Science.gov

Sample records for retrofit plant topical

  1. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  2. Retrofitting olefin cracking plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, C.; Fernandez-Baujin, J.M.

    1983-12-01

    This article discusses the retrofitting of liquid crackers which produce olefins so that gaseous feedstocks can be used. Naphtha and gas oil are the predominant design feedstocks for producing olefins. The price of gaseous feedstocks such as ethane, propane and butane have become economically more attractive than liquid feedstocks. Existing liquid crackers will be able to produce ethylene at 85% or higher capacity when cracking propane and butane feedstock with only minor changes. Topics considered include revamping for vacuum gas oil (VGO) feedstocks and revamping for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) feedstocks.

  3. Pinch technology experience in plant retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Kumana, J.D.; Spriggs, H.D.; Ashton, G.

    1987-01-01

    Pinch technology has been applied to retrofit of many plants employing a wide variety of technologies, including continuous and batch processes, and those involving solids processing. This paper reports the authors recent experience in identifying energy savings opportunities in an oil refinery, an ethylene plant, and a corn wet milling plant. The key findings are that: Pinch technology can be successfully applied to retrofits as well as new plant designs; the correct design for retrofits is not the same as that for new designs; pinch technology gives good results even in ''difficult'' processes employing the less common unit operations; and some commonly accepted practices (specifically in solids drying) are fundamentally wrong; multiple-effect drying based on a countercurrent humidity profile offers significant potential for energy savings.

  4. Willow firing in retrofitted Irish peat plant

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, R. van den; Faaij, A.; Kent, T.

    1995-11-01

    Interest in biomass electricity in Ireland is being re-awakened by environmental concerns about CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation and the potential of biomass production to provide an alternative agricultural enterprise. The technical and economical feasibility of wood-fuelled power production using willow from energy farming in existing peat-fired plants in Ireland is being studied within the framework of the EU JOULE II+ programme. These options are compared with new combustion plants and a biomass integrated gasifier with combined cycle (BIG/CC). Background studies supplied data for yields of willow farming, establishment of willow plantations, harvesting methods, logistics and costs and efficiencies for different retrofit options at Irish peat plants. All technologies considered are currently available or are expected to be available in the near future. Neither agricultural subsidies nor possible CO{sub 2} taxes have been included. In the least cost supply scenario storage and chipping of wood is done at the power station. In this case wood is only stored in the form of sticks and wood harvested by a chips harvester is supplied to the plant directly during the harvesting season. Fuel costs at the plant gate were estimated between 3.3 and 11 EGU/GJ{sub LHV}. This wide range resulted in a wide range of kWh costs. For the lowest cost option they ranged between 5.4 and 15 ECUcents/kWh. The cheapest proven retrofit option is the conversion of the existing milled peat Lanesborough unit 3 into a bubbling fluidized bed with kWh costs ranging from 5.6 up to 16 ECUcents/kWh. For this plant, costs per tonne of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions varied between 1 and 70 ECU. It is noteworthy that the kWh costs for all options considered were very close. Especially in the high costs scenario a BIG/CC appeared to have lower kWh cost than all biomass combustion plants. Mainly for the retrofitted plants the fuel costs were by far the largest kWh cost component.

  5. Energy Retrofit for Aging K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    3D/International, Houston, TX.

    Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Topics explore how certain ECM measures can benefit educational facilities, why retrofitting begun sooner rather than later is important, how to finance the retrofit program, and the…

  6. Sodium bicarbonate makes sense for small plant retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Frounfelker, R.E. )

    1989-10-01

    This article discusses the flue gas scrubbing technologies available for small waste to energy plant use and examines one technology application at a plant in Sitka, Alaska. The topics covered include the Sitka generator, the system description, chemical reactions with baking soda, testing methods and assumptions, system economics and system testing results.

  7. Licensing retrofit incinerators at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.; Edwards, C.W.; Wilson, B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether or not a backfit incinerator could be licensed under the provisions of 10 CFR Part 50.59, Gilbert Associates, Inc., with support from the Department of Energy, prepared, on a generic basis, typical engineering design information, accident analysis data and other documentation necessary to apply to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a license to backfit a low-level radioactive waste incinerator in an operating nuclear power plant. The Department of Energy, serving in the role of a typical utility organization, submitted this generic report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for review and comment in a mock demonstration of the licensing process. The ultimate goal of this effort is to identify and resolve any safety issues associated with backfit incinerators so that a sufficient level of confidence in the licensability of backfit incinerators can be installed in nuclear utility management, and to encourage the industry to actually proceed with plans to install incinerators on a retrofit basis.

  8. Topic maps for archiving space plant experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, Enno; Karoliussen, Irene; Hauan, Tore Martin; Fossum, Knut R.

    The increasing amount of data collected during Space flight experiments, especially on the ISS, requires a new approach for data archiving. The "ULISSE" project, funded by the European Commission, combines the knowledge of the User Support Operation Centers (USOCs) of the ISS and their industrial partners to build up a database for the integration and dissemination of Space experiments. For plant experiments in Space, the N-USOC in Trondheim (Norway) is responsible to collect and implement the needs of scientists working in the field of plant biology for this bio-informatics tool. Each experiment can be found in a topic map providing interfaces to other experiments or other topics. Topic maps describe among others the ex-periment environment in orbit or on ground, experimental methods, hardware and software, biological processes, and experimental results. Each of these topics needs to be identified by an unambiguous definition, usually a link to a database like a thesaurus or an ontology. A survey was done to see in which of the common ontology databases suitable definitions of the topic names of the N-USOC Topic Map could be found. Thus, the draft N-USOC Topic Map could be linked almost completely to Web based definitions. This will allow embedding Space plant biology experiments into public data management systems. Credits: European Commission (FP7/2007-2013, grant agreement n218815).

  9. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John; Gagelin, Jean-Philippe

    2004-07-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  10. Retrofit of Soederberg smelter at Alusaf Bayside plant. Part 1: Conceptual design and engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Vogelsang, D.; Droste, C.; Segatz, M.; Eick, I.

    1996-10-01

    A main objective of the Bayside Smelter modernization at Alusaf Pty. is the retrofit of the Soederberg pots operating at 120 kA to prebake cells with a current load of 165 kA. The complete design and engineering of this modernization project was done by VAW. Based on computer simulations a tailor-made concept for the retrofit project was developed. A pilot plant trial was conducted successfully in 1994. This paper presents the retrofit concept with details of the magneto-hydrodynamic and thermo-electric calculations. Plant measurements demonstrate the good agreement with computer simulations. Some highlights of the detailed engineering for the modernized pots elucidate concepts of integrating existing and new hardware.

  11. Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Retrofit Issues for Coal Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have been published on carbon capture technology as an independent island. In contrast, this evaluation considered the impact on the existing plant and the potential improvements to ease the retrofit of a carbon capture process. This paper will provide insight i...

  12. Retrofitting the Williams Energy Services Ignacio Plant for higher throughput and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.T.; Pitman, R.N.

    1999-07-01

    The Ignacio Plant located near Durango, Colorado was originally designed to process 346 MMscfd of feed gas and to recover approximately 82% of the contained ethane. Based on increasing volumes of available feed gas, Williams Energy Services (WES) undertook a study to investigate alternatives for increasing plant capacity and ethane recovery. This study led to the selection of Ortloff's Recycle Split-Vapor (RSV) process for retrofitting the existing facility because it offered several very important advantages: maximum utilization of existing equipment, a 30% increase in plant feed handling capacity and an increase in average ethane recovery to 94% without adding residue compressors. This paper presents the comparative case analysis that led to the selection of the RSV design. It also describes the modifications required for the retrofit, all of which can be accomplished with minimum plant down time. The modified Ignacio Plant is scheduled for startup in March 1999.

  13. Performance analysis and pilot plant test results for the Komorany fluidized bed retrofit project

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, G.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed heat and mass balance calculations and emission performance projections are presented for an atmospheric fluidized bed boiler bottom retrofit at the 927 MWt (steam output) Komorany power station and district heating plant in the Czech Republic. Each of the ten existing boilers are traveling grate stoker units firing a local, low-rank brown coal. This fuel, considered to be representative of much of the coal deposits in Central Europe, is characterized by an average gross calorific value of 10.5 MJ/kg (4,530 Btu/lb), an average dry basis ash content of 47 %, and a maximum dry basis sulfur content of 1.8 % (3.4 % on a dry, ash free basis). The same fuel supply, together with limestone supplied from the region will be utilized in the retrofit fluidized bed boilers. The primary objectives of this retrofit program are, (1) reduce emissions to a level at or below the new Czech Clean Air Act, and (2) restore plant capacity to the original specification. As a result of the AFBC retrofit and plant upgrade, the particulate matter emissions will be reduced by over 98 percent, SO{sub 2} emissions will be reduced by 88 percent, and NO{sub x} emissions will be reduced by 38 percent compared to the present grate-fired configuration. The decrease in SO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the fluidized bed retrofit was initially predicted based on fuel sulfur content, including the distribution among organic, pyritic, and sulfate forms; the ash alkalinity; and the estimated limestone calcium utilization efficiency. The methodology and the results of this prediction were confirmed and extended by pilot scale combustion trials at a 1.0 MWt (fuel input), variable configuration test facility in France.

  14. Feasibility of Hybrid Retrofits to Off-Grid Diesel Power Plants in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, C. D.; Flowers, L. T.; Benavidez, P. J.; Abergas, R. L.; Barruela, R. B.

    1999-08-01

    The Strategic Power Utilities Group (SPUG) of the National Power Corporation (NPC) in the Philippines owns and operates about 100 power plants, mostly fueled by diesel, ranging in energy production from about 15 kilowatt-hours (kWh)/day to 106,000 kWh/day. Reducing the consumption of diesel fuel in these plants, along with the associated financial losses, is a priority for SPUG. The purpose of this study is to estimate the potential fuel and cost savings that might be achieved by retrofitting hybrid power systems to these existing diesel plants. As used in this report, the term ''hybrid system'' refers to any combination of wind turbine generators (WTGs), photovoltaic (PV) modules, lead-acid batteries, and an AC/DC power converter (either an electronic inverter or a rotary converter), in addition to the existing diesel gensets. The resources available for this study did not permit a detailed design analysis for each of the plants. Instead, the following five-step process was used: (1) Tabulate some important characteristics of all the plants. (2) Group the plants into categories (six classes) with similar characteristics. (3) For each class of system, identify one plant that is representative of the class. (4) For each representative plant, perform a moderately detailed prefeasibility analysis of design options. (5) Summarize and interpret the results. The analysis of each representative plant involved the use of time-series computer simulation models to estimate the fuel usage, maintenance expenses, and cash flow resulting from various designs, and to search the domain of possible designs for the one leading to the lowest life-cycle cost. Cost items that would be unaffected by the retrofit, such as operator salaries and the capital cost of existing equipment, were not included in the analysis. Thus, the results are reported as levelized cost of energy (COE) savings: the difference between the cost of the existing diesel-only system and that of an optimized hybrid

  15. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.

  16. Should a coal-fired power plant be replaced or retrofitted?

    PubMed

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Morel, Benoit; Apt, Jay; Chen, Chao

    2007-12-01

    In a cap-and-trade system, a power plant operator can choose to operate while paying for the necessary emissions allowances, retrofit emissions controls to the plant, or replace the unit with a new plant. Allowance prices are uncertain, as are the timing and stringency of requirements for control of mercury and carbon emissions. We model the evolution of allowance prices for SO2, NOx, Hg, and CO2 using geometric Brownian motion with drift, volatility, and jumps, and use an options-based analysis to find the value of the alternatives. In the absence of a carbon price, only if the owners have a planning horizon longer than 30 years would they replace a conventional coal-fired plant with a high-performance unit such as a supercritical plant; otherwise, they would install SO2 and NOx, controls on the existing unit. An expectation that the CO2 price will reach $50/t in 2020 makes the installation of an IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration attractive today, even for planning horizons as short as 20 years. A carbon price below $40/t is unlikely to produce investments in carbon capture for electric power. PMID:18186326

  17. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 -- Industrial boiler retrofit. Proof of concept testing summary (Task 3.0 Final topical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility, Pittsburgh Energy Technical Center (PETC) has supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories in cooperation with the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University to develop the High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC). The objective of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall objective the following specific areas were targeted: a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The work carried out under this program is broken into five major Tasks: review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; installation and testing of a HEACC system in a retrofit application; economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and long term demonstration under user demand conditions. This report summarizes the work done under Task 3, the installation and testing of the HEACC burner in a 15,000 lb/hr package boiler located at Penn State. The period of testing was approximately 400 hours. Key findings are presented.

