Science.gov

Sample records for retrofit wood burner

  1. Burner retrofits reduce brewery emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    In 1988, the South Coast Air Quality Management District in California (SCAQMD) tightened its grip on industrial emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). The new statute, Rule 1146, mandates a 75% reduction in NOx emissions over a five-year period ending this July. Anheuser-Busch Inc.'s second-largest brewery in Van Nuys fell under the new law's jurisdiction. Under the new law, the maximum allowable NOx emission must be reduced from 120 to 30 ppm for the two largest boilers. There were two alternatives: either prevent its formation inside the boiler, or remove it from the off-gases via selective catalytic reduction (SCR) or selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR). Prevention was chosen, because the NOx-removal technologies are unproven in the US on natural-gas-fired boilers. In addition, it was not known whether SCR or SNCR could respond to the wide swings in boiler demand. At any given time, loads between 30 and 100% of capacity would be required from the boilers. The brewery retrofitted the 125,000-lb/h boilers with Variflame burners, based upon an earlier retrofit at Anheuser-Busch's Merrimack, N.H., brewery. The paper describes this burner and its performance.

  2. Wood fuel in suspension burners

    SciTech Connect

    Wolle, P.C.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and criteria for solid fuel suspension burning is presented based on more than ten years of actual experience with commercially installed projects. Fuel types discussed range from dried wood with less than 15% moisture content, wet basis, to exotic biomass material such as brewed tea leaves and processed coffee grounds. Single burner inputs range from 1,465 kW (5,000 Mbh) to 13,771 kW (47,000 Mbh) as well as multiple burner applications with support burning using fuel oil and/or natural gas. General requirements for self-sustaining combustion will be reviewed as applied to suspension solid fuel burning, together with results of what can happen if these requirements are not met. Solid fuel preparation, sizing, transport, storage, and metering control is essential for proper feed. Combustion chamber volume, combustion air requirements, excess air, and products of combustion are reviewed, together with induced draft fan sizing. (Refs. 7).

  3. Full-Scale Demonstration Low-NOx Cell Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-24

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Low-NOx Cell (LNC) Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: at least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; and demonstrate that the LNC burner retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  4. Full scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell burner retrofit. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  5. Full scale demonstration of low-NO sub x cell burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-09

    The overall objective of the Full-Scale Demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burner Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large based-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the retrofit of Low-NO{sub x} Cell Burners in boilers currently equipped with cell burners, is a cost-effective alternative to any other emerging, or commercially-available, NO{sub x} control technology.

  6. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NOx Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially-available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  7. Low No sub x /SO sub x burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative's (SIPC's) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC's Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner's SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  8. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE's Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  9. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO sub x Cell trademark Burner retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NO{sub x} control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NO{sub x} reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance. In particular, the prototype evaluations will resolve many technical issues not possible to address fully in the previous pilot-scale work and the single full-scale burner installation.

  10. Low No{sub x}/SO{sub x} burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Baseline test report: Issue A

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.; Martin, L.; Smith, J.

    1991-05-01

    The Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner Retrofit for Utility Cyclone Boilers program consists of the retrofit and subsequent demonstration of the technology at Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC`s) 33-MW unit 1 cyclone boiler located near Marion, Illinois. The LNS Burner employs a simple innovative combustion process burning high-sulfur Illinois coal to provide substantial SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} control within the burner. A complete series of boiler performance and characterization tests, called the baseline tests, was conducted in October 1990 on unit 1 of SIPC`s Marion Station. The primary objective of the baseline test was to collect data from the existing plant that could provide a comparison of performance after the LNS Burner retrofit. These data could confirm the LNS Burner`s SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions control and any effect on boiler operation. Further, these tests would provide to the project experience with the operating characteristics of the host unit as well as engineering design information to minimize technical uncertainties in the application of the LNS Burner technology.

  11. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  12. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit. Task 1, Cold flow burner development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, ``Cold Flow Burner Development``. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  13. Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; Kitto, J.B.; Kleisley, R.J.

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark}Burner (LNCB{trademark}) demonstration is to evaluate the applicability of this technology for reducing NO{sub x} emissions in full-scale, cell burner-equipped boilers. More precisely, the program objectives are to: (1) Achieve at least a 50% reduction in NO{sub x} emissions. (2) Reduce NO{sub x} with no degradation to boiler performance or life of the unit. (3) Demonstrate a technically and economically feasible retrofit technology. Cell burner equipped boilers comprise 13% of the Pre-New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) coal-fired generating capacity. This relates to 34 operating units generating 23,639 MWe, 29 of which are opposed wall fired with two rows of two-nozzle cell burners on each wall. The host site was one of these 29. Dayton Power & Light offered use of J.M. Stuart Station`s Unit No. 4 as the host site. It was equipped with 24, two-nozzle cell burners arranged in an opposed wall configuration. To reduce NO{sub x} emissions, the LNCB{trademark} has been designed to delay the mixing of the fuel and combustion air. The delayed mixing, or staged combustion, reduces the high temperatures normally generated in the flame of a standard cell burner. A key design criterion for the burner was accomplishing delayed fuel-air mixing with no pressure part modifications to facilitate a {open_quotes}plug-in{close_quotes} design. The plug-in design reduces material costs and outage time required to complete the retrofit, compared to installing conventional, internally staged low-NO{sub x} burners.

  14. Byggmeister Test Home. Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals that will benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. This report describes a deep retrofit project of a two-family wood-framed home in Belmont, Massachusetts, and examines the retrofit measures for the enclosure amd mechanical systems and reviews the decision-making process that took place during planning.

  15. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This Public Design Report provides available nonproprietary design information on the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} Burner Retrofit of Utility Cyclone Boilers project. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project, the organization of the project, and the role of the funding parties are discussed. An overview of the Low NO{sub x}SO{sub x} (LNS) Burner, the cyclone boiler and the Southern Illinois Power Cooperative host site is presented. A detailed nonproprietary description of the individual process steps, plant systems, and resulting performance then follows. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions and requirements are given for each unit. The plant demonstration program and start up provisions, the environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety factors that are considered are also addressed.

  16. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit. Quarterly report No. 4, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NOx Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NOx generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NOx reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NOx reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially-available NOx control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NOx reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance.

  17. Full-scale demonstration of Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit: Long-term testing

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.; Kung, S.C.

    1994-03-01

    The Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB) concept was developed by Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) to effectively reduce the NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized-coal-fired boilers equipped with cell burners. These boilers were built mostly in the mid to late 1960s. Small (6-million Btu/hr) and intermediate (100-million Btu/hr) prototype versions of the concept were developed jointly by B&W and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) during the mid-to-late 1980s. The design of B&W LNCBs allows direct replacements of the originally installed cell burners without pressure-part modifications. During this US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal III program, Dayton Power and Light Company (DP&L) served as the host utility using its J.M. Stuart Station Unit {number_sign}4 (JMSS 4) for the first full-scale LNCB demonstration. This unit has a rated output capacity of 605 MW{sub e}. After the LNCB retrofit and burner optimization contract phases in late 1991, JMSS 4 underwent a long- term (nine months) test period from July 1992 to March 1993. The objective of this test was to determine the overall performance of this boiler after the LNCB retrofit. The long-term test involved determinations of the boiler emission performance and evaluations of waterwall corrosion potential, as well as a study of the overall operability of the LNCB system. Specific tasks performed during this long-term test include: (1) laboratory corrosion study; (2) field corrosion panel study; (3) in-furnace gas species probing; and (4) boiler emissions performance study. This report summarizes the long- term test results.

  18. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2014-10-01

    Residential wood burning contributes significantly to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming significant quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle and gas phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings, however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ± 2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in

  19. Characterization of primary and secondary wood combustion products generated under different burner loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruns, E. A.; Krapf, M.; Orasche, J.; Huang, Y.; Zimmermann, R.; Drinovec, L.; Močnik, G.; El-Haddad, I.; Slowik, J. G.; Dommen, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Prévôt, A. S. H.

    2015-03-01

    Residential wood burning contributes to the total atmospheric aerosol burden; however, large uncertainties remain in the magnitude and characteristics of wood burning products. Primary emissions are influenced by a variety of parameters, including appliance type, burner wood load and wood type. In addition to directly emitted particles, previous laboratory studies have shown that oxidation of gas-phase emissions produces compounds with sufficiently low volatility to readily partition to the particles, forming considerable quantities of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). However, relatively little is known about wood burning SOA, and the effects of burn parameters on SOA formation and composition are yet to be determined. There is clearly a need for further study of primary and secondary wood combustion aerosols to advance our knowledge of atmospheric aerosols and their impacts on health, air quality and climate. For the first time, smog chamber experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of wood loading on both primary and secondary wood combustion products. Products were characterized using a range of particle- and gas-phase instrumentation, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS). A novel approach for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) quantification from AMS data was developed and results were compared to those from GC-MS analysis of filter samples. Similar total particle mass emission factors were observed under high and average wood loadings; however, high fuel loadings were found to generate significantly higher contributions of PAHs to the total organic aerosol (OA) mass compared to average loadings. PAHs contributed 15 ± 4% (mean ±2 sample standard deviations) to the total OA mass in high-load experiments, compared to 4 ± 1% in average-load experiments. With aging, total OA concentrations increased by a factor of 3 ± 1 for high load experiments compared to 1.6 ± 0.4 for average-load experiments. In the AMS, an increase in PAH and

  20. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  1. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, June--September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate the LNS Burner as retrofitted to the host cyclone boiler for effective low-cost control of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions while firing a bituminous coal. The LNS Burner employs a simple, innovative combustion process to burn pulverized coal at high temperatures and provides effective, low-cost control of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The coal ash contains sulfur and is removed in the form of molten slag and flyash. Cyclone-fired boiler units are typically older units firing high-sulfur bituminous coals at very high temperatures which results in very high NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions. The addition of conventional emission control equipment, such as wet scrubbers, to these older cyclone units in order to meet current and future environmental regulations is generally not economic. Further, the units are generally not compatible with low sulfur coal switching for S0{sub 2} control or selective catalytic reduction technologies for NO{sub x} control. Because the LNS Burner operates at the same very high temperatures as a typical cyclone boiler and produces a similar slag product, it may offer a viable retrofit option for cyclone boiler emission control. This was confirmed by the Cyclone Boiler Retrofit Feasibility Study carried out by TransAlta and an Operating Committee formed of cyclone boiler owners in 1989. An existing utility cyclone boiler, was then selected for the evaluation of the cost and performance study. It was concluded that the LNS Burner retrofit would be a cost-effective option for control of cyclone boiler emissions. A full-scale demonstration of the LNS Burner retrofit was selected in October 1988 as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program Round II.

  2. Retrofit catalytic converter for wood-burning stoves

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    The major purpose of this project was to design, fabricate, test, and evaluate a retrofit catalytic converter for woodburning stoves. In the interim between our date of application March 5, 1981 and the beginning of the grant period December 1, 1981, several such devices became commercially available. Therefore, we decided to modify the purpose and direction of our project. In summary, we designed and constructed a calorimeter room in a building located on the campus of Northern Kentucky University. We equipped this room with a woodburning stove and a metal chimney extending through the roof. We designed and constructed the appropriate instrumentation for monitoring the heat output of the stove. We observed and recorded the operating characteristics of this stove over a period of several days. We then equipped the stove with a barometric damper and repeated the experiment. We are now in the process of equipping the stove with a catalytic converter. Thus the major emphasis of the project currently is to test and evaluate several commercial retrofit devices which are purported to reduce creosote and/or increase the efficiency of a woodburning stove.

  3. Low NO sub x /SO sub x Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    LNS Burner design effort during this period focussed on the analysis of LNS Burner heat transfer, review and approval of fabrication drawings, completion of LNS Burner boiler flow modelling and the continued development of the slag screen model. Balance of plant engineering indude d the finalization of roof and wall details for the Fuel Preparation Building, structural checks associated with installation of equipment in the existing plant, the design of the fire fighting and ventilation systems for the Fuel Preparation Building and the preparation of P ID's for the materials handling facilities. Work continued on the preparation of P ED's for the fuel oil system and the instrument air and service air systems, the preparation of equipment lists and system descriptions, detailed design documentation for powering and control of major electrical components and preparation of the instrument index. Work on electrical design details for the instrumentation and minor control devices has been started.

  4. Full-scale demonstration Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner retrofit. Quarterly report No. 3, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-18

    The overall objectives of the full-Scale Low-NO{sub x} Cell{trademark} Burner (LNCB{trademark}) Retrofit project is to demonstrate the cost-effective reduction of NO{sub x} generated by a large, base-loaded (70% capacity factor or greater), coal-fired utility boiler. Specific objectives include: (1) At least 50% NO{sub x} reduction over standard two-nozzle cell burners, without degradation of boiler performance or life; (2) Acquire and evaluate emission and boiler performance data before and after the retrofit to determine NO{sub x} reduction and impact on overall boiler performance; (3) Demonstrate that the LNCB{trademark} retrofits are the most cost-effective alternative to emerging, or commercially- available NO{sub x} control technology for units equipped with cell burners. The focus of this demonstration is to determine maximum NO{sub x} reduction capabilities without adversely impacting plant performance, operation and maintenance. In particular, the prototype evaluations will resolve many technical issues not possible to address fully in the previous pilot-scale work and the single full-scale burner installation.

  5. Low NO{sub x} combustion system with DSVS{trademark} rotating classifier retrofit for a 630 MW{sub e} cell burner unit

    SciTech Connect

    Bryk, S.A.; Maringo, G.J.; Shah, A.I.; Madden, V.F.

    1996-12-31

    New England Power Company`s (NEP) 630 MW{sub e} Brayton Point Unit 3 is a universal pressure (UP) type supercritical boiler originally equipped with pulverized coal (PC) fired cell burners. In order to comply with the Phase 1 NO{sub x} emissions requirements under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the unit has been retrofitted with a low NO{sub x} staged combustion system during the spring 1995 outage. The unit was restarted in early May 1995 and was operating under the State Compliance emission levels by the end of the month. Additional optimization testing was performed in August, 1995. The retrofit scope consisted of replacing the cell burners with low NO{sub x} DRB-XCL{reg_sign} type PC/oil burners and overfire air ports within the existing open windbox, with no change in the firing pattern. A 70% NO{sub x} reduction from baseline levels was achieved while maintaining acceptable unburned carbon (UBC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels. To maintain low UBC levels, the scope included modifying the MPS-89 pulverizers by replacing the existing stationary classifiers with the B and W DSVS{trademark} (Dynamically Staged Variable Speed) two stage rotating classifiers. The DSVS{trademark} classifiers provide higher fineness for UBC control without derating the mill capacity. This paper will describe the project and discuss the retrofit emissions data. The paper will conclude with recommendations for retrofitting other similarly designed units.

  6. Low NO{sub x} burner retrofits to 240 MW, 300 MW and 400 MW oil/gas fired utility boilers; Final performance results and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kuretski, J.J. Jr.; Price, J.V.; Schindler, E.S.; Guarco, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Low NO{sub x} burners (LNBs) and new windbox baffles were retrofitted to eight residual oil/gas fired boilers totaling 2,680 MW of generating capacity in the Florida Power and Light Co. (FPL) system. These TODD Combustion designed LNBs were installed, from 1992 to 1995, to comply with a NO{sub x} Reasonably Available Control Technology (R.A.C.T.) determination associated with a moderate ozone non-attainment area in south Florida. LNBs were the primary means of NO{sub x} emission rate reduction, with an objective to achieve the maximum NO{sub x} reduction possible through burner hardware changes. Accordingly, the full focus of the project was on the capabilities of state-of-the-art LNB technology. These LNB retrofits were deemed successful based on the significant NO{sub x} reductions that were achieved. FPL`s contract requirements included consideration of unit performance and boiler component life impacts in addition to the traditional emission parameter guarantees. In striving to simultaneously meet all contract requirements, various burner design adjustments were implemented. As the project progressed, much was learned about LNBs and their effects on utility boilers as well as the effects of boiler equipment design and boiler conditions on NO{sub x} emission rates.

  7. Development of a wood pellet fired burner for space heating applications in the range 5 kW--300 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Whitfield, J.

    1999-07-01

    A compact burner has been developed, fired by wood pellets, which can compete with fossil fuel burners for space heating applications in terms of efficiency, emissions, load following capability, economics, and physical size. Greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2}) are reduced by 80% or more when used to displace fossil fuel fired appliances. This includes consideration of energy use in the pelleting process. The pellet fired burner is a stand-alone hot gas generator that can be externally mounted on an existing hot water boiler, directly replacing an oil or gas fired burner. The boiler thermostat directly controls the burner. Alternatively, the burner can be integrated into a forced air furnace or a dedicated boiler for OEM applications. The burner has been scaled from 20 kW for residential use up to more than 300 kw for commercial applications. The burner incorporates a fuel metering and delivery system, an insulated refractory firebox, an agitated grate system, preheated forced air combustion, and an open loop electronic control. Pellets are delivered from a separate storage bin, and the burner exhausts not gases in excess of 1,000 C from the burner tube. Excess air for combustion is controlled below 30% and emissions, CO and NO, are less than 100 ppm. the burner can be operated at these conditions as low as 30% rated power output. Upon heat demand from the thermostat control, pellets are fed to the grate, they ignite within 2--3 minutes using an electric resistance cartridge heater, and 90% rated power output is reached within 6--8 minutes of ignition. The burner can cycle 2--3 times per hour following the load demand.

  8. EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-COST RETROFIT LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses program objectives, approaches, current status and results, future activities, and schedules for EPA's program for research and development, field evaluation, and demonstration of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology. Primary emphasis is on:...

  9. Building America Case Study: Retrofit Measure for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls, Lawrence, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-01

    ?There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content and relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100 percent RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15 percent) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  10. Byggmeister Test Home: Analysis and Initial Results of Cold Climate Wood-Framed Home Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, C.

    2013-01-01

    BSC seeks to further the energy efficiency market for New England area retrofit projects by supporting projects that are based on solid building science fundamentals and verified implementation. With the high exposure of energy efficiency and retrofit terminology being used in the general media at this time, it is important to have evidence that measures being proposed will in fact benefit the homeowner through a combination of energy savings, improved durability, and occupant comfort. There are several basic areas of research to which the technical report for these test homes can be expected to contribute. These include the combination of measures that is feasible, affordable and acceptable to homeowners as well as expectations versus results. Two Byggmeister multi-family test homes in Massachusetts are examined with the goal of providing case studies that could be applied to other similar New England homes.

  11. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Work on process design and LNS Burner design was deferred during this period, pending a reassessment of the project by TransAlta prior to commencement of Budget Period II, and only limited Balance of Plant engineering work was done.

  12. Low NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} Burner retrofit for utility cyclone boilers. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    LNS Burner design effort during this period focussed on the analysis of LNS Burner heat transfer, review and approval of fabrication drawings, completion of LNS Burner boiler flow modelling and the continued development of the slag screen model. Balance of plant engineering indude d the finalization of roof and wall details for the Fuel Preparation Building, structural checks associated with installation of equipment in the existing plant, the design of the fire fighting and ventilation systems for the Fuel Preparation Building and the preparation of P&ID`s for the materials handling facilities. Work continued on the preparation of P&ED`s for the fuel oil system and the instrument air and service air systems, the preparation of equipment lists and system descriptions, detailed design documentation for powering and control of major electrical components and preparation of the instrument index. Work on electrical design details for the instrumentation and minor control devices has been started.

  13. Operational results of a low NO{sub x} burner retrofit on a 780 net MW{sub e} PC-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Bryk, S.A.; Cioffi, P.L.; Tucker, T.J.; Mellody, J.G.; Hooks, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to comply with state and federal clean air regulations while maintaining operational flexibility and control. This objective was accomplished with the installation of DRB-XCL{reg_sign} burners with a separated overfire air system. The DRB-XCL{reg_sign} burners can consistently achieve 0.5 lbs/10{sup 6} Btu NO{sub x} or less. Even lower NO{sub x} levels can be achieved with the new equipment. However, increased carbon levels affecting stack opacity prevent long-term operation at this level with the existing scrubbing equipment. Final test results indicated that the project goals were met with some exceeded. The results of this project pointed out the numerous interactions of all of the interrelated complex systems in today`s state-of-the-art power plants. The increase in unburned carbon levels affected the wet scrubber and impacted stack plume color. Being one indicator of inefficiency, this item is currently being reviewed to take advantage of further improving operating efficiency. Mechanical reliability of the Babcock & Wilcox DRB-XCL{reg_sign} burner has been good and it is estimated that long-term maintenance costs will be low. Close cooperation between Ohio Edison and B&W contributed positively to the success of this project.

  14. Regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, T.E.; Quinn, D.E.; Watson, J.E.

    1986-08-05

    A regenerative burner is described operable in fire and flue modes comprising: a burner shell having first and second internal chambers, the first chamber being disposed on the flame axis of the burner and the second chamber surrounding the radial perimeter of the first chamber; a gas permeable annular regenerative bed separating the first and second chambers such that gas flow between the first and second chambers must travel through the regenerative bed in a generally radial direction with respect to the flame axis; means for supplying combustion air to the second chamber when the burner is in the fire mode and for exhausting the products of combustion from the second chamber when the burner is in the flue mode; and means for supplying fuel in the vicinity of the flame axis for mixing with combustion air to support combustion when the burner is in the fire mode.

  15. Ceramic burner

    SciTech Connect

    Laux, W.; Hebel, R.; Artelt, P.; Esfeld, G.; Jacob, A.

    1981-03-31

    Improvements in the mixing body and supporting structure of a molded-ceramic-brick burner enable the burner to withstand the vibrations induced during its operation. Designed for the combustion chambers of air heaters, the burner has a mixing body composed of layers of shaped ceramic bricks that interlock and are held together vertically by a ceramic holding bar. The mixing body is shaped like a mushroom - the upper layers have a larger radius than the lower ones.

  16. Full-scale demonstration of low-NO{sub x} cell{trademark} burner retrofit: Addendum to long-term testing report, September 1994 outage: Examination of corrosion test panel and UT survey in DP&L Unit {number_sign}4

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, S.C.; Kleisley, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    As part of this DOE`s demonstration program, a corrosion test panel was installed on the west sidewall of Dayton Power & Light Unit no.4 at the J. M. Stuart Station (JMSS4) during the burner retrofit outage in November 1991. The test panel consisted of four sections of commercial coatings separated by bare SA213-T2 tubing. During the retrofit outage, a UT survey was performed to document the baseline wall thicknesses of the test panel, as well as several furnace wall areas outside the test panel. The purpose of the UT survey was to generate the baseline data so that the corrosion wastage associated with the operation of Low NO{sub x} Cell Burners (LNCB{trademark} burner) could be quantitatively determined. The corrosion test panel in JMSS4 was examined in April 1993 after the first 15-month operation of the LNCB{trademark} burners. Details of the corrosion analysis and UT data were documented in the Long-Term Testing Report. The second JMSS4 outage following the LNCB{trademark} burner retrofit took place in September 1944. Up to this point, the test panel in JMSS4 had been exposed to the corrosive combustion environment for approximately 31 months under normal boiler operation of JMSS4. This test period excluded the down time for the April 1993 outage. During the September 1994 outage, 70 tube samples of approximately one-foot length were cut from the bottom of the test panel. These samples were evaluated by the Alliance Research Center of B&W using the same metallurgical techniques as those employed for the previous outage. In addition, UT measurements were taken on the same locations of the lower furnace walls in JMSS4 as those during the prior outages. Results of the metallurgical analyses and UT surveys from different exposure times were compared, and the long-term performance of waterwall materials was analyzed. The corrosion data obtained from the long-term field study at JMSS4 after 32 months of LNCB{trademark} burner operation are summarized in this report.

  17. Regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gitman, G.M.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a method of combusting fuel in a furnace having a pair of regenerative burners, each burner having a combustion chamber. It comprises: supplying fuel and oxygen alternatively to each burner to create alternating firing burners wherein the oxygen is supplied from two sources providing first and second oxidizing gases having different oxygen concentrations and simultaneously alternating the application of negative pressure to the remaining non-firing burner to recover heat from flue gases exhausted by the regenerative bed of the non-firing burner to be used further to preheat at least part of the oxygen being supplied to the firing burner; mixing the fuel with a fraction of the oxygen under substoichiometric combustion condition to create products of incomplete combustion to form a hot, luminous flame core containing partially pyrolized fuel; and mixing the partially pyrolyzed fuel with a remaining fraction of the oxygen to complete combustion of the pyrolized fuel; and controlling the total flow of fuel and oxygen supplied to each burner to provide each burner with a desired flame stoichiometry.

  18. EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wallfired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. It further describes resul...

  19. Burner systems

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Brian J.

    1984-07-10

    A burner system particularly useful for downhole deployment includes a tubular combustion chamber unit housed within a tubular coolant jacket assembly. The combustion chamber unit includes a monolithic tube of refractory material whose inner surface defines the combustion zone. A metal reinforcing sleeve surrounds and extends the length of the refractory tube. The inner surface of the coolant jacket assembly and outer surface of the combustion chamber unit are dimensioned so that those surfaces are close to one another in standby condition so that the combustion chamber unit has limited freedom to expand with that expansion being stabilized by the coolant jacket assembly so that compression forces in the refractory tube do not exceed about one-half the safe compressive stress of the material; and the materials of the combustion chamber unit are selected to establish thermal gradient parameters across the combustion chamber unit to maintain the refractory tube in compression during combustion system start up and cool down sequences.

  20. Rotary Burner Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Flanagan

    2003-04-30

    The subject technology, the Calcpos Rotary Burner (CRB), is a burner that is proposed to reduce energy consumption and emission levels in comparison to currently available technology. burners are used throughout industry to produce the heat that is required during the refining process. Refineries seek to minimize the use of energy in refining while still meeting EPA regulations for emissions.

  1. EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: DESIGN PHASE REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the detailed scale-up and design phase of a program to develop a low-NOx burner system that can be retrofitted to an existing thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR) steam generator. The emission design goal for the 16 MW commercial grade burner system is to m...

  2. Predictive algorithm for heating broiler houses with cord wood

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, S.A.; McLendon, B.D.; Stuckey, T.A.

    1983-06-01

    A 137 MJ/hr wood burner and a 3600 L underground energy storage tank were tested to determine experimentally a means for predicting the performance of the burner tank. Using results of the tests, a program was developed which could predict the amount of wood needed in heating a broiler house, thus reducing management time.

  3. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board. The Measure Guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations. This Measure Guideline is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit.

  4. Measure Guideline: Three High Performance Mineral Fiber Insulation Board Retrofit Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2015-01-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a high performance enclosure retrofit package that uses mineral fiber insulation board, and is intended to serve contractors and designers seeking guidance for non-foam exterior insulation retrofit processes. The guideline describes retrofit assembly and details for wood frame roof and walls and for cast concrete foundations.

  5. Burner safety system

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, K.N.

    1986-09-23

    In combination with a fuel burner, this patent describes a pilot light burner disposed adjacent the fuel burner for lighting the fuel burner, and a solenoid-operated valve controlling the supply of fuel to the fuel burner, a thermocouple operable when heated to produce a thermoelectric current placed to be heated by the heat of the pilot light burner, an electromagnetic coil connected across the thermocouple energized by the thermoelectric current of the thermocouple, a reed switch unit including an envelope and switch contacts within the envelope actuated by the application of a magnetic flux thereto, the reed switch being mounted adjacent and in the magnetic field of the coil with energizing of the coil, a magnet, a mounting for the magnet wherein such is spaced from the reed switch unit, and circuit means connected to the reed switch unit and actuated by the unit to control actuation of the solenoid of the solenoid-operated valve.

  6. Infrared radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Vigneau, D.L.

    1984-03-06

    An infrared radiant burner uses a porous, fibrous refractory board matrix supported by two pairs of frame members, forming a gas-air mixture chamber between a flat sheet, the frame supports, and the matrix. The hollow frame members receive a noncombustible gas that is directed out through a narrow path along the sides of the matrix. The burner's air knife construction grips the matrix edge so as to prevent gas leakage while delivering air through the air knives around the burner periphery.

  7. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a

  8. Micronized coal burner facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A combustor or burner system in which the ash resulting from burning a coal in oil mixture is of submicron particle size is described. The burner system comprises a burner section, a flame exit nozzle, a fuel nozzle section, and an air tube by which preheated air is directed into the burner section. Regulated air pressure is delivered to a fuel nozzle. Means are provided for directing a mixture of coal particles and oil from a drum to a nozzle at a desired rate and pressure while means returns excess fuel to the fuel drum. Means provide for stable fuel pressure supply from the fuel pump to the fuel nozzle.

  9. Variable capacity gasification burner

    SciTech Connect

    Saxon, D.I.

    1985-03-05

    A variable capacity burner that may be used in gasification processes, the burner being adjustable when operating in its intended operating environment to operate at two different flow capacities, with the adjustable parts being dynamically sealed within a statically sealed structural arrangement to prevent dangerous blow-outs of the reactants to the atmosphere.

  10. Combustor burner vanelets

    DOEpatents

    Lacy, Benjamin; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Zuo, Baifang

    2012-02-14

    The present application provides a burner for use with a combustor of a gas turbine engine. The burner may include a center hub, a shroud, a pair of fuel vanes extending from the center hub to the shroud, and a vanelet extending from the center hub and/or the shroud and positioned between the pair of fuel vanes.

  11. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-01

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat, wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls, using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat, wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  12. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Zero Energy Ready House Flat Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, H.; Pettit, B.

    2015-05-29

    This Measure Guideline provides design and construction information for a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution of a flat roof assembly. It describes the strategies and procedures for an exterior retrofit of a flat wood-framed roof with brick masonry exterior walls using exterior and interior (framing cavity) insulation. The approach supported in this guide could also be adapted for use with flat wood-framed roofs with wood-framed exterior walls.

  13. LOW NOX BURNER DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.

    2004-09-30

    The objective of the task is to develop concepts for ultra low NOx burners. One approach that has been tested previously uses internal recirculation of hot gases and the objective was to how to implement variable recirculation rates during burner operation. The second approach was to use fuel oil aerosolization (vaporization) and combustion in a porous medium in a manner similar to gas-fired radiant burners. This task is trying the second approach with the use of a somewhat novel, prototype system for aerosolization of the liquid fuel.

  14. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, Jennifer L.; Rodgers, Larry W.; Koslosy, John V.; LaRue, Albert D.; Kaufman, Keith C.; Sarv, Hamid

    1998-01-01

    A burner having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO.sub.x burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO.sub.x back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing.

  15. Pulverized coal burner

    DOEpatents

    Sivy, J.L.; Rodgers, L.W.; Koslosy, J.V.; LaRue, A.D.; Kaufman, K.C.; Sarv, H.

    1998-11-03

    A burner is described having lower emissions and lower unburned fuel losses by implementing a transition zone in a low NO{sub x} burner. The improved burner includes a pulverized fuel transport nozzle surrounded by the transition zone which shields the central oxygen-lean fuel devolatilization zone from the swirling secondary combustion air. The transition zone acts as a buffer between the primary and the secondary air streams to improve the control of near-burner mixing and flame stability by providing limited recirculation regions between primary and secondary air streams. These limited recirculation regions transport evolved NO{sub x} back towards the oxygen-lean fuel pyrolysis zone for reduction to molecular nitrogen. Alternate embodiments include natural gas and fuel oil firing. 8 figs.

  16. WALL-FIRED BOILER DESIGN CRITERIA FOR DRY SORBENT SO2 CONTROL WITH LOW NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report assesses the impact of Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on wall-fired utility boilers for both new and retrofit designs. Recent attention has focused on dry sorbent sulfur dioxide (SO2) control technology which, in conjunction with low-nitrogen-o...

  17. EPA'S LIMB (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) DEVELOPMENT AND DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes and discusses key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wall-fired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station, based on the preliminary engineering design. The full-scale demonstrat...

  18. Arkansas solar retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. The retrofits examined were greenhouses, air heaters and water heaters. The design, construction, and performance of the retrofits are described, along with some information about sun motion and orientation and greenhouse gardening. Appended are maps, tables, and graphs of insolation in Arkansas. (LEW)

  19. Application of RBC burners in 220 t/h boilers in Xinhua Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhengqi; Sun Shaozeng; Sun Rui; Chen Lizhe; Wang Zhijin; Wu Shaohua; Qin Yukun

    1997-12-31

    The Radial Bias Combustion (RBC) pulverized coal burner was developed to simultaneously solve five problems, i.e. combustion efficiency, flame stability, slagging, high temperature corrosion of furnace wall tube metal and NOx emission, that existed in firing low grade Chinese coal. It was developed for wall fired systems. A RBC burner is usually facilitated in the following way: A fuel enricher of high enriching ratio is installed in the fuel transport channel which separates radially the fuel air stream into two streams of proper fuel concentration. The fuel-rich stream injects through the fuel nozzles, forming a high temperature annular core just outside the recirculation zone in the center of the flame; the fuel-lean stream injects through the fuel lean nozzles outside fuel rich flame and blanketing high temperature flame core with an out layer of more oxidizing atmosphere. RBC burners have been applied to the retrofit of coal burners of No.1 and No.2 boilers in the Xinhua Power Plant. These boilers are high pressure ones of 220 t/h rated steam capacity which were retrofitted from oil fired boilers. Prior to the retrofit with RBC burners, flame stability was very poor. It needed auxiliary fuel oil to enhance its stability at 70--80% rated capacity. NOx emissions did not meet environmental regulations. Satisfactory results have been obtained after the retrofit. Flame stability has been improved a great deal. The minimum load without auxiliary fuel has reached 40%. Furthermore, RBC burners raised the combustion efficiency. Lastly, NOx emission have been abated and meet Chinese legislation.

  20. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, R.K.

    1998-04-07

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame. 11 figs.

  1. Ultralean low swirl burner

    DOEpatents

    Cheng, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    A novel burner and burner method has been invented which burns an ultra lean premixed fuel-air mixture with a stable flame. The inventive burning method results in efficient burning and much lower emissions of pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen than previous burners and burning methods. The inventive method imparts weak swirl (swirl numbers of between about 0.01 to 3.0) on a fuel-air flow stream. The swirl, too small to cause recirculation, causes an annulus region immediately inside the perimeter of the fuel-air flow to rotate in a plane normal to the axial flow. The rotation in turn causes the diameter of the fuel-air flow to increase with concomitant decrease in axial flow velocity. The flame stabilizes where the fuel-air mixture velocity equals the rate of burning resulting in a stable, turbulent flame.

  2. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Chamberland; Aku Raino; David Towle

    2006-09-30

    For more than two decades, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has developed a range of low cost, in-furnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes ALSTOM's internally developed TFS 2000 firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). As of 2004, more than 200 units representing approximately 75,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with ALSTOM low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coals to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coals, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing (retrofit) boiler equipment. If enacted, proposed Clear Skies legislation will, by 2008, require an average, effective, domestic NOx emissions rate of 0.16 lb/MMBtu, which number will be reduced to 0.13 lb/MMBtu by 2018. Such levels represent a 60% and 67% reduction, respectively, from the effective 2000 level of 0.40 lb/MMBtu. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. In light of these needs, ALSTOM, in cooperation with the DOE, is developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner which, when integrated with ALSTOM's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems, will provide a means to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx at less than 3/4 the cost of an SCR with low to no impact on balance of plant issues when firing a high volatile bituminous coal. Such coals can be more economic to fire than subbituminous or Powder River Basin (PRB) coals, but are more problematic from a NOx control standpoint as existing

  3. Combustion Characteristics of Oxy-fuel Burners for CO2 Capturing Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Joon; Kim, Hyouck Ju; Choi, Kyu Sung

    Oxy-fuel boilers have been developed to capture CO2 from the exhaust gas. A 50 kW class model burner has been developed and tested in a furnace type boiler. The burner has been scaled up to 0.5 and 3 MW class for fire-tube type boilers. The burners are commonly laid out in a coaxial type to effectively heat the combustion chamber of boilers. Burners are devised to support air and oxy-fuel combustion modes for the retrofitting scenario. FGR (flue gas recirculation) has been tried during the scale-up procedure. Oxy-fuel combustion yields stretched flame to uniformly heat the combustion chamber. It also provides the high CO2 concentration, which is over 90% in dry base. However, pure oxy-fuel combustion increases NO concentration, because of the reduced flow rate. The FGR can suppress the thermal NOx induced by the infiltration of the air.

  4. Results of initial operation of the Jupiter Oxygen Corporation oxy-fuel 15 MWth burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ochs, Danylo Oryshchyn, Rigel Woodside, Cathy Summers, Brian Patrick, Dietrich Gross, Mark Schoenfield, Thomas Weber and Dan O'Brien

    2009-04-01

    Jupiter Oxygen Corporation (JOC), in cooperation with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), constructed a 15 MWth oxy-fuel burner test facility with Integrated Pollutant Removal (IPRTM) to test high flame temperature oxy-fuel combustion and advanced carbon capture. Combustion protocols include baseline air firing with natural gas, oxygen and natural gas firing with and without flue gas recirculation, and oxygen and pulverized coal firing with flue gas recirculation. Testing focuses on characterizing burner performance, determining heat transfer characteristics, optimizing CO2 capture, and maximizing heat recovery, with an emphasis on data traceability to address retrofit of existing boilers by directly transforming burner systems to oxy-fuel firing.

