Science.gov

Sample records for retrospective environmental assessment

  1. Retrospective examination of geothermal environmental assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, J.W.; Eddlemon, G.K.; Reed, A.W.

    1984-03-01

    Since 1976, the Department of Energy (DOE) has supported a variety of programs and projects dealing with the exploration, development, and utilization of geothermal energy. This report presents an overview of the environmental impacts associated with these efforts. Impacts that were predicted in the environmental analyses prepared for the programs and projects are reviewed and summarized, along with measures that were recommended to mitigate these impacts. Also, for those projects that have gone forward, actual impacts and implemented mitigation measures are reported, based on telephone interviews with DOE and project personnel. An accident involving spills of geothermal fluids was the major environmental concern associated with geothermal development. Other important considerations included noise from drilling and production, emissions of H/sub 2/S and cooling tower drift, disposal of solid waste (e.g., from H/sub 2/S control), and the cumulative effects of geothermal development on land use and ecosystems. Mitigation measures were frequently recommended and implemented in conjunction with noise reduction; drift elimination; reduction of fugitive dust, erosion, and sedimentation; blowout prevention; and retention of wastes and spills. Monitoring to resolve uncertainties was often implemented to detect induced seismicity and subsidence, noise, drift deposition, concentrations of air and water pollutants, and effects on groundwater. The document contains an appendix, based on these findings, which outlines major environmental concerns, mitigation measures, and monitoring requirements associated with geothermal energy. Sources of information on various potential impacts are also listed.

  2. A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Day, Robin; Strickland, M. Dale

    2012-11-01

    Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post

  3. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, A.E.; Torma-Krajewski, J.; Viet, S.M.

    1997-05-01

    Since the 1960`s, beryllium machining was performed to make nuclear weapon components at the Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker`s breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples were also collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/low volume local exhaust ventilation (HV/LV LEV) system. The purpose of this study was to determine how the two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in the beryllium shop.

  4. Retrospective beryllium exposure assessment at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

    PubMed

    Barnard, A E; Torma-Krajewski, J; Viet, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how two types of sampling data could be used for an exposure assessment in a beryllium shop at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant. Beryllium exposure was assessed via fixed airhead (FAH) sampling, in which the filter cassette was affixed to the machine, generally within a few feet of the worker's breathing zone. Approximately 500,000 FAH samples were collected for beryllium over three decades at the site. From 1984 to 1987, personal breathing zone (PBZ) samples also were collected as part of the evaluation of a new high velocity/lcw volume local exhaust ventilation system in the beryllium shop. FAH data indicated that four statistically different exposure periods existed from 1970 to 1988, as the FAH annual arithmetic means varied with changes in the local exhaust ventilation system and production levels. A matched comparison between the FAH and PBZ sample data found no direct linear correlation (R2 = 0.014); however, the mean PBZ results were higher than the mean FAH results (p = 0.0001). The mean PBZ level was 1.04 micrograms/m3 while the FAH average was 0.16 microgram/m3 (permissible exposure limit for beryllium: 2 micrograms/m3). A health surveillance program to identify cases of chronic beryllium disease (CBD) and beryllium sensitization has been implemented at Rocky Flats. To date, 53 cases of CBD and 86 cases of sensitivity to beryllium have been diagnosed. Continuing studies are evaluating semiquantitative dose response relationships for CBD using the exposure data discussed herein. PMID:8865588

  5. Technology readiness assessments: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-11-01

    The development of new system capabilities typically depends upon the prior success of advanced technology research and development efforts. These systems developments inevitably face the three major challenges of any project: performance, schedule and budget. Done well, advanced technology programs can substantially reduce the uncertainty in all three of these dimensions of project management. Done poorly, or not at all, and new system developments suffer from cost overruns, schedule delays and the steady erosion of initial performance objectives. It is often critical for senior management to be able to determine which of these two paths is more likely—and to respond accordingly. The challenge for system and technology managers is to be able to make clear, well-documented assessments of technology readiness and risks, and to do so at key points in the life cycle of the program. In the mid 1970s, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) introduced the concept of "technology readiness levels" (TRLs) as a discipline-independent, programmatic figure of merit (FOM) to allow more effective assessment of, and communication regarding the maturity of new technologies. In 1995, the TRL scale was further strengthened by the articulation of the first definitions of each level, along with examples (J. Mankins, Technology readiness levels, A White Paper, NASA, Washington, DC, 1995. [1]). Since then, TRLs have been embraced by the U.S. Congress' General Accountability Office (GAO), adopted by the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), and are being considered for use by numerous other organizations. Overall, the TRLs have proved to be highly effective in communicating the status of new technologies among sometimes diverse organizations. This paper will review the concept of "technology readiness assessments", and provide a retrospective on the history of "TRLs" during the past 30 years. The paper will conclude with observations concerning prospective future

  6. A retrospective assessment of National Centers for Environmental Prediction climate model-based ensemble hydrologic forecasting in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Andrew W.; Kumar, Arun; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2005-02-01

    We assess the potential forecast skill of a climate model-based approach for seasonal ensemble hydrologic and streamflow forecasting for the western United States. By using climate model ensemble forecasts and ensembles formed via the resampling of observations, we distinguish hydrologic forecast skill resulting from the predictable evolution of initial hydrologic conditions from that derived from the climate model forecasts. Monthly climate model ensembles of precipitation and temperature produced by the National Centers for Environmental prediction global spectral model (GSM) are downscaled for use as forcings of the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. VIC then simulates ensembles of streamflow and spatially distributed hydrologic variables such as snowpack, soil moisture, and runoff. The regional averages of the ensemble forcings and derived hydrologic variables were evaluated over five regions: the Pacific Northwest, California, the Great Basin, the Colorado River basin, and the upper Rio Grande River basin. The skill assessment focuses on a retrospective 21-year period (1979-1999) during which GSM retrospective forecast ensembles (termed hindcasts), created using similar procedures to GSM real-time forecasts, are available. The observational verification data set for the hindcasts was a retrospective hydroclimatology at 1/8°-1/4° consisting of gridded observations of temperature and precipitation and gridded hydrologic simulation results (for hydrologic variables and streamflow) based on the observed meteorological inputs. The GSM hindcast skill was assessed relative to that of a naive ensemble climatology forecast and to that of ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) hindcasts, a forecast baseline sharing the same initial condition information as the GSM-based hindcasts. We found that the unconditional (all years) GSM hindcasts for regionally averaged variables provided practically no skill improvement over the ESP hindcasts and did not

  7. Retrospective exposure assessment using Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, G

    2001-11-01

    This paper presents the application of a Bayesian framework for retrospective exposure assessment of workers in a nickel smelter. Using only sparsely available historical measurements will result in exposure estimates with large uncertainties. However, additional information, in the form of expert judgments informed by knowledge of historical plant conditions, can be brought to bear on this process. The experts are provided with an information packet that contains historical process information, process throughput levels for each year, the dimensions of the workplace, ventilation records, and task descriptions for each job category. Based on this information, the experts provide subjective prior probability distributions for input parameters to a general ventilation model that predicts building concentrations. These priors can be synthesized with the historical measurements using Bayes theorem. The prior distributions of exposures are updated using the average measured exposures (historical measurements) and their associated variances to obtain the posterior probability distributions for building concentrations as well as concentrations at specific locations in the building. Expert input was also obtained from a plant industrial hygienist, in the form of probability distributions, regarding the amounts of time spent by each job category in different locations in the building. Monte Carlo sampling, from the posterior probability distributions of concentrations in different micro-environments and the probability distributions of time spent by each job category in those micro-environments, was used to obtain worker exposures using a time-weighted averaging model. PMID:11718661

  8. Earthwatch global environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, C.E.; Brown, D.W.

    1981-05-01

    Progress in the U.N. Env. Program Earthwatch is reviewed. Earthwatch was established in 1974 to monitor and assess various environmental problems, including desertification, tropical deforestation, acid rain, carbon dioxide buildup, chemical contamination, and radioactive waste disposal. Global environmental assessment and informantion exchange projects are discussed. A framework is proposed calling for threshold criteria, statements of current conditions, predictions of trends to be observed, and alerts to warn of approaching environmental threats. (1 diagram, 10 references)

  9. Assessing Pragmatics: DCTS and Retrospective Verbal Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltrán-Palanques, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Assessing pragmatic knowledge in the instructed setting is seen as a complex but necessary task, which requires the design of appropriate research methodologies to examine pragmatic performance. This study discusses the use of two different research methodologies, namely those of Discourse Completion Tests/Tasks (DCTs) and verbal reports. Research…

  10. Environmental assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentino, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The assessment program has as its objectives: to identify the environmental issues associated with the SPS Reference System; to prepare a preliminary assessment based on existing data; to suggest mitigating strategies and provide environmental data and guidance to other components of the program as required; and to plan long-range research to reduce the uncertainty in the preliminary assessment. The key environmental issues associated with the satellite power system are discussed and include human health and safety, ecosystems, climate, and interaction with electromagnetic systems.

  11. Field experience with volume traps for assessing retrospective radon exposures.

    PubMed

    Paridaens, J; Vanmarcke, H; Zunic, Z S; McLaughlin, J P

    2001-05-14

    Approximately 200 volume traps were retrieved from dwellings in various radon prone areas in Europe. They were analysed for the purpose of retrospective radon assessment. Emphasis is put on specific problems encountered when using field samples as opposed to laboratory exposed samples. It was seen that in very dusty circumstances, direct penetration of radon decay products from the outside to the centre of the volume traps calls for extra caution. Rinsing the samples is proposed as a solution and was tested in field and laboratory conditions, showing good results. An attempt was made to give an assessment of the achievable accuracy of the method. Where possible, the volume trap retrospective results were compared with contemporary measurements or to retrospective results from surface traps. The overall impression is that although volume traps are sometimes hard to find in the field, the high reliability of the results makes it well worth the effort. PMID:11379924

  12. DOE environmental assessment report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment on the proposed downhole steam generator field test in Kern County, California. Based on these findings DOE has determined that the proposed action does not

  13. Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.

    2001-07-09

    From mid-April through the end of June 2001, a Facility Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (FEVA) was performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The primary goal of this FEVA was to establish an environmental vulnerability baseline at ORNL that could be used to support the Laboratory planning process and place environmental vulnerabilities in perspective. The information developed during the FEVA was intended to provide the basis for management to initiate immediate, near-term, and long-term actions to respond to the identified vulnerabilities. It was expected that further evaluation of the vulnerabilities identified during the FEVA could be carried out to support a more quantitative characterization of the sources, evaluation of contaminant pathways, and definition of risks. The FEVA was modeled after the Battelle-supported response to the problems identified at the High Flux Beam Reactor at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This FEVA report satisfies Corrective Action 3A1 contained in the Corrective Action Plan in Response to Independent Review of the High Flux Isotope Reactor Tritium Leak at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, submitted to the Department of Energy (DOE) ORNL Site Office Manager on April 16, 2001. This assessment successfully achieved its primary goal as defined by Laboratory management. The assessment team was able to develop information about sources and pathway analyses although the following factors impacted the team's ability to provide additional quantitative information: the complexity and scope of the facilities, infrastructure, and programs; the significantly degraded physical condition of the facilities and infrastructure; the large number of known environmental vulnerabilities; the scope of legacy contamination issues [not currently addressed in the Environmental Management (EM) Program]; the lack of facility process and environmental pathway analysis performed by the accountable line management or facility owner; and poor

  14. Environmental Impact Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrilli, Joseph; Block, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    Increasing concern with pollution and the energy crisis surfaced the need for environmental impact assessment. Certain requirements for such statements have been identified by different Canadian groups. Among them are the need for total citizen involvement and the utilization of these statements, once completed. (MA)

  15. Effective Campus Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Ann; Creighton, Sarah Hammond

    2003-01-01

    Examines environmental assessments as a decision-making tool, distinguishing broad-based, targeted, and goal-oriented efforts as the three types most commonly practiced on campuses. Discusses benefits and problems associated with these approaches and concludes that the goal-oriented approach is most likely to be successful. Describes Tufts…

  16. Environmental risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonell, M.M.

    1997-10-01

    This paper presents a current overview of the basic elements of environmental risk assessment within the basic four-step process of hazard identification, exposure assessment, toxicity assessment, and risk characterization. These general steps have been applied to assess both human and ecological risks from environmental exposures. Approaches used to identify hazards and exposures are being refined, including the use of optimized field sampling and more representative, rather than conservative,upper-bound estimates. In addition, toxicity data are being reviewed more rigorously as US and European harmonization initiatives gain strength, and the classification of chemicals has become more qualitative to more flexibly accommodate new dose-response information as it is developed. Finally, more emphasis is being placed on noncancer end points, and human and ecological risks are being weighed against each other more explicitly at the risk characterization phase. Recent advances in risk-based decision making reflect the increased transparency of the overall process, with more explicit incorporation of multiple trade-offs. The end result is a more comprehensive life-cycle evaluation of the risks associated with environmental exposures at contaminated sites.

  17. SOUTHERN REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL STATUS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall purpose of this study is to identify and assess future environmental trends in the region and to evaluate alternative strategies for environmental protection. The Environmental Status Report is part of Phase I of the study (begun in October 1980) and is intended to su...

  18. Process Measurements for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Stuart

    1980-01-01

    This article presents discussions dealing with the latest analytical and bioassay methods for environmental assessment. Presented is a phased approach for the integration of methods in environmental assessment. (RE)

  19. Environmental Impact Assessment: A Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lloyd V.

    Prepared by a firm of consulting engineers, this booklet outlines the procedural "whys and hows" of assessing environmental impact, particularly for the construction industry. Section I explores the need for environmental assessment and evaluation to determine environmental impact. It utilizes a review of the National Environmental Policy Act and…

  20. Exposure assessment in industry specific retrospective occupational epidemiology studies.

    PubMed Central

    Seixas, N S; Checkoway, H

    1995-01-01

    Quantitative estimation of exposure for occupational epidemiology studies has received increasing attention in recent years and, as a result, a body of methodological literature has begun to take form. This paper reviews the generic issues in the methodology of exposure assessment, particularly methods for quantitative retrospective assessment studies. A simple framework, termed an exposure data matrix (EDM), for defining and analysing exposure data is proposed and discussed in terms of the definition of matrix dimensions and scales. Several methods for estimation, interpolation, and extrapolation, ranging from subjective ratings to quantitative statistical modelling are presented and discussed. The various approaches to exposure assessment based on the EDM concept are illustrated with studies of lung disease among coal miners and other dust and chemically induced chronic occupational diseases. The advantages of validated statistical models are emphasised. The importance of analysis and control of errors in exposure assessments, and integration of the exposure assessment and exposure-response processes, especially for emerging occupational health issues, is emphasised. PMID:7489051

  1. Environmental Tools and Radiological Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation details two tools (SADA and FRAMES) available for use in environmental assessments of chemicals that can also be used for radiological assessments of the environment. Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is a Windows freeware program that incorporate...

  2. Assessing Environmental Stewardship Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramston, Paul; Pretty, Grace; Zammit, Charlie

    2011-01-01

    Environmental stewardship networks flourish across Australia. Although the environment benefits, this article looks to identify what volunteers draw from their stewardship. The authors adapted 16 questions that purportedly tap environmental stewardship motivation and administered them to a convenience sample of 318 university students and then to…

  3. Retrospective exposure assessment to airborne asbestos among power industry workers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A method of individually assessing former exposure to asbestos fibres is a precondition of risk-differentiated health surveillance. The main aims of our study were to assess former levels of airborne asbestos exposure in the power industry in Germany and to propose a basic strategy for health surveillance and the early detection of asbestos related diseases. Methods Between March 2002 and the end of 2006, we conducted a retrospective questionnaire based survey of occupational tasks and exposures with airborne asbestos fibres in a cohort of 8632 formerly asbestos exposed power industry workers. The data on exposure and occupation were entered into a specially designed computer programme, based on ambient monitoring of airborne asbestos fibre concentrations. The cumulative asbestos exposure was expressed as the product of the eight-hour time weighted average and the total duration of exposure in fibre years (fibres/cubic centimetre-years). Results Data of 7775 (90% of the total) participants working in installations for power generation, power distribution or gas supply could be evaluated. The power generation group (n = 5284) had a mean age of 56 years, were exposed for 20 years and had an average cumulative asbestos exposure of 42 fibre years. The occupational group of "metalworkers" (n = 1600) had the highest mean value of 79 fibre years. The corresponding results for the power distribution group (n = 2491) were a mean age of 45 years, a mean exposure duration of 12 years and an average cumulative asbestos exposure of only 2.5 fibre years. The gas supply workers (n = 512) had a mean age of 54 years and a mean duration of exposure of 15 years. Conclusions While the surveyed cohort as a whole was heavily exposed to asbestos dust, the power distribution group had a mean cumulative exposure of only 6% of that found in the power generation group. Based on the presented data, risk-differentiated disease surveillance focusing on metalworkers and electricians

  4. A comparison of prospective and retrospective assessment of functional outcome after rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Robert Z; Bradley, Michael P; Tocci, Stephen; Henn, Ralph F; Rey, Jesus; Green, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Prospective outcome studies are generally considered to be better than retrospective studies. The purpose of this study was to assess correlations between prospective and retrospective outcome assessment after rotator cuff repair. One-hundred and twelve patients (118 shoulders) with chronic rotator cuff tears were evaluated at a mean of 54 months (34-85) after rotator cuff repair, using several outcome measures including a retrospective assessment of improvement. The retrospective assessment of post-operative pain, function, and quality of life had fair correlations with the prospectively determined improvement (R = .23-.25, P < .01). Post-operative patient satisfaction was more highly correlated with all retrospective evaluations than with the prospective improvement in all functional outcome measures. Retrospective and prospective evaluations of the outcome of rotator cuff repair are different. Patient satisfaction has a greater correlation with retrospective outcomes. Retrospective evaluation may aid in supplementing prospective evaluations, as it may better reflect a patient's perception of the success after surgery. PMID:18693118

  5. Proposal to the National Science Foundation for a retrospective technology assessment of submarine telegraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.; Finn, B. S.

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual and methodological importance of doing retrospective technology assessments is summarized. The rationale for the study of submarine telegraphy is briefly summarized along with the study plan, the management plan, and dissemination and utilization of the results.

  6. Environmental Assessment Technical Assistance Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Environmental Assessment Technical Handbook has four types of Technical Assistance Documents (Sections 2.00-5.00) to assist persons preparing environmental information under 21 CFR Part 25, FDA's policies and procedures for implementing the National Environmental Policy Act. Section 2.00 describes how to assemble environmental information, determine if additional testing is needed, and prepare environmental documents to support petitions and applications for proposed actions. Section 3.00 describes methods used to predict the environmental fate of chemicals: water solubility; n-octanol/water partition coefficient vapor pressure; dissociation constant; ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum; melting temperature; density and relative density; sorption/desorption; hydrolysis; photodegradation; and biodegradation. Section 4.00 describes methods used to predict the environmental effects of chemicals: algal growth; microbial growth inhibition; seed germination and root elongation; seedling growth; acute toxicity to Daphnia, Hyalella azteca, and freshwater fish; earthworm subacute toxicity; and Daphnia chronic toxicity. Section 5.00 describes procedures used to analyze effects test data. The FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition and the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine prepared the Handbook and will issue revisions or supplements as necessary to reflect comments received and advances in environmental assessment procedures and test methodology.

  7. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section 775.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary...

  8. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section 775.10 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary...

  9. Validation of the CDA CAMBRA caries risk assessment--a six-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2011-10-01

    The present manuscript presents the results of a six-year retrospective study validating caries risk assessment in a caries management by risk assessment program in a large predominantly adult patient population seeking dental care. CRA was successful in accurately identifying patients at high caries risk. Caries risk assessment in a CAMBRA program is a good clinical tool for everyday dental practice. PMID:22132582

  10. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions, other than those for a standard design certification under 10 CFR part 52 or a manufacturing license... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30...

  11. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions, other than those for a standard design certification under 10 CFR part 52 or a manufacturing license... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30...

  12. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section 775.10... PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary of... permits necessary to complete the proposed action. (b) Those preparing an environmental assessment...

  13. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary of... permits necessary to complete the proposed action. (b) Those preparing an environmental assessment must... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section...

  14. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30 Energy...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions, other than those for a standard design certification under 10 CFR part 52 or a manufacturing...

  15. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 51.30 Section 51.30 Energy...) Environmental Assessment § 51.30 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment for proposed actions, other than those for a standard design certification under 10 CFR part 52 or a manufacturing...

  16. 39 CFR 775.10 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES § 775.10 Environmental assessments. (a) An environmental assessment must contain: (1) A summary of... permits necessary to complete the proposed action. (b) Those preparing an environmental assessment must... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental assessments. 775.10 Section...

  17. Environmental Assessment of Biofuel Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality is responsible for administering the Second Renewable Fuels Standard under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The progress of these efforts and the associated environmental impacts are assessed in the Triennial Biof...

  18. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments.

    PubMed

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems - examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  19. Building Better Environmental Risk Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Raymond; Smith, Joe; Macdonald, Phil; Letchumanan, Ramatha; Keese, Paul; Lema, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment is a reasoned, structured approach to address uncertainty based on scientific and technical evidence. It forms the foundation for regulatory decision-making, which is bound by legislative and policy requirements, as well as the need for making timely decisions using available resources. In order to be most useful, environmental risk assessments (ERAs) for genetically modified (GM) crops should provide consistent, reliable, and transparent results across all types of GM crops, traits, and environments. The assessments must also separate essential information from scientific or agronomic data of marginal relevance or value for evaluating risk and complete the assessment in a timely fashion. Challenges in conducting ERAs differ across regulatory systems – examples are presented from Canada, Malaysia, and Argentina. One challenge faced across the globe is the conduct of risk assessments with limited resources. This challenge can be overcome by clarifying risk concepts, placing greater emphasis on data critical to assess environmental risk (for example, phenotypic and plant performance data rather than molecular data), and adapting advances in risk analysis from other relevant disciplines. PMID:26301217

  20. 16 CFR 1021.12 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 1021.12 Section 1021.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.12 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental...

  1. 16 CFR 1021.12 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 1021.12 Section 1021.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.12 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental...

  2. 16 CFR 1021.12 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 1021.12 Section 1021.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.12 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental...

  3. 16 CFR 1021.12 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 1021.12 Section 1021.12 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.12 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental...

  4. 16 CFR 1021.12 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental assessment. 1021.12 Section... of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.12 Environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment... available data in order to show its magnitude and significance. Sources of information for...

  5. 40 CFR 1508.9 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental assessment. 1508.9 Section 1508.9 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.9 Environmental assessment. Environmental assessment: (a) Means a concise public document for which a...

  6. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  7. Clinical Assessment of Affective Instability: Comparing EMA Indices, Questionnaire Reports, and Retrospective Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhan, Marika B.; Trull, Timothy J.; Jahng, Seungmin; Wood, Phillip K.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional self-report measures of psychopathology may be influenced by a variety of recall biases. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reduces these biases by assessing individuals' experiences as they occur in their natural environments. This study examines the discrepancy between trait questionnaire, retrospective report, and EMA measures of…

  8. CONVENTIONAL COMBUSTION ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM, EXECUTIVE BRIEFING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The brochure gives an executive briefing of EPA's Conventional Combustion Environmental Assessment (CCEA) Program. The CCEA Program was established recently to coordinate and integrate EPA's research and development efforts for assessing the environmental effects of pollutants fr...

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT SAMPLING AND ANALYTICAL STRATEGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a costing methodology for environmental assessment that has been generated for industrial processes at various phases of development. The demonstrated environmental assessment strategies provide a framework for determining industry, process, and stream priori...

  10. 32 CFR 651.20 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Environmental assessment. 651.20 Section 651.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.20 Environmental assessment. An...

  11. 32 CFR 651.20 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental assessment. 651.20 Section 651.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.20 Environmental assessment. An...

  12. 32 CFR 651.20 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Environmental assessment. 651.20 Section 651.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.20 Environmental assessment. An...

  13. 32 CFR 651.20 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Environmental assessment. 651.20 Section 651.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.20 Environmental assessment. An...

  14. 32 CFR 651.20 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Environmental assessment. 651.20 Section 651.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.20 Environmental assessment. An...

  15. Retrospective performance assessment of the draft test guideline 426 on developmental neurotoxicity.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document was created by an international panel under the auspices of the International Programme on Chemical Safety of the World Health Programme. The purpose and intent of this retrospective performance assessment document is to review the history of the developmen...

  16. Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) Progression: A Retrospective Account of BTSA's Response to English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez-Lopez, Teresa I.; Oh, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective account of the evolution of the Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) program shows how English learners and students of diverse cultural backgrounds were marginally considered throughout the development of the "California Standards for the Teaching Profession" and BTSA induction development, implementation, and…

  17. Retrospective Assessment of Behavioral Inhibition in Infants and Toddlers: Development of a Parent Report Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gensthaler, A.; Mohler, E.; Resch, F.; Paulus, F.; Schwenck, C.; Freitag, C. M.; Goth, K.

    2013-01-01

    A behaviorally inhibited temperament in early childhood has been identified as a potential risk factor for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. The purpose of our investigation was the development and evaluation of the factor structure, reliability and validity of the first retrospective parent report measure to assess behavioral…

  18. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. Environmental Management Assessment of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Management Assessment performed at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald, Ohio. During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included review of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and FEMP contractor personnel; and inspection and observation of selected facilities and operations. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from March 15 through April 1, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). EH-24 carries out independent assessments of DOE facilities and activities as part of the EH-1 Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Oversight Audit Program. The EH-24 program is designed to evaluate the status of DOE facilities and activities with respect to compliance with Federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations; compliance with DOE Orders, Guidance and Directives; conformance with accepted industry practices and standards of performance; and the status and adequacy of management systems developed to address environmental requirements. The Environmental Management Assessment of FEMP focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems. Further, in response to requests by the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) and Fernald Field Office (FN), Quality Assurance and Environmental Radiation activities at FEMP were evaluated from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section in this report.

  20. Environmental assessment and social justice

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.; Hardee, H.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe an approach to assessing environmental justice issues at the start of proposed project. It is a structural approach to screening using readily available census data and commercial products that emphasizes the ability to replicate results and provide systematic data that can be used to identify spatial inequities. While our discussion of the methodology addresses only public health and safety issues related to certain minority and cohort sub-groups, systematic use of methodology could provide a valuable screening tool for identifying impacts particular to low-income groups. While the assumptions can be questioned as to applicability, they are based both on theory and practical knowledge.

  1. 10 CFR 1021.320 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental assessments. 1021.320 Section 1021.320 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.320 Environmental assessments. DOE shall prepare and circulate...

  2. 10 CFR 1021.320 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental assessments. 1021.320 Section 1021.320 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.320 Environmental assessments. DOE shall prepare and circulate...

  3. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... government) for a minimum of 30 days before the Administration makes its final decision (See 40 CFR 1501.4(e... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared...

  4. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... government) for a minimum of 30 days before the Administration makes its final decision (See 40 CFR 1501.4(e... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared...

  5. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... government) for a minimum of 30 days before the Administration makes its final decision (See 40 CFR 1501.4(e... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared...

  6. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... government) for a minimum of 30 days before the Administration makes its final decision (See 40 CFR 1501.4(e... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared...

  7. 23 CFR 771.119 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... government) for a minimum of 30 days before the Administration makes its final decision (See 40 CFR 1501.4(e... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 771.119 Section 771.119... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.119 Environmental assessments. (a) An EA shall be prepared...

  8. 10 CFR 1021.320 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental assessments. 1021.320 Section 1021.320 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.320 Environmental assessments. DOE shall prepare and circulate...

  9. 10 CFR 1021.320 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental assessments. 1021.320 Section 1021.320 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.320 Environmental assessments. DOE shall prepare and circulate...

  10. 10 CFR 1021.320 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental assessments. 1021.320 Section 1021.320 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT IMPLEMENTING PROCEDURES Implementing Procedures § 1021.320 Environmental assessments. DOE shall prepare and circulate...