  18. Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

  19. Oxy-fuel Combustion and Integrated Pollutant Removal as Retrofit Technologies for Removing CO2 from Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, T.L.; Oryshchyn, D.B.; Summers, C.A.; Gerdemann, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    One third of the US installed capacity is coal-fired, producing 49.7% of net electric generation in 20051. Any approach to curbing CO2 production must consider the installed capacity and provide a mechanism for preserving this resource while meeting CO2 reduction goals. One promising approach to both new generation and retrofit is oxy-fuel combustion. Using oxygen instead of air as the oxidizer in a boiler provides a concentrated CO2 combustion product for processing into a sequestration-ready fluid.... Post-combustion carbon capture and oxy-fuel combustion paired with a compression capture technology such as IPR are both candidates for retrofitting pc combustion plants to meet carbon emission limits. This paper will focus on oxy-fuel combustion as applied to existing coal power plants.

  20. Cost effectiveness study for retrofitting American aluminum production plants with inert anode-cathode systems

    SciTech Connect

    Galambas, J.W.; Eitel, G.L.; Payne, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    The present Hall-Heroult aluminum smelters utilize carbon anodes and cathodes to pass a current through an alumina/cryolite melt to produce elemental aluminum. Since about 1/2 kg of carbon is consumed for every kg of aluminum produced, the carbon anodes must be replaced about every eighteen days in the prebake cells. In addition the undulating surface to the molten aluminum, due to magnetic fields and escaping anode gas, requires that the anode-cathode distance (ACD) be greater than 4.0 cm. This large ACD causes the cell to be less energy efficient because the resistance heating in the electrolyte converts electrical energy to thermal energy without producing aluminum. The combination of a dimensionally stable anode with a drained and wetted cathode would permit reducing the ACD and produce a substantial increase in cell productivity at a lower specific electric energy consumption. The objective of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of retrofitting American aluminum production plants with inert anode-cathode systems. 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Retrofit cogeneration system increases refrigeration capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Amberger, R.F. ); DeFrees, J.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This article describes a retrofit cogeneration systems for increasing refrigeration capacity at a milk processing plant in Queens, New York. The natural gas/ammonia cogeneration and subcooling systems reduce CO[sub 2] emissions and provide cost and energy savings. The topics of the article include the innovative aspects, computer modeling for system analysis, analysis technique, system configuration, refrigeration loads, operations and maintenance, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits.

  2. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  3. Case study on incentive mechanism of energy efficiency retrofit in coal-fueled power plant in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO(2)e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only -0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO(2), the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO(2) emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China. PMID:23365532

  4. Case Study on Incentive Mechanism of Energy Efficiency Retrofit in Coal-Fueled Power Plant in China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Donghai; Guo, Xujing; Cao, Yuan; He, Liansheng; Wang, Jinggang; Xi, Beidou; Li, Junqi; Ma, Wenlin; Zhang, Mingshun

    2012-01-01

    An ordinary steam turbine retrofit project is selected as a case study; through the retrofit, the project activities will generate emission reductions within the power grid for about 92,463 tCO2e per annum. The internal rate of return (IRR) of the project is only −0.41% without the revenue of carbon credits, for example, CERs, which is much lower than the benchmark value of 8%. Only when the unit price of carbon credit reaches 125 CNY/tCO2, the IRR could reach the benchmark and an effective carbon tax needs to increase the price of carbon to 243 CNY/tce in order to make the project financially feasible. Design of incentive mechanism will help these low efficiency enterprises improve efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions, which can provide the power plants sufficient incentive to implement energy efficiency retrofit project in existing coal-fuel power generation-units, and we hope it will make a good demonstration for the other low efficiency coal-fueled power generation units in China. PMID:23365532

  5. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    SciTech Connect

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  6. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  7. Plant Phenotyping using Probabilistic Topic Models: Uncovering the Hyperspectral Language of Plants.

    PubMed

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Modern phenotyping and plant disease detection methods, based on optical sensors and information technology, provide promising approaches to plant research and precision farming. In particular, hyperspectral imaging have been found to reveal physiological and structural characteristics in plants and to allow for tracking physiological dynamics due to environmental effects. In this work, we present an approach to plant phenotyping that integrates non-invasive sensors, computer vision, as well as data mining techniques and allows for monitoring how plants respond to stress. To uncover latent hyperspectral characteristics of diseased plants reliably and in an easy-to-understand way, we "wordify" the hyperspectral images, i.e., we turn the images into a corpus of text documents. Then, we apply probabilistic topic models, a well-established natural language processing technique that identifies content and topics of documents. Based on recent regularized topic models, we demonstrate that one can track automatically the development of three foliar diseases of barley. We also present a visualization of the topics that provides plant scientists an intuitive tool for hyperspectral imaging. In short, our analysis and visualization of characteristic topics found during symptom development and disease progress reveal the hyperspectral language of plant diseases. PMID:26957018

  8. Plant Phenotyping using Probabilistic Topic Models: Uncovering the Hyperspectral Language of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wahabzada, Mirwaes; Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Bauckhage, Christian; Steiner, Ulrike; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Kersting, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Modern phenotyping and plant disease detection methods, based on optical sensors and information technology, provide promising approaches to plant research and precision farming. In particular, hyperspectral imaging have been found to reveal physiological and structural characteristics in plants and to allow for tracking physiological dynamics due to environmental effects. In this work, we present an approach to plant phenotyping that integrates non-invasive sensors, computer vision, as well as data mining techniques and allows for monitoring how plants respond to stress. To uncover latent hyperspectral characteristics of diseased plants reliably and in an easy-to-understand way, we “wordify” the hyperspectral images, i.e., we turn the images into a corpus of text documents. Then, we apply probabilistic topic models, a well-established natural language processing technique that identifies content and topics of documents. Based on recent regularized topic models, we demonstrate that one can track automatically the development of three foliar diseases of barley. We also present a visualization of the topics that provides plant scientists an intuitive tool for hyperspectral imaging. In short, our analysis and visualization of characteristic topics found during symptom development and disease progress reveal the hyperspectral language of plant diseases. PMID:26957018

  9. Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Topics discussed in this column include patterns of inverse multipliers in modular arithmetic; diagrams for product sets, set intersection, and set union; function notation; patterns in the number of partitions of positive integers; and tessellations. (DT)

  10. Spectrum-splitting hybrid CSP-CPV solar energy system with standalone and parabolic trough plant retrofit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Matthew; Zweibaum, Nicolas; Lance, Tamir; Ruiz, Maritza; Morad, Ratson

    2016-05-01

    Sunlight to electricity efficiencies of Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) plants are typically on the order of 15%, while commercial solar Photovoltaic (PV) technologies routinely achieve efficiencies of greater than 20%, albeit with much higher conversion efficiencies of photons at the band gap. Hybridizing concentrating solar power and photovoltaic technologies can lead to higher aggregate efficiencies due to the matching of photons to the appropriate converter based on wavelength. This can be accomplished through spectral filtering whereby photons unusable or poorly utilitized by PV (IR and UV) are passed through to a heat collection element, while useful photons (VIS) are reflected onto a concentrating PV (CPV) receiver. The mechanical design and experimental validation of spectral splitting optics is described in conjunction with system level modeling and economic analysis. The implications of this architecture include higher efficiency, lower cost hybrid CSP-PV power systems, as well as the potential to retrofit existing PTC plants to boost their output by ~ 10% at a projected investment cost of less than 1 per additional net Watt and an IRR of 18%, while preserving the dispatchability of the CSP plant's thermal energy storage.

  11. A simulation study of the energy-efficient options for upgrading and retrofitting a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Zbigniew; Mikosz, Jerzy

    2016-10-01

    Many municipal wastewater treatment plants are retrofitted with membrane filtration that replaces secondary clarification. Such a solution saves space and improves overall treatment efficiency but at the cost of increased energy consumption and reduced potential for energy recovery from sewage sludge. Thus, the plant takes a step back from reaching energy self-sufficiency. In the presented case study, two alternative upgrade options were simulated for a medium-size municipal wastewater treatment plant in Poland: the first one assumed optimization of the existing bioreactor, and the other - installation of microfiltration membrane units inside the bioreactor. In both cases, anaerobic digestion of waste sludge with biogas utilization is planned. The results have shown that while under both upgrade options, the plant's capacity can be effectively increased by approximately 50%, their effects on the plant's energy balance will be very different. Although the installation of membrane modules accompanied by the construction of anaerobic digestion tanks improves the plant's energy balance, it will remain negative. The option of optimizing the existing biological treatment system produces a positive energy balance with more energy produced from biogas than consumed. Thus, the plant is able to approach energy self-sufficiency. It has been concluded that retrofitting the plants with membrane filtration is not always the best option from the energy balance point of view and it should be preceded with a detailed analysis on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26878434

  12. Coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic topping cycle for retrofit of steam power plants. [Two-phase working fluid composed of coal combustion products and liquid copper

    SciTech Connect

    Pierson, E. S.; Herman, H.; Petrick, M.; Boom, R. W.; Carlson, L.; Cohen, D.; Dubey, G.; Grammel, S. J.; Schreiner, F.; Snyder, B. K.; Zinneman, T.

    1980-12-01

    The application of the new, coal-fired open-cycle liquid-metal MHD (OC-LMMHD) energy-conversion system to the retrofit of an existing, oil- or gas-fired conventional steam power plant is evaluated. The criteria used to evaluate the retrofit are the new plant efficiency and the cost benefit relative to other options, i.e., continuing to burn oil, a conventional retrofit to burn coal (if possible), and an over-the-fence gasifier for boilers that cannot burn coal directly. The OC-LMMHD cycle and the existing steam plant used in the study are discussed, and a detailed description of the retrofit plant is presented. The latter includes plant drawings, description of the coupling of the OC-LMMHD topping cycle and the steam boiler, drawings and descriptions of the major components in the retrofit plant, and costs. The unique capability of the OC-LMMHD cycle to control the pollutants normally associated with burning coal is discussed. The net plant output powers and efficiencies are calculated, with allowances for the required auxiliary powers and component inefficiencies, and a plant lifetime economic analysis performed by an architect/engineer. The efficiency and cost results are compared with the values for the other options.

  13. Canadian retrofit meets stiffer sulfur recovery regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nasato, E. ); Goar, B.G. ); Borsboom, J. )

    1992-02-10

    Retrofitting Mobil Oil Canada's Lone Pine Creek gas plant with the Superclaus-99 process has led to SO{sub 2} emissions being reduced by 30-45%. Commissioning of the retrofit occurred in late 1990. The process was chosen because of its relatively low capital investment requirements and its operational simplicity and flexibility. Retrofit requirements included minor equipment and piping modifications and a new catalyst for the third converter. This paper reports that operationally, Superclaus-99 is a straight-through, continuous process with a more flexible air-to-acid-gas control than the conventional Claus process. This retrofit was the first of its kind in North America.

  14. Economical Comporison PC and CFB Boilers for Retrofit and New Power Plants in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, G. A.

    According to the investment programmes of Russian electricity generating companies increased attention is paid to reconstruction and building new coal TPP. The typical projects are 225, 330 and 600 MW blocks for combustion of different domestic coals. VTI had made technical and economical comparison of CFB and PC boilers for existing and perspective (European) standards of particles, NOx and SOx emissions, according to the data of the prehminary designs and investments in new power plants of 225 and 330 MW. As the basis for technical and economical evaluations was used comparison data of metal-capacity of PC and boilers, emissions-control systems and material-handling systems, with paying attention to the exact suggestions of the boiler producers. The results of the comparisons (capital costs and O&M costs) are discussed in the paper. The most perspective fuels for combustion in CFB boilers are: anthracite culm, coals of the Pechora area, lean coals of Kuznetsk, brown coals of near Moscow, brown coals of Urals and Far East, and also the wastes of coal preparations, peat, shells and biomass. A good composition could be made from Kuznetsk coals and coals of Pechora area. Brown coals are combusted very good in suitable conditions for firing biomass and peat. Also allowed co-combustion with the wastes of coal preparations for the low reactivity fuels such as anthracite culm and lean coals. The diversification of the fuel supply is an essential advantage of CFB boilers. The CFB boiler installations are rather new for the conditions of Russian Federation. For decreasing the technical risks, first installations should be supplied by engineering or license of leading foreign companies with rather big part of their participation. One of important tasks is development of the typical projects, which would allow decreasing not only capital costs, but also decrease time of project realization. The project of the new Block #9 330MW with OTU boiler of Novocherkassk TPP is the

  15. Plant metabolomics: from holistic hope, to hype, to hot topic.

    PubMed

    Hall, Robert D

    2006-01-01

    In a short time, plant metabolomics has gone from being just an ambitious concept to being a rapidly growing, valuable technology applied in the stride to gain a more global picture of the molecular organization of multicellular organisms. The combination of improved analytical capabilities with newly designed, dedicated statistical, bioinformatics and data mining strategies, is beginning to broaden the horizons of our understanding of how plants are organized and how metabolism is both controlled but highly flexible. Metabolomics is predicted to play a significant, if not indispensable role in bridging the phenotype-genotype gap and thus in assisting us in our desire for full genome sequence annotation as part of the quest to link gene to function. Plants are a fabulously rich source of diverse functional biochemicals and metabolomics is also already proving valuable in an applied context. By creating unique opportunities for us to interrogate plant systems and characterize their biochemical composition, metabolomics will greatly assist in identifying and defining much of the still unexploited biodiversity available today. PMID:16411949

  16. Clean coal reference plants: Atmospheric CFB. Topical report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Rubow, L.N.; Harvey, L.E.; Buchanan, T.L.; Carpenter, R.G.; Hyre, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1992-06-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the US energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which correspond to the center`s areas of technology development, including atmospheric fluidized bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. A measure of success in the CCT program will be the commercial acceptance of the new technologies being demonstrated. The dissemination of project information to potential users is being accomplished by producing a series of reference plant designs which will provide the users a basis for the selection of technologies applicable to their future energy requirements. As a part of DOE`s monitoring and evaluation of the CCT Projects, Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) has been contracted to assist in this effort by producing the design of a commercial size Reference Plant, utilizing technologies developed in the CCT Program. This report, the first in a series, describes the design of a 400 MW electric power plant, utilizing an atmospheric pressure, circulating fluidized bed combustor (ACFB) similar to the one which was demonstrated at Colorado-Ute`s Nucla station, funded in Round 1 of the CCT Program. The intent of the reference plant design effort was to portray a commercial power plant with attributes considered important to the utility industry. The logical choice for the ACFB combustor was Pyropower since they supplied the ACFB for the Nucla Project.

