncrude, also is under construction. This 10,000-barrel-per-day project is planned for completion in mid-1983. It is the first phase of a major shale oil project that will produce 90,000 barrels per day of shale oil when completed in 1993. This paper describes Union's mining methods and the upflow retort developed by Union's Science and Technology Division. It also describes the upgrading process that will convert shale oil into a syncrude acceptable to today's refineries. Also included is a discussion of the current status of the project.

  2. Environmental chemistry of oil shale development. Technical progress report, January 1-November 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Sievers, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    Topics covered include: pollutant release mechanisms, the interaction of oil shale-related leachates, microbial trace metal mobilization in plant-soil-spent shale systems, effects of retort water and co-disposal on air and water quality, trace elements in plant materials from the CSU intensive study site as interpreted by analysis of variance and pattern recognition techniques, and analytical methods development and pattern recognition research.

  3. High-resolution mass spectrometry of nitrogenous compounds of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Schnoes, H. K.; Haug, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Basic nitrogenous compounds isolated from extracts of Green River Formation oil shale were analyzed. The major homologous constituents found were the compositional types - namely, quinolines, tetrahydrequinolines with minor amounts of pyridines and indoles series and traces of more aromatized nitrogen compounds. These results are correlated with nitrogen compounds isolated from Green River Formation retort oil and are a survey of the unaltered nitrogen compounds indigeneous to the shale.

  4. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS RESEARCH PROGRAM AT THE PARAHO SHALE OIL DEMONSTRATION PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sampling and analysis research program was conducted at the Paraho oil shale retorting demonstration site at Anvil Points, Colorado. The overall objective of the test program was to obtain preliminary quantitative and qualitative measurements of air, water, and solid compositio...

  5. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  6. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Final report. Volume 2. Shale workers' pneumoconiosis and skin conditions: epidemiological surveys of surviving ex-shale workers

    SciTech Connect

    Louw, S.J.; Cowie, H.; Seaton, A.

    1985-03-01

    This report (in 3 volumes) describes the now defunct Scottish oil shale industry and its effects on the health of its workers. This volume investigates the prevalence of skin disease and pneumoconiosis in Scottish ex-oil shale workers. A cross sectional epidemiological survey has been carried base on a population enrolled in the 1950 Scottish Oils Ltd Provident Fund. Investigation of the Fund indicated that it would have included almost all industrial workers employed in the oil shale industry between 1950 and its closure in 1962. It is concluded that workers in the Scottish shale oil industry in its latter years were not at excess risk of skin disease, perhaps because of steps taken within the industry to reduce the known hazards of dermatitis and skin cancer. However, pneumoconiosis was a definite hazard of miners and retort workers and its presence was associated with an impairment of lung function suggestive of fibrosis and possibly emphysema as well. It is suggested that prevention of this hazard might sensibly be based on the strategy used in the coalmining industry and, in the absence of further information on dust and fume exposures of shale workers, standards as applied in coalmining should be appropriate. Radiological surveillance of dust-exposed workers, whether in mines or at retorts or tips, is recommended. 39 refs., 10 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1991-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

  8. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of raw and beneficiated Eastern oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Rue, D.M.; Lau, F.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with US Department of Energy (DOE) support has developed a pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting (PFH) process for Eastern oil shales. Bench-scale tests have been conducted with raw and beneficiated shales in an advanced multipurpose research reactor (AMRR). Raw Alabama shale and raw and beneficiated Indiana shales were retorted at 515{degrees}C using hydrogen pressures of 4 and 7 MPa. Shale feed rates to the AMRR were 15 to 34 kg/h. High oils yields and carbon conversions were achieved in all tests. Oil yield from Alabama shale hydroretorted at 7 MPa was 200% of Fischer Assay. Raw and beneficiated Indiana shales hydroretorted at 7 MPa produced oil yields of 170% to 195% of Fischer Assay, respectively. Total carbon conversions were greater than 70% for all tests conducted at 7 MPa.

  9. Identification of data gaps found during the development of a zero-order model for a fluidized-bed retort/combustion process

    SciTech Connect

    Ammer, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    This technical note (TN) reports on the development of a zero-order ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) model for the fluidized-bed retort/combustion of an eastern oil shale. The objective of the work described was to identify data needs and to create a structure for future, more definitive models. New Albany shale was the initial reference eastern shale at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). A literature search on this shale was conducted to find the physical property data required for the ASPEN model. This TN discusses the types of missing or incomplete data, the process being modeled, and how process variables are affected by varying input parameters. The TN also presents recommendations for increasing the reliability of the simulation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  11. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  12. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer Assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  13. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  14. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hakala, J. Alexandra; Stanchina, William; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (ε') and imaginary permittivity (ε'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ε' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ε'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ε'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ε' and ε'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  15. Gas shale/oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Bereskin, S.R.; Bowker, K.A.; Cardott, B.J.; Chidsey, T.C., Jr.; Dubiel, R.F.; Enomoto, C.B.; Harrison, W.B.; Jarvie, D.M.; Jenkins, C.L.; LeFever, J.A.; Li, Peng; McCracken, J.N.; Morgan, C.D.; Nordeng, S.H.; Nyahay, R.E.; Schamel, Steven; Sumner, R.L.; Wray, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides information about specific shales across North America and Europe from which gas (biogenic or thermogenic), oil, or natural gas liquids are produced or is actively being explored. The intent is to re?ect the recently expanded mission of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) Gas Shales Committee to serve as a single point of access to technical information on shales regardless of the type of hydrocarbon produced from them. The contents of this report were drawn largely from contributions by numerous members of the EMD Gas Shales Advisory Committee, with much of the data being available from public websites such as state or provincial geological surveys or other public institutions. Shales from which gas or oil is being produced in the United States are listed in alphabetical order by shale name. Information for Canada is presented by province, whereas for Europe, it is presented by country.

  16. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry. Volume 3. Causes of death of Scottish oil shale workers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Cowie, H.; Middleton, W.G.; Seaton, A.

    1985-05-01

    The hazards of the Scottish oil shale industry are reported in three volumes. This volume addresses the cause of death for personnel in the oil shale industry. Skin cancer deaths showed a hazard significantly greater than unity. In comparing oil shale workers mortality with that of the population of 2 counties, an increase in death from bronchitis and emphysema was demonstrated. Comparisons of mortality within the study group to determine if any particular jobs in the industry were more hazardous than others showed no significant associations. There appeared to be a slight excess of prostrate cancer among retort workers. In a case-control study, no significant increase in relative hazard of lung cancer was found in association with workers or residents in areas of high shale activity. 21 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs. (DMC)

  17. Summary of the oil shale fragmentation program at Anvil Points Mine, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Young, C.; Fourney, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    During 1981 and 1982, an extensive oil shale fragmentation research program was conducted at the Anvil Points Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The primary goals were to investigate factors involved for adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the modified in situ retort (MIS) method for recovery of oil from oil shale. The test program included single-deck, single-borehole tests to obtain basic fragmentation data; multiple-borehole, multiple-deck explosive tests to evaluate practical aspects for developing an in situ retort; and the development of a variety of instrumentation techniques to diagnose the blasting event. This paper will present an outline of the field program, the type of instrumentation used, some typical results from the instrumentation, and a discussion of explosive engineering problems encountered over the course of the program. 4 references, 21 figures, 1 table.

  18. The development of an integrated multistaged fluid bed retorting process. Technical report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Taulbee, D.; Fei, Y.; Carter, S.

    1993-01-01

    The KENTORT II process includes integral fluidized bed zones for pyrolysis, gasification, and combustion of the oil shale. The purpose of this program is to design and test the KENTORT II process at the 50-lb/hr scale. Along with the major activity of assembling the components of the 50-lb/hr retort, work was also completed in other areas this quarter. Basic studies of the cracking and coking kinetics of model compounds in a fixed bed reactor were continued. Additionally, as part of the effort to investigate niche market applications for KENTORT II-derived products, a study of the synthesis of carbon fibers from the heavy fraction of KENTORT II shale oil was initiated.

  19. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  20. Devonian shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Objectives were to: estimate the in-place gas resource of Devonian Shale in the eastern United States, project possible production volumes and reserve additions of recoverable gas at various price levels with current technology, estimate the potential of new technology and its effect on production and reserve additions, examine constraints of Devonian Shale development, and compare findings with other published studies.

  1. Chemically assisted in situ recovery of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Ramierz, W.F.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of the research project was to investigate the feasibility of the chemically assisted in situ retort method for recovering shale oil from Colorado oil shale. The chemically assisted in situ procedure uses hydrogen chloride (HCl), steam (H{sub 2}O), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at moderate pressure to recovery shale oil from Colorado oil shale at temperatures substantially lower than those required for the thermal decomposition of kerogen. The process had been previously examined under static, reaction-equilibrium conditions, and had been shown to achieve significant shale oil recoveries from powdered oil shale. The purpose of this research project was to determine if these results were applicable to a dynamic experiment, and achieve penetration into and recovery of shale oil from solid oil shale. Much was learned about how to perform these experiments. Corrosion, chemical stability, and temperature stability problems were discovered and overcome. Engineering and design problems were discovered and overcome. High recovery (90% of estimated Fischer Assay) was observed in one experiment. Significant recovery (30% of estimated Fischer Assay) was also observed in another experiment. Minor amounts of freed organics were observed in two more experiments. Penetration and breakthrough of solid cores was observed in six experiments.

  2. Beneficiation and hydroretorting of low grade oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Tippin, R.B.; Hanna, J.; Janka, J.C.; Rex, R.C. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    A new approach to oil recovery from low grade oil shales has been developed jointly by the Mineral Resources Institute (MRI) of The University of Alabama and the HYCRUDE Corporation. The approach is based on the HYTORT process, which utilized hydrogen gas during the retorting process to enhance oil yields from many types of oil shales. The performance of the HYTORT process is further improved by combining it with MRI's froth flotation process. Taking advantage of differences in the surface properties of the kerogen and the inorganic mineral constituents of the oil shales, the MRI process can reject up to three quarters by weight of relatively kerogen-free inorganic fractions of the oil shale before HYTORT processing. The HYTORT and MRI processes are discussed. Results of tests by each process on oil shales of low to moderate inherent kerogen content are presented. Also discussed are the results of the combined processes on an Indiana New Albany oil shale. By combining the two processes, the raw shale which yielded 12 gallons of oil per ton by Fischer Assay was upgraded by flotation to a product yielding 27 gallons of Fischer Assay oil per ton. HYTORT processing of the beneficiated product recovered 54 gallons of oil per ton, an improvement in oil yield by a factor of 4.5 over the raw shale Fischer Assay.

  3. 2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST. THE RETORT HOUSE IS LOCATED DIRECTLY BEHIND THE GABLED PORTION OF OF THE 1859 FACADE ADDITION. THE COAL STORAGE FACILITY/BOILER HOUSE IS TO THE RIGHT OF THE RETORT HOUSE. THE OFFICES ARE IN THE THE THREE STORY BUILDING ON THE CORNER, TO THE RIGHT OF THE 1859 FACADE. - Buffalo Gas Light Company, 249 West Genesee Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  4. DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.

    1987-09-01

    The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Early jointing in coal and black shale: Evidence for an Appalachian-wide stress field as a prelude to the Alleghanian orogeny

    SciTech Connect

    Engelder, T.; Whitaker, A.

    2006-07-15

    Early ENE-striking joints (present coordinates) within both Pennsylvanian coal and Devonian black shale of the Central and Southern Appalachians reflect an approximately rectilinear stress field with a dimension > 1500 km. This Appalachian-wide stress field (AWSF) dates from the time of joint propagation, when both the coal and shale were buried to the oil window during the 10-15 m.y. period straddling the Pennsylvanian-Permian boundary. The AWSF was generated during the final assembly of Pangea as a consequence of plate-boundary tractions arising from late-stage oblique convergence, where maximum horizontal stress, S-H, of the AWSF was parallel to the direction of closure between Gondwana and Laurentia. After closure, the AWSF persisted during dextral slip of peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, when SH appears to have crosscut plate-scale trans-current faults at around 30{sup o}. Following > 10 m.y. of dextral slip during tightening of Gondwana against Laurentia, the AWSF was disrupted by local stress fields associated with thrusting on master basement decollements to produce the local orocline-shaped Alleghanian map pattern seen today.

  6. Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large reserves of oil shale. Expected development of oil shale will affect the regional hydrologic systems because most oil-shale mines will require drainage; industrial requirements for water may be large; and oil-shale mines, wastes, and retorts may affect the quantity and quality of surface water and ground water. In addition, the oil-shale industry may discharge particles and gases to the atmosphere that could alter the quality of high-altitude lakes and surface-water reservoirs. Hydrologic data need to be collected in order to plan for oil-shale development and to estimate the effects of development. Test-well drilling and aquifer testing are needed to provide a better understanding of the local and regional flow system, to furnish additional data for a model that simulates mine drainage, and to explore for water supplies in aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Much of the ground water in the bedrock aquifers discharges through springs, and a systematic study of the springs will help to predict the effects of mine drainage on spring discharge and quality. Surface runoff, dissolved and suspended loads in streams, and the aquatic environment in streams would be highly susceptible to the disruptions in the land surface and will require additional study in order to estimate the effects of development. A water-quality assessment is proposed for the White River basin because it is a possible source of water and a region likely to be affected by development. The effects of emissions to the atmosphere from oil-shale plants require study because these emissions may affect the quality of water in lakes downwind. Spoil piles of retorted oil shale may be very large and require study to anticipate any problems caused by leaching and erosion. Processing wastes resulting from in-situ retorts and other waste materials need to be studied in greater detail. 71 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Conceptual design of production systems for NOSR 1. Naval Oil Shale Reserves management support and systems engineering project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The objective of this study is to screen out those technology options that are obviously unsuitable for NOSR 1 application, and to establish a framework for future production systems evaluations. This study has attempted to put all available data on a common basis, and derive those data that are unavailable. The results of this study have enabled us to perform the initial screening. The initial screening includes consideration of all technologies (mining, ore handling, retorting, upgrading, and transportation), synthesis of total production systems, and computation of capital costs. An assessment of six mining options has shown that room-and-pillar mining and vertical modified in situ (MIS) mining are the only options feasible for NOSR 1. With room-and-pillar mining and surface retorting of 34 GPT shale, the recoverable reserves on NOSR 1 are sufficient to last 90 to 100 years at a production rate of 50,000 BPD. At this same production rate, the recoverable reserves are sufficient for 20 to 30 years when MIS and MIS/surface retorting options are considered. There are approximately 17 options available for retorting shale. These fall broadly into the categories of surface and in situ retorting, solvent processing, and bioleaching. Process options retained after initial screening include: Paraho, Lurgi-Ruhrgas, Union B, Tosco II, Superior Circular Grate, Oxy MIS, RISE, and MIS/surface retorting combustion. Preliminary analyses of water requirements have shown that the Paraho and Tosco processes consume the least water, whereas the Lurgi process consumes the most. Capital costs (or investment) for nine options have been calculated for a nominal 50,000 BPD plant producing both pipeline and refinery feedstock oil. The Lurgi process is shown to be the least expensive primarily because of the low investment in the retorts. The modified in situ process has the highest investment. 20 figures, 19 tables.

  8. Orientation of tectonic stresses in central Kentucky during U. Devonian/L. Mississippian times: Evidence from quartz veins (after gypsum) in NE-trending, systematic joints in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, J.; Dupuis-Nouille, E.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Quartz replacing fibrous gypsum and anhydrite pseudomorphically (QAS; quartz after sulfate''), and preserving characteristic crack-seal'' and chickenwire'' textures, occurs in extensional veins at four locations in central KY. The veins occupy a systematic set of NE-SW-trending, vertical joints within the essentially flat-lying shales of the Renfro Member of the Mississippian Borden Formation and the Late Devonian New Albany Shale. The four QAS occurrences discovered to date are located northeast of the Borden Front. At one site in the New Albany Shale, QAS veins show clear evidence of penecontemporaneous deformation. It is proposed that at all QAS locations, gypsum precipitated in incipient joints before complete lithification of the sediment, and grew perpendicular to the fractures to form extensional veins in the soft but firm muds. The orientations of the joints now marked by QAS veins are broadly consistent with regional patterns of NE-SW-trending systematic joints and lineaments in southern IN and in central and eastern KY. These systematic fracture patterns do not correspond directly to known basement faults or rift systems, although they are consistent with modern stress directions in eastern and western KY, measured in situ in wells and by earthquake fault-plane solutions. It is proposed that this systematic trend marks the regional tectonic stress pattern characteristic of southern IN and central and eastern KY at, and since the Late Devonian. The evidence of penecontemporaneous sedimentary deformation in joints of U. Devonian age, marked and preserved by quartz replacement of early gypsum, is sufficient to show that while the systematic NE-trending joint set in KY may also be modern it is not uniquely so.

  9. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Final report, January 1, 1992--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-09-29

    The Adams Counter-current shale oil recovery process is an improved retorting technology enabling highly efficient oil recovery from oil shale. The high efficiency results primarily from the following facts: it (1) recovers the ash heat to preheat the feed ore; (2) burns and uses the coke energy and (3) operates without using hot ash recycling as a heat carrier. This latter feature is doubly important, contributing to high oil yield and to the generation of highly reactive coke which can be burned below 1000{degree}F, avoiding the endothermal calcination of the mineral carbonates and helping to clean the ash of contaminants. This project demonstrates that oil shale can be retorted under the specified conditions and achieve the objectives of very high efficiency. The project accomplished the following: 51 quartz sand rotary kiln runs provided significant engineering data. A heat transfer value of 107 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degree}F was obtained at optimum RPM; eight oil shale samples were obtained and preliminary shakedown runs were made. Five of the samples were selected for kiln processing and twelve pyrolysis runs were made on the five different oil shales;average off recovery was 109% of Fisher Assay; retorted residue from all five samples was oxidized at approximately 1000{degree}F. The ash from these runs was oxidized to varying extents, depending on the oil shale and oxidizing temperatures. While 1000{degree}F is adequately hot to provide process heat from coke combustion for these ores, some Eastern oil shales, without mineral carbonates, may be oxidized at higher temperatures, perhaps 100--300 degrees hotter, to obtain a more complete oxidation and utilization of the coke.

  10. BX in-situ oil shale project. Annual status report on environmental monitoring and analysis-SP No. 6, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    The objective of the BX In Situ Oil Shale Project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using superheated steam as a heat-carrying medium to retort in situ the oil shale in the Green River Formation leached zone and provide a mechanism for the recovery of this shale oil with a minimum impact on the environment. Utilizing primarily the natural porosity in the leached zone, approximately one trillion Btus of heat will be injected into a site over a two-year period to heat to retorting temperature a shale zone approximately 550 feet thick and covering about one acre. The field project is located at Equity's BX In Situ site in Rio Blanco County in northwestern Colorado. Environmental activities conducted from March 1, 1980 through February 28, 1981 were a continuation of operational monitoring initiated the previous year that included meteorology, water quality and aquatic ecology monitoring.

  11. Constructing a geomechanical model of the Woodford Shale, Cherokee Platform, Oklahoma, USA effects of confining stress and rock strength on fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hair, Tyler J.

    A micro-indentation tool is used to estimate the strength of the Woodford Shale from whole core samples through the geometrical attributes (diameter and depth) of a 'dimple' produced by the tool on the rock's surface. The measured dimples are correlated graphically with the unconfined compressive strength and internal friction angle of the Woodford and integrated with contemporary stress data from earthquake focal mechanisms and mapped active faults. Right-lateral strike-slip motion on a deep, unnamed potential splay of the Wilzetta fault (Cherokee Platform, Lincoln County, Oklahoma) is representative of the contemporary stress state of the region. Vertical or near-vertical factures striking ˜ 030° from SHaz (˜ 077°) are the mechanical discontinuities most likely to be reactivated and allow fluids to flow along their surfaces. This reactivation will occur if the magnitude of pressure sources such as pore pressure or fluid pressure exceeds the reactivation pressure for that fracture surface.

  12. Hydrogeologic consequences of the modified in-situ retorting process, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mehran, M.; Narasimhan, T.N.; Fox, J.P.

    1981-04-01

    This study is aimed at studying the possible alteration of the groundwater regime in and around the C-a and the C-b tracts due to the proposed MIS strategies. Results suggest that mine-inflow rates will gradually increase with time and that the phreatic surface will be drawn down significantly over several square kilometers around the C-a and C-b tracts. These drawdowns could have profound effects on the shallow groundwater and surface water supplies. The expected inflow rates may vary from 0.15 to 1.4 m/sup 3//s at the C-a tract and from 0.5 to 0.9 m/sup 3//s at the C-b tract. The computations suggest that over a 30-y period of activity at the C-a tract, the water table in the vicinity of a tributary to the Yellow Creek may be drawn down by as much as 31 m. Similarly, 60 years of MIS retorting at the C-b tract may draw down the water table in the vicnity of the Piceance Creek by 100 m or more. The studies indicate that in an expanding mine, the inflows are likely to be concentrated in the neighborhood of newly excavated regions where hydraulic gradients will be highest. It has been estimated that inflow into individual retorts may vary from 0.15 x 10/sup -3/ to 0.95 x 10/sup -3/ m/sup 3//s. These infow rates may or may not have significant effects on combustion efficiency, depending upon such factors as shale richness, uniformity of flow, and steam-air ratio. Higher porosities, lower residual saturations, and higher permeabilities will tend to increase mine inflows. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI`s archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  14. Proof-of-Concept Oil Shale Facility Environmental Analysis Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The objectives of the Project are to demonstrate: (1) the Modified In- Situ (MIS) shale oil extraction process and (2) the application of CFBC technology using oil shale, coal and waste gas streams as fuels. The project will focus on evaluating and improving the efficiency and environmental performance of these technologies. The project will be modest by commercial standards. A 17-retort MIS system is planned in which two retorts will be processed simultaneously. Production of 1206-barrels per calendar day of raw shale oil and 46-megawatts of electricity is anticipated. West Virginia University coordinated an Environmental Analysis Program for the Project. Experts from around the country were retained by WVU to prepare individual sections of the report. These experts were exposed to all of OOSI's archives and toured Tract C-b and Logan Wash. Their findings were incorporated into this report. In summary, no environmental obstacles were revealed that would preclude proceeding with the Project. One of the most important objectives of the Project was to verify the environmental acceptability of the technologies being employed. Consequently, special attention will be given to monitoring environmental factors and providing state of the art mitigation measures. Extensive environmental and socioeconomic background information has been compiled for the Tract over the last 15 years and permits were obtained for the large scale operations contemplated in the late 1970's and early 1980's. Those permits have been reviewed and are being modified so that all required permits can be obtained in a timely manner.

  15. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS RETORT USED FOR FLASHING MERCURY OFF OF GOLD TO CREATE SOFT INGOTS CALLED "SPONGES." AT RIGHT ARE SAFES FOR STORING 22-POUND SPONGES WORTH OVER $60,000 EACH, CA. 1985. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. 4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CASTIRON RETORTS AT TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STRAIGHT ON VIEW OF CAST-IRON RETORTS AT TOP OF FURNACE SHOWING PORTION OF HOT BLAST STOVE AND TURNED HEAD. - Nassawango Iron Furnace, Furnace Road, 1.2 miles west of Maryland Route 12, Snow Hill, Worcester County, MD

  17. 1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view shows Engine Room Building behind cranes. Retort rings in foreground were once located in Engine Room Building. See photo WA-131-A-2. Building on left is Machine Shop. Boiler Building is in front of stack. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, Engine Room Building, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. [Kilntrol program

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program Kilntrol.'' It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  19. Fracture toughness anisotropy in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Brantut, Nicolas; Crawford, Brian R.

    2016-03-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas has focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales, but there remains a paucity of available experimental data on their mechanical and physical properties. Such shales are strongly anisotropic, so that their fracture propagation trajectories depend on the interaction between their anisotropic mechanical properties and the anisotropic in situ stress field in the shallow crust. Here we report fracture toughness measurements on Mancos shale determined in all three principal fracture orientations: Divider, Short Transverse, and Arrester, using a modified short-rod methodology. Experimental results for a range of other sedimentary and carbonate rocks are also reported for comparison purposes. Significant anisotropy is observed in shale fracture toughness measurements at ambient conditions, with values, as high as 0.72 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is normal to the bedding, and values as low as 0.21 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is parallel to the bedding. For cracks propagating nonparallel to bedding, we observe a tendency for deviation toward the bedding-parallel orientation. Applying a maximum energy release rate criterion, we determined the conditions under which such deviations are more or less likely to occur under more generalized mixed-mode loading conditions. We find for Mancos shale that the fracture should deviate toward the plane with lowest toughness regardless of the loading conditions.

  20. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  1. A Transversely Isotropic Thermo-mechanical Framework for Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semnani, S. J.; White, J. A.; Borja, R. I.

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides a thermo-mechanical framework for modeling the temperature dependent behavior of oil shale. As a result of heating, oil shale undergoes phase transformations, during which organic matter is converted to petroleum products, e.g. light oil, heavy oil, bitumen, and coke. The change in the constituents and microstructure of shale at high temperatures dramatically alters its mechanical behavior e.g. plastic deformations and strength, as demonstrated by triaxial tests conducted at multiple temperatures [1,2]. Accordingly, the present model formulates the effects of changes in the chemical constituents due to thermal loading. It is well known that due to the layered structure of shale its mechanical properties in the direction parallel to the bedding planes is significantly different from its properties in the perpendicular direction. Although isotropic models simplify the modeling process, they fail to accurately describe the mechanical behavior of these rocks. Therefore, many researchers have studied the anisotropic behavior of rocks, including shale [3]. The current study presents a framework to incorporate the effects of transverse isotropy within a thermo-mechanical formulation. The proposed constitutive model can be readily applied to existing finite element codes to predict the behavior of oil shale in applications such as in-situ retorting process and stability assessment in petroleum reservoirs. [1] Masri, M. et al."Experimental Study of the Thermomechanical Behavior of the Petroleum Reservoir." SPE Eastern Regional/AAPG Eastern Section Joint Meeting. Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2008. [2] Xu, B. et al. "Thermal impact on shale deformation/failure behaviors---laboratory studies." 45th US Rock Mechanics/Geomechanics Symposium. American Rock Mechanics Association, 2011. [3] Crook, AJL et al. "Development of an orthotropic 3D elastoplastic material model for shale." SPE/ISRM Rock Mechanics Conference. Society of Petroleum Engineers

  2. Wellbore stability in shale gas reservoirs, a case study of the Barnett Shale (USA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2015-04-01

    Wellbore stability in shale gas reservoirs is one of the major problems during the drilling phase; bad stability can induce the breakouts and drilling induced fractures. Wellbore stability requires the good knowledge of horizontal maximum and minimum stress, the overburden stress and the pore pressure. In this paper, we show a case study of the wellbore stability and how to estimate the mud weight in shale gas reservoir of the Barnett shale formation before drilling. The overburden stress is calculated from the seismic inversion, the minimum stress is calculated using the poro-elastic model, and however the pore pressure is calculated using the Eaton's model. Keywords: Wellbore stability, shale gas, maximum stress, minimum stress, overburden, mud weight, pore pressure.