  5. Burners and stingers.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, J H

    2000-11-01

    The burner or stinger syndrome is one of the most common injuries in football and most likely represents an upper cervical root injury. Other sports reported include wrestling, hockey, basketball, boxing, and weight lifting. The athlete experiences radiating pain, numbness, or tingling down one upper limb, usually lasting less than 1 minute. Recurrences are common and can lead to permanent neurologic deficits. Burners are usually diagnosed and treated based on physical examination findings, but radiographs, MR imaging, and electrodiagnostic testing may help localize the precise level of injury, identify other associated pathology, and quantify neurologic injury. Management should include education on proper tackling techniques, restoration of neck motion, functional strengthening, and carefully fitted orthosis. PMID:11092018

  6. High efficiency gas burner

    DOEpatents

    Schuetz, Mark A.

    1983-01-01

    A burner assembly provides for 100% premixing of fuel and air by drawing the air into at least one high velocity stream of fuel without power assist. Specifically, the nozzle assembly for injecting the fuel into a throat comprises a plurality of nozzles in a generally circular array. Preferably, swirl is imparted to the air/fuel mixture by angling the nozzles. The diffuser comprises a conical primary diffuser followed by a cusp diffuser.

  7. STATUS OF EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM AT OHIO EDISON'S EDGEWATER UNIT 4

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes and discusses the key design features of the retrofit of EPA's Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) system to an operating, wall-fired utility boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station. It further describes results of the pertinent projects in EPA's LI...

  8. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, A.

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods. While the unvented crawlspace retrofit was effective in reducing heat loss, and the majority of the bulk water drainage problems had been resolved, the important finding was that some of the wood joists embedded in masonry pockets behind the brick veneer were showing signs of moisture damage.

  9. Development of an advanced high efficiency coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    LaFlesh, R.C.; Rini, M.J.; McGowan, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop a high efficiency advanced coal combustor (HEACC) for coal-based fuels capable of being retrofitted to industrial boilers originally designed for firing natural gas, distillate, and/or residual oil. The HEACC system is to be capable of firing microfine coal water fuel (MCWF), MCWF with alkali sorbent (for SO{sub 2} reduction), and dry microfine coal. Design priorities for the system are that it be simple to operate and will offer significant reductions in NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate emissions as compared with current coal fired combustor technology. The specific objective of this report is to document the work carried out under Task 1.0 of this contract, Cold Flow Burner Development''. As are detailed in the report, key elements of this work included primary air swirler development, burner register geometry design, cold flow burner model testing, and development of burner scale up criteria.

  10. Oil burner nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Donald G.

    1982-01-01

    An oil burner nozzle for use with liquid fuels and solid-containing liquid fuels. The nozzle comprises a fuel-carrying pipe, a barrel concentrically disposed about the pipe, and an outer sleeve retaining member for the barrel. An atomizing vapor passes along an axial passageway in the barrel, through a bore in the barrel and then along the outer surface of the front portion of the barrel. The atomizing vapor is directed by the outer sleeve across the path of the fuel as it emerges from the barrel. The fuel is atomized and may then be ignited.

  11. Lighting Retrofit Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kromer, S.; Morse, O.; Siminovitch, M.

    1991-09-01

    The Lighting Retrofit Study was an effort to determine the most cost-effective methods of retrofitting several configurations of lighting systems at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We developed a test protocol to compare a variety of lighting technologies for their applicability in labs and offices and designed and constructed a novel lighting contrast potential meter to allow for comparison of lighting quality as well as quantity.

  12. High capacity oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Pedrosa, O.A. Jr.; Couto, N.C.; Fanqueiro, R.C.C.

    1983-11-01

    The present invention relates to a high capacity oil burner comprising a cylindrical atomizer completely surrounded by a protective cylindrical housing having a diameter from 2 to 3 times greater than the diameter of said atomizer; liquid fuels being injected under pressure into said atomizer and accumulating within said atomizer in a chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels, and compressed air being injected into a chamber for the accumulation of air; cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of liquid fuels with the outside and cylindrical holes communicating said chamber for the accumulation of air with said cylindrical holes communicating the chamber for the accumulation of liquids with the outside so that the injection of compressed air into said liquid fuel discharge holes atomizes said fuel which is expelled to the outside through the end portions of said discharge holes which are circumferentially positioned to be burnt by a pilot flame; said protecting cylindrical housing having at its ends perforated circular rings into which water is injected under pressure to form a protecting fan-like water curtain at the rear end of the housing and a fan-like water curtain at the flame to reduce the formation of soot; the burning efficiency of said burner being superior to 30 barrels of liquid fuel per day/kg of the apparatus.

  13. Wood and Wood Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Raymond A.

    Wood has been utilized by humans since antiquity. Trees provided a source of many products required by early humans such as food, medicine, fuel, and tools. For example, the bark of the willow tree, when chewed, was used as a painkiller in early Greece and was the precursor of the present-day aspirin. Wood served as the primary fuel in the United States until about the turn of the 19th century, and even today over one-half of the wood now harvested in the world is used for heating fuel.

  14. Development and testing of an automated wood-burning heating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    An improved wood continuous, automated combustion system has been developed using a tunnel burner. The tunnel burner implemented into a boiler heating system has proven to be very efficient. The prototype was tested and evaluated. A second generation tunnel system was designed and fabricated. Work performed between April 1980 and April 1981 is summarized. The most important results of the project are: the finalized tunnel burner design; high combustion efficiency; and low air pollution emissions. 3 tables. (DMC)

  15. Design report: Low NOx burners for package boilers. Final report, May 1985-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.A.; Dehne, H.; Eaton, S.; Mason, H.B.; Torbov, S.

    1990-01-01

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The burner utilizes two-stage combustion in a deep staging mode in which a precombustor firing substoichiometrically is retrofitted to the front of the boiler. The completion of the combustion in the second stage is achieved through sidefire air ports to be retrofitted to the boiler. The precombustor is a cylindrical shell of 2.1 m internal diameter fabricated of lightweight refractory blocks with a Saffil based coating. This material gives a lightweight, non-regenerative precombustor which can adapt to the start-up, shutdown, and load following transients typical of industrial boilers. The precombustor is designed for the capacity range of 15-29 MW heat input. A modular design using annular spool sections adapts to different design loads within this range. For larger loads, a geometric scale-up is required. Design data are also given for 59 MW capacity.

  16. Radial lean direct injection burner

    DOEpatents

    Khan, Abdul Rafey; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2012-09-04

    A burner for use in a gas turbine engine includes a burner tube having an inlet end and an outlet end; a plurality of air passages extending axially in the burner tube configured to convey air flows from the inlet end to the outlet end; a plurality of fuel passages extending axially along the burner tube and spaced around the plurality of air passage configured to convey fuel from the inlet end to the outlet end; and a radial air swirler provided at the outlet end configured to direct the air flows radially toward the outlet end and impart swirl to the air flows. The radial air swirler includes a plurality of vanes to direct and swirl the air flows and an end plate. The end plate includes a plurality of fuel injection holes to inject the fuel radially into the swirling air flows. A method of mixing air and fuel in a burner of a gas turbine is also provided. The burner includes a burner tube including an inlet end, an outlet end, a plurality of axial air passages, and a plurality of axial fuel passages. The method includes introducing an air flow into the air passages at the inlet end; introducing a fuel into fuel passages; swirling the air flow at the outlet end; and radially injecting the fuel into the swirling air flow.

  17. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner. Phase 1, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.D.; Duret, M.J.

    1997-06-01

    The RSB was first developed for Thermally Enhanced Oil Recovery steamers which fire with a single 60 MMBtu/hr burner; the California Energy Commission and Chevron USA were involved in the burner development. The burner has also since found applications in refinery and chemical plant process heaters. All Phase I goals were successfully met: the RSB achieved sub-9 ppM NOx and sub-50 ppM CO emissions using high excess air, external flue gas recirculation (FGR), and fuel staging in the 3 MMBtu/hr laboratory watertube boiler. In a test in a 50,000 lb/hr oil field steamer with fuel staging, it consistently achieved sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 10 ppM NOx. With high CO{sub 2} casing gas in this steamer, simulating external FGR, sub-20 ppM NOx and as low as 5 ppM NOx were achieved. Burner material cost was reduced by 25% on a per Btu basis by increasing the effective surface firing rate at the burner; further reductions will occur in Phase II. The market for 30 ppM and 9 ppM low NOx burners has been identified as package boilers in the 50,000 to 250,000 lb/hr size range (the 30 ppM is for retrofit, the 9 ppM for the new boiler market). Alzeta and Babcock & Wilcox have teamed to sell both boiler retrofits and new boilers; they have identified boiler designs which use the compact flame shape of the RSB and can increase steam capacity while maintaining the same boiler footprint. Alzeta, Chevron, and B & W have teamed to identify sites to demonstrate the RSB in Phases II and III. In Phase II, the RSB will be demonstrated in a 100,000 lb/hr industrial watertube boiler.

  18. Low NO sub x regenerative burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, J.E.; Finke, H.P.

    1991-01-08

    This patent describes improvements in a regenerative burner having a regenerative bed, a burner port and a fuel nozzle. The improvement comprises: a burner baffle having apertures therein for selectively directing combustion air and inducing combustion gas recirculation into a primary combustion zone for suppressing NO{sub x} emissions, the baffle and the fuel nozzle being positioned substantially adjacent the burner port and being substantially coplanar in a plane perpendicular to a burner axis.

  19. Radiant energy burner

    SciTech Connect

    Granberg, D.N.

    1986-07-08

    In a radiant energy burner, a combustion element is described comprising a porous metal support having an inner surface and an outer surface, a woven fabric disposed on the outer surface of the support and composed of substantially continuous ceramic fibers, connecting means for securing end portions of the fabric to the support, the connecting means being metal and being enclosed in a ring-like sleeve of woven ceramic fiber. The central portion of the fabric is free of attachment to the support, supply means including a blower to supply a gaseous fuel through the support and the fabric, and fuel igniting means disposed adjacent to the outer surface of the fabric to ignite the fuel.

  20. Catalyzed Ceramic Burner Material

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, Amy S., Dr.

    2012-06-29

    Catalyzed combustion offers the advantages of increased fuel efficiency, decreased emissions (both NOx and CO), and an expanded operating range. These performance improvements are related to the ability of the catalyst to stabilize a flame at or within the burner media and to combust fuel at much lower temperatures. This technology has a diverse set of applications in industrial and commercial heating, including boilers for the paper, food and chemical industries. However, wide spread adoption of catalyzed combustion has been limited by the high cost of precious metals needed for the catalyst materials. The primary objective of this project was the development of an innovative catalyzed burner media for commercial and small industrial boiler applications that drastically reduce the unit cost of the catalyzed media without sacrificing the benefits associated with catalyzed combustion. The scope of this program was to identify both the optimum substrate material as well as the best performing catalyst construction to meet or exceed industry standards for durability, cost, energy efficiency, and emissions. It was anticipated that commercial implementation of this technology would result in significant energy savings and reduced emissions. Based on demonstrated achievements, there is a potential to reduce NOx emissions by 40,000 TPY and natural gas consumption by 8.9 TBtu in industries that heavily utilize natural gas for process heating. These industries include food manufacturing, polymer processing, and pulp and paper manufacturing. Initial evaluation of commercial solutions and upcoming EPA regulations suggests that small to midsized boilers in industrial and commercial markets could possibly see the greatest benefit from this technology. While out of scope for the current program, an extension of this technology could also be applied to catalytic oxidation for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Considerable progress has been made over the course of the grant

  1. Micronized-Coal Burner Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calfo, F. D.; Lupton, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Micronized-coal (coal-in-oil mix) burner facility developed to fulfill need to generate erosion/corrosion data on series of superalloy specimens. In order to successfully operate gas turbine using COM, two primary conditions must be met. First, there must be adequate atomization of COM and second, minimization of coking of burner. Meeting these conditions will be achieved only by clean burning and flame stability.

  2. An economical solution for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from cell burner boilers firing pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Penterson, C.A.; Dorai, X.A.

    1995-10-01

    Over 12% (26,000 MWe) of the US generating capacity is produced from utility boilers equipped with pre-New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) cell burners. These burners, manufactured in the 1950`s and 60`s, rapidly mix the pulverized coal and combustion air resulting in highly turbulent and efficient combustion. Unfortunately, NO{sub x} emissions produced by this type of firing configuration are extremely high typically averaging 1.0 to 1.8 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. This paper presents the results of retrofitting American Electric Power`s Muskingum River Unit 5, a 600 MWe supercritical cell burner boiler with Riley low NO{sub x} CCV{trademark} burners. Results of this project successfully demonstrated the ability to reduce NO{sub x} emissions greater than 50% without the requirement for overfire air (OFA), off stoichiometric firing, burner respacing, mill system or coal piping changes or pressure part modifications. Emissions and boiler performance results are presented along with the typical costs for this type of retrofit.

  3. Steel bridge retrofit evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prine, David W.

    1998-03-01

    The development of a retrofit design aimed at retarding or eliminating fatigue crack growth in a large bridge can be a very difficult and expensive procedure. Analytical techniques frequently do not provide sufficient accuracy when applied to complex structural details. The Infrastructure Technology Institute (ITI) of Northwestern University, under contract to the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans), recently applied experimental state-of-the-art NDE technology to the Interstate 80 bridge over the Sacramento River near Sacramento, California (Bryte Bend). Acoustic emission monitoring was applied in conjunction with strain gage monitoring to aid in characterizing the retrofits' effect on existing active fatigue cracks. The combined test results clearly showed that one retrofit design was superior to the other.

  4. Willow firing in retrofitted Irish peat plant

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, R. van den; Faaij, A.; Kent, T.

    1995-11-01

    Interest in biomass electricity in Ireland is being re-awakened by environmental concerns about CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation and the potential of biomass production to provide an alternative agricultural enterprise. The technical and economical feasibility of wood-fuelled power production using willow from energy farming in existing peat-fired plants in Ireland is being studied within the framework of the EU JOULE II+ programme. These options are compared with new combustion plants and a biomass integrated gasifier with combined cycle (BIG/CC). Background studies supplied data for yields of willow farming, establishment of willow plantations, harvesting methods, logistics and costs and efficiencies for different retrofit options at Irish peat plants. All technologies considered are currently available or are expected to be available in the near future. Neither agricultural subsidies nor possible CO{sub 2} taxes have been included. In the least cost supply scenario storage and chipping of wood is done at the power station. In this case wood is only stored in the form of sticks and wood harvested by a chips harvester is supplied to the plant directly during the harvesting season. Fuel costs at the plant gate were estimated between 3.3 and 11 EGU/GJ{sub LHV}. This wide range resulted in a wide range of kWh costs. For the lowest cost option they ranged between 5.4 and 15 ECUcents/kWh. The cheapest proven retrofit option is the conversion of the existing milled peat Lanesborough unit 3 into a bubbling fluidized bed with kWh costs ranging from 5.6 up to 16 ECUcents/kWh. For this plant, costs per tonne of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions varied between 1 and 70 ECU. It is noteworthy that the kWh costs for all options considered were very close. Especially in the high costs scenario a BIG/CC appeared to have lower kWh cost than all biomass combustion plants. Mainly for the retrofitted plants the fuel costs were by far the largest kWh cost component.

  5. Burner ignition system

    DOEpatents

    Carignan, Forest J.

    1986-01-21

    An electronic ignition system for a gas burner is battery operated. The battery voltage is applied through a DC-DC chopper to a step-up transformer to charge a capacitor which provides the ignition spark. The step-up transformer has a significant leakage reactance in order to limit current flow from the battery during initial charging of the capacitor. A tank circuit at the input of the transformer returns magnetizing current resulting from the leakage reactance to the primary in succeeding cycles. An SCR in the output circuit is gated through a voltage divider which senses current flow through a flame. Once the flame is sensed, further sparks are precluded. The same flame sensor enables a thermopile driven main valve actuating circuit. A safety valve in series with the main gas valve responds to a control pressure thermostatically applied through a diaphragm. The valve closes after a predetermined delay determined by a time delay orifice if the pilot gas is not ignited.

  6. Retrofitted supersymmetric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Manatosh

    This thesis explores several models of metastable dynamic supersymmetry breaking (MDSB) and a supersymmetric model of hybrid inflation. All of these models possess discrete R-symmetries. We specially focus on the retrofitted models for supersymmetry breaking models. At first we construct retrofitted models of gravity mediation. In these models we explore the genericity of the so-called "split supersymmetry." We show that with the simplest models, where the goldstino multiplet is neutral under the discrete R-symmetry, a split spectrum is not generic. However if the goldstino superfield is charged under some symmetry other than the R-symmetry, then a split spectrum is achievable but not generic. We also present a gravity mediated model where the fine tuning of the Z-boson mass is dictated by a discrete choice rather than a continuous tuning. Then we construct retrofitted models of gauge mediated SUSY breaking. We show that, in these models, if the approximate R-symmetry of the theory is spontaneously broken, the messenger scale is fixed; if explicitly broken by retrofitted couplings, a very small dimensionless number is required; if supergravity corrections are responsible for the symmetry breaking, at least two moderately small couplings are required, and that there is a large range of possible messenger scales. Finally we switch our attention to small field hybrid inflation. We construct a model that yields a spectral index ns = 0.96. Here, we also briefly discuss the possibility of relating the scale of inflation with the dynamics responsible for supersymmetry breaking.

  7. Multifamily Ventilation Retrofit Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.; Bergey, D.

    2012-12-01

    In multifamily buildings, central ventilation systems often have poor performance, overventilating some portions of the building (causing excess energy use), while simultaneously underventilating other portions (causing diminished indoor air quality). BSC and Innova Services Corporation performed a series of field tests at a mid-rise test building undergoing a major energy audit and retrofit, which included ventilation system upgrades.

  8. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.47 Burners. (a) If a burner is used to provide the... fuel pressure is 40 to 60 percent of the range between the maximum fuel pressure referenced...

  9. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burners. 31.47 Section 31.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.47 Burners. (a) If a burner is used to provide the lifting means, the system must be designed...

  10. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burners. 31.47 Section 31.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.47 Burners. (a) If a burner is used to provide the lifting means, the system must be designed...

  11. Low NO{sub x} retrofit problems and solutions: A joint perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Penterson, C.A.; Dorman, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Several utility boilers have been retrofitted with low NO{sub x} burner technology during the past five (5) years in response to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Though most of the projects have been successful in achieving the primary objective of reducing NO{sub x} emissions, other problems have been created. The most significant problem has been with increased flyash unburned carbon. This paper discusses experiences, problems and some solutions involving three (3) low NO{sub x} retrofit projects implemented by American Electric Power Service Company. These low NO{sub x} retrofit projects involved the following utility boilers: Glen Lyn Unit 6 -- 240 MW front wall fired; Muskingum River Unit 5 -- 600 MW opposed wall cell fired; and Conesville Unit 3 -- 165 MW front wall fired. Performance data will be presented along with solutions to some of the problems encountered.

  12. Geothermal Energy Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, Gary

    2015-07-28

    The Cleary University Geothermal Energy Retrofit project involved: 1. A thermal conductivity test; 2. Assessment of alternative horizontal and vertical ground heat exchanger options; 3. System design; 4. Asphalt was stripped from adjacent parking areas and a vertical geothermal ground heat exchanger system installed; 5. the ground heat exchanger was connected to building; 6. a system including 18 heat pumps, control systems, a manifold and pumps, piping for fluid transfer and ductwork for conditioned air were installed throughout the building.

  13. Retrofit Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, T.K.

    2004-01-13

    Few people add siding or change their windows just to reduce their energy bills. But whatever your reasons for retrofitting your home, this will be an important opportunity to improve your home's energy efficiency. Not only will this reduce your utility bills, it will also improve your comfort level and improve our environment. Retrofitting your house is a big deal, and you shouldn't underestimate the effort that will be required to plan the job properly. The energy conservation rewards can be great, but there are also pitfalls that you'll want to avoid. That's what this Best Practices Guide is all about. We can't cover all the issues in these few pages, but we'll tell you some things you need to know if you're changing your siding or windows, and tell you where to learn more about other changes you may want to make to your house. What exactly is a ''best practice''? To put this guide together, we've tested products, talked to contractors and manufacturers, and reviewed the results from a large number of house retrofits. Of course, ''best'' will vary according to the situation. That's why you must start with a careful examination of your house and its existing condition.

  14. Arkansas solar-retrofit guide

    SciTech Connect

    Skiles, A.

    1981-06-01

    How solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is reported. Retrofits examined are solar greenhouses, solar air heaters, and solar batch water heaters. A composite of successful construction and operation methods is presented in a format to help individuals build solar retrofits for themselves. Appended are a glossary, listings of references and information sources, and solar radiation data for Arkansas. (LEW)

  15. Evaluation of Retrofit Delivery Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2013-07-01

    Residential energy retrofit activities are a critical component of efforts to increase energy efficiency in the U.S. building stock; however, retrofits account for a small percentage of aggregate energy savings at relatively high per unit costs. This report by Building America research team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), describes barriers to widespread retrofits and evaluates opportunities to improve delivery of home retrofit measures by identifying economies of scale in marketing, energy assessments, and bulk purchasing through pilot programs in portions of Sonoma, Los Angeles, and San Joaquin Counties, CA. These targeted communities show potential and have revealed key strategies for program design, as outlined in the report.

  16. Uniform-burning matrix burner

    DOEpatents

    Bohn, Mark S.; Anselmo, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Computer simulation was used in the development of an inward-burning, radial matrix gas burner and heat pipe heat exchanger. The burner and exchanger can be used to heat a Stirling engine on cloudy days when a solar dish, the normal source of heat, cannot be used. Geometrical requirements of the application forced the use of the inward burning approach, which presents difficulty in achieving a good flow distribution and air/fuel mixing. The present invention solved the problem by providing a plenum with just the right properties, which include good flow distribution and good air/fuel mixing with minimum residence time. CFD simulations were also used to help design the primary heat exchanger needed for this application which includes a plurality of pins emanating from the heat pipe. The system uses multiple inlet ports, an extended distance from the fuel inlet to the burner matrix, flow divider vanes, and a ring-shaped, porous grid to obtain a high-temperature uniform-heat radial burner. Ideal applications include dish/Stirling engines, steam reforming of hydrocarbons, glass working, and any process requiring high temperature heating of the outside surface of a cylindrical surface.

  17. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor Phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995 No. 16

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.

    1995-12-15

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the sixteenth quarter (July `95 through September `95) of the program. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components. (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC (High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor) burner. (3) Installation and testing of a prototype HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application. (4) Economics evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions.

  18. Retrofitting olefin cracking plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sumner, C.; Fernandez-Baujin, J.M.

    1983-12-01

    This article discusses the retrofitting of liquid crackers which produce olefins so that gaseous feedstocks can be used. Naphtha and gas oil are the predominant design feedstocks for producing olefins. The price of gaseous feedstocks such as ethane, propane and butane have become economically more attractive than liquid feedstocks. Existing liquid crackers will be able to produce ethylene at 85% or higher capacity when cracking propane and butane feedstock with only minor changes. Topics considered include revamping for vacuum gas oil (VGO) feedstocks and revamping for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) feedstocks.

  19. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  20. Strengthening Building Retrofit Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, Mary; Jackson, Robert

    2014-04-15

    The Business Energy Financing (BEF) program offered commercial businesses in Michigan affordable financing options and other incentives designed to support energy efficiency improvements. We worked through partnerships with Michigan utilities, lenders, building contractors, trade associations, and other community organizations to offer competitive interest rates and flexible financing terms to support energy efficiency projects that otherwise would not have happened. The BEF program targeted the retail food market, including restaurants, grocery stores, convenience stores, and wholesale food vendors, with the goal of achieving energy efficiency retrofits for 2 percent of the target market. We offered low interest rates, flexible payments, easy applications and approval processes, and access to other incentives and rebates. Through these efforts, we sought to help customers strive for energy savings retrofits that would save 20 percent or more on their energy use. This program helped Michigan businesses reduce costs by financing energy efficient lighting, heating and cooling systems, insulation, refrigeration, equipment upgrades, and more. Businesses completed the upgrades with the help of our authorized contractors, and, through our lending partners, we provided affordable financing options.

  1. Fiber burner development for gas-fired hydronic heating

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, R.K.; Kennedy, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Alzetta Corporation, under the sponsorship of the Gas Research Institute (GRI), has recently developed a radiant burner for a new high efficiency residential hydronic heater. The burner chosen for development was the porous radiant ceramic fiber burner. This paper discusses the burner requirements which were satisfied by the burner and describes the development process. Burner development challenges and solutions are analyzed and results of life testing are presented.

  2. Afterburner for a wood stove

    SciTech Connect

    Dorach, E.H.; Dorsch, H.

    1984-08-21

    An afterburner for a wood stove for use as a retrofit assembly comprises a rectangular housing having openings in the upper and lower surfaces provided with cylindrical collars for cooperation with the flue duct and with the opening in the top of the wood stove respectively. The openings are positioned at the rear of the housing so as to provide a forward section spaced from the openings. A catalytic combuster mounted in a cylindrical support is movable from a position directly above the opening in the bottom surface into the front section by a manually operable handle extending through the front face of the housing. A baffle mounted on the support and arranged at a shallow angle to the horizontal overlies the major part of the combuster so as to direct gases into the front section of the housing for heat exchange contact with the walls thereof.

  3. Enhanced Combustion Low NOx Pulverized Coal Burner

    SciTech Connect

    David Towle; Richard Donais; Todd Hellewell; Robert Lewis; Robert Schrecengost

    2007-06-30

    For more than two decades, Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom) has developed a range of low cost, infurnace technologies for NOx emissions control for the domestic U.S. pulverized coal fired boiler market. This includes Alstom's internally developed TFS 2000{trademark} firing system, and various enhancements to it developed in concert with the U.S. Department of Energy. As of the date of this report, more than 270 units representing approximately 80,000 MWe of domestic coal fired capacity have been retrofit with Alstom low NOx technology. Best of class emissions range from 0.18 lb/MMBtu for bituminous coal to 0.10 lb/MMBtu for subbituminous coal, with typical levels at 0.24 lb/MMBtu and 0.13 lb/MMBtu, respectively. Despite these gains, NOx emissions limits in the U.S. continue to ratchet down for new and existing boiler equipment. On March 10, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR). CAIR requires 25 Eastern states to reduce NOx emissions from the power generation sector by 1.7 million tons in 2009 and 2.0 million tons by 2015. Low cost solutions to meet such regulations, and in particular those that can avoid the need for a costly selective catalytic reduction system (SCR), provide a strong incentive to continue to improve low NOx firing system technology to meet current and anticipated NOx control regulations. The overall objective of the work is to develop an enhanced combustion, low NOx pulverized coal burner, which, when integrated with Alstom's state-of-the-art, globally air staged low NOx firing systems will provide a means to achieve: Less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a high volatile Eastern or Western bituminous coal, Less than 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx emissions when firing a subbituminous coal, NOx reduction costs at least 25% lower than the costs of an SCR, Validation of the NOx control technology developed through large (15 MWt) pilot scale demonstration, and Documentation required for economic

  4. Advancing Residential Retrofits in Atlanta

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick K; Kim, Eyu-Jin; Roberts, Sydney; Stephenson, Robert

    2012-07-01

    This report will summarize the home energy improvements performed in the Atlanta, GA area. In total, nine homes were retrofitted with eight of the homes having predicted source energy savings of approximately 30% or greater based on simulated energy consumption.

  5. Porous radiant burners having increased radiant output

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Timothy W.; Sathe, Sanjeev B.; Peck, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Means and methods for enhancing the output of radiant energy from a porous radiant burner by minimizing the scattering and increasing the adsorption, and thus emission of such energy by the use of randomly dispersed ceramic fibers of sub-micron diameter in the fabrication of ceramic fiber matrix burners and for use therein.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics in oil burner design

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics, the differential equations which describe flow, heat transfer, and mass transfer are approximately solved using a very laborious numerical procedure. Flows of practical interest to burner designs are always turbulent, adding to the complexity of requiring a turbulence model. This paper presents a model for burner design.

  7. 14 CFR 31.47 - Burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... emergency operation. (d) The burner system (including the burner unit, controls, fuel lines, fuel cells...) Five hours at the maximum fuel pressure for which approval is sought, with a burn time for each one... intermediate fuel pressure, with a burn time for each one minute cycle of three to ten seconds. An...

  8. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  9. Numerical simulation of a porous honeycomb burner

    SciTech Connect

    Hackert, C.L.; Elizey, J.L.; Ezekoye, O.A.

    1997-07-01

    A two-dimensional simulation of a honeycomb burner using single step global chemistry is used to investigate the importance of thermal properties and boundary conditions to inert porous burners. Comparisons to available experimental results are made where possible, and a parametric study of the effects of burner properties on the flame is performed. The burner solid emissivity is found to be relatively unimportant to the achievable burning rate and radiant output fraction, so long as it is above a certain minimum value (about 0.3). In contrast, increases in solid conductivity always lead to marked increases in burning rate. The flame is shown to exhibit significant curvature on both a pore scale and burner scale.

  10. Low NO{sub x} retrofit of a NSPS boiler burning sub-bituminous western fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Costanzo, M.A.; Perry, D.M.; Sharman, J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the goals, equipment selection and operating results of the low NO{sub x} conversion project of an NSPS boiler burning western sub-bituminous fuel. The subject unit is a nominal 500 MW non-B&W boiler commissioned in 1981. The original firing equipment was designed in accordance with the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) instituted in the 1970s. This original equipment included 24 scroll type burners in an opposed wall configuration with 3 rows and 4 columns of burners on the front and rear walls. Eight overfire air ports were included with a port located above each column of burners. Each level of four burners is supplied with pulverized coal from one of six pulverizers. The original and current fuel is a low sulfur sub-bituminous class C Powder River Basin Coal. The stated goal for the low NO{sub x} project was a maximum NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.35 lb/MBtu with a corresponding carbon content in the fly ash not to exceed two times the pre-retrofit operating conditions. The existing pulverizer performance was poor and at any given time no more than five mills were available for service. Therefore, the project No{sub x}, and unburned carbon (UBC) requirements must be achieved with any five out of six existing mills operating.

  11. Wood stains

    MedlinePlus

    The harmful substances in wood stains are hydrocarbons, or substances that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Other harmful ingredients may include: Alcohol Alkanes Cyclo alkanes Glycol ether Corrosives, such as sodium ...

  12. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Hendrick, Timothy P; Christian, Jeffrey E; Jackson, Roderick K

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  13. Retrofitting for watershed drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, D.B. ); Heaney, J.P. )

    1991-09-01

    Over the past 8 years, degradation in Florida's Indian River Lagoon has taken the form of fish kills, reduced viable recreational and commercial fisheries, and loss of seagrass beds. Stormwater drainage practices in the watershed have been identified as the primary culprit in the slow demise of the lagoon. Specific drainage problems include an increased volume of freshwater runoff to the estuarine receiving water and deposition of organic sediments, reduced water clarity because of increased discharge of suspended solids and tea colored' groundwater - a result of drainage-canal-induced land dewatering, and eutrophication caused by nutrient loadings. In addition, poor flushing in lagoon segments makes runoff impacts even more damaging to the ecosystem. Recently, the lagoon has received national, regional, state, and local attention over its degradation and citizens' action and multi-agency efforts to restore it. To mitigate damage to the Indian River lagoon, agencies are considering alternatives such as retrofitting to reduce pollutant loads and implementing a more comprehensive watershed approach to stormwater management instead of individual controls on new development currently widely practiced. A comprehensive, long-term watershed control approach avoids unnecessary construction expenses, encourages cost-effective tradeoffs based on specific objectives, facilities performance monitoring, and accounts for cumulative impacts of continued growth in the watershed.

  14. Diesel fuel burner for diesel emissions control system

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia C.; Mathis, Jeffrey A.

    2006-04-25

    A burner for use in the emissions system of a lean burn internal combustion engine. The burner has a special burner head that enhances atomization of the burner fuel. Its combustion chamber is designed to be submersed in the engine exhaust line so that engine exhaust flows over the outer surface of the combustion chamber, thereby providing efficient heat transfer.

  15. Burners

    MedlinePlus

    ... among people who play contact sports such as football and wrestling. Symptoms How do I know if ... each stretch for 20 seconds. If you play football, wear extra neck protection. Questions to Ask Your ...

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BURNERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  17. CFD analysis helps TSV burner meet strict NOx emission requirements at Conectiv Indian River Unit 4, a DB Riley turbo furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Hules, K.R.; Bradshaw, W. Jr.; Little, L.E.

    1999-07-01

    This project is the first application of low NOx circular-type burners to a Turbo Furnace coal-fired utility boiler design. It is an important part of Conectiv's (formerly Delmarva Power and Light Co.) compliance strategy for the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (CAAA). In project Phase 1, installation of dynamic classifiers successfully reduced flyash unburned carbon loss by nearly 50%. This paper describes Phase 2, the design and retrofit of new low-NOx burners. The two phases met all performance requirement, including a NOx guarantee of 0.42 lbs/10{sup 6} Btu at 105% load. Initially the Model 2 Tertiary Staged Venturi (TSV{reg{underscore}sign}) burner design installed at Conectiv Indian River Station Unit 4 did not meet required NOx levels. Field observations indicated poor flame retention as well as poor flame scanner signals, particularly at lower loads. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and working with DB Riley Inc.'s (DBR) parent company Deutsche Babcock, DBR engineers developed a promising design solution incorporating elements of other DBR low-NOx coal burner technology into the TSV{reg{underscore}sign} burner design. The CFD modeling goal was to improve burner aerodynamics in the burner near-field region to produce better flame retention while limiting hardware changes. Past experience has shown that better flame retention promotes lower NOx. Although the design process consisted of a series of 2-D axi-symmetric, purely aerodynamic CFD models with no combustion or NOx calculations, several key CFD models added coal combustion for flame visualization purpose. A significant NOx improvement was expected with the final design chosen, based on significantly improved burner aerodynamics and flame attachment. This analysis ultimately proved to be correct.

  18. DC CICC retrofit magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Myatt, R.L.; Marston, P.G.

    1992-10-30

    The coil system presented here for the MHD retrofit magnet incorporates many features of the latest in superconducting magnet technology and finite element modeling to create an efficient and viable design concept. At the core of the design is the niobium titanium (NbTi) superconducting Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC). Engineered to create moderately high magnetic fields (up to 8 T) with essentially no power loss, this specific CICC design provides good load carrying capacity, operating margin from a perturbation such as a local heat input, and coil protection in the event of a quench transient. The CICC is wound on a mandrel into long, tapered, saddle shaped single conductor thickness pancakes. By defining the appropriate number of conductor turns in each pancake, the saddle coils can be stacked to form a semi-elliptical winding pack cross section. Extruded aluminum filler blocks are fitted into the steps, at the edge of the pancake and present a smooth surface to the supporting structure. The semi-elliptical conductor array is supported by an identically shaped strap at all locations except where the end turns sweep over the MHD channel. The strap resists the electromagnetic forces tending to separate the coils on each side of the channel. Low friction surfaces are placed between conductor pancakes, and between the inside skin of the support straps and the outside surface of the conductor winding pack. This allows relative movement between pancakes, and between the strap and coil, thereby reducing shear stresses and coulombic friction heating which would otherwise tend to crack insulation, load joints, and initiate a quench in the superconducting cable.

  19. Strategy Guideline: Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  20. Strategy Guideline. Mitigation of Retrofit Risk Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, M.; Smith, P.; Porse, E.

    2012-12-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) Building America team is currently developing strategies designed to promote and achieve increased energy savings and promote upgrades in the residential retrofit sector. These strategies are targeted to retrofit program managers, retrofit contractors, policy makers, academic researchers, and non-governmental organizations. This report focuses on four key areas to promote home energy upgrades: fostering accurate energy savings projections; understanding consumer perceptions for energy savings; measuring energy savings, and ensuring quality control for retrofit installations.

  1. Power burner for compact furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmore, J.A.

    1980-09-23

    A compact gas power burner is provided which includes a cylindrical mixing tube into which combustion air is discharged tangentially from a centrifugal blower located adjacent the closed end of the mixing tube, and gaseous fuel is admitted into the discharge airstream of the blower upstream from the admission location of the airstream into the mixing tube so that the swirling component of the air in the mixing tube during its passage to the open end of the tube will promote the mixing of the air and gaseous fuel, the mixing tube being provided with a honeycomb ceramic disc at its end to which it is attached to a cylindrical heat exchanger, and ignition means and flame sensors are provided on the downstream side of the ceramic disc.

  2. Catalytic reactor with improved burner

    DOEpatents

    Faitani, Joseph J.; Austin, George W.; Chase, Terry J.; Suljak, George T.; Misage, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    To more uniformly distribute heat to the plurality of catalyst tubes in a catalytic reaction furnace, the burner disposed in the furnace above the tops of the tubes includes concentric primary and secondary annular fuel and air outlets. The fuel-air mixture from the primary outlet is directed towards the tubes adjacent the furnace wall, and the burning secondary fuel-air mixture is directed horizontally from the secondary outlet and a portion thereof is deflected downwardly by a slotted baffle toward the tubes in the center of the furnace while the remaining portion passes through the slotted baffle to another baffle disposed radially outwardly therefrom which deflects it downwardly in the vicinity of the tubes between those in the center and those near the wall of the furnace.

  3. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  4. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  5. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  6. 46 CFR 148.325 - Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. 148.325... § 148.325 Wood chips; wood pellets; wood pulp pellets. (a) This part applies to wood chips and wood pulp... cargo hold. (b) No person may enter a cargo hold containing wood chips, wood pellets, or wood...

  7. Energy Retrofit for Aging K-12 Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    3D/International, Houston, TX.

    Successfully retrofitting aging K-12 schools using energy conservation measures (ECM) that can improve the physical plant and reduce energy consumption are explored. Topics explore how certain ECM measures can benefit educational facilities, why retrofitting begun sooner rather than later is important, how to finance the retrofit program, and the…

  8. EMCS Retrofit Analysis - Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.C.; Salsbury, T.I.; Bell, G.C.; Huang, Y.J.; Sezgen, A.O.; Mazzucchi, R.; Romberger, J.