  17. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  18. Arkansas solar retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. The retrofits examined were greenhouses, air heaters and water heaters. The design, construction, and performance of the retrofits are described, along with some information about sun motion and orientation and greenhouse gardening. Appended are maps, tables, and graphs of insolation in Arkansas. (LEW)

  19. Practical solutions to turbine control system retrofit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, M.; Lovejoy, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the use of microprocessors in retrofitting turbine control systems. The topics of the paper include modern control system architecture, human machine interface, steam flow linearization and automatic valve calibration, retrofit hydraulic interfacing, reliability considerations, and advanced valve positioning technique (quarter cycle damping).

  20. Northern States Power Company (NSP) Black Dog generating plant - Unit 2 emission reduction, capacity increase and life extension through atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  1. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  2. Plant extracts for the topical management of psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, S; May, B H; Zhang, A L; Lu, C; Xue, C C L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with psoriasis frequently use preparations of plant extracts. Physicians need to be aware of the current evidence concerning these products. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of preparations of plant extracts used topically for psoriasis. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, two Chinese databases and article reference lists. Randomized controlled trials investigating extracts of single plants were included. Preparations of multiple plants and combinations of plant extracts plus conventional therapies were excluded. Two authors conducted searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Outcomes used in meta-analyses were: clinical efficacy, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score, and quality of life and symptom scores. The 12 included studies investigated extracts of: Mahonia aquifolium (n = 5), Aloe vera (n = 3), indigo naturalis (n = 2), kukui nut oil (n = 1) and Camptotheca acuminata nut (n = 1). Methodological quality was variable. Six studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis of clinical efficacy, and five were vs. placebo (relative risk 3·37, 95% confidence interval 1·36-8·33). Experimental studies indicate components of indigo naturalis, Mahonia and Camptotheca have anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and other actions of relevance to psoriasis. The clinical trial evidence provides limited support for preparations containing extracts of M. aquifolium, indigo naturalis and Aloe vera for the topical management of plaque psoriasis based on multiple studies. No serious adverse events were reported. Because of the small size of most studies and methodological weaknesses, strong conclusions cannot be made. The magnitudes of any effects cannot be measured with accuracy, so it is difficult to assess the clinical relevance of these preparations. PMID:23909714

  3. RETROFIT COSTS OF SO2 AND NOX CONTROL AT 200 U.S. COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to improve engineering applying cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2 emitting coal-fired utility plants in the U.S. To accomplish this objective, procedures were d...

  4. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  5. Development of a Dry Sorbent-based Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Technology for Retrofit in Existing Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Thomas; Coleman, Luke; Anderson, Matthew; Gupta, Raghubir; Herr, Joshua; Kalluri, Ranjeeth; Pavani, Maruthi

    2009-12-31

    The objective of this research and development (R&D) project was to further the development of a solid sorbent-based CO2 capture process based on sodium carbonate (i.e. the Dry Carbonate Process) that is capable of capturing>90% of the CO2 as a nearly pure stream from coal-fired power plant flue gas with <35% increase in the cost of electrictiy (ICOE).

  6. Lighting Retrofit Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, S.; Morse, O.; Siminovitch, M.

    1991-09-01

    The Lighting Retrofit Study was an effort to determine the most cost-effective methods of retrofitting several configurations of lighting systems at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We developed a test protocol to compare a variety of lighting technologies for their applicability in labs and offices and designed and constructed a novel lighting contrast potential meter to allow for comparison of lighting quality as well as quantity.

  7. Comparing post-combustion CO2 capture operation at retrofitted coal-fired power plants in the Texas and Great Britain electric grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Stuart M.; Chalmers, Hannah L.; Webber, Michael E.; King, Carey W.

    2011-04-01

    This work analyses the carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system operation within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and Great Britain (GB) electric grids using a previously developed first-order hourly electricity dispatch and pricing model. The grids are compared in their 2006 configuration with the addition of coal-based CO2 capture retrofits and emissions penalties from 0 to 100 US dollars per metric ton of CO2 (USD/tCO2). CO2 capture flexibility is investigated by comparing inflexible CO2 capture systems to flexible ones that can choose between full- and zero-load CO2 capture depending on which operating mode has lower costs or higher profits. Comparing these two grids is interesting because they have similar installed capacity and peak demand, and both are isolated electricity systems with competitive wholesale electricity markets. However, differences in capacity mix, demand patterns, and fuel markets produce diverging behaviours of CO2 capture at coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired facilities are primarily base load in ERCOT for a large range of CO2 prices but are comparably later in the dispatch order in GB and consequently often supply intermediate load. As a result, the ability to capture CO2 is more important for ensuring dispatch of coal-fired facilities in GB than in ERCOT when CO2 prices are high. In GB, higher overall coal prices mean that CO2 prices must be slightly higher than in ERCOT before the emissions savings of CO2 capture offset capture energy costs. However, once CO2 capture is economical, operating CO2 capture on half the coal fleet in each grid achieves greater emissions reductions in GB because the total coal-based capacity is 6 GW greater than in ERCOT. The market characteristics studied suggest greater opportunity for flexible CO2 capture to improve operating profits in ERCOT, but profit improvements can be offset by a flexibility cost penalty.

  8. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    PubMed

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:12065153

  9. Generalization and formalization of the US EPA procedure for design of treated wastewater aquifer recharge basins: II. Retrofit of Souhil Wadi (Nabeul, Tunisia) pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Kallali, Hamadi; Yoshida, Mitsuo; Tarhouni, Jamila; Jedidi, Naceur

    2013-01-01

    The 'Cap Bon' peninsula in Tunisia suffers from intensive tourist activities, high demographic increase and industrial development. As groundwater had been for a long time the main water source, aquifers had been subject to a severe depletion and seawater intrusion. Despite the measures taken prohibiting new drillings and water carrying by the construction of a waterway linking the region to the north-west region of Tunisia, the problem of water shortage persists. Artificial recharge of groundwater with treated wastewater has been decided as a technique to replenish the region aquifers. A pilot plant was constructed in the early 1980s in Souhil Wadi (Nabeul) area. Many experiments have been carried out on this plant and have led to controversial opinions about its performance and its impact on groundwater contamination. This contribution concerns the application of the procedure that we developed from the generalization and the formalization of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) methodology for the design of treated wastewater aquifer recharge basins. This upgrading procedure implemented in a spreadsheet, has been used to retrofit the Souhil Wadi facility in order to improve its performance. This method highlighted the importance of the safety factor to estimate wastewater infiltration rate from clean water permeability measurements. It has, also, demonstrated the discordance between the initial design parameters of Souhil Wadi facility and their current status as they have changed with time and the infiltration capacity of the basins has been affected by clogging. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that with the current state of clogging of the basins, the design infiltration rate limited by the most restrictive layer (6.1 cm/hr) corresponds to 22% of the surface infiltration rate reached after a drying period of 10 d, which means that we need more basins to absorb the daily loading rate. The design method leads to the construct ion of five

  10. Steel bridge retrofit evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prine, David W.

    1998-03-01

    The development of a retrofit design aimed at retarding or eliminating fatigue crack growth in a large bridge can be a very difficult and expensive procedure. Analytical techniques frequently do not provide sufficient accuracy when applied to complex structural details. The Infrastructure Technology Institute (ITI) of Northwestern University, under contract to the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), recently applied experimental state-of-the-art NDE technology to the Interstate 80 bridge over the Sacramento River near Sacramento, California (Bryte Bend). Acoustic emission monitoring was applied in conjunction with strain gage monitoring to aid in characterizing the retrofits' effect on existing active fatigue cracks. The combined test results clearly showed that one retrofit design was superior to the other.

  11. Retrofit methods reduce valves' fugitive emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallupe, W. )

    1993-06-01

    Retrofitting in-service valves is a practical alternative that reduces plant fugitive emissions and meets the federal and state environmental provisions. Plant operators must find cost-effective technologies that control and restrain valve emissions. Unfortunately, valves are dynamic devices and must move to perform their functions. Surveying all options, total replacement is not viable due to cost and scale of magnitude. However, retrofit technologies are practical measures that concentrate on correcting the problem points on a valve--the stem, the valve body and piping connections. Retrofits examine if the proper valve type is being used. Retrofit methods can meet the emission standards and reduce capital costs for environmental compliance. Leaks from nearly all types of process equipment fall under the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, but valves are the most serious challenge for the process industries, and consequently, the most costly to control. The paper discusses the following: valves as dynamic devices; compliance with environmental regulations; what makes valves leak; enhanced stem sealing; modular stem sealing devices; custom design solutions; special valves; and bellows seals.

  12. Water Relations and the Vacuolated Plant Cell: A Brief Study of the Topic at Advanced Level in School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayford, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses concepts needed to understand plant water relations and results of a study designed to examine the understanding of these concepts by students preparing for A-level examinations. Focuses on students who have learned the topic using the old terminology compared with students adopting the new suggested terms. (Author/JN)

  13. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  14. Retrofitted supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Manatosh

    This thesis explores several models of metastable dynamic supersymmetry breaking (MDSB) and a supersymmetric model of hybrid inflation. All of these models possess discrete R-symmetries. We specially focus on the retrofitted models for supersymmetry breaking models. At first we construct retrofitted models of gravity mediation. In these models we explore the genericity of the so-called "split supersymmetry." We show that with the simplest models, where the goldstino multiplet is neutral under the discrete R-symmetry, a split spectrum is not generic. However if the goldstino superfield is charged under some symmetry other than the R-symmetry, then a split spectrum is achievable but not generic. We also present a gravity mediated model where the fine tuning of the Z-boson mass is dictated by a discrete choice rather than a continuous tuning. Then we construct retrofitted models of gauge mediated SUSY breaking. We show that, in these models, if the approximate R-symmetry of the theory is spontaneously broken, the messenger scale is fixed; if explicitly broken by retrofitted couplings, a very small dimensionless number is required; if supergravity corrections are responsible for the symmetry breaking, at least two moderately small couplings are required, and that there is a large range of possible messenger scales. Finally we switch our attention to small field hybrid inflation. We construct a model that yields a spectral index ns = 0.96. Here, we also briefly discuss the possibility of relating the scale of inflation with the dynamics responsible for supersymmetry breaking.

  15. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  16. Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    2004-01-13

    Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

  17. Arkansas solar-retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Skiles, A.

    1981-06-01

    How solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. Retrofits examined are solar greenhouses, solar air heaters, and solar batch water heaters. A composite of successful construction and operation methods is presented in a format to help individuals build solar retrofits for themselves. Appended are a glossary, listings of references and information sources, and solar radiation data for Arkansas. (LEW)

  18. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  19. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won; Lee, Jee Bum; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Li, Zhengri; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Bum; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Topical application of 0.1% medicinal plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  2. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  3. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  4. Study of the Topic "The Classification of Flowering Plants" in Schools in the Steppe Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manekina, N. M.

    1976-01-01

    To acquaint students with principal taxonomic terms, local plants from natural surroundings of the school that exhibit attributes of each group are used in the steppe region of the Soviet Union. (Author/ND)

  5. Heber geothermal binary demonstration plant: Design, construction, and early startup: Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J. R.

    1987-10-01

    Study of the concept for a large commercial size binary-cycle geothermal demonstration plant began in 1974. It was perceived that such a project would fill the need to advance the art of binary-cycle technology to the point that it could be used on a large scale for the development of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The Plant is rated at 45 MWe (net) and is located near Heber in the Imperial Valley of California. Construction began in June 1983 and as completed in June 1985. This report presents the results of design studies and field experiments that provided the data for detailed design. It discusses the plant's final design, highlights the logic behind key design decisions, and gives project costs. It describes the planned three-year test and demonstration program. It also includes a list of reports, studies, project documents, and technical papers related to the project.