  11. Environmental assessment: The Eden project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roza, Christodoulaki

    Non domestic buildings account for about one-sixth of the U.K.'s entire C02 emissions and one-third of the building related ones 2 . Their proportion of energy consumption, particularly electricity, has also been growing 2 . New buildings are not necessarily better, with energy use often proving to be much higher than their designers anticipated 2 . Annual C02 emissions of two- and sometimes three- times design expectations are far from unusual, leaving a massive credibility gap 2 . These and other global environmental and human health related concerns have motivated an increasing number of designers, developers and building users to pursue more environmentally sustainable designs and construction strategies 5 . However, these buildings can be difficult to evaluate, since they are large in scale, complex in materials and function and temporally dynamic due to limited service life of building components and changing user requirements 5 . All of these factors make environmental assessment of the buildings challenging. Previous Post Occupancy Review of Buildings and their Engineering (PROBE) building investigations have uncovered serious shortcomings in facilities management, or at least mismatches between a building's management needs and the ability of the occupiers to provide the right level of management 1 . Consequently, large differences between energy performance expectations and outcomes can occur virtually unnoticed, while designers continue to repeat flawed descriptions 2 . This investigation attempts to evaluate the building's operation and to help achieving demonstrable improvements in terms of energy efficiency and occupant satisfaction. The scope of this study is to evaluate the actual environmental performance of a building notable for its advanced design. The Education Resource Centre at the Eden Project was selected to compare design expectations with post occupancy performance. This report contains a small-scale survey of user satisfaction with the

  12. Environmental risk assessment of paroxetine.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Virginia L; Constable, David J C; Hannah, Robert E

    2004-06-15

    watershed-based environmental risk assessment model, PhATE, to predict environmental concentrations (PECs). Comparison of the calculated PECs with the PNEC allows an assessment of potential environmental risk. Within the 1-99% of stream segments in the PhATE model, PEC values ranged from 0.003 to 100 ng/L. The risk assessment PEC/PNEC ratios ranged from approximately 3 x 10(-8) to approximately 3 x 10(-3), indicating a wide margin of safety, since a PEC/PNEC ratio <1 is generally considered to represent a low risk to the environment. In addition, Microtox studies carried out on PM biodegradation byproducts indicated no detectable residual toxicity. Any compounds in the environment as a result of the biodegradation of PM should be innocuous polar byproducts that should not exert any toxic effects. PMID:15260335

  13. Environmental assessment of the alkanolamines.

    PubMed

    Davis, J W; Carpenter, C L

    1997-01-01

    This review provides a summary of current information available on the environmental fate and aquatic toxicology of the alkanolamines. Because these materials are widely used, there is a need to understand their fate and effects in the environment. This assessment was confined to information regarding selected physical properties of the alkanolamines as well as their potential for degradation in the atmosphere, soil, surface water, and groundwater. In addition, their relevant aquatic toxicological information and bioconcentration potential were evaluated. In general, the alkanolamines have high water solubilities and low to moderate vapor pressures. Some are solids whereas others are liquids at room temperature. Aqueous solutions of the alkanolamines are basic, with the pKas decreasing with increased alkyl substitution. Predictions of the environmental distribution of these compounds, based on a unit world model of Mackay and Paterson, suggested that alkanolamines would partition primarily into the aqueous compartment at equilibrium, with the remainder distributed to the atmosphere. Only a very small fraction of these materials is expected to sorb to soil or sediments. However, adsorption mechanisms other than partitioning into the soil organic layer were not considered in this model. Since polar compounds may sorb to soil by alternate mechanisms, this model may underestimate the true adsorption potential and subsequent environmental distribution of the alkanolamines. Future work with these compounds should focus on other types of adsorption mechanisms that could impact the environmental distribution of the alkanolamines. Although only small amount of the alkanolamines are expected to partition to the atmosphere, they are expected to be removed by reactions with photochemically generated hydroxyl radicals. They may also be removed from the atmosphere by precipitation, due to their high water solubility. Because of the relatively low levels expected to be present in

  14. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... shall be governed by 22 CFR part 9. Those portions of an Environmental Assessment which are not... for in 22 CFR part 212. ... Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCEDURES § 216.6...

  15. Environmental complex mixture toxicity assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, H S; Brennan, L M; Toussaint, M W; Rosencrance, A B; Boncavage-Hennessey, E M; Wolfe, M J

    1998-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) was found as a contaminant in the well supplying water to an aquatic testing laboratory. The groundwater was routinely screened by a commercial laboratory for volatile and semivolatile compounds, metals, herbicides, pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency methods. Although TCE was the only reportable peak on the gas chromatograph, with average concentrations of 0.200 mg/l, other small peaks were also present, indicating the possibility that the contamination was not limited to TCE alone. A chronic 6-month carcinogenicity assay was conducted on-site in a biomonitoring trailer, using the Japanese medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) in an initiation-promotion protocol, with diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as the initiator and the TCE-contaminated groundwater as a promoter. Study results indicated no evidence of carcinogenic potential of the groundwater without initiation. There was, however, a tumor-promotional effect of the groundwater after DEN initiation. A follow-up laboratory study was conducted using reagent grade TCE added to carbon-filtered groundwater to simulate TCE concentrations comparable to those found in the contaminated groundwater. Study results indicated no promotional effects of TCE. These studies emphasize the necessity for on-site bioassays to assess potential environmental hazards. In this instance, chemical analysis of the groundwater identified TCE as the only reportable contaminant, but other compounds present below reportable limits were noted and may have had a synergistic effect on tumor promotion observed with the groundwater exposure. Laboratory toxicity testing of single compounds can produce toxicity data specific to that compound for that species but cannot take into account the possible toxic effects of mixtures of compounds. Images Figure 2 PMID:9860885

  16. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-06-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  17. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material released into the environment as tobacco products are smoked. Cigarettes, pipes, and cigars all produce ETS but the term has become all but synonymous with indoor air contamination by cigarette smoking. This is because cigarettes are by far the most commonly consumed tobacco product and because the principal human exposure occurs indoors. Exposure to ETS is variously termed as passive smoking, involuntary smoking, and as exposure to second-hand smoke. Considerable progress has been made toward a better understanding of ETS exposure. Strengths and limitations of various measures of exposure are better understood and much data has been generated on the quantities of many ETS-constituents in many indoor environments. The properties of ETS, methods for its measurement in indoor air, and many results of field studies have recently been reviewed by the author. The recent EPA report includes a major treatment of exposure estimation including air concentrations, questionnaires, and biomarkers. This paper discusses approaches to exposure assessment and summarizes data on indoor air concentrations of ETS-constituents.

  18. Environmental policy, assessment and communication

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, D.; Krampen, M.; Stea, D.

    1988-01-01

    This second volume in the Gower ethnoscapes Series explores the realm of environmental policy and presents analysis of three major public policy issues: growing public concern over environmental factors; growing awareness of the relationship between environment, crime and adolescent development; and increased environmental awareness in relation to population growth and housing needs (especially housing for the elderly and mass housing for third world nations).

  19. Integrated Environmental Modeling: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation discusses the need for microbial assessments and presents a road map associated with quantitative microbial risk assessments, through an integrated environmental modeling approach. A brief introduction and the strengths of the current knowledge are illustrated. W...

  20. 46 CFR 504.5 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... significant environmental issues may be published in the Federal Register. Such comments must be received by... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental assessments. 504.5 Section 504.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL...

  1. 46 CFR 504.5 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significant environmental issues may be published in the Federal Register. Such comments must be received by... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental assessments. 504.5 Section 504.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL...

  2. 46 CFR 504.5 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... significant environmental issues may be published in the Federal Register. Such comments must be received by... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Environmental assessments. 504.5 Section 504.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL...

  3. 46 CFR 504.5 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... significant environmental issues may be published in the Federal Register. Such comments must be received by... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental assessments. 504.5 Section 504.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL...

  4. 46 CFR 504.5 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... significant environmental issues may be published in the Federal Register. Such comments must be received by... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental assessments. 504.5 Section 504.5 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL...

  5. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... replacement environmental review procedures that the FRA may later issue and the NEPA regulation of the Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's compliance... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental assessment. 260.35 Section...

  6. 10 CFR 51.30 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., other than those for a standard design certification under 10 CFR part 52 or a manufacturing license... alternative previously rejected in the earlier environmental assessment to become cost beneficial, or results...) An environmental assessment for a manufacturing license under subpart F of part 52 of this...

  7. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be governed by 22 CFR part 9. Those portions of an Environmental Assessment which are not... for in 22 CFR part 212. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 216.6 Section...

  8. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... shall be governed by 22 CFR part 9. Those portions of an Environmental Assessment which are not... for in 22 CFR part 212. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 216.6 Section...

  9. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be governed by 22 CFR part 9. Those portions of an Environmental Assessment which are not... for in 22 CFR part 212. ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 216.6 Section...

  10. 24 CFR 58.36 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 58.36 Section 58.36 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Environmental assessments. If a project is not exempt or categorically excluded under §§ 58.34 and 58.35,...

  11. 24 CFR 58.36 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 58.36 Section 58.36 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Environmental assessments. If a project is not exempt or categorically excluded under §§ 58.34 and 58.35,...

  12. 24 CFR 58.36 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 58.36 Section 58.36 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Environmental assessments. If a project is not exempt or categorically excluded under §§ 58.34 and 58.35,...

  13. 24 CFR 58.36 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 58.36 Section 58.36 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Environmental assessments. If a project is not exempt or categorically excluded under §§ 58.34 and 58.35,...

  14. 24 CFR 58.36 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Environmental assessments. 58.36 Section 58.36 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... Environmental assessments. If a project is not exempt or categorically excluded under §§ 58.34 and 58.35,...

  15. Non-inferiority of retrospective data collection for assessing perioperative morbidity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amour B U; Reyes, Anna; Ackland, Gareth L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Postoperative morbidity has immediate and delayed consequences for surgical patients, including excess risk of premature death. Capturing these data objectively and routinely in large electronic databases using tools such as the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS) would offer tremendous clinical and translational potential. However, POMS has thus far only utilised prospective data collection by research staff. We hypothesised that retrospective data collection from routinely collated hospital data from paper and electronic charts, medical and nursing notes was non-inferior to prospective data collection requiring research staff capturing POMS-defined morbidity in real-time. Methods. Morbidity was recorded by a trained investigator as defined by POMS prospectively on postoperative days 3 and 7. Separately, an independent investigator blinded to prospectively acquired data retrospectively assessed the same patients' morbidity as defined by POMS criteria, using medical charts, nursing summaries and electronic data. Equivalence was accepted when the confidence limits for both modes of data collection fell completely inside the equivalence bounds, with the maximum equivalence difference (i.e., the largest value of the difference in sensitivities deemed to reach a conclusion of equivalence) set a priori at 0.2. Differences for confidence limits between retrospective and prospective data collection were based on Nam's RMLE method. The relationship between morbidity on postoperative day 3 as recorded by each data collection method on time to become morbidity free and length of hospital stay was compared using the log-rank test. Results. POMS data from 85 patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery were analyzed. At postoperative day 3, POMS-defined morbidity was similar regardless of whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively (95% CI [-0.13-0.013]; p < 0.001). Non-inferiority for sensitivity was observed for all other POMS domains and

  16. Non-inferiority of retrospective data collection for assessing perioperative morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Amour B.U.; Reyes, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background. Postoperative morbidity has immediate and delayed consequences for surgical patients, including excess risk of premature death. Capturing these data objectively and routinely in large electronic databases using tools such as the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS) would offer tremendous clinical and translational potential. However, POMS has thus far only utilised prospective data collection by research staff. We hypothesised that retrospective data collection from routinely collated hospital data from paper and electronic charts, medical and nursing notes was non-inferior to prospective data collection requiring research staff capturing POMS-defined morbidity in real-time. Methods. Morbidity was recorded by a trained investigator as defined by POMS prospectively on postoperative days 3 and 7. Separately, an independent investigator blinded to prospectively acquired data retrospectively assessed the same patients’ morbidity as defined by POMS criteria, using medical charts, nursing summaries and electronic data. Equivalence was accepted when the confidence limits for both modes of data collection fell completely inside the equivalence bounds, with the maximum equivalence difference (i.e., the largest value of the difference in sensitivities deemed to reach a conclusion of equivalence) set a priori at 0.2. Differences for confidence limits between retrospective and prospective data collection were based on Nam’s RMLE method. The relationship between morbidity on postoperative day 3 as recorded by each data collection method on time to become morbidity free and length of hospital stay was compared using the log-rank test. Results. POMS data from 85 patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery were analyzed. At postoperative day 3, POMS-defined morbidity was similar regardless of whether data were collected prospectively or retrospectively (95% CI [−0.13–0.013]; p < 0.001). Non-inferiority for sensitivity was observed for all other POMS

  17. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) DEVELOPING METHODS TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA has invested considerable research effort--intended to meet regulatory needs--toward developing methods for assessing the environmental effects of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). Preliminary investigations centered on the fate, survival, accidental release, ...

  18. The promotion of environmental enhancement in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCluskey, Daniel; Joao, Elsa

    2011-04-15

    This paper evaluates how the enhancement of positive environmental impacts has been considered and developed in Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) reports since the SEA Act in Scotland was introduced in 2005. Fifteen Environmental Reports on strategic actions prepared between 2006 and 2009 were scrutinized for this study, one of which pertained to national policy and the rest to responsible authority programmes, plans or strategies throughout Scotland. A four point scale was developed to evaluate the extent to which environmental enhancement promotion or measures were considered in the Environmental Reports: Thorough, Fair, Minimal and Absent. Results found that nine out of the 15 Environmental Reports studied were graded as 'minimal' or 'absent'. The paper concludes that in order for SEA to achieve its full potential, in addition to considering mitigation measures for negative environmental impacts, SEA practitioners and decision makers must begin to realize and exploit potential enhancement opportunities.

  19. Environmental probabilistic quantitative assessment methodologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, four petroleum resource assessment methodologies are presented as possible pollution assessment methodologies, even though petroleum as a resource is desirable, whereas pollution is undesirable. A methodology is defined in this paper to consist of a probability model and a probabilistic method, where the method is used to solve the model. The following four basic types of probability models are considered: 1) direct assessment, 2) accumulation size, 3) volumetric yield, and 4) reservoir engineering. Three of the four petroleum resource assessment methodologies were written as microcomputer systems, viz. TRIAGG for direct assessment, APRAS for accumulation size, and FASPU for reservoir engineering. A fourth microcomputer system termed PROBDIST supports the three assessment systems. The three assessment systems have different probability models but the same type of probabilistic method. The type of advantages of the analytic method are in computational speed and flexibility, making it ideal for a microcomputer. -from Author

  20. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. In manned spacecraft, environmental health risks are mitigated by a multi-disciplinary effort, employing several measures including active and passive controls, by establishing environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits), and through environmental monitoring. Human Health and Performance (HHP) scientists and Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. ECLS engineers use environmental monitoring data to monitor and confirm the health of ECLS systems, whereas HHP scientists use the data to manage the health of the human system. Because risks can vary between missions and change over time, environmental monitoring is critical. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in environmental health knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of the roadmap development and findings are presented in this paper.

  1. Environmental Assessment Lakeview Geothermal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Treis, Tania

    2012-04-30

    The Town of Lakeview is proposing to construct and operate a geothermal direct use district heating system in Lakeview, Oregon. The proposed project would be in Lake County, Oregon, within the Lakeview Known Geothermal Resources Area (KGRA). The proposed project includes the following elements: Drilling, testing, and completion of a new production well and geothermal water injection well; construction and operation of a geothermal production fluid pipeline from the well pad to various Town buildings (i.e., local schools, hospital, and Lake County Industrial Park) and back to a geothermal water injection well. This EA describes the proposed project, the alternatives considered, and presents the environmental analysis pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act. The project would not result in adverse effects to the environment with the implementation of environmental protection measures.

  2. Assessing family-of-origin functioning in Mexican American adults: retrospective application of the family environment scale.

    PubMed

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K

    2006-12-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study examined psycho-metric characteristics of the Family Environment Scale (FES) when used retrospectively with Mexican Americans to assess their families-of-origin. Findings provided qualified support for the internal consistency of the FES and showed significant mean profile differences for this population across gender and when compared to the normative sample for this measure. Retrospective reports on the FES related to independent measures of family history of distress and, to a lesser extent, with current relationship functioning, providing preliminary support for the criterion-related validity of the FES when adapted for retrospective assessment. Limitations and implications of findings for further research are discussed. PMID:17050910

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF IRON CASTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling of ductile iron casting in green sand molds with phenolic isocyanate cores and in phenol-formaldehyde bound shell molds did not provide definitive proof that environmentally hazardous organic emission occur. Both molding systems produced the same type of major emissions,...

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL LIQUEFACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of a study of the environmental aspects of 14 of the most prominent coal liquefaction systems, in terms of background, process description, major operations, input and output streams, status, and schedule of system development. As a result of the stu...

  5. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  6. 22 CFR 216.6 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... shall be governed by 22 CFR part 9. Those portions of an Environmental Assessment which are not... for in 22 CFR part 212. ... included in the detailed study; devote substantial treatment to each alternative considered in...

  7. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING DATABASES FOR STATISTIC ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Databases designed for statistical analyses have characteristics that distinguish them from databases intended for general use. EMAP uses a probabilistic sampling design to collect data to produce statistical assessments of environmental conditions. In addition to supporting the ...

  8. Testing for sustainable development through environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    George, C.

    1999-03-01

    The potential of environmental assessment as a sustainability instrument has long been recognized, but the criteria against which development proposals traditionally are judged are not necessarily criteria for sustainable development. Meanwhile, Agenda 21 identified the need for indicators of sustainable development for use in decision-making, but those that have been developed are not easy to apply in project level environmental assessment. These problems are addressed by returning to the fundamental principles of sustainable development and relating them to the principles of environmental assessment. In this way, 18 criteria have been derived, all of which must be satisfied if a development proposal is to be classified as sustainable development. These criteria have been tested against a number of actual environmental assessments to identify the likely consequences for project approval.

  9. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, M. H.; Meloy, T. P.; Marshall, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    Originally selected for the HEDS dust & soil payload for the 2001 Mars Surveyor Lander, The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) has now been completed, tested, and is ready for flight. This paper will review the four MECA instruments.

  10. Using Environmental Scans in Educational Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Terry F.; Pearson, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Presents advantages and disadvantages of environmental scanning for assessing the context of professional continuing education. Provides a checklist for evaluating the quality and usefulness of information sources. Addresses the ethics of scanning. (SK)

  11. Incorporating social concerns in environmental impact assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, A.K.

    1990-03-01

    Social impact assessments most often focus on the population-driven impacts of projects. Such impacts may be insignificant when compared with social structural impacts of complex, controversial projects. This set of impacts includes social disruption, social group formation, and stigma effects. The National Environmental Policy Act does not explicitly call for assessment of, and assessors often are reluctant to address, these complex issues. This paper discusses why such impacts are critical to assess and gives examples of how they have been incorporated into environmental assessment documents. 6 refs.

  12. “Alas poor Yorick”: What retrospective analysis of canine skulls can tell us about the impact of environmental factors on health

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Luciano O.; Chase, Kevin; McGill, Lawrence; Miller, Shawn; Nielsen, Mark; Lark, Karl G.

    2014-01-01

    Necropsies and extensive histological evaluation for clinical and sub-clinical disease of approximately three hundred Portuguese Water dogs are available as part of an ongoing study to assess their state of health at end of life. Throughout life these dogs enjoyed a variety of lifestyles and environments. Here we carry out retrospective quantitative assessments of life-time dietary input and physical activity for each dog. To do this, collagens from skull vault bone and from dentine have been analyzed for ratios of stable isotopes to determine differences in diet that individual dogs experienced during late or early life respectively. Robustness of skull bone (weight/unit of skull size) was used as a relative indicator of the amount of physical activity experienced during a dog’s lifetime. These environmental parameters were correlated with the frequency and severity of specific disease processes determined at necropsy. Both measures were shown to exert significant low-level (r < 25%) differential effects on specific diseases. The value of retrospective analysis of environmental influences is discussed. PMID:24436781

  13. 40 CFR 6.205 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... any environmental issues that are of public concern. (e) An EA must include: (1) A brief discussion of... Official must prepare an environmental assessment (EA) (see 40 CFR 1508.9) for a proposed action that is... determining whether to prepare an EIS or to issue a FONSI (see 40 CFR 1508.9(a)), and may include...

  14. 40 CFR 6.205 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... any environmental issues that are of public concern. (e) An EA must include: (1) A brief discussion of... Official must prepare an environmental assessment (EA) (see 40 CFR 1508.9) for a proposed action that is... determining whether to prepare an EIS or to issue a FONSI (see 40 CFR 1508.9(a)), and may include...

  15. 40 CFR 6.205 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... any environmental issues that are of public concern. (e) An EA must include: (1) A brief discussion of... Official must prepare an environmental assessment (EA) (see 40 CFR 1508.9) for a proposed action that is... determining whether to prepare an EIS or to issue a FONSI (see 40 CFR 1508.9(a)), and may include...

  16. 40 CFR 6.205 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any environmental issues that are of public concern. (e) An EA must include: (1) A brief discussion of... Official must prepare an environmental assessment (EA) (see 40 CFR 1508.9) for a proposed action that is... determining whether to prepare an EIS or to issue a FONSI (see 40 CFR 1508.9(a)), and may include...

  17. 40 CFR 6.205 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any environmental issues that are of public concern. (e) An EA must include: (1) A brief discussion of... Official must prepare an environmental assessment (EA) (see 40 CFR 1508.9) for a proposed action that is... determining whether to prepare an EIS or to issue a FONSI (see 40 CFR 1508.9(a)), and may include...

  18. Devising an Environmental Impact Assessment Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, Ralph A.

    1975-01-01

    The need for personnel trained in understanding environmental impact statements has become apparent. In an attempt to fill this need, the University of California developed a program designed to produce a select number of graduates qualified to assess environmental impact statements. (MA)

  19. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's compliance... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental assessment. 260.35 Section 260.35... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Applications for Financial Assistance § 260.35...

  20. Retrospective assessment of exposure to chemicals for a microelectronics and business machine manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Donald A; Woskie, Susan R; Jones, James H; Silver, Sharon R; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969-2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

  1. Retrospective Assessment of Exposure to Chemicals for a Microelectronics and Business Machine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Donald A.; Woskie, Susan R.; Jones, James H.; Silver, Sharon R.; Luo, Lian; Bertke, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    A retrospective exposure assessment was performed for use in a health outcomes study of a facility manufacturing circuit boards, business machines, and other equipment during the years 1969–2002. A matrix was developed identifying chemical use by department-year based on company-provided information. Use of six chemical agents (fiberglass, lead, methylene chloride, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene) and six chemical classes (acid-base, aromatic hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, other hydrocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, and metals), and general (including unspecified) chemicals was identified. The matrix also contained an assignment for each department-year categorizing the potential for use of chemicals as negligible, intermittent/incidental, or routine. These department-based exposure matrix data were combined with work history data to provide duration of potential chemical use for workers. Negligible, intermittent/incidental or routine extent-of-chemical-use categories comprised 42.6%, 39.4%, and 17.9%, respectively, of total person-years of employment. Cumulative exposure scores were also developed, representing a relative measure of the cumulative extent of potential exposure to the six chemical agents, six chemical classes, and general (including unspecified) chemicals. Additionally, the study period was divided into manufacturing eras showing trends in chemical use, and showing that process use of trichloroethylene and methylene chloride ended in the mid-1980s and the mid-1990s, respectively. This approach may be useful in other assessments addressing a variety of chemicals, and with data constraints common to retrospective chemical exposure studies. PMID:24224613

  2. GEOTHERMAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT: SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR FOUR GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second in a series of reports concerning the environmental assessments of effluent extraction, energy conversion, and waste disposal in geothermal systems. This study involves the subsurface environmental impact of the Imperial Valley and The Geysers, California; Klam...

  3. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Use of diatom distributions to monitor environmental health

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, R.H.

    1993-12-01

    A variety of approaches has been used in the past to assess the environmental impact of anthropogenic contaminants. One reliable index for aquatic environments is the analysis of diatom species distribution; the focus in this case being on the Savannah River. The completed objectives of this study were: (A) the development and use of procedures for measuring diatom distribution in the water column and (B) the development and evaluation of sediment sampling methods for retrospective analysis.

  4. Potential for bias in epidemiologic studies that rely on glass-based retrospective assessment of radon.

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, C R

    1995-01-01

    Retrospective assessment of exposure to radon remains the greatest challenge in epidemiologic efforts to assess lung cancer risk associated with residential exposure. An innovative technique based on measurement of alpha-emitting, long-lived daughters embedded by recoil into household glass may one day provide improved radon dosimetry. Particulate air pollution is known, however, to retard the plate-out of radon daughters. This would be expected to result in a differential effect on dosimetry, where the calibration curve relating the actual historical radon exposure to the remaining alpha-activity in the glass would be different in historically smoky and nonsmoky environments. The resulting "measurement confounding" can distort inferences about the effect of radon and can also produce spurious evidence for synergism between radon exposure and cigarette smoking. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. PMID:8605854

  5. The new Canadian Environmental Assessment Act: A comparison with the environmental assessment review process

    SciTech Connect

    Delicaet, A.

    1995-11-01

    The Environmental Assessment Review Process (EARP) Guidelines Order was created to provide the federal government with an environmental impact assessment process that could ensure environmental implications of projects for which the federal government had a decision-making responsibility were considered early in the planning process. Due to several ambiguities in the Guidelines Order, reform was necessary and inevitable. The result of this reform is the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, proclaimed in January 1995. This article highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the new act. It also examines why practitioners have criticized the federal government for not seizing the reform opportunity to take a strong jurisdictional stand on environmental protection.

  6. Using Art to Assess Environmental Education Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Ami A.; Carroll, John P.; Green, Gary T.; Larson, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    Construction of developmentally appropriate tools for assessing the environmental attitudes and awareness of young learners has proven to be challenging. Art-based assessments that encourage creativity and accommodate different modes of expression may be a particularly useful complement to conventional tools (e.g. surveys), but their efficacy and…

  7. 43 CFR 46.310 - Contents of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contents of an environmental assessment... OF THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Environmental Assessments § 46.310 Contents of an environmental assessment. (a) At a minimum, an environmental assessment must include brief discussions of:...

  8. Validation of the species sensitivity distribution in retrospective risk assessment of herbicides at the river basin scale-the Scheldt river basin case study.

    PubMed

    Jesenska, Sona; Nemethova, Sabina; Blaha, Ludek

    2013-09-01

    Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) is commonly used in prospective risk assessment to derive predicted no-effect concentrations, toxicity exposure ratios, and environmental quality standards for individual chemicals such as pesticides. The application of SSD in the retrospective risk assessment of chemical mixtures at the river basin scale (i.e., the estimation of "multiple substance potentially affected fractions" [msPAFs]) has been suggested, but detailed critical assessment of such an application is missing. The present study investigated the impact of different data validation approaches in a retrospective model case study focused on seven herbicides monitored at the Scheldt river basin (Belgium) between 1998 and 2009. The study demonstrated the successful application of the SSD approach. Relatively high impacts of herbicides on aquatic primary producers were predicted. Often, up to 40 % of the primary producer communities were affected, as predicted by chronic msPAF, and in some cases, the predicted impacts were even more pronounced. The risks posed by the studied herbicides decreased during the 1998-2009 period, along with decreasing concentrations of highly toxic pesticides such as simazine or isoproturon. Various data validation approaches (the removal of duplicate values and outliers, the testing of different exposure durations and purities of studied herbicides, etc.) substantially affected SSD at the level of individual studied compounds. However, the time-consuming validation procedures had only a minor impact on the outcomes of the retrospective risk assessment of herbicide mixtures at the river basin scale. Selection of the appropriate taxonomic group for SSD calculation and selection of the species-specific endpoint (i.e., the most sensitive or average value per species) were the most critical steps affecting the final risk values predicted. The present validation study provides a methodological basis for the practical use of SSD in the

  9. Risk communication in environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Rahm-Crites, L.

    1996-08-26

    Since the enactment of NEPA and other environmental legislation, the concept of `risk communication` has expanded from simply providing citizens with scientific information about risk to exploring ways of making risk information genuinely meaningful to the public and facilitating public involvement in the very processes whereby risk is analyzed and managed. Contemporary risk communication efforts attempt to find more effective ways of conveying increasingly complex risk information and to develop more democratic and proactive approaches to community involvement, in particular to ensuring the participation of diverse populations in risk decisions. Although considerable progress has been made in a relatively short time, risk communication researchers and practitioners currently face a number of challenges in a time of high expectations, low trust, and low budgets.

  10. A retrospective cohort study among iron-steel workers in Anshan, China: exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Pan, Guowei; Tanaka, Chieko; Feng, Yiping; Yu, Lianzheng; Liu, Tiefu; Liu, Liming; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Ken

    2006-09-01

    Although adequate assessment of exposure is needed in epidemiological studies among foundry workers, previous studies are often lacking in this aspect. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of a Chinese iron and steel company with a 14-yr follow up during 1980-1993. Exposure assessment was performed for a single job, i.e., the current job for the active worker and the longest job for the retired or deceased worker as of the end of the follow-up, which was allocated as the surrogate of lifetime job and was applied to a job-exposure matrix. Of the 147,062 cohort members, 52,394 males (43%) and 5,291 females (21%) were exposed to any of 15 hazardous factors such as dust, silica, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide) and heat. In 2,104 randomly selected samples, the exposure assessment of exposed workers based on a single job was found to be 12-14% lower than the real situation. This study suggests that the exposure assessment is valuable in evaluating the health effects among the foundry workers, despite some limitations such as underestimation of exposure assessment and the lack of data regarding smoking and drinking habits. PMID:16981402

  11. A Retrospective Self-Assessment of the SURFO Summer Internship Program in Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next

  12. pH-dependent leaching of dump coal ash - retrospective environmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, A.; Djordjevic, D.