    1999-03-01

    This report presents the interim results of analyses carried out in the Phillip Burton Federal Building in San Francisco from 1996 to 1998. The building is the site of a major demonstration of the BACnet communication protocol. The energy management and control systems (EMCS) in the building were retrofitted with BACnet compatible controllers in order to integrate certain existing systems on one common network. In this respect, the project has been a success. Interoperability of control equipment from different manufacturers has been demonstrated in a real world environment. Besides demonstrating interoperability, the retrofits carried out in the building were also intended to enhance control strategies and capabilities, and to produce energy savings. This report presents analyses of the energy usage of HVAC systems in the building, control performance, and the reaction of the building operators. The report does not present an evaluation of the performance capabilities of the BACnet protocol. A monitoring system was installed in the building that parallels many of the EMCS sensors and data were archived over a three-year period. The authors defined pre-retrofit and post-retrofit periods and analyzed the corresponding data to establish the changes in building performance resulting from the retrofit activities. The authors also used whole-building energy simulation (DOE-2) as a tool for evaluating the effect of the retrofit changes. The results of the simulation were compared with the monitored data. Changes in operator behavior were assessed qualitatively with questionnaires. The report summarizes the findings of the analyses and makes several recommendations as to how to achieve better performance. They maintain that the full potential of the EMCS and associated systems is not being realized. The reasons for this are discussed along with possible ways of addressing this problem. They also describe a number of new technologies that could benefit systems of the type

  9. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Paul E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  10. Alzeta porous radiant burner. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    An Alzeta Pyrocore porous radiant burner was tested for the first time at elevated pressures and mass flows. Mapping of the burner`s stability limits (flashback, blowoff, and lean extinction limits) in an outward fired configuration and hot wall environment was carried out at pressures up to 18 atm, firing rates up to 180 kW, and excess air rates up to 100%. A central composite experimental design for parametric testing within the stability limits produced statistically sound correlations of dimensionless burner temperature and NO{sub x} emissions as functions of equivalence ratio, dimensionless firing rate, and reciprocal Reynolds number. The NO{sub x} emissions were below 4 ppmvd at 15% O{sub 2} for all conditions tested, and the CO and unburned hydrocarbon levels were simultaneously low. As a direct result of this cooperative research effort between METC and Alzeta, Solar Turbines has already expressed a strong interest in this novel technology.

  11. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.E.

    1999-11-23

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  12. Strategy Guideline: Energy Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Frozyna, K.; Badger, L.

    2013-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline explains the benefits of evaluating and identifying energy efficiency retrofit measures that could be made during renovation and maintenance of multifamily buildings. It focuses on low-rise multifamily structures (three or fewer stories) in a cold climate. These benefits lie primarily in reduced energy use, lower operating and maintenance costs, improved durability of the structure, and increased occupant comfort. This guideline focuses on retrofit measures for roof repair or replacement, exterior wall repair or gut rehab, and eating system maintenance. All buildings are assumed to have a flat ceiling and a trussed roof, wood- or steel-framed exterior walls, and one or more single or staged boilers. Estimated energy savings realized from the retrofits will vary, depending on the size and condition of the building, the extent of efficiency improvements, the efficiency of the heating equipment, the cost and type of fuel, and the climate location.

  13. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, Richard W.; Skinner, Dewey F.; Thorsness, Charles B.

    1985-01-01

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  14. Silane-propane ignitor/burner

    DOEpatents

    Hill, R.W.; Skinner, D.F. Jr.; Thorsness, C.B.

    1983-05-26

    A silane propane burner for an underground coal gasification process which is used to ignite the coal and to controllably retract the injection point by cutting the injection pipe. A narrow tube with a burner tip is positioned in the injection pipe through which an oxidant (oxygen or air) is flowed. A charge of silane followed by a supply of fuel, such as propane, is flowed through the tube. The silane spontaneously ignites on contact with oxygen and burns the propane fuel.

  15. Accurate burner air flow measurement for low NO{sub x} burners

    SciTech Connect

    Earley, D.; Penterson, C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1990, Congress enacted an amendment to the Clean Air Act that required reductions in NO{sub x} emissions through the application of low NO{sub x} burner systems on fossil fueled utility steam generators. For most of the existing steam generator population, the original burning equipment incorporated highly turbulent burners that created significant in-furnace flame interaction. Thus, the measurement and control of air flow to the individual burners was much less critical than in recent years with low NO{sub x} combustion systems. With low NO{sub x} systems, the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions, as well as minimizing flyash unburned carbon levels, is very much dependent on the ability to control the relative ratios of air and fuel on a per-burner basis and their rate of mixing, particularly in the near burner zones. Air Monitor Corporation (AMC) and DB Riley, Inc. (DBR), and a large Midwestern electric utility have successfully developed and applied AMC's equipment to low NO{sub x} coal burners in order to enhance NO{sub x} control combustion systems. The results have improved burner optimization and provided real time continuous air flow balancing capability and the control of individual burner stoichiometries. To date, these enhancements have been applied to wall-fired low NO{sub x} systems for balancing individual burner air flows in a common windbox and to staged combustion systems. Most recently, calibration testing in a wind tunnel facility of AMC's individual burner air measurement (IBAM{trademark}) probes installed in DB Riley's low NO{sub x} CCV{reg{underscore}sign} burners has demonstrated the ability to produce reproducible and consistent air flow measurement accurate to within 5%. This paper will summarize this product development and quantify the benefits of its application to low NO{sub x} combustion systems.

  16. Burner modifications for cost effective NO{sub x} control

    SciTech Connect

    Melick, T.A.; Payne, R.; Kersch, J.

    1999-11-01

    Low NO{sub x} Burners achieve their NO{sub x} reduction principally by control of the rate of fuel/air mixing. Based on many years of low NO{sub x} burner development experience for wall fired applications, Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has found that low NO{sub x} fuel/air mixing conditions can be incorporated into conventional burners by modifying the burners as an alternative to complete burner replacement. The NO{sub x} control achieved with such Low NO{sub x} Burner Modifications is, in many cases, comparable to that of new burners but the cost to the utility is much lower. This paper presents an update on EER`s experience in applying Low NO{sub x} Burner Modifications to circular burners focusing on Delmarva Power and Light`s (Connectiv) Indian River Station.

  17. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    DOEpatents

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  18. Burners and combustion apparatus for carbon nanomaterial production

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, J. Michael; Diener, Michael D.; Nabity, James; Karpuk, Michael

    2007-10-09

    The invention provides improved burners, combustion apparatus, and methods for carbon nanomaterial production. The burners of the invention provide sooting flames of fuel and oxidizing gases. The condensable products of combustion produced by the burners of this invention produce carbon nanomaterials including without limitation, soot, fullerenic soot, and fullerenes. The burners of the invention do not require premixing of the fuel and oxidizing gases and are suitable for use with low vapor pressure fuels such as those containing substantial amounts of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The burners of the invention can operate with a hot (e.g., uncooled) burner surface and require little, if any, cooling or other forms of heat sinking. The burners of the invention comprise one or more refractory elements forming the outlet of the burner at which a flame can be established. The burners of the invention provide for improved flame stability, can be employed with a wider range of fuel/oxidizer (e.g., air) ratios and a wider range of gas velocities, and are generally more efficient than burners using water-cooled metal burner plates. The burners of the invention can also be operated to reduce the formation of undesirable soot deposits on the burner and on surfaces downstream of the burner.

  19. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing mechanical ventilation.

  20. Sunnyvale Marine Climate Deep Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Siddiqui, A.; Dakin, B.

    2014-11-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) and Allen Gilliland of One Sky Homes collaborated on a marine climate retrofit project designed to meet both Passive House (PH) and Building America (BA) program standards. The scope included sealing, installing wall, roof and floor insulation (previously lacking), replacing windows, upgrading the heating and cooling system, and installing.

  1. Energy Retrofit--Step One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A School Retrofit Design Analysis System (SRDAS) provides energy modeling analyses of school buildings. SRDAS has three subprograms that consider first, roof, windows, walls, floors, and infiltration sites; second, costs per student, compliance with national energy consumption norms, and electricity costs projections; and third, financial savings…

  2. Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.S.

    1992-12-06

    This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant's names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

  3. Measurement and prediction of interactions between burners in multi-low NOx burner systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, S.J.; Allen, J.W.

    1998-07-01

    Measurements using Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) have been carried out on the isothermal flow from multiple small-scale burners enclosed in a furnace-type geometry. These have been used to validate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models using the commercial unstructured CFD code FLUENT/UNS version 4.1. The flows from arrays of two, four and six co- and counter-rotating burners have been measured at various burner pitches. Measurements show that the isothermal flows impinge on one another and interact significantly when the burner pitch is reduced to 1.3 burner exit diameters, although interactions between flows do not significantly affect the main central core flow. Predictions indicate that the burner jet entrainment is significantly affected by interactions, and the entrainment rate if dependent on the number of burners and whether a co- or counter-rotating swirl arrangement is adopted. Both two and four counter-rotating flows entrain greater amounts of surrounding air than a single burner flow, with the greatest entrainment found with two counter-rotating flows.

  4. Radiant burner technology base B burner research and development. Final report, February 1986-January 1989. Appendix M. Arizona State University final report: Emission measurements of porous radiant burners

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-01

    Radiant burners offer many advantages to industrial users and there are numerous applications that would benefit from the technology. Industrial operations, however, place severe restrictions on the use of radiant burners. These limits are related to high furnace temperatures, varied production schedules, and dirty work environments. The work has identified operational and materials limits of present day radiant burner technologies and has projected what their capabilities may be. The results of the report recommend techniques to improve the state-of-the-art in radiant burners and increasing the number of industrial applications for the gas-fired burner.

  5. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Semivolatile and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Wood-Fired Hydronic Heaters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood...

  7. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    PubMed

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels. PMID:26685670

  8. Sealed, nozzle-mix burners for silica deposition

    DOEpatents

    Adler, Meryle D. M.; Brown, John T.; Misra, Mahendra K.

    2003-07-08

    Burners (40) for producing fused silica boules are provided. The burners employ a tube-in-tube (301-306) design with flats (56, 50) on some of the tubes (305, 301) being used to limit the cross-sectional area of certain passages (206, 202) within the burner and/or to atomize a silicon-containing, liquid source material, such as OMCTS. To avoid the possibility of flashback, the burner has separate passages for fuel (205) and oxygen (204, 206), i.e., the burner employs nozzle mixing, rather than premixing, of the fuel and oxygen. The burners are installed in burner holes (26) formed in the crown (20) of a furnace and form a seal with those holes so that ambient air cannot be entrained into the furnace through the holes. An external air cooled jacket (60) can be used to hold the temperature of the burner below a prescribed upper limit, e.g., 400.degree. C.

  9. Advanced Catalytic Hydrogenation Retrofit Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Reinaldo M. Machado

    2002-08-15

    Industrial hydrogenation is often performed using a slurry catalyst in large stirred-tank reactors. These systems are inherently problematic in a number of areas, including industrial hygiene, process safety, environmental contamination, waste production, process operability and productivity. This program proposed the development of a practical replacement for the slurry catalysts using a novel fixed-bed monolith catalyst reactor, which could be retrofitted onto an existing stirred-tank reactor and would mitigate many of the minitations and problems associated with slurry catalysts. The full retrofit monolith system, consisting of a recirculation pump, gas/liquid ejector and monolith catalyst, is described as a monolith loop reactor or MLR. The MLR technology can reduce waste and increase raw material efficiency, which reduces the overall energy required to produce specialty and fine chemicals.

  10. Radiant-burner technology base - burner research and development. Final report, February 1986-January 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Tidball, R.K.; Donaldson, R.J.; Gorrerba, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The objective of the three-year project was to improve the technology of direct, gas-fired, surface-combustion radiant burners to promote their wider application in industrial process-heating applications. Four types of burners were considered, including Ceramic Fiber, Ported Ceramic Tile, Porous Ceramic Foam, and Sintered Metal Fiber constructions. For each of these, specific goals included increasing surface firing capacities, reducing materials degradation, and determining radiant output over the useful operating range of each burner. This was achieved by characterizing thermal and combustion performance and degradation mechanisms, and developing design materials, and fabrications improvements to achieve acceptable durability in industrial process heating environments. All literature collected during the project was compiled into a data base for access through GRI's Library Services DIALOG information service. The project had several significant results. First, a large body of applications data was generated which can be used to properly match advanced burners to specific industrial processes. A ceramic fiber burner formulation was developed that increases life in severe industrial environments by over a factor of two. The sintered metal fiber burner demonstrated even longer lifetime in these environments. Improvements were identified for porous ceramic foam burners.

  11. Dual fuel low NOx burner

    SciTech Connect

    Shyhching Yang; Bortz, S.J.

    1993-08-31

    A dual fuel burner is described comprising: a divergent quarl having an entrance, and exit downstream from said entrance, and a plurality of axially extending staging air ports equally spaced around said exit; a wind pipe coaxially connected to said entrance of said quarl; a swirl generator coaxially received in said wind pipe, said swirl generator having a plurality of vanes and a center hole; a gas gun including a tube and a gas nozzle, said tube having an upstream end and a downstream end and being coaxially positioned within said center hole of said swirl generator said gas nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said gas nozzle having a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; an oil gun including an oil tube, an oil nozzle, and a high pressure air tube, said oil gun tube having an upstream end and a downstream end, said oil gun tube being coaxially positioned within said gas gun tube, said oil nozzle being mounted to said downstream end of said oil gun tube and positioned in the vicinity of said entrance of said quarl, said oil nozzle including a plurality of passageways having center lines that diverge in the downstream direction and are inclined at an angle of about 15 to 40 degrees with respect to the centerline of said quarl; said high pressure tube provided within said oil gun tube, said high pressure tube being in fluid communication with said oil nozzle passageways.

  12. Stability of the porous plug burner flame

    SciTech Connect

    Buckmaster, J.

    1983-12-01

    The linear stability of a premixed flame attached to a porous plug burner, using activaton energy asymptotics, is examined. Limit function-expansions are not an appropriate mathematical framework for this problem, and are avoided. A dispersion relation is obtained which defines the stability boundaries in the wave-, Lewis-number plane, and the movement of these boundaries is followed as the mass flux is reduced below the adiabatic value and the flame moves towards the burner from infinity. Cellular instability is suppressed by the burner, but the pulsating instability usually associated with Lewis numbers greater than 1 is, at first, enhanced. For some parameter values the flame is never stable for all wavenumbers the Lewis number stability band that exists for the unbounded flame disappears. For sufficiently small values of the stand-off distance the pulsating instability is suppressed. 9 references.

  13. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B.

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  14. Industrial Energy Conservation, Forced Internal Recirculation Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2003-06-19

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop and evaluate an industrial low NOx burner for existing and new gas-fired combustion systems for intermediate temperature (1400 degree to 2000 degree F) industrial heating devices such as watertube boilers and process fluid heaters. A multi-phase effort is being pursued with decision points to determine advisability of continuance. The current contract over Phases II and III of this work. The objectives of each phase are as follows. Phase II - to design, fabricate, and evaluate prototype burners based on the Forced Internal Recirculation (FIR) concept. Phase III - to evaluate the performance of an FIR burner under actual operating conditions in a full-scale field test and establish the performance necessary for subsequent commercialization

  15. Low NO.sub.x burner system

    DOEpatents

    Kitto, Jr., John B.; Kleisley, Roger J.; LaRue, Albert D.; Latham, Chris E.; Laursen, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    A low NO.sub.x burner system for a furnace having spaced apart front and rear walls, comprises a double row of cell burners on each of the front and rear walls. Each cell burner is either of the inverted type with a secondary air nozzle spaced vertically below a coal nozzle, or the non-inverted type where the coal nozzle is below the secondary air port. The inverted and non-inverted cells alternate or are provided in other specified patterns at least in the lower row of cells. A small percentage of the total air can be also provided through the hopper or hopper throat forming the bottom of the furnace, or through the boiler hopper side walls. A shallow angle impeller design also advances the purpose of the invention which is to reduce CO and H.sub.2 S admissions while maintaining low NO.sub.x generation.

  16. DESIGN REPORT: LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  17. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  18. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  19. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  20. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  1. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  2. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  3. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  4. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  5. 30 CFR 57.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 57.7803 Section 57.7803... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  6. 30 CFR 56.7803 - Lighting the burner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lighting the burner. 56.7803 Section 56.7803... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7803 Lighting the burner. A suitable means of protection shall be provided for the employee when lighting the burner....

  7. DESIGN REPORT LOW-NOX BURNERS FOR PACKAGE BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a low-NOx burner design, presented for residual-oil-fired industrial boilers and boilers cofiring conventional fuels and nitrated hazardous wastes. The burner offers lower NOx emission levels for these applications than conventional commercial burners. The bu...

  8. Low emission characteristics of radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, T.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Nie, J.X.; Wang, Z.; Shang, J.

    1998-12-31

    A commercial infrared burner is characterized in terms of its radiant efficiency and its emissions of CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, unburned hydrocarbon, and NOx in the exhaust gases. It has been found that when methane is used as the fuel the burner reached its maximum radiation efficiency of 31.4% at the equivalence ratio {Phi} = 1. CO{sub 2} also reached its maximum value of 10.7% at {Phi} = 1. In the fuel-lean region, the concentrations of CO and unburned total hydrocarbon (UHC) were kept in a couple of hundred ppm ranges. In fuel-rich region, the CO and UHC concentrations quickly jumped to thousands of ppm or more as {Phi} increased. The NOx formation was strongly dependent on the equivalence ratio at which the burner was operated. The NOx reached its maximum of 8 ppm at {Phi} = 1, which was significantly lower than those from traditional gas burners. The NOx decreased significantly as the burner was operated at conditions away from stoichiometric. Tests were also conducted with fuel mixtures of methane and propane, which represented peak-saving gas in the industry. To simulate possible flash back, fuel mixture of methane and hydrogen was tested. Results from these tests provided insight into the effects of gas composition variations upon the IR burner performance characteristics. It has been found that the addition of propane in the fuel produced a higher combustion temperature and higher levels of NOx emission. It was also revealed by the test results that the addition of hydrogen to the methane fuel did not significantly affect the production of NOx, CO{sub 2} and CO.

  9. Automatic gas burner block for thermal units

    SciTech Connect

    Kryzhanovskii, K.S.; Senatov, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors describe a new computerized control system and gas burner configuration for natural gas furnaces used for the heat treatment of ceramics and porcelain which is designed to control and monitor combustion and temperature regimes in the furnace and optimize fuel efficiency. The system permits simultaneous operation and thermal load control of up to 12 burners, automatic maintenance of the desired fuel-air ratio over the entire temperature range, and protection of the furnace against overload by the use of a fuel cutoff switch. Specifications on productivity and efficiency and results of performance evaluations are listed.

  10. Canadian retrofit meets stiffer sulfur recovery regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nasato, E. ); Goar, B.G. ); Borsboom, J. )

    1992-02-10

    Retrofitting Mobil Oil Canada's Lone Pine Creek gas plant with the Superclaus-99 process has led to SO{sub 2} emissions being reduced by 30-45%. Commissioning of the retrofit occurred in late 1990. The process was chosen because of its relatively low capital investment requirements and its operational simplicity and flexibility. Retrofit requirements included minor equipment and piping modifications and a new catalyst for the third converter. This paper reports that operationally, Superclaus-99 is a straight-through, continuous process with a more flexible air-to-acid-gas control than the conventional Claus process. This retrofit was the first of its kind in North America.

  11. Building Energy Model Development for Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, David; McIlvaine, Janet; Blanchard, Jeremy; Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-09-30

    Based on previous research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Florida Solar Energy Center providing technical assistance to implement 22 deep energy retrofits across the nation, 6 homes were selected in Florida and Texas for detailed post-retrofit energy modeling to assess realized energy savings (Chandra et al, 2012). However, assessing realized savings can be difficult for some homes where pre-retrofit occupancy and energy performance are unknown. Initially, savings had been estimated using a HERS Index comparison for these homes. However, this does not account for confounding factors such as occupancy and weather. This research addresses a method to more reliably assess energy savings achieved in deep energy retrofits for which pre-retrofit utility bills or occupancy information in not available. A metered home, Riverdale, was selected as a test case for development of a modeling procedure to account occupancy and weather factors, potentially creating more accurate estimates of energy savings. This “true up” procedure was developed using Energy Gauge USA software and post-retrofit homeowner information and utility bills. The 12 step process adjusts the post-retrofit modeling results to correlate with post-retrofit utility bills and known occupancy information. The “trued” post retrofit model is then used to estimate pre-retrofit energy consumption by changing the building efficiency characteristics to reflect the pre-retrofit condition, but keeping all weather and occupancy-related factors the same. This creates a pre-retrofit model that is more comparable to the post-retrofit energy use profile and can improve energy savings estimates. For this test case, a home for which pre- and post- retrofit utility bills were available was selected for comparison and assessment of the accuracy of the “true up” procedure. Based on the current method, this procedure is quite time intensive. However, streamlined processing spreadsheets or

  12. Burner swirls NO{sub x} away

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, J.C.

    1997-11-01

    Cleaner boilers that will help reduce acid rain, photochemical smog and tropospheric ozone are now coming on-line, partly as a result of a new burner design for power-generation boilers based on MIT research and now commercialized under exclusive license to ABB C-E Services Inc. The rapidly stratified flame core (RSFC) burner achieved very large nitrogen oxide reductions of up to 90% with natural gas as fuel, and 70 to 80% when burning pulverized coal and heavy fuel oil, respectively. The RSFC design provides a fuel-rich (oxygen deficient), high-temperature environment early in the flame to allow the chemical conversion of the NO{sub x} precursors to harmless molecular nitrogen. A subsequent lower-temperature, fuel-lean environment, in which the remainder of the air is mixed with the remaining fuel, then ensures complete combustion. Another integral feature of the RSFC burner register is its uniquely shaped refractory throat quarl. The throat collimates the airflow as opposed to the divergent airflow from a traditional burner (bell mouth) nozzle shape. The cylindrical shape tends to enforce stratification.

  13. Emissions from gas fired agricultural burners

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the Federal Clean Air Act, the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) began defining Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx emissions from cotton gin drying system gas fired burners in its jurisdiction. The NOx emission levels of conventionally used...

  14. Dual structure infrared surface combustion burner

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.R.; Burlingame, N.H.

    1989-12-26

    This patent describes an improvement in a surface combustion radiant heat burner comprising an inlet plenum for receiving fuel and oxidant gas mixtures from at least one supply inlet and a burner body secured in communication with the inlet plenum. The burner body having an inlet side facing the plenum and an outlet side defining a radiating surface. It comprises: the burner body comprising a first layer of porous ceramic material adjacent the inlet side and a second layer of porous ceramic material adjacent the outlet side defining the radiating surface, the first layer of porous ceramic material having a thickness of at least about 0.90:01 inch and a fine interconnected porous structure with a mean pore diameter ranging from 0.00004 inch to 0.10 inch, the second layer of porous ceramic material having a thickness of at least about 0.05 inch and a coarse interconnected porous structure with a mean diameter ranging from 0.05 to 0.40 inch, and at least the outer surfaces of the first porous layer and substantially all surfaces of the second porous layer being provided with a fully dense ceramic coating.

  15. Performance evaluation of porous radiant gas burners

    SciTech Connect

    Speyer, R.F.; Lin, Wen-Yi; Agarwal, G.

    1995-12-31

    A porous radiant burner testing facility was built, consisting of temperature and gas composition measurements as a function of position, as well as spectral and total radiosity measurements. Uncombusted hydrocarbons were detected within the flame support layer for only low flow rates (e.g 7.1 1/min for a reticulated ceramic flame support layer); only combustion products mixed with the atmosphere were detected at higher rates. Radiosity increased with increasing flow rate via increasing surface temperatures, while burner efficiencies decreased because of less effectual heat transfer of combustion product gases to solid surfaces. Stainless steel screen-based flame support layers demonstrated optimum performance as compared to ceramic and metal tube-based, and reticulated ceramic-based flame support layers. Increased turbulent flow and surface area for convective heat transfer between the base surface and the end of the flame support layer were factors attributed to improved burner radiosity and efficiency. The greybody temperatures and emittances of burners were determined using a simplex algorithm fit of spectral radiosity data to Planck`s equation. The significantly higher and more grey emittance (hence radiosity) of CoAl$-(2)$O$-(4)$-coated mullite flame support tubes, as compared to alumina tubes of identical geometry, was demonstrated using this method.

  16. Market assessment for the fan atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Westphalen, D.

    1996-07-01

    The market potential for the fan atomized burner (FAB) in water and space heating applications was examined. The major findings of the study are as follows. (1). The FAB`s low-input capability allows development of oil-fired room heaters and wall furnaces, a new market area for oil heat. (2). Among conventional oil-fired products, furnaces will benefit most from the burner`s low input capability due to (1) their quick delivery of heat and (2) their more prevalent use in warmer climates and smaller homes. (3). The greatest potential for increased product sales or oil sales exists in the use of the burner with new products (i.e., room heaters). Sales of boilers and direct-fired water heaters are not likely to increase with the use of the burner. (4). Acceptance of the burner will be dependent on proof of reliability. Proof of better reliability than conventional burners would accelerate acceptance.

  17. Advanced over fire air retrofit for summer ozone compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, J.; Steitz, T.

    1998-07-01

    As part of a system wide Ozone Compliance Plan, Baltimore Gas and Electric (GBE) pursued a NOx reduction project at Brandon Shores Unit 1, a 680 MWg unit equipped with first generation low NOx burners. Strict current and proposed Ozone reduction regulations in the Northeastern United States required BGE to formulate a compliance plan. BGE reviewed many types of combustion and post-combustion NOx reduction techniques for the Station. An Over Fire Air (OFA) retrofit was evaluated as the least cost option to obtain compliance on a cost per ton of NOx removed. BGE selected an Advanced Over Fire (AOFA) System designed by Foster Wheeler (FW) to achieve their project goals for Brandon Shores Unit 1. The AOFA System demonstrated NOx reductions up to 44% at full load, with absolute NOx levels dropping to below 0.30 lb/MMBtu. All project goals for NOx, LOI (Loss on Ignition), CO, and boiler performance were met or exceeded. The Low NOx System proved to be a very cost effective method to reduce NOx for summertime Ozone compliance, while still allowing for optimum operating efficiency with the Low NOx System out of service during the non-Ozone season.

  18. Prologis Rolls Out Warehouse Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Prologis partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce annual energy consumption by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  19. Quantifying the Financial Benefits of Multifamily Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    D. Philbrick; Scheu, R.; Brand, L.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit analyzed building, energy, and financial program data as well as other public and private data to examine the relationship between energy-efficiency retrofits and financial performance on three levels: building, city, and community.

  20. Fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Leto, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    A fuel burner and combustor assembly for a gas turbine engine has a housing within the casing of the gas turbine engine which housing defines a combustion chamber and at least one fuel burner secured to one end of the housing and extending into the combustion chamber. The other end of the fuel burner is arranged to slidably engage a fuel inlet connector extending radially inwardly from the engine casing so that fuel is supplied, from a source thereof, to the fuel burner. The fuel inlet connector and fuel burner coact to anchor the housing against axial movement relative to the engine casing while allowing relative radial movement between the engine casing and the fuel burner and, at the same time, providing fuel flow to the fuel burner. For dual fuel capability, a fuel injector is provided in said fuel burner with a flexible fuel supply pipe so that the fuel injector and fuel burner form a unitary structure which moves with the fuel burner.

  1. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor phase III industrial boiler retrofit. Technical progress report No. 17, 18 and 19, September 30, 1991--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Borio, R.W.; Patel, R.L.; Thornock, D.E.

    1996-07-29

    The objective of this project is to retrofit a burner, capable of firing microfine coal, to a standard gas/oil designed industrial boiler to assess the technical and economic viability of displacing premium fuels with microfine coal. This report documents the technical aspects of this project during the last three quarters [seventeenth (October `95 through December `95), eighteenth (January `96 through March `96), and nineteenth (April `96 through June `96)] of the program.

  2. Proven Performance of Seven Cold Climate Deep Retrofit Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Osser, R.; Neuhauser, K.; Ueno, K.

    2012-06-01

    Seven test homes located in Massachusetts are examined within this report. The retrofit strategies of each home are presented along with a comparison of the pre- and post-retrofit airtightness achieved by the group. Pre- and post-retrofit utility bills were collected; energy models were used to estimate pre-retrofit energy use when bills were unavailable.

  3. Diesel exhaust cleaner with burner vortex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Riddel, J.W.

    1983-05-17

    A diesel engine exhaust cleaner and burner system includes at least one exhaust cleaner member with a filter positioned therein to effect removal of particulates from a stream of exhaust gas delivered thereto via an inlet manifold. A fuel burner supplied with fuel by a fuel nozzle is operatively associated with the inlet manifold to supply the necessary heat to effect incineration of particulates collected on the filter. A cyclone duct providing a vortex chamber therein is operatively positioned downstream of the fuel nozzle and is supplied with sufficient air so as to effect both the complete combustion of the fuel and the controlled incineration of the particulates by increasing the residence time of the fuel in the reaction region within the vortex chamber and also effecting a more uniform distribution of the heat of combustion across the inlet face of the filter for the uniform heating of the particulates thereon to their combustion temperature.

  4. Refinery burner simulation design architecture summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; McDonald, Michael James; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.

    2011-10-01

    This report describes the architectural design for a high fidelity simulation of a refinery and refinery burner, including demonstrations of impacts to the refinery if errors occur during the refinery process. The refinery burner model and simulation are a part of the capabilities within the Sandia National Laboratories Virtual Control System Environment (VCSE). Three components comprise the simulation: HMIs developed with commercial SCADA software, a PLC controller, and visualization software. All of these components run on different machines. This design, documented after the simulation development, incorporates aspects not traditionally seen in an architectural design, but that were utilized in this particular demonstration development. Key to the success of this model development and presented in this report are the concepts of the multiple aspects of model design and development that must be considered to capture the necessary model representation fidelity of the physical systems.

  5. Technology Solutions Case Study: Innovative Retrofit Foundation Insulation Strategies, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Basements in climates 6 & 7 can account for a fraction of a home's total heat loss when fully conditioned. These foundations are a source of moisture, with convection in open block cavities redistributing water from the wall base, usually when heating. Even when block cavities are capped, the cold foundation concrete can act as a moisture source for wood rim joist components that are in contact with the wall. As below-grade basements are increasingly retrofitted for habitable space, cold foundation walls pose increased challenges for moisture durability, energy use, and occupant comfort. To address this challenge, the NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership evaluated a retrofit insulation strategy for foundations that is designed for use with open-core concrete block foundation walls. The three main goals were to improve moisture control, improve occupant comfort, and reduce heat loss.

  6. Infrastructure Retrofit Design via Composite Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos, C.; Gotsis,Pascal K.

    1998-01-01

    Select applications are described to illustrate the concept for retrofitting reinforced concrete infrastructure with fiber reinforced plastic laminates. The concept is first illustrated by using an axially loaded reinforced concrete column. A reinforced concrete arch and a dome are then used to illustrate the versatility of the concept. Advanced methods such as finite element structural analysis and progressive structural fracture are then used to evaluate the retrofitting laminate adequacy. Results obtains show that retrofits can be designed to double and even triple the as-designed load of the select reinforced concrete infrastructures.

  7. PULSE DRYING EXPERIMENT AND BURNER CONSTRUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Robert States

    2006-07-15

    Non steady impingement heat transfer is measured. Impingement heating consumes 130 T-BTU/Yr in paper drying, but is only 25% thermally efficient. Pulse impingement is experimentally shown to enhance heat transfer by 2.8, and may deliver thermal efficiencies near 85%. Experimental results uncovered heat transfer deviations from steady theory and from previous investigators, indicating the need for further study and a better theoretical framework. The pulse burner is described, and its roll in pulse impingement is analyzed.

  8. Field testing the prototype BNL fan-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    BNL has developed a new oil burner design referred to as the Fan Atomized burner System. The primary objective of the field study was to evaluate and demonstrate the reliable operation of the Fan Atomized Burner. The secondary objective was to establish and validate the ability of a low firing rate burner (0.3-0.4 gph) to fully satisfy the heating and domestic hot water load demands of an average household in a climate zone with over 5,000 heating-degree-days. The field activity was also used to evaluate the practicality of side-wall venting with the Fan Atomized Burner with a low stack temperature (300F) and illustrate the potential for very high efficiency with an integrated heating system approach based on the Fan Atomized Burner.

  9. Analysis of a bilayered porous radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, M.R.; Peck, R.E.

    1996-08-23

    A theoretical study of the heating effectiveness of a composite porous radiant burner (PRB) is conducted. A one-dimensional laminar premixed flame model incorporating a radiatively participating inert porous medium consisting of two layers of different properties is used to describe the heat release/transfer processes. Combined conductive, convective, and radiative heat transfer is considered. The spherical harmonics method with the P-3 approximation is used to model the radiation part. A multistep reaction mechanism for premixed methane-air combustion is employed. A parametric study is carried out to determine the effect of the radiative properties of the two porous layers on burner performance. Calculations indicate that a significant improvement in the radiative output of a PRB can be attained by optimizing the burner properties upstream and downstream of the flame. Generally, the upstream layer should be of lower porosity, shorter length, and higher optical thickness than the downstream layer. Also, the upstream layer should be highly scattering, while the downstream layer should be nonscattering.

  10. Coal-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, T.D.; Reehl, D.P.; Walbert, G.F.

    1985-04-29

    The present invention represents an improvement over the prior art by providing a rotating cup burner arrangement for use with a coal-water mixture fuel which applies a thin, uniform sheet of fuel onto the inner surface of the rotating cup, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel on the inner surface of the cup, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge from the rotating cup, and further atomizes the fuel as it enters the combustion chamber by subjecting it to the high shear force of a high velocity air flow. Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide for improved combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel. It is another object of the present invention to provide an arrangement for introducing a coal-water mixture fuel into a combustion chamber in a manner which provides improved flame control and stability, more efficient combustion of the hydrocarbon fuel, and continuous, reliable burner operation. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide for the continuous, sustained combustion of a coal-water mixture fuel without the need for a secondary combustion source such as natural gas or a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Still another object of the present invention is to provide a burner arrangement capable of accommodating a coal-water mixture fuel having a wide range of rheological and combustion characteristics in providing for its efficient combustion. 7 figs.

  11. Investigations of primary and secondary particulate matter of different wood combustion appliances with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heringa, M. F.; Decarlo, P. F.; Chirico, R.; Tritscher, T.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Richter, R.; Wehrle, G.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2011-06-01

    A series of photo-oxidation smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from two different log wood burners and a residential pellet burner under different burning conditions: starting and flaming phase. Emissions were sampled from the chimney and injected into the smog chamber leading to primary organic aerosol (POA) concentrations comparable to ambient levels. The composition of the aerosol was measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and black carbon (BC) instrumentation. The primary emissions were then exposed to xenon light to initiate photo-chemistry and subsequent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. After correcting for wall losses, the average increase in organic matter (OM) concentrations by SOA formation for the starting and flaming phase experiments with the two log wood burners was found to be a factor of 4.1±1.4 after five hours of aging. No SOA formation was observed for the stable burning phase of the pellet burner. The startup emissions of the pellet burner showed an increase in OM concentration by a factor of 3.3. Including the measured SOA formation potential, average emission factors of BC+POA+SOA, calculated from CO2 emission, were found to be in the range of 0.04 to 3.9 g/kg wood for the stable burning pellet burner and an old log wood burner during startup respectively. SOA contributed significantly to the ion C2H4O2+ at mass to charge ratio m/z 60, a commonly used marker for primary emissions of wood burning. This contribution at m/z 60 can overcompensate for the degradation of levoglucosan leading to an overestimation of the contribution of wood burning or biomass burning to the total OM. The primary organic emissions from the three different burners showed a wide range in O:C atomic ratio (0.19-0.60) for the starting and flaming conditions, which also increased during aging. Primary wood burning emissions have a

  12. Retrofitting and the mu Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Daniel; Weigand, Timo; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    One of the challenges of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and mediation is generating a {mu} term consistent with the requirements of electro-weak symmetry breaking. The most common approach to the problem is to generate the {mu} term through a SUSY breaking F-term. Often these models produce unacceptably large B{mu} terms as a result. We will present an alternate approach, where the {mu} term is generated directly by non-perturtative effects. The same non-perturbative effect will also retrofit the model of SUSY breaking in such a way that {mu} is at the same scale as masses of the Standard Model superpartners. Because the {mu} term is not directly generated by SUSY breaking effects, there is no associated B{mu} problem. These results are demonstrated in a toy model where a stringy instanton generates {mu}.

  13. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  14. Industrial burner modeling: Final report for the CIEE

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used as basis for a comprehensive numerical model of industrial burners. This program is based on the full multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations and includes a subgrid-scale turbulence model. The model was used to simulate the flows in a laboratory-scale burner being studied experimentally at UC-Irvine. We summarize what has been learned in the last 3 years from simulations of this burner. This model provides detailed information about the flow field in the furnace, making it a useful tool for studying the physics of burners.

  15. A heated chamber burner for atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Venghiattis, A A

    1968-07-01

    A new heated chamber burner is described. The burner is of the premixed type, and burner heads of the types conventionally used in atomic absorption may be readily adapted to it. This new sampling system has been tested for Ag, Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Si, Ti, and Zn in aqueous solutions. An improvement of the order of ten times has been obtained in sensitivity, and in detection limits as well, for the elements determined. Interferences controllable are somewhat more severe than in conventional burners but are controllable. PMID:20068792

  16. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    ScienceCinema

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2013-05-29

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  17. Bedford Farmhouse High Performance Retrofit Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-26

    In this case study, Building Science Corporation partnered with Habitat for Humanity of Greater Lowell on a retrofit of a mid-19th century farmhouse into affordable housing meeting Building America performance standards.