  6. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney; Stephenson, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  7. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems: a technical guide

    SciTech Connect

    Licciardello, Michael R.; Wood, Brian; Dozier, Warner; Braly, Mark; Yates, Alan

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station. (MHR)

  8. Decision process for the retrofit of municipal buildings with solar energy systems a technical guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    As a background for solar applications, the following topics are covered: solar systems and components for retrofit installations; cost, performance, and quality considerations; and financing alternatives for local government. The retrofit decision process is discussed as follows: pre-screening of buildings, building data requirements, the energy conservation audit, solar system sizing and economics, comparison of alternatives, and implementation. Sample studies are presented for the West Valley Animal Shelter and the Hollywood Police Station.

  9. Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-24

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  10. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Hendrick, Timothy P; Christian, Jeffrey E; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  11. Photosynthesis, environmental change, and plant adaptation: Research topics in plant molecular ecology. Summary report of a workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    As we approach the 21st Century, it is becoming increasingly clear that human activities, primarily related to energy extraction and use, will lead to marked environmental changes at the local, regional, and global levels. The realized and the potential photosynthetic performance of plants is determined by a combination of intrinsic genetic information and extrinsic environmental factors, especially climate. It is essential that the effects of environmental changes on the photosynthetic competence of individual species, communities, and ecosystems be accurately assessed. From October 24 to 26, 1993, a group of scientists specializing in various aspects of plant science met to discuss how our predictive capabilities could be improved by developing a more rational, mechanistic approach to relating photosynthetic processes to environmental factors. A consensus emerged that achieving this goal requires multidisciplinary research efforts that combine tools and techniques of genetics, molecular biology, biophysics, biochemistry, and physiology to understand the principles, mechanisms, and limitations of evolutional adaptation and physiological acclimation of photosynthetic processes. Many of these basic tools and techniques, often developed in other fields of science, already are available but have not been applied in a coherent, coordinated fashion to ecological research. The efforts of this research program are related to the broader efforts to develop more realistic prognostic models to forecast climate change that include photosynthetic responses and feedbacks at the regional and ecosystem levels.

  12. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  13. Detailed design of the 2MW Demonstration Plant. Topical report, Task 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-16

    This document provides a summary of the design of the 2MW carbonate fuel cell power plant which will be built and tested under DOE cooperative agreement DE-FC2l-92MC29237. The report is divided into sections which describe the process and stack module design, and Appendices which provide additional design detail. Section 2.0 provides an overview of the program, including the project objectives, site location, and schedule. A description of the overall process is presented in Section 3.0. The design of the fuel cell stack Modules is described in Section 5.0, which discusses the design of the fuel cell stacks, multi-stack enclosures, and Stack Modules. Additional detail is provided in a report Appendix, the Final Design Criteria Summary. This is an abstract of the design criteria used in the design of the Submodules and Modules.

  14. Clean coal reference plants: Pulverized encoal PDF fired boiler. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT) is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of full-scale facilities. The goal of the program is to provide the U.S. energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsive coal-using technologies. To achieve this goal, a multiphased effort consisting of five separate solicitations has been completed. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has the responsibility for monitoring the CCT Projects within certain technology categories, which, in general, correspond to the center`s areas of technology development. Primarily the categories of METC CCT projects are: atmospheric fluid bed combustion, pressurized fluidized bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, mild gasification, and industrial applications. This report describes the plant design.

  15. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  16. Proceedings: 1990 fossil plant cycling conference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    Fossil plant cycling continues to be a key issue for many electric utilities. EPRI's previous cycling workshops, held in 1983, 1985, and 1987, allowed utilities to benefit from collective industry experience in the conversion of baseload fossil units to cyclic operation. Continued improvements in equipment, retrofits, diagnostics, and controls were highlighted at the 1990 conference. The objective is to provide a forum for utility discussions of the cycling operation of fossil fuel power plants. Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) hosted the 1990 EPRI Fossil Fuel Cycling Conference in Washington, DC, on December 4--6, 1990. More than 130 representatives from utilities, vendors, government agencies, universities, and industry associations attended the conference. Following the general session, technical sessions covered such topics as plant modifications, utility retrofit experience, cycling economics, life assessment, controls, environmental controls, and energy storage. Attendees also toured PEPCO's Potomac River generating station, the site of an earlier EPRI cycling conversion study.

  17. DC CICC retrofit magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.L.; Marston, P.G.

    1992-10-30

    The coil system presented here for the MHD retrofit magnet incorporates many features of the latest in superconducting magnet technology and finite element modeling to create an efficient and viable design concept. At the core of the design is the niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). Engineered to create moderately high magnetic fields (up to 8 T) with essentially no power loss, this specific CICC design provides good load carrying capacity, operating margin from a perturbation such as a local heat input, and coil protection in the event of a quench transient. The CICC is wound on a mandrel into long, tapered, saddle shaped single conductor thickness pancakes. By defining the appropriate number of conductor turns in each pancake, the saddle coils can be stacked to form a semi-elliptical winding pack cross section. Extruded aluminum filler blocks are fitted into the steps, at the edge of the pancake and present a smooth surface to the supporting structure. The semi-elliptical conductor array is supported by an identically shaped strap at all locations except where the end turns sweep over the MHD channel. The strap resists the electromagnetic forces tending to separate the coils on each side of the channel. Low friction surfaces are placed between conductor pancakes, and between the inside skin of the support straps and the outside surface of the conductor winding pack. This allows relative movement between pancakes, and between the strap and coil, thereby reducing shear stresses and coulombic friction heating which would otherwise tend to crack insulation, load joints, and initiate a quench in the superconducting cable.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  20. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  1. Infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit: a design guide.

    PubMed

    Bagg, W K

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater management is continually evolving with the development and implementation of new, more efficient technologies. One of these is the Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). Although a relatively new technology in Australia, MBR wastewater treatment has been widely used elsewhere for over 20 years, with thousands of MBRs now in operation worldwide. Over the past 5 years, MBR technology has been enthusiastically embraced in Australia as a potential treatment upgrade option, and via retrofit typically offers two major benefits: (1) more capacity using mostly existing facilities, and (2) very high quality treated effluent. However, infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit is not a simple or low-cost solution and there are many factors which should be carefully evaluated before deciding on this method of plant upgrade. The paper reviews a range of design parameters which should be carefully evaluated when considering an MBR retrofit solution. Several actual and conceptual case studies are considered to demonstrate both advantages and disadvantages. Whilst optimising existing facilities and production of high quality water for reuse are powerful drivers, it is suggested that MBRs are perhaps not always the most sustainable Whole-of-Life solution for a wastewater treatment plant upgrade, especially by way of a retrofit. PMID:19182344

  2. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  3. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  4. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  5. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  6. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  7. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  8. Energy Retrofit--Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) provides energy modeling analyses of school buildings. SRDAS has three subprograms that consider first, roof, windows, walls, floors, and infiltration sites; second, costs per student, compliance with national energy consumption norms, and electricity costs projections; and third, financial savings…

  9. Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.S.

    1992-12-06

    This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant's names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

  10. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

  11. Retrofit FGD cost-estimating guidelines. Final report. [6 processes

    SciTech Connect

    Shattuck, D.M.; Ireland, P.A.; Keeth, R.J.; Mora, R.R.; Scheck, R.W.; Archambeault, J.A.; Rathbun, G.R.

    1984-10-01

    This report presents a method to estimate specific plant FGD retrofit costs. The basis of the estimate is a new plant's FGD system cost, as provided in EPRI's Economic Evaluation of FGD Systems CS-3342, or any other generalized cost estimate. The methodology adjusts the capital cost for the sulfur content of the coal, sulfur removal required, unit size, geographic location variables, and retrofit considerations. The methodology also allows the user to calculate first year operating and maintenance (O and M) costs based on site-specific variables. Finally, the report provides a means to adjust for remaining unit life in determining the levelized busbar cost. Levelized cost is presented in mills/kWh and $/t SO/sub 2/ removed.

  12. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  13. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or

  14. CASE HISTORY OF FINE PORE DIFFUSER RETROFIT AT RIDGEWOOD, NEW JERSEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In April 1983, the Ridgewood, New Jersey Wastewater Treatment Plant underwent a retrofit from a coarse bubble to a fine pore aeration system. Also, process modification from contact stabilization to tapered aeration occurred. This report presents a case history of plant and aer...

  15. Ciclopirox Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... ciclopirox topical solution.Ciclopirox topical solution may catch fire. Do not use this medication near heat or ... have ever had any disease that affects your immune system, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or ...

  16. Testosterone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  17. Prologis Rolls Out Warehouse Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Prologis partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  18. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    D. Philbrick; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy-efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community.

  19. Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

  20. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  1. Lighting retrofits at the Pittsburgh Zoo and Aviary

    SciTech Connect

    Sadowski, E.C.

    1995-06-01

    Energy bills for the Pittsburgh Zoo typically total $280,000 a year, of which about $220,000 are spent on electricity. Until recently, lighting accounted for 20 percent of this electricity use. This translated into an annual cost of $44,000. Recent advances in lighting technology have made it possible to perform lighting retrofits in Zoo facilities that reduce energy costs while also providing improved light quality and better lit and more natural looking exhibits and animal holding areas. Through an investment of $127,690 in these projects from mid-1992 through mid-1994, the Zoo expects to realize an annual savings in electricity costs of $24,500 and further savings from a reduction in maintenance and plant replacement costs. Retrofits to the lighting systems in the Tropical Forest Building, the Aquarium, and the Niches of the World Building were the most interesting and are described in detail. Providing a sufficient amount of ultraviolet light to maintain the health of reptiles was a particular challenge in the Niches of the World Building. Lack of separate meters and additions to the Zoo have made the determination of the actual performance of these retrofit projects impossible. A similar retrofit project at the Pittsburgh Aviary (now the National Aviary) in 1989 through 1990 provides savings figures that should be comparable to those expected at the Zoo, however. This project cost $100,000 and saved $21,008 in electricity costs during the first year of operation. Maintenance costs were reduced by approximately $5000 a year.

  2. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  3. Retrofitting and the mu Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    One of the challenges of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and mediation is generating a {mu} term consistent with the requirements of electro-weak symmetry breaking. The most common approach to the problem is to generate the {mu} term through a SUSY breaking F-term. Often these models produce unacceptably large B{mu} terms as a result. We will present an alternate approach, where the {mu} term is generated directly by non-perturtative effects. The same non-perturbative effect will also retrofit the model of SUSY breaking in such a way that {mu} is at the same scale as masses of the Standard Model superpartners. Because the {mu} term is not directly generated by SUSY breaking effects, there is no associated B{mu} problem. These results are demonstrated in a toy model where a stringy instanton generates {mu}.

  4. Efficacy of topical treatment of pigmentation skin disorders with plant hydroquinone glucosides as assessed by quantitative color analysis.

    PubMed

    Clarys, P; Barel, A

    1998-06-01

    Hydroquinone is a well known reagent used in the treatment of pigmentation disorders. The instability of the quinones and the required active concentration make topical treatment rather difficult. We tested the efficacy of an ascorbate-phytohydroquinone complex that inhibits the synthesis of melanin and promotes the degradation of the existing melanin. Lentigo senile lesions were evaluated before and after 1 month of treatment. Objective skin color evaluation was performed instrumentally. After one month of treatment, a clear depigmentation of the macules was measured. None of the volunteers reported any side effects from the prolonged treatment with the hydroquinone containing product. PMID:9675352

  5. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    ScienceCinema

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2013-05-29

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  6. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  7. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  8. Retrofitting activated sludge systems to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Hanhan, O; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides the basis and the conceptual approach of applying process kinetics and modelling to the design of alternating activated sludge systems for retrofitting existing activated sludge plants to intermittent aeration for nitrogen removal. It shows the significant role of the two specific parameters, namely, the aerated fraction and the cycle time ratio on process performance through model simulations and proposes a way to incorporate them into a design procedure using process stoichiometry and mass balance. It illustrates the effect of these parameters, together with the sludge age, in establishing the balance between the denitrification potential and the available nitrogen created in the anoxic/aerobic sequences of system operation. PMID:12420968

  9. OFF-GAS ANALYSIS RESULTS AND FINE PORE RETROFIT INFORMATION FOR GLASTONBURY, CONNECTICUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1984, the Glastonbury, Connecticut Water Pollution Control Plant underwent a retrofit from a spiral roll coarse bubble to a spiral roll fine pore aeration system. Only diffuser replacement was performed in the aeration tanks. From November 1985 through Septembe...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2500 - Best available retrofit technology requirements for the Intalco Aluminum Corporation (Intalco...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for the Intalco Aluminum Corporation (Intalco Works) primary aluminum plant-Better than BART... Best available retrofit technology requirements for the Intalco Aluminum Corporation (Intalco Works) primary aluminum plant—Better than BART Alternative. (a) Applicability. This section applies to...