    2009-07-01

    Trace and major elements in coal ash particles from dump of 'Nikola Tesla A' power plant in Obrenovac near Belgrade (Serbia) can cause pollution, due to leaching by atmospheric and surface waters. In order to assess this leaching potential, dump ash samples were subjected to extraction with solutions of decreasing pH values (8.50, 7.00, 5.50, and 4.00), imitating the reactions of the alkaline ash particles with the possible alkaline, neutral, and acidic (e.g., acid rain) waters. The most recently deposited ash represents the greatest environmental threat, while 'aged' ash, because of permanent leaching on the dump, was shown to have already lost this pollution potential. On the basis of the determined leachability, it was possible to perform an estimation of the acidity of the regional rainfalls in the last decades.

  13. Retrospective assessment of dryland soil stability in relation to grazing and climate change.

    PubMed

    Washington-Allen, Robert A; West, Neil E; Ramsey, R Douglas; Phillips, Debra H; Shugart, Herman H

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated soil erosion is an aspect of dryland degradation that is affected by repeated intense drought events and land management activities such as commercial livestock grazing. A soil stability index (SSI) that detects the erosion status and susceptibility of a landscape at the pixel level, i.e., stable, erosional, or depositional pixels, was derived from the spectral properties of an archived time series (from 1972 to 1997) of Landsat satellite data of a commercial ranch in northeastern Utah. The SSI was retrospectively validated with contemporary field measures of soil organic matter and erosion status that was surveyed by US federal land management agencies. Catastrophe theory provided the conceptual framework for retrospective assessment of the impact of commercial grazing and soil water availability on the SSI. The overall SSI trend was from an eroding landscape in the early drier 1970s towards stable conditions in the wetter mid-1980s and late 1990s. The landscape catastrophically shifted towards an extreme eroding state that was coincident with the "The Great North American Drought of 1988". Periods of landscape stability and trajectories toward stability were coincident with extremely wet El Niño events. Commercial grazing had less correlation with soil stability than drought conditions. However, the landscape became more susceptible to erosion events under multiple droughts and grazing. Land managers now have nearly a year warning of El Niño and La Niña events and can adjust their management decisions according to predicted landscape erosion conditions. PMID:19130278

  14. Environmental assessment for the Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETL)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) on the proposed Processing and Environmental Technology Laboratory (PETC) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This facility is needed to integrate, consolidate, and enhance the materials science and materials process research and development (R&D) currently in progress at SNL/NM. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  15. Forecasting the VCR: A Retrospective Assessment of Media Trade Press and Academic Forecasts of Its Impact on Broadcasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napoli, Philip M.

    Retrospective technology assessment (RTA) is the use of historical research to assess current and future technology issues. This paper uses the introduction of the videocassette recorder (VCR) as an RTA case study, focusing on the broadcasting and advertising trade presses and their forecasts of the VCR's potential impact on broadcasting. Trade…

  16. The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality versus Treatment as Usual: A Retrospective Study with Suicidal Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobes, David A.; Wong, Steven A.; Conrad, Amy K.; Drozd, John F.; Neal-Walden, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    The Collaborative Assessment and Management of Suicidality (CAMS) is a novel clinical approach used to identify, assess, and manage suicidal outpatients (Jobes & Drozd, 2004). The results of a retrospective study evaluating the impact of CAMS versus treatment as usual (TAU) on suicidal outpatients are presented. Patients in the CAMS treatment…

  17. Environmental flow assessments for transformed estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Zhang, Heyue; Yang, Zhifeng; Yang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Here, we propose an approach to environmental flow assessment that considers spatial pattern variations in potential habitats affected by river discharges and tidal currents in estuaries. The approach comprises four steps: identifying and simulating the distributions of critical environmental factors for habitats of typical species in an estuary; mapping of suitable habitats based on spatial distributions of the Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) and adopting the habitat aggregation index to understand fragmentation of potential suitable habitats; defining variations in water requirements for a certain species using trade-off analysis for different protection objectives; and recommending environmental flows in the estuary considering the compatibility and conflict of freshwater requirements for different species. This approach was tested using a case study in the Yellow River Estuary. Recommended environmental flows were determined by incorporating the requirements of four types of species into the assessments. Greater variability in freshwater inflows could be incorporated into the recommended environmental flows considering the adaptation of potential suitable habitats with variations in the flow regime. Environmental flow allocations should be conducted in conjunction with land use conflict management in estuaries. Based on the results presented here, the proposed approach offers flexible assessment of environmental flow for aquatic ecosystems that may be subject to future change.

  18. Environmental Compliance Audit& Assessment Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Thorson, Patrick; Baskin, David; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Wahl, Linnea; Hatayama, Howard; Pauer, Ronald

    2009-03-13

    This document describes the elements, schedule, roles, and responsibilities of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environmental Compliance Audit & Assessment Program (ECAAP). The ECAAP has been developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A,1 and Executive Order 13423.2 These referenced Orders stipulate that government agencies must develop environmental compliance audit programs to monitor and improve compliance with environmental regulations. As stated specifically in the DOE Order, as a part of a DOE facility's Environmental Management System (EMS), 'An environmental compliance audit and review program that identifies compliance deficiencies and root causes of non-compliance' shall be developed and implemented. The ECAAP has also been developed to satisfy LBNL's institutional technical assurance assessment requirements promulgated in the Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program (LBNL/PUB-5344) and described by the ES&H Technical Assurance Program (TAP) Manual (LBNL/PUB-913E). The ES&H TAP Manual provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs with the intent to provide assurance that these programs comply with their guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented. As required by the DOE and Executive Orders and by LBNL's TAP, the goal of the ECAAP is to identify environmental regulatory compliance deficiencies and to determine their respective causes. The ECAAP then provides a means of correcting any deficiencies identified, and leads to continually improving environmental compliance performance.

  19. Environmental assessment of stillage control

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W. K.; Chang, H.

    1980-01-01

    The US government is encouraging increased production and use of gasohol in an effort to make the United States more energy independent. The current national goal is to substitute gasohol for 10% of the unleaded gasoline consumed in the United States by th end of 1980. Increased production of fuel ethanol in the years to come seems certain. In producing fuel ethanol (200 proof) from biomass feedstocks by fermentation, a liquid residue called stillage is produced. The concentration of BOD/sub 5/ in stillage is usually high compared to that in domestic waste, and this residue must go through a waste treatment process before discharge into bodies of water. While stillage has potential uses as an animal feed, soil amendment, and protein source for humans, the liquid remaining after useful stillage components have been extracted must still be treated before discharge to the environment. This paper identifies the types of stillage that are produced as well as their control. The concept of stillage control in the context of this paper includes both the uses and environmental control technology needs of stillage.

  20. Environmental Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayramov, A. A.

    In this paper, various aspects of modern nanotechnologies and, as a result, risks of nanomaterials impact on an environment are considered. This very brief review of the First International Conference on Material and Information Sciences in High Technologies (2007, Baku, Azerbaijan) is given. The conference presented many reports that were devoted to nanotechnology in biology and business for the developing World, formation of charged nanoparticles for creation of functional nanostructures, nanoprocessing of carbon nanotubes, magnetic and optical properties of manganese-phosphorus nanowires, ultra-nanocrystalline diamond films, and nanophotonics communications in Azerbaijan. The mathematical methods of simulation of the group, individual and social risks are considered for the purpose of nanomaterials risk reduction and remediation. Lastly, we have conducted studies at a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials), located near Baku. Assessments have been conducted on the individual risk of person affection and constructed the map of equal isolines and zones of individual risk for a plant of polymeric materials (and nanomaterials).

  1. Environmental Justice Assessment for Transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, G.S.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1999-04-05

    Application of Executive Order 12898 to risk assessment of highway or rail transport of hazardous materials has proven difficult; the location and conditions affecting the propagation of a plume of hazardous material released in a potential accident are unknown, in general. Therefore, analyses have only been possible in geographically broad or approximate manner. The advent of geographic information systems and development of software enhancements at Sandia National Laboratories have made kilometer-by-kilometer analysis of populations tallied by U.S. Census Blocks along entire routes practicable. Tabulations of total, or racially/ethnically distinct, populations close to a route, its alternatives, or the broader surrounding area, can then be compared and differences evaluated statistically. This paper presents methods of comparing populations and their racial/ethnic compositions using simple tabulations, histograms and Chi Squared tests for statistical significance of differences found. Two examples of these methods are presented: comparison of two routes and comparison of a route with its surroundings.

  2. Assessing the Validity of Can-Do Statements in Retrospective (Then-Now) Self-Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, N. Anthony; Dewey, Dan P.; Cox, Troy L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the strengths and limitations of a self-assessment based on ACTFL Can-Do statements ("ACTFL," 2013]) as a tool for measuring linguistic gains over an internship abroad in Russia. They assessed its reliability, determined how its items mapped with the ACTFL scale, and measured the degree to which…

  3. The Stateville penitentiary malaria experiments: a case study in retrospective ethical assessment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G

    2013-01-01

    During World War II, malaria research was conducted in prisons. A notable example was the experiments at Stateville Penitentiary in Illinois, in which prisoner-subjects were infected with malaria for the purpose of testing the safety and efficacy of novel anti-malaria drugs. Over time, commentators have shifted from viewing the malaria research at Stateville as a model of ethical clinical research to seeing the experiments as paradigmatic of abusive human experimentation. This essay undertakes a retrospective ethical assessment of the Stateville malaria research during the 1940s in light of basic ethical principles and the Nuremberg Code, as well as contemporary malaria research. In addition to its historical interest, this case study provides a rich context for addressing basic issues of research ethics, including the voluntariness of consent, the justification of risks, and the exploitation of vulnerable subjects. PMID:24769747

  4. Ten-year retrospective assessment of the performance of the Food Contact Notification (FCN) programme.

    PubMed

    Neal-Kluever, April; Cooper, Jessica; Zebovitz, Thomas C; Butts, Kyla M

    2015-01-01

    The Food Contact Notification (FCN) programme was authorised by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Modernization Act of 1997. Manufacturers may file FCNs for food contact substances (FCSs) not already authorised or pre-sanctioned by the USFDA by demonstrating a reasonable certainty of no harm for their intended uses. The Division of Food Contact Notifications (DFCN) 10-year Retrospective Assessment Group was formed to collect and develop metrics associated with the first decade of the FCN Programme and determine the extent selected aspects of the review process contributed to the effective FCN. Comparative analysis of 924 FCNs revealed that 76% become effective, 23% were withdrawn and 1% received a not accepted status. The focus of the Group was to identify factors impacting the likelihood of an FCN becoming effective. PMID:25529924

  5. Earth Day and Environmental Education: Retrospect and Prospect. IES Monograph 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berberet, William G.

    The first Earth Day was held on April 22, 1970. This monograph is an attempt to analyze the environmental improvement efforts since that time, with emphasis on environmental education and environmental studies. It is claimed that environmental policies developed over the past 17 years have failed to incorporate adequately the human dimension in…

  6. Integrating environmental justice (EJ) methodologies into environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental Justice (EJ) concerns are now a pervasive part of environmental policy. Moreover, Federal Executive Order 12898 mandates its diffusion throughout federal government programs, and many states are developing similar programs. EJ concerns first arose in the environmental field in the context of hazardous waste facilities. Thus, hazardous waste applications provide important analytical models for EJ issues addressed in other programs, such as environmental assessment (EA). At the present time, EJ concerns are treated largely qualitatively in EAs and environmental impact statements (EISs) in sections dealing with neighborhood and community character or socioeconomics. The manner in which EJ issues are examined in EISs is described using examples from recent EISs, and an approach to quantifying EJ in terms of demographic patterns is presented using techniques previously applied by the author to hazardous waste sites (primarily sites on the National Priorities List under the Superfund program). Various geographic levels and demographic parameters are discussed and compared. A key point is the manner in which the choice of a comparison area influences conclusions about a particular area. these methods are critical in addressing such issues as whether proposed projects are being located in areas with relatively greater proportions of {open_quotes}vulnerable{close_quotes} populations or, in the case of public service projects, how these populations are served relative to other populations by the facilities that are the subject of the assessment.

  7. 32 CFR 651.38 - Existing environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.38 Existing environmental assessments. EAs are dynamic documents. To ensure that the described setting... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Existing environmental assessments....

  8. 32 CFR 651.38 - Existing environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.38 Existing environmental assessments. EAs are dynamic documents. To ensure that the described setting... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Existing environmental assessments....

  9. 32 CFR 651.38 - Existing environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.38 Existing environmental assessments. EAs are dynamic documents. To ensure that the described setting... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Existing environmental assessments....

  10. 32 CFR 651.38 - Existing environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.38 Existing environmental assessments. EAs are dynamic documents. To ensure that the described setting... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Existing environmental assessments....

  11. 32 CFR 651.38 - Existing environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Environmental Assessment § 651.38 Existing environmental assessments. EAs are dynamic documents. To ensure that the described setting... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Existing environmental assessments....

  12. The systems approach to environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The systems approach in ecology is both a methodology and a holistic mindset. As a methodology, it utilizes mathematical and computer models to simulate natural ecosystems. As a mindset, it focuses on the total functioning and overall properties of the ecosystem. The distinction between methodology and mindset forms a convenient outline for the present review. Under the rubric of methodology, I will discuss the applicability of ecological models to environmental assessment. Under holistic mindset, I will consider the feasibility of assessing impacts on overall ecosystem function. In both cases, we will find that the systems approach has much to offer in assessing environmental impacts. The approach encourages a comprehensive viewpoint and avoids the pitfalls that result from focusing too closely on a single population or process. At the same time, we will find that the systems approach is no panacea. No single approach should be relied upon (or ignored) in addressing complex assessment issues. 92 figs.

  13. Profiling postgraduate workplace-based assessment implementation in Ireland: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Aileen; Galvin, Rose; Steinert, Yvonne; Scherpbier, Albert; O'Shaughnessy, Ann; Walsh, Gillian; Horgan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, workplace-based assessment (WBA) was formally integrated as a method of formative trainee assessment into 29 basic and higher specialist medical training (BST/HST) programmes in six postgraduate training bodies in Ireland. The aim of this study is to explore how WBA is being implemented and to examine if WBA is being used formatively as originally intended. A retrospective cohort study was conducted and approved by the institution's Research Ethics Committee. A profile of WBA requirements was obtained from 29 training programme curricula. A data extraction tool was developed to extract anonymous data, including written feedback and timing of assessments, from Year 1 and 2 trainee ePortfolios in 2012-2013. Data were independently quality assessed and compared to the reference standard number of assessments mandated annually where relevant. All 29 training programmes mandated the inclusion of at least one case-based discussion (max = 5; range 1-5). All except two non-clinical programmes (93 %) required at least two mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise assessments per year and Direct Observation of Procedural Skills assessments were mandated in 27 training programmes over the course of the programme. WBA data were extracted from 50 % of randomly selected BST ePortfolios in four programmes (n = 142) and 70 % of HST ePortfolios (n = 115) in 21 programmes registered for 2012-2013. Four programmes did not have an eligible trainee for that academic year. In total, 1142 WBAs were analysed. A total of 164 trainees (63.8 %) had completed at least one WBA. The average number of WBAs completed by HST trainees was 7.75 (SD 5.8; 95 % CI 6.5-8.9; range 1-34). BST trainees completed an average of 6.1 assessments (SD 9.3; 95 % CI 4.01-8.19; range 1-76). Feedback-of varied length and quality-was provided on 44.9 % of assessments. The majority of WBAs were completed in the second half of the year. There is significant heterogeneity with respect to the frequency and

  14. 43 CFR 46.310 - Contents of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) At a minimum, an environmental assessment must include brief discussions of: (1... proposed action with respect to alternative uses of available resources, the environmental assessment...

  15. 43 CFR 46.310 - Contents of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents of an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) At a minimum, an environmental assessment must include brief discussions of: (1... proposed action with respect to alternative uses of available resources, the environmental assessment...

  16. 43 CFR 46.310 - Contents of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents of an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) At a minimum, an environmental assessment must include brief discussions of: (1... proposed action with respect to alternative uses of available resources, the environmental assessment...

  17. 10 CFR 51.31 - Determinations based on environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determinations based on environmental assessment. 51.31... Implementing Section 102(2) Environmental Assessment § 51.31 Determinations based on environmental assessment. (a) General. Upon completion of an environmental assessment for proposed actions other than...

  18. 43 CFR 46.310 - Contents of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Contents of an environmental assessment. 46... environmental assessment. (a) At a minimum, an environmental assessment must include brief discussions of: (1... proposed action with respect to alternative uses of available resources, the environmental assessment...

  19. Retrospective Assessment of Home Ventilation to Reduce Rehospitalization in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven; Liang, Wei E.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    , Parthasarathy S. Retrospective assessment of home ventilation to reduce rehospitalization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):663–670. PMID:25766720

  20. ASSESSMENT FOR FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS - OCEAN DUMPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this report is to provide the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Strategic Assessment and Special Studies with a technical basis for making decisions on research priorities and resource allocation as these relate to the question of ocean dumping. Th...

  1. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AFTERBURNER COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an environmental assessment of afterburner control systems (fume incinerators). It consisted of a review of available data and literature, and the planning of a subsequent experimental program, intended to consist of laboratory and/or field emission me...

  2. Imbibing Wisdom of Environmental Impact Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ian

    1992-01-01

    Describes a learning module for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the relationship between EIA objectives and those of the module. Discusses constraints influencing the form of the subject and the range of possible training techniques. Presents details of the module's structure and comments on its approach. (Contains 16 references.) (MDH)

  3. 76 FR 54422 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... environmental assessment (PEA) of the Antenna Structure Registration (ASR) program. The purpose of the PEA is to... must register those structures with the FCC. The antenna structure owner must obtain painting and... accessible formats (computer diskettes, large print, audio recording, and Braille), send an e-mail to...

  4. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  5. Project Approval, Environmental Assessment and Public Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, P. S.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a case study of a heavy oil project proposed by Esso Resources Canada Limited at Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada. Focuses on the approval process, environmental and social impact assessments, and public participation. Evaluates the case and makes recommendations concerning the approval process. (DC)

  6. 32 CFR 989.14 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preparing an EA (40 CFR 1508.9). Every EA must lead to either a FONSI, a decision to prepare an EIS, or no... EAs (40 CFR 1501.4(b) and 1506.6). The extent of involvement usually coincides with the magnitude and... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental assessment. 989.14 Section...

  7. COMPILATION OF LEVEL 1 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives currently available chemical data from 19 Level 1 environmental assessment studies, compiled in standard format. The data are organized within each study by the analytical technique used to generate them. Inorganic data generated by spark source mass spectroscopy...

  8. Environmental noise assessment STS-1 Columbia launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnicki, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    An environmental noise assessement of the initial launch of the Space Transportation System, STS-1 Columbia was conducted. The principal objective of the environmental noise assessment was to measure the noise generated during the initial launch of the space shuttle to ascertain the validity of the levels predicted in the 1979 environmental impact statement. In the 1979 study information obtained for expendable launch vehicles, Titan, Saturn and Atlas was used to predict the noise levels that would be generated by the simultaneous firing of the two solid rocket boosters and the three space shuttle main engines. Fifteen monitoring sites were established in accessable areas located from 4,953 to 23,640 meters from the launch pad. Precision sound level meters were used to capture the peak level during the launch. Data obtained was compared to the predicted levels and were also compared to the identified levels, standards and criteria established by the federal agencies with noise abatement and control responsibilities.

  9. Environmental assessment requirements for live biological drugs.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Ann

    2008-02-01

    Marketing approval of biological products by the US Food and Drug Administration must comply with requirements of Code of Federal Regulations title 21 part 25, "Environmental Impact Considerations." An environmental impact statement is usually not required. Environmental assessment is required unless excluded. As naturally occurring substances, biological products qualify for categorical exclusion if manufacture and use do not significantly alter their concentration or distribution in the human environment. The manufacturing process and establishment descriptions in the license application should include enough detail to ensure that waste is controlled and inactivated. During clinical development of a live biotherapeutic product, data should be collected regarding the shedding of live organisms from treated patients. The ability of the live organism to persist in the environment should be assessed, and instructions for safe handling by health care providers and consumers should be incorporated into the package insert. PMID:18181713

  10. Performance Assessment for Environmental Decision Making

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.R.; Fewell, M.E.; Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Swift, P.N.; Trauth, K.M.; Vaughn, P.; MacKinnon, R.J.

    1997-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have, over the last twenty (20) years, developed unique, internationally-recognized performance and risk assessment methods to assess options for the safe disposal and remediation of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous waste/contamination in geohydrologic systems. While these methods were originally developed for the disposal of nuclear waste, ongoing improvements and extensions make them equally applicable to a variety of environmental problems such as those associated with the remediation of EPA designated Superfund sites and the more generic Brownfield sites (industrial sites whose future use is restricted because of real or perceived contamination).

  11. Road ecology in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Karlson, Mårten Mörtberg, Ulla Balfors, Berit

    2014-09-15

    Transport infrastructure has a wide array of effects on terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and road and railway networks are increasingly being associated with a loss of biodiversity worldwide. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) are two legal frameworks that concern physical planning, with the potential to identify, predict, mitigate and/or compensate transport infrastructure effects with negative impacts on biodiversity. The aim of this study was to review the treatment of ecological impacts in environmental assessment of transport infrastructure plans and projects. A literature review on the topic of EIA, SEA, biodiversity and transport infrastructure was conducted, and 17 problem categories on the treatment of biodiversity were formulated by means of a content analysis. A review of environmental impact statements and environmental reports (EIS/ER) produced between 2005 and 2013 in Sweden and the UK was then conducted using the list of problems as a checklist. The results show that the treatment of ecological impacts has improved substantially over the years, but that some impacts remain problematic; the treatment of fragmentation, the absence of quantitative analysis and that the impact assessment study area was in general delimited without consideration for the scales of ecological processes. Actions to improve the treatment of ecological impacts could include improved guidelines for spatial and temporal delimitation, and the establishment of a quantitative framework including tools, methods and threshold values. Additionally, capacity building and further method development of EIA and SEA friendly spatial ecological models can aid in clarifying the costs as well as the benefits in development/biodiversity tradeoffs. - Highlights: • The treatment of ecological impacts in EIA and SEA has improved. • Quantitative methods for ecological impact assessment were rarely used • Fragmentation effects were recognized

  12. Revising the senior walking environmental assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Yvonne L.; Keast, Erin M.; Chaudhury, Habib; Day, Kristen; Mahmood, Atiya; Sarte, Ann F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Senior Walking Environmental Assessment Tool (SWEAT), an instrument for measuring built environmental features associated with physical activity of older adults, was revised to create an easier-to-use tool for use by practitioners and community members. Methods Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the modified instrument (SWEAT-R) was assessed in Portland, Oregon in 2007. Five trained observers audited street segments in 12 neighborhoods, resulting in 361 pairs of audits, including 63 repeated audits. Results Overall, 88% and 75% of items assessed had good or excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, respectively. The revised instrument required less time to complete than the original instrument, while obtaining more information. Conclusion SWEAT-R provides easy to gather, reliable data for use in community-based audits of built environment in relation to walking among older adults. PMID:19136025

  13. Assessing Family-of-Origin Functioning in Mexican American Adults: Retrospective Application of the Family Environment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study…

  14. Parental Retrospective Assessment of Development and Behavior in Asperger Syndrome during the First 2 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewrang, Petra; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2010-01-01

    Development and behavior during the first 2 years of life was assessed retrospectively by the parents to 23 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 13 typically developing adolescents and young adults. The groups were matched on chronological age and the participants were within the normal range of intelligence. The questionnaire,…

  15. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. 51.25 Section 51.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... environmental assessment; eligibility for categorical exclusion. Before taking a proposed action subject to the... impact statement or an environmental assessment should be prepared. An environmental assessment is...

  16. New technologies - How to assess environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, P. J.; Lavin, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    A method is provided for assessing the environmental effects of a room-and-pillar mining system (RP) and a new hydraulic borehole mining system (HBM). Before environmental assessment can begin, each technology is defined in terms of its engineering characteristics at both the conceptual and preliminary design stages. The mining sites are also described in order to identify the significant advantages and constraints for each system. This can be a basic physical and biological survey of the region at the conceptual stage, but a more specific representation of site characteristics is required at the preliminary stage. Assessment of potential environmental effects of each system at the conceptual design is critical to its hardware development and application. A checklist can be used to compare and identify the negative impacts of each method, outlining the resource affected, the type of impact involved, and the exact activity causing that impact. At the preliminary design stage, these impacts should be evaluated as a result of either utilization or alteration. Underground coal mining systems have three major utilization impacts - the total area disturbed, the total water resources withdrawn from other uses, and the overall energy efficiency of the process - and one major alteration impact - the degradation of water quality by sedimentation and acid contamination. A comparison of the RP and HBM systems shows the HBM to be an environmentally less desirable system for the Central Appalachia region.

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment and Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viikari, L.

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a common tool for environment a l protection and management on Earth today, as prior assessment of the environmental consequences of planned activities. It is meant to provide the decision-makers with as comprehensive as possible information about the different environmental effects the proposed activity would entail, including alternative courses of action and the zero-alternative (i.e. the no action alternative). Additionally, plans for mitigation in respect of each alternative are to be outlined. The assessments take account of i.a. environmental impacts on ecosystems, diminution of aesthetic and scientific values, long-term or cumulative effects, as well as transfrontier implications. They also consider issues such as pollution control, environmental protection measures, reporting, post-project analysis, rehabilitation and so on. Also uncertainties in the assessment process are to be expressly presented. Most importantly, a common requirement also is that the results of the impact studies are presented in a way comprehensible to the g neral public,e too. Although the central aspect of the EIA is to provide the decision-makers with scientific information, the process also has other important implications. One of the most relevant of them is the involvement of those people potentially affected in some way by the proposed activity: most EIA systems require in some way the participation of the public, alongside with the relevant governmental authorities and other stake-holders. Such public involvement has various aims and goals: it may serve as a testimony to good governance in general, or be considered in more practical terms as improved planning, due to the concrete contribution of the public to the decision-making process. Obviously, it also is a tool for reducing conflict and developing wider support for the eventual decisions. In short, it enables the public to gain information about planned activities and influence

  18. Capacity strengthening for environmental assessment in Benin.

    PubMed

    Adohinzin, Junior Bloh Nignilo; Xu, Ling; Du, Jing; Yang, Fenglin

    2011-09-01

    For over three decades, environmental assessment (EA) has gained increasing international recognition as a means of ensuring sustainable development. In light of environmental challenges, Benin has endorsed the principle that a healthy environment is a human right. This concern is manifested by the creation of many institutions for managing environmental issues. But until today, environmental problems are still on the rise and getting worse day by day because of Benin's limited experience in the field of EA. If EA is to be perceived as an instrument of sustainable development, it is important to take into account the achievements and the needs of the country in this field; because we cannot respond properly and adequately in the field of capacity strengthening in EA without first be familiar with what exists, what is fact, and what is needed. In this study, we address and analyze the status of existing resources in the field of EA in Benin with the purpose of identifying the needs for capacity strengthening to enhance environmental assessment effectiveness in the country. The detailed presentation of the results shows that the legislative and institutional resources are available and represent a strong element in the system of environmental management in Benin. However, there is still a room for improvements towards environmental governance before it becomes a solid system of decision supporting all sectors of intervention because the effective application of those laws and texts still constitute big challenges. Below are the main reasons that explain the particular situation: majority of the laws are put in force very late or taken without implementing decree at all; the organizational capabilities have large gaps; the absence of a mechanism for evaluating the needs for strengthening capacity for EA. Recommendations pinpointed three types of needs which must be filled to enhance the effectiveness of EA in Benin: upstream needs of the structure of EA

  19. Determining Vulnerability Importance in Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Duarte, Oscar; Requena, Ignacio; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2012-01-15

    The concept of vulnerability has been used to describe the susceptibility of physical, biotic, and social systems to harm or hazard. In this sense, it is a tool that reduces the uncertainties of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) since it does not depend exclusively on the value assessments of the evaluator, but rather is based on the environmental state indicators of the site where the projects or activities are being carried out. The concept of vulnerability thus reduces the possibility that evaluators will subjectively interpret results, and be influenced by outside interests and pressures during projects. However, up until now, EIA has been hindered by a lack of effective methods. This research study analyzes the concept of vulnerability, defines Vulnerability Importance and proposes its inclusion in qualitative EIA methodology. The method used to quantify Vulnerability Importance is based on a set of environmental factors and indicators that provide a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. The results obtained in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method since there is a direct relation between this value and the environmental state of the departments analyzed. - Research Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concept of vulnerability could be considered defining Vulnerability Importance included in qualitative EIA methodology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of the concept of environmental vulnerability could reduce the subjectivity of qualitative methods of EIA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A method to quantify the Vulnerability Importance proposed provides a comprehensive overview of the environmental state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results in Colombia highlight the usefulness and objectivity of this method.