  3. Sunlight activation of shale-oil byproducts as measured by genotoxic effects in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.; Okinaka, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Activation of certain classes of promutagens/procarcinogens can be accomplished by exposure to various radiation sources. Retort processes currently in use in the production of shale oil generate significant quantities of process waters which contain a wide spectrum of uv-absorbing, organic material. Photoactivation of these waters with an artificial source of NUV results in genotoxic events in cultured mammalian cells. Since significant amounts (2 to 4%) of solar radiation reaching the earth's surface is NUV, we were concerned about potential biological effects resulting from solar-irradiated waste streams. This paper summarizes new and previously published data concerning the induction of both cytotoxicity and mutagenicity in cultured Chinese hamster cells (line CHO) after their exposure to a particular oil shale retort process water and natural sunlight.

  4. UNOCAL 76: Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program. Environmental Monitoring Plan annual report, January 1-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental-monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. The Program site includes three entities: the Mine/Retort, atop Long Ridge; the Upgrade Facility down valley; and the Retorted Shale Disposal area at the base of Long Ridge. Results of the first year of EMP monitoring are summarized in the document with emphasis on worker health surveillance.

  5. Fault structure, stress, or pressure control of the seismicity in shale? Insights from a controlled experiment of fluid-induced fault reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Barros, Louis; Daniel, Guillaume; Guglielmi, Yves; Rivet, Diane; Caron, Hervé; Payre, Xavier; Bergery, Guillaume; Henry, Pierre; Castilla, Raymi; Dick, Pierre; Barbieri, Ernesto; Gourlay, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    Clay formations are present in reservoirs and earthquake faults, but questions remain on their mechanical behavior, as they can vary from ductile (aseismic) to brittle (seismic). An experiment, at a scale of 10 m, aims to reactivate a natural fault by fluid pressure in shale materials. The injection area was surrounded by a dense monitoring network comprising pressure, deformation, and seismicity sensors, in a well-characterized geological setting. Thirty-two microseismic events were recorded during several injection phases in five different locations within the fault zone. Their computed magnitude ranged between -4.3 and -3.7. Their spatiotemporal distribution, compared with the measured displacement at the injection points, shows that most of the deformation induced by the injection is aseismic. Whether the seismicity is controlled by the fault architecture, mineralogy of fracture filling, fluid, and/or stress state is then discussed. The fault damage zone architecture and mineralogy are of crucial importance, as seismic slip mainly localizes on the sealed-with-calcite fractures which predominate in the fault damage zone. As no seismicity is observed in the close vicinity of the injection areas, the presence of fluid seems to prevent seismic slips. The fault core acts as an impermeable hydraulic barrier that favors fluid confinement and pressurization. Therefore, the seismic behavior seems to be strongly sensitive to the structural heterogeneity (including permeability) of the fault zone, which leads to a heterogeneous stress response to the pressurized volume.

  6. Role of shale thickness on vertical connectivity of fractures: application of crack-bridging theory to the Austin Chalk, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijken, Peggy; Cooke, Michele L.

    2001-07-01

    Contrasting material properties of alternating chalk and shale layers control vertical connectivity of fractures. Our field observations within the Austin Chalk, Texas indicate that: (1) the majority of vertical fractures occur in chalk layers and abut against contacts with shale layers, (2) thicker shale layers have greater resistance to fracture propagation than thinner shale layers. From these observations we hypothesize both the resistance of shale to fracturing and the thickness of shale layers may inhibit fracture propagation across the shale and into the next chalk layer. We model crack propagation within a three-layered system (brittle chalk:fracture resistant shale:brittle chalk). The modeled crack extends across the shale, but closing tractions applied to the crack segment within the shale layer simulate resistance of shale to fracturing. The crack-tip lies a short distance within the unfractured chalk layer simulating a coplanar flaw with potential to propagate. If the stress intensity factor at the flaw exceeds the chalk fracture toughness, the crack propagates, thereby bridging and eventually rupturing the shale layer. For any chalk thickness, there is a critical shale thickness above which fractures cross the shale layer and below which fractures arrest at shale. Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis evaluates the influence of shale ductility within the chalk: shale: chalk system. Although remote and fluid pressure driven fractures produce identical stress intensity factors in elastic chalk/shale systems, lower driving stresses are required to propagate fluid pressure driven fractures through a system ductile shale layers than fractures under remote tension.

  7. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  8. Experimental drilling in Chattanooga shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Andrew

    1948-01-01

    Information on which specifications were originally drawn for drilling the Chattanooga shale was obtained largely from the TVA, whose geologists and driller laid great stress on the difficulties of maintaining circulation in their ho;es. The stated that the shale itself was not particularly difficult to core, the trouble being in the overburden. They did not use deep casing, depending on cementing to hold the holes open. On this basis, the Survey's specifications called for mid casing only, it being assumed that solid rock would be encountered at relatively shallow depths. This belief was borne out by examination of such road cuts and other exposures as were available.

  9. Anaerobic biological treatment of in-situ retort water

    SciTech Connect

    Ossio, E.; Fox, P.

    1980-03-01

    Anaerobic fermentation was successfully used in a laboratory-scale batch digester to remove soluble organics from retort water. Required pretreatment includes reduction of ammonia levels to 360 mg-N/l, pH adjustment to 7.0, sulfide control, and the addition of the nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phoshorus. If the prescribed pretreatment is used, BOD/sub 5/ and COD removal efficiencies of 89 to 90% and 65 to 70% are achieved, respectively.

  10. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1991-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and l BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein arose in the course of, or under, Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 between the U.S. Department of Energy and the University of California.

  11. Process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, J.C.; Gaiao, U.; Novicki, R.E.

    1987-11-17

    This patent describes a process for the retorting of hydrocarbon-containing solids, characterized in that it comprises the following steps: (a) contacting the solid particles with superheated steam; (b) transporting, in an upward direction, the mixture obtained in the previous step, at a gas velocity close to the critical impact velocity, through a vertical multi-tube reactor, immersed in a vertical furnace, held at a temperature in the range from 800/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C; (c) heating the obtained mixture to the solids' pyrolysis temperature, by means of the heat generated by the burning of fuel inside the vertical furnace and supplied to the mixture through the walls of the reactor; (d) removing the products from the reactor, separating the solid phase from the retorting products, by forcing the products to pass through primary and secondary separators; (e) removing the gaseous phase from the retorting products exiting the secondary separator thus effecting a second separation stage, for the obtaining of fuel gas and oil the process further characterized in that spaced static devices are provided within the multi-tube reactor tube, so as to cause the solid particles to come close to the walls of the reactor, as a consequence of the superheated steam flow redistribution in order to increase heat transfer between the vertical furnace and the reactor walls.

  12. Preparation and storage stability of retort processed Chettinad chicken.

    PubMed

    Rajan, S; Kulkarni, V V; Chandirasekaran, V

    2014-01-01

    Chettinad chicken was prepared using boneless meat derived from spent hen and boiler breeder packed in retort pouches (250 g) and processed in retort at the product temperature of 121.1 °C and the corresponding F0 value of 5.2. The product was stored at ambient temperature (35 ± 2 °C) up to 180 days. The sensory scores for texture of the Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat decreased significantly however the scores were rated very acceptable even on 180th day. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA), tyrosine values and acid value increased gradually during storage but E. coli, Salmonella spp, Clostridium spp, Staphylococci spp, Streptococci spp, yeast and mould could not be detected during the entire storage period. The cost of production of Chettinad chicken (250 g) prepared from spent hen meat and broiler breeder meat was Rs.37 and Rs.50, respectively. It was concluded that the retort processed Chettinad chicken prepared from spent hen and broiler breeder meat can be safely stored up to 180 days at ambient temperature. PMID:24426066

  13. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  14. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Second quarterly report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  15. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  16. Ion chromatographic analysis of oil shale leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, N.L.

    1990-10-01

    In the present work an investigation of the use of ion chromatography to determine environmentally significant anions present in oil shale leachates was undertaken. Nadkarni et al. have used ion chromatography to separate and quantify halogen, sulfur and nitrogen species in oil shales after combustion in a Parr bomb. Potts and Potas used ion chromatography to monitor inorganic ions in cooling tower wastewater from coal gasification. Wallace and coworkers have used ion chromatography to determine anions encountered in retort wastewaters. The ions of interest in this work were the ions of sulfur oxides including sulfite (SO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), thiosulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionite (S{sub 2}O{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}), dithionate (S{sub 2}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), peroxyodisulfate (S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2{minus}}), and tetrathionate (S{sub 4}O{sub 6}{sup 2{minus}}), and thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), sulfide (S{sup 2{minus}}) hydrosulfide (HS{sup {minus}}), cyanide (CN{sup {minus}}), thiocyanate (SCN{sup {minus}}), and cyanate (OCN{sup {minus}}). A literature search was completed and a leaching procedure developed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels. PMID:18939591

  18. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines). 57... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Underground Retorts §...

  19. Brazing retort manifold design concept may minimize air contamination and enhance uniform gas flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruppe, E. P.

    1966-01-01

    Brazing retort manifold minimizes air contamination, prevents gas entrapment during purging, and provides uniform gas flow into the retort bell. The manifold is easily cleaned and turbulence within the bell is minimized because all manifold construction lies outside the main enclosure.

  20. Estimation of retorted phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps by thermal process.

    PubMed

    Park, Hun-Su; Rhee, Seung-Whee

    2016-04-01

    The degree of thermal stabilization of phosphor powder from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs) manufactured by three companies (A, B, C) was estimated by examining mercury content in phosphor powder with retorting time, retorting temperature and rotational speed of drum. Mercury content of phosphor powders from spent fluorescent lamps manufactured by A, B and C companies as samples in thermal experiments was 4031mg/kg, 3522mg/kg and 3172mg/kg, respectively. In the thermal experiments, the optimal conditions for retorting time, retorting temperature, and rotational speed were determined at 6h, 400°C, and 2.0rpm, respectively. With thermal processing at the optimal conditions, mercury content of all samples for retorted phosphor powder was less than 3.0mg/kg, while efficiency of thermal process to control mercury content was higher than 99.9%. Leaching tests such as Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korea Extraction Test (KET) were subsequently carried out to verify if retorted phosphor powder is hazardous waste. Leaching concentrations of mercury for all samples of retorted phosphor powder were satisfied with regulatory levels in both leaching tests. Hence, retorted phosphor powders at the optimal conditions are considered to be non-hazardous wastes. PMID:26882866

  1. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods using FT-ICR mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jin, J.M.; Kim, S.; Birdwell, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT ICR-MS) was applied in the analysis of shale oils generated using two different pyrolysis systems under laboratory conditions meant to simulate surface and in situ oil shale retorting. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules. Comparison of FT ICR-MS results to standard oil characterization methods (API gravity, SARA fractionation, gas chromatography-flame ionization detection) indicated correspondence between the average Double Bond Equivalence (DBE) and asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the average DBE values and DBE distributions of the shale oils examined, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions and in the presence of water.

  2. Characterization of porous media properties and leaching capacity of spent oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.; Morelli, P.T.

    1981-01-01

    Porous media properties of spent oil shales have been determined in order to provide fundamental data needed to identify and predict the transport of leachates through surface piles or abandoned modified insitu retorts. Using high pressure mercury porosimetry, pore size distributions were measured. Specific surface areas were measured using both the mercury intrusion technique as well as BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) nitrogen adsorption. Visual and chemical analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Leaching capacities of the various spent shale samples were measured using equilibrium leaching studies to determine Equilibrium Exchange Isotherms. Based on these characterization studies, fundamental modeling concepts have benn established for the transport of leachates through spent oil shales. 13 refs.

  3. Explosive fragmentation of oil shale: Results from Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.D.; Fourney, W.L.; Young, C. III

    1992-12-31

    From 1978 through 1983, numerous oil shale fragmentation tests were conducted at the Colony and Anvil Points Mines, Colorado. These experiments were part of an investigation to determine factors required for the adequate fragmentation of oil shale and to evaluate the feasibility of using the vertical modified in situ retort (VMIS) method for recovery of kerogen from oil shale. The objective of this research was to support the design of a large volume (10{sup 4} m{sup 3}) rubble bed for in situ processing. In addition, this rubble bed was to be formed in a large single-blast event which included decked charges, time delays, and multiple boreholes. Results are described.

  4. Multicomponent seismic monitoring of stress arching in the overburden due to hydraulic fracturing in the Montney Shale at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinal, Irene

    Recent studies have shown convincing evidence that time-lapse changes in seismic data occur not only within the reservoir interval but also in the overburden. Observations that production at the reservoir level and subsequent decrease in pore pressure lead to modifications in the stress field and variations in the overburden have been documented (Hatchell et al., 2003; Hudson et al., 2005). The study of the opposite case, that is, the analysis of the effect in the overburden of an increase in pore pressure in the reservoir has not been so well documented yet and is the focus of this work; the possibility that the hydraulic fracturing process causes seismically detectable changes in the overburden in a time-lapse sense is studied at Pouce Coupe Field, Alberta, and the results are shown. The analysis is performed using multicomponent data from three seismic surveys acquired to evaluate the hydraulic stimulations of two horizontal wells in the Montney Shale. The time-lapse time shifts between the data of the two monitor surveys and the baseline have been calculated and constitute the main tool to study the injection-induced changes above the reservoir interval. The hypothesis is that the increase in the reservoir pressure due to the hydraulic well treatment might produce upward overburden compaction, leading to an increase in stresses that would be translated into an increase in the seismic velocities and therefore, into positive time shifts (considering monitor data subtracted from baseline data) if a time window for the overburden is analyzed. The study shows strong differences in the magnitude of the PS response to the stimulations compared to that of the PP data. The fact that mode-converted (PS) waves are more sensitive to azimuthal anisotropy than compressional waves explains the stronger character of the response observed in PS data, allowing for a more detailed interpretation of the stress-arching distribution. The time-lapse time shifts in the overburden

  5. Reclamation studies on oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.W.; Redente, E.F.

    1980-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to study the effects of various reclamation practices on above- and belowground ecosystem development associated with disturbed oil shale lands in northwestern Colorado. Plant growth media that are being used in field test plots include retorted shale, soil over retorted shale, subsoil materials, and surface disturbed topsoils. Some of the more significant results are: (1) a soil cover of at least 61 cm in conjunction with a capiallary barrier provided the best combination of treatments for the establishment of vegetation and a functional microbial community, (2) aboveground production values for native and introduced species mixtures are comparable after three growing seasons, (3) cover values for native species mixtures are generally greater than for introduced species, (4) native seed mixtures, in general, allow greater invasion to occur, (5) sewage sludge at relatively low rates appears to provide the most beneficial overall effect on plant growth, (6) cultural practices, such as irrigated and mulching have significant effects on both above- and belowground ecosystem development, (7) topsoil storage after 1.5 years does not appear to significantly affect general microbial activities but does reduce the mycorrhizal infection potential of the soil at shallow depths, (8) populations of mycorrhizal fungi are decreased on severely disturbed soils if a cover of vegetation is not established, (9) significant biological differences among ecotypes of important shrub species have been identified, (10) a vegetation model is outlined which upon completion will enable the reclamation specialist to predict the plant species combinations best adapted to specific reclamation sites, and (11) synthetic strains of two important grass species are close to development which will provide superior plant materials for reclamation in the West.

  6. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-31

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  7. Assessment and control of water contamination associated with shale oil extraction and processing. Progress report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, E.J.; Henicksman, A.V.; Fox, J.P.; O'Rourke, J.A.; Wagner, P.

    1982-04-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory's research on assessment and control of water contamination associated with oil shale operations is directed toward the identification of potential water contamination problems and the evaluation of alternative control strategies for controlling contaminants released into the surface and underground water systems from oil-shale-related sources. Laboratory assessment activities have focused on the mineralogy, trace element concentrations in solids, and leaching characteristics of raw and spent shales from field operations and laboratory-generated spent shales. This report details the chemical, mineralogic, and solution behavior of major, minor, and trace elements in a variety of shale materials (spent shales from Occidental retort 3E at Logan Wash, raw shale from the Colony mine, and laboratory heat-treated shales generated from Colony mine raw shale). Control technology research activities have focused on the definition of control technology requirements based on assessment activities and the laboratory evaluation of alternative control strategies for mitigation of identified problems. Based on results obtained with Logan Wash materials, it appears that the overall impact of in situ processing on groundwater quality (leaching and aquifer bridging) may be less significant than previously believed. Most elements leached from MIS spent shales are already elevated in most groundwaters. Analysis indicates that solubility controls by major cations and anions will aid in mitigating water quality impacts. The exceptions include the trace elements vanadium, lead, and selenium. With respect to in situ retort leaching, process control and multistaged counterflow leaching are evaluated as alternative control strategies for mitigation of quality impacts. The results of these analyses are presented in this report.

  8. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  9. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  10. High efficiency shale oil recovery. First quarter report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-12-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  11. Environmental analysis of the eastern shale hydroretorting data base

    SciTech Connect

    Rex, R.C. Jr.; Lynch, P.A.

    1984-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform a preliminary environmental analysis of certain chemical aspects of Eastern shale hydroretorting utilizing the data from the twenty-one (21) bench scale unit runs conducted during the HYTORT Feasibility Study. The report contained herein primarily addresses the potential types and quantities of pollutants emanating directly from the hydroretorting of oil shale (i.e., the retort paper). The following areas are discussed in detail: nitrogen distribution; sulfur distribution; gas trace constituents; sour water constituents; and shale leachates. The results of the analysis have not identified any potential pollutants or quantities which cannot be brought to conformance with currently promulgated environmental standards using existing technology. Additional analysis of the process chemistry portion of the HYTORT data base, coupled with the process and mechanical design information, can provide a methodology for dealing with the identified environmental concerns as they pertain to a commercial facility. Section 5.0 of the report delineates the areas which should be addressed in a continuing analysis of environmental concerns. The suggested program divides naturally into three phases, of which Phase 1 has been completed: Phase 1 - Environmental Analysis of the Eastern Shale Hydroretorting Data Base; Phase 2 - Generic (non-site-specific) Environmental Analysis; and Phase 3 - Site-Specific Environmental Analysis. Phase 2 details the anticipated emissions from all areas of a commercial HYTORT facility operating on a typical Eastern shale using the results of this Phase 1 effort and the HYTORT data base. Phase 3 utilizes this information to assess the effects of plant emissions on chosen sites in the context of applicable laws and regulations. 7 references, 18 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Western oil shale development: a technology assessment. Volume 8. Health effects of oil shale development

    SciTech Connect

    Rotariu, G.J.

    1982-02-01

    Information on the potential health effects of a developing oil shale industry can be derived from two major sources: (1) the historical experience in foreign countries that have had major industries; and (2) the health effects research that has been conducted in the US in recent years. The information presented here is divided into two major sections: one dealing with the experience in foreign countries and the second dealing with the more recent work associated with current oil shale development in the US. As a result of the study, several observations can be made: (1) most of the current and historical data from foreign countries relate to occupational hazards rather than to impacts on regional populations; (2) neither the historical evidence from other countries nor the results of current research have shown pulmonary neoplasia to be a major concern, however, certain types of exposure, particularly such mixed source exposures as dust/diesel or dust/organic-vapor have not been adequately studied and the lung cancer question is not closed; (3) the industry should be alert to the incidence of skin disease in the industrial setting, however, automated techniques, modern industrial hygiene practices and realistic personal hygiene should greatly reduce the hazards associated with skin contact; and (4) the entire question of regional water contamination and any resultant health hazard has not been adequately addressed. The industrial practice of hydrotreating the crude shale oil will diminish the carcinogenic hazard of the product, however, the quantitative reduction of biological activity is dependent on the degree of hydrotreatment. Both Soviet and American experimentalists have demonstrated a correlation betweed carcinogenicity/toxicity and retorting temperature; the higher temperatures producing the more carcinogenic or toxic products.

  13. Shock propagation and attenuation in Green River oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, D. E.

    2014-05-01

    Shock waves produced by planar impact of thin plates onto samples of oil shale are monitored with time-resolved velocity interferometer diagnostics. Peak shock stresses are below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Stress wave measurements at successive sample thickness are analysed to determine the experimental shock energy attenuation with propagation distance. Shock attenuation is attributed to stress wave scattering at planes of oil shale kerogen within the shale matrix. Wave scattering from planar defects are evaluated from a shock physics perspective and a scattering model is constructed that sensibly reproduces the experimental observation of shock energy attenuation.

  14. 77 FR 25206 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Safety and Health Administration Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Underground Retorts AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public comments. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  15. Application of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration technology using retort reactors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Haiping; Liu, Biao; Chen, Yingquan; Chen, Wei; Yang, Qing; Chen, Hanping

    2016-01-01

    To introduce application status and illustrate the good utilisation potential of biomass pyrolytic polygeneration using retort reactors, the properties of major products and the economic viability of commercial factories were investigated. The capacity of one factory was about 3000t of biomass per year, which was converted into 1000t of charcoal, 950,000Nm(3) of biogas, 270t of woody tar, and 950t of woody vinegar. Charcoal and fuel gas had LHV of 31MJ/kg and 12MJ/m(3), respectively, indicating their potential for use as commercial fuels. The woody tar was rich in phenols, while woody vinegar contained large quantities of water and acetic acid. The economic analysis showed that the factory using this technology could be profitable, and the initial investment could be recouped over the factory lifetime. This technology offered a promising means of converting abundant agricultural biomass into high-value products. PMID:26476166

  16. Alumina from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Dawsonite-bearing oil shale of Colorado's Green River Formation offers a unique and vast (6.5 billion tons of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) resource of easily extractable alumina. The processing methods required by the thermal reactions of dawsonite and its oil-shale carrier also require production of shale oil, soda ash, and nahcolite as marketable coproducts. These production methods are presented. The alumina production process is contrasted with the Bayer process to describe technical advantages of extraction of alumina from oil shale which may offset the problems associated with processing a relatively lean ore. While alumina production from oil shale requires development of new technology, the technical problems appear solvable. Only the political problems arising from the now onerous and completely unnecessary Federal oil-shale withdrawal appear less solvable.

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  18. The Study of Heat Penetration of Kimchi Soup on Stationary and Rotary Retorts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Il; Park, Eun-Ji; Cheon, Hee Soon; Chung, Myong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the heat-penetration characteristics using stationary and rotary retorts to manufacture Kimchi soup. Both heat-penetration tests and computer simulation based on mathematical modeling were performed. The sterility was measured at five different positions in the pouch. The results revealed only a small deviation of F0 among the different positions, and the rate of heat transfer was increased by rotation of the retort. The thermal processing of retort-pouched Kimchi soup was analyzed mathematically using a finite-element model, and optimum models for predicting the time course of the temperature and F0 were developed. The mathematical models could accurately predict the actual heat penetration of retort-pouched Kimchi soup. The average deviation of the temperature between the experimental and mathematical predicted model was 2.46% (R2=0.975). The changes in nodal temperature and F0 caused by microbial inactivation in the finite-element model predicted using the NISA program were very similar to that of the experimental data of for the retorted Kimchi soup during sterilization with rotary retorts. The correlation coefficient between the simulation using the NISA program and the experimental data was very high, at 99%. PMID:25866751

  19. Distribution of Hydroxyl Groups in Kukersite Shale Oil: Quantitative Determination Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Zachariah Steven; Oja, Vahur; Järvik, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the use of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy to quantitatively measure the hydroxyl concentrations among narrow boiling shale oil cuts. Shale oil samples were from an industrial solid heat carrier retort. Reference values were measured by titration and were used to create a partial least squares regression model from FT-IR data. The model had a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.44 wt% OH. This method was then used to study the distribution of hydroxyl groups among more than 100 shale oil cuts, which showed that hydroxyl content increased with the average boiling point of the cut up to about 350 °C and then leveled off and decreased. PMID:25811170

  20. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program environmental monitoring program. Annual report, October 1, 1989-September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The support agreement included development of an Environmental Monitoring Plan, incorporating existing compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring on water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socioeconomic impacts during the period 1986-1993. Phase I of the project is to produce 10,000 barrels per day of syncrude from oil shale, using the Unishale B process. A summary of compliance and supplemental activities is included in the report. Health monitoring results, safety summaries and a status report of the retorted shale laydown area, with photos, are also given.

  1. Stratigraphic variations in oil-shale fracture properties. [Colorado and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Patti, N. C.; Trent, B. C.