  11. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant: Niles Station Boiler No. 2. Volume 1, Sampling/results/special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This study was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE-PETC) during 1993. The motivation for those assessments was the mandate in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments that a study be made of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from electrical utilities. The results of this study will be used by the US Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate whether regulation of HAPs emissions from utilities is warranted. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1: Sampling/Results/Special Topics describes the sampling effort conducted as the basis for this study, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in the several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations conducted with those data. The Special Topics section of Volume 1 reports on issues such as comparison of sampling methods and vapor/particle distributions of toxic chemicals. Volume 2: Appendices include field sampling data sheets, quality assurance results, and uncertainty calculations. The chemicals measured at Niles Boiler No. 2 were the following: five major and 16 trace elements, including mercury, chromium, cadmium, lead, selenium, arsenic, beryllium, and nickel; acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate); ammonia and cyanide; elemental carbon; radionuclides; volatile organic compounds (VOC); semivolatile compounds (SVOC) including polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and polychlorinated dioxins and furans; and aldehydes.

  12. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used ... plan to avoid unnecessary or prolonged exposure to sunlight and UV light (such as tanning booths) and ...

  13. Estradiol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... a medication that is applied topically to the vagina. Estradiol is in a class of medications called ... swelling, redness, burning, irritation, or itching of the vagina vaginal discharge Some side effects can be serious. ...

  14. Mometasone Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Mometasone comes as a topical cream, ointment, and lotion. It usually is applied externally once a day. ... affected skin areas once daily.To apply the lotion, place a few drops on the affected areas ...

  15. Fluorouracil Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused ... you are using fluorouracil to treat actinic or solar keratoses, you should continue using it until the ...

  16. Bexarotene Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... talking to your doctor.Bexarotene gel may catch fire. Do not use this medication near a source ... sunlamps and to wear protective clothing, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Topical bexarotene may make your skin sensitive to ...

  17. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NOx Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially-available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  18. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  19. Conceptual design and optimization of a 1-1/2 generation PFBC plant task 14. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.S.; Witman, P.M.; Harbaugh, L.; Rubow, L.N.; Horazak, D.A.

    1994-12-01

    The economics and performance of advanced pressurized fluidized bed (PFBC) cycles developed for utility applications during the last 10 years (especially the 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle) are projected to be favorable compared to conventional pulverized coal power plants. However, the improved economics of 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles are accompanied by the perception of increased technological risk related to the pressurized carbonizer and its associated gas cleanup systems. A PFBC cycle that removed the uncertainties of the carbonizer while retaining the high efficiency and low cost of a 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle could improve the prospects for early commercialization and pave the way for the introduction of the complete 2nd-Generation PFBC cycle at some later date. One such arrangement is a PFBC cycle with natural gas topping combustion, referred to as the 1.5-Generation PFBC cycle. This cycle combines the advantages of the 2nd-Generation PFBC plant with the reduced risk associated with a gas turbine burning natural gas, and can potentially be part of a phased approach leading to the commercialization of utility 2nd-Generation PFBC cycles. The 1.5-Generation PFBC may also introduce other advantages over the more complicated 2nd-Generation PFBC system. This report describes the technical and economic evaluation of 1.5-Generation PFBC cycles for utility or industrial power generation.

  20. Spotlight Topics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  1. Cyanide in MGP (manufactured gas plant) wastes: Investigation of analytical methods. Topical report, January 1988-June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, J.E.; Theis, T.L.; Luthy, R.G.

    1989-06-01

    Wastes associated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are known to contain various cyanide complexes. Problems exist relative to evaluating the true cyanide content of these solid wastes. These problems are, in general, related to lack of standard laboratory methods for extracting and analyzing leachate or distillates from solid samples. Samples of MGP purifier wastes were analyzed by two university laboratories under carefully controlled conditions to establish absolute levels of total cyanide in the samples. Duplicate samples were submitted to several commercial laboratories for analysis of total cyanide. Results from the university studies and commercial laboratories were compared. Based on the study, an extraction method can be defined that will provide more accurate and reproducible results for total cyanide contained in solid samples. A high alkaline extraction is recommended when analyzing MGP samples for cyanide. When disposing of cyanide-containing wastes, maintaining the natural acidic pH will control leaching of cyanide.

  2. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods.

  3. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  4. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  5. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  6. Retrofit Gloveport Cover and Security Device

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinckley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The world of glovebox work in the areas of science and manufacturing is in a consistent state of flux due to the inherent nature of changing missions. These rapidly changing work environments result in almost continuous regulatory changes within the codes and standards in order to maintain worker and environmental safety. Gloveboxes designed and manufactured prior to these regulations are not easy to update or retrofit to accommodate new requirements. In order to meet the challenge of retrofitting gloveboxes to the meet the requirements, the following solutions have been developed.

  7. Topical anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  8. Topical anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Mritunjay; Chawla, Rajiv; Goyal, Manish

    2015-01-01

    Topical anesthetics are being widely used in numerous medical and surgical sub-specialties such as anesthesia, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology, dentistry, urology, and aesthetic surgery. They cause superficial loss of pain sensation after direct application. Their delivery and effectiveness can be enhanced by using free bases; by increasing the drug concentration, lowering the melting point; by using physical and chemical permeation enhancers and lipid delivery vesicles. Various topical anesthetic agents available for use are eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, ELA-max, lidocaine, epinephrine, tetracaine, bupivanor, 4% tetracaine, benzocaine, proparacaine, Betacaine-LA, topicaine, lidoderm, S-caine patch™ and local anesthetic peel. While using them, careful attention must be paid to their pharmacology, area and duration of application, age and weight of the patients and possible side-effects. PMID:26702198

  9. Final Report: Retrofit Aeration System (RAS) for Francis Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Sullivan; DOE Project Officer Keith Bennett

    2006-08-01

    Osage Plant and Bagnell Dam impounds the Osage River forming the Lake of the Ozarks in Missouri. Since it is nearly 100 feet deep, the lake stratifies during the summer months causing low DO water to be discharged into the Osage river below the dam. To supplement DO, the turbines are vented during the low DO season. AmerenUE is continually researching new methods of DO enhancement. New turbines, manufactured by American Hydro Corporation, were installed in Units 3 & 5 during the spring of 2002. Additional vent capacity and new nosecones were included in the new turbine design. The retrofit aeration system is an attempt to further enhance the DO in the tailrace by installation of additional venting capability on Unit 6 (not upgraded with new turbine) and refining design on special nosecones which will be mounted on both Unit 3 (upgraded turbine) and Unit 6. Baseline DO testing for Units 3 & 6 was conducted mid August, 2002. This data wascompared to further tests planned for the summer of 2003 and 2004 after installation of the retrofit aeration system.

  10. Applied methods to verify LP turbine performance after retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Overby, R.; Lindberg, G.

    1996-12-31

    With increasing operational hours of power plants, many utilities may find it necessary to replace turbine components, i.e., low pressure turbines. In order to decide between different technical and economic solutions, the utility often takes the opportunity to choose between an OEM or non-OEM supplier. This paper will deal with the retrofitting of LP turbines. Depending on the scope of supply the contract must define the amount of improvement and specifically how to verify this improvement. Unfortunately, today`s Test Codes, such as ASME PTC 6 and 6.1, do not satisfactorily cover these cases. The methods used by Florida Power and Light (FP and L) and its supplier to verify the improvement of the low pressure turbine retrofit at the Martin No. 1 and Sanford No. 4 units will be discussed and the experience gained will be presented. In particular the influence of the thermal cycle on the applicability of the available methods will be analyzed and recommendations given.

  11. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0

  12. Teacher Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Includes articles and classroom activities about chemicals in the body entitled: "Your Body's Chemical Factory,""Testing for Catalase Activity,""How Sweet It IS...,""Milking Calcium for All It's Worth," and "Testing for Starch in Plant Products." (MKR)

  13. Bentoquatam Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... long as the risk of contact with these plants continues. Follow the directions on the package label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Use bentoquatam exactly as ...

  14. Carbon Capture in the Cement Industry: Technologies, Progress, and Retrofitting.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas; Leeson, Duncan; Florin, Nicholas; Fennell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Several different carbon-capture technologies have been proposed for use in the cement industry. This paper reviews their attributes, the progress that has been made toward their commercialization, and the major challenges facing their retrofitting to existing cement plants. A technology readiness level (TRL) scale for carbon capture in the cement industry is developed. For application at cement plants, partial oxy-fuel combustion, amine scrubbing, and calcium looping are the most developed (TRL 6 being the pilot system demonstrated in relevant environment), followed by direct capture (TRL 4-5 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a relevant environment) and full oxy-fuel combustion (TRL 4 being the component and system validation at lab-scale in a lab environment). Our review suggests that advancing to TRL 7 (demonstration in plant environment) seems to be a challenge for the industry, representing a major step up from TRL 6. The important attributes that a cement plant must have to be "carbon-capture ready" for each capture technology selection is evaluated. Common requirements are space around the preheater and precalciner section, access to CO2 transport infrastructure, and a retrofittable preheater tower. Evidence from the electricity generation sector suggests that carbon capture readiness is not always cost-effective. The similar durations of cement-plant renovation and capture-plant construction suggests that synchronizing these two actions may save considerable time and money. PMID:26630247

  15. Honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, inhibits photocarcinogenesis by targeting UVB-induced inflammatory mediators and cell cycle regulators: development of topical formulation.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Mudit; Sharma, Som D; Katiyar, Santosh K

    2010-11-01

    To develop newer and more effective chemopreventive agents for skin cancer, we assessed the effect of honokiol, a phytochemical from the Magnolia plant, on ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin tumorigenesis using the SKH-1 hairless mouse model. Topical treatment of mice with honokiol in a hydrophilic cream-based topical formulation before or after UVB (180 mJ/cm(2)) irradiation resulted in a significant protection against photocarcinogenesis in terms of tumor multiplicity (28-60%, P < 0.05 to <0.001) and tumor volume per tumor-bearing mouse (33-80%, P < 0.05 to 0.001, n = 20). Honokiol also inhibited and delayed the malignant progression of papillomas to carcinomas. To investigate the in vivo molecular targets of honokiol efficacy, tumors and tumor-uninvolved skin samples from the tumor-bearing mice were analyzed for inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and survival signals using immunostaining, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Treatment with honokiol significantly inhibited UVB-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2, prostaglandin E(2) (P < 0.001), proliferating cell nuclear antigen and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (P < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-1β (P < 0.01) and IL-6 (P < 0.001) in the skin as well as in skin tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that honokiol: (i) inhibited the levels of cyclins D1, D2 and E and associated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs)2, CDK4 and CDK6, (ii) upregulated Cip/p21 and Kip/p27 and (iii) inhibited the levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser(473) in UVB-induced skin tumors. Together, our results indicate that honokiol holds promise for the prevention of UVB-induced skin cancer by targeting inflammatory mediators, cell cycle regulators and cell survival signals in UVB-exposed skin. PMID:20823108

  16. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-04-15

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  17. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  18. Retrofitting: The Thermal Upgrading of Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This publication is a compilation of talks delivered during the spring of 1977 by Charles Wing. Contents of the booklet include retrofitting old houses, condensation and vapor barriers, solutions to the vapor barrier problem, and how much of which insulation to use. The publication includes charts, drawings, and equations to illustrate the topics…

  19. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  20. Energy Retrofit Creates an Efficient Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    After 20 years of inadequate heating and cooling, an Indiana school district took advantage of a 1994 state law that allows school districts to bypass the "low-bidder wins" restriction. The district established a guaranteed energy-saving contract for a climate-control-improvements package to retrofit the junior-senior high school. (MLF)

  1. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  2. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980's era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL's main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home's performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

  3. Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.S.