  20. Developing an Ethical and Legal Interoperability Assessment Process for Retrospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne-Marie; Kirby, Emily; Fortier, Isabel

    2016-06-01

    The past decade has witnessed the creation of major international research consortia, aiming to facilitate the sharing of data from different studies to maximize health benefits. However, combining heterogeneous data across existing studies requires addressing issues related to both data harmonization and ethical and legal interoperability. This article proposes a rigorous interoperability assessment process to assess whether different data sets are sufficiently ethically and legally interoperable to allow for a given proposed research use. The methodology used to develop this process is based on a comprehensive analysis of the international ethical and legal framework governing the use of retrospective data in research, and includes the following steps: (I) finding existing processes; (II) comparing processes to identify similarities and differences and determining the limits of the "consistent whole"; (III) establishing common principles and procedures; and, (IV) changing or removing processes that do not contribute to the consistent whole. Each of these four steps were examined using step-specific methodologies, including (a) literature and policy reviews; (b) consultations with international ethical, legal and social implications (ELSI) experts; and (c) a case study piloting the proposed framework in an actual international research consortium. This assessment process takes into account key legal and ethical components such as consent, recontact, and waiver of consent. As a result, this analysis allows the development of a comprehensive filter used to verify the legal and ethical restrictions pertaining to a data set. This in turns helps in determining whether the given data set can to be used for a proposed research project, or is ethically and legally interoperable for use in research collaborations. By integrating this filter to the regular data access processes used by cohorts, not only will researchers be able to create virtual "mega-cohorts" of research

  1. 12 CFR 1815.112 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preparation of an environmental assessment..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.112 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) The Fund shall begin the preparation of an environmental assessment as early as possible after...

  2. 12 CFR 1815.112 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preparation of an environmental assessment..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.112 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) The Fund shall begin the preparation of an environmental assessment as early as possible after...

  3. 12 CFR 1815.112 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preparation of an environmental assessment..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.112 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) The Fund shall begin the preparation of an environmental assessment as early as possible after...

  4. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental assessment. 907.12 Section 907.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.12 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) When to prepare. PADC will begin the preparation of an environmental assessment as early as possible after it...

  5. 12 CFR 1815.112 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preparation of an environmental assessment..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.112 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) The Fund shall begin the preparation of an environmental assessment as early as possible after...

  6. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... environmental assessment. 907.12 Section 907.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.12 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) When to prepare. PADC will begin the preparation of an environmental assessment as early as possible after it...

  7. Ultratrace LC-MS/MS analysis of segmented calf hair for retrospective assessment of time of clenbuterol administration in Agriforensics.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Meijer, Thijs; Peeters, Ruth J P; Groot, Maria J; Sterk, Saskia S; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-21

    In agriforensics, time of administration is often debated when illegal drug residues, such as clenbuterol, are found in frequently traded cattle. In this proof-of-concept work, the feasibility of obtaining retrospective timeline information from segmented calf tail hair analyses has been studied. First, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) hair analysis method was adapted to accommodate smaller sample sizes and in-house validated. Then, longitudinal 1 cm segments of calf tail hair were analyzed to obtain clenbuterol concentration profiles. The profiles found were in good agreement with calculated, theoretical positions of the clenbuterol residues along the hair. Following assessment of the average growth rate of calf tail hair, time of clenbuterol administration could be retrospectively determined from segmented hair analysis data. The data from the initial animal treatment study (n = 2) suggest that time of treatment can be retrospectively estimated with an error of 3-17 days. PMID:25537490

  8. Realistic retrospective dose assessments to members of the public around Spanish nuclear facilities.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, M A; Martín-Valdepeñas, J M; García-Talavera, M; Martín-Matarranz, J L; Salas, M R; Serrano, J I; Ramos, L M

    2011-11-01

    In the frame of an epidemiological study carried out in the influence areas around the Spanish nuclear facilities (ISCIII-CSN, 2009. Epidemiological Study of The Possible Effect of Ionizing Radiations Deriving from The Operation of Spanish Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities on The Health of The Population Living in Their Vicinity. Final report December 2009. Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear. Madrid. Available from: http://www.csn.es/images/stories/actualidad_datos/especiales/epidemiologico/epidemiological_study.pdf), annual effective doses to public have been assessed by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) for over 45 years using a retrospective realistic-dose methodology. These values are compared with data from natural radiation exposure. For the affected population, natural radiation effective doses are in average 2300 times higher than effective doses due to the operation of nuclear installations (nuclear power stations and fuel cycle facilities). When considering the impact on the whole Spanish population, effective doses attributable to nuclear facilities represent in average 3.5×10(-5)mSv/y, in contrast to 1.6mSv/y from natural radiation or 1.3mSv/y from medical exposures. PMID:21827963

  9. Boise geothermal injection well: Final environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The City of Boise, Idaho, an Idaho Municipal Corporation, is proposing to construct a well with which to inject spent geothermal water from its hot water heating system back into the geothermal aquifer. Because of a cooperative agreement between the City and the US Department of Energy to design and construct the proposed well, compliance to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is required. Therefore, this Environmental Assessment (EA) represents the analysis of the proposed project required under NEPA. The intent of this EA is to: (1) briefly describe historical uses of the Boise Geothermal Aquifer; (2) discuss the underlying reason for the proposed action; (3) describe alternatives considered, including the No Action Alternative and the Preferred Alternative; and (4) present potential environmental impacts of the proposed action and the analysis of those impacts as they apply to the respective alternatives.

  10. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  11. Klickitat Cogeneration Project : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Klickitat Energy Partners

    1994-09-01

    To meet BPA`s contractual obligation to supply electrical power to its customers, BPA proposes to acquire power generated by Klickitat Cogeneration Project. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment evaluating the proposed project. Based on the EA analysis, BPA`s proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 for the following reasons: (1)it will not have a significant impact land use, upland vegetation, wetlands, water quality, geology, soils, public health and safety, visual quality, historical and cultural resources, recreation and socioeconomics, and (2) impacts to fisheries, wildlife resources, air quality, and noise will be temporary, minor, or sufficiently offset by mitigation. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI (Finding of No Significant Impact).

  12. Environmental assessment, Richton Dome site, Mississippi (US)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC Sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a potential site to include a statement of the basis for the nomination of a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 of this environmental assessment provides a detailed evaluation of the Richton Dome Site and its suitability as the site for a radioactive waste disposal facility under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Richton Dome site with other proposed sites. Evaluation of the Richton Dome site is based on the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The comparative evaluation of proposed sites is required under DOE guidelines, but is not intended to directly support the subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 428 refs., 24 figs., 62 tabs. (MHB)

  13. Approaches to environmental exposure assessment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, V M; Buckley, T J; Groopman, J D

    1998-01-01

    An improved understanding of the contribution made by environmental exposures to disease burden in children is essential, given current increasing rates of childhood illnesses such asthma and cancer. Children must be routinely included in environmental research. Exposure assessment, both external (e.g., air, water) and internal dose (e.g., biomarkers), is an integral component of such research. Biomarker measurement has some advantages that are unique in children. These include assessment of potentially increased absorption because of behaviors that differ from adults (i.e., hand-to-mouth activity); metabolite measurement, which can help identify age-related susceptibility differences; and improved assessment of dermal exposure, an important exposure route in children. Environmental exposure assessment in children will require adaption of techniques that are currently applied in adult studies as well as development of tools and validation of strategies that are unique for children. Designs that focus on parent-child study units provide adult comparison data and allow the parent to assist with more complex study designs. Use of equipment that is sized appropriately for children, such as small air pumps and badge monitors, is also important. When biomarkers are used, biologic specimens that can be obtained noninvasively are preferable. Although the current need is primarily for small focused studies to address specific questions and optimize research tools, the future will require establishment of large prospective cohorts. Urban children are an important study cohort because of relatively high morbidity observed in the urban environment. Finally, examples of completed or possible future studies utilizing these techniques are discussed for specific exposures such as benzene, environmental tobacco smoke, aflatoxin, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:9646045

  14. The Environmental Assessment Management modification of CADET

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The original CADET system (finalized in September 1995 as version 1.3) is a data collection and transfer system developed for the Headquarters Air Force Space Command (HQAFSPC) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP). The system was designed as a tool for ECAMP evaluators to use to enter compliance related data while in the field and to subsequently store, modify, sort, query, and print the data and to electronically transfer the data into the Air Force''s Work Information Management System Environmental Subsystem (WIMSES). The original CADET system was designed to match the database structure of the WIMSES ECAMP module that came on-line in 1992. In June 1995, the Department of Defense issued The Environmental Assessment Management (TEAM) Guide and ECAMP Supplement to the TEAM Guide. These included changes to the type and amount of data collected during an ECAMP assessment. The WIMSES database structure was not modified to match the TEAM Guide; however, the need for collecting and storing the ECAMP data remained. The HQAFSC decided to modify the CADET system to incorporate the changes specified in the ECAMP Supplement and to convert the system from simply a data entry and transfer tool to a data entry and storage system to manage ECAMP findings in lieu of the WIMSES ECAMP module. The revised software is designated as version 2.0 and nicknamed TEAM CADET to distinguish it from the original CADET system.

  15. The Environmental Assessment Management modification of CADET

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1996-05-01

    The original CADET system (finalized in September 1995 as version 1.3) is a data collection and transfer system developed for the Headquarters Air Force Space Command (HQAFSPC) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP). The system was designed as a tool for ECAMP evaluators to use to enter compliance related data while in the field and to subsequently store, modify, sort, query, and print the data and to electronically transfer the data into the Airmore » Force''s Work Information Management System Environmental Subsystem (WIMSES). The original CADET system was designed to match the database structure of the WIMSES ECAMP module that came on-line in 1992. In June 1995, the Department of Defense issued The Environmental Assessment Management (TEAM) Guide and ECAMP Supplement to the TEAM Guide. These included changes to the type and amount of data collected during an ECAMP assessment. The WIMSES database structure was not modified to match the TEAM Guide; however, the need for collecting and storing the ECAMP data remained. The HQAFSC decided to modify the CADET system to incorporate the changes specified in the ECAMP Supplement and to convert the system from simply a data entry and transfer tool to a data entry and storage system to manage ECAMP findings in lieu of the WIMSES ECAMP module. The revised software is designated as version 2.0 and nicknamed TEAM CADET to distinguish it from the original CADET system.« less

  16. A Ten Year Retrospective on Environmental Justice: What Have We Learned?

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Jaksch, John A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2005-03-01

    Beginning in 1994, Executive Order 12898 has directed federal executive agencies to identify and address, as appropriate, disproportionately high and adverse health or environmental effects of their programs, policies, and activities on minority and low income populations. The policy behind the Executive Order was to prevent minority and low income groups from bearing disproportionate adverse environmental consequences of federal actions. During the last ten years, federal agencies have implemented Executive Order 12898, and some also have developed explicit procedures or guidance for the steps that need to be taken during the preparation of environmental impact statements. Based on the authors’ experience, the paper examines how environmental justice practice has evolved in the ten years since the original Executive Order was issued. This evolution has been both procedural and substantive. The paper examines how the actual practice of environmental justice analysis has progressed in federal agencies that deal with waste management issues. Reference is made to changes in case law and agency practice. The 2000 Census of Population and the ongoing development of geographic information systems in particular have made it easier to identify minority and low-income populations at risk. At the same time, a number of stakeholder groups have taken positions over specific federal actions that have given rise to novel issues and challenges for analysts. The paper discusses how NEPA practice is evolving to deal with these issues and challenges.

  17. Data sources for environmental assessment: determining availability, quality and utility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objectives: An environmental quality index (EQI) for all counties in the United States is being developed to explore the relationship between environmental insults and human health. The EQI will be particularly useful to assess how environmental disamenities contribute to health...

  18. Hyperglycaemic index as a tool to assess glucose control: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Vogelzang, Mathijs; van der Horst, Iwan CC; Nijsten, Maarten WN

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Critically ill patients may benefit from strict glucose control. An objective measure of hyperglycaemia for assessing glucose control in acutely ill patients should reflect the magnitude and duration of hyperglycaemia, should be independent of the number of measurements, and should not be falsely lowered by hypoglycaemic values. The time average of glucose values above the normal range meets these requirements. Methods A retrospective, single-centre study was performed at a 12-bed surgical intensive care unit. From 1990 through 2001 all patients over 15 years, staying at least 4 days, were included. Admission type, sex, age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and outcome were recorded. The hyperglycaemic index (HGI) was defined as the area under the curve above the upper limit of normal (glucose level 6.0 mmol/l) divided by the total length of stay. HGI, admission glucose, mean morning glucose, mean glucose and maximal glucose were calculated for each patient. The relations between these measures and 30-day mortality were determined. Results In 1779 patients with a median stay in the intensive care unit of 10 days, the 30-day mortality was 17%. A total of 65,528 glucose values were analyzed. Median HGI was 0.9 mmol/l (interquartile range 0.3–2.1 mmol/l) in survivors versus 1.8 mmol/l (interquartile range 0.7–3.4 mmol/l) in nonsurvivors (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.64 for HGI, as compared with 0.61 and 0.62 for mean morning glucose and mean glucose. HGI was the only significant glucose measure in binary logistic regression. Conclusion HGI exhibited a better relation with outcome than other glucose indices. HGI is a useful measure of glucose control in critically ill patients. PMID:15153239

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: METHODS FORMAT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to provide quantitative assessment of the condition of our nation's ecological resources. he Methods Coordination Group is responsible for coordinating methods ...

  20. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental Economic Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional-scale environmental assessments require integrating many available types of data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales. Moreover, the relationships among the environmental variables in the assessment tend to be poorly understood, a situation made even more compl...

  1. Grizzly Substation Fiber Optics : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-02-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to construct, operate, and maintain the Grizzly Substation Fiber Optic Project (Project). This Project is part of a continuing effort by BPA to complete a regionwide upgrade of its existing telecommunications system. The US Forest Service and BPA jointly prepared the Grizzly Substation Fiber Optic Project Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1241) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the Proposed Action, the Underground Installation Alternative, and the No Action Alternative. Based on the analysis in the EA, the US Forest Service and BPA have determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI. The US Forest Service has separately issued a FONSI and Decision Notice authorizing BPA to construct, operate, and maintain the Project within the Crooked River National Grassland (Grassland).

  2. A multibiomarker approach to environmental assessment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Tamara S; Brown, Rebecca J; Browne, Mark A; Dissanayake, Awantha; Lowe, David; Jones, Malcolm B; Depledge, Michael H

    2004-03-15

    Incorporation of ecologically relevant biomarkers into routine environmental management programs has been advocated as a pragmatic means of linking environmental degradation with its causes. Here, suites of biomarkers, devised to measure molecular damage, developmental abnormality and physiological impairment, were combined with chemical analysis to determine exposure to and the effects of pollution at sites within Southampton Water (UK). Test species included a filter feeder, a grazer, and an omnivore to determine the sensitivity of organisms occupying different trophic levels. Linear regression confirmed a significant association between incidence of intersex in Littorina littorea and tributyltin (TBT) concentrations (R2 = 0.954) and between PAH metabolites in Carcinus maenas urine and PAHs in sediments (R2 = 0.754). Principal component analysis revealed a gradient of detrimental impact to biota from the head to the mouth of the estuary, coincident with high sediment concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs, and biocides. Multidimensional scaling identified C. maenas as the organism most sensitive to contamination. Carboxylesterase activity, metallothionein and total haemolymph protein were the most discriminating biomarkers among sites. This holistic approach to environmental assessment is encouraged as it helps to identify the integrated impact of chemical contamination on organisms and to provide a realistic measure of environmental quality. PMID:15074681

  3. Environmental assessment: South microwave communication facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to construct, operate, and maintain eight microwave repeater stations in southwestern Colorado, southeastern Utah, and northern Arizona, in order to meet the minimum fade criteria established by the Western Systems Coordinating Council (WSCC) for the operation and protection of electric power systems. The proposed microwave facilities would increase the reliability of communication. This environmental assessment (EA) describes the existing environmental conditions and the impacts from construction of the eight microwave communication facilities. The EA was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR 1500-1508), and the Department of Energy Guidelines (52 FR 47662, December 15, 1987). The proposed project would consist of constructing eight microwave facilities, each of which would include a self-supported lattice tower, an equipment building, a propane tank, distribution lines to provide electric power to the sites, and access roads to the sites. The facilities would be constructed in San Miguel and Montezuma Counties in Colorado, San Juan County, Utah, and Navajo, Apache, Coconino, and Yavapai Counties in Arizona. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. 36 CFR 220.7 - Environmental assessment and decision notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determine whether to prepare either an EIS or a FONSI (40 CFR 1508.9); (ii) Shall disclose the environmental... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental assessment and... AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE § 220.7 Environmental assessment and...

  5. OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Sands, M. Dale

    1980-08-01

    Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.

  6. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation.

    PubMed

    Toller, S; Kärrman, E; Gustafsson, J P; Magnusson, Y

    2009-07-01

    Incineration ashes may be treated either as a waste to be dumped in landfill, or as a resource that is suitable for re-use. In order to choose the best management scenario, knowledge is needed on the potential environmental impact that may be expected, including not only local, but also regional and global impact. In this study, A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for two selected ash types, bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and wood fly ash. The MSWI bottom ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as drainage material in landfill, whereas the wood fly ash was assumed to be suitable for road construction or as a nutrient resource to be recycled on forest land after biofuel harvesting. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the use of natural resources and the trace element leaching were identified as being relatively important for the scenarios compared. The scenarios differed in use of resources and energy, whereas there is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the material is managed. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. PMID:19362462

  7. Comparative environmental assessment of unconventional power installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosnina, E. N.; Masleeva, O. V.; Kryukov, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Procedure of the strategic environmental assessment of the power installations operating on the basis of renewable energy sources (RES) was developed and described. This procedure takes into account not only the operational process of the power installation but also the whole life cycles: from the production and distribution of power resources for manufacturing of the power installations to the process of their recovery. Such an approach gives an opportunity to make a more comprehensive assessment of the influence of the power installations on environments and may be used during adaptation of the current regulations and development of new regulations for application of different types of unconventional power installations with due account of the ecological factor. Application of the procedure of the integrated environmental assessment in the context of mini-HPP (Hydro Power Plant); wind, solar, and biogas power installations; and traditional power installation operating natural gas was considered. Comparison of environmental influence revealed advantages of new energy technologies compared to traditional ones. It is shown that solar energy installations hardly pollute the environment during operation, but the negative influence of the mining operations and manufacturing and utilization of the materials used for solar modules is maximum. Biogas power installations are on the second place as concerns the impact on the environment due to the considerable mass of the biogas installation and gas reciprocating engine. The minimum impact on the environment is exerted by the mini-HPP. Consumption of material and energy resources for the production of the traditional power installation is less compared to power installations on RES; however, this factor incomparably increases when taking into account the fuel extraction and transfer. The greatest impact on the environment is exerted by the operational process of the traditional power installations.

  8. Environmental assessment of used oil management methods.

    PubMed

    Boughton, Bob; Horvath, Arpad

    2004-01-15

    The 1 billion gal of used oil generated in the U.S. each year are managed in three primary ways: rerefined into base oil for reuse, distilled into marine diesel oil fuel, and marketed as untreated fuel oil. Management of used oil has local, regional and global impacts. Because of the globally distributed nature of fuel markets, used oil as fuel has localized and regional impacts in many areas. In this paper, the human health and environmental tradeoffs of the management options are quantified and characterized. The goal of this study was to assess and compare the environmental impacts and benefits of each management method in a product end-of-life scenario using a life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A life-cycle inventory showed that 800 mg of zinc and 30 mg of lead air emissions may result from the combustion of 1 L of used oil as fuel (50-100 times that of crude-derived fuel oils). As an example, up to 136 Mg of zinc and 5 Mg of lead air emissions may be generated from combustion of over 50 M gal of California-generated used oil each year. While occurring elsewhere, these levels are significant (of the same magnitude as reported total stationary source emissions in California). An impact assessment showed that heavy metals-related toxicity dominates the comparison of management methods. Zinc and lead emissions were the primary contributors to the terrestrial and human toxicity impact potentials that were calculated to be 150 and 5 times higher, respectively, for used oil combusted as fuel than for rerefining or distillation. Low profits and weak markets increasingly drive the used oil management method selection toward the untreated fuel oil market. Instead, both the rerefining and distillation methods and associated product markets should be strongly supported because they are environmentally preferable to the combustion of unprocessed used oil as fuel. PMID:14750706

  9. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic product environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environmental assessment tool. 23.704 Section 23.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... 23.704 Electronic product environmental assessment tool. (a)(1) General. As required by E.O.s 13423 and 13514, agencies shall acquire Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool...

  10. Environmental, health and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    The environmental, health, and safety (E, H and S) concerns associated with the fabrication, deployment, and decommissioning of photovoltaic (PV) systems in terrestial applications are identified and assessed. Discussion is limited to crystalline silicon technologies. The primary E, H, and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  11. Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    The Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) is planning, to design, construct and operate a Biomass Gasifier Facility (BGF). This facility will be located on a site easement near the Hawaiian Commercial & Sugar company (KC&S) Paia Sugar Factory on Maui, Hawaii. The proposed BGF Project is a scale-up facility, intended to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of emerging biomass gasification technology for commercialization. This Executive Summary summarizes the uses of this Environmental Assessment, the purpose and need for the project, project,description, and project alternatives.

  12. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  13. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  14. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  15. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  16. 28 CFR 91.62 - Preparing an Environmental Assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... issue a Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact (FONSI) or prepare an Environmental Impact... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing an Environmental Assessment. 91... FACILITIES Environmental Impact Review Procedures for VOI/TIS Grant Program Environmental Review...

  17. Integrated Environmental Assessment Part III: ExposureAssessment

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, Thomas E.; Small, Mitchell J.

    2006-06-01

    Human exposure assessment is a key step in estimating the environmental and public health burdens that result chemical emissions in the life cycle of an industrial product or service. This column presents the third in a series of overviews of the state of the art in integrated environmental assessment - earlier columns described emissions estimation (Frey and Small, 2003) and fate and transport modeling (Ramaswami, et al., 2004). When combined, these first two assessment elements provide estimates of ambient concentrations in the environment. Here we discuss how both models and measurements are used to translate ambient concentrations into metrics of human and ecological exposure, the necessary precursors to impact assessment. Exposure assessment is the process of measuring and/or modeling the magnitude, frequency and duration of contact between a potentially harmful agent and a target population, including the size and characteristics of that population (IPCS, 2001; Zartarian, et al., 2005). Ideally the exposure assessment process should characterize the sources, routes, pathways, and uncertainties in the assessment. Route of exposure refers to the way that an agent enters the receptor during an exposure event. Humans contact pollutants through three routes--inhalation, ingestion, and dermal uptake. Inhalation occurs in both outdoor environments and indoor environments where most people spend the majority of their time. Ingestion includes both water and food, as well as soil and dust uptake due to hand-to-mouth activity. Dermal uptake occurs through contacts with consumer products; indoor and outdoor surfaces; the water supply during washing or bathing; ambient surface waters during swimming or boating; soil during activities such as work, gardening, and play; and, to a lesser extent, from the air that surrounds us. An exposure pathway is the course that a pollutant takes from an ambient environmental medium (air, soil, water, biota, etc), to an exposure medium

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL SOFTWARE AT THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S CENTER FOR EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Exposure Assessment Modeling (CEAM) was established to meet the scientific and technical exposure assessment needs of the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Progrsm and Regional Offices and the various state environmental agencies. o support envi...

  19. Integrated environmental impact assessment: a Canadian example.

    PubMed Central

    Kwiatkowski, Roy E.; Ooi, Maria

    2003-01-01

    The Canadian federal process for environmental impact assessment (EIA) integrates health, social, and environmental aspects into either a screening, comprehensive study, or a review by a public panel, depending on the expected severity of potential adverse environmental effects. In this example, a Public Review Panel considered a proposed diamond mining project in Canada's northern territories, where 50% of the population are Aboriginals. The Panel specifically instructed the project proposer to determine how to incorporate traditional knowledge into the gathering of baseline information, preparing impact prediction, and planning mitigation and monitoring. Traditional knowledge is defined as the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and/or local communities developed from experience gained over the centuries and adapted to local culture and environment. The mining company was asked to consider in its EIA: health, demographics, social and cultural patterns; services and infrastructure; local, regional and territorial economy; land and resource use; employment, education and training; government; and other matters. Cooperative efforts between government, industry and the community led to a project that coordinated the concerns of all interested stakeholders and the needs of present and future generations, thereby meeting the goals of sustainable development. The mitigation measures that were implemented take into account: income and social status, social support networks, education, employment and working conditions, physical environments, personal health practices and coping skills, and health services. PMID:12894328

  20. Environmental assessment process needs and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, P.F.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental assessment process as legislatively mandated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) constitutes a double-edged sword as regards the successful management and disposal of radioactive waste. On the one hand, NEPA requires identification and disclosure of the environmental and societal consequences of a given major federal action, consideration of alternatives and/or mitigative measures leading to the same end result, a balancing of costs and benefits, and provides for and encourages public participation in the decision-making process regarding the proposed action(s). On the other hand, public participation supported by judicial decisions, based more upon procedural than substantive issues, may delay, alter, or indeed prohibit a proposed course of action. If the cognizant federal agencies (DOE and NRC in the radioactive waste area) comply with both the spirit and the letter of NEPA a framework for the successful management of radioactive wastes on all types can be developed. If however, these agencies are less than earnest in their NEPA compliance actions or if public opposition is backed by overzealous court action, any radioactive waste management/disposal action (however technically sound) can be hoisted upon a petard from which it may not be freed until well into the next century.

  1. Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, M S; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-10-01

    We present a theoretical framework for assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and review current methods in order to provide guidelines for different types of studies. Exposure assessment should include both a quantitative dimension and consideration of time-specificity of exposure. The ultimate aim is to measure the concentrations of ETS encountered by an individual for different time periods in various microenvironments. The first step is to identify an indicator of ETS. Personal monitoring of air nicotine and respirable suspended particulates (RSPs) are the most direct assessment methods. Indirect assessment methods include stationary measurements of tobacco smoke constituents in different microenvironments and/or questionnaire-derived information, modelled with time-activity information. Biomarkers, such as nicotine and/or cotinine in body fluids or hair, can be used as surrogate measures of dose, although they are usually affected by individual processes in the body after exposure. The best approach to assess ETS exposure will depend on the aim of the study, the health outcome, and the resources. Personal monitoring of nicotine or RSPs is the best method in studies of short-term health effects with small study samples. Stationary measurements of indoor air nicotine or RSPs are suitable for overall monitoring of ETS in different microenvironments over time. Questionnaires and interviews are suitable when studying health outcomes with a long latency period and rare diseases requiring large study populations. Cotinine in body fluids and nicotine concentration in hair can be used to assess cumulative exposure over days or months, respectively. A combination of different methods is often the best approach. PMID:9387970

  2. Retrospective adjustment of self-assessed medical competencies – noteworthy in the evaluation of postgraduate practical training courses

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Michael; Feller, S.; Beyeler, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The efficacy of postgraduate practical training courses is frequently evaluated by self-assessment instruments. The present study analyses the effect of a basic course in laparoscopic surgery on self-assessed medical competencies. Methods: The 3-day course included teaching of knowledge and training of practical skills. In relation to course evaluation, a questionnaire for self-assessment was applied at the beginning of the course ('pre-course'), at the end of the course ('post-course') and at the end of the course to reassess pre-course competencies ('retrospective pre-course'). Results: 89 out of 110 participants (81%) attending 10 courses completed all the questionnaires; 83% were postgraduate trainees in surgery and 82% were inexperienced as an independent surgeon. At the beginning of the course most trainees rated themselves as 'moderately competent' or 'fully competent' with respect to the various task levels as well as to specific areas of medical competencies. At the end of the course however pronounced retrospective revisions of self-assessment to lower ratings became apparent. Statistically significant differences were seen for the task 'performing surgical procedures under supervision' and for most of the practical skills trained during the course (p <0.01). In contrast, no significant differences were observed for knowledge taught during the course as well as for 'ability to work in a team' and 'ability to concentrate', which were not foci of the course. Conclusions: Surgeons with little experience change their self-assessment of pre-course competencies to a lower level after participation in a practical postgraduate training course. Evaluations comparing 'pre-course' and 'post-course' ratings only – without 'retrospective pre-course' ratings – may underestimate the training effects. This phenomenon needs to be taken into account when evaluations are dependent exclusively on self-assessment instruments. PMID:22737200

  3. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an...