  18. Retrofitting the Streetlights in Boise, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Clay; Oliver, LeAnn; Bieter, David; Johnson, Michael; Oldemeyer, Neal

    2011-01-01

    Boise, Idaho is using an energy efficiency grant to retrofit hundreds of streetlights throughout the downtown area with energy-efficient LED bulbs, which will save money and improve safety and local quality of life.

  19. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  20. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  1. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet (UV) light to look at the skin closely. ... Gebhard RE. Wood's light examination. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. ... Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010:chap ...

  2. Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Search How We Work Our Focus Areas About RWJF Search Menu How We Work Grants and Grant ... more For Grantees and Grantseekers The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation supports a wide array of research and ...

  3. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  4. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  5. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  6. The role of a burner head choke in NOx reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, A.; Christenson, D.L.

    1997-07-01

    The emission of NOx and CO from flames of burners are a major nuisance for the boiler and burner industry. The current EPA legislation have restricted the emissions of NOx and CO from natural gas commercial burners to 30 ppm (25 ppm in Southern California) and 200 ppm, corrected to 3% O{sub 2}, respectively. The recent experiments performed at the authors` laboratory on low NOx gas burners in a 1 MW refractory steam generator have shown that significant improvement in NOx emissions, without increasing CO, is possible by mounting a converging cone (choke) on the head of a conventional gas burner. A burner mounted with a choke produces up to 405 less NOx than a burner without a choke. The oxides of nitrogen could be further reduced to meet the EPA requirements by using Steam Injection (SI) or external Flue Gas Recirculation(FGR). Due to the already low levels of NOx emission with a choked burner, very little amount of SI or FGR is needed. The flue gas composition at different excess air levels and varying equivalence ratios are plotted. The effect of NOx emission on the amount of FGR and SI is also shown.

  7. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: CELLO PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER SYSTEM/SONOTECH INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sonotech, Inc. (Sonotech), of Atlanta, GA, the developer of the Cello® pulse combustion burner, claims that its burner system can be beneficial to a variety of combustion processes. The system incorporates a combustor that can be tuned to induce large amplitude sonic pulsation...

  8. Low NOx gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1993-08-24

    An improved gas burner apparatus is described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom comprising: a housing having an open end attached to said furnace space; means for introducing a controlled flow rate of said air into said housing attached thereto; a refractory burner tile attached to the open end of said housing having a base portion, an opening formed in said base portion for allowing air to pass there through and having a wall portion surrounding said opening which extends into said furnace space, the exterior sides of said wall portion being slanted towards said opening and the interior sides thereof being spaced from the periphery of said opening whereby a ledge is provided within the interior of said wall portion; at least one passage formed in said burner tile for conducting primary fuel gas and flue gases from the exterior of said wall portion to the interior thereof; means for forming a fuel gas jet in said passage and drawing flue gases there through adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas and positioned with respect to said passage whereby a mixture of primary fuel gas and flue gases from said furnace space is discharged from said passage to within the interior of said wall portion; and at least one nozzle adapted to be connected to a source of fuel gas positioned outside said wall portion of said burner tile adjacent the intersection of an exterior slanted side of said wall portion with the surface of said base portion for discharging secondary fuel gas adjacent said external slanted side of said wall portion whereby said secondary fuel gas mixes with flue gases and air in said furnace space. A method is also described for discharging a mixture of fuel gas and air into a furnace space wherein said mixture is burned and flue gases having low NO[sub x] content are formed therefrom.

  9. Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment (CARE)

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Eric

    2015-12-23

    During Project DE-FE0007528, CARE (Carbon Absorber Retrofit Equipment), Neumann Systems Group (NSG) designed, installed and tested a 0.5MW NeuStream® carbon dioxide (CO2) capture system using the patented NeuStream® absorber equipment and concentrated (6 molal) piperazine (PZ) as the solvent at Colorado Springs Utilities’ (CSU’s) Martin Drake pulverized coal (PC) power plant. The 36 month project included design, build and test phases. The 0.5MW NeuStream® CO2 capture system was successfully tested on flue gas from both coal and natural gas combustion sources and was shown to meet project objectives. Ninety percent CO2 removal was achieved with greater than 95% CO2product purity. The absorbers tested support a 90% reduction in absorber volume compared to packed towers and with an absorber parasitic power of less than 1% when configured for operation with a 550MW coal plant. The preliminary techno-economic analysis (TEA) performed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) predicted an over-the-fence cost of $25.73/tonne of CO2 captured from a sub-critical PC plant.

  10. Floodplains and wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do

  11. Advanced oil burner for residential heating -- development report

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The development of advanced oil burner concepts has long been a part of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) oil heat research program. Generally, goals of this work include: increased system efficiency, reduced emissions of soot and NO{sub x}, and the practical extension of the firing rate range of current burners to lower input rates. The report describes the results of a project at BNL aimed at the development of air atomized burners. Two concepts are discussed. The first is an air atomizer which uses air supplied at pressures ranging from 10 to 20 psi and requiring the integration of an air compressor in the system. The second, more novel, approach involves the use of a low-pressure air atomizing nozzle which requires only 8-14 inches of water air pressure for fuel atomization. This second approach requires the use of a fan in the burner instead of a compressor although the fan pressure is higher than with conventional, pressure atomized retention head burners. In testing the first concept, high pressure air atomization, a conventional retention head burner was modified to accept the new nozzle. In addition, the burner head was modified to reduce the flow area to maintain roughly 1 inch of water pressure drop across the head at a firing rate of 0.25 gallons of oil per hour. The burner ignited easily and could be operated at low excess air levels without smoke. The major disadvantage of this burner approach is the need for the air compressor as part of the system. In evaluating options, a vane-type compressor was selected although the use of a compressor of this type will lead to increased burner maintenance requirements.

  12. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS. VOLUME I. DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study in which NOx emissions and general combustion performance characteristics of four burners were evaluated under experimental furnace conditions. Of primary interest was the performance of a low NOx Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB), which was test...

  13. Development and testing of a high efficiency advanced coal combustor: Phase 3 -- Industrial boiler retrofit. Proof of concept testing summary (Task 3.0 Final topical report)

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.L.; Borio, R.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-07-01

    Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn oil or gas. In recognition of this future possibility, Pittsburgh Energy Technical Center (PETC) has supported a program led by ABB Power Plant Laboratories in cooperation with the Energy and Fuels Research Center of Penn State University to develop the High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC). The objective of the program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of the overall objective the following specific areas were targeted: a coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb NO{sub 2} per million Btu; achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The work carried out under this program is broken into five major Tasks: review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; installation and testing of a HEACC system in a retrofit application; economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and long term demonstration under user demand conditions. This report summarizes the work done under Task 3, the installation and testing of the HEACC burner in a 15,000 lb/hr package boiler located at Penn State. The period of testing was approximately 400 hours. Key findings are presented.

  14. Investigations of primary and secondary particulate matter of different wood combustion appliances with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heringa, M. F.; Decarlo, P. F.; Chirico, R.; Tritscher, T.; Dommen, J.; Weingartner, E.; Richter, R.; Wehrle, G.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.

    2011-03-01

    A series of photo-oxidation smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate the primary emissions and secondary aerosol formation from two different log wood burners and a residential pellet burner under different burning conditions: starting and flaming phase. Emissions were sampled from the chimney and injected into the smog chamber leading to primary organic aerosol (POA) concentrations comparable to ambient levels. The composition of the aerosol was measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS) and black carbon (BC) instrumentation. The primary emissions were then exposed to xenon light to initiate photo-chemistry and subsequent secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production. After correcting for wall losses, the average increase in organic matter (OM) concentrations by SOA formation for the starting and flaming phase experiments with the two logwood burners was found to be a factor of 4.1 ± 1.4 after five hours of aging. No SOA formation was observed for the stable burning phase of the pellet burner. The startup emissions of the pellet burner showed an increase in OM concentration by a factor of 3.3. Average emission factors of BC + POA + SOA, calculated from CO2 emission, were found to be in the range of 0.04 to 3.9 g kg-1 wood for the stable burning pellet burner and an old log wood burner during startup respectively. SOA contributed significantly to the ion C2H4O2+ at mass to charge ratio m/z 60, a commonly used marker for primary emissions of wood burning. The primary organic emissions from the three different burners showed a wide range in O/C atomic ratio (0.19-0.60) for the starting and flaming conditions, which also increased during aging. Primary wood burning emissions have a rather low relative contribution at m/z 43 (f43) to the total organic mass spectrum. The non-oxidized fragment C3H7+ has a considerable contribution at m/z 43 for the fresh OA with an increasing contribution of the oxygenated

  15. Use of wood as an energy source in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Kaygusuz, K.; Tuerker, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Wood is likely to remain a predominant source of energy for households in the Black Sea region of Turkey because the affordable alternatives are limited. This condition is valid for some other regions of the country also. Preparation of a three-stone fire is very attractive to the villagers in the region. On the other hand, wood is the most practical fuel for serving a large number of people because the size of the batch of food is only limited by the volume of the pot and not by the size of the stove burner. The present study shows that Turkish forests would be totally lost after 67 years. Therefore social, economic, and cultural measures and, especially, energy forests have to be given a chance to change the status quo.

  16. Pinch technology experience in plant retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Kumana, J.D.; Spriggs, H.D.; Ashton, G.

    1987-01-01

    Pinch technology has been applied to retrofit of many plants employing a wide variety of technologies, including continuous and batch processes, and those involving solids processing. This paper reports the authors recent experience in identifying energy savings opportunities in an oil refinery, an ethylene plant, and a corn wet milling plant. The key findings are that: Pinch technology can be successfully applied to retrofits as well as new plant designs; the correct design for retrofits is not the same as that for new designs; pinch technology gives good results even in ''difficult'' processes employing the less common unit operations; and some commonly accepted practices (specifically in solids drying) are fundamentally wrong; multiple-effect drying based on a countercurrent humidity profile offers significant potential for energy savings.

  17. Evaluation of Crawlspace Retrofits in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, Armin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011 and early 2012, Building Science Corporation (BSC) collaborated with Innova Services Corporation on a multifamily community unvented crawlspace retrofit project at Oakwood Gardens in Lansdale, Pennsylvania. BSC provided design consulting services and pre- and post-retrofit evaluation, testing, and data monitoring. The existing condition was a vented crawlspace with an uninsulated floor between the crawlspace and the dwelling units above. The crawlspace was therefore a critically weak link in the building enclosure and was ripe for improvement. Saving energy was the primary interest and goal, but the greatest challenge in this unvented crawlspace retrofit project was working through a crawlspace bulk water intrusion problem caused by inadequate site drainage, window well drainage, foundation wall drainage, and a rising water table during rainy periods.

  18. Wood decay at sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, François; Coston-Guarini, Jennifer; Guarini, Jean-Marc; Fanfard, Sandrine

    2016-08-01

    The oceans and seas receive coarse woody debris since the Devonian, but the kinetics of wood degradation remains one of many unanswered questions about the fate of driftwood in the marine environment. A simple gravimetric experiment was carried out at a monitoring station located at the exit of a steep, forested Mediterranean watershed in the Eastern Pyrenees. The objective was to describe and quantify, with standardized logs (in shape, structure and constitution), natural degradation of wood in the sea. Results show that the mass decrease of wood logs over time can be described by a sigmoidal curve. The primary process of wood decay observed at the monitoring station was due to the arrival and installation of wood-boring species that consumed more than half of the total wood mass in six months. Surprisingly, in a region where there is little remaining wood marine infrastructure, "shipworms", i.e. xylophagous bivalves, are responsible for an important part of this wood decay. This suggests that these communities are maintained probably by a frequent supply of a large quantity of riparian wood entering the marine environment adjacent to the watershed. By exploring this direct link between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, our long term objective is to determine how these supplies of terrestrial organic carbon can sustain wood-based marine communities as it is observed in the Mediterranean Sea.

  19. Field testing of an automated wood-combustion system and development of business plan for commercialization of production. Final report for period ending August 1, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-05-24

    A tunnel burner for burning wood chips has been installed and tested at a school building in Durham, NC. The test revealed many problems which did not exist while testing a prototype in laboratories. Controls were found to work reliably. A business plan was developed and is appended. (LEW)

  20. Fan Atomized Burner design advances & commercial development progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, B.; Butcher, T.A.

    1996-07-01

    As a part of the Oil Heat Research and Development program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has an on-going interest in advanced combustion technologies. This interest is aimed at: improving the initial efficiency of heating equipment, reducing long term fouling and efficiency degradation, reducing air pollutant emissions, and providing practical low-firing rate technologies which may lead to new, high efficiency oil-fired appliances. The Fan-Atomized Burner (FAB) technology is being developed at BNL as part of this general goal. The Fan-Atomized Burner uses a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle in place of the high pressure nozzle used in conventional burners. Because it is air-atomized the burner can operate at low firing rates without the small passages and reliability concerns of low input pressure nozzles. Because it uses a low pressure nozzle the burner can use a fan in place of the small compressor used in other air-atomized burner designs. High initial efficiency of heating equipment is achieved because the burner can operate at very low excess air levels. These low excess air levels also reduce the formation of sulfuric acid in flames. Sulfuric acid is responsible for scaling and fouling of heat exchanger surfaces.

  1. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance.

  2. Retrofit Gloveport Cover and Security Device

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hinckley, Jon E.

    2015-01-01

    The world of glovebox work in the areas of science and manufacturing is in a consistent state of flux due to the inherent nature of changing missions. These rapidly changing work environments result in almost continuous regulatory changes within the codes and standards in order to maintain worker and environmental safety. Gloveboxes designed and manufactured prior to these regulations are not easy to update or retrofit to accommodate new requirements. In order to meet the challenge of retrofitting gloveboxes to the meet the requirements, the following solutions have been developed.

  3. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  4. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  5. Atmospheric low swirl burner flow characterization with stereo PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Mathieu; Nogueira, José; Lecuona, Antonio; Nauri, Sara; Rodríguez, Pedro A.

    2010-05-01

    The lean premixed prevaporized (LPP) burner concept is now used in most of the new generation gas turbines to reduce flame temperature and pollutants by operating near the lean blow-off limit. The common strategy to assure stable combustion is to resort to swirl stabilized flames in the burner. Nevertheless, the vortex breakdown phenomenon in reactive swirling flows is a very complex 3D mechanism, and its dynamics are not yet completely understood. Among the available measurement techniques to analyze such flows, stereo PIV (S-PIV) is now a reliable tool to quantify the instantaneous three velocity components in a plane (2D-3C). It is used in this paper to explore the reactive flow of a small scale, open to atmosphere, LPP burner (50 kW). The burner is designed to produce two distinct topologies (1) that of a conventional high swirl burner and (2) that of a low swirl burner. In addition, the burner produces a lifted flame that allows a good optical access to the whole recirculation zone in both topologies. The flow is studied over a wide range of swirl and Reynolds numbers at different equivalence ratios. Flow statistics are presented for 1,000 S-PIV snapshots at each configuration. In both reactive and cold nonreactive flow, stability diagrams define the domains of the low and high swirl topologies. Due to the relatively simple conception of the physical burner, this information can be easily used for the validation of CFD computations of the burner flow global structure. Near field pressure measurements reveal the presence of peaks in the power spectra, which suggests the presence of periodical coherent features for almost all configurations. Algorithms have been developed to identify and track large periodic traveling coherent structures from the statistically independent S-PIV realizations. Flow temporal evolution is reconstructed with a POD-based method, providing an additional tool for the understanding of flow topologies and numerical codes validation.

  6. Intensification of heat transfer by changing the burner nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DzurÅák, Róbert; Kizek, Ján; Jablonský, Gustáv

    2016-06-01

    Thermal aggregates are using burner which burns combustible mixture with an oxidizing agent, by adjustment of the burner nozzle we can achieve better conditions of combustion to intensify heat transfer at furnace space. The aim of the present paper was using a computer program Ansys Workbench to create a computer simulation which analyzes the impact of the nozzle on the shape of a flame thereby intensifies heat transfer in rotary drum furnaces and radiation heat transfer from the flue gas into the furnace space. Article contains analysis of the geometry of the burner for achieving temperature field in a rotary drum furnace using oxy-combustion and the practical results of computer simulations

  7. Floods and Fluvial Wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiti, F.

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have recently addressed the complex interactions existing at various spatial scales among riparian vegetation, channel morphology and wood storage. The majority of these investigations has been carried out in relatively natural river systems, focusing mostly on the long-term vegetation-morphology dynamics under "equilibrium" conditions. Little is still known about the role of flood events - of different frequency/magnitude - on several aspects of such dynamics, e.g. entrainment conditions of in-channel wood, erosion rates of vegetation from channel margins and from islands, transport distances of wood elements of different size along the channel network. Even less understood is how the river's evolutionary trajectory may affect these processes, and thus the degree to which conceptual models derivable from near-natural systems could be applicable to human-disturbed channels. Indeed, the different human pressures - present on most river basins worldwide - have greatly impaired the morphological and ecological functions of fluvial wood, and the attempts to "restore" in-channel wood storage are currently carried out without a sufficient understanding of wood transport processes occurring during floods. On the other hand, the capability to correctly predict the magnitude of large wood transport during large floods is now seen as crucial - especially in mountain basins - for flood hazard mapping, as is the identification of the potential wood sources (e.g. landslides, floodplains, islands) for the implementation of sound and effective hazard mitigation measures. The presentation will first summarize the current knowledge on fluvial wood dynamics and modelling at different spatial and temporal scales, with a particular focus on mountain rivers. The effects of floods of different characteristics on vegetation erosion and wood transport will be then addressed presenting some study cases from rivers in the European Alps and in the Italian Apennines featuring

  8. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  9. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wiltsee.

    1999-01-21

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories (wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  10. Cary Woods Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Glenda

    1994-01-01

    Describes the school reading program at Cary Woods Elementary School (in Auburn, Alabama), one of several school reading programs designated by the International Reading Association as exemplary. (SR)

  11. Wood pellet production

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.W.

    1983-08-01

    Southern Energy Limited's wood pellet refinery, Bristol, Florida, produces wood pellets for fuel from scrap wood from a nearby sawmill and other hog fuel delivered to the plant from nearby forest lands. The refinery will provide 50,000 tons of pellets per year to the Florida State Hospital at Chattahoochee to fire recently converted boilers in the central power plant. The pellets are densified wood, having a moisture content of about 10% and a heating value of 8000 Btu/lb. They are 0.5 inches in diameter and 2 to 3 inches in length.

  12. Retrofiting survivability of military vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    In Iraq the terrain was such that vehicles could be distributed horizontally, which reduced the effectiveness of mines. In the mountainous terrain of Pakistan and Afghanistan vehicles are forced to use the few, passable roads, which are dirt and easily seeded with plentiful, cheap, intelligent mines. It is desirable to reduce the losses to such mines, preferably by retrofit means that do not greatly increase weight or cost or reduce maneuverability. V-bottom vehicles - A known approach to reducing vulnerability is the Buffalo, a large vehicle developed by South Africa to address mine warfare. It has large tires, high axles, and a reinforced, v-shaped bottom that deflects the blast from explosions below. It is developed and tested in combat, but is expensive and has reduced off-road mobility. The domestic MRAP has similar cost and mobility issue. The addition of v-shaped blast deflectors to vehicles such as Humvees could act much as the deflector on a Buffalo, but a Humvee is closer to the ground, so the explosive's expansion would be reduced. The deflector would also reduce a Humvee's clearance for rough terrain, and a deflector of adequate thickness to address the blast by itself could further increase cost and reduce mobility. Reactive armor is developed and has proven effective against shaped and explosive charges from side or top attack. It detects their approach, detonates, and defeats them by interfering with jet formation. If the threat was a shaped charge from below, they would be a logical choice. But the bulk of the damage to Humvees appears to be from the blast from high explosive mines for which the colliding shock from reactive armor could increase that from the explosive. Porous materials such as sand can strongly attenuate the kinetic energy and pressure of a strong shock. Figure 1 shows the kinetic energy (KE), momentum (Mu), velocity (u), and mass (M) of a spherically expanding shock as functions of radius for a material with a porosity of 0

  13. Retrofitting: The Thermal Upgrading of Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Audubon Society, Falmouth.

    This publication is a compilation of talks delivered during the spring of 1977 by Charles Wing. Contents of the booklet include retrofitting old houses, condensation and vapor barriers, solutions to the vapor barrier problem, and how much of which insulation to use. The publication includes charts, drawings, and equations to illustrate the topics…

  14. Underwater Adhesives Retrofit Pipelines with Advanced Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Houston-based Astro Technology Inc. used a partnership with Johnson Space Center to pioneer an advanced fiber-optic monitoring system for offshore oil pipelines. The company's underwater adhesives allow it to retrofit older deepwater systems in order to measure pressure, temperature, strain, and flow properties, giving energy companies crucial data in real time and significantly decreasing the risk of a catastrophe.

  15. Retrofit methods reduce valves' fugitive emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Gallupe, W. )

    1993-06-01

    Retrofitting in-service valves is a practical alternative that reduces plant fugitive emissions and meets the federal and state environmental provisions. Plant operators must find cost-effective technologies that control and restrain valve emissions. Unfortunately, valves are dynamic devices and must move to perform their functions. Surveying all options, total replacement is not viable due to cost and scale of magnitude. However, retrofit technologies are practical measures that concentrate on correcting the problem points on a valve--the stem, the valve body and piping connections. Retrofits examine if the proper valve type is being used. Retrofit methods can meet the emission standards and reduce capital costs for environmental compliance. Leaks from nearly all types of process equipment fall under the provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, but valves are the most serious challenge for the process industries, and consequently, the most costly to control. The paper discusses the following: valves as dynamic devices; compliance with environmental regulations; what makes valves leak; enhanced stem sealing; modular stem sealing devices; custom design solutions; special valves; and bellows seals.

  16. National Grid Deep Energy Retrofit Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Neuhauser, K.

    2012-03-01

    Through discussion of five case studies (test homes), this project evaluates strategies to elevate the performance of existing homes to a level commensurate with best-in-class implementation of high-performance new construction homes. The test homes featured in this research activity participated in Deep Energy Retrofit (DER) Pilot Program sponsored by the electric and gas utility National Grid in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Building enclosure retrofit strategies are evaluated for impact on durability and indoor air quality in addition to energy performance. Evaluation of strategies is structured around the critical control functions of water, airflow, vapor flow, and thermal control. The aim of the research project is to develop guidance that could serve as a foundation for wider adoption of high performance, 'deep' retrofit work. The project will identify risk factors endemic to advanced retrofit in the context of the general building type, configuration and vintage encountered in the National Grid DER Pilot. Results for the test homes are based on observation and performance testing of recently completed projects. Additional observation would be needed to fully gauge long-term energy performance, durability, and occupant comfort.

  17. Energy Retrofit Creates an Efficient Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Laurie

    1997-01-01

    After 20 years of inadequate heating and cooling, an Indiana school district took advantage of a 1994 state law that allows school districts to bypass the "low-bidder wins" restriction. The district established a guaranteed energy-saving contract for a climate-control-improvements package to retrofit the junior-senior high school. (MLF)

  18. Retrofitting the 5045 Klystron for Higher Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Aaron; Fazio, Michael; Haase, Andy; Jongewaard, Erik; Kemp, Mark; Neilson, Jeff

    2015-04-15

    The 5045 klystron has been in production and accelerating particles at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for over 25 years. Although the design has undergone some changes there are still significant opportunities for improvement in performance. Retrofitting the 5045 for higher efficiencies and a more mono-energetic spent beam profile is presented.

  19. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house, is an all-electric, 1980's era home in the eastern Sacramento suburb of Fair Oaks that was retrofit by Greenbuilt Construction as part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration (EERD) Program. The project was a joint effort between the design-build team at Greenbuilt Construction, led by Jim Bayless, SMUD and their project manager Mike Keesee, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The goal of the Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration program is to work with local builders to renovate homes with cost-effective energy efficient retrofit measures. The homes remodeled under the EERD program are intended to showcase energy efficient retrofit options for homeowners and other builders. The Greenbuilt house is one of five EERD projects that NREL has supported. NREL's main role in these projects is to provide energy analysis and to monitor the home's performance after the retrofit to verify that the energy consumption is in line with the modeling predictions. NREL also performed detailed monitoring on the more innovative equipment included in these remodels, such as an add-on heat pump water heater.

  20. Monitoring conservative retrofits in single family buildings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, C.S.

    1992-12-06

    This study has provided detailed before-and-after information on the ambient and comfort conditions in nine single family buildings, and on the energy consumption of those buildings, for one or more energy conservation retrofits. The data were recorded in such a manner that as well as being able to determine the savings from the retrofits and the influence these retrofits have on the comfort conditions of the residence, the effects of the retrofits on time-of-day usage are also determinable. The following are included in appendices: a table of participant`s names, site addresses and retrofit; significant dates and appropriate comments; a day of data and an annotated data set; pre-retrofit and post-retrofit audit data sheets; and usage history.

  1. Homeowner Best Practices Guide for Residential Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide for HV AC system retrofits is aimed at homeowners who want guidance on upgrading their heating, cooling and ventilation (HVAC) systems and integrating these upgrades with other changes to their home. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HV AC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials procedures and equipment, and are designed to remove some of the guesswork when selecting a builder, contractor, or installer. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements - instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction, where a systems engineering approach has been used to develop extremely energy-efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This approach is best epitomized by the Building America program, whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of simple tests that a homeowner can perform on their own together with checklists and questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HV AC system, the local

  2. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  3. 33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. LOOKING EAST AT SPARE BUTTERFLY VALVE FOR BURNER CONNECTION ON HOT BLAST STOVES. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. Idealized radiation efficiency model for a porous radiant burner

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, X.; Viskanta, R.; Gore, J.P.

    1999-07-01

    A simple, highly idealized radiation efficiency model has been developed for a porous radiant burner with or without a screen to assess the thermal performance of an ideal porous burner that yields the highest radiation efficiency and against which test results and/or more realistic model predictions could be benchmarked. The model is based on thermodynamics principles (first law of thermodynamics) with idealizations made for some of the physical processes. Empirical information, where necessary, is then used to close the model equations. The maximum radiation efficiency at a given firing rate is predicted. The effects of input parameters such as the firing rate, the equivalence ratio, and the effective emittance of the burner on the radiation efficiency of the porous radiant burner are reported.

  5. Microwave plasma burner and temperature measurements in its flames

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Cho, Soon Cheon; Bang, Chan Uk; Shin, Dong Hun; Kim, Jong Hun; Uhm, Han Sup; Yi, Won Ju

    2006-05-15

    An apparatus for generating flames and more particularly the microwave plasma burner for generating high-temperature large-volume plasma flame was presented. The plasma burner is operated by injecting liquid hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge and by mixing the resultant gaseous hydrogen and carbon compounds with air or oxygen gas. The microwave plasma torch can instantaneously vaporize and decompose the hydrogen and carbon containing fuels. It was observed that the flame volume of the burner was more than 50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 550 K at a measurement point, that of the plasma-burner flame with the addition of 0.025 lpm (liters per minute) kerosene and 20 lpm oxygen drastically increased to about 1850 K. A preliminary experiment was carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions.

  6. 24. ELEVATION OF BOILER. EIGHT INSPECTION DOORS, THREE BURNERS, HEAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. ELEVATION OF BOILER. EIGHT INSPECTION DOORS, THREE BURNERS, HEAT SHIELD AT FLOOR, CENTER PRESSURE GAUGE - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  7. Low NO[sub x] gas burner apparatus and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.E.; Napier, S.O.; Jones, A.P.

    1994-01-04

    Improved gas burner apparatus and methods of burning fuel gas-air mixtures are provided whereby flue gases having low NO[sub x] contents are formed. The burner apparatus includes a refractory burner tile having an air discharge opening therein and a wall surrounding the opening which extends into the furnace space and provides a mixing zone therein. At least one passage is formed in the burner tile which opens into the mixing zone and fuel gas is jetted through the passage whereby flue gases are drawn there through and a fuel gas-flue gases mixture is discharged into the mixing zone. The fuel gas-flue gases mixture is swirled in the mixing zone and mixes with air therein, and the resulting mixture is discharged and burned in a primary reaction zone in the furnace space. 11 figs.

  8. Development of a methane premixed catalytic burner for household applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerri, I.; Saracco, G.; Geobaldo, F.; Specchia, V.

    2000-01-01

    A catalytic premixed burner prototype for domestic-boiler applications was developed on the basis of a perovskite-type catalyst (LaMnO{sub 3}) deposited over a FeCrAlloy fiber panel. An economic and simple catalyst-deposition route, based on in situ pyrolysis of suitable precursors, was conceived and optimized on purpose. Finally, a catalytic burner and a reference noncatalytic one were comparatively tested in a pilot plant (maximum power, 30 kW, corresponding to about 2,000 kW/m{sup 2}). The catalytic burner allowed a strong reduction of CO and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to very low and acceptable levels (down to 3--5 times lower than those of the noncatalytic burner) when operated below 800 kW/m{sup 2}. In these conditions, the NO{sub x} emissions remained quite acceptable and practically unaffected by the presence of the catalyst.

  9. Space Experiment Concepts: Cup-Burner Flame Extinguishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Space Fire Suppression Processes & Technology. Space experiment concepts of cup-burner flame extinguishment have been conceived to address to the key issues (i.e., organizing questions) in space fire suppression. Cup-burner flame extinguishment experiment can reveal physical and chemical suppression processes and provide agent effectiveness data useful for technology development of space fire suppression systems in various reduced-gravity platforms.

  10. How James Wood Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Evan R., Comp.

    2008-01-01

    Reading through news-media clippings about James Wood, one might reasonably conclude that "pre-eminent critic" is his official job title. In fact, Wood is a staff writer for "The New Yorker" and a professor of the practice of literary criticism at Harvard University. But at a time when there is much hand-wringing about the death of the…

  11. Demonstration program for wood/coal cofiring in western Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.; Elder, W.W.

    1998-12-31

    National interest in the combustion of wood and wood/coal mixtures is growing rapidly in response to the world-wide concern for global warming, the US concern for SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions, and regional interest in expanding the utilization of forest products and byproducts. Throughout the forest product sector, combustion of wood and wood byproducts is widely practiced. Numerous small combustors for use by the homeowner to burn seasoned firewood are on the market. Lumber and paper mills produce large amounts of raw wood wastes, which many of them combust in industrial boilers to provide process heat and mechanical energy for their operations. In the case of both small and large combustors, the feed systems, burners, thermal recovery systems and flues have been specially designed for 100% wood use. Within the industrial and utility coal-fired boiler sector, furnaces are designed for 100% coal combustion and there is very little experience with wood/coal cofiring in these systems. Moreover, what experience is out there has not been documented in the open literature. Thus, it is proving very difficult for operators of coal-fired boilers to join quickly the national effort to increase wood firing. To provide assistance in this direction, the Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry Program of the US Department of Agriculture Forest Service has initiated a program with the University of Pittsburgh to demonstrate wood/coal cofiring into stoker and fluid-bed boilers in the western Pennsylvania region. The first project under this program was a demonstration at the traveling-grate stoker boiler of the Pittsburgh Brewing Company. The program staff at the University is currently working on several new projects: initiating commercial wood/coal cofiring at the brewery, organizing a demonstration at the underfed stoker boiler plant at a state-owned facility, conceptualizing projects for a spreader stoker boiler at a federally-owned facility and a fluid-bed boiler

  12. Advanced burner test reactor preconceptual design report.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y. I.; Finck, P. J.; Grandy, C.; Cahalan, J.; Deitrich, L.; Dunn, F.; Fallin, D.; Farmer, M.; Fanning, T.; Kim, T.; Krajtl, L.; Lomperski, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Momozaki, Y.; Sienicki, J.; Park, Y.; Tang, Y.; Reed, C.; Tzanos, C; Wiedmeyer, S.; Yang, W.; Chikazawa, Y.; JAEA

    2008-12-16

    The goals of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) are to expand the use of nuclear energy to meet increasing global energy demand, to address nuclear waste management concerns and to promote non-proliferation. Implementation of the GNEP requires development and demonstration of three major technologies: (1) Light water reactor (LWR) spent fuel separations technologies that will recover transuranics to be recycled for fuel but not separate plutonium from other transuranics, thereby providing proliferation-resistance; (2) Advanced Burner Reactors (ABRs) based on a fast spectrum that transmute the recycled transuranics to produce energy while also reducing the long term radiotoxicity and decay heat loading in the repository; and (3) Fast reactor fuel recycling technologies to recover and refabricate the transuranics for repeated recycling in the fast reactor system. The primary mission of the ABR Program is to demonstrate the transmutation of transuranics recovered from the LWR spent fuel, and hence the benefits of the fuel cycle closure to nuclear waste management. The transmutation, or burning of the transuranics is accomplished by fissioning and this is most effectively done in a fast spectrum. In the thermal spectrum of commercial LWRs, some transuranics capture neutrons and become even heavier transuranics rather than being fissioned. Even with repeated recycling, only about 30% can be transmuted, which is an intrinsic limitation of all thermal spectrum reactors. Only in a fast spectrum can all transuranics be effectively fissioned to eliminate their long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat. The Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) is the first step in demonstrating the transmutation technologies. It directly supports development of a prototype full-scale Advanced Burner Reactor, which would be followed by commercial deployment of ABRs. The primary objectives of the ABTR are: (1) To demonstrate reactor-based transmutation of transuranics as part of an

  13. Dual-water mixture fuel burner

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Thomas D.; Reehl, Douglas P.; Walbert, Gary F.

    1986-08-05

    A coal-water mixture (CWM) burner includes a conically shaped rotating cup into which fuel comprised of coal particles suspended in a slurry is introduced via a first, elongated inner tube coupled to a narrow first end portion of the cup. A second, elongated outer tube is coaxially positioned about the first tube and delivers steam to the narrow first end of the cup. The fuel delivery end of the inner first tube is provided with a helical slot on its lateral surface for directing the CWM onto the inner surface of the rotating cup in the form of a uniform, thin sheet which, under the influence of the cup's centrifugal force, flows toward a second, open, expanded end portion of the rotating cup positioned immediately adjacent to a combustion chamber. The steam delivered to the rotating cup wets its inner surface and inhibits the coal within the CWM from adhering to the rotating cup. A primary air source directs a high velocity air flow coaxially about the expanded discharge end of the rotating cup for applying a shear force to the CWM in atomizing the fuel mixture for improved combustion. A secondary air source directs secondary air into the combustion chamber adjacent to the outlet of the rotating cup at a desired pitch angle relative to the fuel mixture/steam flow to promote recirculation of hot combustion gases within the ignition zone for increased flame stability.

  14. Cross sections for actinide burner reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of burning higher actinides (i.e., transuranium (TRU) elements excluding plutonium) in ad hoc designed reactors (Actinide Burner Reactors: ABR) which, because of their hard neutron spectra, enhance the fission of TRU. The transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into stable or short-lived isotopes reduces considerably the burden of handling high-level waste from either LWR or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) fuels. Because of the large concentrations of higher actinides in these novel reactor designs the Doppler effect due to TRU materials is the most important temperature coefficient from the point of view of reactor safety. Here we report calculations of energy group-averaged capture and fission cross sections as function of temperature and dilution for higher actinides in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The calculations were done with the codes SAMMY in the resolved region and URR in the unresolved regions and compared with an independent calculation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Fusion-Fission Burner for Transuranic Actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chan

    2013-10-01

    The 14-MeV DT fusion neutron spectrum from mirror confinement fusion can provide a unique capability to transmute the transuranic isotopes from light water reactors (LWR). The transuranic (TRU) actinides, high-level radioactive wastes, from spent LWR fuel pose serious worldwide problem with long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity. However, ``transmuted'' TRU actinides can not only reduce the inventory of the TRU in the spent fuel repository but also generate additional energy. Typical commercial LWR fuel assemblies for BWR (boiling water reactor) and PWR (pressurized water reactor) measure its assembly lengths with 4.470 m and 4.059 m, respectively, while its corresponding fuel rod lengths are 4.064 m and 3.851 m. Mirror-based fusion reactor has inherently simple geometry for transmutation blanket with steady-state reactor operation. Recent development of gas-dynamic mirror configuration has additional attractive feature with reduced size in central plasma chamber, thus providing a unique capability for incorporating the spent fuel assemblies into transmutation blanket designs. The system parameters for the gas-dynamic mirror-based hybrid burner will be discussed.

  16. Environmentally safe burner for offshore well testing operations

    SciTech Connect

    Young, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    One of the problems that occurs during offshore well testing has been the discharge of unburned hydrocarbon emissions into the air and sea that leave deposits of oily slicks or {open_quotes}sheen{close_quotes} on the water surface. This residue results from inefficient flaring operations and can have adverse effects on marine environment. This paper will discuss a new burner that has been developed to address the environmentally unfriendly fallout conditions that have occurred from crude oil disposal during traditional well testing operations. To support a broad range of applications, the design criteria for this burner included not only the capability to perform fallout free in the wide range of conditions expected during well testing but also to be simple to operate, have a compact lightweight design with a stable pilot and igniter system, provide clean startup, and require low oil pressure. Burner performance is significantly affected by fuel oil properties and its atomization characteristics. The paper will include an overview of these topics and their relationship to the combustion process, how these topics were addressed in the development of the design, and the testing that was performed by an independent Norwegian environmental testing company to verify the burner`s efficiency. The burner designed to these specifications includes an array of atomizers, uniquely placed to improve flame turbulence and air ingestion important to efficient combustion. Engineering tests performed with 18 degree API crude oil were fallout free and smokeless, and tests performed by the independent environmental testing company verified that the new burner design performed with 99.9 percent efficiency as a burning disposal system.