    1992-12-06

    This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant`s names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

  4. Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HV AC system, the local

  5. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  6. Topical Steroids.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Gretchen M; Harvey, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is an inflammatory condition with heterogeneous pathophysiology. A cornerstone of the management of this condition is the use of anti-inflammatory agents. Corticosteroids are very effective and the most commonly used, but other drugs with immunodulatory activity such as anti-IL5, doxycycline (Th2), and macrolides (anti-neutrophilic/IL8) have been shown to have efficacy. Although systemic corticosteroids have shown benefit in managing this condition, the frequency of use often required in this condition is associated with significant adverse effects. Topical corticosteroids, particularly when utilized after endoscopic sinus surgery and delivered in a high volume, high pressure manner, provide the desired anti-inflammatory effects with nearly negligible systemic absorption. Studies assessing the long-term use of second generation topical corticosteroids have demonstrated no significant effects on cortisol levels, growth rate, intraocular pressures or lens opacification, or local mucosal atrophy. Patients who often respond most favorably to corticosteroid treatment are those with a Th2-mediated, highly eosinophilic CRSwNP. However, there is a subset of patients who are steroid resistant. In the case of a predominantly neutrophilic CRSwNP, it is important to be aware that patients may respond well to the use of macrolide therapy. Additionally, the use of verapamil has shown promise in increasing steroid responsiveness in a difficult to treat group of patients with steroid resistance. Topical corticosteroids play a key role in the long term management of this complicated inflammatory condition by providing the much needed pharmacologic local control with minimal systemic adverse effects. PMID:27466854

  7. DEMONSTRATION OF A FULL-SCALE RETROFIT OF THE ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Hrdlicka; William Swanson

    2005-12-01

    The Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector (AHPC), developed in cooperation between W.L. Gore & Associates and the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), is an innovative approach to removing particulates from power plant flue gas. The AHPC combines the elements of a traditional baghouse and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) into one device to achieve increased particulate collection efficiency. As part of the Power Plant Improvement Initiative (PPII), this project was demonstrated under joint sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy and Otter Tail Power Company. The EERC is the patent holder for the technology, and W.L. Gore & Associates was the exclusive licensee for this project. The project objective was to demonstrate the improved particulate collection efficiency obtained by a full-scale retrofit of the AHPC to an existing electrostatic precipitator. The full-scale retrofit was installed on an electric power plant burning Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, Otter Tail Power Company's Big Stone Plant, in Big Stone City, South Dakota. The $13.4 million project was installed in October 2002. Project related testing concluded in December 2005. The following Final Technical Report has been prepared for the project entitled ''Demonstration of a Full-Scale Retrofit of the Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector Technology'' as described in DOE Award No. DE-FC26-02NT41420. The report presents the operation and performance results of the system.

  8. Retrofitting old turbomachinery with vibration monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, K.A. )

    1994-01-01

    Most operating companies don't realize that the people problems during and after a turbo-machinery monitoring retrofit can be much more difficult to overcome than the mechanical problems. Typical mechanical problems include: designing brackets for installing the vibration probes in the desired locations and at the proper angles, imbedding the thermo-couples in the bearings, routing the wiring out of the bearing housings without oil leaks and burnishing the vibration probe target areas on the shafts to obtain runout free readings. The following guidelines, however, deal with the more important people problems. Violate each of these guidelines and implementation of the turbomachinery monitoring retrofit project and acceptance of the monitors by the unit operators may just be successful.

  9. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  10. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  11. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  12. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of Eco-Efficiency and Performance of Retrofit Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Smitha; Rama Chandra Murthy, A.; Iyer, Nagesh R.; Kokila, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work three materials namely Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), ferrocement and Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) have been evaluated towards their performance efficiency and eco-effectiveness for sustainable retrofitting applications. Investigations have been carried out for flexural strengthening of RC beams with FRP, ferrocement and TRC. It is observed that in the case of FRP, it is not possible to tailor the material according to design requirements and most of the time strengthened structure becomes over stiff. Eco-effectiveness of these retrofitting materials has been evaluated by computing the embodied energy. It is observed that the amount of CO2 emitted by TRC is less compared to other retrofit materials. Further, the performance point of retrofitted RC frames has been evaluated and damage index has been calculated to find out the effective retrofit material. It is concluded that, if RC frame is retrofitted with FRP and TRC, it undergoes less damage compared to ferrocement.

  14. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Kerrie; Hannigan, Eileen

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  15. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  16. Retrofitting comes in small packages

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, A.

    2006-11-15

    AES Corp. is installing multi-pollutant control technology that may reduce sulphur dioxide by 95%, mercury by more than 90% and NOx by 65-70% at its 162 MW coal-fired Greenridge Station in Desden, New York. The article briefly describes the type of pollution control equipment chosen to ensure compliance with the Clean Air Interstate Rule. The plant cofired between 5 and 10% biomass and may consider including it as a compliance strategy in meeting future possible greenhouse gas emission controls. 1 photo.

  17. Fluidized-bed retrofit a practical alternative to FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    A comparison is made between the costs of flue-gas desulphurization retrofit to a 112 MW pf-fired boiler, fluidized-bed combustion retrofit to the boiler, and a new fluidized-bed boiler. Breakdowns are given for capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the busbar cost of energy for a 20 year unit life. The analysis shows that fbc is a viable option for the retrofit of many existing boilers from both a technical and economic viewpoint.

  18. [Topical contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  19. Hotel Cedes 7 months' savings for total lighting retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1983-07-11

    In an unusual shared-savings agreement, the Hilton Florida Center at Orlando, where a retrofit program was begun two years ago, will give up all savings from a lighting retrofit program for seven months, avoiding upfront costs of equipment purchase, and will then become sole owner of the equipment and beneficiary of the savings. The four-month-old program has improved the lighting and cut electricity costs $2000 to $2500 per month, which would have been a six-month payback. Contracts for two other hotels are expected where retrofitting has begun. Retrofit details are given.

  20. Detailed information on the FGD retrofit project in Jaenschwalde and the FGD facility in Schwarze Pumpe

    SciTech Connect

    Friede, H.; Nass, K.H.; Breuer, H.

    1995-06-01

    VEAG, the newly founded company for supraregional power generation and distribution in eastern Germany, is retrofitting certain power plants with flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. Lignite is used almost exclusively as fuel in these power plants. Following German unification, the pollution control regulations in force in the Federal Republic of Germany also apply to the power plants operated by VEAG. The decision was made in principle to only build FGDs which are based on the proven limestone scrubbing process and produce recyclable gypsum as the end product. Experience accumulated with FGDs in lignite-fired power plants resulted in a new concept, which elaborated in cooperation with the commissioned consultants (including Siemens/KWU). This paper will present using the example of a new power plant project with FGD - the 2 x 800-MW power plant Schwarze Pumpe - and an FGD retrofit - the 3 x 1000-MW power plant Janschwalde - the salient features of these facilities (full-metal scrubbers, slurry-carrying pipework and treated-flue-gas ducts made of FRP, flue-gas heat recovery, fine-grained solids separation to improve gypsum quality, use of FGD wastewater for ash moistening and gypsum recycling), an overview of the design as well as construction progress and scheduling. The two FGD facilities are being supplied by KRC/Noell and operate on a two-circuit principle.

  1. Applicability and economic efficiency of earthquake retrofit measures on existing buildings in Bucharest, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    The research discussed in this contribution contains two aspects: on one side the economic efficiency of seismic retrofit measures, and on the other their applicability. The research was limited to housing buildings. Bucharest, the capital of Romania, was the object of the research. Strong earthquakes affect Bucharest about three times in a century, the damaging earthquakes of the 20th century being in 1940 and 1977. Other strong earthquakes occurred in 1986 and 1990. Since it is a broad topic, first the building type was determined, which should serve further research. For this scope the building types of the 20th century, which are common in Bucharest, Romania, were investigated. For each building type reports have been written, which comprised the earthquake resilient features, the seismic defficiencies, the damage patterns and the retrofit measures. Each of these features was listed for elements of the building. A first result of the research was an integrated system in order to include latter aspects in the planning in the first steps. So already at the building survey attention has to be paid on how a building is subdivided in order to be able to determine the economic efficiency of the planned action. So were defined the `retrofit elements`. In a first step the characteristics were defined, through which these retrofit elements (for example column, wall part between two windows) can be recognised in the building survey. In a further one, which retrofit measures can be connected to these. Diagrams were built, in order to visualise these findings. For each retrofit element and the corresponding measure the costs were calculated. Also, these retrofit elements and the measures connected to them were modelled for the simulation with the structural software, so that the benefit of the measures could be determined. In the part which regarded the economic efficiency, benefits and costs of retrofit measures had to be compared, so the improvement in the rigidity

  2. Damage monitoring of CFRP retrofit using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kunal; Breaux Frketic, Jolie; Olawale, David; Dickens, Tarik

    2015-04-01

    With nearly 25% of bridge infrastructure deemed deficient, repair of concrete structures is a critical need. FRP materials as thin laminates or fabrics are appearing to be an ideal alternative to traditional repair technology, because of their high strength to weight ratios and stiffness to weight ratios. In addition, FRP materials offer significant potential for lightweight, high strength, cost-effective and durable retrofit. One drawback of using CFRP retrofitting is its brittle-type failure; caused by its nearly linear elastic nature of the stress-strain behavior. This causes a strength reduction of the retrofitted member, thus the health of the retrofit applied on the structure becomes equally important to sustain the serviceability of the structure. This paper provides a system to monitor damage on the CFRP retrofits through optical fiber sensors which are woven into the structure to provide damage sensing. Precracked reinforced concrete beams were retrofitted using CFRP laminates with the most commonly used FRP application technique. The beams were tested under constant stress to allow the retrofitting to fail while evaluating the performance of the sensing system. Debonding failure modes at a stress of 9 MPa were successfully detected by TL optical fiber sensors in addition to detection during flexural failure. Real-time failure detection of FRP strengthened beams was successfully achieved and the retrofit damage-monitoring scheme aims at providing a tool to reduce the response time and decision making involved in maintenance of deficient structures.

  3. A systems approach to retrofitting residential HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, J.A.; Walker, I.S.

    2004-05-01

    A Best Practices Guide for retrofitting residential HVAC systems has recently been completed by DOE. The guide uses diagnostics and checklists to guide the user to specific retrofit packages that maximize retrofit energy savings, comfort and safety potential. The guide uses a systems approach to retrofitting where the interaction of different building components is considered throughout the retrofit selection process. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC systems can be used. In this study, several houses were surveyed using the Best Practices Guide and a single house was selected for retrofitting. The objectives were to demonstrate how a successful system-wide retrofit can be carried out and to provide feedback to improve the guide. Because it represents a departure from current practice, a key aspect of this study was to investigate the interactions with contractors and code officials who are unfamiliar with the systems approach. The study found that the major barrier to the systems approach in retrofits was in changing the working practices of contractors and code officials.

  4. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  5. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  6. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  7. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection, where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.

  8. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  9. Topical Report 5: Sorbent Performance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Krutka, Holly; Sjostrom, Sharon

    2011-05-31

    ADA-ES has completed an extensive sorbent screening program funded primarily through DOE NETL cooperative agreement DE-NT0005649 with support from EPRI and industry cost-share participants. Tests were completed on simulated and actual flue gas. The overall project objective is to address the viability and accelerate development of a solid-based postcombustion CO2 capture technology that can be retrofit to the existing fleet of coal-fired power plants. An important component of the viability assessment was to evaluate the state of development of sorbents and measure key performance characteristics under realistic operating conditions.

  10. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology: Topical report No. 7, Task 4.1: Testing of first generation mathematical model predictions; Topical report No. 8, Task 4.2: Testing of second generation mathematical model predictions, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, L.G.; Gooch, J.P.; Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G.

    1992-08-01

    Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) and Southern Research Institute have completed a project under DOE sponsorship entitled ``Scaleup Tests and Supporting Research for the Development of Duct Injection Technology``. The project included extensive modifications to DOE`s Duct Injection Test Facility (DITF) located at the Muskingum River Plant of Ohio Power Company. A comprehensive test program was performed at the facility to evaluate So{sub 2} removal and overall process operability with duct injection of slaked lime slurries and dry injection of calcium hydroxide powder with humidification. Detailed results from the project are presented in the following reports: Topical Report No. 1 -- Literature Review; Topical Report No. 2 -- Evaluation of System Performance; Topical Report No. 3 -- Scale-Up Testing; Advanced Configurations Process Controls; Failure Modes; and Waste characterization. Project Final Report. The purposes of this report are: (1) to satisfy a contractual requirement for a separate topical report concerning the subject of mathematical model validation, and (2) to briefly describe the status of the model development and validation effort.

  11. Scaleup tests and supporting research for the development of duct injection technology: Topical report No. 7, Task 4. 1: Testing of first generation mathematical model predictions; Topical report No. 8, Task 4. 2: Testing of second generation mathematical model predictions, Duct Injection Test Facility, Muskingum River Power Plant, Beverly, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Felix, L.G.; Gooch, J.P. ); Klett, M.G.; Demian, A.G. )

    1992-08-01

    Gilbert/Commonwealth (G/C) and Southern Research Institute have completed a project under DOE sponsorship entitled Scaleup Tests and Supporting Research for the Development of Duct Injection Technology''. The project included extensive modifications to DOE's Duct Injection Test Facility (DITF) located at the Muskingum River Plant of Ohio Power Company. A comprehensive test program was performed at the facility to evaluate So[sub 2] removal and overall process operability with duct injection of slaked lime slurries and dry injection of calcium hydroxide powder with humidification. Detailed results from the project are presented in the following reports: Topical Report No. 1 -- Literature Review; Topical Report No. 2 -- Evaluation of System Performance; Topical Report No. 3 -- Scale-Up Testing; Advanced Configurations Process Controls; Failure Modes; and Waste characterization. Project Final Report. The purposes of this report are: (1) to satisfy a contractual requirement for a separate topical report concerning the subject of mathematical model validation, and (2) to briefly describe the status of the model development and validation effort.