  4. Predicting biological effects of environmental mixtures using exposure:activity ratios (EAR) derived from US EPA’s ToxCast data: Retrospective application to chemical monitoring data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring has been widely used in environmental surveillance to assess exposure to environmental contaminants which could represent potential hazards to exposed organisms. However, the ability to detect chemicals in the environment has rapidly outpaced assessment of pot...

  5. EPCRA: a retrospective on the environmental Right-to-Know Act.

    PubMed

    Purifoy, Danielle M

    2013-01-01

    October 2011 marked the 25th Anniversary of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), which was celebrated for its "significant role in protecting human health and the environment over the last quarter century by providing communities and emergency planners with valuable information on toxic chemical releases in their area." This Note aims to evaluate the effectiveness of three important provisions of the statute-the Toxics Release Inventory, the emergency planning mandate, and the citizen suit provision-through a case study of their implementation in Institute, West Virginia, the site of an industrial accident that prompted the enactment of EPCRA in 1986. This Note argues that although EPCRA made significant improvements to industry transparency in terms of its production and release of hazardous substances, there remain significant barriers concerning adequate resources, informational tools, and enforcement measures. These challenges must be addressed to ensure that citizens are provided with equitable opportunities to inform and ultimately protect their communities from health and environmental hazards. Through interviews with Institute residents and members of a local community advocacy group, along with analyses of the current informational tools available to the public under the statute, the Note will discuss specific challenges facing industrial communities, and offer a series of practical and legal solutions to increase the effectiveness of the statute, particularly in the most economically and politically vulnerable communities. PMID:24340825

  6. Environmental Management Assessment of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of the environmental management assessment performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. The onsite portion of the assessment was conducted from September 14 through September 27, 1993, by DOE`s Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24) located within the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety, and Health (EH-1). During this assessment, the activities conducted by the assessment team included reviews of internal documents and reports from previous audits and assessments; interviews with US Department of Energy (DOE) and NREL contractor personnel; and inspections and observations of selected facilities and operations. The environmental management assessment of NREL focused on the adequacy of environmental management systems and assessed the formality of programs employing an approach that recognizes the level of formality implementing environmental programs may vary commensurate with non-nuclear research and development operations. The Assessment Team evaluated environmental monitoring, waste management and National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) activities at NREL, from a programmatic standpoint. The results of the evaluation of these areas are contained in the Environmental Protection Programs section of this report. The scope of the NREL Environmental Management Assessment was comprehensive and included all areas of environmental management. At the same time, environmental monitoring, waste management, and NEPA activities were evaluated to develop a programmatic understanding of these environmental disciplines, building upon the results of previous appraisals, audits, and reviews performed at the NREL.

  7. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, P; Thorne, M; Egan, M; Calvez, M; Kautsky, U

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example. PMID:16198459

  8. Assessment of Environmental Intention of Journalists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skanavis, Constantina; Sakellari, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of environmental education (EE) is that citizens develop a responsible environmental behavior. Environmental awareness constitutes an important factor for the shaping of a responsible environmental behavior. The mass media can strengthen the degree of environmental awareness of the public, through the dissemination of…

  9. Environmental assessment, Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 USC sections 10101-10226) requires the environmental assessment of a proposed site to include a statement of the basis for nominating a site as suitable for characterization. Volume 2 provides a detailed statement evaluating the site suitability of the Deaf Smith County Site under DOE siting guidelines, as well as a comparison of the Deaf Smith County Site to the other sites under consideration. The evaluation of the Deaf Smith County Site is based on the impacts associated with the reference repository design, but the evaluation will not change if based on the Mission Plan repository concept. The second part of this document compares the Deaf Smith County Site to Davis Canyon, Hanford, Richton Dome and Yucca Mountain. This comparison is required under DOE guidelines and is not intended to directly support subsequent recommendation of three sites for characterization as candidate sites. 259 refs., 29 figs., 66 refs. (MHB)

  10. The paradox of strategic environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bidstrup, Morten Hansen, Anne Merrild

    2014-07-01

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is a tool that can facilitate sustainable development and improve decision-making by introducing environmental concern early in planning processes. However, various international studies conclude that current planning practice is not taking full advantage of the tool, and we therefore define the paradox of SEA as the methodological ambiguity of non-strategic SEA. This article explores causality through at three-step case study on aggregates extraction planning in Denmark, which consists of a document analysis; a questionnaire survey and follow-up communication with key planners. Though the environmental reports on one hand largely lack strategic considerations, practitioners express an inherent will for strategy and reveal that their SEAs in fact have been an integrated part of the planning process. Institutional context is found to be the most significant barrier for a strategy and this suggests that non-strategic planning setups can prove more important than non-strategic planning in SEA practice. Planners may try to execute strategy within the confinements of SEA-restricted planning contexts; however, such efforts can be overlooked if evaluated by a narrow criterion for strategy formation. Consequently, the paradox may also spark from challenged documentation. These findings contribute to the common understanding of SEA quality; however, further research is needed on how to communicate and influence the strategic options which arguably remain inside non-strategic planning realities. - Highlights: • International studies conclude that SEAs are not strategic. = The paradox of SEA. • Even on the highest managerial level, some contexts do not leave room for strategy. • Non-strategic SEA can derive from challenged documentation. • Descriptive and emergent strategy formation can, in practice, be deemed non-strategic.

  11. 12 CFR 1815.112 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of an environmental assessment. 1815.112 Section 1815.112 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1815.112 Preparation of an environmental assessment. (a) The Fund shall begin the preparation of...

  12. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... environmental assessment shall be made by EPA. Pursuant to 40 CFR part 221, the permit applicant shall submit... submitted under 40 CFR part 221 shall be sufficient to satisfy the environmental assessment requirement. (c... Significant Deterioration (PSD) regulations (40 CFR part 52) shall satisfy the environmental...

  13. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... environmental assessment shall be made by EPA. Pursuant to 40 CFR part 221, the permit applicant shall submit... submitted under 40 CFR part 221 shall be sufficient to satisfy the environmental assessment requirement. (c... Significant Deterioration (PSD) regulations (40 CFR part 52) shall satisfy the environmental...

  14. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... environmental assessment shall be made by EPA. Pursuant to 40 CFR part 221, the permit applicant shall submit... submitted under 40 CFR part 221 shall be sufficient to satisfy the environmental assessment requirement. (c... Significant Deterioration (PSD) regulations (40 CFR part 52) shall satisfy the environmental...

  15. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... environmental assessment shall be made by EPA. Pursuant to 40 CFR part 221, the permit applicant shall submit... submitted under 40 CFR part 221 shall be sufficient to satisfy the environmental assessment requirement. (c... Significant Deterioration (PSD) regulations (40 CFR part 52) shall satisfy the environmental...

  16. Final rapid reactivation project environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-10

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the Rapid Reactivation Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. The EA analyzes the potential effects of a proposal to increase production of neutron generators from the current capability of 600 units per year up to 2,000 units per year. The project would use existing buildings and infrastructure to the maximum extent possible to meet the additional production needs. The increased production levels would necessitate modifications and additions involving a total area of approximately 26,290 gross square feet at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, Technical Area 1. Additional production equipment would be procured and installed. The no-action alternative would be to continue production activities at the current capability of 600 units per year. The EA analyzes effects on health, safety, and air quality, resulting from construction and operation and associated cumulative effects. A detailed description of the proposed action and its environmental consequences is presented in the EA.

  17. 3000 Area Phase 1 environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ranade, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is planning to sell the 3000 Area to prospective buyers. Environmental Services was requested by the WHC Economic Transition group to assess potential environmental liabilities in the area. Historical review of the area indicated that the site was the location of ``Camp Hanford`` in 1951 and has been used for a variety of purposes since then. The activities in the area have changed over the years. A number of Buildings from the area have been demolished and at least 15 underground storage tanks (USTs) have been removed. Part of the 3000 Area was identified as Operable Unit 1100-EM-3 in the Tri-Party Agreement and was cleaned up by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The cleanup included removal of contaminated soil and USTS. WHC and ICF KH had also performed sampling and analysis at some locations in the 3000 Area prior to USACE`s work on the Operable Unit 1100-EM-3. They removed a number of USTs and performed remediation.

  18. Transmission line environmental assessment guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.; Pentecost, E.; Muzzarelli, J.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1939, U.S. utility companies have been required to obtain a Presidential Permit to construct electric transmission lines that cross a U.S. border and connect with a foreign utility. The purpose of this document is to provide Presidential Permit applicants with two types of guidance: (1) on the type of environmental and project descriptive information needed to assess the potential impacts of the proposed and alternative actions and (2) on compliance with applicable federal and state regulations. The main three chapters present information on the purpose and content of this document (Chapter 1); legislative, regulatory, and consultation requirements for transmission line interconnect projects (Chapter 2); and identification of basic transmission system design parameters and environmental data requirements for analysis of potential impacts of the proposed action (Chapter 3). Chapter 3 also includes information on possible techniques or measures to mitigate impacts. Appendix A presents an overview of NEPA requirements and DOE`s implementing procedures. Appendix B summarizes information on legislation that may be applicable to transmission line projects proposed in Presidential Permit applications.

  19. The usability of wood as a volume trap for the purpose of retrospective radon exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Paridaens, J.; Vanmarcke, H. )

    1999-06-01

    The possibility of using wood samples as a retrospective radon monitor was investigated. Retrospective radon monitors are based on the analysis of the enhanced [sup 210]Po content of the bulk of the sample as a result of radon exposure. Several wood samples in different sizes and shapes were tested for their radon penetrability and the speed at which radon can diffuse throughout the material. Also, the volume ratio of air to solid material and the natural occurring [sup 210]Po background were determined. It was seen that only in fairly exceptional cases wood can be used as an acceptable volume trap. This is mostly due to the high and variably occurring natural [sup 210]Po background in wood samples with respect to the expected increase in radon-related [sup 210]Po due to common radon concentrations in dwellings.

  20. Strategic environmental assessment can help solve environmental impact assessment failures in developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Alshuwaikhat, Habib M. . E-mail: habibms@kfupm.edu.sa

    2005-05-15

    The current trend of industrialization and urbanization in developing nations has a huge impact on anthropogenic and natural ecosystems. Pollution sources increase with the expansion of cities and cause contamination of water, air and soil. The absence of urban environmental planning and management strategies has resulted in greater concern for future urban development. This paper advocates the adoption of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) as a means to achieve sustainable development in developing countries. It investigates project-level environmental impact assessment (EIA) and its limitations. The exploration of SEA and its features are addressed. The effective implementation of SEA can create a roadmap for sustainable development. In many developing countries, the lack of transparency and accountability and ineffective public participation in the development of the policy, plan and program (PPP) would be mitigated by the SEA process. Moreover, the proactive and broadly based characteristics of SEA would benefit the institutional development of the PPP process, which is rarely experienced in many developing countries. The paper also explores the prospects for SEA and its guiding principles in developing countries. Finally, the paper calls for a coordinated effort between all government, nongovernment and international organizations involved with PPPs to enable developing countries to pursue a path of sustainable development through the development and application of strategic environmental assessment.

  1. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... statement. An environmental assessment aids in complying with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary, and it facilitates the preparation of an environmental impact statement, if one is... that an environmental impact statement is not required, then PADC shall prepare a finding of...

  2. 43 CFR 3802.3-1 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cause unnecessary and undue degradation and whether an environmental impact statement is required. (b) Following completion of the environmental assessment or the environmental impact statement, the authorized... environmental impact statement, a cultural resource inventory or section 7 of the Endangered Species Act....

  3. 43 CFR 3802.3-1 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cause unnecessary and undue degradation and whether an environmental impact statement is required. (b) Following completion of the environmental assessment or the environmental impact statement, the authorized... environmental impact statement, a cultural resource inventory or section 7 of the Endangered Species Act....

  4. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... statement. An environmental assessment aids in complying with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary, and it facilitates the preparation of an environmental impact statement, if one is... that an environmental impact statement is not required, then PADC shall prepare a finding of...

  5. 36 CFR 907.12 - Preparation of an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... statement. An environmental assessment aids in complying with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary, and it facilitates the preparation of an environmental impact statement, if one is... that an environmental impact statement is not required, then PADC shall prepare a finding of...

  6. 43 CFR 3802.3-1 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cause unnecessary and undue degradation and whether an environmental impact statement is required. (b) Following completion of the environmental assessment or the environmental impact statement, the authorized... environmental impact statement, a cultural resource inventory or section 7 of the Endangered Species Act....

  7. 43 CFR 3802.3-1 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cause unnecessary and undue degradation and whether an environmental impact statement is required. (b) Following completion of the environmental assessment or the environmental impact statement, the authorized... environmental impact statement, a cultural resource inventory or section 7 of the Endangered Species Act....

  8. Assessing Environmental Impact: A Secondary School Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nous, Albert P.

    This packet contains information on teaching about environmental impact. Background information is included on the role of environmental impact on our society and environmental risk is also discussed. Environmental impacts are studied using Stages of Assessment. Learning activities and seven lesson plans include: (1) "The Community Initiative";…

  9. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:19048472

  10. Environmental risk assessment in GMO analysis.

    PubMed

    Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Genetically modified or engineered organisms (GMOs, GEOs) are utilised in agriculture, expressing traits of interest, such as insect or herbicide resistance. Soybean, maize, cotton and oilseed rape are the GM crops with the largest acreage in the world. The distribution of GM acreage in the different countries is related with the different positions concerning labelling of GMO products: based on the principle of substantial equivalence, or rather based on the precautionary principle. The paper provides an overview on how the risks associated with release of GMO in the environments can be analysed and predicted, in view of a possible coexistence of GM and non-GM organisms in agriculture.Risk assessment procedures, both qualitative and quantitative, are compared in the context of application to GMOs considering also legislation requirements (Directive 2001/18/EC). Criteria and measurable properties to assess harm for human health and environmental safety are listed, and the possible consequences are evaluated in terms of significance.Finally, a mapping of the possible risks deriving from GMO release is reported, focusing on gene transfer to related species, horizontal gene transfer, direct and indirect effects on non target organisms, development of resistance in target organisms, and effects on biodiversity. PMID:21384330

  11. Ecological risk assessment benefits environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Fairbrother, A.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Glicken, J.

    1994-12-31

    The ecological risk assessment process in its ideal form is an unbiased approach for assessing the probability of harm to the environment as a consequence of a given action. This information can then be combined with other societal values and biases in the management of such risks. However, as the process currently is understood, decision makers often are accused of manipulating information in order to generate decisions or achieve buy in from the public in support of a particular political agenda. A clear understanding of the nature of the risk management process can help define areas where information should be free from social or personal bias, and areas where values and judgments are critical. The authors do not propose to discuss the individual`s decision-making process, but rather to address the social process of risk communication and environmentally-related decision-making, identifying which parts of that process require bias-free, scientifically generated information about the consequences of various actions and which parts need an understanding of the social values which underlie the informed choices among those possible actions.

  12. Environmental projects. Volume 16: Waste minimization assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), located in the MoJave Desert, is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Deep Space Network (DSN), the world's largest and most sensitive scientific telecommunications and radio navigation network. The Goldstone Complex is operated for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. At present, activities at the GDSCC support the operation of nine parabolic dish antennas situated at five separate locations known as 'sites.' Each of the five sites at the GDSCC has one or more antennas, called 'Deep Space Stations' (DSS's). In the course of operation of these DSS's, various hazardous and non-hazardous wastes are generated. In 1992, JPL retained Kleinfelder, Inc., San Diego, California, to quantify the various streams of hazardous and non-hazardous wastes generated at the GDSCC. In June 1992, Kleinfelder, Inc., submitted a report to JPL entitled 'Waste Minimization Assessment.' This present volume is a JPL-expanded version of the Kleinfelder, Inc. report. The 'Waste Minimization Assessment' report did not find any deficiencies in the various waste-management programs now practiced at the GDSCC, and it found that these programs are being carried out in accordance with environmental rules and regulations.

  13. [Environmental damage assessment: international regulations and revelation to China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-zhen; Cao, Dong; Yu, Fang; Wang, Jin-nan; Qi, Ji; Jia, Qian; Zhang, Tian-zhu; Luo, Yong-ming

    2013-05-01

    As the whole society gradually realizes the scarcity of nature resources and environmental value, countries all over the world have evolved and improved the system of environmental damage assessment through the practices of pollution prevention and ecological environmental protection. On one hand, in the research prospective, the practices of environmental damage assessment brought new challenges to environmental law, environmental economics, environmental science, environmental engineering, etc. On the other hand, they constantly promoted and developed relevant laws and regulations, techniques, working mechanism, and guidelines on procedure in practice. On the hasis of comparison and analysis of international practices and experiences from US, EU, and Japan, etc., this article identified relevant concepts, content, and scope of environmental damage assessment, and presented its scientific positioning and development direction. At present, both theory and practice of environmental damage assessment in China are in their infancy period. Considering current environmental situation and socioeconomic development features of China, learning international practices and experiences and raising the orientation of environmental damage assessment have great meaning in exploring the suitable environmental damage assessment system. PMID:23914513

  14. A Production Function Approach to Regional Environmental-Economic Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous difficulties await those creating regional-scale environmental assessments, from data having inconsistent spatial or temporal scales to poorly understood environmental processes and indicators. Including socioeconomic variables further complicates the situation. In place...

  15. Berkeley's Course on Environmental Assessment and Impact Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, John G.; Nicholas, Tawna

    1976-01-01

    A four-quarter sequence of courses to assess environmental impact, to provide students with knowledge of environmental law, a strong interdisciplinary base, and an understanding of the processes of planning and policy formation, is described. (BT)

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM AGROECOSYSTEM MONITORING AND RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The monitoring program described in this document is one component of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), a national program administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development. or EMAP, agroecosystems are defined ...

  17. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

  18. Integrated Modeling for Environmental Assessment of Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency uses environmental models to inform rulemaking and policy decisions at multiple spatial and temporal scales. In this study, several sophisticated modeling technologies are seamlessly integrated to facilitate a baseline assessment of the re...

  19. Integrated Modelling Frameworks for Environmental Assessment and Decision Support

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern management of environmental resources defines problems from a holistic and integrated perspective, imposing strong requirements to Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSSs) and Integrated Assessment Tools (IATs), which tend to be increasingly complex in terms of software architecture and...

  20. ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE STRESSORS IN ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Major goals of environmental data analysis are the assessment of the condition of the environment and the relationship between condition and potential stressors. Environmental stress occurs at different temporal and spatial scales.

  1. Environmental impact assessment of the Dulang oilfield development project

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, M.N. ); ))

    1988-01-01

    The authors discuss an environmental impact assessment (EIA) of the Dulang Oilfield Development Project, conducted to determine whether the project could proceed in a safe and environmentally acceptable manner. This is the first EIA for an offshore oilfield in Malaysian waters, and was conducted in anticipation of the Environmental Quality (Prescribed Activities) (Environmental Impact Assessment Order(1987)) which requires an EIA to be conducted for major oil and gas field development projects.

  2. Retrospective assessment of indoor radon exposure by measurements of embedded 210Po activity in glass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Prasad, Ganesh

    In most of the epidemiological studies contemporary radon measurements have been used as surrogates for radon concentrations in past decades even though changes in radon levels and residence may have occurred. Short-lived radon progeny may deposit on available surfaces in dwellings thus giving rise over time to a build up of long-lived progeny. Airborne radon decay products can be deposited and implanted through alpha recoil into the glass surfaces. On glass surface, activities of 210Po may arise as a result of the decay of recoil implanted activity following the alpha decay of surface deposited 218Po or 214Po. Measurement of 210Po implanted on a household glass is a method that can be employed to retrospectively determine the historic level of radon in dwellings. This method is based on the assumption that levels of recoil implanted 210Po in the glass provide a measure of time integrated radon concentration in the environment in which the glass has been located. The surface deposited activity of the radon progenies, which then become implanted in the glass by alpha recoil, is believed to reflect past exposure to airborne activity. Such retrospective measurements on glass are valuable in estimating the human dose derived from radon during the time of exposure. In this paper an account is given of the principles and some field applications of a retrospective technique, using the alpha track detectors, CR-39 and LR-115, to measure 210Po implanted in glass surfaces (surface traps). By using this CR-LR difference technique, the cumulative radon exposure in a dwelling in past decades may be estimated. This method provides reliable radon exposure data as a support to epidemiological studies concerning the health effects of radon exposure in the living environment.

  3. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A responsible entity must re-evaluate its environmental findings to determine if the original findings are still...

  4. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  5. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  6. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  7. 10 CFR 51.25 - Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or environmental assessment; eligibility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination to prepare environmental impact statement or... Prepare Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments Or Findings of No Significant Impact, and Related Procedures § 51.25 Determination to prepare environmental impact statement...

  8. 24 CFR 58.47 - Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... circumstances and environmental conditions which may affect the project or have a bearing on its impact, such as... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-evaluation of environmental....47 Re-evaluation of environmental assessments and other environmental findings. (a) A...

  9. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME I. SUPPLEMENT A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report supplements Volume I (PB-276 919) of the two-volume 1977 EPA report that introduced a methodology to establish Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEGs) for chemical pollutants. It summarizes the original methodology and introduces minor improvements. Improvements include ...

  10. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome site, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  11. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  12. Environmental assessment: Richton Dome Site, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Richton Dome site in Mississippi as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Richton Dome site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EAs. The site is in the Gulf interior region, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains two other potentially acceptable sites--the Cypress Creek Dome site in Mississippi and the Vacherie Dome site in Louisiana. Although the Cypress Creek Dome and the Vacherie Dome sites are suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Richton Dome site is the preferred site in the Gulf interior region. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Richton Dome site is not disqualified under the guidelines.

  13. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  14. Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-01-01

    The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA's) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area's maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

  15. 40 CFR 1508.9 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. (2) Aid an agency's compliance with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary. (3... for the proposal, of alternatives as required by section 102(2)(E), of the environmental impacts...

  16. 40 CFR 1508.9 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. (2) Aid an agency's compliance with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary. (3... for the proposal, of alternatives as required by section 102(2)(E), of the environmental impacts...

  17. 40 CFR 1508.9 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. (2) Aid an agency's compliance with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary. (3... for the proposal, of alternatives as required by section 102(2)(E), of the environmental impacts...

  18. 40 CFR 1508.9 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determining whether to prepare an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. (2) Aid an agency's compliance with the Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary. (3... for the proposal, of alternatives as required by section 102(2)(E), of the environmental impacts...

  19. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Hawaii supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-07-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Hawaii Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Hawaii state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental law--Hawaii, Environmental checklists.

  20. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Wisconsin supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-02-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Wisconsin Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Wisconsin state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental compliance checklists, Environmental Law - Wisconsin.

  1. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.136 Environmental Assessment (EA) and... the type or contents of such wastes. Assessments are not required for conveyance where the real... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental Assessment (EA) and...

  2. Development of an Environmental Quality Index to assess environmental public health disparities - What data are available?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to environmental insults and human health outcomes is complex. Environmental exposures tend to cluster spatially, with disamenities (e.g., landfills, industrial plants) often located in high-minority and largely poor neighborhoods, while wealthier neighborhoods...

  3. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of radon gas (222Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the 226Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m-3 to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m-3, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m-3 to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m-3, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m-3 to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m-3, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m-3 to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m-3 and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m-3 to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m-3, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m-3, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m-3, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m-3 and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m-3, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the action level for radon gas of 148 Bq m-3 proposed by EPA except monazite 0.15 kg, struverite 0.15 kg and 0.25 kg. Whereas

  4. Radiological risk assessment of environmental radon

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Norafatin; Majid, Amran Ab; Yahaya, Redzuwan; Yasir, Muhammad Samudi

    2013-11-27

    Measurements of radon gas ({sup 222}Rn) in the environmental are important to assess indoor air quality and to study the potential risk to human health. Generally known that exposure to radon is considered the second leading cause of lung cancer after smoking. The environmental radon concentration depends on the {sup 226}Ra concentration, indoor atmosphere, cracking on rocks and building materials. This study was carried out to determine the indoor radon concentration from selected samples of tin tailings (amang) and building materials in an airtight sealed homemade radon chamber. The radiological risk assessment for radon gas was also calculated based on the annual exposure dose, effective dose equivalent, radon exhalation rates and fatal cancer risk. The continuous radon monitor Sun Nuclear model 1029 was used to measure the radon concentration emanates from selected samples for 96 hours. Five types of tin tailings collected from Kampar, Perak and four samples of building materials commonly used in Malaysia dwellings or building constructions were analysed for radon concentration. The indoor radon concentration determined in ilmenite, monazite, struverite, xenotime and zircon samples varies from 219.6 ± 76.8 Bq m{sup −3} to 571.1 ± 251.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 101.0 ± 41.0 Bq m{sup −3} to 245.3 ± 100.2 Bq m{sup −3}, 53.1 ± 7.5 Bq m{sup −3} to 181.8 ± 9.7 Bq m{sup −3}, 256.1 ± 59.3 Bq m{sup −3} to 652.2 ± 222.2 Bq m{sup −3} and 164.5 ± 75.9 Bq m{sup −3} to 653.3 ± 240.0 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. Whereas, in the building materials, the radon concentration from cement brick, red-clay brick, gravel aggregate and cement showed 396.3 ± 194.3 Bq m{sup −3}, 192.1 ± 75.4 Bq m{sup −3}, 176.1 ± 85.9 Bq m{sup −3} and 28.4 ± 5.7 Bq m{sup −3}, respectively. The radon concentration in tin tailings and building materials were found to be much higher in xenotime and cement brick samples than others. All samples in tin tailings were exceeded the

  5. A retrospective approach to assess human health risks associated with growing air pollution in urbanized area of Thar Desert, western Rajasthan, India

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution has been a matter of great concern globally because of the associated health risks to individuals. The situation is getting worse in developing countries with more urbanization, industrialization and more importantly the rapidly growing population posing a threat to human life in the form of pulmonary, cardiovascular, carcinogenic or asthmatic diseases by accumulating toxic pollutants, harmful gases, metals, hydrocarbons etc. Objective The present study was undertaken to assess the magnitude of ambient air pollutants and their human health risks like respiratory ailments, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer using a Retrospective Approach of Bart Ostra. Methodology The parameters PM2.5, PM10, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 were monitored at all selected study sites monitored through a high volume sampler (APM 451 Envirotech, Envirotech Instruments Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India). Retrospective Approach was used for assessment of risk factors and disease burden of respiratory and cardiopulmonary health problems. Results Environmental burden of disease showed that the problem of health related to air pollution is a main concern particularly in the growing cities of India. High to critical level of air pollution including PM10, PM2.5, NOx, SO2, NH3 and O3 was observed in all seasons at traffic intersections and commercial sites. The respiratory infections (25% incidence in population exposed to indoor smoke problems) and a prevalence of asthma/COPD (4.4%) in households exposed to high vehicular pollution along with signs of coronary artery/heart disease and/or hypertension and cancers (37.9-52.2%), were reported requiring preventive measures. Conclusion The study reflects a great concern for the mankind with the need of having streamline ways to limit air pollution and emphasize upon efficiently determining the risk of illness upon exposure to air pollution. PMID:24406114

  6. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meloy, Thomas P.; Marshall, John; Hecht, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. In addition to objectives related to human exploration, the MECA data set will be rich in information relevant to basic geology, paleoclimate, and exobiology issues. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg and a peak power usage of 15 W within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm (figures I and 2). The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Using an array of ion-specific electrodes (ISEs), cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical techniques, the chemistry cells will wet soil samples for measurement of basic soil properties of pH, redox potential, and conductivity. Total dissolved material, as well as targeted ions will be detected to the ppm level, including important exobiological ions such as Na, K+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+, Cl, S04-, HC03, as well as more toxic ions such as Cu++, Pb++, Cd++, Hg++, and C104-. MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to image dust and soil particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Illumination by red, green, and blue LEDs is augmented by an ultraviolet LED intended to excite

  7. Retrospective assessment of osteomyelitis. Etiology, demographics, risk factors, and management in 35 cases.

    PubMed

    Koorbusch, G F; Fotos, P; Goll, K T

    1992-08-01

    A retrospective review and analysis of the management of osteomyelitis in 35 patients at a major hospital complex has been made. In this patient population sample, trauma and odontogenic sources were determined to be the most prevalent causes of osteomyelitis of the jaws, which in the vast majority of cases affected the mandible. Alcohol and/or tobacco use was reported in at least one half of the cases surveyed. Surgical exploration and debridement were most frequently used during the treatment of these cases. The microbial causes of these lesions were most frequently mixed infections that originated from the oral cavity. Antimicrobial therapy most often used beta-lactam-bearing antibiotics, although combinations with other agents were often included. These and other data obtained through this study underscore the multifactored causes and therapeutic approaches found in osteomyelitis of the jaws. PMID:1508521

  8. Intraoperative laser speckle contrast imaging with retrospective motion correction for quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Lisa M.; Towle, Erica L.; Fox, Douglas J.; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Although multiple intraoperative cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring techniques are currently available, a quantitative method that allows for continuous monitoring and that can be easily integrated into the surgical workflow is still needed. Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is an optical imaging technique with a high spatiotemporal resolution that has been recently demonstrated as feasible and effective for intraoperative monitoring of CBF during neurosurgical procedures. This study demonstrates the impact of retrospective motion correction on the quantitative analysis of intraoperatively acquired LSCI images. LSCI images were acquired through a surgical microscope during brain tumor resection procedures from 10 patients under baseline conditions and after a cortical stimulation in three of those patients. The patient’s electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded during acquisition for postprocess correction of pulsatile artifacts. Automatic image registration was retrospectively performed to correct for tissue motion artifacts, and the performance of rigid and nonrigid transformations was compared. In baseline cases, the original images had 25%±27% noise across 16 regions of interest (ROIs). ECG filtering moderately reduced the noise to 20%±21%, while image registration resulted in a further noise reduction of 15%±4%. Combined ECG filtering and image registration significantly reduced the noise to 6.2%±2.6% (p<0.05). Using the combined motion correction, accuracy and sensitivity to small changes in CBF were improved in cortical stimulation cases. There was also excellent agreement between rigid and nonrigid registration methods (15/16 ROIs with <3% difference). Results from this study demonstrate the importance of motion correction for improved visualization of CBF changes in clinical LSCI images. PMID:26157974

  9. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Japan settlement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krooks, D.A.; Hurt, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    The U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Major Army Commands (MACOMs) must conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle and conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM developed a separate system, the Army mandated a unified, Army-wide assessment mechanism, which combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations; good management practices; and risk-management issues into a series of checklists that show requirements and specific items or operations to review. Each protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review checklist items. The Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates checklists from USEPA and from private industry. It integrates information from the Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document (OEBGD). Worldwide ECAS includes pertinent information from Army Regulations and DOD Directives and Instructions and cites management practices for an overall environmental review. The ECAS JAPAN supplement incorporates Japanese legislation, regulations, and suggested management practices. It was developed for use in conjunction with the Worldwide ECAS manuals (USACERL SR-EC-93/03) and is updated continually to address changes in Japanese laws and regulations. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Environmental law--Japan, Environmental assessment.