    1982-09-01

    The proper design and evaluation of in situ oil shale fracture and retorting experiments require that both the extreme values and spatial distribution of the controlling rock properties be adequately known. Many of the in situ technologies being considered for processing within the Green River Formation in Colorado, Wyoming and Utah depend upon the carefully controlled explosive fracturing of the rock such that suitably uniform permeabilities are achieved. The prediction, control and evaluation of explosive oil shale fracturing require a detailed knowledge of tensile strength behavior as a function of shale grade and stratigraphic position. Direct-pull tensile tests, point-load pinch tests, and four-point-bend fracture toughness tests have been utilized to develop detailed logs of the relevant fracture properties for the 37 m thick Mahogany Zone section of the Green River Formation near Anvil Points, Colorado and for the rich, upper 13 m of the Tipton Member near Rock Springs, Wyoming. For the Mahogany Zone shale tensile strengths ranged up to 15.3 MPa for direct-pull tests and 43.4 MPa for indirect tests. Fracture energy values for this shale ranged from 8 J/m/sup 2/ to 191 J/m/sup 2/. For the Tipton shale tensile strengths ranged up to 3.7 MPa for direct-pull tests and 12.6 MPa for indirect tests. Fracture energy values for the Tipton averaged from 5 J/m/sup 2/ to 91 J/m/sup 2/. Detailed statistical analyses were performed on these data and on Fischer assay oil yield data to establish the correlations between them. Data from both tensile strength and fracture energy tests correlate well with lithologic and oil yield characteristics of the Mahogany Zone shale while poor correlations were found for the Tipton shale. 27 figures, 8 tables.

  2. Time Domain Reflectometry for Measuring Volumetric Water Content in Processed Oil Shale Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, T. L.; Elgezawi, S. M.

    1992-03-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) was evaluated and developed to monitor volumetric water content (θυ) in oil shale solid waste retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process. A TDR probe was designed and tested that could be buried and compacted in waste embankments and provide in situ measurements for θυ in the high-saline and high-alkaline conditions exhibited by this waste. TDR was found to be accurate for measurement of θυ across a broad range of water contents in the processed oil shale waste. A computer algorithm to automate the analysis of TDR traces to determine θυ, was developed and tested. A sensitivity test was performed to analyze differences between three smoothing algorithms on the measurement. No significant differences were found between smoothing algorithms or between the number of points applied for smoothing.

  3. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    PubMed Central

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250–300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  4. A Novel Energy-Efficient Pyrolysis Process: Self-pyrolysis of Oil Shale Triggered by Topochemical Heat in a Horizontal Fixed Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes.

  5. A novel energy-efficient pyrolysis process: self-pyrolysis of oil shale triggered by topochemical heat in a horizontal fixed bed.

    PubMed

    Sun, You-Hong; Bai, Feng-Tian; Lü, Xiao-Shu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Yu-Min; Guo, Ming-Yi; Guo, Wei; Liu, Bao-Chang

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel energy-efficient oil shale pyrolysis process triggered by a topochemical reaction that can be applied in horizontal oil shale formations. The process starts by feeding preheated air to oil shale to initiate a topochemical reaction and the onset of self-pyrolysis. As the temperature in the virgin oil shale increases (to 250-300°C), the hot air can be replaced by ambient-temperature air, allowing heat to be released by internal topochemical reactions to complete the pyrolysis. The propagation of fronts formed in this process, the temperature evolution, and the reaction mechanism of oil shale pyrolysis in porous media are discussed and compared with those in a traditional oxygen-free process. The results show that the self-pyrolysis of oil shale can be achieved with the proposed method without any need for external heat. The results also verify that fractured oil shale may be more suitable for underground retorting. Moreover, the gas and liquid products from this method were characterised, and a highly instrumented experimental device designed specifically for this process is described. This study can serve as a reference for new ideas on oil shale in situ pyrolysis processes. PMID:25656294

  6. Genotoxicity induced by a shale oil byproduct in Chinese hamster cells following metabolic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Okinaka, R.T.; Nickols, J.W.; Chen, D.J.; Strniste, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A process water obtained from a holding tank during the surface retorting of oil shale has been shown to induce a linear dose response of 100 histidine revertants/sub ..mu../1 in the Ames/Salmonella test. The complex mixture has also previously been shown to induce genotoxicity in mammalian cells following activation by near ultraviolet light and natural sunlight. This report focuses on the effects of a particular oil shale retort process water on cultured Chinese hamster cells following metabolic activation by either rat liver homogenate or lethally irradiated but metabolically competent Syrian hamster embryonic cells. Cytotoxic and mutagenic responses induced by the process water and a fractionated sample from it containing the majority of the mutagenic activity (as assessed by the Salmonella test) were measured under conditions designed to optimally measure the mutagenic potency of the promutagen, benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest a possible discrepancy in the genotoxic potential of this complex mixture when various methods are utilized to measure its potential.

  7. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of eastern oil shales. Volume 4, Task 5, Operation of PFH on beneficiated shale, Task 6, Environmental data and mitigation analyses and Task 7, Sample procurement, preparation, and characterization: Final report, September 1987--May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of Task 5 (Operation of Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydro-Retorting (PFH) on Beneficiated Shale) was to modify the PFH process to facilitate its use for fine-sized, beneficiated Eastern shales. This task was divided into 3 subtasks: Non-Reactive Testing, Reactive Testing, and Data Analysis and Correlations. The potential environment impacts of PFH processing of oil shale must be assessed throughout the development program to ensure that the appropriate technologies are in place to mitigate any adverse effects. The overall objectives of Task 6 (Environmental Data and Mitigation Analyses) were to obtain environmental data relating to PFH and shale beneficiation and to analyze the potential environmental impacts of the integrated PFH process. The task was divided into the following four subtasks. Characterization of Processed Shales (IGT), 6.2. Water Availability and Treatment Studies, 6.3. Heavy Metals Removal and 6.4. PFH Systems Analysis. The objective of Task 7 (Sample Procurement, Preparation, and Characterization) was to procure, prepare, and characterize raw and beneficiated bulk samples of Eastern oil shale for all of the experimental tasks in the program. Accomplishments for these tasks are presented.

  8. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  9. Treatment of concentrated industrial wastewaters originating from oil shale and the like by electrolysis polyurethane foam interaction

    DOEpatents

    Tiernan, Joan E.

    1990-01-01

    Highly concentrated and toxic petroleum-based and synthetic fuels wastewaters such as oil shale retort water are treated in a unit treatment process by electrolysis in a reactor containing oleophilic, ionized, open-celled polyurethane foams and subjected to mixing and laminar flow conditions at an average detention time of six hours. Both the polyurethane foams and the foam regenerate solution are re-used. The treatment is a cost-effective process for waste-waters which are not treatable, or are not cost-effectively treatable, by conventional process series.

  10. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  11. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  12. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  13. Porosity and permeability of eastern Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight samples of Devonian gas shale from the Appalachian Basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian age Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eighth core sample consists of Middle Devonian age Marcellus Shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, West Virginia. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the results have also shown that there are a number of previously unknown factors which influence or control gas production from organic-rich shales of the Appalachian Basin. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron Shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and permeability of the rock matrix to gas is less than 0.1 microdarcy at reservoir stress. The Marcellus Shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10% under stress with a fairly strong ''adsorption'' component. Permeability to gas (K/sub infinity/ was highly stress-dependent, ranging from about 20 microdarcies at a net stress of 3000 psi down to about 5 microdarcies at a net stress of 6000 psi. The conclusion reached from this study is that Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin is a considerably more complex natural gas resource than previously thought. Production potential varies widely with geographic location and stratigraphy, just as it does with other gas and oil resources. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  15. Geomechaical Behavior of Shale Rocks Under High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamor Lora, R.; Ghazanfari, E.

    2014-12-01

    The mechanical properties of shale are demanding parameters for a number of engineering and geomechanical purposes. Borehole stability modeling, geophysics, shale oil and shale gas reservoirs, and underground storage of CO2 in shale formations are some of these potential applications to name a few. The growing interest in these reservoirs, as a source for hydrocarbons production, has resulted in an increasing demand for fundamental rock property data. These rocks are known to be non-linear materials. There are many factors, including induced cracks and their orientation, partial saturation, material heterogeneity and anisotropy, plasticity, strain rate, and temperature that may have an impact on the geomechanical behaviour of these shales.Experimental results and theoretical considerations have shown that the elastic moduli are not single-value, well-defined parameters for a given rock. Finding suitable values for these parameters is of vital importance in many geomechanical applications. In this study, shale heterogeneity and its geomechanical properties are explored through an extensive laboratory experimental program. A series of hydrostatic and triaxial tests were performed in order to evaluate the elasticity, viscoplasticity, yielding and failure response of Marcellus shale samples as a function of pressure and temperature. Additional characterization includes mineralogy, porosity, and permeability measurements. The shale samples were taken from a Marcellus outcrop at State Game Lands 252, located in Lycoming and Union counties, Allenwood, Pennsylvania. Laboratory experiments have shown that creep behaviour is highly sensitive to temperature. Furthermore, the non-linear nature of these rocks reveals interesting behaviour of the elastic moduli highly dependent on stress history of the rock. Results from cyclic triaxial tests point out the different behaviour between 1st-loading and unloading-reloading cycles. Experimental results of these Marcellus shales are

  16. Influence of site-specific geology on oil shale fragmentation experiments at the Colony Mine, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.M.; Harper, M.D.; Craig, J.L.; Edwards, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory executed 19 intermediate scale cratering experiments in oil shale at the Colony Mine in Garfield County, Colorado. These experiments have led to a better understanding of fracture characteristics and fragmentation of in situ oil shale by use of a conventional high explosive. Geologic site characterization included detailed mapping, coring, and sample analyses. Site-specific geology was observed to be a major influence on the resulting crater geometry. The joint patterns at the experimental site frequently defined the final crater symmetry. Secondary influences included vugs, lithology changes, and grade fluctuations in the local stratigraphy. Most experiments, in both the rib and floor, were conducted to obtain data to investigate the fragmentation results within the craters. The rubble was screened for fragment-size distributions. Geologic features in proximity to the explosive charge had minimal effect on the rubble due to the overpowering effect of the detonation. However, these same features became more influential on the fracture and rubble characteristics with greater distances from the shothole. Postshot cores revealed a direct relationship between the grade of the oil shale and its susceptibility to fracturing. The Colony Mine experiments have demonstrated the significant role of geology in high explosive/oil shale interaction. It is probable that this role will have to be considered for larger applications to blast patterns and potential problems in retort stability in the future of oil shale development.

  17. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  18. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  19. FRONT ELEVATION OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS 2.5 BY 4FOOT RETORT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FRONT ELEVATION OF TELLURIDE IRON WORKS 2.5 BY 4-FOOT RETORT, USED TO FLASH MERCURY FROM GOLD. MERCURY VAPOR THEN CONDENSED ON INSIDE OF HOOD AND WAS COLLECTED FOR REUSE. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  20. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22401 - Underground retorts (I-A and I-B mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... reignition following a shutdown; and (5) Details of area monitoring and alarm systems for hazardous gases and... combustible gases and oxygen in retort off-gases during start-up and during burning; levels at which... blowers, and provisions for switching promptly from one power source to the other; and (2) An alarm...

  4. Mercury retorting of calcine waste, contaminated soils and railroad ballast at the Idaho National Egineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Cotten, G.B.; Rothermel, J.S.; Sherwood, J.; Heath, S.A.; Lo, T.Y.R.

    1996-02-28

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has been involved in nuclear reactor research and development for over 40 years. One of the earliest major projects involved the development of a nuclear powered aircraft engine, a long-term venture which used mercury as a shielding medium. Over the course of several years, a significant amount of mercury was spilled along the railroad tracks where the test engines were transported and stored. In addition, experiments with volume reduction of waste through a calcine process employing mercury as a catalyst resulted in mercury contaminated calcine waste. Both the calcine and Test Area North wastes have been identified in Department of Energy Action Memorandums to be retorted, thereby separating the mercury from the various contaminated media. Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company awarded the Mercury Retort contract to ETAS Corporation and assigned Parsons Engineering Science, Inc. to manage the treatment field activities. The mercury retort process entails a mobile unit which consists of four trailer-mounted subsystems requiring electricity, propane, and a water supply. This mobile system demonstrates an effective strategy for retorting waste and generating minimal secondary waste.

  5. Impact of overall and particle surface heat transfer coefficients on thermal process optimization in rotary retorts.

    PubMed

    Simpson, R; Abakarov, A; Almonacid, S; Teixeira, A

    2008-10-01

    This study attempts to examine the significance of recent research that has focused on efforts to estimate values for global and surface heat transfer coefficients under forced convection heating induced by end-over-end rotation in retorting of canned peas in brine. The study confirms the accuracy of regression analysis used to predict values for heat transfer coefficients as a function of rotating speed and headspace, and uses them to predict values over a range of process conditions, which make up the search domain for process optimization. These coefficients were used in a convective heat transfer model to establish a range of lethality-equivalent retort temperature-time processes for various conditions of retort temperature, rotating speed, and headspace. Then, they were coupled with quality factor kinetics to predict the final volume average and surface quality retention resulting from each process and to find the optimal thermal process conditions for canned fresh green peas. Results showed that maximum quality retention (surface and volume average retention) was achieved with the shortest possible process time (made possible with highest retort temperature), and reached the similar level in all cases with small difference between surface and volume average quality retention. The highest heat transfer coefficients (associated with maximum rotating speed and headspace) showed a 10% reduction in process time over that required with minimum rotating speed and headspace. The study concludes with a discussion of the significance of these findings and degree to which they were expected. PMID:19019110

  6. Shale: Measurement of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Morgan, I.L.

    1987-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were made on samples of Devonian shale, Pierre shale, and oil shale from the Green River Formation. Thermal expansion measurements were made on selected samples of Devonian shale. Measurements were obtained over the temperature range of ambient to 473 K. Average values for thermal conductivity and heat capacity for the samples studied were within two standard deviations of all data over this temperature range. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Unocal Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Annual report, October 1, 1990-December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-31

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The report contains summaries of compliance and supplemental environmental and industrial hygiene and health surveillance monitoring conducted during the period; compliance permits, permit changes, and Notices of Violations discussions; statistical significance of Employee General Health information, medical histories, physical exams, pulmonary functions, clinical tests and demographics; independent audit reports; and a description of retorted shale disposal activities.

  8. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program Environmental Monitoring Program. Quarterly report, fourth quarter, October 1-December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-28

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic fuels plants. The Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program is one of four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, and worker health and safety during the period 1985-1992. These activities are described in a series of quarterly and annual reports. The document contains environmental compliance data collected in the fourth quarter of 1991, contents of reports on compliance data submitted to regulatory agencies, and supplemental analytical results from retorted shale pile runoff water collected following a storm event during the third quarter of 1991.

  9. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  10. A new laboratory approach to shale analysis using NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry is a non-invasive technique commonly used to assess hydrogen-bearing fluids in petroleum reservoir rocks. Measurements made using LF-NMR provide information on rock porosity, pore-size distributions, and in some cases, fluid types and saturations (Timur, 1967; Kenyon et al., 1986; Straley et al., 1994; Brown, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Kleinberg, 2001; Hurlimann et al., 2002). Recent improvements in LF-NMR instrument electronics have made it possible to apply methods used to measure pore fluids to assess highly viscous and even solid organic phases within reservoir rocks. T1 and T2 relaxation responses behave very differently in solids and liquids; therefore the relationship between these two modes of relaxation can be used to differentiate organic phases in rock samples or to characterize extracted organic materials. Using T1-T2 correlation data, organic components present in shales, such as kerogen and bitumen, can be examined in laboratory relaxometry measurements. In addition, implementation of a solid-echo pulse sequence to refocus T2 relaxation caused by homonuclear dipolar coupling during correlation measurements allows for improved resolution of solid-phase protons. LF-NMR measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions were carried out on raw oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation and pyrolyzed samples of these shales processed by hydrous pyrolysis and techniques meant to mimic surface and in-situ retorting. Samples processed using the In Situ Simulator approach ranged from bitumen and early oil generation through to depletion of petroleum generating potential. The standard T1-T2 correlation plots revealed distinct peaks representative of solid- and liquid-like organic phases; results on the pyrolyzed shales reflect changes that occurred during thermal processing. The solid-echo T1 and T2 measurements were used to improve assessment of the solid organic phases, specifically

  11. Stress trajectory and advanced hydraulic-fracture simulations for the Eastern Gas Shales Project. Final report, April 30, 1981-July 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Advani, S.H.; Lee, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    A summary review of hydraulic fracture modeling is given. Advanced hydraulic fracture model formulations and simulation, using the finite element method, are presented. The numerical examples include the determination of fracture width, height, length, and stress intensity factors with the effects of frac fluid properties, layered strata, in situ stresses, and joints. Future model extensions are also recommended. 66 references, 23 figures.

  12. Laboratory measurement and interpretation of nonlinear gas flow in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yili; Chen, Mingjun; Li, Xiangchen; You, Lijun; Yang, Bin

    2015-11-01

    Gas flow mechanisms in shale are urgent to clarify due to the complicated pore structure and low permeability. Core flow experiments were conducted under reservoir net confining stress with samples from the Longmaxi Shale to investigate the characteristics of nonlinear gas flow. Meanwhile, microstructure analyses and gas adsorption experiments are implemented. Experimental results indicate that non-Darcy flow in shale is remarkable and it has a close relationship with pore pressure. It is found that type of gas has a significant influence on permeability measurement and methane is chosen in this work to study the shale gas flow. Gas slippage effect and minimum threshold pressure gradient weaken with the increasing backpressure. It is demonstrated that gas flow regime would be either slip flow or transition flow with certain pore pressure and permeability. Experimental data computations and microstructure analyses confirm that hydraulic radius of flow tubes in shale are mostly less than 100 nm, indicating that there is no micron scale pore or throat which mainly contributes to flow. The results are significant for the study of gas flow in shale, and are beneficial for laboratory investigation of shale permeability.

  13. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  14. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  15. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  16. GIS-based geospatial infrastructure of water resource assessment for supporting oil shale development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D.; Mattson, Earl D.; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  17. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  18. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  19. Water Availability for Shale Gas Development in Sichuan Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mengjun; Weinthal, Erika; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Deshusses, Marc A; Zou, Caineng; Ni, Yunyan; Vengosh, Avner

    2016-03-15

    Unconventional shale gas development holds promise for reducing the predominant consumption of coal and increasing the utilization of natural gas in China. While China possesses some of the most abundant technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world, water availability could still be a limiting factor for hydraulic fracturing operations, in addition to geological, infrastructural, and technological barriers. Here, we project the baseline water availability for the next 15 years in Sichuan Basin, one of the most promising shale gas basins in China. Our projection shows that continued water demand for the domestic sector in Sichuan Basin could result in high to extremely high water stress in certain areas. By simulating shale gas development and using information from current water use for hydraulic fracturing in Sichuan Basin (20,000-30,000 m(3) per well), we project that during the next decade water use for shale gas development could reach 20-30 million m(3)/year, when shale gas well development is projected to be most active. While this volume is negligible relative to the projected overall domestic water use of ∼36 billion m(3)/year, we posit that intensification of hydraulic fracturing and water use might compete with other water utilization in local water-stress areas in Sichuan Basin. PMID:26881457

  20. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  1. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  2. Energy and process substitution in the frozen-food industry: geothermal energy and the retortable pouch

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, M.W.; Hanemann, W.M.; Eckhouse, K.

    1981-12-01

    An assessment is made of the possibilities of using geothermal energy and an aseptic retortable pouch in the food processing industry. The focus of the study is on the production of frozen broccoli in the Imperial Valley, California. Background information on the current status of the frozen food industry, the nature of geothermal energy as a potential substitute for conventional fossil fuels, and the engineering details of the retortable pouch process are covered. The analytical methodology by which the energy and process substitution were evaluated is described. A four-way comparison of the economics of the frozen product versus the pouched product and conventional fossil fuels versus geothermal energy was performed. A sensitivity analysis for the energy substitution was made and results are given. Results are summarized. (MCW)

  3. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Third quarterly report, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-10-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency is first being demonstrated at bench scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications, now completed, provide for a great improvement in the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. Last quarter we reported on equipment modifications and refurbishments which resulted in a sophisticated analytical rotary kiln. As we began operating the equipment this quarter, we observed that the software package was inadequate for our purpose and that the appropriate software could not be purchased as a shelf item. Therefore, we were required to modify the equipment interface and to write our own software. The quartz sand kiln calibration runs have been completed and the results are included in this report. Computer Interface: The computer interface was designed on CTR-05, DAS-08 and MUX-32 Boards from ComputerBoards Inc. We purchased a software program, Control EG by Quinn-Curtis, to use with these boards. As we began operating the equipment we realized that the software control was inadequately sensitive for our system as it would not provide time-proportioning output. This problem was resolved by writing our own software and providing time-proportioning duty cycles for the output to each of five heaters. We have entitled this program ``Kilntrol.`` It is included in the Appendix of this report.

  4. Foamed sand provides improved stimulation results from Devonian Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Strang, D.L.; Norton, J.L.

    1983-11-01

    Generally, water saturations in the Devonian Shale are low. Production records indicate minimal, if any, water in the areas producing gas or gas and oil. This low water saturation appears to be the key to stimulating the shale, especially in the oil-producing areas. The introduction of water in the stimulation fluid appears to reduce the permeability to oil, which is reflected in poorer production. The relative permeability reduction seems to be more of a problem than particle migration or clay swelling and could explain the good initial results from straight nitrogen treatments. However, the lack of a proppant, even with low closure stress, leads to very rapid declines. Water-base stimulation fluids appear to increase water saturation in the Devonian Shale. Use of 90+ quality foam with sand should provide a method of minimizing saturation changes while creating a propped fracture. Initial results indicate this technique provides better sustained production increases in the Devonian Shale. This paper defines areas of production, describes the geology and presents physical data of the Devonian Shale. It also compares results of several types of treatments that have been used in the Devonian Shale. These results indicate 90+ quality foam with sand should provide an improved stimulation technique for this formation.

  5. Oil shale in the United States: prospects for development

    SciTech Connect

    Drabenstott, M.; Duncan, M.; Borowski, M.

    1984-05-01

    The development of an oil shale industry has had its ups and downs throughout this century. Despite vast reserves of recoverable shale oil, energy prices usually have been high enough to make extraction of that oil commercially viable. The tripling and then tripling again of world oil prices in the 1970s gave initial promise that development had become economically feasible. After only a few years of rapid development activity, however, the effort was brought to a near-halt by falling world oil prices. The results were a substantial reduction in economic activity for northwestern Colorado and, maybe more importantly, sharply lower expectations for the region's future economic growth. In both the upturn and the downturn, the local public sector was essentially shielded from financial stress because the energy companies helped fund public spending on infrastructure and services. The future for oil shale remains uncertain. A few energy companies continue to pursue their development plans. To spur development of commercial scale plants, Synthetic Fuels Corporation has made loan and price guarantees to energy firms. Some projects may soon be extracting oil, providing needed technological and financial information on various techniques of oil extraction. But the future for oil shale remains clouded by uncertainties regarding the cost of producing syncrude and future oil prices. Environmental issues could also hamper oil shale development. Therefore, oil shale remains, as it has for more than a century, a technical and economic enigma that has only begun to be understood and developed. 8 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. Modeling of Shales in Salt-Hydrocarbon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolinakou, Maria A.; Flemings, Peter B.; Hudec, Michael R.

    2016-02-01

    We model the stress-strain response of shale wall rocks to large deformations associated with the emplacement of salt bodies. We further identify the implications of these stress changes for hydrocarbon exploration. We model the mudrocks as porous elastoplastic materials. We employ both static and evolutionary approach for the modeling of salt systems and show that while the static one can model actual geologic geometries, only the evolutionary approach can provide a detailed description of the stress changes associated with the emplacement of salt. Hence, the evolutionary approach can register the overall stress history of the shale wall rocks, which is essential for predicting the present-day state of stress, porosity, and pore pressure. More generally, the evolutionary approach can provide useful insights for understanding Earth processes related to salt-hydrocarbon systems.

  7. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Second quarterly report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.

    1992-05-04

    The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  8. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Third quarterly report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Rangarajan, S.; Skinner, Q.D.; Hasfurther, V.

    1993-08-11

    This report presents research objectives, discusses activities, and presents technical progress for the period April 1, 1993 through June 31, 1993 on Contract No. DE-FC21-86LC11084 with the Department of Energy, Laramie Project Office. The scope of the research program and the continuation is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Co., Inc. (RBOSC) through a separate cooperative agreement with the University of Wyoming (UW) to carry out this study. Three of the lysimeters were established at the RBOSC Tract C-a in the Piceance Basin of Colorado. Two lysimeters were established in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL) at UW. The ESL was specifically designed and constructed so that a large range of climatic conditions could be physically applied to the processed oil shale which was filled in the lysimeter cells.

  9. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  10. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  11. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  12. Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and Thermopolis Shales, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    the trendline is OT > OSC > OC > OM, that is, the velocity in the Mowry Shale is reduced the least and the velocity in the Thermopolis Shale is reduced the most. Velocity reductions are attributed to increases in pore pressure during burial, caused by the generation and retention of gas, with lithology playing a key role in the amount of reduction. Sonic velocity in the four shale units remains low to the present day, after uplift and erosion of as much as 6,500 ft in the deeper part of the basin and consequent possible reduction from maximum pore pressures reached when strata were more deeply buried. A model combining burial history, the decrease of effective stress with increasing pore pressure, and Bower's model for the dependence of sonic velocity on effective stress is proposed to explain the persistence of low velocity in shale units. Interruptions to compaction gradients associated with gas occurrences and overpressure are observed in correlative strata in other basins in Wyoming, so the general results for shales in the Bighorn Basin established in this paper should be applicable elsewhere.