  12. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  13. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  14. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  15. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NO{sub x} control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NO{sub x} reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance. In particular, the prototype evaluations will resolve many technical issues not possible to address fully in the previous pilot-scale work and the single full-scale burner installation.

  16. 78 FR 9936 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ..., 2011, HUD published a notice at 76 FR 17936 that announced HUD's FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program (Retrofit Pilot Program) known as FHA PowerSaver, which is...

  17. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  18. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  19. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  20. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection,more » where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.« less

  1. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  2. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  3. Carbon capture retrofits and the cost of regulatory uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Reinelt, P.S.; Keith, D.W.

    2007-07-01

    Power generation firms confront impending replacement of an aging coal-fired fleet in a business environment characterized by volatile natural gas prices and uncertain carbon regulation. We develop a stochastic dynamic programming model of firm investment decisions that minimizes the expected present value of future power generation costs under uncertain natural gas and carbon prices. We explore the implications of regulatory uncertainty on generation technology choice and the optimal timing of investment, and assess the implications of these choices for regulators. We find that interaction of regulatory uncertainty with irreversible investment always raises the social cost of carbon abatement. Further, the social cost of regulatory uncertainty is strongly dependent on the relative competitiveness of IGCC plants, for which the cost of later carbon capture retrofits is comparatively small, and on the firm's ability to use investments in natural gas generation as a transitional strategy to manage carbon regulation uncertainty. Without highly competitive IGCC or low gas prices, regulatory uncertainty can increase the expected social cost of reducing emissions by 40 to 60%.

  4. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  5. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  6. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

  7. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow (WWF). Cost/benefit relationships were compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities. Desktop...

  8. RETROFIT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: NAVIGATING MULTIDISCIPLINARY HURDLES AT THE WATERSHED SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from extensive impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and stream ecosystem impairment, triggering an interest in watershed-scale retrofit stormwater management. Such stormwater management is of multidisciplinary relevance, ...

  9. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  10. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  11. LP turbine retrofit modernization: Improvements in performance and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Groenedaal, J.C.; Fowls, L.G.; Subbiah, R.; Maxwell, B.P.; Persson, B.

    1996-11-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation retrofitted six low pressure (LP) nuclear turbine rotors and associated blade path components at Ringhals 1, a 1960`s vintage English Electric (GEC) unit located near Varobacka, Sweden, and operated by Vattenfall AB. This achieved significant performance improvements and provided improved mechanical features over the original equipment. This paper, discusses design, manufacture, installation, operation and project coordination. The retrofit processes employed for these units can be applied to any potential customers units.

  12. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - summary of seventeen plant-community studies at ten wetland crossings. Topical report, February 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, G.D. |; Shem, L.M.; Wilkey, P.L.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Alsum, S.K.

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program, Argonne National Laboratory conducted field studies on 10 wetland crossings located in six states to document impacts of natural gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) on 15 wetland plant communities. This study is unique in the number, range, ages, and variety of wetland crossings surveyed and compared. Vegetation data and recorded observations were analyzed to reveal patterns associated with age, installation technology, maintenance practices, and wetland type. This report summarizes the findings of this study. Results revealed that ROWs of pipelines installed according to recent wetland regulations rapidly revegetated with dense and diverse plant communities. The ROW plant communities were similar to those in the adjacent natural areas in species richness, wetland indicator values, and percentages of native species. The ROW plant communities developed from naturally available propagules without fertilization, liming, or artificial seeding. ROWs contributed to increased habitat and plant species diversity in the wetland. There was little evidence that they degrade the wetland by providing avenues for the spread of invasive and normative plant species. Most impacts are temporal in nature, decreasing rapidly during the first several years and more slowly thereafter to the extent permitted by maintenance and other ROW activities.

  13. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  14. The benefits of integrated chiller retrofits: Excerpts from case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gartland, L.; Sartor, D.

    1998-07-01

    An integrated chiller retrofit is an effective way to turn the CFC phaseout into an opportunity for energy efficiency and money savings. The 1996 moratorium on CFC production means many chillers will soon have to be replaced or converted to use alternative refrigerants. Integrating building load reductions and system improvements with chiller replacements and/or conversions can solve building comfort and maintenance problem, increase energy efficiency, save money on utility bills, increase a building's asset value, and produce a more financially attractive project. The poll $ense program at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory has been gathering integrated chiller retrofit case studies from its regional workshops. This paper presents some of the best examples of different aspects of integrated retrofits. Example projects include: (1) a chiller conversion, (2) a chiller replacement, (3) an effective cooling system renovation, (4) a model building load reduction scheme, (5) an illustration of integrated chiller retrofit economics, (6) a chiller sizing cautionary tale, and (7) an environmentally friendly and cost-effective retrofit. These projects enumerate retrofit measures to consider, and show how much more effective it is to widen your focus from the chiller alone to the entire building when facing the CFC phaseout.

  15. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak

    2002-12-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  16. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  17. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Huelman, P.; Goldberg, L.; Jacobson, R.

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  18. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/Wet FGD system. Volume 1, Sampling, results, and special topics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This was one of a group of assessments of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants, conducted for DOE-PETC in 1993 as mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act. It is organized into 2 volumes; Volume 1 describes the sampling effort, presents the concentration data on toxic chemicals in several power plant streams, and reports the results of evaluations and calculations. The study involved solid, liquid, and gaseous samples from input, output, and process streams at Coal Creek Station Unit No. 1, Underwood, North Dakota (1100 MW mine-mouth plant burning lignite from the Falkirk mine located adjacent to the plant). This plant had an electrostatic precipitator and a wet scrubber flue gas desulfurization unit. Measurements were conducted on June 21--24, 26, and 27, 1993; chemicals measured were 6 major and 16 trace elements (including Hg, Cr, Cd, Pb, Se, As, Be, Ni), acids and corresponding anions (HCl, HF, chloride, fluoride, phosphate, sulfate), ammonia and cyanide, elemental C, radionuclides, VOCs, semivolatiles (incl. PAH, polychlorinated dioxins, furans), and aldehydes. Volume 2: Appendices includes process data log sheets, field sampling data sheets, uncertainty calculations, and quality assurance results.

  20. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit. Quarterly report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NOx Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially-available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  1. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new

  2. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  3. PG&E`s Geysers` Power Plant improvements - past, present, and future

    SciTech Connect

    Louden, P.; Southall, W.; Paquin, C.

    1996-04-10

    Geothermal power plant retrofits can improve plant efficiency, reduce operations and maintenance costs, as well as increase plant availability. All geothermal power producers must find new ways to become more competitive as the electric power industry becomes deregulated. To survive and thrive in the competitive power generation market, geothermal plant operators must continually look for economic power plant upgrades that reduce the cost of production and improve availability. This paper describes past and present power plant retrofits as well as shows how further research can help future plant improvements. Past power plant retrofits at Pacific Gas and Electric Company`s Geysers Power Plants include innovative H{sub 2}S burners that reduced chemical costs and a turbine jack-shaft that improved unit efficiency. Other important retrofits that dramatically reduced turbine forced outage and repair costs were turbine blade and nozzle changes, turbine weld repairs, and steam desuperheating.

  4. Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two 50% capacity horizontal circulating water pumps. A natural draft cooling tower rejects heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and sensible heat transfer. The tower is 180 ft in diameter at the base and 208 ft high, and features a counterflow design. It was designed to cool 63,500 gpm of circulating salt water through a range of 26 F with an approach of 19.2 degrees at an ambient wet bulb temperature of 76 F and 60% relative humidity. A drift rate of 0.002% of circulating water flow was specified to avoid excessive salt water carryover.

  5. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house is a 1980's era house in the Sacramento area that was a prominent part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration Program. The house underwent an extensive remodel, aimed at improving overall energy efficiency with a goal of reducing the home's energy use by 50%. NREL researchers performed a number of tests on the major systems touched by the retrofit to ensure they were working as planned. Additionally, SMUD rented the house from Greenbuilt Construction for a year to allow NREL to perform a number of tests on the cooling system and the water heating system. The goal of the space conditioning tests was to find the best ways to cut cooling loads and shift the summer peak. The water heating system, comprised of an add-on heat pump water heater and an integrated collector-storage solar water heater, was operated with a number of different draw profiles to see how varying hot water draw volume and schedule affected the performance of the system as a whole. All the experiments were performed with the house empty, with a simulated occupancy schedule running in the house to mimic the load imposed by real occupants.

  6. Retrofitted natural supersymmetry from a U(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Edward; March-Russell, John

    2013-05-01

    We propose that a single, spontaneously broken, U(1) gauge symmetry may be responsible for suppressing both the first two generation Yukawa couplings, and also, in a correlated manner, parameters in the dynamical supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking sector by the mechanism of retrofitting. In the dynamical SUSY breaking sector, these small parameters are typically required in order to introduce R-symmetry breaking in a controlled manner and obtain phenomenologically viable meta-stable vacua. The heavy U(1) multiplet mediates a dominant contribution to the first two generation MSSM sfermion soft masses, while gauge mediation provides a parametrically suppressed soft term contribution to the stop and most other states, so realising a natural SUSY spectrum in a fashion consistent with SUSY unification. In explicit models the spectra obtained can be such that current LHC limits are evaded, and predictions of flavour changing processes are consistent with observation. We examine both implementations with low scale mediation, and string-motivated examples where the U(1) is anomalous before the inclusion of a generalised Green-Schwarz mechanism.

  7. Bubbling fluidized bed retrofit with modern design tools

    SciTech Connect

    Korhonen, S.; Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Hulkkonen, S.

    1999-07-01

    Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has experience of more than 10 years in the design, construction and operation of power plants utilizing fluidized bed boilers (BFB). This operating experience, together with active fuels testing and the development work of computer aided design tools, has offered IVO a good possibility for product development. The new product was demonstrated by converting an old grate fired boiler into BFB at IVO's Vanaja plant. This boiler conversion project and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based tool used in the design of the combustion will be presented. The results of the model verification will be described briefly. At the Vanaja plant, a 60 MW{sub coal} fired grate boiler built in the early 1950s was converted to BFB in 1997. The old chain grate was removed and replaced with a fluidized bed with appropriate fluidization air and biofuel feeding systems. The automation system was also modernized. The primary fuel was changed to peat, whereas coal remained as secondary fuel together with natural gas and biofuels. IVO has long tradition in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) aided engineering of combustion processes. Since 1990, Ardemus, a CFD based combustion modeling package has been applied for pulverized coal combustion. Recently Ardemus has also been applied to the simulation of the freeboard of BFB. The development work is still going on concerning the bed behavior and emission formation description. In the retrofit project, the change of the fuel and the combustion technology were analyzed with the Ardemus model. Because of the shortness of the furnace, the focus in the design process was laid on the optimization of air staging and adequate mixing of combustion air and fuel. The effect of the modification on the operating conditions of the turbine plant was calculated with a process simulator. The design was completed by cold model tests. The modified boiler was commissioned successfully at the beginning of 1998, which is the most

  8. Hot gas cleanup using solid supported molten salt for integrated coal gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Topical report, October 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Lyke, S.E.; Sealock, L.J. Jr.; Roberts, G.L.

    1983-12-01

    Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories is developing a solid supported molten salt (SSMS) hot gas cleanup process for integrated coal gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plants. Exploratory and demonstration experiments have been completed to select a salt composition and evaluate its potential for simultaneous hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) removal under the conditions projected for the MCFC plants. Results to date indicate that equilibrium capacity and removal efficiencies may be adequate for one step H/sub 2/S and HCl removal. Regeneration produced a lower H/sub 2/S concentration than expected, but one from which sulfur could be recovered. Bench scale experiments will be designed to confirm laboratory results, check carbonyl sulfide removal, refine dual cycle (sulfide-chloride) regeneration techniques and obtain data for engineering/economic evaluation and scale-up. 8 references, 24 figures, 7 tables.

  9. A research needs assessment for the capture, utilization and disposal of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel-fired power plants. Volume 2, Topical reports: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    This study, identifies and assesses system approaches in order to prioritize research needs for the capture and non-atmospheric sequestering of a significant portion of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emitted from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants (US power plants presently produce about 7% of the world`s CO{sub 2} emissions). The study considers capture technologies applicable either to existing plants or to those that optimistically might be demonstrated on a commercial scale over the next twenty years. The research needs that have high priority in establishing the technical, environmental, and economic feasibility of large-scale capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} from electric power plants are:(1) survey and assess the capacity, cost, and location of potential depleted gas and oil wells that are suitable CO{sub 2} repositories (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (2) conduct research on the feasibility of ocean disposal, with objectives of determining the cost, residence time, and environmental effects for different methods of CO{sub 2} injection; (3) perform an in-depth survey of knowledge concerning the feasibility of using deep, confined aquifers for disposal and, if feasible, identify potential disposal locations (with the cooperation of the oil and gas industry); (4) evaluate, on a common basis, system and design alternatives for integration of CO{sub 2} capture systems with emerging and advanced technologies for power generation; and prepare a conceptual design, an analysis of barrier issues, and a preliminary cost estimate for pipeline networks necessary to transport a significant portion of the CO{sub 2} to potentially feasible disposal locations.