  10. Reliability of an expert rating procedure for retrospective assessment of occupational exposures in community-based case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Siemiatycki, J; Fritschi, L; Nadon, L; Gérin, M

    1997-03-01

    The most daunting problem in community-based studies of occupational cancer is retrospective exposure assessment. To avoid the error involved in using job title as the exposure variable or self-report of exposure, our team developed an approach based on expert judgment applied to job descriptions obtained by interviewers. A population-based case-control study of cancer and occupation was carried out in Montreal between 1979 and 1986, and over 4,000 job histories were assessed by our team of experts. The job histories of these subjects were evaluated, by consensus, by a team of chemist/hygienists for evidence of exposure to a list of 294 workplace chemicals. In order to evaluate the reliability of this exposure assessment procedure, four years after the rating was completed, we selected 50 job histories at random and had two members of the expert team carry out the same type of coding, blind to the original ratings for these jobs. For 25 job histories, comprising 94 distinct jobs, the pair worked as a consensus panel; for the other 25, comprising 92 distinct jobs, they worked independently. Statistical comparisons were made between the new ratings and the old. Among those rated by consensus, the marginal distribution of exposure prevalence was almost identical between old and new. The weighted kappa for agreement was 0.80. Among items for which both ratings agreed that there had been exposure, there was good agreement on the frequency, concentration, and route of contact. When the two raters worked independently, the levels of agreement between them and between each of them and the original rating was good (kappas around 0.70), though not as high as when they worked together. It is concluded that high levels of reliability are attainable for retrospective exposure assessment by experts. PMID:9055950

  11. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schell, D.J.; Beckler, T.M.

    1993-03-01

    The U.S. Army maintains an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk-management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and which specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. It also integrates information from the Overseas Environmental Baseline Guidance Document (OEBGD), published by DOD in October 1992. Additionally, Worldwide ECAS includes pertinent information from Army Regulations, DOD Directives and Instructions, and it cites good management practices for an overall environmental review. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS), Worldwide ECAS, Environmental compliance checklists.

  12. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  13. Mars Global Surveyor Mission: Environmental Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This environmental assessment addresses the proposed action to complete the integration and launch the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS), Florida, during the launch window in November 1996. Mars Global Surveyor is part of the Solar System Exploration Program to the inner planets designed to maintain a sufficient level of scientific investigation and accomplishment so that the United States retains a leading position in solar system exploration through the end of the century. The Program consists of a specific sequence of missions, based on technological readiness, launch opportunities, rapidity of data return, and a balance of scientific disciplines. The purpose of the MGS mission would be to deliver a spacecraft platform to a low-altitude polar orbit around Mars where it would collect global observations of basic geological, geophysical, and climatological processes of the planet. To satisfy this purpose, the MGS mission would support a scientific set of objectives. Detailed global maps of surface topography, the distribution of minerals, the planet's mass, size, and shape, the characterization of Mars gravitational and magnetic fields, and the monitoring of global weather, collected over the period of one Martian year (about two Earth years), would help answer some of the questions about the evolution of Mars. Such an investigation would help scientists better understand the current state of water on Mars, the evolution of the planet's atmosphere, and the factors that led to major changes in the Martian climate. It would also provide much needed information on the magnetic field of Mars. Data collected from this mission would provide insight into the evolution of both Earth and the solar system, as well as demonstrate technological approaches that could be applicable to future Mars missions.

  14. Environmental radioactivity assessment for Bayburt, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kucukomeroglu, B; Kurnaz, A; Damla, N; Cevik, U; Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskin, H

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the results of environmental radioactivity measurements for Bayburt Province in the Eastern Black Sea area of Turkey. Using gamma-ray spectrometry, activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K and a fission product (137)Cs were investigated in soil samples. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in various building materials such as sand, cement and marble and in drinking waters were determined. The activity concentrations vary from 16 to 54 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 10 to 21 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 113 to 542 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K in building materials. The mean specific activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K in drinking waters were 93, 30 and 504 mBq l(-1), respectively. The concentrations of gross alpha and beta radioactivity in drinking water samples collected from four different sampling stations have been determined. The results show that the gross alpha and beta activities are lower than the screening levels given by the World Health Organization (WHO), which are a maximum contaminant level of 0.5 Bq l(-1) and 1.0 Bq l(-1) gross alpha and beta radioactivity, respectively, in drinking water. Indoor radon measurements were made in 44 dwellings in Bayburt by using Cr-39 detectors. Radon concentrations in dwellings in Bayburt varied from 17 to 125 Bq m(-3) and the average value was 56 Bq m(-3). The results obtained in this study indicate that the region has a background radiation level that is within the typical natural range and shows no significant departures from other parts of the country. PMID:19690358

  15. 33 CFR 230.10 - Environmental Assessments (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... determining whether to prepare an EIS or a FONSI (40 CFR 1508.9). The district commander is responsible for... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental Assessments (EA..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.10 Environmental Assessments (EA). (a)...

  16. 33 CFR 230.10 - Environmental Assessments (EA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determining whether to prepare an EIS or a FONSI (40 CFR 1508.9). The district commander is responsible for... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental Assessments (EA..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING NEPA § 230.10 Environmental Assessments (EA). (a)...

  17. 48 CFR 23.704 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic products... 23.704 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. (a) General. As required by E.O. 13423... electronic products with Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool (EPEAT)-registered...

  18. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  19. Assessing Environmental Understanding: An Application of the Concept Mapping Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Kristen E.; Tressler, Kurt D.; Mintzes, Joel J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite its importance as a central goal in environmental education, there appears to be little consensus about how best to document, assess and evaluate understanding of environmental concepts. This illustrative case study describes and demonstrates the use of the concept mapping strategy as an effective tool for assessing environmental…

  20. 10 CFR 51.31 - Determinations based on environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... involving a standard design certification or a manufacturing license under part 52 of this chapter, the...) Manufacturing license. (1) Upon completion of the environmental assessment for actions involving issuance or amendment of a manufacturing license (manufacturing license environmental assessment), the appropriate...

  1. 40 CFR 6.403 - Environmental review and assessment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section 102(c) of the MPRSA and 40 CFR part 228, and for the establishment or revision of criteria under... environmental assessment shall be made by EPA. Pursuant to 40 CFR part 221, the permit applicant shall submit... submitted under 40 CFR part 221 shall be sufficient to satisfy the environmental assessment requirement....

  2. 78 FR 41056 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment BOST5 Hydroelectric LLC... by the Corps. Staff prepared a multi-project environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes...

  3. 77 FR 44610 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Regulatory Commission (Commission) regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment FirstLight Hydro... (Norwich Public Utilities). Staff prepared a draft environmental assessment (EA), which analyzes...

  4. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  5. Developing a Community of Thinking: Assessment of Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Penny

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses an oral assessment intervention in environmental education at two tertiary institutions in South Africa. A qualitative study grounded in a social constructivist framework, the inquiry locates learning and assessment of environmental education based on practical activities and first-hand experience within the framework of…

  6. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  7. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  8. 48 CFR 1323.705 - Electronic products environmental assessment tool.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic products environmental assessment tool. 1323.705 Section 1323.705 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Products and Services 1323.705 Electronic products environmental assessment tool. The procedures...

  9. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  10. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  11. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  12. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  13. 34 CFR 75.601 - Applicant's assessment of environmental impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicant's assessment of environmental impact. 75.601 Section 75.601 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Construction § 75.601 Applicant's assessment of environmental impact....

  14. MULTIMEDIA ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the derivation of Multimedia Environmental Goals (MEG's). MEG's are levels of significant contaminants or degradents (in ambient air, water, or land, or in emissions or effluents conveyed to the ambient media) that are judged to be: appropri...

  15. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) (42 U.S.C. 4332 et seq.), Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 303(c)), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), the Coastal... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  16. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  17. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  18. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  19. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) (42 U.S.C. 4332 et seq.), Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 303(c)), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), the Coastal... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  20. 49 CFR 260.35 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”) (42 U.S.C. 4332 et seq.), Section 4(f) of the Department of Transportation Act (49 U.S.C. 303(c)), the National Historic Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), the Coastal... Council on Environmental Quality (“CEQ Regulation”) (40 CFR Part 1500) will govern the FRA's...

  1. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  2. 49 CFR 262.15 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Preservation Act (16 U.S.C. 470(f)), and the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531). Appropriate environmental... Environmental Quality (40 CFR part 1500) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Protection of Historic Properties regulation (36 CFR part 800) will govern FRA's compliance with applicable...

  3. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... required preparation of an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. After... based on speculation.” 9 The Commission concluded that an environmental impact statement was therefore... impact statement is not required in conjunction with the issuance of the 1998 modifications to the...

  4. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... required preparation of an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. After... based on speculation.” 9 The Commission concluded that an environmental impact statement was therefore... impact statement is not required in conjunction with the issuance of the 1998 modifications to the...

  5. 16 CFR 260.8 - Environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... required preparation of an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact. After... based on speculation.” 9 The Commission concluded that an environmental impact statement was therefore... impact statement is not required in conjunction with the issuance of the 1998 modifications to the...

  6. 78 FR 16656 - Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for Natural Resource...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Draft Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan and... Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment for natural resource injuries and service losses associated with..., notice is hereby given that a document entitled, ``Damage Assessment and Restoration Plan...

  7. Assessing potential future environmental legal events

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Petrich, C.

    1997-10-28

    This report addresses the topic of environmental citizenship in the United States. The term refers to responsibilities each of us have with respect to helping our communities and nation make sound environmental decisions. This research centers on the citizens and what we ought to be doing, as opposed to what the government ought to be doing for us, to improve environmental citizenship. This report examines four central questions: What are the requirements (i.e., responsibilities) of citizenship vis-a-vis environmental decision- making processes; what constraints limit people`s ability to meet these requirements; what does our form of governance do to help or hinder in meeting these requirements; and what recommendations can be put forth to improve public participation in environmental decision making?

  8. Retrospective assessment of historic radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings by measuring glass implanted Po-210--an international field intercomparison.

    PubMed

    Birovljev, A; Falk, R; Walsh, C; Bissolo, F; Trotti, F; McLaughlin, J P; Paridaens, J; Vanmarcke, H

    2001-05-14

    The first Norwegian study of historic radon concentrations in 17 dwellings in the high radon areas in Norway has been conducted as part of an international field intercomparison during 1998. The retrospective radon concentration is estimated via measurements of Po-210, the long-lived decay product of Rn-222 implanted in glass surfaces of objects like pictures, mirrors, cabinet-glass, etc. the method called 'surface trap'. Three different surface trap techniques to assess the implanted Po-210 activity and two different procedures to estimate retro radon from Po-210 data were used. The Po-210 and the retrospectively estimated radon results agree reasonably well over a wide range of concentrations. Historic radon concentrations were also estimated from analysis of a smaller number of 'volume trap' samples (pieces of spongy materials), and the results compared to those from 'surface traps'. The retro radon results correlate with contemporary radon results with a correlation coefficient of 0.877. To evaluate uncertainty in Po-210 measurements due to varying position on the glass a study of spatial homogeneity of three sample glasses was conducted and variations between 12% and 18% were found. PMID:11379908

  9. Retrospective studies.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2015-01-01

    Large retrospective, epidemiological studies accumulated in the late 1980s, providing increasing evidence to the deeply rooted thought that perinatal events could persistently affect the individual's functioning and health/disease patterns throughout the lifetime. Evidences of such associations can be found in the literature since the beginning of the twentieth century, but studies from Barker, Hales, and colleagues serve as an important hallmark. They proposed the "thrifty phenotype" hypothesis, stating that poor nutrition in fetal and early infant life is detrimental to the development and function of the individuals' organism, predisposing them to the later development of adult chronic diseases. At first used to explain the increased risk for type 2 diabetes in low birth weight individuals, the hypothesis was soon adapted to other systems, becoming one of the core assumptions of the Developmental Origins of Adult Health and Disease (DOHaD) model. The central nervous system is also vulnerable to the effects of environmental variation during fetal or neonatal life. Many researchers have explored the effects of perinatal programming on the human neurodevelopment, and some aspects of the brain structure and/or functioning (such as cognitive function, physiological reactivity to stress, and the risk for behavioral disorders or psychopathology) were shown to be modifiable by the exposure to certain adverse events early in life such as neonatal infections, exposure to gestational psychosocial stress, nutrition during gestation, exposure to drugs, or tobacco smoking during pregnancy. Until recently, most studies focused on birth weight as a strong surrogate of the intrauterine environment, investigating the effects of low birth weight (as a marker of suboptimal fetal environment) on a variety of neurodevelopmental outcomes. Despite the fact that literature reviews on this topic are as old as 1940, the more recent retrospective studies are summarized in this chapter

  10. Retrospective exposure assessment of perfluorooctanoic acid serum concentrations at a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Woskie, Susan R; Gore, Rebecca; Steenland, Kyle

    2012-11-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a suspect human carcinogen, causes neonatal loss, liver enlargement, and a variety of tumors in rodents, and has been associated with increased cholesterol levels in humans. Mortality analyses of worker cohorts have not been conclusive or consistent. As part of a series of epidemiologic studies of workers in a West Virginia plant that manufactures fluoropolymers, estimates of serum PFOA for the worker cohort were developed for the period of 1950-2004. An existing database of 2125 worker biomarker measurements of serum PFOA was used to model retrospective exposures. Historical PFOA serum levels for eight job category/job group combinations were modeled using linear mixed models to account for repeated measures, along with exposure determinants such as cumulative years worked in potentially exposed jobs, the amount of C8 used or emitted by the plant over time, as well as a four-knot restricted cubic spline function to reflect the influence of process changes over calendar time on exposure. The modeled biomarker levels matched well with measured levels, including those collected independently as part of a community study of PFOA levels (Spearman correlations of 0.8 for internal data comparisons and 0.6 for external data comparisons). These annualized PFOA serum estimates will be used in a series of morbidity and mortality studies of this worker cohort. PMID:22539556

  11. Silent night: retrospective database study assessing possibility of “weekend effect” in palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Voltz, Raymond; Kamps, Robert; Greinwald, Ralf; Hellmich, Martin; Hamacher, Stefanie; Becker, Gerhild; Kuhr, Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the mortality of patients in a palliative care unit on working days with that on weekends and public holidays. Design Retrospective database study. Setting Palliative care unit in Germany. Population All admissions to palliative care unit between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2008. Main outcome measure The impact of day type (working days or weekends and public holidays) on mortality was analysed using Poisson regression models. Results A total of 2565 admitted patients and 1325 deaths were recorded. Of the deaths, 448 (33.8%) occurred on weekends and public holidays. The mortality rate on weekends and public holidays was 18% higher than that on working days (mortality rate ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.32; P=0.005). Conclusion Patients in the palliative care unit were at higher risk of dying on weekends and public holidays. In the absence of a prospective study, the exact reasons for this correlation are unclear. PMID:25515670

  12. Environmental assessment of packaging: The consumer point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Ynte K.

    1996-09-01

    When marketing environmentally responsible packaged products, the producer is confronted with consumer beliefs concerning the environmental friendliness of packaging materials. When making environmentally conscious packaging decisions, these consumer beliefs should be taken into account alongside the technical guidelines. Dutch consumer perceptions of the environmental friendliness of packaged products are reported and compared with the results of a life-cycle analysis assessment. It is shown that consumers judge environmental friendliness mainly from material and returnability. Furthermore, the consumer perception of the environmental friendliness of packaging material is based on the postconsumption waste, whereas the environmental effects of production are ignored. From the consumer beliefs concerning environmental friendliness implications are deduced for packaging policy and for environmental policy.

  13. 76 FR 10031 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment, Request for Comments on Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration (GSA... ADMINISTRATION Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting AGENCY: Public Building Services (PBS); General...

  14. Environmental Risk Assessment System for Phosphogypsum Tailing Dams

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Tang, Xiaolong; Yi, Honghong; Li, Kai; Zhou, Lianbi; Xu, Xianmang

    2013-01-01

    This paper may be of particular interest to the readers as it provides a new environmental risk assessment system for phosphogypsum tailing dams. In this paper, we studied the phosphogypsum tailing dams which include characteristics of the pollution source, environmental risk characteristics and evaluation requirements to identify the applicable environmental risk assessment methods. Two analytical methods, that is, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy logic, were used to handle the complexity of the environmental and nonquantitative data. Using our assessment method, different risk factors can be ranked according to their contributions to the environmental risk, thereby allowing the calculation of their relative priorities during decision making. Thus, environmental decision-makers can use this approach to develop alternative management strategies for proposed, ongoing, and completed PG tailing dams. PMID:24382947

  15. PRELIMINARY ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report addresses the environmental consequences of three kinds of solar energy utilization: photovoltaic, concentrator (steam electric) and flat plate. The application of solar energy toward central power generating stations is emphasized. Discussions of combined modes and o...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (EMAP) IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agancy's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) is improving the tools to assess status and trends in the condition of aquatic ecosystems across the U.S. Within the Office of Research and Development, EMAP has developed an approac...

  17. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  18. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  19. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  20. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  1. 31 CFR 26.3 - Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of Environmental Impact Assessment Summaries (EIA Summaries) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs). 26.3 Section 26.3 Money and...) 466-8191, not a toll-free call). (ii) If a copy of an EIA Summary is not available from the...

  2. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... type or contents of such wastes. Assessments are not required for conveyance where the real property... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact... SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY...

  3. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lindhjem, Henrik . E-mail: henrik.lindhjem@econ.no; Hu Tao . E-mail: hu.tao@vip.163.com; Ma Zhong . E-mail: mazhong@public.bta.net.cn; Skjelvik, John Magne . E-mail: john.skjelvik@econ.no; Song Guojun . E-mail: songgj@public3.bta.net.cn; Vennemo, Haakon . E-mail: haakon.vennemo@econ.no; Wu Jian . E-mail: zhxwj@263.net; Zhang Shiqiu . E-mail: zhangshq@pku.edu.cn

    2007-01-15

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline.

  4. WHO grade II meningioma: a retrospective study for outcome and prognostic factor assessment.

    PubMed

    Champeaux, Charles; Wilson, Elena; Shieff, Colin; Khan, Akbar Ali; Thorne, Lewis

    2016-09-01

    To analyse the outcome of patients with WHO grade II meningioma and identify factors that may influence recurrence and survival. Between January 2007 and September 2015, a retrospective search identified 194 WHO grade II meningiomas at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London. Survival methods were implemented. 31 patients (16 %) had a previous history of grade I meningioma. The patients underwent a total of 344 surgical resections and 43.3 % received radiotherapy. 55 patients (28.4 %) had been re-operated on for a WHO grade II meningioma relapse. Median follow-up was 4.4 years. At the end of the study, 75 patients (40.1 %) had no residual tumour on the last scan. Surgical recurrence free survival at 5 years was 71.6, 95 % CI [63.5, 80.8]. Secondary grade II meningioma (HR = 2.29, p = 0.010), and, Simpson resection grade 1, 2 and 3 vs. 4 and 5 (HR = 0.57, p = 0.050) were associated with the surgical recurrence-free survival. 32 died from meningioma (16.5 %). Overall survival probability at 5 years was 83.2, 95 % CI [76.6, 90.4]. Age at diagnosis (HR = 0.22, p < 0.001), WHO grade I meningioma progressing into grade II (HR = 3.2, p = 0.001), tumour location (HR = 0.19, p < 0.001), and mitosis count (HR = 0.36, p = 0.010) were independently associated with the overall survival. Patients who received radiotherapy demonstrated neither a reduced risk of recurrence nor a longer overall survival (p = 0.310). In our series shorter survival correlated with older age, increased mitoses, progression from grade I to II and location. We were not able to demonstrate a significant improvement in any of the clinical outcomes after radiotherapy. PMID:27311726

  5. Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) - Oregon supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, C.; Gifford, L.A.

    1994-04-01

    In response to the growing number of environmental laws and regulations worldwide, the U.S. Army has adopted an environmental compliance program that identifies compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Beginning in 1985, Major Army Commands (MACOMs) were required to conduct comprehensive environmental assessments at all installations on a 4-year cycle. The installations must also conduct a mid-cycle internal assessment. Because each MACOM was developing a separate assessment system, the Army mandated, through Army Regulation 200-1, one unified Army-wide assessment mechanism. The resulting system combines Federal, Department of Defense (DOD), and Army environmental regulations, along with good management practices and risk management information, into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and specific items or operations to review. Each assessment protocol lists a point of contact to help assessors review the checklist items as effectively as possible. The Environmental Compliance Assessment System (ECAS) manual incorporates existing checklists from USEPA and private industry. The Oregon Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the U.S. ECAS manual, using existing Oregon state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  6. A Retrospective Chart Study: The Pathway to a Diagnosis for Adults Referred for ASD Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geurts, Hilde M.; Jansen, Marcel D.

    2012-01-01

    Charts of 125 adults (18 to 82 years), referred to an autism expert team for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) assessment, were reviewed to explore the pathway to an adulthood ASD diagnosis. The participants first contacted the mental health care clinic at a median age of 19 years (range 2 to 78 years). Men contacted the clinic slightly earlier than…

  7. Assessing Early Communication Skills at 12 Months: A Retrospective Study of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Nathaniel Robert; Eadie, Patricia Ann; Prior, Margot Ruth; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early identification of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is currently limited by the absence of reliable biological markers for the disorder, as well as the reliability of screening and assessment tools for children aged between 6 and 18 months. Ongoing research has demonstrated the importance of early social communication skills in…

  8. Task- and Time-Dependent Weighting Factors in a Retrospective Exposure Assessment of Chemical Laboratory Workers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott A. Henn, David F. Utterback, Kathleen M. Waters, Andrea M. Markey, William G. Tankersley

    2007-02-01

    Results are reported from a chemical exposure assessment that was conducted for a cohort mortality study of 6157 chemical laboratory workers employed between 1943 and 1998 at four Department of Energy sites in Oak Ridge, Tenn., and Aiken, S.C.

  9. 76 FR 44891 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... time to prepare and submit comments on the Monsanto petition, our plant pest risk assessment, and our... assessment, and plant pest risk assessment are also available on the APHIS Web site at http://www.aphis.usda... petition, draft environmental assessment, or plant pest risk assessment, contact Ms. Cindy Eck at (301)...

  10. 21 CFR 25.40 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) As defined by CEQ in 40 CFR 1508.9, an EA is a concise public document that serves to provide.... (d) Consistent with 40 CFR 1500.4(j) and 1502.21, EA's may incorporate by reference information... discuss any reasonable alternative course of action that offers less environmental risk or that...

  11. 21 CFR 25.40 - Environmental assessments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) As defined by CEQ in 40 CFR 1508.9, an EA is a concise public document that serves to provide.... (d) Consistent with 40 CFR 1500.4(j) and 1502.21, EA's may incorporate by reference information... discuss any reasonable alternative course of action that offers less environmental risk or that...

  12. MULTIMEDIA RISK ASSESSMENT FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Through the combined experience of industrialized nations during the last two to three decades of environmental protection, we have gained a critical recognition of the limitations of the natural resources (air, water and land) around us. e have seen a continued rapid industrial ...

  13. Environmental risk assessment of hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2007-01-10

    Hydrofluoropolyethers (HFPEs), a new family of linear oligomeric fluorinated fluids, are being used as potential replacements for halon, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) that have been listed as ozone depleting substances and/or greenhouse gases. Because of their physicochemical properties, these substances may be industrially used as cleaning solvents in the electronic components, fire suppression agents in the fire protection, and heat transfer fluids in the heat exchangers. From the environmental, ecological, and healthy points of view, it is urgent to understand their environmental risks of these HFPEs. This article aimed at introducing these HFPEs in physiochemical properties and potential uses, and evaluating their environmental risks (i.e., global warming, photochemical potential, and environmental partition). Further, the updated data on their toxicological profiles and potential exposure hazards from their degradation products were also addressed in this paper. It is indicated that HFPEs still pose some significant hazards, especially global warming and photochemical potentials, to the atmosphere. Regarding the estimation of partition properties (i.e., vapor pressure, octanol-water partition coefficient and bioconcentration) of HFPEs, the predicted values of logKow for several HFPEs were found to be below zero, suggesting that they should possess very low potential for bioaccumulation in the environment. PMID:17118547

  14. RISK ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CADMIUM

    EPA Science Inventory


    Cadmium consumed in foods grown on soils contaminated by industrial Cd+Zn discharge has caused renal tubular dysfunction in
    exposed humans in discrete situations. However, lack of understanding about environmental Cd has caused wide concern that general
    populations may...

  15. Leadership and Environmental Assessment in Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannagan, Tim

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines management reaction to strategic change in organizations based on the findings from a study of management responses to environmental change in further education. The paper sets out a number of propositions about the key factors required for successful strategic change in a public sector organization based on a national survey…

  16. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Luis E. Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-10-15

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval.

  17. Environmental risk assessment of hydrofluoroethers (HFEs).

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Tien

    2005-03-17

    Hydrofluoroethers (HFEs) are being used as third generation replacements to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs) because of their nearly zero stratospheric ozone depletion and relatively low global warming potential. HFEs have been developed under commercial uses as cleaning solvents (incl., HFE-7500, C7F15OC2H5; HFE-7200, C4F9OC2H5; HFE-7100, C4F9CH3; HFE-7000, n-C3F7OCH3), blowing agents (incl., HFE-245mc, CF3CF2OCH3; HFC-356mec, CF3CHFCF2OCH3), refrigerants (incl., HFE-143a, CF3OCH3; HFE-134, CHF2OCHF2; HFE-245mc, CF3CF2OCH3), and dry etching agents in semiconductor manufacturing, (incl., HFE-227me, CF3OCHFCF3). From the environmental, ecological, and health points of view, it is important to understand their environmental risks for these HFEs from a diversity of commercial applications and industrial processes. This paper aims to introduce these HFEs with respect to physiochemical properties, commercial uses, and environmental hazards (i.e. global warming, photochemical potential, fire and explosion hazard, and environmental partition). Further, it addresses the updated data on the human toxicity, occupational exposure and potential health risk of commercial HFEs. It is concluded that there are few HFEs that still possess some environmental hazards, including global warming, flammability hazard and adverse effect of exposure. The partition coefficient for these HFEs has been estimated using the group contribution method; the values of logKow for commercial HFEs have been estimated to be below 3.5. PMID:15752850

  18. Environmental assessment of a contemporary coal mining system

    SciTech Connect

    Dutzi, E.J.; Sullivan, P.J.; Hutchinson, C.F.; Stevens, C.M.