  13. Optimization of process conditions for Rohu fish in curry medium in retortable pouches using instrumental and sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ranendra K; Dhar, Bahni; Roy, Deepayan; Saha, Apurba

    2015-09-01

    'Kalia', a popular preparation of Rohu fish, packed in four-layered laminated retort pouch was processed in a steam/air mixture over-pressure retort at 121.1 °C to three different F 0 values of 7, 8 and 9 min. Time-temperature data were collected during heat processing using an Ellab Sterilization Monitoring System. Texture profile such as hardness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness decreased as the F 0 value increased. The L* values decreased whereas a* and b* values increased with increasing F 0 value. Based on the commercial sterility, sensory evaluation, colour and texture profile analysis, F 0 value of 8 min and cook value of 66 min, with a total process time of 41.7 min at 121.1 °C was found satisfactory for the preparation of Rohu fish curry (Kalia) in retort pouches. PMID:26344980

  14. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  15. Biochemical activities in soil overlying Paraho processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Microbial activity development in soil materials placed over processed oil shale is vital to the plant litter decomposition, cycling of nutrients, and soil organic matter accumulation and maintenance. Samples collected in the summers of 1979, 1980, and 1981 from revegetated soil 30-, 61-, and 91-cm deep overlying spent oil shale in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado were assayed for dehydrogenease activity with glucose and without glucose, for phosphatase activity, and for acetylene reduction activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates and potential denitrification rates were determined in 1981. Zymogenous dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, nitrogenase activity, potential denitrification rates, and direct microscopic counts were lower in surface soil 30 cm deep, and were frequently lower in surface soil 61 cm deep over processed shale than in a surface-disturbed control area soil. Apparently, microbial activities are stressed in these more shallow replaced soils. Soil 61 cm deep over a coarse-rock capillary barrier separating the soil from the spent shale, frequently had improved biochemical activity. Initial ammonium and nitrite nitrogen oxidation rates were lower in all replaced soils than in the disturbed control soil. Soil core samples taken in 1981 were assayed for dehydrogenase and phosphatase activities, viable bacteria, and viable fungal propagules. In general, microbial activity decreased quickly below the surface. At depths greater than 45 cm, microbial activities were similar in buried spent shale and surface-disturbed control soil.

  16. Hydraulic fracture extending into network in shale: reviewing influence factors and their mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lan; Zhao, Jinzhou; Hu, Yongquan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracture in shale reservoir presents complex network propagation, which has essential difference with traditional plane biwing fracture at forming mechanism. Based on the research results of experiments, field fracturing practice, theory analysis, and numerical simulation, the influence factors and their mechanism of hydraulic fracture extending into network in shale have been systematically analyzed and discussed. Research results show that the fracture propagation in shale reservoir is influenced by the geological and the engineering factors, which includes rock mineral composition, rock mechanical properties, horizontal stress field, natural fractures, treating net pressure, fracturing fluid viscosity, and fracturing scale. This study has important theoretical value and practical significance to understand fracture network propagation mechanism in shale reservoir and contributes to improving the science and efficiency of shale reservoir fracturing design. PMID:25032240

  17. Hydraulic Fracture Extending into Network in Shale: Reviewing Influence Factors and Their Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lan; Zhao, Jinzhou; Hu, Yongquan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracture in shale reservoir presents complex network propagation, which has essential difference with traditional plane biwing fracture at forming mechanism. Based on the research results of experiments, field fracturing practice, theory analysis, and numerical simulation, the influence factors and their mechanism of hydraulic fracture extending into network in shale have been systematically analyzed and discussed. Research results show that the fracture propagation in shale reservoir is influenced by the geological and the engineering factors, which includes rock mineral composition, rock mechanical properties, horizontal stress field, natural fractures, treating net pressure, fracturing fluid viscosity, and fracturing scale. This study has important theoretical value and practical significance to understand fracture network propagation mechanism in shale reservoir and contributes to improving the science and efficiency of shale reservoir fracturing design. PMID:25032240

  18. Energy from true in situ processing of Antrim Shale: extraction trials in an explosively fractured site

    SciTech Connect

    VanDerPloeg, M.L.; Peil, C.A.; Kinkel, C.G.; Pihlaja, R.K.; Murdick, D.A.; Frost, J.R.; Lund, M.M.

    1980-08-01

    Three in situ energy extraction trials were conducted at The Dow Chemical Company's oil shale site, in Michigan's Sanilac County, near the town of Peck. Here the Antrim shale layer occurs between 1200 and 1400 feet underground. The trials began on October 14, 1979, and ended on April 1, 1980. The three trials, lasting 7, 60 and 17 days respectively, were conducted in a formation prepared by explosive fracturing. Ignition energy was generated with a methane burner. Some energy in the form of a dilute fuel gas (5 to 50 btu/scf) was recovered in each trial but upon ignition drastic decreases in flow communication occurred between injection and production wells. That problem prevented the planned exploration of techniques which would raise the energy value of the production gas. Upon cool down of the formation after each trial, air permeability tests showed inter-well communication levels returning to near preburn levels. Thermal expansion is the most likely cause of the reduced permeability experienced under retorting conditions.

  19. Quantitation of carbon in oil shale process wastewaters: coulometry coupled with ultraviolet-peroxydisulfate and high-temperature oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, G.W.; Jones, B.M.; Sakaji, R.H.; Daughton, C.G.

    1984-07-01

    Wastewaters from the production of synfuels, in particular oil shale retort waters, present several major problems to various instrument configurations designed for carbon analysis. A carbon analyzer was fabricated from commercially available oxidation and detection units. Carbon oxidation occurred in an ultraviolet (UV) photochemical reactor using acid peroxydisulfate; quantitation of the evolved carbon dioxide was accomplished with an automatic coulometric titrator. This new design eliminated the problems of (1) instrument downtime caused by fouling of high-temperature combustion catalysts and corrosion of furnace combustion tubes, (2) limited linear dynamic range and upper detection limit (namely, infrared detection), and (3) frequent detector calibration (namely, infrared and flame ionization detection). The UV-persulfate/coulometric titration carbon analyzer was compared statistically with a high-temperature combustion system that is suitable for use with an ASTM method on the basis of (1) the accuracy and precision of recovery of total dissolved carbon (TDC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for nitrogen heterocycles, which were of primary interest because of their preponderance in oil shale process waters and their reported resistance to certain oxidation methods, and (2) the precision of TDC and DOC determinations for nine oil shale process wastewaters. Several qualitative considerations are discussed for both analyzers, including ease of operation, instrument downtime, and maintenance costs. 35 references, 7 figures, 5 tables.

  20. USAF shale oil program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The test and evaluation program on shale derived fuel being conducted by the Air Force is intended to accomplish the minimum amount of testing necessary to assure both the safe use of shale oil derived turbine fuels in operational USAF aircraft and its compatibility with USAF handling systems. This program, which was designed to take advantage of existing R&D testing programs, began in 1981. However, due to a problem in acquiring the necessary fuel, the testing program was suspended until July 1983 when an additional sample of shale derived fuel was received. Tentatively, the Air Force is planning to make three relatively minor revisions to the procurement specifications requirements for the production shale derived fuel. These are: (1) Aromatic Contest (min) - 9% (by volume); (2) Nitrogen (max - 20 ppm by weight); and (3) Antioxidants - 9.1 g/100 gal (U.S.)

  1. Mathematical modelling of anisotropy of illite-rich shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chesnokov, E.M.; Tiwary, D.K.; Bayuk, I.O.; Sparkman, M.A.; Brown, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of illite-rich shale anisotropy to account for the alignment of clays and gas- or brine-filled cracks is presented via mathematical modelling. Such estimation requires analysis to interpret the dominance of one effect over another. This knowledge can help to evaluate the permeability in the unconventional reservoir, stress orientation, and the seal capacity for the conventional reservoir. Effective media modelling is used to predict the elastic properties of the illite-rich shale and to identify the dominant contributions to the shale anisotropy. We consider two principal reasons of the shale anisotropy: orientation of clay platelets and orientation of fluid-filled cracks. In reality, both of these two factors affect the shale anisotropy. The goal of this study is, first, to separately analyse the effect of these two factors to reveal the specific features in P- and S-wave velocity behaviour typical of each of the factors, and, then, consider a combined effect of the factors when the cracks are horizontally or vertically aligned. To do this, we construct four models of shale. The behaviour of P- and S-wave velocities is analysed when gas- and water-filled cracks embedded in a host matrix are randomly oriented, or horizontally or vertically aligned. The host matrix can be either isotropic or anisotropic (of VTI symmetry). In such a modelling, we use published data on mineralogy and clay platelet alignment along with other micromechanical measurements. In the model, where the host matrix is isotropic, the presence of a singularity point (when the difference VS1 - VS2 changes its sign) in shear wave velocities is an indicator of brine-filled aligned cracks. In the model with the VTI host matrix and horizontally aligned cracks filled with gas, an increase in their volume concentration leads to that the azimuth at which the singularity is observed moves toward the symmetry axis. In this case, if the clay content is small (around 20 per cent), the

  2. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  3. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  4. Cr(VI)/Cr(III) and As(V)/As(III) ratio assessments in Jordanian spent oil shale produced by aerobic combustion and Anaerobic Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    El-Hasan, Tayel; Szczerba, Wojciech; Buzanich, Günter; Radtke, Martin; Riesemeier, Heinrich; Kersten, Michael

    2011-11-15

    With the increase in the awareness of the public in the environmental impact of oil shale utilization, it is of interest to reveal the mobility of potentially toxic trace elements in spent oil shale. Therefore, the Cr and As oxidation state in a representative Jordanian oil shale sample from the El-Lajjoun area were investigated upon different lab-scale furnace treatments. The anaerobic pyrolysis was performed in a retort flushed by nitrogen gas at temperatures in between 600 and 800 °C (pyrolytic oil shale, POS). The aerobic combustion was simply performed in porcelain cups heated in a muffle furnace for 4 h at temperatures in between 700 and 1000 °C (burned oil shale, BOS). The high loss-on-ignition in the BOS samples of up to 370 g kg(-1) results from both calcium carbonate and organic carbon degradation. The LOI leads to enrichment in the Cr concentrations from 480 mg kg(-1) in the original oil shale up to 675 mg kg(-1) in the ≥ 850 °C BOS samples. Arsenic concentrations were not much elevated beyond that in the average shale standard (13 mg kg(-1)). Synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis revealed that within the original oil shale the oxidation states of Cr and As were lower than after its aerobic combustion. Cr(VI) increased from 0% in the untreated or pyrolyzed oil shale up to 60% in the BOS ash combusted at 850 °C, while As(V) increased from 64% in the original oil shale up to 100% in the BOS ash at 700 °C. No Cr was released from original oil shale and POS products by the European compliance leaching test CEN/TC 292 EN 12457-1 (1:2 solid/water ratio, 24 h shaking), whereas leachates from BOS samples showed Cr release in the order of one mmol L(-1). The leachable Cr content is dominated by chromate as revealed by catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetry (CAdSV) which could cause harmful contamination of surface and groundwater in the semiarid environment of Jordan. PMID:21970732

  5. Water resources and potential hydrologic effects of oil-shale development in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Normal annual precipitation varies with altitude from less than 8 inches at altitudes below 5,000 feet to more than 20 inches where altitudes exceed 9,000 feet. In areas where precipitation is less than 10 inches, streams are ephemeral. Mean annual runoff is about 28,000 acre-feet and varies from less than 0.1 to 1.6 inches. Runoff varies yearly and seasonally, and potentially evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. The White and Green Rivers convey an average flow of 4.3 million acre-feet per year from an outside drainage of 34,000 squqre miles, more than 150 times the flow originating in the area. Total recoverable groundwater in storage is about 18 million acre-feet. Yields of individual wells and interference between wells cound limit withdrawals to about 15,000 acre-feet per year. A 400,000-barrel-per-day oil-shale industry would require a water supply of 70,000 acre-feet per year. Other sources of water supply discussed are diversion from the White River, a proposed reservoir on the White River, diversion from the White River combined with proposed off-stream storage, diversion from the Green River, and conjunctive use of ground and surface water. Leachate water from retorted-shale piles has large concentrations of sodium and sulfates, and retort waters contain much organic carbon and nutrients. Without proper disposal of these water, the natural waters of the area could be contaminated and the salinity of downstream waters in the Colorado River Basin could be increased. (USGS)

  6. ALKALINE AND STRETFORD SCRUBBING TESTS FOR H2S REMOVAL FROM IN-SITU OIL RETORT OFFGAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of two mobile pilot-plant scrubbers (one alkaline, the other Stretford) for removing reduced sulfur compounds from the offgas of an in-situ retort at Geokinetics. The alkaline scrubber had a tray tower and a venturi contactor used alterna...

  7. Mixed metal hydroxide mud improves drilling in unstable shales

    SciTech Connect

    Sparling, D.P. ); Williamson, D. )

    1991-06-10

    A mixed metal hydroxide (MMH) mud reduced some of the hole problems common to offset wells in the Arkoma basin. By specially engineering the MMH rheology, cuttings removal efficiency increased, and well bore problems were minimized. Wells drilled in the Arkoma basin frequently have experienced problems associated with hole instability: excessive reaming, stuck pipe, packing off, and difficulty in obtaining open hole logs. These problems often occur in the massive shale intervals of Atokan age. The causes of such problems are generally thought to be related to the dissolution of the reactive shales and clays in the Atoka interval, particularly along microfractures created by the tectonic stresses associated with overthrust environment. There exist insufficient data regarding the borehole stress states, primarily the minimum and maximum horizontal stresses. It is also possible that shear failure at the borehole wall is a result of the stress imbalances. In this area, wells are frequently air-drilled to 5,000-8,000 ft, resulting in significant borehole enlargement, which compounds the problems. Operators typically approach the problem in two ways. Oil muds are used worldwide to reduce the trouble time associated with shales. They have been particularly successful in the Arkoma basin for over 25 years.

  8. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  9. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auton, Lucy; MacMinn, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the injection of fluid at high pressure. This creates fractures in the rock, providing hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir and enabling gas to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We solve the model semi-analytically at steady state, and numerically in general. We find that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from purely elastic models.

  10. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is <1000 m thick. Ground water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  11. Task 38 - commercial mercury remediation demonstrations: Thermal retorting and physical separation/chemical leaching. Topical report, December 1, 1994--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, D.S.; Fraley, R.H.; Stepan, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Results are presented on the demonstration of two commercial technologies for the removal of mercury from soils found at natural gas metering sites. Technologies include a thermal retorting process and a combination of separation, leaching, and electrokinetic separation process.

  12. Metalliferous black shales and related ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I. ); Huyck, H.L.O. )

    1990-01-01

    This book comprises papers and extended abstracts dealing with a variety of topics including the geochemistry and organic geochemistry of several black shale formations: the nature of modern Black Sea sediments: metal- organic complexes in ore fluids; black shales related to disseminated gold deposits; vanadium concentrations and molybdenum-nickel deposits; and the problem of defining metalliferous black shales.

  13. Effects of strain rate and confining pressure on the deformation and failure of shale

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, J.M. ); Sheppard, M.C. ); Houwen, O.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Previous work on shale mechanical properties has focused on the slow deformation rates appropriate to wellbore deformation. Deformation of shale under a drill bit occurs at a very high rate, and the failure properties of the rock under these conditions are crucial in determining bit performance and in extracting lithology and pore-pressure information from drilling parameters. Triaxial tests were performed on two nonswelling shales under a wide range of strain rates and confining and pore pressures. At low strain rates, when fluid is relatively free to move within the shale, shale deformation and failure are governed by effective stress or pressure (i.e., total confining pressure minus pore pressure), as is the case for ordinary rock. If the pore pressure in the shale is high, increasing the strain rate beyond about 0.1%/sec causes large increases in the strength and ductility of the shale. Total pressure begins to influence the strength. At high stain rates, the influence of effective pressure decreases, except when it is very low (i.e., when pore pressure is very high); ductility then rises rapidly. This behavior is opposite that expected in ordinary rocks. This paper briefly discusses the reasons for these phenomena and their impact on wellbore and drilling problems.

  14. Adsorption of pyridine by combusted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1992-03-01

    Large volumes of solid waste material will be produced during the commercial production of shale oil. An alternative to the disposal of the solid waste product is utilization. One potential use of spent oil shale is for the stabilization of hazardous organic compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of pyridine, commonly found in oil shale process water, by spent oil shale. The adsorption of pyridine by fresh and weathered samples of combusted New Albany Shale and Green River Formation oil shale was examined. In general, pyridine adsorption can be classified as L-type and the isotherms modeled with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. For the combusted New Albany Shale, weathering reduced the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum and increased the amount of pyridine adsorbed at low solution concentrations. For the combusted Green River Formation oil shales, weathering increased the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum. The pyridine adsorption isotherms were similar to those produced for a combusted Australian oil shale. Although adsorption can be mathematically described by empirical models, the reduction in solution concentrations of pyridine was generally less than 10 mg/l at an initial concentration of 100 mg/l. Clearly, the observed reduction in solution pyridine concentrations does not sufficiently justify using spent oil shale as a stabilizing medium. However, data in the literature suggest that other organic compounds can be effectively removed from solution by spent oil shale and that adsorption is dependent on process conditions and organic compound type.

  15. Geochemistry of Graywackes and Shales.

    PubMed

    Weber, J N

    1960-03-01

    Sixty-nine graywackes and 33 shales were analyzed spectrographically for 14 minor elements to illustrate the variation of composition within a graywacke bed, between beds in one section, between sections, and between formations. Analyses of several fractions of a graywacke indicate what each contributes chemically to the rock. PMID:17807444

  16. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stead, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  17. On wettability of shale rocks.

    PubMed

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified. PMID:27156090

  18. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  19. Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

  20. Pore Pressure prediction in shale gas reservoirs using neural network and fuzzy logic with an application to Barnett Shale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Boudella, Amar

    2015-04-01

    The main goal of the proposed idea is to use the artificial intelligence such as the neural network and fuzzy logic to predict the pore pressure in shale gas reservoirs. Pore pressure is a very important parameter that will be used or estimation of effective stress. This last is used to resolve well-bore stability problems, failure plan identification from Mohr-Coulomb circle and sweet spots identification. Many models have been proposed to estimate the pore pressure from well-logs data; we can cite for example the equivalent depth model, the horizontal model for undercompaction called the Eaton's model…etc. All these models require a continuous measurement of the slowness of the primary wave, some thing that is not easy during well-logs data acquisition in shale gas formtions. Here, we suggest the use the fuzzy logic and the multilayer perceptron neural network to predict the pore pressure in two horizontal wells drilled in the lower Barnett shale formation. The first horizontal well is used for the training of the fuzzy set and the multilayer perecptron, the input is the natural gamma ray, the neutron porosity, the slowness of the compression and shear wave, however the desired output is the estimated pore pressure using Eaton's model. Data of another horizontal well are used for generalization. Obtained results clearly show the power of the fuzzy logic system than the multilayer perceptron neural network machine to predict the pore pressure in shale gas reservoirs. Keywords: artificial intelligence, fuzzy logic, pore pressure, multilayer perecptron, Barnett shale.

  1. Shale oil value enhancement research: Separation characterization of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products form shale oil. Phase-I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. Another objective is to conduct preliminary process modeling and economic analysis of selected process sequences and product slates, including an estimation of process, costs and profitability. The end objective of Phase-I is to propose technically and economically attractive separations and conversion processes for small-scale piloting in the optional Phase-II. Optional Phase-II activities include the pilot-scale test of the Shale Oil Native Products Extraction (SO-NPX) technology and to produce specification products. Specific objectives are to develop the engineering data on separations processing, particularly those in which mixtures behave non-ideally, and to develop the conversion processes for finishing the separations concentrates into specification products.The desired process scenarios will be developed and economic analysis will be performed on the process scenarios. As a result of the process simulation and economic analysis tasks, a product manufacture and test marketing program shall be recommended for the optional Phase-III. Optional Phase-III activities are to manufacture specification products and to test market those products in order to ensure market acceptability. The activities involve the assembling of the technical, market and economic data needed for venture evaluation. The end objective is to develop the private sector interest to carry this technology forward toward commercialization.

  2. Geomechanical and anisotropic acoustic properties of Lower Jurassic Posidonia shales from Whitby (UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhubayev, Alimzhan; Houben, Maartje; Smeulders, David; Barnhoorn, Auke

    2014-05-01

    The Posidonia Shale Formation (PSF) is one of the possible resource shales for unconventional gas in Northern Europe and currently is of great interest to hydrocarbon exploration and production. Due to low permeability of shales, economically viable production requires hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir. The design of hydrofractures requires an estimate of stress state within the reservoir and geomechanical properties such as Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Shales are often highly anisotropic and the models which neglect shale anisotropy may fail to predict the behaviour of hydrofractures. Seismic attenuation anisotropy, on the other hand, can play a key role in quantitative rock characterization. Where the attenuation anisotropy can potentially be linked to anisotropic permeability of shales, its fluid/gas saturation and preferred development of anisotropic fracture orientations. In this research, by utilizing the so-called Thomsen's notations, the elastic anisotropy of our (fractured and unfractured) shales has been investigated using a pulse transmission technique in the ultrasonic frequency range (0.3-1 MHz). Assuming transverse isotropy of the shales, and taking the axis x3 as the axis of rotational symmetry, directional Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios were obtained. The Young's modulus measured parallel to bedding (E1) is found to be larger than the Young's modulus measured orthogonal to bedding (E3). In case of the Poisson's ratios, we found that ν31 is larger than ν12, where νijrelates elastic strain in xj direction to stress applied in xi direction. Finally, attenuation anisotropy in dry and layer-parallel fractured Posidonia shale samples has been studied in the same frequency range. The attenuation of compressional (QP-1) and shear (QS-1) waves increases substantially with a macro (or wavelength) fracture introduction, especially for P and S waves propagating orthogonal to the bedding. In non-fractured and fractured dry shales, QP-1 is

  3. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  4. Time-dependent deformation of gas shales - role of rock framework versus reservoir fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hol, Sander; Zoback, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing operations are generally performed to achieve a fast, drastic increase of permeability and production rates. Although modeling of the underlying short-term mechanical response has proven successful via conventional geomechanical approaches, predicting long-term behavior is still challenging as the formation interacts physically and chemically with the fluids present in-situ. Recent experimental work has shown that shale samples subjected to a change in effective stress deform in a time-dependent manner ("creep"). Although the magnitude and nature of this behavior is strongly related to the composition and texture of the sample, also the choice of fluid used in the experiments affects the total strain response - strongly adsorbing fluids result in more, recoverable creep. The processes underlying time-dependent deformation of shales under in-situ stresses, and the long-term impact on reservoir performance, are at present poorly understood. In this contribution, we report triaxial mechanical tests, and theoretical/thermodynamic modeling work with the aim to identify and describe the main mechanisms that control time-dependent deformation of gas shales. In particular, we focus on the role of the shale solid framework versus the type and pressure of the present pore fluid. Our experiments were mainly performed on Eagle Ford Shale samples. The samples were subjected to cycles of loading and unloading, first in the dry state, and then again after equilibrating them with (adsorbing) CO2 and (non-adsorbing) He at fluid pressures of 4 MPa. Stresses were chosen close to those persisting under in-situ conditions. The results of our tests demonstrate that likely two main types of deformation mechanisms operate that relate to a) the presence of microfractures as a dominating feature in the solid framework of the shale, and b) the adsorbing potential of fluids present in the nanoscale voids of the shale. To explain the role of adsorption in the observed

  5. Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

  6. Developments in oil shale in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Even though China shale gas and shale oil exploration is still in an early stage, limited data are already available. We are pleased to have selected eight high-quality papers from fifteen submitted manuscripts for this timely section on the topic of China shale gas and shale oil plays. These selected papers discuss various subject areas including regional geology, resource potentials, integrated and multidisciplinary characterization of China shale reservoirs (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrophysics) China shale property measurement using new techniques, case studies for marine, lacustrine, and transitional shale deposits in China, and hydraulic fracturing. One paper summarizes the regional geology and different tectonic and depositional settings of the major prospective shale oil and gas plays in China. Four papers concentrate on the geology, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, lithologic heterogeneity, and sweet spot identification in the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, which is currently the primary focus of shale gas exploration in China. One paper discusses the Ordovician Salgan Shale in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, and two papers focus on the reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing of Triassic lacustrine shale in the Ordos Basin in northern China. Each paper discusses a specific area.

  8. Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

  9. Developing the Geokinetics/Department of Energy horizontal in situ retorting process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lekas, M.A.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under a cooperative agreement between Geokinetics Inc., and the US Department of Energy, spanning on eight year period. A large body of experimental data was generated which has been previously reported in a series of published and unpublished reports, as indicated in Chapter VII. The report summarizes research work performed from April of 1975 to August 15, 1985, but emphasizes data generated during the final three years of the project, when five large retorts were tested. The report draws conclusions based upon the total program, including work performed by Geokinetics prior to entering into the Cooperative Agreement, and presents the initial parameters useful for scaleup and design of a commercial scale operation, including data useful for assessing the environmental impacts and criteria for mitigation of such impacts. Specific details concerning the various aspects of the program may be obtained from the many previous reports that have been generated from the date of project initiation. A list of these reports is presented in Chapter VII. 28 refs., 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  11. Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-09-26

    Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

  12. Flow properties of Utah shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1981-12-01

    In a concentric cylinder viscometer, Utah shale oils have different characteristics, both at equilibrium flow and during start-up from rest, depending on whether the wax has crystallized as needles or spherulites. Compared with waxy crude oils, which are thixotropic, shale oil has the added rheological property of being antithixotropic. 7 refs.

  13. Gas composition shifts in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Schettler, P.D.; Parmely, C.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of the gas composition of Devonian shale wells indicates that the composition of produced gas shifts during the production history of the well. Possible mechanisms to explain this behavior are examined in light of field and laboratory data. Application of diffusion theory is made to explain adsorption-like behavior exhibited by some shales.

  14. Cleanouts boost Devonian shale gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Cleaning shale debris from the well bores is an effective way to boost flow rates from old open hole Devonian shale gas wells, research on six West Virginia wells begun in 1985 has shown. Officials involved with the study say the Appalachian basin could see 20 year recoverable gas reserves hiked by 315 bcf if the process is used on a wide scale.

  15. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  16. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  17. Thermomechanical properties of selected shales

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Vogt, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The experimental work discussed in this report is part of an ongoing program concerning evaluation of sedimentary and other rock types as potential hosts for a geologic repository. The objectives are the development of tools and techniques for repository characterization and performance assessment in a diversity of geohydrologic settings. This phase of the program is a laboratory study that investigates fundamental thermomechanical properties of several different shales. Laboratory experiments are intrinsically related to numerical modeling and in situ field experiments, which together will be used for performance assessment.