  10. Evaluation of gasification and gas-cleanup processes for use in molten-carbonate fuel-cell power plants. Task D topical report summary analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Vidt, E.J.

    1982-06-08

    In previous tasks, ten coal gas system configurations were chosen for fuel supply to MCFC power plants. In this report, we have ranked configurations by efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effects. The ranking shows that, for MCFC power plants, air-blown, low-Btu, fluidized-bed or entrained-bed gasification systems with hot gas cleanup have cost, operability, efficiency, and environmental advantages over other systems. The cost of electricity, for example, from a hot-gas cleanup, low-Btu, fluidized-bed fuel supply system is 12 percent less than from a medium-Btu system with hot cleanup, and is about 20 percent less than a medium-Btu system with conventional wet, low-temperature cleanup. Additional development of hot cleanup systems is required. Hot halogen removal costs used in this report need to have experimental verification, as does the effectiveness of ZnO for removing H/sub 2/S/COS to below 1 ppM at 650/sup 0/C. Also, the availability of a more effective hot bulk desulfurization system, such as the zinc ferrite system now under development by DOE/METC, would have additional benefits in cost and efficiency for MCFC power plants.

  11. Freshman Health Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  12. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  13. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  14. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district ground source heat pump (GSHP) system to service the project. This report details the retrofit of two existing houses in the program, and examines the energy efficiency recommendations for the homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a cold climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project’s affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  15. Modular industrial solar retrofit project (MISR)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to describe a major Department of Energy (DOE) thrust to bring line-focus solar thermal technology to commercial readiness. This effort is referred to as the MISR Project. The project is based upon the premise that thermal energy is the basic solar thermal system output and that low-temperature, fossil fuel applications are technically the first that should be retrofitted. Experience has shown that modularity in system design and construction offers potential for reducing engineering design costs, reduces manufacturing costs, reduces installation time and expense, and improves system operational reliability. The modular design effort will be sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories with industry doing the final designs. The operational credibility of the systems will be established by allowing selected industrial thermal energy users to purchase MISR systems from suppliers and operate them for two years. Industries will be solicited by DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office to conduct these experiments on a cost sharing basis. The MISR system allowed in the experiments will have been previously qualified for the application. The project is divided into three development phases which represent three design and experiment cycles. The first cycle will use commercially available trough-type solar collectors and will incorporate 5 to 10 experiments of up to 5000 m/sup 2/ of collectors each. The project effort began in March 1980, and the first cycle is to be completed in 1985. Subsequent cycles will begin at 3-year intervals. The project is success oriented, and if the first cycle reaches commercial readiness, the project will be terminated. If not, a second, and possibly a third, development cycle will be conducted.

  16. Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  17. Housing Stock Characterization Study. An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  18. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  19. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  20. 75 FR 21016 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program... package with respect to the Green Retrofit Program authorized by the American Recovery and Revitalization... and the Owner. The Green Retrofit Program is detailed in HUD Notice H 09-02 issued on May 13,...

  1. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for... comments on Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings... property from hazards and their effects. One such activity is the implementation of wind retrofit...

  2. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  3. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  4. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  5. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  6. Retrofit and verification test of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Poeschel, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty modifications were found to be necessary and were approved by design review. These design modifications were incorporated in the thruster documents (drawings and procedures) to define the J series thruster. Sixteen of the design revisions were implemented in a 900 series thruster by retrofit modification. A standardized set of test procedures was formulated, and the retrofit J series thruster design was verified by test. Some difficulty was observed with the modification to the ion optics assembly, but the overall effect of the design modification satisfies the design objectives. The thruster was tested over a wide range of operating parameters to demonstrate its capabilities.

  7. Passive-solar retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  8. Passive-solar-retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  9. Pilot retrofit test of refrigerant R-134a for GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J.; Brown, B.; Dungao, M.; Spencer, G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has issued an interim policy requiring all of its Centers to eliminate consumption (purchase) of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), by 1995. Also, plans must be outlined for the eventual phase out of their usage. The greatest source of CFC consumption and usage at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is refrigerant R-12, which is used in many of the facility's air-conditioning systems. A pilot retrofit test shows that retrofitting R-12 air-conditioning systems with hydrofluorocarbon R-13a would be a workable means to comply with the R-12 portion of NASA's policy. Results indicate acceptable cost levels and nearly equivalent system performance.

  10. Retrofitting SBR systems to nutrient removal in sensitive tourist areas.

    PubMed

    Tasli, R; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2001-01-01

    Retrofitting of existing SBR systems for nutrient removal is evaluated and defined for small communities in sensitive coastal areas, with seasonal fluctuations in wastewater quantity and quality. The proposed approach is developed by means of basic process stoichiometry and verified using ASM2d. The efficiency of retrofitting is found to rely on the delicate balance between the overall sludge age, the initial settled sludge volume in the reactor, and the ratio of the initial volume to the feed volume in each cycle, a parameter corresponding to the recycle ratio in continuous systems. PMID:11496662

  11. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Florida Power and Light are pursuing a collaborative energy research/utility partnership to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach. The project is creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of home retrofit - simple and deep. Acting as a pilot, this project is expected to provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through much larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  12. Assessment of cockpit interface concepts for data link retrofit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Hugh W.; Miles, William L.; Dwyer, John P.; Erickson, Jeffery B.

    1992-01-01

    The problem is examined of retrofitting older generation aircraft with data link capability. The approach taken analyzes requirements for the cockpit interface, based on review of prior research and opinions obtained from subject matter experts. With this background, essential functions and constraints for a retrofit installation are defined. After an assessment of the technology available to meet the functions and constraints, candidate design concepts are developed. The most promising design concept is described in detail. Finally, needs for further research and development are identified.

  13. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Cassadaga Creek Tributary Crossing, Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. Topical report, August 1992--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Van Dyke, G.D.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 3-4, 1992, at the Cassadaga wetlands crossing in Gerry Township, Chautauqua County, New York. The pipeline at this site was installed during February and March 1981. After completion of pipeline installation, the ROW was fertilized, mulched, and seeded with annual ryegrass. Two adjacent sites were surveyed in this study: a forested wetland and an emergent wetlands Eleven years after pipeline installation, the ROW at both sites supported diverse vegetative communities. Although devoid of large woody species, the ROW within the forested wetland had a dense vegetative cover. The ROW within the emergent wetland had a slightly less dense and more diverse vegetative community compared with that in the adjacent natural areas (NAs). The ROW within the emergent wetland also had a large number of introduced species that were not present in the adjacent NAs. The ROW, with its emergent marsh plant community, provided habitat diversity within the forested wetlands Because the ROW contained species not found within the adjacent NAs, overall species diversity was increased.

  14. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impacts on plant communities: Bayou Grand Cane, De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Topical report, August 1991--July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.; Hayes, D.; Van Dyke, G.D. |

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipeline on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and night of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted over the period of August 12-13, 1991, at the Bayou Grand Cane crossing in De Soto Parish, Louisiana, where a pipeline constructed three years prior to the survey crosses the bayou through mature bottomland hardwoods. The sit was not seeded or fertilized after construction activities. At the time of sampling, a dense herb stratum (composed of mostly native species) covered the 20-m-wide ROW, except within drainage channels. As a result of the creation of the ROW, new habitat was created, plant diversity increased, and forest habitat became fragmented. The ROW must be maintained at an early stage of succession to allow access to the pipeline however, impacts to the wetland were minimized by decreasing the width of the ROW to 20 m and recreating the drainage channels across the ROW. The canopy trees on the ROW`s edge shaded part of the ROW, which helped to minimize the effects of the ROW.

  15. Pipeline corridors through wetlands - impact on plant communities: Mill Creek Tributary Crossing, Jefferson County, New York, 1991 survey. Topical report, June 1991--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyke, G.D. |; Shem, L.M.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1994-12-01

    The goal of the Gas Research Institute Wetland Corridors Program is to document impacts of existing pipelines on the wetlands they traverse. To accomplish this goal, 12 existing wetland crossings were surveyed. These sites varied in elapsed time since pipeline construction, wetland type, pipeline installation techniques, and right-of-way (ROW) management practices. This report presents the results of a survey conducted in June 1991 at the Mill Creek tributary crossing, Jefferson County, New York. One pipeline had been installed through the wetland in 1966, and another was scheduled to be installed later in 1991. Data were collected along the existing pipeline ROW and also along the planned ROW for use as baseline data in future studies. Four separate communities were surveyed. A scrub-shrub wetland and a forested wetland were sampled along the existing ROW where the planned pipeline was to be installed. A mixed vegetation community was sampled along the existing ROW, west of where the planned pipeline would joint the ROW. A marsh community was sampled along the route of the planned pipeline. All plant species found on the ROW of the scrub-shrub community were also present in the adjacent natural areas. The vegetation on the ROW of the forested wetland community also consisted mostly of species found in the adjacent natural areas. In the mixed vegetation community, a small drainage channel present on the ROW, possibly resulting from the pipeline construction, provided habitat for a number of obligate species not found in other areas of this community. Differences noted among different areas of this community were also attributed to slight variations in elevation.

  16. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, Dave; Withers, Charles R.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  17. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depletingrental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  18. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depleting rental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  19. Experience gained with development and commissioning of retrofitted process control systems for large power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzon, O. M.; Grekhov, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    Experience gained for many years at ZAO Interavtomatika with work on retrofitting control and monitoring systems of large power units is summarized. Principles based on which these systems should be retrofitted are considered together with the factors influencing the choice of retrofitting option, as well as decisions on constructing a process control system during full and partial retrofitting. Recommendations are given for the optimal scope of functions that should be incorporated in the software and hardware tools of a process control system during its retrofitting.

  20. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  1. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  2. Case history: Design, implementation, and results of separator retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Broussard, G.C.; Meldrum, N. ); Choi, M.S. )

    1994-08-01

    Dubai Petroleum Co. (DPC) performed two in-situ offshore separator retrofit projects during 1989--91. Significant cost savings were achieved over the alternatives of separators replacement, addition, or modification onshore. The retrofits were accomplished without production loss or compromised operating safety. DPC's experience demonstrates that in-situ offshore facility modifications can be done successfully and simultaneously with normal operations. Improved performance after the retrofits strongly supports the need for properly designed internals to realize the full potential of a separators. Although the two retrofits share a common objective, they differ significantly in design, planning, and execution. First, a three-phase separator critical for uninterrupted production was modified during a 6-day scheduled fieldwide shutdown using only cold work. This was followed by the conversion of a two-phase, double-barrel separator to three-phase service without a field shutdown. The work took place during 6 months with the use of hot work. The success of both field modifications was attributed to innovative engineering and careful planning.

  3. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  4. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  5. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Delp, William W.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion; Singer, Brett C.; Spears, Michael; Vermeer, Kimberly; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  6. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  7. Insulation and coatings bind together for durable retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Structurally sound but energy-inefficient buildings need not be destroyed and rebuilt at expensive rates. By combining a hard coating and highly nonabsorbent insulation, energy dollars are conserved and new construction becomes unnecessary. Exteerior wall finishing systems, using Styrofoam brand insulation and either of two polymer modified cementitious coatings, are available for both new and retrofit commercial applications.

  8. General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the twentieth century, this building dates from very early in the Lazaretto's history and is believed to have once functioned as a summer kitchen or bake house. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Kitchen/Bake House, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  9. Stream Responses to a Watershed-Scale Stormwater Retrofit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure can reduce stormwater runoff and mitigate many of the problems associated with impervious surfaces; however, the effectiveness of retrofit stormwater management for improving aquatic health is largely untested. In the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchmen...

  10. Seismic retrofitting of bridge columns using shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrawes, Bassem; Shin, Moochul

    2008-03-01

    This analytical work focuses on enhancing the ductility capacity and damage mitigation of reinforced concrete bridge columns during earthquakes by using innovative active confinement technique. The high recovery stress associated with the shape recovery of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is exploited to apply the confining pressure. A 2-D analytical model for a single column is developed and analyzed. The model is used to evaluate the seismic behavior of the column retrofitted with SMA rings and compare it with the behavior of the column retrofitted with the more conventional approach using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. The stress-strain behavior of the concrete confined with internal ties only, internal ties and external SMA rings, and internal ties and external CFRP sheets is described based on two different constitutive models. The column model is subjected to cyclic loading with increasing amplitude and a ground motion excitation. The analysis shows that the SMA rings provide the column with more damage protection represented by a reduction in the maximum strain by up to 273% compared to CFRP sheets. In addition, the column retrofitted with SMA rings shows smaller lateral drifts compared to the column retrofitted with the CFRP sheets when subjected to the same ground motion excitation. The superior performance of the SMA rings is primarily attributed to the increase in the compressive strength at early stages of loading associated with applying the active confinement pressure.