    1980-12-15

    A contemporary underground coal mine in eastern Kentucky was assessed in order to determine potential off-site and on-site environmental impacts associated with the mining system in the given environmental setting. A 4-section, continuous room-and-pillar mine plan was developed for an appropriate site in eastern Kentucky. Potential environmental impacts were identified, and mitigation costs determined, using an environmental assessment methodology for coal extraction systems developed by Sullivan et al., 1980 (JPL Publication 79-82). The major potential environmental impacts were determined to be: (1) acid water drainage from the mine and refuse site, (2) uneven subsidence of the surface as a result of mining activity, and (3) alteration of ground-water aquifers in the subsidence zone. In the specific case examined, the costs of environmental impact mitigation to levels prescribed by regulations would not exceed $1/ton of coal mined, and post-mining land values would not be affected.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES. SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the second year's work for EPA by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories on an environmental assessment of coal cleaning processes. Program activities included systems studies, data acquisition, and general program support. (1) Systems studies have been directed at...

  20. International Developments in Environmental and Social Impact Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The author has been involved in international developments in comprehensive impact assessment since 1995. During that time she has participated in ISO 14040 series development, initiated and co-chaired three international workshops, participated in Society of Environmental Toxic...

  1. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  2. INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL TEST PLAN FOR SOURCE ASSESSMENT OF COAL GASIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes an initial source assessment environmental test plan, developed to investigate the fate of various constituents during coal gasification. The plan is an approach to the problems associated with sampling point selection, sample collection, and sample analysis ...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR RESIDUAL OIL UTILIZATION--SECOND ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes progress in an environmental assessment of processes using residual oil for electric power generation. It presents emissions data from the literature and preliminary sampling, with material balances and flow diagrams for hydrodesulfurization, flue gas desulfu...

  4. Distinct clustering of symptomatic burden among myeloproliferative neoplasm patients: retrospective assessment in 1470 patients

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Holly L.; Scherber, Robyn M.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Xiao, Zhijian; Slot, Stefanie; Zweegman, Sonja; Sackmann, Federico; Fuentes, Ana Kerguelen; Hernández-Maraver, Dolores; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N.; Radia, Deepti; Muxi, Pablo; Besses, Carlos; Cervantes, Francisco; Johansson, Peter L.; Andreasson, Bjorn; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Barbui, Tiziano; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.; Passamonti, Francesco; Samuelsson, Jan; Birgegard, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    Symptom burden in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is heterogeneous even among patients within the same MPN diagnosis. Using cluster analysis from prospectively gathered symptom burden data in 1470 international patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF), we assessed for the presence of clusters and relationship to disease features and prognosis. In MF (4 clusters identified), clusters significantly differed by Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) risk (P < .001), leukopenia (P = .009), thrombocytopenia (P < .001), and spleen size (P = .02). Although an association existed between clusters and DIPSS risk, high symptom burden was noted in some low and intermediate-1–risk MF patients. In PV (5 clusters identified), total symptom score increased across clusters (P < .001), but clusters did not significantly differ by PV risk or the risk assessment variable of age. Among ET patients (5 clusters identified), clusters differed by gender (P = .04), anemia (P = .01), and prior hemorrhage (P = .047). Total symptom score increased across clusters (P < .001), but clusters did not significantly differ by International Prognostic Score for ET risk including the risk assessment variables. Significant symptom heterogeneity exists within each MPN subtype, sometimes independent of disease features or prognosis. PMID:24553173

  5. Distinct clustering of symptomatic burden among myeloproliferative neoplasm patients: retrospective assessment in 1470 patients.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Holly L; Scherber, Robyn M; Dueck, Amylou C; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Xiao, Zhijian; Slot, Stefanie; Zweegman, Sonja; Sackmann, Federico; Fuentes, Ana Kerguelen; Hernández-Maraver, Dolores; Döhner, Konstanze; Harrison, Claire N; Radia, Deepti; Muxi, Pablo; Besses, Carlos; Cervantes, Francisco; Johansson, Peter L; Andreasson, Bjorn; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Barbui, Tiziano; Vannucchi, Alessandro M; Passamonti, Francesco; Samuelsson, Jan; Birgegard, Gunnar; Mesa, Ruben A

    2014-06-12

    Symptom burden in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is heterogeneous even among patients within the same MPN diagnosis. Using cluster analysis from prospectively gathered symptom burden data in 1470 international patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), or myelofibrosis (MF), we assessed for the presence of clusters and relationship to disease features and prognosis. In MF (4 clusters identified), clusters significantly differed by Dynamic International Prognostic Scoring System (DIPSS) risk (P < .001), leukopenia (P = .009), thrombocytopenia (P < .001), and spleen size (P = .02). Although an association existed between clusters and DIPSS risk, high symptom burden was noted in some low and intermediate-1-risk MF patients. In PV (5 clusters identified), total symptom score increased across clusters (P < .001), but clusters did not significantly differ by PV risk or the risk assessment variable of age. Among ET patients (5 clusters identified), clusters differed by gender (P = .04), anemia (P = .01), and prior hemorrhage (P = .047). Total symptom score increased across clusters (P < .001), but clusters did not significantly differ by International Prognostic Score for ET risk including the risk assessment variables. Significant symptom heterogeneity exists within each MPN subtype, sometimes independent of disease features or prognosis. PMID:24553173

  6. Environmental Safety and Health Analytical Laboratory, Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas. Final Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) of the construction and operation of an Environmental Safety and Health (ES&H) Analytical Laboratory and subsequent demolition of the existing Analytical Chemistry Laboratory building at Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality requirements contained in 40 CFR 1500--1508.9, the Environmental Assessment examined the environmental impacts of the Proposed Action and discussed potential alternatives. Based on the analysis of impacts in the EA, conducting the proposed action, construction of an analytical laboratory and demolition of the existing facility, would not significantly effect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the Council on Environmental Quality regulations in 40 CFR 1508.18 and 1508.27.

  7. Standardization for Ki-67 Assessment in Moderately Differentiated Breast Cancer. A Retrospective Analysis of the SAKK 28/12 Study

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Zsuzsanna; Cassoly, Estelle; Li, Qiyu; Oehlschlegel, Christian; Tapia, Coya; Lehr, Hans Anton; Klingbiel, Dirk; Thürlimann, Beat; Ruhstaller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Proliferative activity (Ki-67 Labelling Index) in breast cancer increasingly serves as an additional tool in the decision for or against adjuvant chemotherapy in midrange hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Ki-67 Index has been previously shown to suffer from high inter-observer variability especially in midrange (G2) breast carcinomas. In this study we conducted a systematic approach using different Ki-67 assessments on large tissue sections in order to identify the method with the highest reliability and the lowest variability. Materials and Methods Five breast pathologists retrospectively analyzed proliferative activity of 50 G2 invasive breast carcinomas using large tissue sections by assessing Ki-67 immunohistochemistry. Ki-67-assessments were done on light microscopy and on digital images following these methods: 1) assessing five regions, 2) assessing only darkly stained nuclei and 3) considering only condensed proliferative areas (‘hotspots’). An individual review (the first described assessment from 2008) was also performed. The assessments on light microscopy were done by estimating. All measurements were performed three times. Inter-observer and intra-observer reliabilities were calculated using the approach proposed by Eliasziw et al. Clinical cutoffs (14% and 20%) were tested using Fleiss’ Kappa. Results There was a good intra-observer reliability in 5 of 7 methods (ICC: 0.76–0.89). The two highest inter-observer reliability was fair to moderate (ICC: 0.71 and 0.74) in 2 methods (region-analysis and individual-review) on light microscopy. Fleiss’-kappa-values (14% cut-off) were the highest (moderate) using the original recommendation on light-microscope (Kappa 0.58). Fleiss’ kappa values (20% cut-off) were the highest (Kappa 0.48 each) in analyzing hotspots on light-microscopy and digital-analysis. No methodologies using digital-analysis were superior to the methods on light microscope. Conclusion Our results show that all

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF STATIONARY SOURCE NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of the 2nd year of an environmental assessment of stationary source NOx control technologies. The 2nd year effort focused on: (a) characterizing the baseline (uncontrolled) environmental impact of stationary combustion sources; (b) developing fuel co...

  9. 36 CFR 220.7 - Environmental assessment and decision notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT (NEPA) COMPLIANCE § 220.7 Environmental assessment and decision... incorporated by reference in accord with 40 CFR 1502.21. (iv) The proposed action and one or more alternatives to the proposed action may include adaptive management. An adaptive management proposal...

  10. A Framework for Teaching, Learning, and Assessing Environmental Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown-Ice, Rosalyn; Dendinger, Roger

    2008-01-01

    A twelve-question framework for teaching, learning, and assessing environmental issues was created through analysis of environmental textbooks and interviews with professors and researchers who specialize in the environment. Concepts in the framework include: causes, scale, spatial distribution, longevity, consequences, risks, economic…

  11. Land Grant Colleges and Mechanization: A Need for Environmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catz, Robert S.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 applies to agricultural research and development projects receiving federal monies through the land grant college system, and that the Department of Agriculture has neglected its statutory duty to assess long-term environmental impact of agricultural mechanization. (Author/MSE)

  12. 24 CFR 58.40 - Preparing the environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preparing the environmental assessment. 58.40 Section 58.40 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD...

  13. 24 CFR 58.40 - Preparing the environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preparing the environmental assessment. 58.40 Section 58.40 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD...

  14. 24 CFR 58.40 - Preparing the environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preparing the environmental assessment. 58.40 Section 58.40 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD...

  15. 24 CFR 58.40 - Preparing the environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preparing the environmental assessment. 58.40 Section 58.40 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD...

  16. 24 CFR 58.40 - Preparing the environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preparing the environmental assessment. 58.40 Section 58.40 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW PROCEDURES FOR ENTITIES ASSUMING HUD...

  17. Setting boundaries of participation in environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Salomons, Geoffrey H.; Hoberg, George

    2014-02-15

    Public participation processes are touted as an effective way to increase the capacity and legitimacy of environmental assessment and the regulatory process that rely on them. Recent changes to the Canadian environmental assessment process narrowed the criteria for who can participate in environmental assessments from any who were interested to those who were most directly affected. This article examines the potential consequences of this change by exploring other areas of Canadian regulatory law where a similar directed affected test has been applied. This new standard risks institutionalizing the long-understood representational bias confronted by more diffuse interest like environmental protection. Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow a test for processes like environmental assessment that are designed to determine the public interest. -- Highlights: • Public participation can improve the legitimacy of environmental assessments. • New Canadian rules narrow the range of eligible participants. • Similar rules in Alberta have excluded environmental representation. • The new rules may institutionalize bias against more diffuse interests. • Restricting participation to the “directly affected” is far too narrow.

  18. Draft environmental assessment: Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, S.M.; Sands, M.D.; Donat, J.R.; Jepsen, P.; Smookler, M.; Villa, J.F.

    1981-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared, in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, for the deployment and operation of a commercial 40-Megawatt (MW) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Pilot Plant (hereafter called the Pilot Plant). A description of the proposed action is presented, and a generic environment typical of the candidate Pilot Plant siting regions is described. An assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action is given, and the risk of credible accidents and mitigating measures to reduce these risks are considered. The Federal and State plans and policies the proposed action will encompass are described. Alternatives to the proposed action are presented. Appendix A presents the navigation and environmental information contained in the US Coast Pilot for each of the candidate sites; Appendix B provides a brief description of the methods and calculations used in the EA. It is concluded that environmental disturbances associated with Pilot Plant activities could potentially cause significant environmental impacts; however, the magnitude of these potential impacts cannot presently be assessed, due to insufficient engineering and environmental information. A site- and design-specific OTEC Pilot Plant Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is required to resolve the potentially significant environmental effects associated with Pilot Plant deployment and operation. (WHK)

  19. Review of Chinese Environmental Risk Assessment Regulations and Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Yuchao; Lou, In Chio; Gao, Jixi

    2012-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment is an essential step in the development of solutions for pollution problems and new environmental regulations. An assessment system for environmental risks has been developed in China in recent decades. However, many of the Chinese technical guidelines, standards, and regulations were directly adapted from those of developed countries, and were not based on the Chinese environmental and socioeconomic context. Although existing environmental regulations for pollutants are usually obtained by extrapolations from high-dose toxicological data to low-dose scenarios using linear-non-threshold (LNT) models, toxicologists have argued that J-shaped or inverse J-shaped curves may dominate the dose–response relationships for environmental pollutants at low doses because low exposures stimulate biological protective mechanisms that are ineffective at higher doses. The costs of regulations based on LNT and J-shaped models could therefore be dramatically different. Since economic factors strongly affect the decision-making process, particularly for developing countries, it is time to strengthen basic research to provide more scientific support for Chinese environmental regulations. In this paper, we summarize current Chinese environmental policies and standards and the application of environmental risk assessment in China, and recommend a more scientific approach to the development of Chinese regulations. PMID:22740787

  20. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  1. Fundamental Fluidization Research Project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center proposes to conduct fundamental research on fluidization technology by designing, constructing, and operating a 2-foot diameter, 50-foot high, pressurized fluidized-bed unit. The anticipated result of the proposed project would be a better, understanding of fluidization phenomena under pressurized and high velocity conditions. This improved understanding would, provide a sound basis for design and scale-up of pressurized circulating fluidized-bed combustion (PCFBC) processes for fossil energy applications. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major, Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  2. Antelope-Fossil Rebuild Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The Columbia Power Cooperative Association (CPCA), Monument, Oregon, proposes to upgrade a 69-kV transmission line in Wasco and Wheeler Counties, Oregon, between the Antelope Substation and the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) Fossil Substation. The project involves rebuilding and reconductoring 23.2 miles of transmission line, including modifying it for future use at 115 kV. Related project activities will include setting new wood pole structures, removing and disposing of old structures, conductors, and insulators, and stringing new conductor, all within the existing right-of-way. No new access roads will be required. A Borrower`s Environmental Report was prepared for the 1992--1993 Work Plan for Columbia Power Cooperative Association in March 1991. This report investigated cultural resources, threatened or endangered species, wetlands, and floodplains, and other environmental issues, and included correspondence with appropriate Federal, state, and local agencies. The report was submitted to the Rural Electrification Administration for their use in preparing their environmental documentation for the project.

  3. Antelope-Fossil Rebuild Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    The Columbia Power Cooperative Association (CPCA), Monument, Oregon, proposes to upgrade a 69-kV transmission line in Wasco and Wheeler Counties, Oregon, between the Antelope Substation and the Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) Fossil Substation. The project involves rebuilding and reconductoring 23.2 miles of transmission line, including modifying it for future use at 115 kV. Related project activities will include setting new wood pole structures, removing and disposing of old structures, conductors, and insulators, and stringing new conductor, all within the existing right-of-way. No new access roads will be required. A Borrower's Environmental Report was prepared for the 1992--1993 Work Plan for Columbia Power Cooperative Association in March 1991. This report investigated cultural resources, threatened or endangered species, wetlands, and floodplains, and other environmental issues, and included correspondence with appropriate Federal, state, and local agencies. The report was submitted to the Rural Electrification Administration for their use in preparing their environmental documentation for the project.

  4. An innovative partnership for national environmental assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, D.M.; Field, D.W.; Holm, T.M.; Jennings, M.D.; Sturdevant, J.A.; Thelin, G.P.; Worthy, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    Four federal environmental programs: EMAP (USEPA), GAP (USFWS), C-CAP (NOAA), NAWQA (USGS) have formed a partnership with EROS Data Center (USGS) to facilitate the development of baseline land characteristics information for the conterminous U.S. Each of the respective programs brings to the group unique experience and expertise. Despite emphasis on different environmental issues, together we have identified common requirements for source satellite data, preprocessing, spectral clustering, ancillary data, data management and distribution. We are also developing a research agenda to support this initiative and future efforts of this partnership. The short-term goal of out effort is the joint acquisition and preprocessing of recent Landsat TM images for the conterminous U.S. To date, images have been identified for acquisition, and preliminary plans have been made for preprocessing. The long-term goal for this group is collaborative research and development of a flexible and functional land characteristics database for use by our programs and others. This partnership demonstrates that national environmental programs within multiple government agencies can work effectively together to achieve common goals and reduce overall cost.

  5. Melanoma in the Italian Population and Regional Environmental Influences: A National Retrospective Survey on 2001–2008 Hospitalization Records

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Neglia, Cosimo; Falco, Andrea; Rivezzi, Matteo; Agnello, Nadia; Argentiero, Alberto; Chitano, Giovanna; Distante, Chiara; Della Rosa, Giulia; Vinci, Giorgia; De Donno, Antonella; Distante, Alessandro; Romanini, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the burden of regional environmental factors influencing the incidence of Melanoma in the Italian population and overcome the problem of partial population coverage by local cancer registries and thematic archives. Methods: We analyzed the Italian national hospitalization records from 2001 to 2008 provided by the Ministry of Health, excluding hospital re-admissions of the same patients, in order to assess the occurrence of Melanoma over a 8-year period. Data were presented by age groups (absolute number of cases from 20 to ≥80 years old) and per Region (rates per 100,000 inhabitants) for each year. Results: The overall number of new hospitalizations due to malignant Melanoma increased by 16.8% from 2001 (n = 4846) to 2008 (n = 5823), with the rate per 100,000 inhabitants passing from 10.5 to almost 12.0 at a national level. The majority of new diagnoses of malignant Melanoma was observed in two age groups: 61–70 years old (from 979 in 2001 up to 1209 in 2008, corresponding to 15.1 and 18.1 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively) and 71–80 years old (from 954 in 2001 up to 1141 in 2008, corresponding to 19.5 and 21.8 new cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively). The number of hospitalizations due to Melanoma increased in all age groups with the only exception of the youngest patients aged 20–30 years old. The highest increases over the 8-year period were observed in people aged ≥81 years old (+34%), 61–70 years old (+20%) and surprisingly in the age group 31–40 years old (+17%). Southern Regions showed lower hospitalization rates compared to Northern Italy and Region Lazio. The highest increases between 2001 and 2008 were observed in Trentino/Alto Adige, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Valla d’Aosta and Veneto Region. Conclusions: Hospitalizations due to malignant Melanoma in Italy seem to be influenced by environmental or population-related factors showing a decreasing incidence rate from the Northern to Southern Regions

  6. A Retrospective Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Elemental Carbon in the U.S. Trucking Industry

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jaime E.; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite considerable epidemiologic evidence about the health effects of chronic exposure to vehicle exhaust, efforts at defining the extent of risk have been limited by the lack of historical exposure measurements suitable for use in epidemiologic studies and for risk assessment. Objectives: We sought to reconstruct exposure to elemental carbon (EC), a marker of diesel and other vehicle exhaust exposure, in a large national cohort of U.S. trucking industry workers. Methods: We identified the predictors of measured exposures based on a statistical model and used this information to extrapolate exposures across the cohort nationally. These estimates were adjusted for changes in work-related conditions over time based on a previous exposure assessment of this industry, and for changes in background levels based on a trend analysis of historical air pollution data, to derive monthly estimates of EC exposure for each job and trucking terminal combination between 1971 and 2000. Results: Occupational exposure to EC declined substantially over time, and we found significant variability in estimated exposures both within and across job groups, trucking terminals, and regions of the United States. Average estimated EC exposures during a typical work shift ranged from < 1 μg/m3 in the lowest exposed category in the 1990s to > 40 μg/m3 for workers in the highest exposed jobs in the 1970s. Conclusions: Our results provide a framework for understanding changes over time in exposure to EC in the U.S. trucking industry. Our assessment should minimize exposure misclassification by capturing variation among terminals and across U.S. regions, and changes over time. PMID:21447452

  7. [Marine environmental assessment approaches based on biomarker index: a review].

    PubMed

    Meng, Fan-Ping; Yang, Fei-Fei; Cheng, Feng-Lian

    2012-04-01

    Biomarkers are applied worldwide in marine environmental assessment due to their "early warning" function to chemical pollutants. Several integrative index approaches such as multi-marker pollution index (MPI), integrated biomarker response (IBR), bioeffect assessment index (BAI), biomarker response index (BRI), and health assessment index (HIS), have been developed based on biomarkers. By transforming the complex alterations of biomarkers into a single class or value, these approaches have been so far the useful tools for assessing the environmental quality. This review summarized the establishment of evaluation indicator system, the calculation of integrative index, the grading of pollution status, and the practical applications of each approach, and discussed the existing problems in marine environmental assessment based on biomarker index. Some improving suggestions were also proposed. PMID:22803485

  8. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk. PMID:23212008

  9. Assessment and treatment of gastroesophageal reflux in healthy infants with apneic episodes: a retrospective analysis of 87 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Koivusalo, Antti I; Pakarinen, Mikko P; Wikström, Anne; Rintala, Risto J

    2011-12-01

    This retrospective study sought to assess whether gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is associated with recurrent infant apneic episodes (AEs) and whether its treatment prevents AEs. Symptoms, diagnostic measures, and treatment of GER in 87 infants admitted for AEs were recorded. The effect of GER on recurrent AEs and survival were assessed. Esophageal pH monitoring was done to 58/87 (67%) patients, of whom 53/58 (91%) had a pathological finding; 48 patients had treatment for GER (medical 43%/49%; surgical 5%/6%) with continuing AEs during hospitalization (25%/29% patients) as the main indication. Follow-up (65 patients) disclosed recurrent AEs in 12 (18%) patients (no treatment 4/21, medical 8/39, surgical 0/5, P = NS). All 87 patients survived. Recurrent AEs after discharge was predicted by AEs during hospitalization but not by pathological GER. AEs observed during hospitalization predicted postdischarge AE recurrence. Of GER treatment modalities, only surgery prevented recurrent AEs. PMID:21997146

  10. Problems Found Using a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-01

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion of anthropogenic activity estimates with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion, indicating that the system would not give false positive indications for an appropriately set decision level. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha filters, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations from calibrated values indicating that the system would give false negative indications. Use of the current algorithm is, therefore, not recommended for general assay applications. Use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve-fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 disintegrations per minute level.

  11. Use of a Radon Stripping Algorithm for Retrospective Assessment of Air Filter Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2009-01-23

    An evaluation of a large number of air sample filters was undertaken using a commercial alpha and beta spectroscopy system employing a passive implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector. Samples were only measured after air flow through the filters had ceased. Use of a commercial radon stripping algorithm was implemented to discriminate anthropogenic alpha and beta activity on the filters from the radon progeny. When uncontaminated air filters were evaluated, the results showed that there was a time-dependent bias in both average estimates and measurement dispersion with the relative bias being small compared to the dispersion. By also measuring environmental air sample filters simultaneously with electroplated alpha and beta sources, use of the radon stripping algorithm demonstrated a number of substantial unexpected deviations. Use of the current algorithm is therefore not recommended for assay applications and so use of the PIPS detector should only be utilized for gross counting without appropriate modifications to the curve fitting algorithm. As a screening method, the radon stripping algorithm might be expected to see elevated alpha and beta activities on air sample filters (not due to radon progeny) around the 200 dpm level.

  12. Historical Exposures to Chemicals at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant: A Pilot Retrospective Exposure Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Janeen Denise Robertson

    1999-02-01

    In a mortality study of white males who had worked at the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant between 1952 and 1979, an increased number of deaths from benign and unspecified intracranial neoplasms was found. A case-control study nested within this cohort investigated the hypothesis that an association existed between brain tumor death and exposure to either internally deposited plutonium or external ionizing radiation. There was no statistically significant association found between estimated radiation exposure from internally deposited plutonium and the development of brain tumors. Exposure by job or work area showed no significant difference between the cohort and the control groups. An update of the study found elevated risk estimates for (1) all lymphopoietic neoplasms, and (2) all causes of death in employees with body burdens greater than or equal to two nanocuries of plutonium. There was an excess of brain tumors for the entire cohort. Similar cohort studies conducted on worker populations from other plutonium handling facilities have not yet shown any elevated risks for brain tumors. Historically, the Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Plant used large quantities of chemicals in their production operations. The use of solvents, particularly carbon tetrachloride, was unique to Rocky Flats. No investigation of the possible confounding effects of chemical exposures was done in the initial studies. The objectives of the present study are to (1) investigate the history of chemical use at the Rocky Flats facility; (2) locate and analyze chemical monitoring information in order to assess employee exposure to the chemicals that were used in the highest volume; and (3) determine the feasibility of establishing a chemical exposure assessment model that could be used in future epidemiology studies.

  13. Environmental Assessment : Happy Valley [Substation Project].

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1982-05-01

    The proposed Happy Valley project consists of construction of a new BPA customer service 69-kV substation south of Sequim in Clallam County, Washington. A tie line, to be constructed by the customer as part of this project, will link the new BPA facility to the existing customer's transmission system in the area. This project responds to rapid load growth in the Olympic Peninsula, and will strengthen the existing BPA system and interconnected utility systems. It will reduce transmission losses presently incurred, especially on the BPA system supplying power to the Olympic Peninsula. This report describes the potential environmental impact of the proposed actions. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Models and parameters for environmental radiological assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C W

    1984-01-01

    This book presents a unified compilation of models and parameters appropriate for assessing the impact of radioactive discharges to the environment. Models examined include those developed for the prediction of atmospheric and hydrologic transport and deposition, for terrestrial and aquatic food-chain bioaccumulation, and for internal and external dosimetry. Chapters have been entered separately into the data base. (ACR)

  15. A marine environmental monitoring and assessment program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The need for the use of modern, extremely sensitive techniques to aid in rapidly and synoptically assessing the relative health and production of coastal waters and estuaries is reported. Major emphasis is placed on establishing a solid foundation for the use of remote sensing in basic oceanographic studies and the management of human wastes.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COAL CLEANING PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes a 3-year evaluation of coal cleaning processes. It discusses: physical coal cleaning (PCC) technology; the potential role of PCC in producing coals for compliance with SO2 emission regulations; pollution controls for PCC plants; assessment criteria and test ...

  17. ELEMENTAL SPECIATION IN ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT MATRICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic and tin are two trace metals where exposure assessments have moved towards a speciation based approach because the toxicity is very chemical form dependent. This toxicity difference can be one of many factors which influence the formulation of certain regulations. For a...

  18. BROAD-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollution prevention through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a departure from evaluating waste management options that look mainly at single issues such as recyclability or reduced toxicity. An LCA is a snapshot in time of inputs and outputs. It can be used as an objective technic...

  19. Personalized Exposure Assessment: Promising Approaches for Human Environmental Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Brenda K.; Balshaw, David; Barr, John R.; Brown, David; Ellisman, Mark; Lioy, Paul; Omenn, Gilbert; Potter, John D.; Smith, Martyn T.; Sohn, Lydia; Suk, William A.; Sumner, Susan; Swenberg, James; Walt, David R.; Watkins, Simon; Thompson, Claudia; Wilson, Samuel H.

    2005-01-01

    New technologies and methods for assessing human exposure to chemicals, dietary and lifestyle factors, infectious agents, and other stressors provide an opportunity to extend the range of human health investigations and advance our understanding of the relationship between environmental exposure and disease. An ad hoc Committee on Environmental Exposure Technology Development was convened to identify new technologies and methods for deriving personalized exposure measurements for application to environmental health studies. The committee identified a “toolbox” of methods for measuring external (environmental) and internal (biologic) exposure and assessing human behaviors that influence the likelihood of exposure to environmental agents. The methods use environmental sensors, geographic information systems, biologic sensors, toxicogenomics, and body burden (biologic) measurements. We discuss each of the methods in relation to current use in human health research; specific gaps in the development, validation, and application of the methods are highlighted. We also present a conceptual framework for moving these technologies into use and acceptance by the scientific community. The framework focuses on understanding complex human diseases using an integrated approach to exposure assessment to define particular exposure–disease relationships and the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in disease occurrence. Improved methods for exposure assessment will result in better means of monitoring and targeting intervention and prevention programs. PMID:16002370

  20. A Contribution to the Built Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žarnić, R.; Rajčić, V.; Skordaki, N.

    2015-08-01

    The understanding and assessment of environmental impact on heritage assets is of the highest importance for heritage preservation through well-organized maintenance based on proper decision-making. The effort towards development of protocol that would enable comparison of data on heritage assets in Europe and Mediterranean countries was done through EU Project European Cultural Heritage Identity Card. The special attention was paid to classification of environmental and man-induced risks to heritage. In the present paper the idea of EU CHIC is presented. Environmental risks are discussed in context of their influence on structure of heritage buildings that are exposed to sudden environmental impacts.