  18. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  19. Means and method for producing hydrocarbons from an earth formation during the RF retorting of a hydrocarbon stratum

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, K.D.

    1987-01-27

    A method is described for obtaining hydrocarbon liquid from a hydrocarbon strata of an earth formation traversed by a borehole, the hydrocarbon strata being subjected to RF electromagnetic energy retorting, comprising the steps of: (a) forming metal tubing so as to create a tubing coil having a predetermined electrical inductance, (b) connecting straight metal tubing with the metal tubing of step (a) so that the tubing of steps (a) and (b) form a production string, and (c) pumping the hydrocarbon liquid from the borehole through the production string to the surface of the earth formation.

  20. A model for hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, W.Z.; Braddock, W.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents closed-form solutions for consolidation of transversely isotropic porous media under hydrostatic stress. The solutions are applied to model the time variation of pore pressure, volume strain and strains parallel and normal to bedding, and to obtain coefficients of consolidation and permeability, as well as other properties, and the bulk modulus resulting from hydrostatic consolidation of Pierre shale. It is found that the coefficients consolidation and permeability decrease and the bulk moduli increase with increasing confining pressure, reflecting the closure of voids in the rock. ?? 1991.

  1. The Multi-Porosity Multi-Permeability and Electrokinetic Natures of Shales and Their Effects in Hydraulic Fracturing of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C.; Hoang, S. K.; Tran, M. H.; Abousleiman, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging studies of unconventional shale reservoir rocks have recently revealed the multi-porosity multi-permeability nature of these intricate formations. In particular, the porosity spectrum of shale reservoir rocks often comprises of the nano-porosity in the organic matters, the inter-particle micro-porosity, and the macroscopic porosity of the natural fracture network. Shale is also well-known for its chemically active behaviors, especially shrinking and swelling when exposed to aqueous solutions, as the results of pore fluid exchange with external environment due to the difference in electro-chemical potentials. In this work, the effects of natural fractures and electrokinetic nature of shale on the formation responses during hydraulic fracturing are examined using the dual-poro-chemo-electro-elasticity approach which is a generalization of the classical Biot's poroelastic formulation. The analyses show that the presence of natural fractures can substantially increase the leak-off rate of fracturing fluid into the formation and create a larger region of high pore pressure near the fracture face as shown in Fig.1a. Due to the additional fluid invasion, the naturally fractured shale swells up more and the fracture aperture closes faster compared to an intrinsically low permeability non-fractured shale formation as shown in Fig.1b. Since naturally fractured zones are commonly targeted as pay zones, it is important to account for the faster fracture closing rate in fractured shales in hydraulic fracturing design. Our results also show that the presence of negative fixed charges on the surface of clay minerals creates an osmotic pressure at the interface of the shale and the external fluid as shown in Fig.1c. This additional Donnan-induced pore pressure can result in significant tensile effective stresses and tensile damage in the shale as shown in Fig.1d. The induced tensile damage can exacerbate the problem of proppant embedment resulting in more fracture closure

  2. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may consider...

  3. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  4. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  5. Microstructure and rheology of limestone-shale fault rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, R. K.; Newman, J.; Wojtal, S. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Copper Creek (CC) thrust fault in the southern Appalachians places Cambrian over Middle Ordovician sedimentary strata; restored cross sections indicate these strata were originally separated by 15-20 km and deformation along the CC occurred at temperatures of 100-180 C. Along the hangingwall-footwall contact is a ~2 cm thick shear zone composed of calcite and shale. Microstructures in the shear zone suggest that calcite, not shale, controlled the rheology of the shear zone rocks. Plasticity-induced fracturing in calcite resulted in ultrafine-grained (<1.0 µm) fault rocks that deformed by grain boundary sliding accommodated primarily by diffusion creep, suggesting low flow stresses. We used optical and electron microscopy to investigate samples from a transect across the shear zone and into the shale and micrite of the footwall host rocks. 1 cm below the base of the shear zone, sedimentary lamination in shale is cut by minor faults, stylolites, and 10-50 µm thick veins oriented parallel and perpendicular to the fault and filled by calcite crystals 5-25 µm in diameter. Within the non-pervasively deformed shale, fault-parallel calcite veins cross-cut and displace fault-perpendicular veins. At vein intersections, calcite grain size is reduced to ~0.3 µm, and microstructures include inter- and intragranular fractures, four-grain junctions, and interpenetrating grain boundaries. Porosity rises to 6% from < 1% in coarse (25 µm grain size) areas of calcite veins. In coarse calcite grains, trails of voids follow twin boundaries, and voids occur at many twin-twin and twin-grain boundary intersections. At the shear zone/footwall contact, a 350 µm thick calcite band is composed of coarse- and ultrafine-grained layers. Ultrafine-grained (~0.34 µm) layers contain microstructures similar to those at vein intersections in the footwall, and display no lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of grains. Grain boundary alignments across many calcite grains occur at a low angle

  6. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Hay, W. W.; de Boer, P. L.

    2011-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic, the interpretation of the palaeogeographical distribution of black shales is still dominated by an oversimplistic set of three uniformitarian depositional models that do not capture the complexity and dynamics of environments of black shale accumulation. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open) ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are in fact a uniformitarian simplification of the variety of depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of black shales, their position in the basin infill sequence and their nature (e.g. type of organic matter, lithology) depend on basin evolution because the latter controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited.

  7. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of the Fracturing Behavior of Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, C.; Li, W.; Sageman, B. B.; Cusatis, G.

    2014-12-01

    Adequate knowledge and prediction of mechanical properties of shale are pivotal to the design of hydraulic fractures. The urgent technical challenge of such an endeavor is how to translate the highly heterogeneous nature of shale into a predictive model of the mechanical properties. Our group addressed this challenge by adopting a combined experimental and numerical approach to investigate fracture processes and failure mechanisms of shale.Lattice Discrete Particle Model (LDPM), having shown superior capabilities in predicting qualitative and quantitative behavior of concrete and concrete-like materials, as shown in Fig. 1, has been adopted to simulate mesoscale behavior of shale. The polyhedral cell system defining the geometric attributes of the rock microstructure is built via a 3D tessellation procedure based on X-ray microtomography results of microstructure and grain size distribution of shale specimens. The adopted tessellation procedure makes use of well-established packing algorithms for no-contact spherical particle placement and non-overlapping volume tessellation. The polyhedral particles interact through triangular facets where appropriate measure of stresses and strains are defined. Especially, LDPM is extended to simulate transversely isotropic materials by using orientation-dependent and strain-dependent strength limits coupled with orientation-dependent normal and shear stiffnesses on each facet. Appropriate interface constitutive equations are formulated to simulate all phenomena occurring at a scale that is smaller than the resolution of LDPM system, including microscopic fracture, frictional contact, particle breakage, pore collapse, and distributed damage. Bedding planes and natural joints are characterized by greatly decreased strength limits for facets within that region. To calibrate/validate the LDPM model, microscopic and mesoscopic experiments, including Brazilian tests, uniaxial compression tests, and three point-bending tests, are

  8. Joints and decollement zones in Middle Devonian shales. Evidence for multiple deformation events in the central Appalachian Plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.A. )

    1994-04-01

    Fractures in oriented Middle Devonian shale cores from the Appalachian Plateau province provide evidence for multiple deformation events associated with the Alleghanian orogeny, post-orogenic stress relaxation, and neotectonic ( ) stresses. The orientation, distribution, and mineral paragenesis of these fractures are used to establish the timing, regional extent, and stress orientation of each deformation event. During the Alleghanian orogeny, the Middle Devonian shale section was a regional decollement zone in the central Appalachian Plateau province. The decollement extends from the Appalachian Structural Front to northwestern Pennsylvania and east-central Ohio. It is defined by abundant joints, veins, and slick-ensided fractures localized within multiple zones of organic-rich brown and black shale. These zones are distributed over tens to hundreds of meters of the Middle Devonian shale section. The shale cores record a continuous counterclockwise rotation of the maximum compressive stress direction in the west-central Appalachians during the Alleghanian orogeny. Three stages are recognized. 68 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Short and long-term strength of shale rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, Erik; Dresen, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Stimulation of oil and gas bearing shales commonly utilizes advanced hydraulic fracturing techniques to enhance the production rate. Successful hydrofrac campaigns depend on the geomechanical properties of the reservoir. For example, the short term strength and brittleness may control the hydraulic breakdown pressure and borehole stability. The long term creep properties may determine the closure rate of hydraulically induced fractures, for example by proppant embedment. We performed a series of mechanical tests on shales with different mineral content, porosity and maturity. Cylindrical samples of 1-5 cm in diameter and 2-10 cm in length were deformed at confining pressures of 0.1 - 400 MPa and temperatures of 25°-400°C in constant strain rate and constant stress mode in order to evaluate the influence of loading conditions and composition on their strength and ductility. Short-term constant strain rate tests show that, at fixed loading direction with respect to bedding orientation, the peak strength and Young's modulus vary with mineral content, humidity and porosity, but depend also on applied pressure, temperature and strain rate. The (porosity-corrected) variation of peak strength and Young's modulus with composition can be roughly estimated from the mechanical behavior of all components at given pressure-temperature conditions and their volumetric proportion. Samples deforming in the brittle-semibrittle regime may be characterized by empirical brittleness indices based on their deformation behavior, Young's modulus, or bulk composition. These indices are correlated at low pressure-temperature conditions (corresponding to < about 4 km depth). First long-term deformation experiments at constant load show transient viscoplastic creep behavior. The associated strain rates increase with increasing differential stress, increasing temperature and decreasing pressure, accompanied by slight porosity reduction. Therefore, estimates of fracture healing rates by

  10. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2010-09-07

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  11. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2009-03-10

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  12. The effect of cement kiln dust on the collapse potential of compacted shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.A.; Azad, S.; Dhar, B.

    1997-12-31

    The effects of wetting-induced collapse on compacted soil are well documented in the literature. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the potential of cement kiln dust, a byproduct of Portland Cement manufacturing, to reduce the collapse settlement of compacted shale caused by inundation with water. One-dimensional consolidation tests were conducted on treated and untreated shales using two different testing procedures to evaluate the Collapse Potential over a broad range of vertical stress levels. Tests were conducted on three different shales and test samples were prepared using three different molding moisture contents--dry of, at, and wet of optimum moisture content. Standard Proctor compaction effort was utilized. Results of odometer tests indicate that kiln dust is a potentially useful additive for reducing wetting-induced collapse settlements and for reducing overall compressibility.

  13. Complex electrical properties of shale as a function of frequency and water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adisoemarta, Paulus Suryono

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the change in complex electrical permittivity of shale as a function of water content. An experimental research program has been initiated to investigate the electrical properties of swelling shales, shales that have been exposed to water and are therefore expanding, across a wide frequency range, 5 Hz to 1.3 GHz. This range spans the spectrum of the commonly used down-hole logging measurements from the deep laterologs to the microwave dielectric tools. Two distinct measurement techniques have been used to span the range: four-electrode with balanced bridge for the low frequencies, and open-ended coaxial probe with network analyzer at the high end. The probe technique is simple to use, potentially enabling field measurements of complex permittivity to be taken, although some accuracy is sacrificed. The effects of swelling are most pronounced at the lowest frequencies. This investigation discovered a phenomenon of shale: it will generate a direct electrical current under stress that has a potential for a wellbore diagnostic tool. Also the best fluid for shale preservation was found to be Isopar M TM, a mineral oil saturated with deionized water.

  14. Experimental Determination of the Fracture Toughness and Brittleness of the Mancos Shale, Utah.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Mike; Meredith, Phil; Crawford, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The hydraulic fracturing of Gas-Shales has become a topic of interest since the US Shale Gas Revolution, and is increasingly being investigated across Europe. A significant issue during hydraulic fracturing is the risk of fractures propagating further than desired into aquifers or faults. This occured at Preese Hall, UK in April and May 2011 when hydraulic fractures propagated into an adjacent fault causing 2.3ML and 1.7ML earthquakes [1]. A rigorous understanding of how hydraulic fractures propagate under in-situ conditions is therefore important for treatment design, both to maximise gas accessed, and to minimise risks due to fracture overextension. Fractures will always propagate along the path of least resistance, but the direction and extent of this path is a complex relationship between the in-situ stress-field, the anisotropic mechanical properties of the rock, and the pore and fracturing pressures [2]. It is possible to estimate the anisotropic in-situ stress field using an isolated-section hydraulic fracture test, and the pore-pressure using well logs. However, the anisotropic mechanical properties of gas-shales remain poorly constrained, with a wide range of reported values. In particular, there is an extreme paucity of published data on the Fracture Toughness of soft sediments such as shales. Mode-I Fracture Toughness is a measure of a material's resistance to dynamic tensile fracture propagation. Defects such as pre-existing microcracks and pores in a material can induce high local stress concentrations, causing fracture propagation and material failure under substantially lower stress than its bulk strength. The mode-I stress intensity factor, KI, quantifies the concentration of stress at the crack tip. For linear elastic materials the Fracture Toughness is defined by the critical value of this stress intensity factor; KIc, beyond which rapid catastrophic crack growth occurs. However, rocks such as shales are relatively ductile and display significant

  15. Ordovician faunas of Burgess Shale type.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, Peter; Orr, Patrick J; Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Vinther, Jakob; Lefebvre, Bertrand; el Hariri, Khadija; Briggs, Derek E G

    2010-05-13

    The renowned soft-bodied faunas of the Cambrian period, which include the Burgess Shale, disappear from the fossil record in the late Middle Cambrian, after which the Palaeozoic fauna dominates. The disappearance of faunas of Burgess Shale type curtails the stratigraphic record of a number of iconic Cambrian taxa. One possible explanation for this loss is a major extinction, but more probably it reflects the absence of preservation of similar soft-bodied faunas in later periods. Here we report the discovery of numerous diverse soft-bodied assemblages in the Lower and Upper Fezouata Formations (Lower Ordovician) of Morocco, which include a range of remarkable stem-group morphologies normally considered characteristic of the Cambrian. It is clear that biotas of Burgess Shale type persisted after the Cambrian and are preserved where suitable facies occur. The Fezouata biota provides a link between the Burgess Shale communities and the early stages of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. PMID:20463737

  16. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  17. Coal-shale interface detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  18. Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r{sup 2}=0.95) and gas content (r{sup 2}=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

  19. Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r[sup 2]=0.95) and gas content (r[sup 2]=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

  20. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

  1. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  2. Commercialization of oil shale with the Petrosix process

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, A.R.D.; Ivo, S.C.; Piper, E.M.

    1985-02-01

    Brazil, because of domestic crude oil shortage, took an interest in oil shale between 1940 and 1950. Petrobras, created in 1954, included in its charter the responsibility to develop a modern oil shale industry. An outgrowth has been the Petrosix process incorporated in a commercial unit in the State of Parana that has operated successfully more than 65,000 hours. Because of the maturity of the Petrosix process in this plant and the similarity of the Brazilian Irati oil shale to many other shales, interest has developed to apply the Petrosix process to producing shale oil and high BTU gas from these oil shales. A comparison of the characteristics has been developed between Irati and other oil shales. An evaluation of a commercial plant design has been completed for Irati, Kentucky, and Indiana oil shale projects. The technological and commercial aspects of producing shale oil using the Petrosix technology are discussed.

  3. Stress.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself. PMID:18846841

  4. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  5. Numerical investigation of hydraulic fracture network propagation in naturally fractured shale formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yushi; Zhang, Shicheng; Ma, Xinfang; Zhou, Tong; Zeng, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Hydraulic fracture network (HFN) propagation in naturally fractured shale formations is investigated numerically using a 3D complex fracturing model based on the discrete element method. To account for the plastic deformation behavior of shales, the Drucker-Prager plasticity model is incorporated into the fracturing model. Parametric studies are then conducted for different Young's moduli, horizontal differential stresses, natural fracture (NF) properties, injection rates, and number and spacing of perforation clusters. Numerical results show that horizontal differential stress primarily determines the generation of a complex HFN. The plastic deformation of shale can reduce the stimulated reservoir volume; this is more obvious with Young's modulus of less than 20 GPa. In addition, a higher injection rate could largely increase the fracture complexity index (FCI). Moreover, increasing perforation cluster numbers per fracturing stage is beneficial for increasing the FCI, but it also increases the potential merging of neighboring fractures, which may lead to non-uniform development of HFN in far-wellbore regions. To achieve uniform development of HFN within a fracturing stage, the distribution of NFs should be fully considered. The results presented here may provide improved understanding of HFN generation and are favorable for optimizing fracturing treatment designs for shale formations.

  6. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  7. Understanding liquids production from shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Palash

    The growth of production from liquid shale plays has been phenomenal. However, the recoveries are low of the order of 10% and more efficient methods of producing liquids are necessary. This research is aimed at understanding production performances involving complex interaction between phase behavior and flow in unconventional reservoirs like shales. A new rapid semianalytical forecast tool for transient state linear flow in ultralow permeability (100 nD to 5000 nD) fractured reservoir was developed. The tool is useful for well inflow performance, condensate drop out and material balance calculations of condensate production in unconventional reservoirs. Effects of individual parameters such as reservoir properties (matrix permeability, heterogeneity, rock compressibility and reservoir pressure) on production oil were studied using reservoir simulations with an appropriate number of grid blocks. The matrix permeability, initial reservoir pressure, fracture spacing were the most influencing factors in recoveries from gas-condensate as well as from oil reservoirs. Operating the well at higher flowing bottom hole pressure (FBHP) is preferable for low permeability (100 nD) reservoir and low FBHP for higher permeability (1000 nD) reservoir to recover more liquid. Production data, including Gas Oil Ratios (GOR) are valuable in assessing reservoir performance. A single characteristic factor affecting the produced gas oil ratio was found to be (1--Rsw/Rsb) (1--P wf/Pb) /(1-Pwf/Pi) that predicts deviation of gas oil ratio from its initial value. Effect of the interaction of parameters on recovery was examined using experimental design and response surface methodology. This study resulted in surrogate reservoir models for a quick assessment of production performance from ultralow permeability black oil and condensate reservoirs. Risks of production performance and investment were quantified by preparing the probability density functions (PDF) of production outcomes and the

  8. Processing needs and methodology for wastewaters from the conversion of coal, oil shale, and biomass to synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    The workshop identifies needs to be met by processing technology for wastewaters, and evaluates the suitability, approximate costs, and problems associated with current technology. Participation was confined to DOE Environmental Control Technology contractors to pull together and integrate past wastewater-related activities, to assess the status of synfuel wastewater treatability and process options, and to abet technology transfer. Particular attention was paid to probable or possible environmental restrictions which cannot be economically met by present technology. Primary emphasis was focussed upon process-condensate waters from coal-conversion and shale-retorting processes. Due to limited data base and time, the workshop did not deal with transients, upsets, trade-offs and system optimization, or with solids disposal. The report is divided into sections that, respectively, survey the water usage and effluent situation (II); identify the probable and possible water-treatment goals anticipated at the time when large-scale plants will be constructed (III); assess the capabilities, costs and shortcomings of present technology (IV); explore particularly severe environmental-control problems (V); give overall conclusions from the Workshop and recommendations for future research and study (VI); and, finally, present Status Reports of current work from participants in the Workshop (VII).

  9. The Value of Water in Extraction of Natural Gas from the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimsaite, R.; Abdalla, C.; Collins, A.

    2013-12-01

    .60/1000 gallons in West Virginia and Pennsylvania, respectively. The additional water sales uniformly increased revenues and the financial status of water suppliers in some cases by substantial amounts. However, due to the temporary and uncertain demand for water from gas companies, many suppliers were cautious about reliance on these revenues. It must be stressed that the price charged reflects only a minimum value, or willingness to pay, by the shale gas companies for water. The full value of water for Marcellus shale gas production would include the costs of transportation, storage, and other activities to bring the water to the well drilling sites. Transportation costs are estimated in this research. The results are interpreted in light of other components of water value for shale gas production and compared to the estimated values of water in other industrial uses and in selected water consuming sectors.

  10. BTEX biodegradation in fractured shale

    SciTech Connect

    O`Cleirigh, D.; Coryea, H.; Christopher, M.; Vaughn, C.

    1997-12-31

    A petroleum hydrocarbon groundwater plume was identified at a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility in Oklahoma. The affected area had an average BTEX concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Previous aquifer tests indicated preferential groundwater flow paths resulting from natural fractures present in the aquifer formation (primarily shale). A pneumatic fracturing pilot study was performed to evaluate the technology`s effectiveness in creating a more isotropic aquifer. As part of the study, pre-fracture/post-fracture pump tests were performed. Pre-fracture and post-fracture graphs confirmed the study`s hypothesis that pneumatic fracturing would eliminate preferential flow paths and increase groundwater yield. Based on the successful pneumatic fracturing test, an area within the petroleum hydrocarbon plume was fractured and a pilot-scale biodegradation system was operated for four months. The remediation system provided groundwater circulation amended with nutrients and oxygen. Results of the study indicated a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations between the injection well and the observation wells. By Day 113, the benzene concentration (0.044 mg/L) at one of the observation wells was less than the desired state cleanup goal of 0.05 mg/L.

  11. Influence of Composition and Deformation Conditions on the Strength and Brittleness of Shale Rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybacki, E.; Reinicke, A.; Meier, T.; Makasi, M.; Dresen, G. H.

    2015-12-01

    Stimulation of shale gas reservoirs by hydraulic fracturing operations aims to increase the production rate by increasing the rock surface connected to the borehole. Prospective shales are often believed to display high strength and brittleness to decrease the breakdown pressure required to (re-) initiate a fracture as well as slow healing of natural and hydraulically induced fractures to increase the lifetime of the fracture network. Laboratory deformation tests were performed on several, mainly European black shales with different mineralogical composition, porosity and maturity at ambient and elevated pressures and temperatures. Mechanical properties such as compressive strength and elastic moduli strongly depend on shale composition, porosity, water content, structural anisotropy, and on pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions, but less on strain rate. We observed a transition from brittle to semibrittle deformation at high P-T conditions, in particular for high porosity shales. At given P-T conditions, the variation of compressive strength and Young's modulus with composition can be roughly estimated from the volumetric proportion of all components including organic matter and pores. We determined also brittleness index values based on pre-failure deformation behavior, Young's modulus and bulk composition. At low P-T conditions, where samples showed pronounced post-failure weakening, brittleness may be empirically estimated from bulk composition or Young's modulus. Similar to strength, at given P-T conditions, brittleness depends on the fraction of all components and not the amount of a specific component, e.g. clays, alone. Beside strength and brittleness, knowledge of the long term creep properties of shales is required to estimate in-situ stress anisotropy and the healing of (propped) hydraulic fractures.

  12. Shale Deformation Experiments Toward an Understanding of Elastic and Fracture Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanitpanyacharoen, J.; Miyagi, L. M.; Jugle, M.; Wang, Y.; Yu, T.

    2014-12-01

    The significance of shales as unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs has opened new research frontiers in geosciences. Among many of its unique physical properties, elastic anisotropy in shales has long been investigated by both experimental and computational approaches. Shales is highly anisotropic due to texture (crystallographic preferred orientation) of their constituent clay minerals. Moreover, texturing is known to cause fracture anisotropy, which can affect both fracture toughness and fracture orientations in metals, ceramics, and polyphase materials. However, the relationship between texture and fracture anisotropy in shale has not been explored. In this study we use the multi-anvil deformation tool (D-DIA) to deform shales with a range of clay and silt contents to failure while collecting x-ray diffraction and radiography images. Diffraction images are used to extract to texture and lattice strain evolution while radiography are used to measure macrostrain and determine failure. Since clay mineral have shear moduli in the range of 6-17 GPa, our stress resolution is in the range of 30 -100 MPa respectively, within the range of unconfined compressive strengths of shales. Our results show that the orientation of clay minerals become more prominent in all samples upon deforming the sample at 100 MPa. Recovered samples are investigated with SEM to document microstructural changes. A second deformation experiment will be coupled with ultrasonic and acoustic emissions measurements to make direct comparisons of elastic anisotropy and understand the role of fracture on anisotropy. Acoustic emissions allows us to locate damage initiation and determine fracture orientations in-situ. This information will be compared with texture data to determine fracture anisotropy in our samples.