  17. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Trojanowski, R.; Wei, G.

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  18. Retrofitting old turbomachinery with vibration monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, K.A. )

    1994-01-01

    Most operating companies don't realize that the people problems during and after a turbo-machinery monitoring retrofit can be much more difficult to overcome than the mechanical problems. Typical mechanical problems include: designing brackets for installing the vibration probes in the desired locations and at the proper angles, imbedding the thermo-couples in the bearings, routing the wiring out of the bearing housings without oil leaks and burnishing the vibration probe target areas on the shafts to obtain runout free readings. The following guidelines, however, deal with the more important people problems. Violate each of these guidelines and implementation of the turbomachinery monitoring retrofit project and acceptance of the monitors by the unit operators may just be successful.

  19. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions : 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  20. Cascade Apartments: Deep Energy Multifamily Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, A.; Mattheis, L.; Kunkle, R.; Howard, L.; Lubliner, M.

    2014-02-01

    In December of 2009-10, King County Housing Authority (KCHA) implemented energy retrofit improvements in the Cascade multifamily community, located in Kent, Washington (marine climate.)This research effort involved significant coordination from stakeholders KCHA, WA State Department of Commerce, utility Puget Sound Energy, and Cascade tenants. This report focuses on the following three primary BA research questions: 1. What are the modeled energy savings using DOE low income weatherization approved TREAT software? 2. How did the modeled energy savings compare with measured energy savings from aggregate utility billing analysis? 3. What is the Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) of the retrofit package after considering utility window incentives and KCHA capitol improvement funding.

  1. Retrofit California Overview and Final Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Choy, Howard; Rosales, Ana

    2014-03-01

    Energy efficiency retrofits (also called upgrades) are widely recognized as a critical component to achieving energy savings in the building sector to help lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To date, however, upgrades have accounted for only a small percentage of aggregate energy savings in building stock, both in California and nationally. Although the measures and technologies to retrofit a building to become energy efficient are readily deployed, establishing this model as a standard practice remains elusive. Retrofit California sought to develop and test new program models to increase participation in the energy upgrade market in California. The Program encompassed 24 pilot projects, conducted between 2010 and mid-2013 and funded through a $30 million American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The broad scope of the Program can be seen in the involvement of the following regionally based Grant Partners: Los Angeles County (as prime grantee); Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), consisting of: o StopWaste.org for Alameda County o Regional Climate Protection Authority (RCPA) for Sonoma County o SF Environment for the City and County of San Francisco o City of San Jose; California Center for Sustainable Energy (CCSE) for the San Diego region; Sacramento Municipal Utilities District (SMUD). Within these jurisdictions, nine different types of pilots were tested with the common goal of identifying, informing, and educating the people most likely to undertake energy upgrades (both homeowners and contractors), and to provide them with incentives and resources to facilitate the process. Despite its limited duration, Retrofit California undoubtedly succeeded in increasing awareness and education among home and property owners, as well as contractors, realtors, and community leaders. However, program results indicate that a longer timeframe will be needed to

  2. Retrofit cogeneration system increases refrigeration capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Amberger, R.F. ); DeFrees, J.A. )

    1993-04-01

    This article describes a retrofit cogeneration systems for increasing refrigeration capacity at a milk processing plant in Queens, New York. The natural gas/ammonia cogeneration and subcooling systems reduce CO[sub 2] emissions and provide cost and energy savings. The topics of the article include the innovative aspects, computer modeling for system analysis, analysis technique, system configuration, refrigeration loads, operations and maintenance, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits.

  3. Evaluation of Eco-Efficiency and Performance of Retrofit Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Smitha; Rama Chandra Murthy, A.; Iyer, Nagesh R.; Kokila, S.

    2015-12-01

    In this work three materials namely Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP), ferrocement and Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC) have been evaluated towards their performance efficiency and eco-effectiveness for sustainable retrofitting applications. Investigations have been carried out for flexural strengthening of RC beams with FRP, ferrocement and TRC. It is observed that in the case of FRP, it is not possible to tailor the material according to design requirements and most of the time strengthened structure becomes over stiff. Eco-effectiveness of these retrofitting materials has been evaluated by computing the embodied energy. It is observed that the amount of CO2 emitted by TRC is less compared to other retrofit materials. Further, the performance point of retrofitted RC frames has been evaluated and damage index has been calculated to find out the effective retrofit material. It is concluded that, if RC frame is retrofitted with FRP and TRC, it undergoes less damage compared to ferrocement.

  4. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, Kerrie; Hannigan, Eileen

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results-program cost and energy savings-to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  5. Comparison of Home Retrofit Programs in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, K.; Hannigan, E.

    2013-03-01

    To explore ways to reduce customer barriers and increase home retrofit completions, several different existing home retrofit models have been implemented in the state of Wisconsin. This study compared these programs' performance in terms of savings per home and program cost per home to assess the relative cost-effectiveness of each program design. However, given the many variations in these different programs, it is difficult to establish a fair comparison based on only a small number of metrics. Therefore, the overall purpose of the study is to document these programs' performance in a case study approach to look at general patterns of these metrics and other variables within the context of each program. This information can be used by energy efficiency program administrators and implementers to inform home retrofit program design. Six different program designs offered in Wisconsin for single-family energy efficiency improvements were included in the study. For each program, the research team provided information about the programs' approach and goals, characteristics, achievements and performance. The program models were then compared with performance results -- program cost and energy savings -- to help understand the overall strengths and weaknesses or challenges of each model.

  6. Sauder Woodworking Company, a waste wood electric generating facility with Selective Catalytic Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.H.

    1995-08-01

    Although NO{sub x} is the focus of this conference and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the topic of this paper, it is important to understand the development of the project purpose and the reasons for the requirements of an SCR. Sauder Woodworking Company (SWC) generates waste wood as a byproduct of its manufacturing operation. Studies suggested that energy costs could be reduced by utilizing the waste wood to generate steam and electricity. Since the wood is dry, it is possible to utilize suspension burner technology. Two (2) 45,000 lb/hr boilers produce steam at 625 psig and 750{degrees}F. Each boiler is equipped with an economizer, mechanical dust collector, selective catalytic reduction, and an electrostatic precipitator. Electricity is produced from two (2) 3500 KW turbine generators operating in a condensing mode with steam extraction used for plant heating and process. As part of the plant design, an SCR was required for each boiler for environmental reasons.

  7. Fluidized-bed retrofit a practical alternative to FGD

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, T.E.

    1984-02-01

    A comparison is made between the costs of flue-gas desulphurization retrofit to a 112 MW pf-fired boiler, fluidized-bed combustion retrofit to the boiler, and a new fluidized-bed boiler. Breakdowns are given for capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the busbar cost of energy for a 20 year unit life. The analysis shows that fbc is a viable option for the retrofit of many existing boilers from both a technical and economic viewpoint.

  8. Wood's Lamp Examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... dermatologists to assist in the diagnosis of various pigment and infectious disorders. The examination is performed in ... lamp. If a fungal or bacterial infection or pigment disorder is present, Wood's lamp examination can strengthen ...

  9. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  10. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Cerniglia, P.

    1990-10-23

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  11. Flame quality monitor system for fixed firing rate oil burners

    DOEpatents

    Butcher, Thomas A.; Cerniglia, Philip

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining and indicating the flame quality, or efficiency of the air-fuel ratio, in a fixed firing rate heating unit, such as an oil burning furnace, is provided. When the flame brightness falls outside a preset range, the flame quality, or excess air, has changed to the point that the unit should be serviced. The flame quality indicator output is in the form of lights mounted on the front of the unit. A green light indicates that the flame is about in the same condition as when the burner was last serviced. A red light indicates a flame which is either too rich or too lean, and that servicing of the burner is required. At the end of each firing cycle, the flame quality indicator goes into a hold mode which is in effect during the period that the burner remains off. A yellow or amber light indicates that the burner is in the hold mode. In this mode, the flame quality lights indicate the flame condition immediately before the burner turned off. Thus the unit can be viewed when it is off, and the flame condition at the end of the previous firing cycle can be observed.

  12. Transportation fuels from wood

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.G.; Elliott, D.C.; Stevens, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    The various methods of producing transportation fuels from wood are evaluated in this paper. These methods include direct liquefaction schemes such as hydrolysis/fermentation, pyrolysis, and thermochemical liquefaction. Indirect liquefaction techniques involve gasification followed by liquid fuels synthesis such as methanol synthesis or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The cost of transportation fuels produced by the various methods are compared. In addition, three ongoing programs at Pacific Northwest Laboratory dealing with liquid fuels from wood are described.

  13. Impact Tests for Woods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1922-01-01

    Although it is well known that the strength of wood depends greatly upon the time the wood is under the load, little consideration has been given to this fact in testing materials for airplanes. Here, results are given of impact tests on clear, straight grained spruce. Transverse tests were conducted for comparison. Both Izod and Charpy impact tests were conducted. Results are given primarily in tabular and graphical form.

  14. Hotel Cedes 7 months' savings for total lighting retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Warrock, A.M.

    1983-07-11

    In an unusual shared-savings agreement, the Hilton Florida Center at Orlando, where a retrofit program was begun two years ago, will give up all savings from a lighting retrofit program for seven months, avoiding upfront costs of equipment purchase, and will then become sole owner of the equipment and beneficiary of the savings. The four-month-old program has improved the lighting and cut electricity costs $2000 to $2500 per month, which would have been a six-month payback. Contracts for two other hotels are expected where retrofitting has begun. Retrofit details are given.

  15. Growing with wood waste

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.M.

    1995-05-01

    When officials at Regional Waste Services (Peabody, Mass.) were looking for an outlet for their used wood products in the late 1980s, they had no idea that the material would eventually turn into a whole new market for them. Simply tired of paying exorbitant disposal fees and seeking out obscure landfills willing to accept the waste, company officials decided to build and operate their own 1,000-tpd wood recycling facility. Encouraged by the immediate success of the facility, principals at Regional Waste Services, which at the time was the fifth largest independent waste hauling, transfer, and disposal firm in the US made a strategic business decision to sell their waste hauling business and to concentrate on the wood recycling operation full time. Their newly named company, Wood Recycling, Inc. (WRI, Peabody, Mass.), was officially established in July 1990. Today, nearly five years later, that decision appears to be paying off in a big way. WRI has successfully diverted thousands of tons of urban wood wastes from landfills. It also has turned that waste into an innovative line of recycled wood and paper fiber mulch lawn care products that are being marketed to consumers and commercial entities across the country.

  16. Advanced Burner Reactor Preliminary NEPA Data Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, L. L.; Cahalan, J. E.; Deitrich, L. W.; Fanning, T. H.; Grandy, C.; Kellogg, R.; Kim, T. K.; Yang, W. S.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-10-15

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is a new nuclear fuel cycle paradigm with the goals of expanding the use of nuclear power both domestically and internationally, addressing nuclear waste management concerns, and promoting nonproliferation. A key aspect of this program is fast reactor transmutation, in which transuranics recovered from light water reactor spent fuel are to be recycled to create fast reactor transmutation fuels. The benefits of these fuels are to be demonstrated in an Advanced Burner Reactor (ABR), which will provide a representative environment for recycle fuel testing, safety testing, and modern fast reactor design and safeguard features. Because the GNEP programs will require facilities which may have an impact upon the environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), preparation of a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) for GNEP is being undertaken by Tetra Tech, Inc. The PEIS will include a section on the ABR. In support of the PEIS, the Nuclear Engineering Division of Argonne National Laboratory has been asked to provide a description of the ABR alternative, including graphics, plus estimates of construction and operations data for an ABR plant. The compilation of this information is presented in the remainder of this report. Currently, DOE has started the process of engaging industry on the design of an Advanced Burner Reactor. Therefore, there is no specific, current, vendor-produced ABR design that could be used for this PEIS datacall package. In addition, candidate sites for the ABR vary widely as to available water, geography, etc. Therefore, ANL has based its estimates for construction and operations data largely on generalization of available information from existing plants and from the environmental report assembled for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) design [CRBRP, 1977]. The CRBRP environmental report was chosen as a resource because it thoroughly

  17. Study of oil combustion in the TGMP-314 boiler with hearth burners

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, Yu.M.; Shtal'man, S.G.; Enyakin, Yu.P.; Abryutin, A.A.; Levin, M.M.; Taran, O.E.; Chuprov, V.V.; Antonov, A.Yu.

    1983-01-01

    Studies of the TGMP-314 boiler with hearth configured burners included the gas mixture in the boiler, the degree of fuel combustion at various heights in the boiler, hydrogen sulfide content in the near-wall zones of the boiler, and temperature distribution fields. Experimental data showed that the hearth burners, in conjunction with steam-mechanical atomizing burners, operate with the least possible excess air over a wide range of load changes. The operation and performance of the hearth burners are discussed.

  18. SMALL OIL BURNER CONCEPTS BASED ON LOW PRESSURE AIR ATOMIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.; CELEBI,Y.; WEI,G.; KAMATH,B.

    2000-03-16

    The development of several novel oil burner applications based on low pressure air atomization is described. The atomizer used is a prefilming, airblast nozzle of the type commonly used in gas turbine combustion. The air pressure used can be as low as 1,300 Pa and such pressure can be easily achieved with a fan. Advantages over conventional, pressure-atomized nozzles include ability to operate at low input rates without very small passages and much lower fuel pressure requirements. The development of three specific applications is presented. The first two are domestic heating burners covering a capacity range 10 to 26 kW. The third application presented involves the use of this burner in an oil-fired thermophotovoltaic power generator system. Here the design firing rate is 2.9 kW and the system produces 500 watts of electric power.

  19. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  20. Materials evaluations with the pulsed black liquor burner test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, A.

    1997-08-01

    A pulsed burner was designed to provide sufficient heat to convert a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor into combustible gas which would be used to produce process steam. The pulsed burner design provides a significant increase in the heat transfer capability and consequently significantly increases the efficiency of the conversion process. High temperature corrosion tests were performed in a fluidized bed of black Kraft liquor using a pulsed burner process to determine the optimum materials for use in a commercial application. The materials tested included three different austenitic stainless steels, Type 446 martensitic stainless steel, a high temperature carbon steel, 153MA, and four nickel base alloys. All materials performed well with no corrosion attributed to the environment created by the decomposition of a black Kraft liquor. This behavior was contrary to what was expected due to the high concentration of H{sub 2}S present in the high temperature, 562 C, atmosphere.

  1. User guide to the Burner Engineering Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fornaciari, N.; Schefer, R.; Paul, P.; Lubeck, C.; Sanford, R.; Claytor, L.

    1994-11-01

    The Burner Engineering Research Laboratory (BERL) was established with the purpose of providing a facility where manufacturers and researchers can study industrial natural gas burners using conventional and laser-based diagnostics. To achieve this goal, an octagonal furnace enclosure with variable boundary conditions and optical access that can accommodate burners with firing rates up to 2.5 MMBtu per hour was built. In addition to conventional diagnostic capabilities like input/output measurements, exhaust gas monitoring, suction pyrometry and in-furnace gas sampling, laser-based diagnostics available at BERL include planar Mie scattering, laser Doppler velocimetry and laser-induced fluorescence. This paper gives an overview of the operation of BERL and a description of the diagnostic capabilities and an estimate of the time required to complete each diagnostic for the potential user who is considering submitting a proposal.

  2. Prospects for residential oil burners with reduced emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Krajewski, R.F.; Celebi, Y.; McDonald, R.J.; Batey, J.

    1992-04-01

    In considering the emissions characteristics of residential oil heating equipment it is important to consider the magnitude of these emissions relative to all other sources. Laboratory and field test data show that home oil burners produce very low levels of pollutants when compared to all other combustion sources in the US. Home oil burners are relatively clean burning and produce less air pollution than the average combustion source in the US. This is especially true for carbon monoxide, particulates, and hydrocarbons, which are a small fraction of the average emission of other combustion equipment. In this paper results are presented of emission tests done with a number of oil burners selected as being representative of modern equipment or representing a recent development trend or a novel approach. The primary purpose of this work was to provide a benchmark of what oil equipment can do today and what the effects of some of these alternative designs are on emissions.

  3. EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

  4. Selective and enhanced radiation from porous matrix burners. Final report, October 1989-September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1993-04-01

    The objective of the contract is to enhance the thermal performance of porous surface radiant burners through the use of improved ceramic materials. Previously identified rare earth oxides that exhibit selective radiant emissions in the near infrared will be incorporated into fiber matrix burners. High temperature, high emissivity fibers will also be identified and used to improve radiant burner performance.

  5. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  6. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME III. FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of field tests conducted to determine the emission characteristics of a Babcock and Wilcox Circular burner and Dual Register burner (DRB). The field tests were performed at two utility boilers, generally comparable in design and size except for the burner...

  7. EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

  8. EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 3. GUIDELINE MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field evaluation of the Distributed Mixing Burner (DMB) on a 98 kg/hr (215,000 lb/hr) steaming capacity, four-burner, front-wall-fired boiler. Following DMB installation, the boiler was operated and tested with the new burners for 17 months. Under ro...

  9. Identifying Dark Matter Burners in the Galactic Center

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Wai, Lawrence L.

    2007-04-16

    If the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of our Galaxy grew adiabatically, then a dense ''spike'' of dark matter is expected to have formed around it. Assuming that dark matter is composed primarily of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a star orbiting close enough to the SMBH can capture WIMPs at an extremely high rate. The stellar luminosity due to annihilation of captured WIMPs in the stellar core may be comparable to or even exceed the luminosity of the star due to thermonuclear burning. The model thus predicts the existence of unusual stars, i.e. ''WIMP burners'', in the vicinity of an adiabatically grown SMBH. We find that the most efficient WIMP burners are stars with degenerate electron cores, e.g. white dwarfs (WD) or degenerate cores with envelopes. If found, such stars would provide evidence for the existence of particle dark matter and could possibly be used to establish its density profile. In our previous paper we computed the luminosity from WIMP burning for a range of dark matter spike density profiles, degenerate core masses, and distances from the SMBH. Here we compare our results with the observed stars closest to the Galactic center and find that they could be consistent with WIMP burners in the form of degenerate cores with envelopes. We also cross-check the WIMP burner hypothesis with the EGRET observed flux of gamma-rays from the Galactic center, which imposes a constraint on the dark matter spike density profile and annihilation cross-section. We find that the EGRET data is consistent with the WIMP burner hypothesis. New high precision measurements by GLAST will confirm or set stringent limits on a dark matter spike at the Galactic center, which will in turn support or set stringent limits on the existence of WIMP burners at the Galactic center.

  10. Development of an air-atomized oil burner

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1996-06-01

    A new concept for the design of a residential oil burner is presented involving a low pressure, air atomizing nozzle. Advantages of this approach, relative to conventional, pressure atomized burners include: ability to operate at very low excess air levels without smoke, ability to operate at low (and possibly variable) rates, reduced boiler fouling, and low NO{sub x}. The nozzle used is a low pressure, airblast atomizer which can achieve fuel spray drop sizes similar to conventional nozzles and very good combustion performance with air pressure as low as 5 inches of water (1.24 kPa). A burner head has been developed for this nozzle and combustion test results are presented in a wide variety of equipment including cast iron and steel boilers, warm air furnaces, and water heaters over the firing rate range 0.25 gph to 1.0 gph (10 to 41 kW). Beyond the nozzle and combustion head the burner system must be developed and two approaches have been taken. The first involves a small, brushless DC motor/fan combination which uses high fan speed to achieve air pressures from 7 to 9 inches of water (1.74 to 2.24 kPa). Fuel is delivered to the atomizer at less than 1 psig (6.9 kPa) using a solenoid pump and flow metering orifice. At 0.35 gph (14 kW) the electric power draw of this burner is less than 100 watts. In a second configuration a conventional motor is used with a single stage fan which develops 5 to 6 inches of water pressure (1.24 to 1.50 kPa) at similar firing rates. This burner uses a conventional type fuel pump and metering orifice to deliver fuel. The fuel pump is driven by the fan motor, very much like a conventional burner. This second configuration is seen as more attractive to the heating industry and is now being commercialized. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination.

  11. Regenerator flow distribution by means of a burner

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Y.W.

    1983-03-01

    In a regenerative furnace of the type used for melting glass, employment of a gas stream (preferably from a high-velocity burner) in the plenum of the regenerator controls the gas flow distribution within the regenerator. The employment of this auxiliary burner makes the heating of the packing more uniform, minimizes localized overheating of the packing, and improves regenerator efficiency. This flow control device can be added readily to an existing operating furnace with no disruption of operation and at relatively low cost.

  12. Altitude Performance Characteristics of Tail-pipe Burner with Convergingconical Burner Section on J47 Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, William R; Mcaulay, John E

    1950-01-01

    An investigation of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation by means of tail-pipe burning was conducted in the NACA Lewis altitude wind tunnel. Performance data were obtained with a tail-pipe burner having a converging conical burner section installed on an axial-flow-compressor type turbojet engine over a range of simulated flight conditions and tail-pipe fuel-air ratios with a fixed-area exhaust nozzle. A maximum tail-pipe combustion efficiency of 0.86 was obtained at an altitude of 15,000 feet and a flight Mach number of 0.23. Tail-pipe burner operation was possible up to an altitude of 45,000 feet at a flight Mach number of 0.23.

  13. Damage monitoring of CFRP retrofit using optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Kunal; Breaux Frketic, Jolie; Olawale, David; Dickens, Tarik

    2015-04-01

    With nearly 25% of bridge infrastructure deemed deficient, repair of concrete structures is a critical need. FRP materials as thin laminates or fabrics are appearing to be an ideal alternative to traditional repair technology, because of their high strength to weight ratios and stiffness to weight ratios. In addition, FRP materials offer significant potential for lightweight, high strength, cost-effective and durable retrofit. One drawback of using CFRP retrofitting is its brittle-type failure; caused by its nearly linear elastic nature of the stress-strain behavior. This causes a strength reduction of the retrofitted member, thus the health of the retrofit applied on the structure becomes equally important to sustain the serviceability of the structure. This paper provides a system to monitor damage on the CFRP retrofits through optical fiber sensors which are woven into the structure to provide damage sensing. Precracked reinforced concrete beams were retrofitted using CFRP laminates with the most commonly used FRP application technique. The beams were tested under constant stress to allow the retrofitting to fail while evaluating the performance of the sensing system. Debonding failure modes at a stress of 9 MPa were successfully detected by TL optical fiber sensors in addition to detection during flexural failure. Real-time failure detection of FRP strengthened beams was successfully achieved and the retrofit damage-monitoring scheme aims at providing a tool to reduce the response time and decision making involved in maintenance of deficient structures.

  14. Practical solutions to turbine control system retrofit problems

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, M.; Lovejoy, K.

    1996-10-01

    This paper addresses the use of microprocessors in retrofitting turbine control systems. The topics of the paper include modern control system architecture, human machine interface, steam flow linearization and automatic valve calibration, retrofit hydraulic interfacing, reliability considerations, and advanced valve positioning technique (quarter cycle damping).

  15. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  16. A systems approach to retrofitting residential HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, J.A.; Walker, I.S.

    2004-05-01

    A Best Practices Guide for retrofitting residential HVAC systems has recently been completed by DOE. The guide uses diagnostics and checklists to guide the user to specific retrofit packages that maximize retrofit energy savings, comfort and safety potential. The guide uses a systems approach to retrofitting where the interaction of different building components is considered throughout the retrofit selection process. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC systems can be used. In this study, several houses were surveyed using the Best Practices Guide and a single house was selected for retrofitting. The objectives were to demonstrate how a successful system-wide retrofit can be carried out and to provide feedback to improve the guide. Because it represents a departure from current practice, a key aspect of this study was to investigate the interactions with contractors and code officials who are unfamiliar with the systems approach. The study found that the major barrier to the systems approach in retrofits was in changing the working practices of contractors and code officials.

  17. Crowne Plaza Renovation Retrofit Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-03-01

    InterContinental Hotels Group (IHG) and its franchise partner B.F. Saul Company Hospitality Group (B.F. Saul Co.) partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit existing buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% versus requirements set by Standard 90.1-2004 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  18. Measure Guideline. Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a “partial drainage” detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  19. Measure Guideline: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Lstiburek, J.

    2012-05-01

    This measure guideline provides recommendations for designs and variations for retrofit hybrid assemblies in improving interior foundation insulation and water management of basements. Variations include closed cell spray foam (ccSPF) with membrane waterproofing or air gap membrane drainage layers, rigid board foam insulation at flat walls (cast concrete or CMU block), a 'partial drainage' detail making use of the bulk water drainage that occurs through the field of a rubble stone wall, and non-drained spray foam assemblies (including slab insulation).

  20. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection, where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.

  1. Precision wood particle feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, James H; Lanning, David N

    2013-07-30

    Wood particles having fibers aligned in a grain, wherein: the wood particles are characterized by a length dimension (L) aligned substantially parallel to the grain, a width dimension (W) normal to L and aligned cross grain, and a height dimension (H) normal to W and L; the L.times.H dimensions define two side surfaces characterized by substantially intact longitudinally arrayed fibers; the W.times.H dimensions define two cross-grain end surfaces characterized individually as aligned either normal to the grain or oblique to the grain; the L.times.W dimensions define two substantially parallel top and bottom surfaces; and, a majority of the W.times.H surfaces in the mixture of wood particles have end checking.

  2. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSIONS COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS; VOLUME II. SECOND GENERATION LOW-NOX BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to evaluate the performance characteristics of three Second Generation Low-NOx burner designs: the Dual Register burner (DRB), the Babcock-Hitachi NOx Reducing (HNR) burner, and the XCL burner. The three represent a progression in development based on t...

  3. Study of the Effects of Ambient Conditions Upon the Performance of Fan Powered, Infrared Natural Gas Burners

    SciTech Connect

    Clark Atlanta University

    2002-12-02

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the operation of a fan-powered, infrared burner (IR burner) at various gas compositions and ambient conditions, develop numerical model to simulate the burner performances, and provide design guidelines for appliances containing PIR burners for satisfactory performance.

  4. Avalanches in Wood Compression.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, T; Miksic, A; Ovaska, M; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-07-31

    Wood is a multiscale material exhibiting a complex viscoplastic response. We study avalanches in small wood samples in compression. "Woodquakes" measured by acoustic emission are surprisingly similar to earthquakes and crackling noise in rocks and laboratory tests on brittle materials. Both the distributions of event energies and of waiting (silent) times follow power laws. The stress-strain response exhibits clear signatures of localization of deformation to "weak spots" or softwood layers, as identified using digital image correlation. Even though material structure-dependent localization takes place, the avalanche behavior remains scale-free. PMID:26274428

  5. Feasibility Study of Regenerative Burners in Aluminum Holding Furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Mohamed I.; Al Kindi, Rashid

    2014-09-01

    Gas-fired aluminum holding reverberatory furnaces are currently considered to be the lowest efficiency fossil fuel system. A considerable volume of gas is consumed to hold the molten metal at temperature that is much lower than the flame temperature. This will lead to more effort and energy consumption to capture the excessive production of the CO2. The concern of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the regenerative-burners' furnaces to increase the furnace efficiency to reduce gas consumption per production and hence result in less CO2 production. Energy assessments for metal holding furnaces are considered at different operation conditions. Onsite measurements, supervisory control and data acquisition data, and thermodynamics analysis are performed to provide feasible information about the gas consumption and CO2 production as well as area of improvements. In this study, onsite measurements are used with thermodynamics modeling to assess a 130 MT rectangular furnace with two regenerative burners and one cold-air holding burner. The assessment showed that the regenerative burner furnaces are not profitable in saving energy, in addition to the negative impact on the furnace life. However, reducing the holding and door opening time would significantly increase the operation efficiency and hence gain the benefit of the regenerative technology.

  6. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rule for woodwaste burners. 49.127... opacity limit is EPA Method 9. A complete description of this method is found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix... General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa Region 10 § 49.127 Rule for woodwaste...

  7. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  8. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  9. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  10. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  11. 40 CFR 266.102 - Permit standards for burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.102 Permit standards for burners. (a) Applicability—(1) General. Owners and operators of boilers and industrial furnaces... furnaces that burn hazardous waste are subject to the following provisions of part 264 of this...

  12. How Efficient is a Laboratory Burner in Heating Water?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Michael P.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which chemistry students determine the efficiency of a laboratory burner used to heat water. The reaction is assumed to be the complete combustion of methane, CH4. The experiment is appropriate for secondary school chemistry students familiar with heats of reaction and simple calorimetry. Contains pre-laboratory and…

  13. DEVELOPMENTS IN LIMB (LIMESTONE INJECTION MULTISTAGE BURNER) TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the most recent results from the Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) program, results from the wall-fired demonstration. Tests were conducted to determine the efficacy of commercial calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--supplied by Marblehead Lime Co. and of ca...

  14. 40 CFR 49.127 - Rule for woodwaste burners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... opacity limit is EPA Method 9. A complete description of this method is found in 40 CFR part 60, appendix... woodwaste burners within the Indian reservation to control emissions of particulate matter to the atmosphere and ground-level concentrations of particulate matter. (b) Who is affected by this section?...

  15. EVALUATION OF LOW EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON INDUSTRIAL BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the second year's effort under EPA Contract 68-02-3127. The objective of the program is to conduct field evaluations of the distributed mixing burner (DMB) on two industrial size boilers. The DMB concept provides for controlled mixing of coal with combustion...

  16. LOW NOX, HIGH EFFICIENCY MULTISTAGED BURNER: GASEOUS FUEL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the evaluation of a multistaged combustion burner design on a 0.6 MW package boiler simulator for in-furnace NOx control and high combustion efficiency. Both deep air staging, resulting in a three-stage configuration, and boiler front wall fuel staging of undo...

  17. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: THE PYRETRON OXYGEN BURNER, AMERICAN COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pyretron is a burner which is designed to allow for the injection of oxygen into the combustion air stream for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a hazardous waste incinerator. The SITE demonstration of the Pyretron took place at the U.S. EPA's Combustion Re...

  18. 6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View, flare and oxygen burner pad near southwest side of Components Test Laboratory (T-27), looking northeast. Uphill and to the left of the flare is the Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) and the Long-Term Oxidizer Silo (T-28B). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  19. A burner for plasma-coal starting of a boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peregudov, V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Advanced schemes of a plasma-coal burner with single-and two-stage chambers for thermochemical preparation of fuel are described. The factors causing it becoming contaminated with slag during oil-free starting of a boiler are considered, and methods for preventing this phenomenon are pointed out.

  20. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  1. NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

  2. Stability characteristics and flame structure of low swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, Mohy; Chen, Yung-Cheng

    2008-07-15

    Low swirl burner provides stable lifted flames for fundamental studies of flame structure and turbulence/chemistry interaction in well defined boundary conditions. In the present study the stability characteristics of the burner have been investigated with four tangential jets at the same stoichiometry as the main jet. Two different burner nozzles with 40 mm and 53.5 mm diameters have been used for the stability measurements. In addition, a combined two-dimensional Rayleigh/LIPF-OH technique has been applied for simultaneous measurements of temperature and OH-radical for reaction zone and flame front investigation. Three flames have been selected near extinction for detailed measurements. The data show that the relation between of the main jet velocity, U, and the velocity of the four tangential jets, u, is linear. For the present data set with the nozzles investigated the linear trend can lead to an almost constant ratio of UD/u as 5.08 mm with D as the nozzle diameter of the burner. The flame structure varies from corrugated to highly wrinkle according to the turbulence level. (author)

  3. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measuring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test was conducted for two systems of static strain measurement that had been shown to have potential for application jet engine combustors. A modified JT12D combustor was operated in a jet burner test stand while subjected simultaneously to both systems of instrumentation, i.e., Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages and laser speckle photography. A section of the burner was removed for installation and calibration of the wire gages, and welded back into the burner. The burner test rig was modified to provide a viewing port for the laser speckle photography such that the instrumented section could be observed during operation. Six out of ten wire gages survived testing and showed excellent repeatability. The extensive precalibration procedures were shown to be effective in compensating for the large apparent strains associated with these gages. Although all portions of the speckle photography system operated satisfactorily, a problem was encountered in the form of optical inhomogeneities in the hot, high-pressure gas flowing by the combustor case which generate large and random apparent strain distributions.

  4. Burner tilting angle effect on velocity profile in 700 MW Utility Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munisamy, K. M.; Yusoff, M. Z.; Thangaraju, S. K.; Hassan, H.; Ahmad, A.

    2015-09-01

    700 MW of utility boiler is investigated with manipulation of inlet burner angle. Manipulation of burner titling angle is an operational methodology in controlling rear pass temperature in utility boilers. The rear pass temperature unbalance between right and left side is a problem caused by fouling and slagging of the ash from the coal fired boilers. This paper presents the CFD investigation on the 0° and -30° of the burner angle of the utility boiler. The results focusing on the velocity profile. The design condition of 0° burner firing angle is compared with the off-design burner angle -30° which would be the burner angle to reduce the rear pass temperature un-balance by boiler operators. It can be concluded that the -30° burner angle reduce the turbulence is fire ball mixing inside the furnace. It also shift the fire ball position in the furnace to reduce the rear pass temperature.

  5. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  6. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, P.; Podorson, D.; Varshney, K.

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques -- manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multi-unit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder two-story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  7. Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Conlin, F.; Holloway, Parker; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-03-01

    In multifamily and attached buildings, traditional duct sealing methods are often impractical or costly and disruptive because of the difficulty in accessing leakage sites. In this project, two retrofit duct sealing techniques, manually-applied sealants and injecting a spray sealant, were implemented in several low-rise multiunit buildings. An analysis on the cost and performance of the two methods are presented. Each method was used in twenty housing units: approximately half of each group of units are single story and the remainder are two story. Results show that duct leakage to the outside was reduced by an average of 59% through the use of manual methods, and by 90% in the units where the injected spray sealant was used. It was found that 73% of the leakage reduction in homes that were treated with injected spray sealant was attributable to the manual sealing done at boots, returns and the air handler. The cost of manually-applying sealant ranged from $275 to $511 per unit and for the injected spray sealant the cost was $700 per unit. Modeling suggests a simple payback of 2.2 years for manual sealing and 4.7 years for the injected spray sealant system. Utility bills were collected for one year before and after the retrofits. Utility bill analysis shows 14% and 16% energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing procedure respectively in heating season whereas in cooling season, energy savings using injected spray sealant system and hand sealing were both 16%.

  8. VARIABLE FIRING RATE OIL BURNER USING PULSE FUEL FLOW CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    KRISHNA,C.R.; BUTCHER,T.A.; KAMATH,B.R.

    2004-10-01

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner, which has an excellent reputation for reliability and efficiency. In this burner, oil is delivered to a fuel nozzle at pressures from 100 to 150 psi. In addition, to atomizing the fuel, the small, carefully controlled size of the nozzle exit orifice serves to control the burner firing rate. Burners of this type are currently available at firing rates of more than 0.5 gallons-per-hour (70,000 Btu/hr). Nozzles have been made for lower firing rates, but experience has shown that such nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the necessarily small passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. Also, traditionally burners and the nozzles are oversized to exceed the maximum demand. Typically, this is figured as follows. The heating load of the house on the coldest day for the location is considered to define the maximum heat load. The contractor or installer adds to this to provide a safety margin and for future expansion of the house. If the unit is a boiler that provides domestic hot water through the use of a tankless heating coil, the burner capacity is further increased. On the contrary, for a majority of the time, the heating system is satisfying a much smaller load, as only rarely do all these demands add up. Consequently, the average output of the heating system has to be much less than the design capacity and this is accomplished by start and stop cycling operation of the system so that the time-averaged output equals the demand. However, this has been demonstrated to lead to overall efficiencies lower than the steady-state efficiency. Therefore, the two main reasons for the current practice of using oil burners much larger than necessary for space heating are the unavailability of reliable low firing rate oil burners and the desire to assure adequate input rate for short duration, high draw domestic hot water loads. One approach to solve this

  9. On burner-stabilized cylindrical premixed flames in microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.A.; Law, C.K.; Zhu, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The structure and response of the curved but unstretched cylindrically symmetric one-dimensional premixed flame generated by a cylindrical porous burner has been studied using (1) activation energy asymptotics with one-step reaction and constant properties, (2) numerical computation with detailed chemistry and transport, and (3) drop-tower microgravity experimentation. The study emphasizes the relative importance of heat loss (to the burner surface) vs flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization, the possibility of establishing a one-dimensional, adiabatic, unstretched, premixed flame in microgravity, the influence of curvature on the upstream and downstream burning rates of the flame, and the relation of these burning rates to those of the inherently nonadiabatic flat-burner flame as well as the freely propagating adiabatic planar flame. Results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence, hence demonstrating the feasibility of establishing a freely standing, adiabatic, one-dimensional, unstretched flame. It is further shown that, in this adiabatic, divergence-stabilized regime in which the burner discharge flux exceeds that of the adiabatic planar flame, the downstream burning flux is equal to the (constant) burning flux of the adiabatic planar flame while the upstream burning flux exceeds it, and the upstream burning velocity exhibits a maximum with increasing discharge rate. Based on the property of the downstream burning flux, it is also proposed that the laminar burning velocity of a combustible can be readily determined from the experimental values of the burner discharge rate and flame radius. Microgravity results on the flame radius compare favorably with the computed values, while the corresponding laminar burning velocity also agrees well with that obtained from independent numerical computation.

  10. Classroom Demonstrations of Wood Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulger, A. N.

    Presented in this manual are 20 activities selected to show some of the properties of wood and how these properties relate to the cellular structure of wood. Each activity includes stated objectives, indicates materials needed, and explains procedures. Illustrations related to the activities, glossary of terms, and photographs of wood structure…

  11. 78 FR 9936 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ..., 2011, HUD published a notice at 76 FR 17936 that announced HUD's FHA Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): PowerSaver Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot... Home Energy Retrofit Loan Pilot Program (Retrofit Pilot Program) known as FHA PowerSaver, which is...

  12. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  13. Plasma treatment of wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G. G.; Skripnikova, N. K.; Sinitsyn, V. A.; Volokitin, O. G.; Shekhovtsov, V. V.; Vaschenko, S. P.; Kuz'min, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma technology was developed to create protective-decorative coatings on the wood surfaces. Experimental investigation on applying the protective coating using the low-temperature plasma energy as well as studies of the distribution of temperature fields over the section of the treated workpiece have been carried out, and the calculated results have been compared with the experimental data.

  14. Technology Solutions Case Study: Retrofit Measures for Embedded Wood Members in Insulated Mass Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ueno

    2015-10-01

    In this project, the Building Science Corporation team studied a historic brick building in Lawrence, Massachusetts, which is being renovated into 10 condominium units and adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings.

  15. Partial transparency of compressed wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimori, Masatoshi

    2016-05-01

    We have developed novel wood composite with optical transparency at arbitrary region. Pores in wood cells have a great variation in size. These pores expand the light path in the sample, because the refractive indexes differ between constituents of cell and air in lumen. In this study, wood compressed to close to lumen had optical transparency. Because the condition of the compression of wood needs the plastic deformation, wood was impregnated phenolic resin. The optimal condition for high transmission is compression ratio above 0.7.

  16. Measure Guideline: Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-01

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit (DEER) solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits has the potential to adversely affect the durability of the wall; this document includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  17. Measure Guideline. Deep Energy Enclosure Retrofit for Interior Insulation of Masonry Walls

    SciTech Connect

    Musunuru, S.; Pettit, B.

    2015-04-30

    This Measure Guideline describes a deep energy enclosure retrofit solution for insulating mass masonry buildings from the interior. It describes the retrofit assembly, technical details, and installation sequence for retrofitting masonry walls. Interior insulation of masonry retrofits might adversely affect the durability of the wall. This guideline includes a review of decision criteria pertinent to retrofitting masonry walls from the interior and the possible risk of freeze-thaw damage.

  18. EVALUATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF LOW-NOX BURNER SYSTEMS FOR TEOR (THERMALLY ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY) STEAM GENERATORS: FINAL REPORT - FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL PROTOTYPE BURNER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the final phase of a program to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate a low-NOx burner for crude-oil-fired steam generators used for thermally enhanced oil recovery (TEOR). The burner designed and demonstrated under this program was developed from design ...

  19. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection,more » where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.« less

  20. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  1. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    SciTech Connect

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  2. Lump wood combustion process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubesa, Petr; Horák, Jiří; Branc, Michal; Krpec, Kamil; Hopan, František; Koloničný, Jan; Ochodek, Tadeáš; Drastichová, Vendula; Martiník, Lubomír; Malcho, Milan

    2014-08-01

    The article deals with the combustion process for lump wood in low-power fireplaces (units to dozens of kW). Such a combustion process is cyclical in its nature, and what combustion facility users are most interested in is the frequency, at which fuel needs to be stoked to the fireplace. The paper defines the basic terms such as burnout curve and burning rate curve, which are closely related to the stocking frequency. The fuel burning rate is directly dependent on the immediate thermal power of the fireplace. This is also related to the temperature achieved in the fireplace, magnitude of flue gas losses and the ability to generate conditions favouring the full burnout of the fuel's combustible component, which, at once ensures the minimum production of combustible pollutants. Another part of the paper describes experiments conducted in traditional fireplaces with a grate, at which well-dried lump wood was combusted.

  3. Out of the woods.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1992-01-01

    Throughout Africa, Asia and Latin America women are pushed out of forests and from their maintenance by governments and private interests for cash crop development disregarding the role of women in conserving forests. In developing countries forests are a source of wood for fuel; 60-80% of women gather wood for family needs in America. Fruits, vegetables, and nuts gathered in woods enhance their diet. Indonesian women pick bananas, mangos, guavas, and avocados from trees around their homes; in Senegal shea-nut butter is made from a local tree fruit to be sold for cash. Women provide labor also in logging, wood processing, and tree nurseries. They make charcoal and grow seedlings for sale. In India 40% of forest income and 75% of forest products export earnings are derived from nonwood resources. Poor, rural women make items out of bamboo, rattan, and rope to sell: 48% of women in an Egyptian province make a living through such activities. In India 600,000 women harvest tendu leaves for use as wrappings for cigarettes. The expansion of commercial tree plantations replacing once communal natural forests has forced poor households to spend up to 4-% of their income on fuel that they used to find in forests. Tribal women in India know the medicinal uses of 300 forest species, and women in Sierra Leone could name 31 products they obtained or made from trees and bushes, while men named only 8 items. Only 1 forestry project appraised by the World Bank during 1984-97 named women as beneficiaries, and only 1 out of 33 rural development programs funded by the World Bank did. Women provide food, fuel, and water for their families in subsistence economies, they know sustainable methods of forestry, yet they are not included in development programs whose success or failure could hinge on more attention to women's contribution and on more equity. PMID:12285836

  4. Numerical simulation of radiative heat loss in an experimental burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.; Brookshaw, L.

    1993-09-01

    We describe the numerical algorithm used in the COYOTE two-dimensional, transient, Eulerian hydrodynamics program to allow for radiative heat losses in simulations of reactive flows. The model is intended primarily for simulations of industrial burners, but it is not confined to that application. It assumes that the fluid is optically thin and that photons created by the fluid immediately escape to free space or to the surrounding walls, depending upon the application. The use of the model is illustrated by simulations of a laboratory-scale experimental burner. We find that the radiative heat losses reduce the local temperature of the combustion products by a modest amount, typically on the order of 50 K. However, they have a significant impact on NO{sub x} production.

  5. Composite propellant combustion modeling with a porous plate burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, R. N.; Strand, L. D.; Mcnamara, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A burner is designed to model on a large scale (millimeters) the complex vapor phase processes that take place on awkwardly small scales (about a hundred microns) in the combustion of practical AP/ composite propellants at conventional pressures. Binder vapor evolution is modeled with gaseous fuel (ethane in the experiments reported) flow through a porous plate and oxidizer vapor with the flow of a gaseous oxidizer (air and enriched air in the experiments reported) through discrete holes in the porous plate. Measured flame standoff distance and surface temperature variations are consistent with theoretical predictions at atmospheric pressure. Data obtained at several atmospheres are discussed in the light of the current theories of propellant burning that place varying emphasis on the roles of chemical kinetics and fluid dynamic diffusion/mixing in the vapor phase of a burning composite propellant. The potential and proposed future applications of the burner are indicated.

  6. Pressurized cyclonic combustion method and burner for particulate solid fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffert, F.D.; Milligan, J.D.; Morrison, J.A.

    1987-06-09

    This patent describes a method of operating a burner for burning particulate combustible fuel for producing a hot gas under pressure for operating a gas turbine, the burner comprising a housing having side wall means forming a cylindrical shape primary combustion chamber, a secondary chamber, and a choke opening of reduced size between the primary combustion chamber and the secondary chamber, the secondary chamber being in fluid communication with the primary combustion chamber through the choke opening, the end of the primary combustion chamber opposite the choke opening being closed by end wall means, the end of the secondary chamber opposite the choke opening having an outlet opening for the passage of hot gas for use of operating a gas turbine, a particulate fuel opening formed through the side wall means of the primary combustion chamber near the end wall means.

  7. Burner rig corrosion of SiC at 1000 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. S.; Stearns, C. A.; Smialek, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-SiC was examined in both oxidation and hot corrosion with a burner rig at 400 kPa (4 atm) and 1000 C with a flow velocity of 94 m/s. Oxidation tests for times to 46 h produced virtually no attack, whereas tests with 4 ppm Na produced extensive corrosion in 13.5 h. Thick glassy layers composed primarily of sodium silicate formed in the salt corrosion tests. This corrosion attack caused severe pitting on the silicon carbide substrate and led to a 32 percent decrease in strength, compared to the as-received material. Parallel furnace tests of Na2SO4/air-induced attack yielded basically similar results, with slight product composition differences. The differences are explained in terms of the continuous sulfate deposition which occurs in a burner rig.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF NATURAL GAS-SWIRL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2005-03-01

    A numerical simulation of a turbulent natural gas jet diffusion flame at a Reynolds number of 9000 in a swirling air stream is presented. The numerical computations were carried out using the commercially available software package CFDRC. The instantaneous chemistry model was used as the reaction model. The thermal, composition, flow (velocity), as well as stream function fields for both the baseline and air-swirling flames were numerically simulated in the near-burner region, where most of the mixing and reactions occur. The results were useful to interpret the effects of swirl in enhancing the mixing rates in the combustion zone as well as in stabilizing the flame. The results showed the generation of two recirculating regimes induced by the swirling air stream, which account for such effects. The present investigation will be used as a benchmark study of swirl flow combustion analysis as a step in developing an enhanced swirl-cascade burner technology.

  9. Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Retrofit Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, B.; Gestwick, M.; Bianchi, M.; Anderson, R.; Horowitz, S.; Christensen, C.; Judkoff, R.

    2011-04-01

    Businesses, government agencies, consumers, policy makers, and utilities currently have limited access to occupant-, building-, and location-specific recommendations for optimal energy retrofit packages, as defined by estimated costs and energy savings. This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location. Energy savings and incremental costs are calculated relative to a minimum upgrade reference scenario, which accounts for efficiency upgrades that would occur in the absence of a retrofit because of equipment wear-out and replacement with current minimum standards.

  10. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  11. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  12. RETROFIT STORMWATER MANAGEMENT: NAVIGATING MULTIDISCIPLINARY HURDLES AT THE WATERSHED SCALE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater runoff from extensive impervious surfaces in urban and suburban areas has led to human safety risks and stream ecosystem impairment, triggering an interest in watershed-scale retrofit stormwater management. Such stormwater management is of multidisciplinary relevance, ...

  13. DOE Webinar - Residential Geothermal Heat Pump Retrofits (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E. R.

    2010-12-14

    This presentation was given December 14, 2010, as part of DOE's Webinar series. The presentation discusses geothermal heat pump retrofits, technology options, and an overview of geothermal energy and geothermal heat pumps.

  14. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

  15. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow (WWF). Cost/benefit relationships were compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities. Desktop...

  16. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  18. Effect of cycled combustion ageing on a cordierite burner plate

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Eugenio

    2010-11-15

    A combination of {sup 57}Fe-Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray Powder Diffraction analysis has been employed to study modifications in chemical and mechanical stability occurring in a cordierite burner aged under combustion conditions which simulate the working of domestic boilers. Moessbauer study shows that Fe is distributed into the structural sites of the cordierite lattice as Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} ions located mostly at octahedral sites. Ferric oxide impurities, mainly hematite, are also present in the starting cordierite material accounting for {approx_equal}40% of the total iron phases. From Moessbauer and X-ray diffraction data it can be deduced that, under the combustion conditions used, new crystalline phases were formed, some of the substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions existing in the cordierite lattice were reduced to Fe{sup 2+}, and ferric oxides underwent a sintering process which results in hematite with higher particle size. All these findings were detected in the burner zone located in the proximity of the flame and were related to possible chemical reactions which might explain the observed deterioration of the burner material. Research Highlights: {yields}Depth profile analyses used as a probe to understand changes in refractory structure. {yields}All changes take place in the uppermost surface of the burner, close to the flame. {yields}Reduction to Fe{sup 2+} of substitutional Fe{sup 3+} ions and partial cordierite decomposition. {yields}Heating-cooling cycling induces a sintering of the existing iron oxide particles. {yields}Chemical changes can explain the alterations observed in the material microstructure.

  19. Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations

    DOEpatents

    Farmayan, Walter Farman; Giles, Steven Paul; Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip; Munshi, Abdul Wahid; Abbasi, Faraz; Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony; Anderson, Karl Gregory; Tsai, Kuochen; Siddoway, Mark Alan

    2011-05-31

    A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

  20. Basic research on radiant burners. Final report, February 1987-February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; DesJardin, S.T.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1992-04-01

    A computer model was modified and used to predict the operating characteristics of natural gas fired porous surface radiant burners. Performance parameters studied during this contract included radiant flux from the burner surface, burner surface temperature, NOx emissions, and flame attachment and flashback stability limits. Each year, computational work was performed to predict radiant burner performance. Concurrently, experimental work was performed to compare to these computational results. Validation of the code against experimental data allows the code to be used as a design tool in the further development of radiant burner combustion systems. Thermal performance, limits of stable operation, and NOx emissions have been correlated to experimental data in the report. In addition, catalytic radiant burners were fabricated and tested during the first and fourth years of the contract.

  1. LP turbine retrofit modernization: Improvements in performance and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Groenedaal, J.C.; Fowls, L.G.; Subbiah, R.; Maxwell, B.P.; Persson, B.

    1996-11-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation retrofitted six low pressure (LP) nuclear turbine rotors and associated blade path components at Ringhals 1, a 1960`s vintage English Electric (GEC) unit located near Varobacka, Sweden, and operated by Vattenfall AB. This achieved significant performance improvements and provided improved mechanical features over the original equipment. This paper, discusses design, manufacture, installation, operation and project coordination. The retrofit processes employed for these units can be applied to any potential customers units.

  2. Characterization of Noise and Instability in a Commercial Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Stewart; Agrawal, Ajay

    2013-11-01

    A range of combustion applications produce noise as a significant and undesirable output. Concurrently, efforts to reduce emissions through lean premixed combustion have shown this process to be prone to developing instabilities. In this study a commercial-style combustor was investigated to characterize combustion noise and instabilities. Knowledge in this area is intended for future research involving the application of porous inert media (PIM) in industrial burners. Porous media has been used to passively suppress both combustion noise and instabilities in a laboratory setting, but has yet to be implemented in a commercial burner. Combustion experiments were conducted in an industrial-scale lean premixed burner using natural gas while varying equivalence ratio and reactant flow rate. Acoustic data was acquired using a microphone probe placed in the plane of the combustor exit. Measurements were analyzed in the frequency spectrum to quantify noise spectra and detect the development of instabilities. Results have indicated the occurrence of strong combustion instability at certain conditions. Additionally, research has supported the general relationship of increased noise production with increasing equivalence ratio and heat release rate. Adverse effects of combustion instability were accompanied with flashback and downstream acoustic excitation. Funding for this research provided by NSF REU grant 1062611.

  3. A Superfluid Film Burner for the nEDM Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, James; nEDM Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A planned measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment (nEDM) to 10-28 e .cm using the Golub-Lamoreaux method presents complex cryogenic challenges. One such hurdle is the injection of 3He from a polarized atomic beam source into a liquid 4He bath while maintaining the temperature gradient from the cold bath to the warm beam source and minimizing the vapor above the bath. The feasible temperature range for the experiment falls around 400 mK and is constrained from below by the achievable magnetic field gradients, and above by the spin relaxation time of 3He and rate of ultracold neutron up-scattering. The superfluid behavior of 4He below 2.1 K means superfluid film will tend to climb, or ``creep,'' up the sides of the beam tube to reach the warmer space above, creating vapor, resulting in convection and scattering of incident 3He. To stop the superfluid film creep and contain the vapor, a ``film burner'' is under development by the nEDM collaboration. We will describe the effort toward developing a suitable film burner for nEDM, and show preliminary results of a prototype film burner in operation.

  4. The BNL fan-atomized burner system prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a continuing interest in the development of advanced oil burners which can provide new capabilities not currently available with pressure atomized, retention head burners. Specifically program goals include: the ability to operate at firing rates as low as 0.25 gph; the ability to operate with very low excess air levels for high steady state efficiency and to minimize formation of sulfuric acid and iron sulfate fouling; low emissions of smoke, CO, and NO{sub x} even at very low excess air levels; and the potential for modulation - either staged firing or continuous modulation. In addition any such advanced burner must have production costs which would be sufficiently attractive to allow commercialization. The primary motivation for all work sponsored by the US DOE is, of course, improved efficiency. With existing boiler and furnace models this can be achieved through down-firing and low excess air operation. Also, with low excess air operation fouling and efficiency degradation due to iron-sulfate scale formation are reduced.

  5. Preliminary Tests of a Burner for Ram-Jet Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Paul W.

    1947-01-01

    Preliminary tests have been made of a small burner to meet the requirements for application to supersonic ram jets. The principal requirements were taken as: (1) efficient combustion in a high-velocity air stream, (2) utilization for combustion of only a small fraction of the air passing through the unit, (3) low resistance to air flow, (4) simple construction, and (5) light weight. Tests of a small burner were carried to stream velocities of nearly 150 feet per second and fuel rates such that one-eighth to one-fourth of the total air was involved in combustion. Commercial propane was selected as the fuel since its low boiling point facilitated vaporization. Combustion which was 80 percent complete along with low aerodynamic losses was obtained by injecting the fuel evenly, prior to ignition, and allowing it to mix with the air without appreciably disturbing the stream. The pressure drop due to frictional losses around the burner and to the adjacent inside walls of the ram jet is small compared with the pressure drop due to combustion.

  6. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. This report will detail the retrofit of 2 existing houses in the program. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district GSHP system to service the project. This draft report examines the energy efficiency recommendations for retrofit construction at these homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a Cold Climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project's affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  7. The benefits of integrated chiller retrofits: Excerpts from case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gartland, L.; Sartor, D.

    1998-07-01

    An integrated chiller retrofit is an effective way to turn the CFC phaseout into an opportunity for energy efficiency and money savings. The 1996 moratorium on CFC production means many chillers will soon have to be replaced or converted to use alternative refrigerants. Integrating building load reductions and system improvements with chiller replacements and/or conversions can solve building comfort and maintenance problem, increase energy efficiency, save money on utility bills, increase a building's asset value, and produce a more financially attractive project. The poll $ense program at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory has been gathering integrated chiller retrofit case studies from its regional workshops. This paper presents some of the best examples of different aspects of integrated retrofits. Example projects include: (1) a chiller conversion, (2) a chiller replacement, (3) an effective cooling system renovation, (4) a model building load reduction scheme, (5) an illustration of integrated chiller retrofit economics, (6) a chiller sizing cautionary tale, and (7) an environmentally friendly and cost-effective retrofit. These projects enumerate retrofit measures to consider, and show how much more effective it is to widen your focus from the chiller alone to the entire building when facing the CFC phaseout.

  8. Fragility curves of concrete bridges retrofitted by column jacketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Kim, Sang-Hoon; Kushiyama, Shigeru; Yi, Jin-Hak

    2002-12-01

    The Northridge earthquake inflicted various levels of damage upon a large number of Caltrans’ bridges not retrofitted by column jacketing. In this respect, this study represents results of fragility curve development for two (2) sample bridges typical in southern California, strengthened for seismic retrofit by means of steel jacketing of bridge columns. Monte Carlo simulation is performed to study nonlinear dynamic responses of the bridges before and after column retrofit. Fragility curves in this study are represented by lognormal distribution functions with two parameters and developed as a function of PGA. The sixty (60) ground acceleration time histories for the Los Angeles area developed for the Federal Emergency Management Agcncy (FEMA) SAC (SEAOC-ATC-CUREe) steel project are used for the dynamic analysis of the bridges. The improvement in the fragility with steel jacketing is quantified by comparing fragility curves of the bridge before and after column retrofit. In this first attempt to formulate the problem of fragility enhancement, the quantification is made by comparing the median values of the fragility curves before and after the retrofit. Under the hypothesis that this quantification also applies to empirical fragility curves developed on the basis of Northridge earthquake damage, the enhanced version of the empirical curves is developed for the ensuing analysis to determine the enhancement of transportation network performance due to the retrofit.

  9. Innovative Retrofit Insulation Strategies for Concrete Masonry Foundations

    SciTech Connect

    Huelman, P.; Goldberg, L.; Jacobson, R.

    2015-05-06

    This study was designed to test a new approach for foundation insulation retrofits, with the goal of demonstrating improved moisture control, improved occupant comfort, and reduced heat loss. Because conducting experimental research on existing below-grade assemblies is very difficult, most of the results are based on simulations. The retrofit approach consists of filling open concrete block cores with an insulating material and adding R-10 exterior insulation that extends 1 ft below grade. The core fill is designed to improve the R-value of the foundation wall and increase the interior wall surface temperature, but more importantly to block convection currents that could otherwise increase moisture loads on the foundation wall and interior space. The exterior insulation significantly reduces heat loss through the most exposed part of the foundation and further increases the interior wall surface temperature. This improves occupant comfort and decreases the risk of condensation. Such an insulation package avoids the full-depth excavation necessary for exterior insulation retrofits, reduces costs, and eliminates the moisture and indoor air quality risks associated with interior insulation retrofits. Retrofit costs for the proposed approach were estimated at roughly half those of a full-depth exterior insulation retrofit.

  10. Retrofit of a Multifamily Mass Masonry Building in New England

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Kerrigan, P.; Wytrykowska, H.; Van Straaten, R.

    2013-08-01

    Merrimack Valley Habitat for Humanity (MVHfH) has partnered with Building Science Corporation to provide high performance affordable housing for 10 families in the retrofit of an existing brick building (a former convent) into condominiums. The research performed for this project provides information regarding advanced retrofit packages for multi-family masonry buildings in Cold climates. In particular, this project demonstrates safe, durable, and cost-effective solutions that will potentially benefit millions of multi-family brick buildings throughout the East Coast and Midwest (Cold climates). The retrofit packages provide insight on the opportunities for and constraints on retrofitting multifamily buildings with ambitious energy performance goals but a limited budget. The condominium conversion project will contribute to several areas of research on enclosures, space conditioning, and water heating. Enclosure items include insulation of mass masonry building on the interior, airtightness of these types of retrofits, multi-unit building compartmentalization, window selection, and roof insulation strategies. Mechanical system items include combined hydronic and space heating systems with hydronic distribution in small (low load) units, and ventilation system retrofits for multifamily buildings.

  11. Computational investigations of low-emission burner facilities for char gas burning in a power boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Morozov, I. V.; Zaychenko, M. N.; Sidorkin, V. T.

    2016-04-01

    Various variants for the structure of low-emission burner facilities, which are meant for char gas burning in an operating TP-101 boiler of the Estonia power plant, are considered. The planned increase in volumes of shale reprocessing and, correspondingly, a rise in char gas volumes cause the necessity in their cocombustion. In this connection, there was a need to develop a burner facility with a given capacity, which yields effective char gas burning with the fulfillment of reliability and environmental requirements. For this purpose, the burner structure base was based on the staging burning of fuel with the gas recirculation. As a result of the preliminary analysis of possible structure variants, three types of early well-operated burner facilities were chosen: vortex burner with the supply of recirculation gases into the secondary air, vortex burner with the baffle supply of recirculation gases between flows of the primary and secondary air, and burner facility with the vortex pilot burner. Optimum structural characteristics and operation parameters were determined using numerical experiments. These experiments using ANSYS CFX bundled software of computational hydrodynamics were carried out with simulation of mixing, ignition, and burning of char gas. Numerical experiments determined the structural and operation parameters, which gave effective char gas burning and corresponded to required environmental standard on nitrogen oxide emission, for every type of the burner facility. The burner facility for char gas burning with the pilot diffusion burner in the central part was developed and made subject to computation results. Preliminary verification nature tests on the TP-101 boiler showed that the actual content of nitrogen oxides in burner flames of char gas did not exceed a claimed concentration of 150 ppm (200 mg/m3).

  12. Disposal of Liquid Combustible Wastes using Flameless Burners with Porous Carbon Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgov, Sergei; Savchenko, Evgenii; Khaustov, Sergei; Tabakaev, Roman; Zavorin, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Two modifications of flameless burners with a carbon porous media in the combustion area were investigated. Kerosene TS-1 and mixtures of highly flammable liquids wastes (HIL) were used as fuel. Experimental data are presented in a graphical form as plot of the burner thermal capacity. Results show capacity for of the developed devices and prove the prospects of disposal of liquid combustible wastes using flameless burners with porous carbon matrix.

  13. Design and analysis of the federal aviation administration next generation fire test burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Robert Ian

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration makes use of threat-based fire test methods for the certification of aircraft cabin materials to enhance the level of safety in the event of an in-flight or post-crash fire on a transport airplane. The global nature of the aviation industry results in these test methods being performed at hundreds of laboratories around the world; in some cases testing identical materials at multiple labs but yielding different results. Maintenance of this standard for an elevated level of safety requires that the test methods be as well defined as possible, necessitating a comprehensive understanding of critical test method parameters. The tests have evolved from simple Bunsen burner material tests to larger, more complicated apparatuses, requiring greater understanding of the device for proper application. The FAA specifies a modified home heating oil burner to simulate the effects of large, intense fires for testing of aircraft seat cushions, cargo compartment liners, power plant components, and thermal acoustic insulation. Recently, the FAA has developed a Next Generation (NexGen) Fire Test burner to replace the original oil burner that has become commercially unavailable. The NexGen burner design is based on the original oil burner but with more precise control of the air and fuel flow rates with the addition of a sonic nozzle and a pressurized fuel system. Knowledge of the fundamental flow properties created by various burner configurations is desired to develop an updated and standardized burner configuration for use around the world for aircraft materials fire testing and airplane certification. To that end, the NexGen fire test burner was analyzed with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to resolve the non-reacting exit flow field and determine the influence of the configuration of burner components. The correlation between the measured flow fields and the standard burner performance metrics of flame temperature and

  14. Biotechnology in the wood industry.

    PubMed

    Mai, C; Kües, U; Militz, H

    2004-02-01

    Wood is a natural, biodegradable and renewable raw material, used in construction and as a feedstock in the paper and wood product industries and in fuel production. Traditionally, biotechnology found little attention in the wood product industries, apart from in paper manufacture. Now, due to growing environmental concern and increasing scientific knowledge, legal restrictions to conventional processes have altered the situation. Biotechnological approaches in the area of wood protection aim at enhancing the treatability of wood with preservatives and replacing chemicals with biological control agents. The substitution of conventional chemical glues in the manufacturing of board materials is achieved through the application of fungal cultures and isolated fungal enzymes. Moreover, biotechnology plays an important role in the waste remediation of preservative-treated waste wood. PMID:12937955

  15. Premixed burner studies of NO{sub x} formation and control

    SciTech Connect

    Casleton, K.H.; Straub, D.L.; Moran, C.; Stephens, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    One of the primary reasons for using this type of premixed, flat flame burner is that it is essentially one-dimensional (1-D), i.e., that important parameters such as temperature are nearly constant in regions near the central vertical axis of the burner for a fixed height above the burner surface. As a result of this 1-D nature, computer codes such as Sandia National Laboratory`s PREMIX can be used to model the important chemical interactions involved in the combustion processes. These predictions can be compared with experimental measurements to gain valuable insight into the formation of nitrogen oxides. The bulk of the burner experiments performed to date have been focussed primarily toward characterization of burner and the sample extraction and analysis system. All experiments thus far have been for methane/air flames at one atmosphere pressure. Figure 2 shows the burner centerline temperature profile for an equivalence ratio of {Phi} = 0.87. The sharp peak in temperature near 0.3 cm corresponds to the luminous zone of the flame. The high temperature in the luminous zone shows an abrupt decay with increasing height above the burner. The temperature gradient in the non-luminous post-flame zone is much smaller, approximately 2.5{degree}C decrease in temperature for each millimeter increase in height over the range of 1.3 to 4 cm above the burner. Radial temperature profiles have also been measured to assess the onedimensional nature of this burner.

  16. Short Communication: Emission of Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Biomass Pellet Burning in a Modern Burner for Cooking in China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EFoPAHs) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EFoPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EFoPAHs were 348±305 and 396±387 µg/kg in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EFoPAHs were 77.7±49.4 and 189±118 µg/kg, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2–5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EFoPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EFoPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower (p < 0.05), likely due to increased combustion efficiencies and change in fuel properties. However, the difference between raw biomass fuels and the pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents. PMID:25678836

  17. Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from biomass pellet burning in a modern burner for cooking in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guofeng; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Tao, Shu

    2012-12-01

    Biomass pellets are undergoing fast deployment widely in the world, including China. To this stage, there were limited studies on the emissions of various organic pollutants from the burning of those pellets. In addition to parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) have been received increased concerns. In this study, emission factors of oPAHs (EFoPAHs) were measured for two types of pellets made from corn straw and pine wood, respectively. Two combustion modes with (mode II) and without (mode I) secondary side air supply in a modern pellet burner were investigated. For the purpose of comparison, EFoPAHs for raw fuels combusted in a traditional cooking stove were also measured. EFoPAHs were 348 ± 305 and 396 ± 387 μg kg-1 in the combustion mode II for pine wood and corn straw pellets, respectively. In mode I, measured EFoPAHs were 77.7 ± 49.4 and 189 ± 118 μg kg-1, respectively. EFs in mode II were higher (2-5 times) than those in mode I mainly due to the decreased combustion temperature under more excess air. Compared to EFoPAHs for raw corn straw and pine wood burned in a traditional cooking stove, total EFoPAHs for the pellets in mode I were significantly lower (p < 0.05), likely due to increased combustion efficiencies and change in fuel properties. However, the difference between raw biomass fuels and the pellets burned in mode II was not statistically significant. Taking both the increased thermal efficiencies and decreased EFs into consideration, substantial reduction in oPAH emission can be expected if the biomass pellets can be extensively used by rural residents.

  18. Dynamic loss properties of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Caulfield, D.

    1984-11-01

    Internal friction and dielectric loss measurements have been made on whole wood, on cellulose, and on lignin. A prominent ..beta.. peak is seen at 200 K for frequencies around 1 Hz. This peak shifts to lower temperatures (near 160 K) when wood is heated to 475 K. We propose that this shift signifies molecular changes characteristic of the first stages of coalification of wood and lignin. Additional comparisons are made with the macromolecular structure of amber, oil shale, and synthetic polymers.

  19. Dynamic loss properties of wood

    SciTech Connect

    Wert, C.A.; Weller, M.; Caulfield, D.

    1984-11-01

    Internal friction and dielectric loss measurements have been made on wood, on cellulose, and on lignin. A prominent ..beta.. peak is seen at 200 K for frequencies around 1 Hz. This peak shifts to lower temperatures (near 160 K) when wood is heated to 475 K. We propose that this shift signifies molecular changes characteristic of the first stages of coalification of wood and lignin. Additional comparisons are made with the macromolecular structure of amber, oil shale, and synthetic polymers.

  20. Pilot Residential Deep Energy Retrofits and the PNNL Lab Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Parker, Graham B.; Sande, Susan; Blanchard, Jeremy; Stroer, Dennis; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes research investigating the technical and economic feasibility of several pilot deep energy retrofits, or retrofits that save 30% to 50% or more on a whole-house basis while increasing comfort, durability, combustion safety, and indoor air quality. The work is being conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program as part of the Building America Program. As part of the overall program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers are collecting and analyzing a comprehensive dataset that describes pre- and post-retrofit energy consumption, retrofit measure cost, health and comfort impacts, and other pertinent information for each home participating in the study. The research and data collection protocol includes recruitment of candidate residences, a thorough test-in audit, home energy modeling, and generation of retrofit measure recommendations, implementation of the measures, test-out, and continued evaluation. On some homes, more detailed data will be collected to disaggregate energy-consumption information. This multi-year effort began in October 2010. To date, the PNNL team has performed test-in audits on 51 homes in the marine, cold, and hot-humid climate zones, and completed 3 retrofits in Texas, 10 in Florida, and 2 in the Pacific Northwest. Two of the retrofits are anticipated to save 50% or more in energy bills and the others - savings are in the 30% to 40% range. Fourteen other retrofits are under way in the three climate zones. Metering equipment has been installed in seven of these retrofits - three in Texas, three in Florida, and one in the Pacific Northwest. This report is an interim update, providing information on the research protocol and status of the PNNL deep energy retrofit project as of December, 2011. The report also presents key findings and lessons learned, based on the body of work to date. In addition, the report summarizes the status of the PNNL Lab Homes that are new

  1. Semivolatile and volatile organic compound emissions from wood-fired hydronic heaters.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane; Oudejans, Lukas

    2012-07-17

    Emissions including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were sampled from different wood-fired hydronic heater (HH) technologies. Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage conventional combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood types (red oak, white pine, and white ash), one hardwood pellet brand, and one fuel mixture containing 95% red oak and 5% residential refuse by weight. The various HHs and fuel combinations were tested in a realistic homeowner fuel-charging scenario. Differences in emission levels were found between HH technologies and fuel types. PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.004 to 0.098 ng toxic equivalency/MJ(input) and PAHs from 0.49 to 54 mg/MJ(input). The former was increased by the presence of 5% by weight refuse. The white pine fuel had the highest PAH emission factor, while the bottom fed pellet burner had the lowest. The major VOCs emitted were benzene, acetylene, and propylene. The highest emissions of PAHs, VOCs, and PCDDs/PCDFs were observed with the conventional unit, likely due to the rapid changes in combustion conditions effected by the damper opening and closing. PMID:22765760

  2. PORST: a computer code to analyze the performance of retrofitted steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Hwang, I.T.

    1980-09-01

    The computer code PORST was developed to analyze the performance of a retrofitted steam turbine that is converted from a single generating to a cogenerating unit for purposes of district heating. Two retrofit schemes are considered: one converts a condensing turbine to a backpressure unit; the other allows the crossover extraction of steam between turbine cylinders. The code can analyze the performance of a turbine operating at: (1) valve-wide-open condition before retrofit, (2) partial load before retrofit, (3) valve-wide-open after retrofit, and (4) partial load after retrofit.

  3. Wood Substitutes; A Base Syllabus on Wood Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastern Kentucky Univ., Richmond.

    This curriculum guide is for use by college instructors concerned with expanding traditional woodworking programs. It was developed in a National Defense Education Act summer institute and is based on an outline provided by members of a previous institute. The content concerns wood substitutes which are made to resemble wood and are often used…

  4. Salt water cooling tower retrofit experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rittenhouse, R.C.

    1994-06-01

    This article describes the experience of engineers at Atlantic Electric Co. with a recent cooling tower fill retrofit at the company's B.L. England Station, Unit 3. Note that this tower is unique. It is the first natural draft salt water tower to be built in the United States. Unit 3's closed-loop saltwater cooling system features a double condenser and two 50% capacity horizontal circulating water pumps. A natural draft cooling tower rejects heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and sensible heat transfer. The tower is 180 ft in diameter at the base and 208 ft high, and features a counterflow design. It was designed to cool 63,500 gpm of circulating salt water through a range of 26 F with an approach of 19.2 degrees at an ambient wet bulb temperature of 76 F and 60% relative humidity. A drift rate of 0.002% of circulating water flow was specified to avoid excessive salt water carryover.

  5. Retrofitted natural supersymmetry from a U(1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Edward; March-Russell, John

    2013-05-01

    We propose that a single, spontaneously broken, U(1) gauge symmetry may be responsible for suppressing both the first two generation Yukawa couplings, and also, in a correlated manner, parameters in the dynamical supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking sector by the mechanism of retrofitting. In the dynamical SUSY breaking sector, these small parameters are typically required in order to introduce R-symmetry breaking in a controlled manner and obtain phenomenologically viable meta-stable vacua. The heavy U(1) multiplet mediates a dominant contribution to the first two generation MSSM sfermion soft masses, while gauge mediation provides a parametrically suppressed soft term contribution to the stop and most other states, so realising a natural SUSY spectrum in a fashion consistent with SUSY unification. In explicit models the spectra obtained can be such that current LHC limits are evaded, and predictions of flavour changing processes are consistent with observation. We examine both implementations with low scale mediation, and string-motivated examples where the U(1) is anomalous before the inclusion of a generalised Green-Schwarz mechanism.

  6. Greenbuilt Retrofit Test House Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Earle, L.; Booten, C.; Tabares-Velasco, P. C.; Barker, G.; Hancock, C. E.

    2014-06-01

    The Greenbuilt house is a 1980's era house in the Sacramento area that was a prominent part of Sacramento Municipal Utility District's (SMUD) Energy Efficient Remodel Demonstration Program. The house underwent an extensive remodel, aimed at improving overall energy efficiency with a goal of reducing the home's energy use by 50%. NREL researchers performed a number of tests on the major systems touched by the retrofit to ensure they were working as planned. Additionally, SMUD rented the house from Greenbuilt Construction for a year to allow NREL to perform a number of tests on the cooling system and the water heating system. The goal of the space conditioning tests was to find the best ways to cut cooling loads and shift the summer peak. The water heating system, comprised of an add-on heat pump water heater and an integrated collector-storage solar water heater, was operated with a number of different draw profiles to see how varying hot water draw volume and schedule affected the performance of the system as a whole. All the experiments were performed with the house empty, with a simulated occupancy schedule running in the house to mimic the load imposed by real occupants.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW PRESSURE, AIR ATOMIZED OIL BURNER WITH HIGH ATOMIZER AIR FLOW

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technical advances made to the concept of a low pressure, air atomized oil burner for home heating applications. Currently all oil burners on the market are of the pressure atomized, retention head type. These burners have a lower firing rate limit of about 0.5 gallons per hour of oil, due to reliability problems related to small flow passage sizes. High pressure air atomized burners have been shown to be one route to avoid this problem but air compressor cost and reliability have practically eliminated this approach. With the low pressure air atomized burner the air required for atomization can be provided by a fan at 5--8 inches of water pressure. A burner using this concept, termed the Fan-Atomized Burner or FAB has been developed and is currently being commercialized. In the head of the FAB, the combustion air is divided into three parts, much like a conventional retention head burner. This report describes development work on a new concept in which 100% of the air from the fan goes through the atomizer. The primary advantage of this approach is a great simplification of the head design. A nozzle specifically sized for this concept was built and is described in the report. Basic flow pressure tests, cold air velocity profiles, and atomization performance have been measured. A burner head/flame tube has been developed which promotes a torroidal recirculation zone near the nozzle for flame stability. The burner head has been tested in several furnace and boiler applications over the tiring rate range 0.2 to 0.28 gallons per hour. In all cases the burner can operate with very low excess air levels (under 10%) without producing smoke. Flue gas NO{sub x} concentration varied from 42 to 62 ppm at 3% 0{sub 2}. The concept is seen as having significant potential and planned development efforts are discussed.