  13. Double torsion fracture mechanics testing of shales under chemically reactive conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Callahan, O. A.; Holder, J. T.; Olson, J. E.; Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Fracture properties of shales is vital for applications such as shale and tight gas development, and seal performance of carbon storage reservoirs. We analyze the fracture behavior from samples of Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales using double-torsion (DT) load relaxation fracture tests. The DT test allows the determination of mode-I fracture toughness (KIC), subcritical crack growth index (SCI), and the stress-intensity factor vs crack velocity (K-V) curves. Samples are tested at ambient air and aqueous conditions with variable ionic concentrations of NaCl and CaCl2, and temperatures up to 70 to determine the effects of chemical/environmental conditions on fracture. Under ambient air condition, KIC determined from DT tests is 1.51±0.32, 0.85±0.25, 1.08±0.17 MPam1/2 for Marcellus, Woodford, and Mancos shales, respectively. Tests under water showed considerable change of KIC compared to ambient condition, with 10.6% increase for Marcellus, 36.5% decrease for Woodford, and 6.7% decrease for Mancos shales. SCI under ambient air condition is between 56 and 80 for the shales tested. The presence of water results in a significant reduction of the SCI from 70% to 85% compared to air condition. Tests under chemically reactive solutions are currently being performed with temperature control. K-V curves under ambient air conditions are linear with stable SCI throughout the load-relaxation period. However, tests conducted under water result in an initial cracking period with SCI values comparable to ambient air tests, which then gradually transition into stable but significantly lower SCI values of 10-20. The non-linear K-V curves reveal that crack propagation in shales is initially limited by the transport of chemical agents due to their low permeability. Only after the initial cracking do interactions at the crack tip lead to cracking controlled by faster stress corrosion reactions. The decrease of SCI in water indicates higher crack propagation velocity due to

  14. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    The relationships between oil shales, evaporites and sedimentary ore deposits can be classified in terms of stratigraphic and geochemical coherence. Oil shale and black shale deposition commonly follows continental red beds and is in turn followed by evaporite deposition. This transgressive-regressive sequence represents an orderly succession of depositional environments in space and time and results in stratigraphic coherence. The amount of organic carbon of a sediment depends on productivity and preservation, both of which are enhanced by saline environments. Work on Great Salt Lake. Utah, allows us to estimate that only 5% of TOC originally deposited is preserved. Inorganic carbonate production is similar to TOC production, but preservation is much higher. Oil shales and black shales commonly are enriched in heavy metals through scavenging by biogenic particles and complexation by organic matter. Ore deposits are formed from such rocks through secondary enrichment processes, establishing a geochemical coherence between oil shales and ore deposits. The Permian Kupferschiefer of N. Europe is used as an example to define a Kupferschiefer type (KST) deposit. Here oxygenated brines in contact with red beds become acidified through mineral precipitation and acquire metals by dissolving oxide coatings. Oxidation of the black shale leads to further acid production and metal acquisition and eventually to sulfide deposition along a reducing front. In order to form ore bodies, the stratigraphic coherence of the red bed-black shale-evaporite succession must be joined by the geochemical coherence of the ore body-evaporite-black shale association. The Cretaceous Cu-Zn deposits of Angola, the Zambian Copperbelt as well as the Creta, Oklahoma, deposits are other KST examples. In the Zambian Copperbelt, evaporites are indicated by the carbonate lenticles thought to be pseudomorphs after gypsum-anhydrite nodules. MVT deposits are also deposited by acid brines, but at more

  15. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  16. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  17. Proppant effects on maintaining fracture permeability in shale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraham, M. D.; Bauer, S. J.; Bolintineanu, D.; Rao, R. R.; Lechman, J. B.; Romero, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    A series of tests have been performed on manually fractured and propped shale. The shale used in this study contained 5-10% porosity, and 10-40% clay. Samples were fractured subparallel to bedding. Quartz sand (0.60-0.85 mm) was used as a proppant; proppant was manually placed on a fracture surface, resulting in a monolayer with random distribution. The specimens were repeatedly subjected to reservoir conditions, 20.7 MPa confining, 6.9 MPa differential stress, and temperature of 75 C. System permeability was measured during testing by flowing DI water through the specimen, flow rates were set to 0.002 ml/min, with the downstream vented to atmosphere. Upstream pressure varied to maintain the flow rate, and was approximately 1.4 MPa in the most recent (lowest permeability) test. Between test periods, specimens were removed from the test system and scanned with x-ray μCT. There is significant decrease in flow with subsequent testing due fracture closure. This is attributed to observations of clay swelling, proppant embedment, proppant fracture and shale wall sloughing. These lead to a decrease in effective fracture aperture. Flow induced particle transport clogs flow paths and impedes flow. Isolated grains tend to crush whereas continuous grains in proppant patches tend fracture with little displacement and tend towards embedment. Corresponding numerical simulations are underway to capture the change in crack flow due to these mechanisms. Images from the CT scans of the proppant filled crack are segmented and meshed. Then flow simulations are performed via the finite element method. Preliminary results are discussed. This work is a precursor to laboratory-scale shale fracture and proppant testing; cores will be hydraulically fractured and propped with appropriate proppant and fluid rheology. Proppant life and permeability reduction will be monitored and specimens will be scanned with μCT. Tests will be used to inform proppant flow models which seek to model

  18. Mechanical and petrophysical study of fractured shale materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnelye, A.; Schubnel, A.; David, C.; Henry, P.; Guglielmi, Y.; Gout, C.; Dick, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mechanical and physical properties of shales are of major importance for upper crustal fault hydro-mechanical behavior. In particular, relationships between applied stress, textural anisotropy and transport properties. These relations can be investigated in the laboratory and here, was used shales from Tournemire (southern France). Triaxial tests were performed in order to determine the elasto-plastic yield envelope on 3 sets of samples with 3various bedding orientations (0°, 45°, and 90°). For each set, experiments were carried out at increasing confining pressures (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80MPa). They were performed under nominally drained conditions, at strain rates ranging between 5x10-7 s-1 - 1x10-5 s-1up to failure. During each experiment, P and S wave elastic velocities were continuously measured, in order to monitor the evolution of elastic anisotropy. Results show that the orientation of principal stress relative to bedding plays an important role on the brittle strength. Minimum strength is observed for samples deformed at 45° to bedding. Strength anisotropy increases both with confining pressure and strain rate. We interpret this result as the cohesive strength (and fracture toughness) being strain rate dependent. Although brittle failure and stress drops were systematically observed, deformation remained aseismic. This confirms that shales are good lithological candidates for shallow aseismic creep and slow slip events. Brittle failure was preceded by the development of P wave anisotropy, due to both crack growth and mineral re-orientation. Anisotropy variations were largest for samples deformed perpendicular to bedding, at the onset of rupture. Anisotropy reversal was observed at the highest confining pressures. For samples deformed parallel to bedding, the P wave anisotropy development is weaker. For both of these orientations, Thomsens parameters were inverted from the elastic wave data in order to quantify the evolution of elastic anisotropy. We

  19. Methanogenic archaea in marcellus shale: a possible mechanism for enhanced gas recovery in unconventional shale resources.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Yael Tarlovsky; Kotcon, James; Mroz, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Marcellus Shale occurs at depths of 1.5-2.5 km (5000 to 8000 feet) where most geologists generally assume that thermogenic processes are the only source of natural gas. However, methanogens in produced fluids and isotopic signatures of biogenic methane in this deep shale have recently been discovered. This study explores whether those methanogens are indigenous to the shale or are introduced during drilling and hydraulic fracturing. DNA was extracted from Marcellus Shale core samples, preinjected fluids, and produced fluids and was analyzed using Miseq sequencing of 16s rRNA genes. Methanogens present in shale cores were similar to methanogens in produced fluids. No methanogens were detected in injected fluids, suggesting that this is an unlikely source and that they may be native to the shale itself. Bench-top methane production tests of shale core and produced fluids suggest that these organisms are alive and active under simulated reservoir conditions. Growth conditions designed to simulate the hydrofracture processes indicated somewhat increased methane production; however, fluids alone produced relatively little methane. Together, these results suggest that some biogenic methane may be produced in these wells and that hydrofracture fluids currently used to stimulate gas recovery could stimulate methanogens and their rate of producing methane. PMID:25924080

  20. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework.

    PubMed

    Konschnik, Katherine E; Boling, Mark K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have sparked a natural gas boom from shale formations in the United States. Regulators face a rapidly changing industry comprised of hundreds of players, operating tens of thousands of wells across 30 states. They are often challenged to respond by budget cuts, a brain drain to industry, regulations designed for conventional gas developments, insufficient information, and deeply polarized debates about hydraulic fracturing and its regulation. As a result, shale gas governance remains a halting patchwork of rules, undermining opportunities to effectively characterize and mitigate development risk. The situation is dynamic, with research and incremental regulatory advances underway. Into this mix, we offer the CO/RE framework--characterization of risk, optimization of mitigation strategies, regulation, and enforcement--to design tailored governance strategies. We then apply CO/RE to three types of shale gas risks, to illustrate its potential utility to regulators. PMID:24564674

  1. Shale Gas: Development Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, Mark D.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    The use of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technologies has enabled the production of immense quantities of natural gas, to date principally in North America but increasingly in other countries around the world. The global availability of this resource creates both opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed in a timely and effective manner. There seems little question that rapid shale gas development, coupled with fuel switching from coal to natural gas for power generation, can have beneficial effects on air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security in many countries. In this context, shale gas resources represent a critically important transition fuel on the path to a decarbonized energy future. For these benefits to be realized, however, it is imperative that shale gas resources be developed with effective environmental safeguards to reduce their impact on land use, water resources, air quality, and nearby communities.

  2. Method and apparatus for shale gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.H.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a method for the in situ recovery of natural gas from an undisturbed shale bed formation in a condition ready for transmission through a gas pipeline to end users and substantially without the formation of liquid products. It comprises: forming a heater assembly having an elongated substantially cylindrical outer housing; providing the elongated heater assembly with an interior containing a fuel gas burner there within joined to an upwardly extending fuel gas supply line and including in the interior an upwardly extending product gas line disposed adjacent an upwardly extending combustion air line; drilling a borehole into a subterranean shale bed formation; and lowering the heater assembly into the borehole to a position surrounded by the shale bed formation with the borehole having been drilled to define a diameter relative the heater assembly housing insuring a close fit therebetween while providing a gas space therebetween.

  3. Thermal Maturation of Gas Shale Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Shale gas systems serve as sources, reservoirs, and seals for unconventional natural gas accumulations. These reservoirs bring numerous challenges to geologists and petroleum engineers in reservoir characterization, most notably because of their heterogeneous character due to depositional and diagenetic processes but also because of their constituent rocks' fine-grained nature and small pore size -- much smaller than in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Significant advances have recently been achieved in unraveling the gaseous hydrocarbon generation and retention processes that occur within these complex systems. In addition, cutting-edge characterization technologies have allowed precise documentation of the spatial variability in chemistry and structure of thermally mature organic-rich shales at the submicrometer scale, revealing the presence of geochemical heterogeneities within overmature gas shale samples and, notably, the presence of nanoporous pyrobitumen. Such research advances will undoubtedly lead to improved performance, producibility, and modeling of such strategic resources at the reservoir scale.

  4. Economic enhancement of Western shale oil upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J. W.; Ryu, H.; Jeong, S. Y.

    1989-07-01

    A proof-of-concept study for a novel shale oil refining process was undertaken. This project promises reduced upgrading costs, thereby making shale oil development more feasible for commercialization. The process consists of distillation of raw shale oil into a distillate and residue portion, cracking of the residue by hydropyrolysis, and selective hydrotreating of narrow boiling cuts from the total distillate. Based on models and experimental data, the end product slate is projected to be 34% naphtha, 57% middle distillate, and 10.3% atm residue + coke. Hydrogen addition is 1.3% or 800 scf/bbl. These results are considerably improved over conventional processing, which gives 14% naphtha, 41% middle distillate, and 48.2% residue + coke and hydrogen addition of 3.2% or 2000 scf/bbl. More quantitative data and preliminary economics will be obtained in the next phase of study. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  6. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  7. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  8. The Effects of Rock Mineralogy on Matrix Permeability in the Utica Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ismail, M.; Zoback, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    We conducted pulse-decay permeability measurements on four horizontally oriented Utica Shale samples to examine the effects of rock mineralogy on transport mechanisms using both a non-adsorbing gas (Argon) and an adsorbing gas (CO2). The mineralogy of the shale samples varied from clay-rich to calcite-rich. We conducted the experiments at a temperature of 38.5°C, confining pressures ranging from 4.83 to 22.75 MPa, and pore fluid pressures ranging from 1.38 to 8.96 MPa. We measured the permeability at a range of confining pressures and pore pressures in order to independently test the effects of effective stress, confining pressure and pore pressure on permeability. Our results show that shale mineralogy did not have an impact on permeability. The permeability of clay-rich samples varied between 0.26 and 1.10 microdarcy. The permeability of calcite-rich samples varied between 0.18 and 2.05 microdarcy. Additionally, we found that the shale mineralogy affected the stress-dependent permeability. The magnitude of permeability reduction as a function of effective stress was dependent on the overall rock mineralogy. When the effective stress increased from 3.45 MPa to 13.79 MPa, the permeability of the clay-rich and calcite-rich samples decreased by 85% and 48%, respectively. Based on Klinkenberg analysis, we found that the mean effective pore radius for the clay-rich sample decreased from 27 nm at 3.45 MPa effective stress to 15 nm at 13.79 MPa effective stress (44% reduction). The mean effective pore radius for the calcite-rich sample decreased from 49 nm to 38 nm (22% reduction). These findings suggest that variations in rock mineralogy lead to different responses in mechanical deformation as the effective stress increases with depletion. Finally, our CO2 permeability measurements show that the CO2 permeability for the clay-rich sample decreased by 40% compared to Argon permeability. The CO2 permeability for the calcite-rich sample did not shift and was equivalent to

  9. Shale seismic anisotropy vs. compaction trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shales comprise more than 60% of sedimentary rocks and form natural seals above hydrocarbon reservoirs. Their sealing capacity is also used for storage of nuclear wastes. Shales are notorious for their strong elastic anisotropy, so-called, vertical transverse isotropy or VTI. This VTI anisotropy is of practical importance as it is required for correct surface seismic data interpretation, seismic to well tie and azimuth versus offset analysis. A number of competing factors are responsible for VTI anisotropy in shales, namely, (1) micro-scale elastic anisotropy of clay particles, (2) anisotropic orientation distribution function of clay particles, (3) anisotropic orientation of pores and organic matter. On the contrary, silt (non-clay mineralogy grains with size between 0.06 -0.002 mm) is known to reduce elastic anisotropy of shales. Methods developed for calculations of anisotropy in polycrystalline materials can be used to estimate elastic anisotropy of shales from orientation distribution function (ODF) of clay platelets if elastic properties of individual clay platelets are known. Unfortunately, elastic properties of individual clay platelets cannot be directly measured. Recently, elastic properties of properties of individual clay platelets with different mineralogy were calculated from first principles based on density functional theory. In this work we use these elastic properties of individual platelets of muscovite, illite-smectite and kaolinite to obtain correlations between elastic anisotropy and Legendre coefficients W200 and W400 of different ODFs. Comparison of the Legendre coefficients calculated for more than 800 shales from depths 0 - 6 km (www.rockphysicists.org/data) with those of compaction ODFs shows that compaction has no first order effect on elastic anisotropy. Thus, elastic anisotropy is to large extent determined by factors other than compaction processes, such as depositional environment, chemical composition of fluid, silt fraction, etc.

  10. Fracture Anisotropy and Toughness in the Mancos Shale: Implications for crack-growth geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, M. R.; Meredith, P. G.; Brantut, N.; Crawford, B. R.

    2013-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing of gas-shales has drawn attention to the fundamental fracture properties of shales. Fracture propagation is dependent on a combination of the in-situ stress field, the fracturing fluid and pressure, and the mechanical properties of the shale. However, shales are strongly anisotropic, and there is a general paucity of available experimental data on the anisotropic mechanical properties of shales in the scientific literature. The mode-I stress intensity factor, KI, quantifies the concentration of stress at crack tips. The Fracture Toughness of a linear elastic material is then defined as the critical value of this stress intensity factor; KIc, beyond which rapid catastrophic crack growth occurs. However, shales display significant non-linearity, which produces hysteresis during experimental cyclic loading. This allows for the calculation of a ductility coefficient using the residual displacement after successive loading cycles. From this coefficient, a ductility corrected Fracture Toughness value, KIcc can be determined. In the Mancos Shale this ductility correction can be as large as 60%, giving a Divider orientation KIcc value of 0.8 MPa.m0.5. Tensile strength and mode-I Fracture Toughness have been experimentally determined for the Mancos Shale using the Brazil Disk and Short-Rod methodologies respectively. The three principal fracture orientations; Arrester, Divider and Short-Transverse were all analysed. A significant anisotropy is observed in the tensile strength, with the Arrester value being 1.5 times higher than the Short-Transverse value. Even larger anisotropy is observed in the Fracture Toughness, with KIcc in the Divider and Arrester orientations being around 1.8 times that in the Short-Transverse orientation. For both tensile strength and fracture toughness, the Short-Transverse orientation, where the fracture propagates in the bedding plane in a direction parallel to the bedding, is found to have significantly lower values than

  11. Permeability Evolution of Shale and Coal Under Differential Sorption of He, CH4 And CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, H.; Elsworth, D.; Marone, C. J.; Mathews, J.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection in coal seams or in shales may be an option for geological sequestration of CO2 each with concurrent methane production. Permeability of the fractured porous medium is a crucial parameter influencing injectivity of CO2. The evolution of permeability is further complicated by dynamic changes in the coal/shale shrinkage/swelling with the reduction/increase in gas content. Complex geomechanical processes (transport of gas, adsorption, desorption, adjusting horizontal stresses and vertical strains) and chemical interaction between CO2, water and mineral matter content are some factors responsible for the various responses in permeability evolution. Adsorption of CO2 in micropores may result in matrix swelling therefore closing the existing natural fractures and lowering the ability of fluid flow. On the other hand presence of water may react with CO2 forming carbonic acid and removing carbonaceous mineral matter - either increasing or decreasing permeability. To address these issues we report experimental measurements of permeability evolution in shales infiltrated by helium, methane and carbon dioxide under varying pore pressure and deviatoric stresses. The role of gas (CO2 and CH4) adsorption and desorption under variable moisture contents and pore pressures have also been examined for sub-bituminous coals. Adsorption of CO2 in Coal and shale reduces the reservoir permeability even when the fractured media are mechanically unconstrained. However we found that permeability loss is temporary. In the specific case of Marcellus shale, adsorption of CO2 in the sample reduces the permeability to half the original value. Permeability values returns to its original value if sample is allowed to interact for sufficient time. Variation of permeability with deviotoric stress suggests the compaction band formation above a threshold value of stress. These deformations are permanent and shale loses its permeability. Several observations on permeability

  12. Transient pressure-pulse decay permeability measurements in the Barnett shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, A. R.; Reece, J.; Cronin, M. B.; Flemings, P. B.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    We conducted transient pressure-pulse decay permeability measurements on core plugs of the Barnett shale using a hydrostatic pressure cell. Core plugs, 3.8 cm in diameter and less than 2.5 cm in length, were prepared from a core obtained at a depth of approximately 2330 m from the Mitchel Energy 2 T. P. Sims well in the Mississippian Barnett Formation (Loucks and Ruppel, 2007). We performed permeability measurements of the core plugs using argon at varying confining pressures in two different directions (perpendicular and parallel to bedding planes). We calculate gas permeability from changes in pressure with time using the analytical solution of the pressure diffusion equation with appropriate boundary conditions for our test setup (Dicker and Smits, 1988). Based on our limited results, we interpret 2 × 10-18 m2 for vertical permeability and 156 × 10-18 m2 for horizontal permeability. We demonstrate an extreme stress dependence of the horizontal flow permeability where permeability decreases from 156 × 10-18 m2 to 2.5 × 10-18 m2 as the confining stress is increased from 3.5 to 35 MPa. These permeability measurements are at the high side of other pulsed permeability measurements in the Barnett shale (Bustin et al. 2008; Vermylen, 2011). Permeabilities calculated from mercury injection capillary pressure curves, using theoretically derived permeability-capillary pressure models based on parallel tubes assumption, are orders of magnitude less than our transient pressure-pulse decay permeability measurements (for example, 3.7×10-21 m2 (this study), 10-21 -10-20 m2 (Sigal, 2007), 10-20 -10-17 m2 (Prince et al., 2010)). We interpret that the high measured permeabilities are due to microfractures in the sample. At this point, we do not know if the microfractures are due to sampling disturbance (stress-relief induced) or represent an in-situ fracture network. Our study illustrates the importance of characterization of microfractures at the core scale to understand

  13. Sunlight photochemistry of retort-water organonitrogen compounds in an inert atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Blatchley, E.R. III; Daughton, C.G.; Thomas, J.F.

    1986-04-01

    The elevated temperature of an oil-shale codisposal process will enhance the atmospheric emission of volatile components. Important among the organic compounds are the nitrogen heterocycles and aromatic primary amines, which are chacterized by malodor and low order thresholds and by resistance to biotreatment. Atmospheric lifetimes are determined by various transport (e.g., dispersion, washout) and transformation phenomena. Photochemical alteration will be the major transformation process. Those compounds that degrade quickly may increase the atmospheric NO/sub x/ concentration, giving the potential for photochemical smog formation. Those with longer lifetimes may present health and aesthetic problems. The broad spectrum of compound types and isomers present in process-water headspace samples may result in a range of atmospheric lifetimes. The work reported here is the first investigation of vapor-phase atmospheric photoreactions leading to degradation of organonitrogen compounds emitted from process waters. Only direct photochemical reactions were studied. Headspace samples (65/sup 0/C) were generated in an inert atmosphere (N/sub 2/ gas) and exposed to atmospheric radiation in Tedlar gas-sampling bags. Headspace composition was monitored by capillary gas chromatography with flame thermionic or flame ionization detection. Time-course headspace analyses compared exposed and unexposed samples, and individual compounds were monitored to determine the degree of individual photochemical losses. Under these conditions, the alkylpyridines did not photodegrade, in contrast to other nitrogen heterocycles (e.g., pyrrole) and aromatic primary amines. This is significant because alkylpyridines comprise the largest portion of organonitrogen compounds emitted from process waters. It is anticipated that indirect photoreactions (e.g., radical-mediated) will be more extensive and important. 35 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mechanical and petrophysical study of fractured shale materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnelye, A.; Schubnel, A.; David, C.; Henry, P.; Guglielmi, Y.; Gout, C.; Dick, P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding of the mechanical and physical properties of shales is of major importance in many fields such as faults hydro-mechanical behavior, cap-rock and unconventional reservoir studies or nuclear waste disposal. In particular, relationships between fluid transport properties, applied stress and textural anisotropy are critical both in intact and fractured shales. Therefore, these relations need to be investigated in the laboratory in order to have a better understanding on in-situ mechanisms. Hence, the mechanical behavior and the petrophysical properties of Toarcian shale of the Tournemire underground laboratory (France) have been investigated. The petrophysical properties have been measured along a 20 meters core drilled through a fault zone from the Tournemire tunnel. Along the core, P and S waves velocity and anisotropy, as well as magnetic susceptibility anisotropy and porosity were measured. In addition, conventional triaxial tests have been performed in order to determine the elasto-plastic yield envelope on three sets of samples with different orientations relative to bedding (0°, 45°, and 90° to the vertical axe). For each set, six experiments were carried out at increasing confining pressures (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80MPa). Experiments were performed in dry conditions, at a strain rate of 5x10-7 s-1 up to failure. During each experiment, P and S wave elastic velocities were continuously measured along different directions, in order to assess both P wave anisotropy and shear wave splitting and their evolutions with deformation. Our results show that brittle failure is preceded by the development of P wave anisotropy and shear wave splitting, due to crack re-opening and crack growth. However, the orientation of principal stress components relative to the bedding plane plays an important role on both the brittle strength, as well as on the magnitude of shear-enhanced P wave velocity anisotropy and S wave splitting. Our perspective is now to perform

  15. Veining Failure and Hydraulic Fracturing in Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mighani, S.; Sondergeld, C. H.; Rai, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    During the hydraulic fracturing, the pressurized fluid creates new fractures and reactivates existing natural fractures forming a highly conductive Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) around the borehole. We extend the previous work on Lyons sandstone and pyrophyllite to anisotropic shale from the Wolfcamp formation. We divide the rock anisotropy into two groups: a) conventional and b) unconventional (shaly) anisotropy. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), compressional velocity anisotropy, and SEM analysis are used to identify three causes of anisotropy: bedding planes, clay lamination, and calcite veins. Calcite vein is a subsequently filled with calcite bonded weakly to the matrix. Velocity anisotropy and visual observations demonstrate the calcite filled veins to be mostly subparallel to the fabric direction. Brazilian tests are carried out to observe the fracture initiation and propagation under tension. High speed photography (frame rate 300,000 frame/sec) was used to capture the failure. Strain gauges and Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors recorded the deformation leading up to and during failure. SEM imaging and surface profilometry were employed to study the post-failure fracture system and failed surface topology. Fracture permeability was measured as a function of effective stress. Brazilian tests on small disks containing a centered single vein revealed the shear strength of the veins. We interpret the strain data and number, frequency, and amplitude of AE events which are correlated well with the observed fracture process zone, surface roughness, and permeability. The unpropped fracture has enhanced permeability by two orders of magnitude. The observed anisotropic tensile failure seems to have a universal trend with a minimum strength occurring at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis. The veins at 15o orientation with respect to the loading axis were easily activated at 30% of the original failure load. The measured strength of the vein is as low as 6

  16. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO/sub 3/- type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    An oral history of life in the first half of the twentieth century in the shale mining communities of Mid and West Lothian, Scotland provided background information needed for a mortality study of these communities where the Scottish shale oil industry was located until 1963. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews with 41 old people provide a detailed socio-historical picture of life in an area dominated by this industry. Much of the information is presented using quotations from the interviews. Housing conditions and perceptions of pollution are described. Details of working conditions, jobs and wages, focussing in particular on the shale industry, suggest that until the early 1920s shale workers were financially well off compared with workers elsewhere. Comparative wage levels then deteriorated until 1939. Women's activities, roles, domestic and work positions indicate that although women had little exposure to industrial hazards in the workplace, their standard of living was very low and they had to work extremely hard. Health and health care, diet, smoking and drinking habits, leisure and migrations are other factors which could affect morality patterns. Comparisons with contemporary studies are discussed. 33 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Detecting a coal/shale interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Campbell, R. A.; Drost, E. J.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Stein, R. J.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Detector, intended for use with longwall shearer, determines when cut has pierced through coal layer. Accelerometer measures hardness of material struck by penetrometer ram, while reflectometers measure reflectivity of surface on either side of penetrometer. Signals are combined in voting circuit that indicates "coal" or "shale", depending on information supplied by three sensors. It distinguishes by differences in accelerometer waveforms.

  19. Paleontology: a new Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2014-05-19

    A spectacular Cambrian soft bodied fauna some 40 km from Walcott's original Burgess Shale locality includes over 50 taxa, some 20% new to science. New anatomical evidence from this site will illuminate the evolution of early marine animals. PMID:24845670

  20. Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kuushraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.; Sawyer, W.K.; Esposito, P.R.