  8. Pollutant emissions from improved coal- and wood-fuelled cookstoves in rural households.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Xue, Chunyu; Lin, Nan; Huang, Ye; Shen, Huizhong; Wang, Yilong; Li, Tongchao; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shu; Huangfu, Yibo; Zhang, Weihao; Chen, Xiaofu; Liu, Guangqing; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Wong, Ming-Hung; Tao, Shu

    2015-06-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion is a major source of many pollutants, resulting in significant impacts on air quality and human health. Improved stoves, especially some modern gasifier biomass models, are being deployed to alleviate household and ambient air pollution. Pollutant emissions from coal burning in improved metal stoves (n = 11) and wood combustion in modern gasifier stoves (n = 8) were measured in field in Hubei, China. The emissions of CO, TSP, OC, EC, and PAHs from coal burning in the improved iron stoves were generally lower than previously reported results for coal in traditional stoves. For pollutants from wood combustion in the gasifier stoves, the emissions were less than literature-reported values for wood burned in traditional stoves, comparable to those in improved stoves, but appeared to be higher than those for pellets in gasifier stoves in laboratory tests. The limitations of scarce data and large variances result in statistical insignificance. Daily emissions of targeted pollutants per household were found to be higher for wood burners, compared with households relying on coal. The gasifier stove had relatively high thermal efficiencies, but emissions of most air pollutants per delivered energy were not significantly different from those from the coal burning in improved iron stoves. Moreover, higher emissions of OC, EC, and PAHs were observed, indicating that caution and additional testing will be needed while designing future clean cookstove intervention programs. PMID:25938574

  9. Importance of activity data for improving the residential wood combustion emission inventory at regional level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastorello, Cinzia; Caserini, Stefano; Galante, Silvia; Dilara, Panagiota; Galletti, Fabio

    2011-06-01

    The contribution of residential wood combustion (RWC) to emission inventory at local level was estimated using a bottom-up approach for the Lombardy Region of North Italy. A survey, based on the CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing) method, has been undertaken through 18,000 interviews. The interviews had the objective to characterize the RWC use in this region, in term of both total and municipal wood consumption. Details on the type of appliances used in RWC were also gathered. The results of the survey were then statistically analyzed in order to allow an estimate of RWC with high spatial resolution (i.e., at municipal level) in relation to the size and altitude of the territory. The work provides new evidence of the importance of wood combustion as a key source for PM and NMVOC emissions at local level, and thus highlights the importance of technological improvements and new policies aimed at emission reduction in this sector. Considering the great differences in average PM emission factors between low efficiency appliances (fireplaces, old stoves) and high efficiency ones (new stoves, pellet burners), this work emphasizes the importance of obtaining more detailed information on the types of wood appliances used for arriving at a reliable PM emission inventory for RWC.

  10. Holy smoke in medieval funerary rites: chemical fingerprints of frankincense in southern Belgian incense burners.

    PubMed

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12-14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the high

  11. Holy Smoke in Medieval Funerary Rites: Chemical Fingerprints of Frankincense in Southern Belgian Incense Burners

    PubMed Central

    Baeten, Jan; Deforce, Koen; Challe, Sophie; De Vos, Dirk; Degryse, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Frankincense, the oleogum resin from Boswellia sp., has been an early luxury good in both Western and Eastern societies and is particularly used in Christian funerary and liturgical rites. The scant grave goods in late medieval burials comprise laterally perforated pottery vessels which are usually filled with charcoal. They occur in most regions of western Europe and are interpreted as incense burners but have never been investigated with advanced analytical techniques. We herein present chemical and anthracological results on perforated funerary pots from 4 Wallonian sites dating to the 12–14th century AD. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric analysis of lipid extracts of the ancient residues and comparison with extracts from four Boswellia species clearly evidence the presence of degraded frankincense in the former, based on characteristic triterpenoids, viz. boswellic and tirucallic acids, and their myriad dehydrated and oxygenated derivatives. Cembrane-type diterpenoids indicate B. sacra (southern Arabia) and B. serrata (India) as possible botanical origins. Furthermore, traces of juniper and possibly pine tar demonstrate that small amounts of locally available fragrances were mixed with frankincense, most likely to reduce its cost. Additionally, markers of ruminant fats in one sample from a domestic context indicate that this vessel was used for food preparation. Anthracological analysis demonstrates that the charcoal was used as fuel only and that no fragrant wood species were burned. The chars derived from local woody plants and were most likely recovered from domestic fires. Furthermore, vessel recycling is indicated by both contextual and biomarker evidence. The results shed a new light on funerary practices in the Middle Ages and at the same time reveal useful insights into the chemistry of burned frankincense. The discovery of novel biomarkers, namely Δ2-boswellic acids and a series of polyunsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, demonstrates the

  12. Wyandotte Neighborhood Stabilization Program: Retrofit of Two Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Lukachko, A.; Grin, A.; Bergey, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Wyandotte NSP2 project aims to build 20 new houses and retrofit 20 existing houses in Wyandotte, MI. Wyandotte is part of a Michigan State Housing Development Authority-led consortium that is funded by HUD under the NSP2 program. The City of Wyandotte has also been awarded DOE EE&CBG funds that are being used to develop a district ground source heat pump (GSHP) system to service the project. This report details the retrofit of two existing houses in the program, and examines the energy efficiency recommendations for the homes. The report will be of interest to anyone planning an affordable, high performance retrofit of an existing home in a cold climate zone. Information from this report will also be useful to retrofit or weatherization program staff as some of the proposed retrofit solutions will apply to a wide range of projects. Preliminary results from the first complete house suggest that the technology package employed (which includes spray foam insulation and insulating sheathing) does meet the specific whole house water, air, and thermal control requirements, as well as, the project’s affordability goals. Monitoring of the GSHP system has been recommended and analysis of this information is not yet available.

  13. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  14. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, Dennis G.; Walker, Richard J.

    1987-01-01

    A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

  15. DISTRIBUTED MIXING BURNER (DMB) ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR APPLICATION TO INDUSTRIAL AND UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the design of two prototype distributed mixing burners (DMBs) for application to industrial and utility boilers. The DMB is a low-NOx pulverized-coal-fired burner in which: (1) mixing of the coal with combustion air is controlled to minimize NOx emissions, a...

  16. PROTOTYPE EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL SECOND GENERATION LOW-NO BURNER PERFORMANCE AND SULFUR CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of pilot-scale combustion tests of a Riley Stoker second-generation low-NOx burner combined with dry sorbent injection for SO2 control. The burner design is based on the distributed mixing concept. Combustion tests were conducted at 100 million Btu/hr in ...

  17. Plasma-assisted combustion technology for NOx reduction in industrial burners.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae Hoon; Kim, Kwan-Tae; Kang, Hee Seok; Song, Young-Hoon; Park, Jae Eon

    2013-10-01

    Stronger regulations on nitrogen oxide (NOx) production have recently promoted the creation of a diverse array of technologies for NOx reduction, particularly within the combustion process, where reduction is least expensive. In this paper, we discuss a new combustion technology that can reduce NOx emissions within industrial burners to single-digit parts per million levels without employing exhaust gas recirculation or other NOx reduction mechanisms. This new technology uses a simple modification of commercial burners, such that they are able to perform plasma-assisted staged combustion without altering the outer configuration of the commercial reference burner. We embedded the first-stage combustor within the head of the commercial reference burner, where it operated as a reformer that could host a partial oxidation process, producing hydrogen-rich reformate or synthesis gas product. The resulting hydrogen-rich flow then ignited and stabilized the combustion flame apart from the burner rim. Ultimately, the enhanced mixing and removal of hot spots with a widened flame area acted as the main mechanisms of NOx reduction. Because this plasma burner acted as a low NOx burner and was able to reduce NOx by more than half compared to the commercial reference burner, this methodology offers important cost-effective possibilities for NOx reduction in industrial applications. PMID:24032692

  18. Residential oil burners with low input and two-stage firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Leigh, R.; Krajewski, R.; Celebi, Y.; Fisher, L.; Kamath, B.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized retention head burner. At low firing rates, pressure-atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low-pressure air-atomized burner has been developed that can operate at firing rates, as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low firing rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a sidewall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single-purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two-stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space-heating loads.

  19. CFCC radiant burner assessment. Final report, April 1, 1992--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, S.; Sullivan, J.

    1994-11-01

    The objective of this work was to identify methods of improving the performance of gas-fired radiant burners through the use of Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCCs). Methods have been identified to improve the price and performance characteristics of the porous surface burner. Results are described.

  20. Stabilization Mechanisms and Burning Rates of Cylindrical Burner Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, J. A.; Law, C. K.; Zhu, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A study is conducted of the structure and response of curved (but unstretched), cylindrically-symmetric 1D premixed flames from a cylindrical porous burner. The study has employed (1) activation-energy asymptotics with one-step reaction constant and constant properties; (2) a numerical computation which encompassed detailed chemistry and transport behavior, and (3) drop-tower microgravity tests. Attention was given to the relative importance of heat loss vs. flow divergence as the dominant mechanism for flame stabilization; the results show that, with increasing flow discharge rate, the dominant flame stabilization mechanism changes from heat loss to flow divergence.

  1. NOx formation in combustion of gaseous fuel in ejection burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimár, Miroslav; Kulikov, Andrii

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to prepare model for researching of the formation in combustion of gaseous fuels. NOx formation is one of the main ecological problems nowadays as nitrogen oxides is one of main reasons of acid rains. The ANSYS model was designed according to the calculation to provide full combustion and good mixing of the fuel and air. The current model is appropriate to research NOx formation and the influence of the different principles of NOx reduction method. Applying of designed model should spare both time of calculations and research and also money as you do not need to measure the burner characteristics.

  2. Diesel engine dual path exhaust cleaner and burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, T.L.

    1983-02-15

    A dual filter element exhaust cleaner and burner system for diesel engines provides for the trapping of particulates in the engine exhaust gases by their passage through filter elements, as selectively controlled by means of a four-way valve. Collected particulates in a non-active particulate filter element are incinerated by means of a heater, with this filter element, during incineration, being supplied with exhaust gases through a constant flow exhaust gas regulator whereby incineration of the particulates will occur at a controlled rate independent of engine speed.

  3. Development of mesoscale burner arrays for gas turbine reheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sunyoup

    Mesoscale burner arrays allow combustion to be conducted in a distributed fashion at a millimeter (meso) scale. At this scale, diffusive processes are fast, but not yet dominant, such that numerous advantages over conventional gas turbine combustion can be achieved without giving up the possibility to use fluid inertia to advantage. Since the scale of the reaction zone follows from the scale at which the reactants are mixed, very compact flames result. This compact, distributed form of combustion can provide the opportunity of inter-turbine reheat as well as the potential for lean premixed or highly vitiated combustion to suppress NOx emissions. As a proof-of-concept, a 4x4 array with burner elements on 5-mm centers was fabricated in silicon nitride via assembly mold SDM. Each burner element was designed in a single monolithic unit with its own combination of reactant inlets, fuel plenum and injection nozzles, and swirler to induce flame stabilization. Results using methane, including pressure drop, flame stability, temperature distribution in the burnt gas, and NO emissions are reported for both fully premixed (mixing prior to injection) and nonpremixed (mixing in the array) configurations. These results demonstrate the degree to which premixed performance can be achieved with this design and pointed to ways in which the array design could be improved over this first-generation unit. Given what was learned from the 4x4 array, a next-generation 6x6 array was developed. Major design changes include addition of a bluff-body stabilizer to each burner element to improve stability and use of a multilayer architecture to enhance the degree of reactant mixing. Tests using methane in both operating conditions were performed for two stabilization configurations---with and without the bluff bodies. The results for nonpremixed operation show that nearly complete air/fuel mixing was achieved using the 6x6 design, leading to NO emission levels obtainable under fully premixed

  4. Laser speckle technique for burner liner strain measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, K. A.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal and mechanical strains were measured on samples of a common material used in jet engine burner liners, which were heated from room temperature to 870 C and cooled back to 220 C, in a laboratory furnance. The physical geometry of the sample surface was recorded at selected temperatures by a set of 12 single exposure speckle-grams. Sequential pairs of specklegrams were compared in a heterodyne interferometer which give high precision measurement of differential displacements. Good speckle correlation between the first and last specklegrams is noted which allows a check on accumulate errors.

  5. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  6. Safety aspects of Particle Bed Reactor plutonium burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Ludewig, H.; Todosow, M.

    1993-08-01

    An assessment is made of the safety aspects peculiar to using the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) as the burner in a plutonium disposal system. It is found that a combination of the graphitic fuel, high power density possible with the PBR and engineered design features results in an attractive concept. The high power density potentially makes it possible to complete the plutonium burning without requiring reprocessing and remanufacturing fuel. This possibility removes two hazardous steps from a plutonium burning complex. Finally, two backup cooling systems depending on thermo-electric converters and heat pipes act as ultimate heat removal sinks in the event of accident scenarios which result in loss of fuel cooling.

  7. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating...

  8. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are duct burners and waste heat... Stationary Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered...

  9. 40 CFR 63.6092 - Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Are duct burners and waste heat... Combustion Turbines What This Subpart Covers § 63.6092 Are duct burners and waste heat recovery units covered by subpart YYYY? No, duct burners and waste heat recovery units are considered steam generating...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

  13. Development of Small-Scale CHP Plant with a Wood Powder-Fueled Stirling Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Katsura; Ohiwa, Norio; Ishikawa, Akira; Shimojima, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Akio; Moriya, Yoichi

    Small-scale biomass CHP (combined heat and power) plants are in demand for environmental reasons - particularly systems fueled by wood waste, which are simple to operate and require no maintenance while having high thermal efficiency similar to oil-fired units. A 55kWe Stirling engine CHP system, combined with a simplified biomass combustion process that uses pulverized wood powder has been developed to meet these requirements. Wood powder of less than 500 μm was mainly used in these tests, and a combustion chamber length of 3 m was applied. Under these conditions, the air ratio can be reduced to 1.1 without increasing CO emissions by less than 10 ppm, and with combustion efficiency of 99.9%. Under the same conditions, NOx emissions are estimated to be less than 120 ppm (on the basis of 6% O2). Wood powder was confirmed to have excellent properties as a fuel for Stirling engines. The 55 kWe Stirling engine performance test was carried out to optimize the operating condition of wood powder burners. The status of Stirling engine operation at a full load with 55 kWe was stable, and start-up and shut -down operations were easy to perform. Operational status was evaluated as being excellent, except for an ash fouling problem in the Stirling engine heater tubes. Ash fouling characteristics were considered in the final stage of the demonstration test. This paper summarizes the wood powder combustion test and Stirling engine performance test. Furthermore, the ash fouling data is shown and the mechanism of ash fouling in heater tubes is discussed.

  14. Effect of photochemical aging on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Stetzer, O.; Tritscher, T.; Chirico, R.; Heringa, M. F.; Kanji, Z. A.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Lohmann, U.

    2012-06-01

    A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE) was conducted in 2009 and aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro with no emission after-treatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) at three nominal temperatures, -30 °C, -35 °C and -40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at -40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and photochemical aging did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behavior. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added, showed an ice nucleation enhancement after the aging at -35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN) at -40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical aging did also not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at -35 °C with no ice nucleation observed at -30 °C for wood burning particles. Photochemical aging did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below -30 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical aging on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  15. Modular industrial solar retrofit project (MISR)

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to describe a major Department of Energy (DOE) thrust to bring line-focus solar thermal technology to commercial readiness. This effort is referred to as the MISR Project. The project is based upon the premise that thermal energy is the basic solar thermal system output and that low-temperature, fossil fuel applications are technically the first that should be retrofitted. Experience has shown that modularity in system design and construction offers potential for reducing engineering design costs, reduces manufacturing costs, reduces installation time and expense, and improves system operational reliability. The modular design effort will be sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories with industry doing the final designs. The operational credibility of the systems will be established by allowing selected industrial thermal energy users to purchase MISR systems from suppliers and operate them for two years. Industries will be solicited by DOE/Albuquerque Operations Office to conduct these experiments on a cost sharing basis. The MISR system allowed in the experiments will have been previously qualified for the application. The project is divided into three development phases which represent three design and experiment cycles. The first cycle will use commercially available trough-type solar collectors and will incorporate 5 to 10 experiments of up to 5000 m/sup 2/ of collectors each. The project effort began in March 1980, and the first cycle is to be completed in 1985. Subsequent cycles will begin at 3-year intervals. The project is success oriented, and if the first cycle reaches commercial readiness, the project will be terminated. If not, a second, and possibly a third, development cycle will be conducted.

  16. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  17. Development of the Radiation Stabilized Distributed Flux Burner - Phase III Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Sullivan; A. Webb

    1999-12-01

    The development and demonstration of the Radiation Stabilized Burner (RSB) was completed as a project funded by the US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies. The technical goals of the project were to demonstrate burner performance that would meet or exceed emissions targets of 9 ppm NOx, 50 ppm CO, and 9 ppm unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), with all values being corrected to 3 percent stack oxygen, and incorporate the burner design into a new industrial boiler configuration that would achieve ultra-low emissions while maintaining or improving thermal efficiency, operating costs, and maintenance costs relative to current generation 30 ppm low NOx burner installations. Both the ultra-low NOx RSB and the RSB boiler-burner package are now commercially available.

  18. Occurrence of benzo(a)pyrene in combustion effluents of kerosene and diesel burners

    SciTech Connect

    Gharaibeh, S.H.; Abuirjeie, M.A.; Hunaiti, A.A.

    1988-09-01

    Due to limited Jordanian resources, kerosene and diesel burners have been widely used for heating homes and water, warming bread, grilling meat and cooking food. Jordan annually imports and average of 204 tons of burners which corresponds to approximately 20,400 burners. Considerable amounts of combustion products are produced such as gases, aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), especially benzo(a)pyrene (Bp), the well known carcinogen for man and animal. Since most Jordanians use burners more than five months a year, a considerable amount of combustion effluents accumulate indoors. Some of these materials can enter the human body via various routes, and are potential health hazards. Little information is available about the chemical nature and amount of the combustion effluents produced by these burners; therefore the present study was designed to screen for benzo(a)pyrene in the indoor-accumulated combustion effluent.

  19. Laboratory measurements in a turbulent, swirling flow. [measurement of soot inside a flame-tube burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoult, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of soot inside a flame-tube burner using a special water-flushed probe are discussed. The soot is measured at a series of points at each burner, and upon occasion gaseous constitutents NO, CO, hydrocarbons, etc., were also measured. Four geometries of flame-tube burners were studied, as well as a variety of different fuels. The role of upstream geometry on the downstream pollutant formation was studied. It was found that the amount of soot formed in particularly sensitive to how aerodynamically clean the configuration of the burner is upstream of the injector swirl vanes. The effect of pressure on soot formation was also studied. It was found that beyond a certain Reynolds number, the peak amount of soot formed in the burner is constant.

  20. Housing Stock Characterization Study: An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  1. Housing Stock Characterization Study. An Innovative Approach to Measuring Retrofit Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.; Taylor, N.; Kipp, J.

    2012-09-01

    A residential energy efficiency retrofit loan program depends on a self-sustaining finance option and optimized retrofit measures that recoup their unsubsidized costs through energy bill savings alone within the useful life of the retrofit. A first step in evaluating retrofit options is to measure and verify their energy savings. This report evaluates Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) residential energy-efficiency demand side management (DSM) programs to assess their relative energy and economic performance.

  2. Field Assessment of Energy Audit Tools for Retrofit Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.; Bohac, D.; Nelson, C.; Smith, I.

    2013-07-01

    This project focused on the use of home energy ratings as a tool to promote energy retrofits in existing homes. A home energy rating provides a quantitative appraisal of a home’s energy performance, usually compared to a benchmark such as the average energy use of similar homes in the same region. Rating systems based on energy performance models, the focus of this report, can establish a home’s achievable energy efficiency potential and provide a quantitative assessment of energy savings after retrofits are completed, although their accuracy needs to be verified by actual measurement or billing data. Ratings can also show homeowners where they stand compared to their neighbors, thus creating social pressure to conform to or surpass others. This project field-tested three different building performance models of varying complexity, in order to assess their value as rating systems in the context of a residential retrofit program: Home Energy Score, SIMPLE, and REM/Rate.

  3. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Podorson, David; Varshney, Kapil

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  4. Wood-burning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, A.W.; Jolicoeur, G.D.

    1981-05-19

    A wood stove is of all welded steel plate construction except for the door which is of heavy cast iron. When the door is closed, the only source of combustion air is through an adjustable air inlet on the face of the door. The door is hollow and serves to preheat the incoming air. The inner wall of the door divides the incoming air into lower and upper, primary and secondary, respectively, combustion air flows. The stove has an internal upper baffle running from rear to front which helps to promote air flow and combustion efficiency and to knock out entrained matter from the products of combustion. The flue connection is in the rear of the stove above the baffle and is stepped into the back of the stove to allow the stove to be fitted against a wall.

  5. Wood Bond Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    A joint development program between Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection Technologies and The Weyerhaeuser Company resulted in an internal bond analyzer (IBA), a device which combines ultrasonics with acoustic emission testing techniques. It is actually a spinoff from a spinoff, stemming from a NASA Lewis invented acousto-ultrasonic technique that became a system for testing bond strength of composite materials. Hartford's parent company, Acoustic Emission Technology Corporation (AET) refined and commercialized the technology. The IBA builds on the original system and incorporates on-line process control systems. The IBA determines bond strength by measuring changes in pulsar ultrasonic waves injected into a board. Analysis of the wave determines the average internal bond strength for the panel. Results are displayed immediately. Using the system, a mill operator can adjust resin/wood proportion, reduce setup time and waste, produce internal bonds of a consistent quality and automatically mark deficient products.

  6. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for... comments on Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings... property from hazards and their effects. One such activity is the implementation of wind retrofit...

  7. 75 FR 21016 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; The Green Retrofit Program... package with respect to the Green Retrofit Program authorized by the American Recovery and Revitalization... and the Owner. The Green Retrofit Program is detailed in HUD Notice H 09-02 issued on May 13,...

  8. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit test report. Test report, August 6--October 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.A.; Muzio, L.J.; Hunt, T.

    1993-06-01

    The DOE sponsored Integrated Dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} Emissions Control System program, which is a Clean Coal Technology M demonstration, is being conducted by Public Service Company of Colorado. The test site is Arapahoe Generating Station Unit 4, which is a 100 MWe, down-fired utility boiler burning a low-sulfur Western coal. The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70 percent reductions in NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NO{sub x} burners with overfire air; (2) Selective NonCatalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NO{sub x} removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. The effectiveness of the integrated system on a high-sulfur coal will also be investigated. This report documents the third phase of the test program, where the performance of the retrofit low-NO{sub x} combustion system is compared to that of the original combustion system. This third test phase was comprised of an optimization of the operating conditions and settings for the burners and overfire air ports, followed by an investigation of the performance of the low-NO{sub x} combustion system as a function of various operating parameters. These parameters included boiler load, excess air level, overfire air flow rate and number of mills in service. In addition, emissions under normal load following operation were compared to those collected during the optimization and parametric performance tests under baseloaded conditions. The low-NO{sub x} combustion system retrofit resulted in NO{sub x} reductions of 63 to 69 percent, depending on boiler load. The majority of the NO{sub x} reduction was obtained with the low-NO{sub x} burners, as it was shown that the overfire air system provided little additional NO{sub x} reduction for a fixed excess air level. CO emissions and flyash carbon levels did not increase as a result of the retrofit.

  9. Pilot retrofit test of refrigerant R-134a for GDSCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albus, J.; Brown, B.; Dungao, M.; Spencer, G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has issued an interim policy requiring all of its Centers to eliminate consumption (purchase) of stratospheric ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's), by 1995. Also, plans must be outlined for the eventual phase out of their usage. The greatest source of CFC consumption and usage at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex is refrigerant R-12, which is used in many of the facility's air-conditioning systems. A pilot retrofit test shows that retrofitting R-12 air-conditioning systems with hydrofluorocarbon R-13a would be a workable means to comply with the R-12 portion of NASA's policy. Results indicate acceptable cost levels and nearly equivalent system performance.

  10. Retrofitting SBR systems to nutrient removal in sensitive tourist areas.

    PubMed

    Tasli, R; Artan, N; Orhon, D

    2001-01-01

    Retrofitting of existing SBR systems for nutrient removal is evaluated and defined for small communities in sensitive coastal areas, with seasonal fluctuations in wastewater quantity and quality. The proposed approach is developed by means of basic process stoichiometry and verified using ASM2d. The efficiency of retrofitting is found to rely on the delicate balance between the overall sludge age, the initial settled sludge volume in the reactor, and the ratio of the initial volume to the feed volume in each cycle, a parameter corresponding to the recycle ratio in continuous systems. PMID:11496662

  11. Pilot Demonstration of Phased Retrofits in Florida Homes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-08-01

    The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) and Florida Power and Light are pursuing a collaborative energy research/utility partnership to retrofit a large number of homes using a phased approach. The project is creating detailed data on the energy and economic performance of two levels of home retrofit - simple and deep. Acting as a pilot, this project is expected to provide the information necessary to significantly reduce energy use through much larger community-scale projects in collaboration with utilities, program administrators and other market leader stakeholders.

  12. Retrofit and verification test of a 30-cm ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulgeroff, C. R.; Poeschel, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty modifications were found to be necessary and were approved by design review. These design modifications were incorporated in the thruster documents (drawings and procedures) to define the J series thruster. Sixteen of the design revisions were implemented in a 900 series thruster by retrofit modification. A standardized set of test procedures was formulated, and the retrofit J series thruster design was verified by test. Some difficulty was observed with the modification to the ion optics assembly, but the overall effect of the design modification satisfies the design objectives. The thruster was tested over a wide range of operating parameters to demonstrate its capabilities.

  13. Passive-solar retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  14. Passive-solar-retrofit study for the United States Navy

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Miles, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A passive solar retrofit study has been conducted for the United States Navy at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of the study was to determine the energy savings obtainable in concrete block buildings from several passive solar heating strategies. A procedure involving the use of test cell data and computer simulation was employed to assess the merits of six retrofit options. The six strategies selected were chosen on the basis of providing a series of options that will deliver increasing energy savings at the cost of correspondingly increased levels of commitment.

  15. Assessment of cockpit interface concepts for data link retrofit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccauley, Hugh W.; Miles, William L.; Dwyer, John P.; Erickson, Jeffery B.

    1992-01-01

    The problem is examined of retrofitting older generation aircraft with data link capability. The approach taken analyzes requirements for the cockpit interface, based on review of prior research and opinions obtained from subject matter experts. With this background, essential functions and constraints for a retrofit installation are defined. After an assessment of the technology available to meet the functions and constraints, candidate design concepts are developed. The most promising design concept is described in detail. Finally, needs for further research and development are identified.

  16. Fully Premixed Low Emission, High Pressure Multi-Fuel Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A low-emissions high-pressure multi-fuel burner includes a fuel inlet, for receiving a fuel, an oxidizer inlet, for receiving an oxidizer gas, an injector plate, having a plurality of nozzles that are aligned with premix face of the injector plate, the plurality of nozzles in communication with the fuel and oxidizer inlets and each nozzle providing flow for one of the fuel and the oxidizer gas and an impingement-cooled face, parallel to the premix face of the injector plate and forming a micro-premix chamber between the impingement-cooled face and the in injector face. The fuel and the oxidizer gas are mixed in the micro-premix chamber through impingement-enhanced mixing of flows of the fuel and the oxidizer gas. The burner can be used for low-emissions fuel-lean fully-premixed, or fuel-rich fully-premixed hydrogen-air combustion, or for combustion with other gases such as methane or other hydrocarbons, or even liquid fuels.

  17. Visualisation of isothermal large coherent structures in a swirl burner

    SciTech Connect

    Valera-Medina, A.; Syred, N.; Griffiths, A.

    2009-09-15

    Lean premixed combustion using swirl flame stabilisation is widespread amongst gas turbine manufacturers. The use of swirl mixing and flame stabilisation is also prevalent in many other non-premixed systems. Problems that emerge include loss of stabilisation as a function of combustor geometry and thermo-acoustic instabilities. Coherent structures and their relationship with combustion processes have been a concern for decades due to their complex nature. This paper thus adopts an experimental approach to characterise large coherent structures in swirl burners under isothermal conditions so as to reveal the effects of swirl in a number of geometries and cold flow patterns that are relevant in combustion. Aided by techniques such as Hot Wire Anemometry, High Speed Photography and Particle Image Velocimetry, the recognition of several structures was achieved in a 100 kW swirl burner model. Several varied, interacting, structures developed in the field as a consequence of the configurations used. New structures never observed before were identified, the results not only showing the existence of very well defined large structures, but also their dependency on geometrical and flow parameters. The PVC is confirmed to be a semi-helical structure, contrary to previous simulations performed on the system. The appearance of secondary recirculation zones and suppression of the vortical core as a consequence of geometrical constrictions are presented as a mechanism of flow control. The asymmetry of the Central Recirculation Zone in cold flows is observed in all the experiments, with its elongation dependent on Re and swirl number used. (author)

  18. Operational characteristics of a parallel jet MILD combustion burner system

    SciTech Connect

    Szegoe, G.G.; Dally, B.B.; Nathan, G.J.

    2009-02-15

    This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a parallel jet MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion burner system in a laboratory-scale furnace, in which the reactants and exhaust ports are all mounted on the same wall. Thermal field measurements are presented for cases with and without combustion air preheat, in addition to global temperature and emission measurements for a range of equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat and fuel dilution levels. The present furnace/burner configuration proved to operate without the need for external air preheating, and achieved a high degree of temperature uniformity. Based on an analysis of the temperature distribution and emissions, PSR model predictions, and equilibrium calculations, the CO formation was found to be related to the mixing patterns and furnace temperature rather than reaction quenching by the heat exchanger. The critical equivalence ratio, or excess air level, which maintains low CO emissions is reported for different heat exchanger positions, and an optimum operating condition is identified. Results of CO and NO{sub x} emissions, together with visual observations and a simplified two-dimensional analysis of the furnace aerodynamics, demonstrate that fuel jet momentum controls the stability of this multiple jet system. A stability diagram showing the threshold for stable operation is reported, which is not explained by previous stability criteria. (author)

  19. Industrial uses of wood char

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, M.; Gupta, R.C.

    1998-08-01

    The quality and feasibility of wood char utilization in various industries are reported. Wood char provides fuel not only for cooking and domestic heating but also for many industrial purposes, such as manufacture of iron and some ferro-alloys, recovery of gold and other nonferrous metals from their leached solutions, manufacture of chemicals and medicines, burning of bricks and glass, and removal of toxic substances from their solutions. The selection of wood char for these purposes is made on the basis of its properties, such as chemical composition, reactivity, heating value, electrical resistivity, adsorption capacity, and strength.

  20. Evaluation of gas reburning and low NO{sub x} burners on a wall-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    An evaluation of Gas Reburning (GR) and Low NO{sub x}, Burners (LNB) has been completed at Public Service Company of Colorado`s Cherokee Station Unit 3. The goal of the demonstration, which was carried out in a US DOE Clean Coal Technology Round 3 Program, was to reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 70%. The reduction was to be achieved from the pre-project level, prior to LNB retrofit. The GR system was supplied by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) and the LNBs were supplied by the Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation. The project was carried out in three phases in which EER designed the GR system and obtained necessary permits (Phase 1), constructed the system and completed start-up tasks (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both Optimization Tests and a Long-Term Demonstration (Phase 3). As directed by the cooperative agreement, environmental monitoring was conducted in each phase. Measurements were taken by plant personnel and an EER Field Testing Team and were divided into two types. ``Compliance Monitoring`` was conducted by plant personnel to satisfy requirements of regulatory agencies, while ``Supplemental Monitoring`` was conducted by EER personnel to develop a database of environmental impacts of the technology and to ensure environmental acceptability of the project. This document presents environmental monitoring data obtained during the Long-Term Testing period, April 27, 1993 to January 27, 1995. During this period, ten months of testing of the GR-LNB system was followed by a modification into a ``second-generation`` GR-LNB system, which was evaluated for six months. Compliance Monitoring was conducted primarily in two areas, air emissions and aqueous discharges.

  1. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  2. FIRE INSURANCE AND WOOD SCHOOL BUILDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PURCELL, FRANK X.

    A COMPARISON OF FIRE INSURANCE COSTS OF WOOD, MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE STRUCTURES SHOWS FIRE INSURANCE PREMIMUMS ON WOOD STRUCTURES TEND TO BE HIGHER THAN PREMIUMS ON MASONRY, STEEL AND CONCRETE BUILDINGS, HOWEVER, THE INITIAL COST OF THE WOOD BUILDINGS IS LOWER. DATA SHOW THAT THE SAVINGS ACHIEVED IN THE INITIAL COST OF WOOD STRUCTURES OFFSET…

  3. Environmental Assessment for the Commercial Demonstration of the Low NOx Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) Integration System Emission Reduction Technology, Finney County, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    n /a

    2003-03-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Sunflower Electric Power Corporation (Sunflower), to demonstrate the commercial application of Low-NO{sub x} Burner/Separated Over-Fire Air (LNB/SOFA) integration system to achieve NO{sub x} emission reduction to the level of 0.15 to 0.22 pounds per million British thermal units (lb/MM Btu). The proposed project station is Sunflower's 360 MW coal-fired generation station, Holcomb Unit No. 1 (Holcomb Station). The station, fueled by coal from Wyoming's Powder River Basin, is located near Garden City, in Finney County, Kansas. The period of performance is expected to last approximately 2 years. The Holcomb Station, Sunflower LNB/SOFA integrated system would be modified in three distinct phases to demonstrate the synergistic effect of layering NO{sub x} control technologies. Once modified, the station would demonstrate that a unit equipped with an existing low-NO{sub x} burner system can be retrofitted with a new separated over-fire air (SOFA) system, coal flow measurement and control, and enhanced combustion monitoring to achieve about 45 percent reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions. The proposed project would demonstrate a technology alternative to Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. While SCR does generally achieve high reductions in NO{sub x} emissions (from about 0.8 lb/MM to 0.12 lb/MM Btu), it does so at higher capital and operating cost, requires the extensive use of critical construction labor, requires longer periods of unit outage for deployment, and generally requires longer periods of time to complete shakedown and full-scale operation. Cost of the proposed project technology would be on the order of 15-25 percent of that for SCR, with consequential benefits derived from reductions in construction manpower requirements and periods of power outages. This proposed technology demonstration would generally be applicable to boilers using opposed-wall burners

  4. Measured Cooling Performance and Potential for Buried Duct Condensation in a 1991 Central Florida Retrofit Home

    SciTech Connect

    Chasar, Dave; Withers, Charles R.

    2013-02-01

    FSEC conducted energy performance monitoring of two existing residences in Central Florida that were undergoing various retrofits. These homes were occupied by FSEC researchers and were fully instrumented to provide detailed energy, temperature, and humidity measurements. The data provided feedback about the performance of two levels of retrofit in two types of homes in a hot-humid climate. This report covers a moderate-level retrofit and includes two years of pre-retrofit data to characterize the impact of improvements. The other home is a 'deep energy retrofit' (detailed in a separate report) that has performed at near zero energy with a photovoltaic (PV) system and extensive envelope improvements.

  5. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depletingrental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  6. Evaluation of CNT Energy Savers Retrofit Packages Implemented in Multifamily Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Farley, Jenne; Ruch, Russell

    2013-09-01

    This evaluation explored the feasibility of designing prescriptive retrofit measure packages for typical Chicago region multifamily buildings in order to achieve 25%-30% source energy savings through the study of three case studies. There is an urgent need to scale up energy efficiency retrofitting of Chicago's multifamily buildings in order to address rising energy costs and a rapidly depleting rental stock. Aimed at retrofit program administrators and building science professionals, this research project investigates the possibility of using prescriptive retrofit packages as a time- and resource-effective approach to the process of retrofitting multifamily buildings.

  7. Experience gained with development and commissioning of retrofitted process control systems for large power units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idzon, O. M.; Grekhov, L. L.

    2009-01-01

    Experience gained for many years at ZAO Interavtomatika with work on retrofitting control and monitoring systems of large power units is summarized. Principles based on which these systems should be retrofitted are considered together with the factors influencing the choice of retrofitting option, as well as decisions on constructing a process control system during full and partial retrofitting. Recommendations are given for the optimal scope of functions that should be incorporated in the software and hardware tools of a process control system during its retrofitting.

  8. Goddard Summer Interns: Danielle Wood

    NASA Video Gallery

    Profile of Goddard intern Danielle Wood. Danielle is interning at Goddard in the Innovative Partnerships Program and at NASA Headquarters in the Office of the Chief Technologist in the summer of 20...

  9. Effect of rangetop burner design on NO sub 2 emissions. Final report, February 1986-March 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Reuther, J.J.