    1983-07-01

    The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Lower and Middle Huron) in Ohio is estimated to range from 6.2 to 22.5 Tcf, depending on the stimulation method and pattern size selected. This estimate of recovery is based on the integration of the most recent data and research on the Devonian Age gas-bearing shales of Ohio. This includes: (1) a compilation of the latest geologic and reservoir data for the gas in-place; (2) analysis of the key productive mechanisms; and, (3) examination of alternative stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering this gas. Beyond a comprehensive assembly of the data and calculation of the technically recoverable gas, the key findings of this report are as follows: a substantial volume of gas is technically recoverable, although advanced (larger scale) stimulation technology will be required to reach economically attractive gas production rates in much of the state; well spacing in certain of the areas can be reduced by half from the traditional 150 to 160 acres per well without severely impairing per-well gas recovery; and, due to the relatively high degree of permeability anisotropy in the Devonian shales, a rectangular, generally 3 by 1 well pattern leads to optimum recovery. Finally, although a consistent geological interpretation and model have been constructed for the Lower and Middle Huron intervals of the Ohio Devonian shale, this interpretation is founded on limited data currently available, along with numerous technical assumptions that need further verification. 11 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  1. Shale Gas reservoirs characterization using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a tentative of shale gas reservoirs characterization enhancement from well-logs data using neural network is established. The goal is to predict the Total Organic carbon (TOC) in boreholes where the TOC core rock or TOC well-log measurement does not exist. The Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with three layers is established. The MLP input layer is constituted with five neurons corresponding to the Bulk density, Neutron porosity, sonic P wave slowness and photoelectric absorption coefficient. The hidden layer is forms with nine neurons and the output layer is formed with one neuron corresponding to the TOC log. Application to two boreholes located in Barnett shale formation where a well A is used as a pilot and a well B is used for propagation shows clearly the efficiency of the neural network method to improve the shale gas reservoirs characterization. The established formalism plays a high important role in the shale gas plays economy and long term gas energy production.

  2. Boomtown blues; Oil shale and Exxon's exit

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper chronicles the social and cultural effects of the recent oil shale boom on the Colorado communities of Rifle, Silt, Parachute, and Grand Junction. The paper is based upon research and oral history interviews conducted throughout Colorado and in Houston and Washington, DC.

  3. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  4. Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

    1980-02-01

    The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

  5. Experimental Investigation into Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Gas Shales Using CT Scanning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushi, Zou; Shicheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Xiang, Zhou; Tiankui, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Multistage fracturing of the horizontal well is recognized as the main stimulation technology for shale gas development. The hydraulic fracture geometry and stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) is interpreted by using the microseismic mapping technology. In this paper, we used a computerized tomography (CT) scanning technique to reveal the fracture geometry created in natural bedding-developed shale (cubic block of 30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm) by laboratory fracturing. Experimental results show that partially opened bedding planes are helpful in increasing fracture complexity in shale. However, they tend to dominate fracture patterns for vertical stress difference Δ σ v ≤ 6 MPa, which decreases the vertical fracture number, resulting in the minimum SRV. A uniformly distributed complex fracture network requires the induced hydraulic fractures that can connect the pre-existing fractures as well as pulverize the continuum rock mass. In typical shale with a narrow (<0.05 mm) and closed natural fracture system, it is likely to create complex fracture for horizontal stress difference Δ σ h ≤ 6 MPa and simple transverse fracture for Δ σ h ≥ 9 MPa. However, high naturally fractured shale with a wide open natural fracture system (>0.1 mm) does not agree with the rule that low Δ σ h is favorable for uniformly creating a complex fracture network in zone. In such case, a moderate Δ σ h from 3 to 6 MPa is favorable for both the growth of new hydraulic fractures and the activation of a natural fracture system. Shale bedding, natural fracture, and geostress are objective formation conditions that we cannot change; we can only maximize the fracture complexity by controlling the engineering design for fluid viscosity, flow rate, and well completion type. Variable flow rate fracturing with low-viscosity slickwater fluid of 2.5 mPa s was proved to be an effective treatment to improve the connectivity of induced hydraulic fracture with pre-existing fractures. Moreover, the

  6. Field establishment of fourwing saltbush in processed oil shale and disturbed native soil as influenced by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae

    SciTech Connect

    Call, C.A.; McKell, C.M.

    1984-04-30

    Seedlings of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.) were inoculated with indigenous vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi in a containerized system and transplanted into processed oil shale and disturbed native soil in a semiarid rangeland environment in northwestern Colorado. After two growing seasons in the field, plants inoculated with VAM had greater aboveground biomass, cover, and height than noninoculated plants. Mycorrhizal plants were more effective in the uptake of water and phosphorus. Infection levels of inoculated plants were greatly reduced in processed shale (from 13.0 at outplanting to 3.8 at harvest), but functional VAM associations could be found after two growing seasons. Results indicate that VAM help make processed oil shale a more tractable medium for the establishment of plants representative of later successional stages by allowing these plants to make effective use of the natural resources that are limiting under conditions of high stress. 39 references, 1 figure.

  7. Mechanical properties of heavy oil-sand and shale as a function of pressure and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, S.C.; Sweeney, J.J.; Ralph, W.R.; Ruddle, D.G.

    1987-07-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of oil-sand and shale samples from the Faja region of Venezuela at elevated temperature and pressure. Results describe pressure-volume (PV) behavior at temperatures of 23 and 125/sup 0/C; the effect of mechanical disturbance on PV behavior; equation-of-state (EOS) at temperatures of 23, 125, and 250/sup 0/C and effective pressures to 150 MPa; and creep/compaction behavior at temperatures of 23 and 125/sup 0/C. Data from PV tests on oil-sand show that increasing temperature from 23 to 125/sup 0/C had very little effect on this material. Mechanical disturbance of oil-sand prior to PV testing lowered values of K. The compressive strength of oil-sand increased as effective (P/sub E/) was raised and at both temperatures, samples tested at equivalent P/sub E/ had similar strengths. Compressive strength of oil-sand seems to be controlled by the drainage of pore fluid during axial deformation. Nearly all oil-sand samples exhibited strain-hardening. PV tests conducted on shale show that increasing temperature from 23 to 125/sup 0/C reduced values of K one third. Mechanical disturbance significantly affected the PV response of shale samples due to the friable nature of the material. Data for shale samples tested in triaxial compression show that ultimate stress increases with increasing pressure and increasing temperature. Results of long-term creep compaction tests show a linear change in sample volume as a function of the log of time and that the rate of volume change with time was larger at 125/sup 0/C than at 23/sup 0/C for both oil-sand and shale. 4 refs., 31 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  9. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  10. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  11. Influence of mobile shale on thrust faults: Insights from discrete element simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, S. L.; Morgan, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    We use two-dimensional discrete element method (DEM) simulations to study the effects of a two-layer mechanical stratigraphy on a gravitationally collapsing passive margin. The system consists of an upslope sedimentary wedge, overlying an extensional zone that is linked at depth with a downslope fold and thrust belt. The behavior of the system is dependent on the material properties and thickness of the competent units. The models are initially composed of a mobile shale unit overlain by a pre-delta unit. In DEM materials, the bulk rheology of the granular material is a product of the particle interactions, depending on a range of parameters, including friction and elastic moduli. Natural mobile shales underlying deltas are presumed to be viscous, and are therefore represented in DEM as very weak non-cohesive particles. The unbonded particles respond to loading by moving to areas of lower stress, i.e. out from beneath a growing sediment wedge. The bulk motion of the particles therefore flows away from the upslope extensional zone. Apparent viscosity is introduced in DEM materials due to time dependent numerical parameters such as viscous damping of particle motions. We characterized this apparent viscosity of this mobile shale unit with a series of shear box tests, with varying shear strain rates. The mobile shale particles have a viscosity of about 108 Pa*s, which is low for mobile shale. The low viscosity of our numerical materials can be compensated for by scaling time in our models, because the simulations are driven by sedimentary loading. By increasing the sedimentation rate by many orders of magnitude, we can approximate the natural values of shear stress in our simulations. Results are compared with the Niger Delta type locale for shale tectonics. The simulations succeed in creating an overall linked extensional-contractional system, as well as creating individual structures such as popups and intersecting forethrusts and backthrusts. In addition, toe

  12. Potential of infill drilling to increase Devonian shale gas reserves in the Appalachian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents results of two studies to evaluate the potential of infill drilling as a production strategy in the Devonian shales. This study (Volume 2) uses data evolved during the Eastern Gas Shales research program to compile gas-in-place estimates and to analyze key production mechanisms. Each of the three states was partitioned into areas based on key geological parameters and tectonophysics that established the natural stress and fracture regimes. Within these partitioned areas, a simulation study of infill drilling was conducted to determine the impact of reduced well spacing on 40-year cumulative gas production. In this approach, one, three, and five infill wells were randomly located in a field of five existing wells that had been producing for 20 years. After 20 years of well production, the well recovery for each simulated infill well was evaluated. 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

    1980-06-01

    The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

  14. Mass Transport Properties in the Matrix of the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, A. R.; Cronin, M.; Polito, P. J.; Flemings, P. B.; Bryant, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    We documented multi-scale permeability within Barnett shale samples using pulse decay permeability measurement method. We observe pressure dissipation at two timescales reflecting flow through micro-fractures and flow through the matrix. We estimate matrix permeability to be between 1×10-21 -25×10-21 m2 while the effective permeability of the bulk rock to be on the order of 10-18 m2 parallel to the bedding plane and 10-21 m2 normal to the bedding plane. We find bedding parallel micro-fractures possibly induced due to stress relief and sample preparation to be the dominant pathways for core plugs tested parallel to bedding plane. The Barnett shale core plugs have a porosity of 3-6%, are composed of quartz, calcite and clays, and have a total organic content of ˜4% and a maturity of 1.9 %Ro. The samples were 3.8 cm in diameter and less than 2.5 cm in length, were prepared from cores obtained at a depth of approximately 2330 m from the Mitchel Energy 2 T.P. Sims well. We conducted permeability measurements on core plugs at confining pressures ranging from 10.3 to 41.4 MPa using a hydrostatic pressure cell. We used argon as a pore fluid and kept the pore pressure constant at 6.9 MPa. The permeability anisotropy is normally attributed to preferential flow along bedding planes and any effects of micro-fractures are not properly investigated. By suitable experimental design, this study shows that only a fraction of the anisotropy can be attributed to parallel to bedding flow and to overlook micro-fractures will lead to erroneous interpretations.

  15. Comparison of organic geochemistry and metal enrichment in two black shales: Cambrian Alum Shale of Sweden and Devonian Chattanooga Shale of United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most black shales, such as the Chattanooga Shale and related shales of the eastern interior United States, increased metal and metalloid contents are generally related to increased organic carbon content, decreased sedimentation rate, organic matter type, or position in the basin. In areas where the stratigraphic equivalents of the Chattanooga Shale are deeply buried and and the organic material is thermally mature, metal contents are essentially the same as in unheated areas and correlate with organic C or S contents. This paradigm does not hold for the Cambrian Alum Shale Formation of Sweden where increased metal content does not necessarily correlate with organic matter content nor is metal enrichment necessarily related to land derived humic material because this organic matter is all of marine source. In southcentral Sweden the elements U, Mo, V, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb are all enriched relative to average black shales but only U and Mo correlate to organic matter content. Tectonically disturbed and metamorphosed allochthonous samples of Alum Shale on the Caledonian front in western Sweden have even higher amounts for some metals (V, Ni, Zn and Ba) relative to the autochthonous shales in this area and those in southern Sweden. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  16. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  17. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  18. Energy trump for Morocco: the oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The mainstays of the economy in Morocco are still agriculture and phosphates; the latter represent 34% of world exports. Energy demand in 1985 will be probably 3 times that in 1975. Most of the oil, which covers 82% of its energy needs, must be imported. Other possible sources are the rich oil shale deposits and nuclear energy. Four nuclear plants with a total of 600 MW are projected, but shale oil still will play an important role. A contract for building a pilot plant has been met recently. The plant is to be located at Timahdit and cost $13 million, for which a loan from the World Bank has been requested. If successful in the pilot plant, the process will be used in full scale plants scheduled to produce 400,000 tons/yr of oil. Tosco also has a contract for a feasibility study.

  19. Modifying shale oil to improve flow characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1982-05-01

    Shale oil, which forms a viscous, wax slurry below 25 C, was treated in several different ways to try to improve its flow characteristics as measured in a concentric cylinder viscometer. Removing the wax does not greatly improve the pumpability of the oil. Hydrotreatment of the whole oil to take out nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen can lower the viscosity by a factor of five or more, even though the pour point is not greatly affected. Apparently hydrogenolysis of the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen lowers the molecular weight of the oil without much modification of the paraffinic wax. The pour point of the shale oil can be decreased with various commercial pour improvers. Sometimes an accompanying drop in viscosity is observed, but most of this decrease is not stable to shear in the viscometer.

  20. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  1. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment. PMID:26845179

  2. Reverse engineering mother nature — Shale sedimentology from an experimental perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, Juergen

    2011-06-01

    Experimental study of the sedimentology of shales can take a variety of forms. At its simplest one can experiment with suspensions in a glass jar and try to understand their settling behavior, or one can manipulate mud in a tank or bucket to gain insights into its rheology. This approach was championed over a century ago by Sorby, and the insights gained can be quite profound. More recently, tank and settling tube experiments of animal-sediment interactions, compaction behavior, and sediment unmixing via re-suspension have proven to be highly informative in spite of their simplicity. Flumes can be used to obtain quantitative information about depositional and erosional parameters and to generate fundamental bedforms. In flume experiments, however, it is of critical importance that the flume be designed in a way that flocculated materials move under shear stress conditions that would be reasonable in natural environments. Although much flume work on muds has been conducted by hydraulic engineers, the transfer of that knowledge to sedimentology is hampered by the fact that engineers and sedimentologists are interested in different (though not mutually exclusive) products from such experiments. Engineers and hydrologists are commonly concerned with quantifying fluid flow properties, whereas sedimentogists are particularly interested in the sedimentary products that result from a variety of flow conditions. Recent sedimentologically oriented flume studies have shown that muds can form deposits at flow velocities and shear stresses that would suffice to transport and deposit medium grained sand. Mud suspensions are prone to flocculation and the resulting floccules travel in bedload and form ripples that accrete into beds. The latter finding suggests that many laminated shales were deposited from currents rather than by settling from slow moving or still water. There are many other sedimentary features in shales that can potentially be reproduced in flume studies and in

  3. Plan for addressing issues relating to oil shale plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Noridin, J. S.; Donovan, R.; Trudell, L.; Dean, J.; Blevins, A.; Harrington, L. W.; James, R.; Berdan, G.

    1987-09-01

    The Western Research Institute plan for addressing oil shale plant siting methodology calls for identifying the available resources such as oil shale, water, topography and transportation, and human resources. Restrictions on development are addressed: land ownership, land use, water rights, environment, socioeconomics, culture, health and safety, and other institutional restrictions. Descriptions of the technologies for development of oil shale resources are included. The impacts of oil shale development on the environment, socioeconomic structure, water availability, and other conditions are discussed. Finally, the Western Research Institute plan proposes to integrate these topics to develop a flow chart for oil shale plant siting. Western Research Institute has (1) identified relative topics for shale oil plant siting, (2) surveyed both published and unpublished information, and (3) identified data gaps and research needs. 910 refs., 3 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Tensile strengths of problem shales and clays. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rechner, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The greatest single expense faced by oil companies involved in the exploration for crude oil is that of drilling wells. The most abundant rock drilled is shale. Some of these shales cause wellbore stability problems during the drilling process. These can range from slow rate of penetration and high torque up to stuck pipe and hole abandonment. The mechanical integrity of the shale must be known when the shalers are subjected to drilling fluids to develop an effective drilling plan.

  5. GRS/industry eastern gas shale data base

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.E.; Sharer, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The Gas Resource Information System (GRIS) is a computerized data base that contains historical data on eastern gas shale wells. It contains all those elements which industry feels are important for the evaluation of drilling, completion, stimulation and production techniques for eastern gas shale wells. While GRI will be researching the data on the base to optimize production from the eastern gas shales, it will make GRIS available to industry as a mutually beneficial tool.

  6. The Acoustic Signature of Woodford Shale and Upscale Relationship from Nano-Scale Mechanical Properties and Mineralogy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, M. H.; Abousleiman, Y. N.; Hoang, S. K.; Ortega, A. J.; Bobko, C.; Ulm, F.

    2007-12-01

    The complex composition of shale, the most encountered and problematic lithology in the Earth's crust, has puzzled many researchers attempting to find the key for understanding their micro- and macro-scale acoustic and mechanical signatures. Recent advances in nano-technology, in particular the progress of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) base indentation technique, have made it possible to mechanically study porous material at a nano scale (10-9 m) and consequently have allowed linking shale mechanical properties to intrinsic micro- and macro-properties such as porosity, packing density, and mineralogy. Based on more than 20,000 nano- indentation tests conducted on a number of shales with varying physical properties, a GeoGenomeTM model was developed to upscale macroscopic shale mechanical parameters from mineralogy composition, porosity, and packing density. In this work, the mechanical properties such as the elastic stiffness coefficients, Cij, and the anisotropic Biot's Pore Pressure Coefficients, αij, of the Woodford shale, were acquired using sonic log data and Ultra-Sonic Pulse Velocity (UPV) measurements conducted on preserved retrieved shale core samples from a 200-ft well drilled in the Woodford formation, in Oklahoma. Furthermore, the dependency of the Cij and αij, on applied stresses and the relationship between the dynamic moduli and the quasi-static moduli were also investigated using an array of piezoelectric crystals mounted around the samples while subjecting the samples to different applied stress states using a series of tri-axial tests. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and mercury injection tests were also performed on the retrieved core samples to obtain mineralogy composition and porosity of the shale at different depths. Comparison of the simulated mechanical and poromechanical properties and stiffness coefficients using the Quantitative GeoGenomeTM Mineralogy Simulator (QGGMSTM) with field and acoustic lab measurements showed excellent agreement

  7. Shale gas characteristics of the Lower Toarcian Posidonia Shale in Germany: from basin to nanometre scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian; Krüger, Martin; Littke, Ralf; di primio, Rolando

    2013-04-01

    The Early Toarcian Posidonia Shale is a proven hydrocarbon source rock which was deposited in a shallow epicontinental basin. In southern Germany, Tethyan warm-water influences from the south led to carbonate sedimentation, whereas cold-water influxes from the north controlled siliciclastic sedimentation in the northwestern parts of Germany and the Netherlands. Restricted sea-floor circulation and organic matter preservation are considered to be the consequence of an oceanic anoxic event. In contrast, non-marine conditions led to sedimentation of coarser grained sediments under progressively terrestrial conditions in northeastern Germany The present-day distribution of Posidonia Shale in northern Germany is restricted to the centres of rift basins that formed in the Late Jurassic (e.g., Lower Saxony Basin and Dogger Troughs like the West and East Holstein Troughs) as a result of erosion on the basin margins and bounding highs. The source rock characteristics are in part dependent on grain size as the Posidonia Shale in eastern Germany is referred to as a mixed to non-source rock facies. In the study area, the TOC content and the organic matter quality vary vertically and laterally, likely as a consequence of a rising sea level during the Toarcian. Here we present and compare data of whole Posidonia Shale sections, investigating these variations and highlighting the variability of Posidonia Shale depositional system. During all phases of burial, gas was generated in the Posidonia Shale. Low sedimentation rates led to diffusion of early diagenetically formed biogenic methane. Isochronously formed diagenetic carbonates tightened the matrix and increased brittleness. Thermogenic gas generation occurred in wide areas of Lower Saxony as well as in Schleswig Holstein. Biogenic methane gas can still be formed today in Posidonia Shale at shallow depth in areas which were covered by Pleistocene glaciers. Submicrometric interparticle pores predominate in immature samples. At

  8. Fugitive emissions from the Bakken shale illustrate role of shale production in global ethane shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-05-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 ± 0.07 (2σ) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  9. Spatial heterogeneity of uranium isotope variations in a Phanerozoic, epicontintental black shale (Hushpuckney Shale, Swope Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, A. D.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Algeo, T. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    It has recently been shown that substantial variations in the 238U/235U ratio exist in nature. The isotopic composition of seawater is ultimately driven by the relative sizes and isotopic signatures of the major sources and sinks. Rivers are the major sources of uranium to the ocean, and reducing sediments (mainly anoxic and suboxic sediments) are the major sinks. Under reducing conditions heavy uranium isotopes are sequestered preferentially. Because of the long residence time of uranium in the global ocean, and the relatively large fractionation during removal of uranium under reducing conditions, it has been suggested that the isotope composition of seawater might reflect changes in the redox state of the ocean and that such changes might be mirrored in black shales. Here we present uranium isotope variations of a Pennsylvanian black shale (Hushpuckney Shale; Swope Formation) from two cores from the same depositional basin (Late Paleozoic Midcontinent Sea; LPMS) to test whether global marine redox conditions can be determined from a single section in epicontinental settings. If uranium isotopes in epicontinental black shales can be used to quantify changes in redox changes of the global ocean, then contemporaneous black shales sections should have the same isotope trends and magnitudes. The Hushpuckney shale is one of several cyclothem core intervals that were deposited over large areas (tens of thousands of square kilometers) on continental crust during early transgression in response to the deglaciation of large icesheets in the southern hemisphere. The two cores investigated for this study represent a transect through the LPMS from close to the open ocean (SE Kansas) towards the shoreline (Iowa). The Hushpuckney shale can be easily identified and correlated in these two cores. Thus, it offers an excellent opportunity to test whether the uranium isotopic composition is similar across the basin and how much local redox conditions can play a role in faithfully

  10. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  11. Marine Shale reaches agreement with US Department of Justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Marine Shale Processors, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Justice on July 24 reached an accord that ended a three-year investigation into allegations by Marine Shale competitors of corporate wrongdoing. Under the agreement, Marine Shale agreed to one violation of each of three statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Refuse Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. To bring the three years of uncertainty to an end, Marine Shale also agreed to pay a fine of $1 million. Since 1985 Marine Shale has operated a facility in Amelia, Louisiana, that recycles materials that would otherwise be disposed of as hazardous wastes into an inert aggregate material used in road building and other construction applications. The government's only allegations were (1) that Marine Shale stored soil containing creosole on a concrete pad at its recycling facility without a federal permit (Marine Shale has halted use of this storage facility and all of the soils were subsequently removed and recycled at the plant); (2) that Marine Shale created an obstacle to navigation by the placement of a barge in a river; and (3) that Marine Shale had allowed finished product and process area water to wash into the river during rainstorms. These practices or conditions have been discontinued or corrected.

  12. Eastern Devonian shales: Organic geochemical studies, past and present

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, I.A.; Hatcher, P.G.; Romankiw, L.A.; Miknis, F.P.

    1983-01-01

    The Eastern Devonian shales are represented by a sequence of sediments extending from New York state, south to the northern regions of Georgia and Alabama, and west into Ohio and to the Michigan and Ilinois Basins. Correlatives are known in Texas. The shale is regionally known by a number of names: Chattanooga, Dunkirk, Rhinestreet, Huron, Antrim, Ohio, Woodford, etc. These shales, other than those in Texas, have elicited much interest because they have been a source of unassociated natural gas. It is of particular interest, however, that most of these shales have no associated crude oil, in spite of the fact that they have some of the characteristics normally attributed to source beds. This paper addresses some of the organic geochemical aspects of the kerogen in these shales, in relation to their oil generating potential. Past organic geochemical studies on Eastern Devonian shales will be reviewed. Recent solid state 13C NMR studies on the nature of the organic matter in Eastern Devonian shales show that Eastern Devonian shales contain a larger fraction of aromatic carbon in their chemical composition. Thus, despite their high organic matter contents, their potential as a petroleum source rock is low, because the kerogen in these shales is of a "coaly" nature and hence more prone to producing natural gas.

  13. Water Resources Management for Shale Energy Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoxtheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    The increase in the exploration and extraction of hydrocarbons, especially natural gas, from shale formations has been facilitated by advents in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies. Shale energy resources are very promising as an abundant energy source, though environmental challenges exist with their development, including potential adverse impacts to water quality. The well drilling and construction process itself has the potential to impact groundwater quality, however if proper protocols are followed and well integrity is established then impacts such as methane migration or drilling fluids releases can be minimized. Once a shale well has been drilled and hydraulically fractured, approximately 10-50% of the volume of injected fluids (flowback fluids) may flow out of the well initially with continued generation of fluids (produced fluids) throughout the well's productive life. Produced fluid TDS concentrations often exceed 200,000 mg/L, with elevated levels of strontium (Sr), bromide (Br), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), barium (Ba), chloride (Cl), radionuclides originating from the shale formation as well as fracturing additives. Storing, managing and properly disposisng of these fluids is critical to ensure water resources are not impacted by unintended releases. The most recent data in Pennsylvania suggests an estimated 85% of the produced fluids were being recycled for hydraulic fracturing operations, while many other states reuse less than 50% of these fluids and rely moreso on underground injection wells for disposal. Over the last few years there has been a shift to reuse more produced fluids during well fracturing operations in shale plays around the U.S., which has a combination of economic, regulatory, environmental, and technological drivers. The reuse of water is cost-competitive with sourcing of fresh water and disposal of flowback, especially when considering the costs of advanced treatment to or disposal well injection and lessens

  14. Structure, Mechanics and Flow Properties of Fractured Shale: Core-Scale Experimentation and In-situ Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmalek, B. F.; Karpyn, Z.; Liu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last several years, hydrocarbon exploitation and development in North America has been heavily centered on shale gas plays. However, the physical attributes of shales and their manifestation on transport properties and storage capacity remain poorly understood. Therefore, more experimentally based data are needed to fill the gaps in understanding both transport and storage of fluids in shale. The proposed work includes installation and testing of an experimental system which is capable of monitoring the dynamic evolution of shale core permeability under variable loading conditions and in coordination with X-ray microCT imaging. The goal of this study is to better understand and quantify fluid flow patterns and associated transport dynamics of fractured shale samples. The independent variables considered in this study are: mechanical loading and pore pressure. The mechanical response of shale core is captured for different loading paths. To best replicate the in-situ production scenario, the pore pressure is progressively depleted to mimic pressure decline. During the course of experimentation, permeability is estimated using the pulse-decay method under tri-axial stress boundary conditions. Simultaneously, X-ray microCT imaging is used with a tracer gas that is allowed to flow through the sample as an illuminating agent. In the presence of an illuminating agent, either Xenon or Krypton, the X-ray CT scanner can image fractures, global pathways and diffusional fronts in the matrix, as well as sorption sites that reflect heterogeneities in the sample and localized deformation. Anticipated results from these experiments will help quantify permeability evolution as a function of different loading conditions and pore pressure depletion. Also, the X-ray images will help visualize the change of flow patterns and the intensity of sorption as a function of mechanical loading and pore pressure.

  15. Organoporosity Evaluation of Shale: A Case Study of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in Southeast Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fangwen; Lu, Shuangfang; Ding, Xue

    2014-01-01

    The organopores play an important role in determining total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. The Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in southeast Chongqing was selected as a case to confirm the contribution of organopores (microscale and nanoscale pores within organic matters in shale) formed by hydrocarbon generation to total volume of hydrocarbons in shale gas reservoir. Using the material balance principle combined with chemical kinetics methods, an evaluation model of organoporosity for shale gas reservoirs was established. The results indicate that there are four important model parameters to consider when evaluating organoporosity in shale: the original organic carbon (w(TOC0)), the original hydrogen index (IH0), the transformation ratio of generated hydrocarbon (F(Ro)), and the organopore correction coefficient (C). The organoporosity of the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Shale in the Py1 well is from 0.20 to 2.76%, and the average value is 1.25%. The organoporosity variation trends and the residual organic carbon of Longmaxi Shale are consistent in section. The residual organic carbon is indicative of the relative levels of organoporosity, while the samples are in the same shale reservoirs with similar buried depths. PMID:25184155

  16. Fossil fuel energy resources of Ethiopia: Oil shale deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    The energy crisis affects all countries in the world. Considering the price scenarios, many countries in Africa have begun to explore various energy resources. Ethiopia is one of the countries that depend upon imported petroleum products. To overcome this problem, geological studies suggest a significant occurrence of oil shale deposits in Ethiopia. The Inter-Trappean oil shale-bearing sediments are widely distributed on the South-Western Plateau of Ethiopia in the Delbi-Moye, Lalo-Sapo, Sola, Gojeb-Chida and Yayu Basins. The oil shale-bearing sediments were deposited in fluviatile and lacustrine environments. The oil shales contain mixtures of algal, herbaceous and higher plant taxa. They are dominated by algal-derived liptinite with minor amounts of vitrinite and inertinite. The algal remains belong to Botryococcus and Pediastrum. Laboratory results confirm that the Ethiopian oil shales are dominated by long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and have a low sulphur content. Type-II and Type-I kerogen dominated the studied oil shales. Type-II and Type-I are good source rocks for oil and gas generation. Hydrogen index versus Tmax value plots indicated that most of the oil shale samples fall within the immature-early mature stage for hydrocarbon generation, consistent with the Ro values that range from 0.3% to 0.64%. Pyrolysis data of the oil shales sensu stricto indicate excellent source rocks with up to 61.2% TOC values. Calorific value ranges from 400 to 6165 cal/g. Palynological studies confirmed that the oil shale-bearing sediments of Ethiopia range from Eocene to Miocene in age. A total of about 253,000,000 ton of oil shale is registered in the country. Oil shale deposits in Ethiopia can be used for production of oil and gas.

  17. Influence of Bedding Angle on Borehole Stability: A Laboratory Investigation of Transverse Isotropic Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, T.; Rybacki, E.; Backers, T.; Dresen, G.

    2015-07-01

    The stability of wells drilled into bedded formations, e.g., shales, depends on the orientation between the bedding and the borehole axis. If the borehole is drilled sub-parallel to bedding, the risk of borehole instabilities increases significantly. In this study, we examined the formation of stress-induced borehole breakouts in Posidonia shale by performing a series of thick-walled hollow cylinder experiments with varying orientations of the bedding plane with respect to the borehole axis. The thick-walled hollow cylinders (40 mm in diameter and 80 mm in length containing an 8 mm diameter borehole) were loaded isostatically until formation of breakouts. The onset of borehole breakout development was determined by means of acoustic emission activity, strain measurements, ultrasonic velocities and amplitudes. The critical pressure for breakout initiation decreased from 151 MPa by approximately 65 % as the bedding plane inclination changed from normal to parallel to the borehole axis. The finely bedded structure in the shale resulted in an anisotropy in elasticity and strength from which the variation in strength dominated the integrity of the thick-walled hollow cylinders.

  18. Fracture mechanics investigation of oil shale to aid in understanding the explosive fragmentation process. Final technical report, January 1983-July 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, K.P.

    1984-09-01

    This report summarizes goals and findings achieved in developing technologies to improve the overall efficiency of oil shale recovery processes. The objectives are to (a) develop theoretical fracture mechanics tools that are applicable to transversely isotropic materials such as sedimentary rock, more particularly oil shale; and (b) develop a fracture mechanics test procedure that can be conveniently used for rock specimens. Such a test procedure would: utilize the geometry of a typical rock core for the test; require a minimum amount of specimen machining; and provide meaningful, reproducible data that corresponds well to test data obtained from conventional fracture mechanics tests. Critical review of the state-of-the-art of fracture mechanics on layered rocks has been completed. Recommendations are made for innovative and promising methods for oil shale fracture mechanics. Numerical and analytical studies of mixed mode fracture mechanics are investigated. Transversely isotropic properties of oil shale are input using isoparametric finite elements with singular elements at the crack tip. The model is a plate with an edge crack whose angle with the edge varies to study the effect of mixed mode fracture under various conditions. The three-dimensional plate is in tension, and stress, energy methods are used in the fracture analysis. Precracked disks of oil shale cored perpendicular to bedding planes are analyzed numerically. Stress intensity factors are determined by (i) strain energy method, and (ii) elliptic simulation method. 47 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Method and apparatus for processing oil shale in a rotary hearth

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, L.S.

    1982-07-27

    Hydrocarbon containing oil shale is processed on the surface of a rabbled rotary hearth by mixing it with a heat exchange medium consisting of heated spent oil shale. Mixing is obtained by feeding the raw shale and the heated spent shale separately, but in proximity to one another, onto the surface of a hearth, and then subjecting both materials to rabbling action. This mixing causes heat from the heated spent shale heat exchange medium to be transferred to the fresh raw shale, which results in the removal of hydrocarbons from the raw shale. In one preferred embodiment, heated spent shale is obtained by removing spent shale from the hearth after processing, mixing it, preferably while it is still hot, with compatible combustible solids, and then introducing oxidizing gases into the mixture. This results in the burning of the combustible solids and any combustible materials remaining in the shale and the heating of the spent shale.

  20. Marine shale and the Hazwaste recycling debate

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, J.

    1988-10-01

    This paper reports that Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (St. Rose, La.), and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (Washington, D.C.), an industry trade association, are at the focus of a controversy whose resolution has significant implications for the respective definitions, concepts and legal statuses of hazardous-waste incineration and recycling. Marine Shale Processors (MSP) claims it recycles hazardous wastes from a variety of government and commercial sources by blending it and treating it thermally in a large rotary kiln to produce non-hazardous aggregate material, which is sold for construction, road-building or other purposes. The Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (HWTC) and others allege that, under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), MSP is operating an unpermitted hazardous-waste incinerator. According to HWTC officials, MSP's identification as a recycler is inappropriate and has allowed the company unfairly to avoid permitting costs and formal compliance with RCRA standards and regulations. Recently, the Louisiana legislature passed laws declaring that hazardous-waste recyclers in the state must meet the same standards as permitted hazardous-waste incinerators. At press time, a hearing before the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality to determine MSP's status as a recycler under the new laws was set for Sept. 29. Since all parties in the debate over Marine Shale's industry role appear to agree that the controversy is central to the emerging issue of establishing clear distinctions between recycling and hazardous-waste destruction, this article describes the arguments on both sides as these stood in mid-September.

  1. Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy of Anisotropic Shale Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L. M.; van Wijk, K.

    2014-12-01

    Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS) is a technique that can be used to determine the elastic properties of geological core samples. The resonant frequencies of the sample are measured and the elastic tensor inverted for by the non-linear Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. It is a non-destructive method that allows the complete elastic tensor to be calculated from a single measurement and can provide important attenuation information. Many crustal rocks are anisotropic and can often be described by a hexagonal model of symmetry, where the sample has a single axis of rotational symmetry with perpendicular isotropic planes. Geological samples are often cylindrical and cut parallel or perpendicular to the layering (termed horizontal or vertical transverse isotropy respectively). The two situations cannot be treated by a single model and have substantially different resonant spectra. We have added functionality to existing forward and inverse codes to account for both situations. It is important to be able to deal with the two subsets of hexagonal symmetry because by using mutually perpendicular samples from the same rock complementary information can be obtained and more accurate results achieved than is possible with a single core. Shale formations consist of thin layered sequences of aligned microscopic clay platelets, which are responsible for the inherent anisotropy of shales, and can be described by a hexagonal symmetry model. RUS is used to determine the complete elastic tensor of two shale samples. When measured using RUS at frequencies on the order of 104 Hz and with time-of-flight methods with a dominant frequency an order of magnitude higher the elastic properties display frequency dispersion.

  2. Hydrogeochemistry of the Antrim shale, Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Martini, A.M.; Richards, J.A.; Walter, L.M. . Dept. of Geology); Kaiser, C.J. )

    1992-01-01

    The upper Devonian Antrim shale represents an unconventional hydrocarbon reservoir for the Michigan Basin which produces both natural gas and water from fractures. This water exhibits extreme variations in salinity over a fairly small geographic area. Samples were collected from 36 wells and analyzed for various chemical and isotopic constituents. The most dilute end-member fluid possesses an carbonate alkalinity of 60 meq/kg and a chloride concentration of 22,000 mg/l. The most saline water has an alkalinity of 7 meq/kg and a chloride concentration of 141,000 mg/l. The source of salinity for the more concentrated Antrim waters is more problematic as the waters possess an unusual chemistry for the reservoir fluids of the Michigan Basin. The reservoir fluids are dominated by Ca-Na-Cl type brines, such as found in the Berea Formation (an upper Devonian sandstone) and the Traverse Group (a mid-Devonian carbonate) aquifers both of which are in stratigraphic proximity to the Antrim shale. The Antrim waters are Na-Cl dominated and cannot be explained by simple mixing of meteoric water with either of these brine aquifers. Large deficiencies in both Br and Ca relative to chloride within the Antrim waters precludes such a model. A likely source for the Na-Cl is from dissolution of Devonian age salt coupled with possible upward fluid migration through regional fractures. When a really mapped, most geochemical parameters exhibit variations consistent with northeast-southwest trends. This corresponds to the primary joint-orientations measured for the Antrim Formation. The hydrologic isolation demonstrated by fluid chemistry within the upper and mid-Devonian aquifers, coupled with the fracture recharge within the Antrim shale leads to a complex pattern of local fluid migration and water-rock interactions.

  3. Shale gas wastewater management under uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Sun, Alexander Y; Duncan, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents an optimization framework for evaluating different wastewater treatment/disposal options for water management during hydraulic fracturing (HF) operations. This framework takes into account both cost-effectiveness and system uncertainty. HF has enabled rapid development of shale gas resources. However, wastewater management has been one of the most contentious and widely publicized issues in shale gas production. The flowback and produced water (known as FP water) generated by HF may pose a serious risk to the surrounding environment and public health because this wastewater usually contains many toxic chemicals and high levels of total dissolved solids (TDS). Various treatment/disposal options are available for FP water management, such as underground injection, hazardous wastewater treatment plants, and/or reuse. In order to cost-effectively plan FP water management practices, including allocating FP water to different options and planning treatment facility capacity expansion, an optimization model named UO-FPW is developed in this study. The UO-FPW model can handle the uncertain information expressed in the form of fuzzy membership functions and probability density functions in the modeling parameters. The UO-FPW model is applied to a representative hypothetical case study to demonstrate its applicability in practice. The modeling results reflect the tradeoffs between economic objective (i.e., minimizing total-system cost) and system reliability (i.e., risk of violating fuzzy and/or random constraints, and meeting FP water treatment/disposal requirements). Using the developed optimization model, decision makers can make and adjust appropriate FP water management strategies through refining the values of feasibility degrees for fuzzy constraints and the probability levels for random constraints if the solutions are not satisfactory. The optimization model can be easily integrated into decision support systems for shale oil/gas lifecycle

  4. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world’s energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1–T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale.

  5. Implementation of an anisotropic mechanical model for shale in Geodyn

    SciTech Connect

    Attaia, A.; Vorobiev, O.; Walsh, S.

    2015-05-15

    The purpose of this report is to present the implementation of a shale model in the Geodyn code, based on published rock material models and properties that can help a petroleum engineer in his design of various strategies for oil/gas recovery from shale rock formation.

  6. 78 FR 35601 - Oil Shale Management-General

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... 78 FR 18547, is reopended. Send your comments so that they reach the BLM on or before July 15, 2013... March 27, 2013, the BLM published a proposed rule (78 FR 18547) to amend the BLM's commercial oil shale... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Parts 3900, 3920, and 3930 RIN 1004-AE28 Oil Shale...

  7. Nuclear Waste Disposal: A Cautionary Tale for Shale Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alley, William M.; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.; Ryan, M. Cathryn

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear energy and shale gas development each began with the promise of cheap, abundant energy and prospects for national energy independence. Nuclear energy was touted as "too cheap to meter," and shale gas promised jobs and other economic benefits during a recession.

  8. Updated methodology for nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of shales.

    PubMed

    Washburn, Kathryn E; Birdwell, Justin E

    2013-08-01

    Unconventional petroleum resources, particularly in shales, are expected to play an increasingly important role in the world's energy portfolio in the coming years. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), particularly at low-field, provides important information in the evaluation of shale resources. Most of the low-field NMR analyses performed on shale samples rely heavily on standard T1 and T2 measurements. We present a new approach using solid echoes in the measurement of T1 and T1-T2 correlations that addresses some of the challenges encountered when making NMR measurements on shale samples compared to conventional reservoir rocks. Combining these techniques with standard T1 and T2 measurements provides a more complete assessment of the hydrogen-bearing constituents (e.g., bitumen, kerogen, clay-bound water) in shale samples. These methods are applied to immature and pyrolyzed oil shale samples to examine the solid and highly viscous organic phases present during the petroleum generation process. The solid echo measurements produce additional signal in the oil shale samples compared to the standard methodologies, indicating the presence of components undergoing homonuclear dipolar coupling. The results presented here include the first low-field NMR measurements performed on kerogen as well as detailed NMR analysis of highly viscous thermally generated bitumen present in pyrolyzed oil shale. PMID:23719372

  9. Analysis of eastern Devonian gas shales production data

    SciTech Connect

    Gatens, J.M.; Stanley, D.K.; Lancaster, D.E.; Lee, W.J.; Lane, H.S.; Watson, A.T.

    1989-05-01

    Production data from more than 800 Devonian shale wells have been analyzed. Permeability-thickness product and gas in place estimated from production data have been found to correlate with well performance. Empirical performance equations, production type curves, and an analytical dual-porosity model with automatic history-matching scheme were developed for the Devonian shale.

  10. Multivariate analysis relating oil shale geochemical properties to NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Washburn, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry has been used to provide insight into shale composition by separating relaxation responses from the various hydrogen-bearing phases present in shales in a noninvasive way. Previous low-field NMR work using solid-echo methods provided qualitative information on organic constituents associated with raw and pyrolyzed oil shale samples, but uncertainty in the interpretation of longitudinal-transverse (T1–T2) relaxometry correlation results indicated further study was required. Qualitative confirmation of peaks attributed to kerogen in oil shale was achieved by comparing T1–T2 correlation measurements made on oil shale samples to measurements made on kerogen isolated from those shales. Quantitative relationships between T1–T2 correlation data and organic geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales were determined using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Relaxometry results were also compared to infrared spectra, and the results not only provided further confidence in the organic matter peak interpretations but also confirmed attribution of T1–T2 peaks to clay hydroxyls. In addition, PLSR analysis was applied to correlate relaxometry data to trace element concentrations with good success. The results of this work show that NMR relaxometry measurements using the solid-echo approach produce T1–T2 peak distributions that correlate well with geochemical properties of raw and pyrolyzed oil shales.

  11. Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Dyni, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

  12. Shallow oil shale resources of the southern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Smith, J.W.; Trudell, L.G.

    1980-09-01

    The shallow Green River Formation oil shales in the southern part of Utah's Uinta Basin are potentially developable by strip mining or by subsurface techniques which take advantage of limited overburden. The resource of potential shale oil represented by the shallow deposits is evaluated in detail from corehole oil-yield data. Cross-sections are constructed to readily correlatable stratigraphic units selected to represent resources in the shallow shale. To define each unit, the thickness, average oil yield, and oil resource of each unit in each core are calculated. Contour maps constructed from these data define the resource variation across the shallow resource. By measuring areas enclosed in each resource unit within the defined limit of 200 feet (61 meters) of overburden, the resource represented by the shallow oil shale is evaluated. The total resource is measured as 4.9 billion barrels (779.1 billion liters) of potential shale oil at depths less than 200 feet (61 meters). The rich zone incorporates the Mahogany bed, the best shallow oil-shale unit. This section, currently being exploited by Geokinetics, Inc., for in situ production of shale oil by horizontal combustion, represents 2.2 billion barrels (349.8 billion liters) of potential shale oil in place.

  13. Market analysis of shale oil co-products. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Data are presented in these appendices on the marketing and economic potential for soda ash, aluminia, and nahcolite as by-products of shale oil production. Appendices 1 and 2 contain data on the estimated capital and operating cost of an oil shales/mineral co-products recovery facility. Appendix 3 contains the marketing research data.

  14. Preferred Orientations and Anisotropy in Shales: Callovo-Oxfordian Shale (France) and Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    SciTech Connect

    Wenk, H.-R.; Voltolini, M.; Mazurek, M.; Van Loon, L.R.; Vinsot, A.

    2009-06-30

    Anisotropy in clay-rich sedimentary rocks is receiving increasing attention. Seismic anisotropy is essential in the prospecting for petroleum deposits. Anisotropy of diffusion has become relevant for environmental contaminants, including nuclear waste. In both cases, the orientation of component minerals is a critical ingredient and, largely because of small grain size and poor crystallinity, the orientation distribution of clay minerals has been difficult to quantify. A method is demonstrated that relies on hard synchrotron X-rays to obtain diffraction images of shales and applies the crystallographic Rietveld method to deconvolute the images and extract quantitative information about phase fractions and preferred orientation that can then be used to model macroscopic physical properties. The method is applied to shales from European studies which investigate the suitability of shales as potential nuclear waste repositories (Meuse/Haute-Marne Underground Research Laboratory near Bure, France, and Benken borehole and Mont Terri Rock Laboratory, Switzerland). A Callovo-Oxfordian shale from Meuse/Haute-Marne shows a relatively weak alignment of clay minerals and a random distribution for calcite. Opalinus shales from Benken and Mont Terri show strong alignment of illite-smectite, kaolinite, chlorite, and calcite. This intrinsic contribution to anisotropy is consistent with macroscopic physical properties where anisotropy is caused both by the orientation distribution of crystallites and high-aspect-ratio pores. Polycrystal elastic properties are obtained by averaging single crystal properties over the orientation distribution and polyphase properties by averaging over all phases. From elastic properties we obtain anisotropies for p waves ranging from 7 to 22%.

  15. Measurements of Methane Emissions and Volatile Organic Compounds from Shale Gas Operations in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omara, M.; Subramanian, R.; Sullivan, M.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the most expansive shale gas reserve in play in the United States, representing an estimated 17 to 29 % of the total domestic shale gas reserves. The rapid and extensive development of this shale gas reserve in the past decade has stimulated significant interest and debate over the climate and environmental impacts associated with fugitive releases of methane and other pollutants, including volatile organic compounds. However, the nature and magnitude of these pollutant emissions remain poorly characterized. This study utilizes the tracer release technique to characterize total fugitive methane release rates from natural gas facilities in southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia that are at different stages of development, including well completion flowbacks and active production. Real-time downwind concentrations of methane and two tracer gases (acetylene and nitrous oxide) released onsite at known flow rates were measured using a quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (QC-TILDAS, Aerodyne, Billerica, MA) and a cavity ring down spectrometer (Model G2203, Picarro, Santa Clara, CA). Evacuated Silonite canisters were used to sample ambient air during downwind transects of methane and tracer plumes to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector was used to quantify VOCs following the EPA Method TO-14A. A preliminary assessment of fugitive emissions from actively producing sites indicated that methane leak rates ranged from approximately 1.8 to 6.2 SCFM, possibly reflecting differences in facility age and installed emissions control technology. A detailed comparison of methane leak rates and VOCs emissions with recent published literature for other US shale gas plays will also be discussed.

  16. Black shale - its deposition and diagenesis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Depositional processes involve a range of relationships among such factors as organic productivity, clastic sedimentation rate, and the intensity of oxidation by which organic matter is destroyed. If enough organic material is present to exhaust the oxygen in the environment, black shale results. During diagenesis for a thickness of a few meters beneath the surface, sulfate is reduced and sulfide minerals may be deposited. Fermentation reactions in the next several hundred meters result in biogenic methane, followed successively at greater depths by decarboxylation reactions and thermal maturation that form additional hydrocarbons. -from Author

  17. Bakken shale typifies horizontal drilling success

    SciTech Connect

    Leibman, P.R. )

    1990-12-01

    Given the favorable production response that has been obtained from horizontal drilling in vertical- fractured reservoirs such as the Bakken shale and, more recently, the Austin chalk, industry interest in this technology has mushroomed in the U.S. Indeed, it is difficult to find a good-sized oil company these days that is not involved in a horizontal drilling project or is giving it serious consideration. In response to growing evidence of successful field applications, the realization is dawning on the investment community that horizontal drilling represents a significant technological development with positive implications for both the exploration and production business, and the oilfield services industry.

  18. Assessing the Adsorption Properties of Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.

    2014-12-01

    Fine-grained rocks, such as shales, contain a significant amount of nanopores that can significantly contribute to their storage capacity through the mechanism of adsorption. The current ability to extract natural gas that is adsorbed in the rock's matrix is limited and current technology focuses primarily on the free gas in the fractures, thus leading to very low recovery efficiencies. Shales constitute also a great portion of so-called caprocks above potential CO2 sequestration sites; hereby, the adsorption process may limit the CO2 mobility within the cap-rock, thus minimizing leakage phenomena. Whether it is a reservoir or a caprock, understanding and quantifying the mechanisms of adsorption in these natural materials is key to improve the engineering design of subsurface operations. Results will be presented from a laboratory study that combines conventional techniques for the measurement of adsorption isotherms with novel methods that allows for the imaging of adsorption using x-rays. Various nanoporous materials are considered, thus including rocks, such as shales and coals, pure clay minerals and engineered adsorbents with well-defined nanopore structures, such as zeolites. Supercritical CO2 adsorption isotherms have been measured with a Rubotherm Magnetic Suspension balance by covering the pressure range 0.1-20~MPa. A medical x-ray CT scanner has been used to identify three-dimensional patterns of the adsorption properties of a packed-bed of adsorbent, thus enabling to assess the spatial variability of the adsorption isotherm. The data are analyzed by using thermodynamically rigorous measures of adsorption and a graphical method is applied for their interpretation. The density of the adsorbed phase is estimated and compared to data reported in the literature; the latter is key to disclose gas-reserves and/or potential storage capacity estimates. When evaluated against classic adsorbent materials, the adsorption mechanism in shales is further complicated by

  19. Evaluation of Geochemical Fracture Conductivity Alterations in Shale under Laboratory Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radonjic, M.; Olabode, A.

    2015-12-01

    In large scale subsurface injection of carbondioxide as obtainable in carbon sequestration programs and in environmentally friendly hydraulic fracturing processes (using supercritical CO2), rock-fluid interaction can affect reservoir and seal rocks properties which are essential in monitoring the progress of these operations. The mineralogical components of sedimentary rocks are geochemically active particularly under enormous earth stresses. While geomechanical properties such as rock stiffness, Poisson's ratio and fracture geometry largely govern fluid flow characteristics in deep fractured formations, the effect of mineralization can lead to flow impedance in the presence of favorable geochemical and thermodynamic conditions. Experimental works which employed the use of analytical tools such as ICP-OES, XRD, SEM/EDS, TOC and BET techniques in investigating diagenetic and micro-structural properties of crushed shale caprock/CO2-brine system concluded that net precipitation reaction processes can affect the distribution of petrophysical nanopores in the shale as a result of rock-fluid interactions. Simulation results previously reported, suggest that influx-induced mineral dissolution/precipitation reactions within clay-based sedimentary rocks can continuously close micro-fracture networks, though injection pressure and effective-stress transformation first rapidly expand these fractures. This experimental modelling research investigated the impact of in-situ geochemical precipitation on conductivity of fractures under geomechanical stress conditions. Conductivity is measured as differential-pressure drop equivalence, using a pressure pulse-decay liquid permeametry/core flooding system, as geochemically saturated-fluid is transported through composite cores with embedded micro-tubings that mimic fractures. The reactive fluid is generated from crushed shale rocks of known mineralogical composition when flooded with aqueous CO2 at elevated temperature and pressure

  20. Isotope approach to assess hydrologic connections during Marcellus Shale drilling.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Mulder, Michon L; Sack, Andrea; Schroeder, Karl; Hammack, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Water and gas samples were collected from (1) nine shallow groundwater aquifers overlying Marcellus Shale in north-central West Virginia before active shale gas drilling, (2) wells producing gas from Upper Devonian sands and Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale in southwestern Pennsylvania, (3) coal-mine water discharges in southwestern Pennsylvania, and (4) streams in southwestern Pennsylvania and north-central West Virginia. Our preliminary results demonstrate that the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of water, carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon, and carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of methane in Upper Devonian sands and Marcellus Shale are very different compared with shallow groundwater aquifers, coal-mine waters, and stream waters of the region. Therefore, spatiotemporal stable isotope monitoring of the different sources of water before, during, and after hydraulic fracturing can be used to identify migrations of fluids and gas from deep formations that are coincident with shale gas drilling. PMID:23772970