    1990-02-01

    The report details the methodology and results of a program at Battelle to evaluate the extent to which rangetop burner design and operation influence the emission of trace quantities of nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}). A critical literature review revealed that conclusions drawn from previous research were ambiguous. New experiments here indicated that previous data were conflicting because the apparent amount of NO{sub 2} observed was not only burner design- and operation-specific, but also NO{sub 2}-measurement protocol- and source-specific. Moreover, previously used NO{sub 2} measurement protocols had not been standardized, and previously used NO{sub 2} sources, production rangetop appliances, were not appropriate as research tools. After developing and validating a standardized NO{sub 2} measurement protocol and an appropriate rangetop burner research tool (Uniburner), parametric experiments isolated the individual effects of various burner design and operating parameters. Low NO{sub 2} emissions are favored by the use of cast-iron rather than stamped-aluminum burner caps, lower port loadings at any firing rate, higher primary aeration, and lower peripheral secondary aeration. Thermophysical properties of burner caps (thermal conductivity and thermal mass) appear to control NO{sub 2} emissions more than any other single or combination of burner design or operating parameter(s).

  10. Pyromat CSB{trademark} low emissions burner for boilers, steam generators and process heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Duret, M.J.; Minden, A.C.

    1995-08-01

    Alzeta has developed a low NO{sub x} burner for boiler and process heater applications that achieves very low emissions without complicated emissions controls such as flue gas recirculation or staged fuel and air. The Pyromat CSB burner is a semi-radiant, premixed, natural gas fired burner which uses a patented technique to form radiant and blue-flame zones adjacent to each other on a cylindrical porous metal surface. This new technology offers surface heat release rates that are 10 times greater than traditional surface combusters. Because the flame shape is constant over the entire range of operation, and is sized and shaped to meet the specific requirements of the heater, there is no change for flame impingement or nonuniform heating. In one application, thermally enhanced oil recovery, the Pyromat CSB burner is firing on low-Btu gas containing H{sub 2}S drawn from oil wells. Low NO{sub x} FGR burners cannot serve this application because the combustion products corrode the ducting. In addition, premixed burners can operate on low-Btu gases without supplemental natural gases which saves operating expenses. In another application, process heating of fragile fluids, flame impingement can overheat the heat transfer liquid and cause premature tube failure. The Pyromat CSB burner has a constant flame shape over its entire turndown ratio so there is no chance for flame impingement.

  11. Process and apparatus for igniting a burner in an inert atmosphere

    DOEpatents

    Coolidge, Dennis W.; Rinker, Franklin G.

    1994-01-01

    According to this invention there is provided a process and apparatus for the ignition of a pilot burner in an inert atmosphere without substantially contaminating the inert atmosphere. The process includes the steps of providing a controlled amount of combustion air for a predetermined interval of time to the combustor then substantially simultaneously providing a controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and to a flame generator. The controlled mixture of fuel and air to the flame generator is then periodically energized to produce a secondary flame. With the secondary flame the controlled mixture of fuel and air to the pilot burner and the combustion air is ignited to produce a pilot burner flame. The pilot burner flame is then used to ignited a mixture of main fuel and combustion air to produce a main burner flame. The main burner flame then is used to ignite a mixture of process derived fuel and combustion air to produce products of combustion for use as an inert gas in a heat treatment process.

  12. Air emission regulations for small to moderate sized wood-fired boilers: Final report: Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.J.; Tennis, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    Potential commercial wood burners in the Northeast hold the general perception that air pollution regulations pose special difficulties for them. This notion is based on incomplete information regarding the regulations in place and their applicability to small to moderate sized commercial faciliaties (ie. <100 mmBtu/hr). This study was commission by the Coalition of Northeastern Governors (CONEG) Policy Research Center, Inc., under the Northeast Regional Biomass Program, to provide a review of the air quality regulations effecting commercial wood burning installations, specifically identifying those regulations applying to the small to medium size units. This report provides an organized regulatory comparison to relate the different state emission rates with various levels of control techniques. 3 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Simulation Modeling of an Enhanced Low-Emission Swirl-Cascade Burner

    SciTech Connect

    Ala Qubbaj

    2004-09-01

    ''Cascade-burners'' is a passive technique to control the stoichiometry of the flame through changing the flow dynamics and rates of mixing in the combustion zone with a set of venturis surrounding the flame. Cascade-burners have shown advantages over other techniques; its reliability, flexibility, safety, and cost makes it more attractive and desirable. On the other hand, the application of ''Swirl-burners'' has shown superiority in producing a stable flame under a variety of operating conditions and fuel types. The basic idea is to impart swirl to the air or fuel stream, or both. This not only helps to stabilize the flame but also enhances mixing in the combustion zone. As a result, nonpremixed (diffusion) swirl burners have been increasingly used in industrial combustion systems such as gas turbines, boilers, and furnaces, due to their advantages of safety and stability. Despite the advantages of cascade and swirl burners, both are passive control techniques, which resulted in a moderate pollutant emissions reduction compared to SCR, SNCR and FGR (active) methods. The present investigation will study the prospects of combining both techniques in what to be named as ''an enhanced swirl-cascade burner''. Natural gas jet diffusion flames in baseline, cascade, swirl, and swirl-cascade burners were numerically modeled using CFDRC package. The thermal, composition, and flow (velocity) fields were simulated. The numerical results showed that swirl and cascade burners have a more efficient fuel/air mixing, a shorter flame, and a lower NOx emission levels, compared to the baseline case. The results also revealed that the optimal configurations of the cascaded and swirling flames have not produced an improved performance when combined together in a ''swirl-cascade burner''. The non-linearity and complexity of the system accounts for such a result, and therefore, all possible combinations, i.e. swirl numbers (SN) versus venturi diameter ratios (D/d), need to be considered.

  14. Indoor Environmental Quality Benefits of Apartment Energy Retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, Federico; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Delp, William W.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Russell, Marion; Singer, Brett C.; Spears, Michael; Vermeer, Kimberly; Fisk, William J.

    2013-06-01

    Sixteen apartments serving low-income populations in three buildings were retrofit with the goal of simultaneously reducing energy consumption and improving indoor environmental quality (IEQ). Retrofit measures varied among apartments and included, among others, envelope sealing, installation of continuous mechanical ventilation systems, upgrading bathroom fans and range hoods, attic insulation, replacement of heating and cooling systems, and adding wall-mounted particle air cleaners. IEQ parameters were measured, generally for two one-week periods before and after the retrofits. The measurements indicate an overall improvement in IEQ conditions after the retrofits. Comfort conditions, bathroom humidity, and concentrations of carbon dioxide, acetaldehyde, volatile organic compounds, and particles generally improved. Formaldehyde and nitrogen dioxide levels decreased in the building with the highest concentrations, were unchanged in a second building, and increased in a third building. IEQ parameters other than particles improved more in apartments with continuous mechanical ventilation systems installed. In general, but not consistently, larger percent increases in air exchange rates were associated with larger percent decreases in indoor levels of the pollutants that primarily come from indoor sources.

  15. Retrofit and acceptance test of 30-cm ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Six 30 cm mercury thrusters were modified to the J-series design and evaluated using standardized test procedures. The thruster performance meets the design objectives (lifetime objective requires verification), and documentation (drawings, etc.) for the design is completed and upgraded. The retrofit modifications are described and the test data for the modifications are presented and discussed.

  16. Insulation and coatings bind together for durable retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    Structurally sound but energy-inefficient buildings need not be destroyed and rebuilt at expensive rates. By combining a hard coating and highly nonabsorbent insulation, energy dollars are conserved and new construction becomes unnecessary. Exteerior wall finishing systems, using Styrofoam brand insulation and either of two polymer modified cementitious coatings, are available for both new and retrofit commercial applications.

  17. General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view, looking northeast. Retrofitted into a garage during the twentieth century, this building dates from very early in the Lazaretto's history and is believed to have once functioned as a summer kitchen or bake house. - Lazaretto Quarantine Station, Kitchen/Bake House, Wanamaker Avenue and East Second Street, Essington, Delaware County, PA

  18. Case history: Design, implementation, and results of separator retrofits

    SciTech Connect

    Broussard, G.C.; Meldrum, N. ); Choi, M.S. )

    1994-08-01

    Dubai Petroleum Co. (DPC) performed two in-situ offshore separator retrofit projects during 1989--91. Significant cost savings were achieved over the alternatives of separators replacement, addition, or modification onshore. The retrofits were accomplished without production loss or compromised operating safety. DPC's experience demonstrates that in-situ offshore facility modifications can be done successfully and simultaneously with normal operations. Improved performance after the retrofits strongly supports the need for properly designed internals to realize the full potential of a separators. Although the two retrofits share a common objective, they differ significantly in design, planning, and execution. First, a three-phase separator critical for uninterrupted production was modified during a 6-day scheduled fieldwide shutdown using only cold work. This was followed by the conversion of a two-phase, double-barrel separator to three-phase service without a field shutdown. The work took place during 6 months with the use of hot work. The success of both field modifications was attributed to innovative engineering and careful planning.

  19. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  20. Whole Foods Market Retrofits Multiple Building Systems for Big Savings

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    Whole Foods Market partnered with U.S. the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in existing stores by at least 30% versus pre-retrofit energy use at its store in Edgewater, New Jersey, as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program.

  1. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  2. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, D.

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  3. Expert Meeting Report: Retrofit Implementation - A Neighborhood at a Time

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Dianne

    2012-04-01

    This report provides information about a Building America expert meeting hosted by research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) on October 25, 2011, in New York City. The meeting discussed several community residential retrofit projects underway across the United States, and included representatives from utilities, energy program implementation firms, affordable housing agencies, and the financing industry.

  4. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes' was modeled. The homes were in two communities -- one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  5. Analysis of Pre-Retrofit Building and Utility Data

    SciTech Connect

    Prahl, D.; Beach, R.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS analyzed pre-retrofit daily utility data to sort homes by energy consumption, allowing for better targeting of homes for physical audits. Following ASHRAE Guideline 14 normalization procedures, electricity consumption of 1,166 all electric production-built homes was modeled. The homes were in two communities—one built in the 1970s and the other in the mid-2000s.

  6. An actuarial approach to retrofit savings in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, Krishnappa; Etingov, Pavel V.; Reddy, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    An actuarial method has been developed for determining energy savings from retrofits from energy use data for a number of buildings. This method should be contrasted with the traditional method of using pre- and post-retrofit data on the same building. This method supports the U.S. Department of Energy Building Performance Database of real building performance data and related tools that enable engineering and financial practitioners to evaluate retrofits. The actuarial approach derives, from the database, probability density functions (PDFs) for energy savings from retrofits by creating peer groups for the user’s pre post buildings. From the energy use distribution of the two groups, the savings PDF is derived. This provides the basis for engineering analysis as well as financial risk analysis leading to investment decisions. Several technical issues are addressed: The savings PDF is obtained from the pre- and post-PDF through a convolution. Smoothing using kernel density estimation is applied to make the PDF more realistic. The low data density problem can be mitigated through a neighborhood methodology. Correlations between pre and post buildings are addressed to improve the savings PDF. Sample size effects are addressed through the Kolmogorov--Smirnov tests and quantile-quantile plots.

  7. Design and research of retrofitting PC boiler into CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.P.; Lu, J.D.; Huang, L.; Liu, H.; Lin, Z.; Liu, D.C.

    1997-12-31

    In China, there are a large number of aged pulverized coal (PC) boilers at aging utility power plants. Many of them are beyond their reasonable working life or in a condition of unreliable operation, low combustion efficiency, and serious air pollution. It is very important and urgent to retrofit the aged PC boilers, and repower the aging utility power plants in China. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers have been developed rapidly, and paid great attention to in China. There are many striking advantages to retrofit an aged boiler with a CFB boiler. The retrofitting is suitable to meet the needs of effective utilization of low-grade coal, reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions and repowering an aging power plant. The cost is much lower than that of building a new CFB unit. The National Laboratory of Coal Combustion (NLCC) has always paid great attention to studying and developing CFB combustion technology in connection with Chinese national conditions, and has evolved distinguishing technology features of its own. This paper introduces a new design concept of retrofitting PC boiler into Pi ({Pi}-shaped) CFB boiler with downward exhaust cyclone, and relevant research work and results of design and calculation.

  8. Infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit: a design guide.

    PubMed

    Bagg, W K

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater management is continually evolving with the development and implementation of new, more efficient technologies. One of these is the Membrane Bioreactor (MBR). Although a relatively new technology in Australia, MBR wastewater treatment has been widely used elsewhere for over 20 years, with thousands of MBRs now in operation worldwide. Over the past 5 years, MBR technology has been enthusiastically embraced in Australia as a potential treatment upgrade option, and via retrofit typically offers two major benefits: (1) more capacity using mostly existing facilities, and (2) very high quality treated effluent. However, infrastructure optimisation via MBR retrofit is not a simple or low-cost solution and there are many factors which should be carefully evaluated before deciding on this method of plant upgrade. The paper reviews a range of design parameters which should be carefully evaluated when considering an MBR retrofit solution. Several actual and conceptual case studies are considered to demonstrate both advantages and disadvantages. Whilst optimising existing facilities and production of high quality water for reuse are powerful drivers, it is suggested that MBRs are perhaps not always the most sustainable Whole-of-Life solution for a wastewater treatment plant upgrade, especially by way of a retrofit. PMID:19182344

  9. State-of-the-Art Review of Retrofitted Wall Insulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsongas, George A.

    1985-09-01

    It appeared worthwhile to review the state of the art of retrofitting wall insulation in residences and to summarize its status as an energy conservation measure. The characteristics of the available insulating materials and approaches have been summarized, including their thermal characteristics. The influence of a variety of factors on the thermal performance of wall insulation as well as on the overall building's energy use has been assessed: insulation density, mean temperature, and moisture content; setting and shrinkage; incomplete filling of wall cavities; air convection within the insulation; south wall solar heating; as well as effects of added wall insulation on infiltration heat loss, on use of lowered indoor temperatures, and on decreased overall building energy use due to the reduction of the outdoor balance point temperature (i.e., length of the heating season). Numerous side effects that may result when retrofitting have also been discussed, including moisture damage, fire hazards, corrosion, health hazards, and indoor air pollution. Other concerns have also been addressed, such as quality control and consumer protection, including the need for infrared thermographic inspection programs and a possible derating of the R-value of insulations to account for the substantial influence of typical void areas. The fact that some insulation types seem preferable to others has been noted. The potential market for retrofitting wall insulation has been assessed, and the advisability of utility wall insulation retrofitting programs has been discussed. Finally, recommendations for further study have been presented. 70 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Stream Responses to a Watershed-Scale Stormwater Retrofit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure can reduce stormwater runoff and mitigate many of the problems associated with impervious surfaces; however, the effectiveness of retrofit stormwater management for improving aquatic health is largely untested. In the suburban, 1.8 km2 Shepherd Creek catchmen...

  11. Seismic retrofitting of bridge columns using shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrawes, Bassem; Shin, Moochul

    2008-03-01

    This analytical work focuses on enhancing the ductility capacity and damage mitigation of reinforced concrete bridge columns during earthquakes by using innovative active confinement technique. The high recovery stress associated with the shape recovery of shape memory alloys (SMAs) is exploited to apply the confining pressure. A 2-D analytical model for a single column is developed and analyzed. The model is used to evaluate the seismic behavior of the column retrofitted with SMA rings and compare it with the behavior of the column retrofitted with the more conventional approach using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets. The stress-strain behavior of the concrete confined with internal ties only, internal ties and external SMA rings, and internal ties and external CFRP sheets is described based on two different constitutive models. The column model is subjected to cyclic loading with increasing amplitude and a ground motion excitation. The analysis shows that the SMA rings provide the column with more damage protection represented by a reduction in the maximum strain by up to 273% compared to CFRP sheets. In addition, the column retrofitted with SMA rings shows smaller lateral drifts compared to the column retrofitted with the CFRP sheets when subjected to the same ground motion excitation. The superior performance of the SMA rings is primarily attributed to the increase in the compressive strength at early stages of loading associated with applying the active confinement pressure.

  12. Retrofit conserves energy at a water pollution control facility

    SciTech Connect

    Haimes, A.S.; Dedyo, J.

    1980-01-01

    A major retrofit of process structures and incorporation of additional mechanical equipment was undertaken to replace the existing chemical phosphorus removal process with a biological phosphorus removal process. The new process will reduce energy use up to 81% and lime use up to 86% at the Amherst, New York water pollution control facility.

  13. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  14. Tribology in secondary wood machining

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.L.; Hawthorne, H.M.; Andiappan, J.

    1998-07-01

    Secondary wood manufacturing covers a wide range of products from furniture, cabinets, doors and windows, to musical instruments. Many of these are now mass produced in sophisticated, high speed numerical controlled machines. The performance and the reliability of the tools are key to an efficient and economical manufacturing process as well as to the quality of the finished products. A program concerned with three aspects of tribology of wood machining, namely, tool wear, tool-wood friction characteristics and wood surface quality characterization, was set up in the Integrated Manufacturing Technologies Institute (IMTI) of the National Research Council of Canada. The studies include friction and wear mechanism identification and modeling, wear performance of surface-engineered tool materials, friction-induced vibration and cutting efficiency, and the influence of wear and friction on finished products. This research program underlines the importance of tribology in secondary wood manufacturing and at the same time adds new challenges to tribology research since wood is a complex, heterogeneous, material and its behavior during machining is highly sensitive to the surrounding environments and to the moisture content in the work piece.

  15. Selective and enhanced radiation from porous matrix burners. Annual report, October 1990-September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.M.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1992-03-01

    Rare earth oxide materials previously identified to produce highly selective radiant emissions when used in ceramic mantles have been incorporated into large porous surface radiant burner structures. Results to date have been promising, as spectral selectivity has been demonstrated using ytterbia fibers cast over a porous matrix of more conventional ceramic fibers. Concept feasibility was demonstrated during the first year and improved durability is currently being investigated. High emissivity materials are being added to broad band radiant burners to increase radiant flux and improve thermal efficiency of radiant burners.

  16. Effect of photochemical ageing on the ice nucleation properties of diesel and wood burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C.; Kanji, Z. A.; Stetzer, O.; Tritscher, T.; Chirico, R.; Heringa, M. F.; Weingartner, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-01-01

    A measurement campaign (IMBALANCE) conducted in 2009 was aimed at characterizing the physical and chemical properties of freshly emitted and photochemically aged combustion particles emitted from a log wood burner and diesel vehicles: a EURO3 Opel Astra with a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) but no particle filter and a EURO2 Volkswagen Transporter TDI Syncro without emission aftertreatment. Ice nucleation experiments in the deposition and condensation freezing modes were conducted with the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC) at three nominal temperatures, -30 °C, -35 °C and -40 °C. Freshly emitted diesel particles showed ice formation only at -40 °C in the deposition mode at 137% relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi) and 92% relative humidity with respect to water (RHw), and photochemical ageing did not play a role in modifying their ice nucleation behaviour. Only one diesel experiment where α-pinene was added for the ageing process, showed an ice nucleation enhancement at -35 °C. Wood burning particles also act as ice nuclei (IN) at -40 °C in the deposition mode at the same conditions as for diesel particles and photochemical ageing also did not alter the ice formation properties of the wood burning particles. Unlike diesel particles, wood burning particles form ice via condensation freezing at -35 °C whereas no ice nucleation was observed at -30 °C. Photochemical ageing did not affect the ice nucleation ability of the diesel and wood burning particles at the three different temperatures investigated but a broader range of temperatures below -40 °C need to be investigated in order to draw an overall conclusion on the effect of photochemical ageing on deposition/condensation ice nucleation across the entire temperature range relevant to cold clouds.

  17. Deposition stress effects on thermal barrier coating burner rig life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, J. W.; Levine, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the effect of plasma spray processing parameters on the life of a two layer thermal barrier coating was conducted. The ceramic layer was plasma sprayed at plasma arc currents of 900 and 600 amps onto uncooled tubes, cooled tubes, and solid bars of Waspalloy in a lathe with 1 or 8 passes of the plasma gun. These processing changes affected the residual stress state of the coating. When the specimens were tested in a Mach 0.3 cyclic burner rig at 1130 deg C, a wide range of coating lives resulted. Processing factors which reduced the residual stress state in the coating, such as reduced plasma temperature and increased heat dissipation, significantly increased coating life.

  18. Optimum compositions for thermal insulation of burners and regenerators

    SciTech Connect

    Zasypkin, V.I.; Popov, O.N.

    1988-07-01

    The thermal and mechanical properties of thermal insulation compositions applied by spraying were evaluated to determine the optimum composition for the parameters posed by the burners and regenerators of glass-melting furnaces. The effects of varying spray parameters on these properties were also assessed. Changes were made in the binder density while leaving the amount of filler unaltered. With an increase in binder density there was an increase in the apparent density of the insulation. Kaolin wool with an aluminoborophosphate concentrate binder was tested for thermal conductivity, apparent density, and bending, shear, and compression strength against asbestos with water glass as a binder. For walls of the regenerators and a single-layer heat insulation, insulation made from an asbestos-perlite mixture with water glass was recommended.

  19. Burner rig alkali salt corrosion of several high temperature alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    The hot corrosion of five alloys was studied in cyclic tests in a Mach 0.3 burner rig into whose combustion chamber various aqueous salt solutions were injected. Three nickel-based alloys, a cobalt-base alloy, and an iron-base alloy were studied at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, and 1000 C with various salt concentrations and compositions. The relative resistance of the alloys to hot corrosion attack was found to vary with temperature and both concentration and composition of the injected salt solution. Results indicate that the corrosion of these alloys is a function of both the presence of salt condensed as a liquid on the surface and of the composition of the gas phases present.

  20. Stabilization of premixed flames on rotating Bunsen burners

    SciTech Connect

    Cha, J.M.; Sohrab, S.H.

    1996-09-01

    The effect of rotation on stabilization of methane-air premixed Bunsen flame sis experimentally investigated. Both the flame blowoff and flashback contours are determined in the fuel mole fraction versus Reynolds number plane (X{sub F}-Re) with the rotational Reynolds number Re{sub 4} as a parameter. It is found that rotation of the gas increases the flame stabilization area A{sub s} = A{sub B} {minus} A{sub F} defined as the difference between the flame blowoff A{sub B} and flashback A{sub F} areas in the (X{sub F}-Re) plane. The flame stabilization efficiency is defined as {eta}{sub s} = 1 {minus} A{sub F}/A{sub B} that approaches unity in either A{sub B} {yields} {infinity} or A{sub F} {yields} 0 limit. The experimental results suggest that rotation decreases the flame stabilization efficiency. However, rotation is found to substantially increase the flame stabilization coefficient defined as {beta}{sub s} = A{sub s}/A{sub st}, where A{sub st} is the stabilization area of the standard nonrotating burner. The parameters {eta}{sub s} and {beta}{sub s} may be useful in combustion technology for quantitative evaluation of the stabilization performance of different types of flame holders. In addition, the local hydrodynamics near the center of rotating Bunsen burner is simulated by investigating stabilization of planar laminar premixed flames on rotating porous disks with uniform surface velocity. Physical concepts concerning mechanisms of flame stabilization are discussed in terms of three important parameters namely the translational Reynolds number Re, the rotation Reynolds number Re{sub r}, and the fuel mole fraction X{sub F}. The results of the experimental findings are shown to be in accordance with prior theoretical investigation.

  1. Premixed burner experiments: Geometry, mixing, and flame structure issues

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.K.; Lewis, M.J.; Gupta, M.

    1995-10-01

    This research program is exploring techniques for improved fuel-air mixing, with the aim of achieving combustor operations up to stoichiometric conditions with minimal NO x and maximum efficiency. The experimental studies involve the use of a double-concentric natural gas burner that is operable in either premixed or non-premixed modes, and the system allows systematic variation of equivalence ratio, swirl strength shear length region and flow momentum in each annulus. Flame structures formed with various combinations of swirl strengths, flow throughput and equivalence ratios in premixed mode show the significant impact of swirl flow distribution on flame structure emanating from the mixedness. This impact on flame structure is expected to have a pronounced effect on the heat release rate and the emission of NO{sub x}. Thus, swirler design and configuration remains a key factor in the quest for completely optimized combustion. Parallel numerical studies of the flow and combustion phenomena were carried out, using the RSM and thek-{epsilon} turbulence models. These results have not only indicated the strengths and limitations of CFD in performance and pollutants emission predictions, but have provided guidelines on the size and strength of the recirculation produced and the spatio-temporal structure of the combustion flowfield. The first stage of parametric studies on geometry and operational parameters at Morgan State University have culminated in the completion of a one-dimensional flow code that is integrated with a solid, virtual model of the existing premixed burner. This coupling will provide the unique opportunity to study the impact of geometry on the flowfield and vice-versa, with particular emphasis on concurrent design optimization.

  2. Field Test Evaluation of Conservation Retrofits of Low-Income, Single-Family Buildings: Combined Building Shell and Heating System Retrofit Audit

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, L.N.

    1987-01-01

    Revised DOE regulations allow greater flexibility in conducting DOE-funded low-income weatherization programs. Certain retrofits to heating and cooling systems for these houses are now permitted, as well as the traditional insulation and infiltration control measures. Also, different amounts of money may be spent on different houses, as long as the average expenditure per house does not exceed $1600. The expanded list of retrofit options provides an opportunity for increased energy savings, but it also complicates the process of selecting the combination of retrofits, house-by-house, that will yield maximum savings for the weatherization program. DOE asked ORNL to devise a procedure for selecting an optimum combination of building shell and heating system retrofits for single-family dwellings. To determine the best retrofits for each house that would maximize program savings, ORNL staff members developed an approach that used information from a preretrofit energy audit of candidate houses. Audit results are used to estimate annual energy savings for various retrofits for each house. Life-cycle benefits (B) are calculated, as are the estimated installation costs (C) for given retrofits in given houses. The benefit-to-cost ratios (B/Cs) are then ranked for all possible retrofits to all candidate houses, and the top-ranking B/C retrofits are selected for installation. This process maximizes program savings, and it is adaptable to varied housing types in different climates. The Audit-Directed Retrofit Program (ADRP) was field tested in a low-income housing retrofit program in Wisconsin during the winter of 1985-86. Results of the field test are reported in a companion document. This report describes the ADRP for the benefit of potential users.

  3. Robert Williams Wood: pioneer of invisible light.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shruti; Sharma, Amit

    2016-03-01

    The Wood's lamp aids in the diagnosis of multiple infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic dermatologic conditions. Although the Wood's lamp has many applications, which have improved both the diagnosis and management of disease, the man credited for its invention is relatively unknown in medicine. Robert Williams Wood, a prominent physicist of the early 20th century, is credited for the invention of the Wood's lamp. Wood was the father of infrared and ultraviolet photography and made significant contributions to other areas in optics and spectroscopy. Wood's work encompassed the formative years of American Physics; he published over 200 original papers over his lifetime. A few years after the invention of the Wood's lamp for ultraviolet photography, physicians in Europe adopted the Wood's lamp for dermatologic applications. Wood's lamp remains popular in clinics globally, given its ease of use and ability to improve diagnostic precision. PMID:26752503

  4. Acoustic and adsorption properties of submerged wood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilde, Calvin Patrick

    Wood is a common material for the manufacture of many products. Submerged wood, in particular, is used in niche markets, such as the creation of musical instruments. An initial study performed on submerged wood from Ootsa Lake, British Columbia, provided results that showed that the wood was not suitable for musical instruments. This thesis re-examined the submerged wood samples. After allowing the wood to age unabated in a laboratory setting, the wood was retested under the hypothesis that the physical acoustic characteristics would improve. It was shown, however, that the acoustic properties became less adequate after being left to sit. The adsorption properties of the submerged wood were examined to show that the submerged wood had a larger accessible area of wood than that of control wood samples. This implied a lower amount of crystalline area within the submerged wood. From the combined adsorption and acoustic data for the submerged wood, relationships between the moisture content and speed of sound were created and combined with previous research to create a proposed model to describe how the speed of sound varies with temperature, moisture content and the moisture content corresponding to complete hydration of sorption sites within the wood.

  5. Field test of a low NO{sub x} short flame duct burner

    SciTech Connect

    Bartz, D.F.

    1996-12-31

    With funding from the California Energy Commission and Southern California Gas Company, a new duct burner technology has undergone development and field testing that addresses two critical issues for cogeneration applications: limiting NO{sub x} emissions levels to less than 9 ppmv, corrected to 15% O{sub 2} and minimizing flame length. With commercialization of Dry Low NO{sub x} gas turbine combustors, regulatory pressures will focus on duct burners to maintain cogeneration plant emissions below 9 ppmv corrected to 15% CO{sub 2} without the use of costly selective catalytic reduction. Short burner flame length helps reduce plant footprint and ducting costs, and enables the design of compact segmented heat recovery steam generators. The new burner design utilizes a porous metal fiber material as the flame holder, and full premixing of the fuel gas and oxygen available in the gas turbine exhaust gas.

  6. SITE PROGRAM EVALUATION OF THE SONOTECH PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER TECHNOLOGY - TECHNICAL RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of demonstration tests was performed at the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Incineration Research Facility (IRF) under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. These tests, twelve in all, evaluated a pulse combustion burner technology dev...

  7. Experiments on Stability of Bunsen-Burner Flames for Turbulent Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

    1948-01-01

    The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air-ratio range. (author)

  8. Experiments on stability of Bunsen-burner flames for turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollinger, Lowell M; Williams, David T

    1947-01-01

    The results of a study of the stability of propane-air flames on Bunsen-burner tubes are presented. Fuel-air ratio, tube diameter, and Reynolds number were the primary variables. Regions of stability are outlined in plots of fuel-air ratio as a function of Reynolds number for flames seated on the burner lip and for flames suspended well above the burner. For fully developed flow, turbulent as well as laminar, the velocity gradient at the burner wall is a satisfactory variable for correlating the fuel-air ratio required for blow-off of seated flames for fuel-air ratios of less than 15 percent. For turbulent flames, wall velocity serves as a correlating variable in the same fuel-air ratio range.

  9. Demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, H. P.; Anderson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    A demonstration test of burner liner strain measurements using resistance strain gages as well as a feasibility test of an optical speckle technique for strain measurement are presented. The strain gage results are reported. Ten Kanthal A-1 wire strain gages were used for low cycle fatigue strain measurements to 950 K and .002 apparent strain on a JT12D burner can in a high pressure (10 atmospheres) burner test. The procedure for use of the strain gages involved extensive precalibration and postcalibration to correct for cooling rate dependence, drift, and temperature effects. Results were repeatable within + or - .0002 to .0006 strain, with best results during fast decels from 950 K. The results agreed with analytical prediction based on an axisymmetric burner model, and results indicated a non-uniform circumferential distribution of axial strain, suggesting temperature streaking.

  10. FMC Chemicals: Burner Management System Upgrade Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    FMC Chemicals Corporation increased the efficiency of two large coal-fired boilers at its soda ash mine in Green River, Wyoming, by upgrading the burner management system. The project yields annual energy savings of 250,000 MMBtu.

  11. Continuous Liquid-Sample Introduction for Bunsen Burner Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a laboratory-constructed atomic emission spectrometer with modular instrumentation components and a simple Bunsen burner atomizer with continuous sample introduction. A schematic diagram and sample data are provided. (DDR)

  12. Study of Decision Index for Ignition Timing of Slag Melting Burner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Chikahito; Watanabe, Hiroaki

    In coal gasification plants, coal ash is discharged as molten slag. If the molten slag solidifies and is not discharged, an operator who monitors the plant throughout the day ignites a melting burner and removes the solidified slag. However, the use of this burner decreases the efficiency of the gasifier. Therefore, objective and appropriate automatic decision of ignition timing for the slag melting burner is necessary for economical operation, thereby reducing the operator's work load. In this report, we propose a decision index for ignition timing of the melting burner using monitoring videos. We have evaluated our method using 54 actual monitoring videos, and we have shown the applicability of automatically deciding the ignition timing.

  13. Initial experience in operation of furnace burners with adjustable flame parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Garzanov, A.L.; Dolmatov, V.L.; Saifullin, N.R.

    1995-07-01

    The designs of burners currently used in tube furnaces (CP, FGM, GMG, GIK, GNF, etc.) do not have any provision for adjusting the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, since the gas and air feed systems in these burners do not allow any variation of the parameters of mixture formation, even though this process is critical in determining the length, shape, and luminosity of the flame and also the furnace operating conditions: efficiency, excess air coefficient, flue gas temperature at the bridgewall, and other indexes. In order to provide the controlling the heat-transfer characteristics of the flame, the Elektrogorsk Scientific-Research Center (ENITs), on the assignment of the Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery, developed a burner with diffusion regulation of the flame. The gas nozzle of the burner is made up of two coaxial gas chambers 1 and 2, with independent feed of gas from a common line through two supply lines.

  14. Heat transfer and combustion characteristics of a burner with a rotary regenerative heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect

    Hirose, Yasuo; Kaji, Hitoshi; Arai, Norio

    1998-07-01

    The authors have developed a Rotary Regenerative Combustion (RRX) System, which is coupled with a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger and a combustion burner. This system contributes to saving energy of fuel firing industrial furnaces and decreases NO{sub x} emission. This technology can be considered as a solution of greenhouse problem. This paper, discusses a compact high efficiency regenerative air heat exchanger in comparison with the existing types of regenerative burners and reverse firing with high momentum fuel jet (with motive fluid) in the furnace. This burner is compact in size, with high fuel efficiency, low NOx emission, easy to operate, and reliable, based on the results of field tests and commercial operations. The authors can say that the RRX system is a regenerative burner of the second generation.

  15. Experimental study of the thermal-acoustic efficiency in a long turbulent diffusion-flame burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An acoustic source/propagation model is used to interpret measured noise spectra from a long turbulent burner. The acoustic model is based on the perturbation solution of the equations describing the unsteady one-dimensional flow of an inviscid ideal gas with a distributed heat source. The model assumes that the measured noise spectra are due uniquely to the unsteady component of combustion heat release. The model was applied to a long cylindrical hydrogen burner operating over a range of power levels between 4.5 kW and 22.3 kW. Acoustic impedances at the inlet to the burner and at the exit of the tube downstream of the burner were measured and are used as boundary conditions for the model. These measured impedances are also presented.

  16. Advanced heat-pipe heat exchanger and microprocessor-based modulating burner controls development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstein, A.; Cohen, B.; Feldman, S.; Spatz, M.; Smith, E.

    1986-03-01

    The development of a novel condensing heat exchanger, a modulating gas burner, and a zone-controlled residential warm-air heating system is described. The condensing heat exchanger uses ten thermosyphons which are manifolded at both the condenser and evaporator ends to achieve a compact low-cost design. Initial tests have demonstrated a + 92 percent steady-state efficiency for a conventional clamshell furnace operating with the thermosyphon heat exchanger located outside the furnace cabinet. A 100,000 -Btu/hr modulating burner has also been developed. Comprehensive study of the burner's operating characteristics has produced guidelines for the design and application of the device. Finally, the modulating burner has been incorporated into a zone-controlled heating system. In parallel with the development of the preceding heating system components, the performance of thermosyphons over a wide range of operating conditions is being explored with the objective of improving design procedures for incorporating these devices into heat exchangers.

  17. Characterization of a gas burner to simulate a propellant flame and evaluate aluminum particle combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Matt; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Gill, Walt

    2008-04-15

    This study details the characterization and implementation of a burner designed to simulate solid propellant fires. The burner was designed with the ability to introduce particles (particularly aluminum) into a gas flame. The aluminized flame conditions produced by this burner are characterized based on temperature and heat flux measurements. Using these results, flame conditions are quantified in comparison to other well-characterized reactions including hydrocarbon and propellant fires. The aluminized flame is also used to measure the burning rate of the particles. This work describes the application of this burner for re-creating small-scale propellant flame conditions and as a test platform for experiments that contribute to the development of a particle combustion model, particularly in propellant fires. (author)

  18. Home Energy Article: A Systems Approach to RetrofittingResidential HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

    2005-04-01

    Over the past couple of years, a Best Practices Guideline for Residential HVAC Retrofits has been developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to provide guidance for contractors in performing whole house retrofits. Because of the strongly cost-limited nature of retrofits, combined with the wide range of existing home performance, the DOE guideline has several levels of retrofit packages depending on the level of intervention that a homeowner can afford, or is justified by the condition of the home and its HVAC system. The packages are pre-selected combinations of individual retrofit activities that provide simple whole house guidance for contractors. This guideline has been evaluated by potential users such as contractors and weatherization experts. Part of this evaluation included a field pilot study applying the guidelines to eight test houses. The application of the guidelines to these houses resulted in feedback that helped to update and improve the guidelines. In order to have an independent assessment of the guidelines, two of the houses were evaluated by an independent energy efficiency contractor. One of the test houses was chosen to be retrofitted and had the Best Practices Guideline diagnostic screening tests repeated after the retrofit to compare pre- and post-retrofit performance, as well as being the subject of extensive monitoring to determine the change in house performance due to the retrofit. More details of these test results and the application and development of the Retrofit Guide can be found in Walker [2003].

  19. Numerical simulation of turbulent mixing and combustion near the inlet of a burner

    SciTech Connect

    Cloutman, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    The COYOTE computer program was used to simulate the flow field and turbulent mixing near the fuel and air inlets in a simplified burner that was proposed for experimental study at the Combustion Laboratory at the University of California at Irvine. Four cases are presented, with and without chemical reactions, with two different outflow boundary conditions, and with two different swirl numbers. These preliminary results demonstrate the ability of COYOTE to simulate burners, and they illustrate some limitations and requirements of such modeling.

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-65 - Burner fuel-oil service systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 104.1.2 of ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2), the thickness must be greater... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Burner fuel-oil service systems. 56.50-65 Section 56.50... SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-65 Burner...