  1. Environmental assessments in the US: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    The 1990's is the decade of international environmental activism. The concerns and issues that are the basis of this activism are now extremely important to business. Numerous environmental issue will affect business decisions, and a keen awareness of the implications of those issues may make the difference financial success or ruin. Environmental assessments have become the tool to help business cope with an important environmental concern. This talk is focused on environmental assessments as they are practiced in the United States. Environmental activism has been a factor in business decisions since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1963. This paper will discuss the current standards of practice in the US, the needs for assessments at industrial facilities, and a case study from a US industrial facility. More than 750,000 commercial real estate transactions take place in the US each year. Each of these transactions has a potential liability for the buyer and lender as a result of environmental impairment caused by hazardous materials located in buildings on sites, in the soil, or in the groundwater. Persons who knowingly or unknowingly acquire environmentally impaired property or who lend the money to purchase that property are liable for the cost of cleanup.

  2. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  3. Power marketing policy, Cumberland System: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-04

    Major issues raised by the proposed policy are: determination of marketing area, allocation of power among customers within the marketing area, extent and condition of sales to TVA, utilization of area utility systems for power integration, firming, wheeling, and other essential relationships, wholesale rates, handling of resale rates, and conservation measures. This Marketing Policy will continue present practices in many areas, and to the extent that this is done, the existing environmental impacts will continue. SEPA has informally consulted with other agencies, public bodies, and individuals which may be affected by the proposed policy to look for activities resulting from the proposed action which could affect the environment on a local or regional basis. In this review, SEPA has not uncovered any unresolved conflicts as a result of the implementation of the proposed policy. SEPA has found that the nature and extent of the environmental consequences resulting from the policy are too remote and speculative to link directly to any air, land, or water quality impacts. No extraordinary, controversial, unique, or hazardous circumstances or conditions will be created or furthered by this policy.

  4. Environmental assessment and utilization CFB ash

    SciTech Connect

    Conn, R.

    1997-12-31

    Landfill disposal has generally been accepted as the most common option for ash management in CFB power plants. However, the cost of ash disposal continues to increase due to a reduction in landfill capacity and more stringent environmental regulations. As a result, beneficial uses of CFB ashes (versus landfilling) are being investigated in order to provide a more cost effective ash management program. The chemical and physical characteristics of CFB by-products will influence both their environmental impact and potential utilization options. Compared to conventional pulverized coal boiler ashes, CFB ashes generally have different chemical properties which may limit their utilization for production of Portland cement. Other diverse utilization options have been identified for CFB residues which include: agricultural applications, structural fill, and waste stabilization. Most of these applications have to meet specifications by following certain test methods. The exact utilization options for CFB by-products will depend primarily on the type of fuel being fired, and to a lesser extent, the type of sorbent utilized for sulfur capture. Based on laboratory investigation of ash characteristics, utilization options were concluded for different Foster Wheeler commercial boilers throughout the US and abroad. Based on the results of this study, it was demonstrated that most CFB ashes could be utilized for one or more of the purposes noted above.

  5. Environmental Assessment for decontamination and dismantlement, Pinellas Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1092) of the proposed decontamination and dismantlement of the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. Under the Decontamination and Dismantlement EA, the DOE proposes to clean up facilities, structures, and utilities; dismantle specific structures; and mitigate or eliminate any environmental impacts associated with the cleanup, dismantlement, and related activities. Related activities include utilization of specific areas by new tenants prior to full-scale cleanup. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required. This report contains the Environmental Assessment, as well as the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  6. Educated guesses: health risk assessment in environmental impact statements.

    PubMed

    Harvey, P D

    1990-01-01

    Environmental pollution threatens public health. The search for solutions has advanced the frontiers of science and law. Efforts to protect the environment and public health begin with describing potential adverse consequences of human activities and characterizing the predicted risk. The National Environmental Policy Act requires the preparation of environmental impact statements to describe the effects of proposed federal projects and provide information for agency decisionmakers and the public. Risks to public health are particularly difficult to quantify because of uncertainty about the relation between exposure to environmental contamination and disease. Risk assessment is the current scientific tool to present estimates of risk. The methodology has created controversy, however, when underlying assumptions and uncertainties are not clearly presented. Critics caution that the methodology is vulnerable to bias. This Note evaluates the use of risk assessment in the environmental impact statement process and offers recommendations to ensure informed decisions. PMID:2278245

  7. Environmental risk assessments for transgenic crops producing output trait enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttle, Ann; Shore, Scott; Stone, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The environmental risks from cultivating crops producing output trait enzymes can be rigorously assessed by testing conservative risk hypotheses of no harm to endpoints such as the abundance of wildlife, crop yield and the rate of degradation of crop residues in soil. These hypotheses can be tested with data from many sources, including evaluations of the agronomic performance and nutritional quality of the crop made during product development, and information from the scientific literature on the mode-of-action, taxonomic distribution and environmental fate of the enzyme. Few, if any, specific ecotoxicology or environmental fate studies are needed. The effective use of existing data means that regulatory decision-making, to which an environmental risk assessment provides essential information, is not unnecessarily complicated by evaluation of large amounts of new data that provide negligible improvement in the characterization of risk, and that may delay environmental benefits offered by transgenic crops containing output trait enzymes. PMID:19924556

  8. THE FUTURE OF TOXICITY TESTING AND ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Research Council's Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology is conducting a two-part study to assess and advance current approaches to toxicity testing and assessment to meet regulatory data needs. The first part of the study was completed January 2006, in which...

  9. Training for Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vougias, S.

    1988-01-01

    Deals with the methodology and practices for Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Describes the EIA process, prediction process, alternative assessment methods, training needs, major activities, training provision and material, main deficiencies and the precautions, and real world training examples. (Author/YP)

  10. Model of environmental life cycle assessment for coal mining operations.

    PubMed

    Burchart-Korol, Dorota; Fugiel, Agata; Czaplicka-Kolarz, Krystyna; Turek, Marian

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a novel approach to environmental assessment of coal mining operations, which enables assessment of the factors that are both directly and indirectly affecting the environment and are associated with the production of raw materials and energy used in processes. The primary novelty of the paper is the development of a computational environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) model for coal mining operations and the application of the model for coal mining operations in Poland. The LCA model enables the assessment of environmental indicators for all identified unit processes in hard coal mines with the life cycle approach. The proposed model enables the assessment of greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) based on the IPCC method and the assessment of damage categories, such as human health, ecosystems and resources based on the ReCiPe method. The model enables the assessment of GHGs for hard coal mining operations in three time frames: 20, 100 and 500years. The model was used to evaluate the coal mines in Poland. It was demonstrated that the largest environmental impacts in damage categories were associated with the use of fossil fuels, methane emissions and the use of electricity, processing of wastes, heat, and steel supports. It was concluded that an environmental assessment of coal mining operations, apart from direct influence from processing waste, methane emissions and drainage water, should include the use of electricity, heat and steel, particularly for steel supports. Because the model allows the comparison of environmental impact assessment for various unit processes, it can be used for all hard coal mines, not only in Poland but also in the world. This development is an important step forward in the study of the impacts of fossil fuels on the environment with the potential to mitigate the impact of the coal industry on the environment. PMID:27092420

  11. Methods for assessing the stability of slopes during earthquakes-A retrospective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    During the twentieth century, several methods to assess the stability of slopes during earthquakes were developed. Pseudostatic analysis was the earliest method; it involved simply adding a permanent body force representing the earthquake shaking to a static limit-equilibrium analysis. Stress-deformation analysis, a later development, involved much more complex modeling of slopes using a mesh in which the internal stresses and strains within elements are computed based on the applied external loads, including gravity and seismic loads. Stress-deformation analysis provided the most realistic model of slope behavior, but it is very complex and requires a high density of high-quality soil-property data as well as an accurate model of soil behavior. In 1965, Newmark developed a method that effectively bridges the gap between these two types of analysis. His sliding-block model is easy to apply and provides a useful index of co-seismic slope performance. Subsequent modifications to sliding-block analysis have made it applicable to a wider range of landslide types. Sliding-block analysis provides perhaps the greatest utility of all the types of analysis. It is far easier to apply than stress-deformation analysis, and it yields much more useful information than does pseudostatic analysis. ?? 2010.

  12. [Environmental Hazards Assessment Program annual report, June 1992--June 1993]. Environmental risk management Advisory Committee handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    This Handbook contains information about the objectives of the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program, the make-up of the Advisory Committee and Advisory Committee procedures. Functions of the Advisory Committee are outlined, along with guidelines for meetings and establishing agendas.

  13. 18 CFR 380.5 - Actions that require an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... environmental assessment. 380.5 Section 380.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.5 Actions that require an environmental assessment. (a) An environmental... outcome of the environmental assessment, the Commission may or may not prepare an environmental...

  14. 18 CFR 380.5 - Actions that require an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... environmental assessment. 380.5 Section 380.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.5 Actions that require an environmental assessment. (a) An environmental... outcome of the environmental assessment, the Commission may or may not prepare an environmental...

  15. 75 FR 39039 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment for the Upper Midwest Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... addition, a Draft Environmental Assessment was published on December 23, 2009, for a 7-day public comment... for public inspection during regular business hours at the USGS Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences... personal identifying information from public review, we cannot guarantee that we will be able to do...

  16. 75 FR 5873 - Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... Environmental Assessment or Environmental Impact Statement for Purchase of Renewable Energy From CPV Ashley Wind...) of renewable energy from CPV Ashley Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV), a direct subsidiary of CPV Renewable Energy Company LLC (CPV REC). In order to supply this renewable energy, CPV is proposing...

  17. 77 FR 26353 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment and Request for Comments on Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and the National Interest Determination for the Vantage Pipeline Project Vantage US LP has applied to the Department of State (DOS) for a...

  18. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  19. 7 CFR 1955.136 - Environmental Assessment (EA) and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). (a) Prior to a final decision on some disposal actions, an environmental assessment must be made and when necessary, an enviornmental impact statement. Detailed guidance on when and... Impact Statement (EIS). 1955.136 Section 1955.136 Agriculture Regulations of the Department...

  20. The Navajo Environmental Protection Commission: Developing the Capabilities for Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortner, Hanna J.

    1976-01-01

    To develop effective/efficient environmental impact assessment and regulatory capabilities, the Navajo Environmental Protection Commission will need to commit more of its limited resources to building the political support which will exert real influence at the pre-commitment stages of development decision making. (JC)

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF THE U.S. MID-ATLANTIC REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of today's environmental problems are regional in scope and their effects overlap and interact. We developed a simple method to provide an integrated assessment of environmental conditions and estimate cumulative impacts across a large region, by combining data on land-cove...

  2. Assessment of providers' referral decisions in Rural Burkina Faso: a retrospective analysis of medical records

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A well-functioning referral system is fundamental to primary health care delivery. Understanding the providers' referral decision-making process becomes critical. This study's aim was to assess the correctness of diagnoses and appropriateness of the providers' referral decisions from health centers (HCs) to district hospitals (DHs) among patients with severe malaria and pneumonia. Methods A record review of twelve months of consultations was conducted covering eight randomly selected HCs to identify severe malaria (SM) cases among children under five and pneumonia cases among adults. The correctness of the diagnosis and appropriateness of providers' referral decisions were determined using the National Clinical Guidebook as a 'gold standard'. Results Among the 457 SM cases affecting children under five, only 66 cases (14.4%) were correctly diagnosed and of those 66 correctly diagnosed cases, 40 cases (60.6%) received an appropriate referral decision from their providers. Within these 66 correctly diagnosed SM cases, only 60.6% were appropriately referred. Among the adult pneumonia cases, 5.9% (79/1331) of the diagnoses were correctly diagnosed; however, the appropriateness rate of the provider's referral decision was 98.7% (78/79). There was only one case that should not have been referred but was referred. Conclusions The adherence to the National Guidelines among the health center providers when making a diagnosis was low for both severe malaria cases and pneumonia cases. The appropriateness of the referral decisions was particularly poor for children with severe malaria. Health center providers need to be better trained in the diagnostic process and in disease management in order to improve the performance of the referral system in rural Burkina Faso. PMID:22397326

  3. Retrospective assessment of personnel neutron dosimetry for workers at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, J.J.; Wilson, R.H.; Baumgartner, W.B.

    1996-09-01

    This report was prepared to examine the specific issue of the potential for unrecorded neutron dose for Hanford workers, particularly in comparison with the recorded whole body (neutron plus photon) dose. During the past several years, historical personnel dosimetry practices at Hanford have been documented in several technical reports. This documentation provides a detailed history of the technology, radiation fields, and administrative practices used to measure and record dose for Hanford workers. Importantly, documentation has been prepared by personnel whose collective experience spans nearly the entire history of Hanford operations beginning in the mid-1940s. Evaluations of selected Hanford radiation dose records have been conducted along with statistical profiles of the recorded dose data. The history of Hanford personnel dosimetry is complex, spanning substantial evolution in radiation protection technology, concepts, and standards. Epidemiologic assessments of Hanford worker mortality and radiation dose data were initiated in the early 1960s. In recent years, Hanford data have been included in combined analyses of worker cohorts from several Department of Energy (DOE) sites and from several countries through the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Hanford data have also been included in the DOE Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR). In the analysis of Hanford, and other site data, the question of comparability of recorded dose through time and across the respective sites has arisen. DOE formed a dosimetry working group composed of dosimetrists and epidemiologists to evaluate data and documentation requirements of CEDR. This working group included in its recommendations the high priority for documentation of site-specific radiation dosimetry practices used to measure and record worker dose by the respective DOE sites.

  4. CONVERGENCE OF ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND RISK ASSESSMENT: TOWARDS HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A major emphasis of environmental monitoring and assessment programs is to characterize the condition of natural resources. When repeated through time, ecological assessments (EA) can be used to track changes in environmental condition that reflect on the efficacy of regulatory a...

  5. Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program environmental compliance assessment checklists

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.B.; Sigmon, C.F.

    1989-09-29

    The purpose of the Environmental Compliance Assessment Program is to assess the compliance of Formerly Utilized Site Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites with applicable environmental regulations and Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. The mission is to identify, assess, and decontaminate sites utilized during the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s to process and store uranium and thorium ores in support of the Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission. To conduct the FUSRAP environmental compliance assessment, checklists were developed that outline audit procedures to determine the compliance status of the site. The checklists are divided in four groups to correspond to these regulatory areas: Hazardous Waste Management, PCB Management, Air Emissions, and Water Discharges.

  6. An environmental impact assessment system for agricultural R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Geraldo Stachetti; Campanhola, Clayton; Kitamura, Paulo Choji

    2003-03-01

    A strategic planning process has been implemented at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Agency (Embrapa) to introduce sustainable agriculture concepts in all steps of Research and Development (R and D). An essential part of the devised mission statement called for the impact assessment of all technology innovation resulting from R and D, under field conditions (ex-post). However, methods for impact assessment of technology innovations at the farmstead level appropriate for the institutional context were lacking. The environmental impact assessment (EIA) system (AMBITEC-AGRO) developed to attend that demand is composed by a set of weighing matrices constructed in an electronic spreadsheet. Impact indicators are evaluated in the field in an interview/survey, and weighed according to their spatial scale and importance toward effecting environmental impacts. The results of these weighing procedures are expressed graphically in the assessment spreadsheets. Finally, the indicator evaluations are composed into an Environmental Impact Index for the agricultural technology innovation.

  7. Nanopharmaceuticals: Tiny challenges for the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Berkner, Silvia; Schwirn, Kathrin; Voelker, Doris

    2016-04-01

    Many new developments and innovations in health care are based on nanotechnology. The field of nanopharmaceuticals is diverse and not as new as one might think; indeed, nanopharmaceuticals have been marketed for many years, and the future is likely to bring more nanosized compounds to the market. Therefore, it is time to examine whether the environmental risk assessment for human pharmaceuticals is prepared to assess the exposure, fate, and effects of nanopharmaceuticals in an adequate way. Challenges include the different definitions for nanomaterials and nanopharmaceuticals, different regulatory frameworks, the diversity of nanopharmaceuticals, the scope of current regulatory guidelines, and the applicability of test protocols. Based on the current environmental risk assessment for human medicinal products in the European Union, necessary adaptations for the assessment procedures and underlying study protocols are discussed and emerging solutions identified. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:780-787. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:25931425

  8. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, S. Thomas Chen Yuan Wong, James M.W.

    2013-01-15

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA

  9. Contrast Circulation Time to Assess Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrier, Arnaud; Bendjelid, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize enhancement of pulmonary arteries and facilitate diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), modern computed tomography angiography (CTA) contains a contrast bolus tracking system. We explored the diagnostic accuracy of the time-intensity curves given by this automated system to identify right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in acute PE. Methods 114 CTAs with a diagnosis of PE were reviewed. RVD was defined as right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio of 1 or greater. Four parameters on time-intensity curves were identified. Parameters between CTAs with and those without RVD were compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The ability of the four parameters to discriminate patients with RVD was explored by compiling the area under the operating curves (AUC). Results The time needed by the contrast media to reach the pulmonary artery [8 seconds (IQR: 7–9) versus 7 seconds (IQR: 6–8), p<0.01], the time needed to reach 40 Hounsfield units (HU) [11 seconds (IQR: 8.5–14) versus 9.5 seconds (IQR: 8–10.5), p<0.01], and the contrast intensity reached after 10 seconds [19 HU (IQR: 4–67) versus 53 HU (IQR: 32–80), p<0.05] were all statistically different between CTA with and CTA without RVD. Those three parameters changed gradually across severity categories of RVD (p<0.05 for trend). Their AUC to identify RVD ranged from 0.63 to 0.66. The slope of contrast intensity over time was not informative: [31 HU/s (IQR: 20–57) in CTA with, compared to 36 HU/s (IQR: 22.5–53) in CTA without RVD, p = 0.60]. Conclusion Several parameters of the time-intensity curve obtained by the bolus tracking system are associated with RVD assessed on CTA images. Of those, the time needed to reach a predefined threshold seems to be the easiest to obtain in any CTA without additional processing time or contrast injection. However, the performance of those parameters is globally low. PMID:27551831

  10. Environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide. Louisiana supplement. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1995-01-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, Defense Logistics Agency, and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Since 1984, the U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL), in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DoD) components, have developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DoD Components. Currently there are five participating DoD Components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and Defense Logistics Agency (DLA). These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations (CFRs) and management practices (MPs) into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DoD component-specific manuals detailing DoD component regulations and policies. The Louisiana Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Louisiana state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  11. The environmental assessment and management (TEAM) guide, Idaho supplement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Rouke, C.

    1998-04-01

    Environmental assessments help determine compliance with current environmental regulations. The US Air Force, US Army, Defense Logistics Agency (DLA), and Corps of Engineers (Civil Works) have adopted environmental compliance programs that identify compliance problems before they are cited as violations by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Since 1984, the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories, in cooperation with numerous Department of Defense (DOD) components, has developed environmental compliance assessment checklist manuals. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide was developed for use by all DOD components. Currently there are five participating DOD components: the Air Force, Air National Guard, Army, Civil Works, and DLA. These agencies have agreed to share the development and maintenance of this Guide. The Guide combines Code of Federal Regulations and management practices into a series of checklists that show legal requirements and the specific operations or items to review. TEAM Guide is supplemented by DOD component-specific manuals detailing DOD component regulations and policies. The Idaho Supplement was developed to be used in conjunction with the TEAM Guide, using existing Idaho state environmental legislation and regulations as well as suggested management practices.

  12. A Retrospective Observational Study to Assess Prescription Pattern in Patients with Type B Aortic Dissection and Treatment Outcome.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kuang-Ming; Chen, Chung-Yu; Wang, Shih-Han; Huang, Jiann-Woei; Kuo, Chen-Chun; Huang, Yaw-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition. However, the use of medication to treat it remains unclear in our population, particularly in patients with a type B aortic dissection (TBAD) who do not receive surgery. This retrospective cohort study evaluated antihypertensive prescription patterns and outcomes in patients with nonsurgical TBAD. We reviewed the hospital records of patients with TBAD at a medical center in Taiwan from January 2008 to June 2013 to assess the baseline information, prescribing pattern, event rate, and clinical effectiveness of different antihypertensive treatment strategies. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate outcomes in different antihypertensive strategies. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospital admission for an aortic dissection. We included 106 patients with a mean follow-up period of 2.75 years. The most common comorbidity was hypertension followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Study endpoints mostly occurred within 6 months after the index date. Over 80% of patients received dual or triple antihypertensive strategies. Patients treated with different treatment strategies did not have a significantly increased risk of a primary outcome compared with those treated with a monotherapy. We found no significant difference in the primary outcome following the use of different antihypertensive medication regimes. PMID:27563668

  13. Retrospective assessment of the most common mitochondrial DNA mutations in a large Hungarian cohort of suspect mitochondrial cases.

    PubMed

    Remenyi, Viktoria; Inczedy-Farkas, Gabriella; Komlosi, Katalin; Horvath, Rita; Maasz, Anita; Janicsek, Ingrid; Pentelenyi, Klara; Gal, Aniko; Karcagi, Veronika; Melegh, Bela; Molnar, Maria Judit

    2015-08-01

    Prevalence estimations for mitochondrial disorders still vary widely and only few epidemiologic studies have been carried out so far. With the present work we aim to give a comprehensive overview about frequencies of the most common mitochondrial mutations in Hungarian patients. A total of 1328 patients were tested between 1999 and 2012. Among them, 882 were screened for the m.3243A > G, m.8344A > G, m.8993T > C/G mutations and deletions, 446 for LHON primary mutations. The mutation frequency in our cohort was 2.61% for the m.3243A > G, 1.47% for the m.8344A > G, 17.94% for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (m.3460G > A, m.11778G > A, m.14484T > C) and 0.45% for the m.8993T > C/G substitutions. Single mtDNA deletions were detected in 14.97%, while multiple deletions in 6.01% of the cases. The mutation frequency in Hungarian patients suggestive of mitochondrial disease was similar to other Caucasian populations. Further retrospective studies of different populations are needed in order to accurately assess the importance of mitochondrial diseases and manage these patients. PMID:24438288

  14. A Retrospective Observational Study to Assess Prescription Pattern in Patients with Type B Aortic Dissection and Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shih-Han; Huang, Jiann-Woei

    2016-01-01

    Aortic dissection is a life-threatening condition. However, the use of medication to treat it remains unclear in our population, particularly in patients with a type B aortic dissection (TBAD) who do not receive surgery. This retrospective cohort study evaluated antihypertensive prescription patterns and outcomes in patients with nonsurgical TBAD. We reviewed the hospital records of patients with TBAD at a medical center in Taiwan from January 2008 to June 2013 to assess the baseline information, prescribing pattern, event rate, and clinical effectiveness of different antihypertensive treatment strategies. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate outcomes in different antihypertensive strategies. The primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospital admission for an aortic dissection. We included 106 patients with a mean follow-up period of 2.75 years. The most common comorbidity was hypertension followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Study endpoints mostly occurred within 6 months after the index date. Over 80% of patients received dual or triple antihypertensive strategies. Patients treated with different treatment strategies did not have a significantly increased risk of a primary outcome compared with those treated with a monotherapy. We found no significant difference in the primary outcome following the use of different antihypertensive medication regimes. PMID:27563668

  15. Evolution of environmental epidemiologic risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, H.A.

    1985-10-01

    Epidemiology has historically played an important role in the recognition of causes for diseases affecting the health of the public. Initially, epidemiology was concerned with infectious diseases. Later it became involved in metabolic and dietary deficiency diseases. Most recently, epidemiology has addressed the question of the public health effects of chemicals from production facilities, accidental spills, and chemical waste disposal sites. Concurrent improvements in the sensitivity of chemical analyses have enabled the identification of chemicals arising from waste disposal sites in the soil, air, drinking water, and food supplies of neighboring residential areas, albeit usually at very low concentrations. This knowledge has created great concerns among the affected populations and their public health agencies. The responsibility for interpreting the potential severity of the health effects of these environmental contaminants has fallen to those scientists experienced in epidemiology. This has led to a subdiscipline, reactive epidemiology, which describes investigations focused on specific events, usually under emotion-laden circumstances, rather than scientific merit. The reactive epidemiologist is rigidly constrained as to the size, timing, and location of the study. There is a strong requirement for public communication skills. New data bases are needed including ''sentinel'' diseases that are linked to exposure to chemicals, records of land use, and residency data for the population at risk.

  16. Assessing stream temperature response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature controls aquatic ecosystem function by directly influencing water quality, ecosystem productivity, and the physiological functioning of aquatic organisms. To date, there are limited studies of the impacts of environmental disturbance on stream temperature, particularly on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This region provides key habitat for native salmonid species such as westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as ‘threatened’ and ‘species of special concern’, respectively. Increases in stream temperature could limit habitat availability, reduce competitive advantage, and potentially increase mortality rates for these native species. This study uses field data collected at high spatiotemporal resolution to develop a spatial stream temperature model that simulates the mass and energy balance of the stream system. Preliminary field results demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability in processes governing stream temperature in three study stream reaches. Groundwater/surface water interactions, topographic setting, and local meteorological conditions all contribute in determining stream thermal regimes. This work discusses how these primary drivers of stream temperature can be incorporated into a physically based spatial model, and demonstrates how depending on the scale of interest, the temperature of a stream can be governed by very different contributing factors.

  17. Southwest PAVE PAWS radar system: Environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, S. J.; Edson, W. A.; Heynick, L. N.; Pierce, S. R.; Shepherd, R. A.; Wlaklet, T. H.

    1983-03-01

    This document describes the probable environmental impacts of constructing and operating a new surveillance and tracking radar that would operate between 420 and 450 MHz. Four candidate sites in the vicinity of Goodfellow Air Force Base were considered. The impact analysis found that chronic exposure of humans to the radiofrequency radiation levels outside the exclusion fence is not likely to be harmful. No hazards would be associated with fuel handling or cardiac pacemakers at ground level beyond the exclusion fence. Interference with TV reception and other home electronic systems and with UHF land mobile and amateur radios is possible, depending on the site. Handling and use of electro-explosive devices (EEDs) would be safe beyond about 1.2 miles for the basic system and about 2.4 miles for the optional, higher power system. Electromagnetic interference with radar altimeters, air navigation, and air-ground communication is not likely except at two candidate sites, where interference and EED and pacemaker hazards may exist for aircraft operating into or out of a nearby landing strip. No significant adverse biophysical impacts are expected in any location.

  18. Retrospective and Prospective Evaluations of Environmental Quality under Urban Renewal as Determinants of Residents' Subjective Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

    2008-01-01

    Claims about the impacts of environmental quality associated with urban renewal on the resident's subjective quality of life are more speculative than empirically grounded. To clarify the impacts of environmental quality under urban renewal, this study surveyed 876 residents living in housing surrounding seven urban renewal sites in Hong Kong. It…

  19. Assessment of environmental radioactivity for Batman, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, Nevzat; Cevik, Ugur; Kobya, Ali Ihsan; Ataksor, Berna; Isik, Umit

    2010-01-01

    The province of Batman, located in southern Anatolia, has a population of approximately 500,000. To our knowledge, there exists no information regarding the environmental radioactivity in this province. Therefore, gamma activity measurements in soil, building materials and water samples and an indoor radon survey have been carried out in the Batman province. The mean activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides (226Ra, 232Th and 40K) and a fission product (137Cs) were 35+/-8, 25+/-10, 274+/-167 and 12+/-7 Bq kg(-1), respectively, in the soil samples. The concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the selected building materials ranged from 18 to 48 Bq kg(-1), 8 to 49 Bq kg(-1) and 68 to 477 Bq kg(-1), respectively. All the calculated radium equivalent (Raeq) activity values of the building material samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma-dose of 1.5 mSv year(-1). The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in tap waters collected from the study area were determined with mean specific activity concentrations of 42+/-15, 35+/-9 and 524+/-190 mBq L(-1), respectively. Indoor radon measurements were made at 95 dwellings in Batman using a CR-39 detector. The radon concentration levels were found to vary from 23 to 145 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the measured radon concentration levels was found to be 84 Bq m(-3) with a standard deviation value of 23 Bq m(-3). The measurement results obtained in this study did not significantly differ from those taken in other parts of the country. The data generated in this study can be used to determine whether the Batman province is in a normal or high background radiation area and provides a valuable database for future estimations of the impact of radioactive pollution. PMID:19083109

  20. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Martin H; Parigger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional

  1. Baleen hormones: a novel tool for retrospective assessment of stress and reproduction in bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus).

    PubMed

    Hunt, Kathleen E; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; George, Craig; Hanns, Cyd; Suydam, Robert; Brower, Harry; Rolland, Rosalind M

    2014-01-01

    Arctic marine mammals are facing increasing levels of many anthropogenic stressors. Novel tools are needed for assessment of stress physiology and potential impacts of these stressors on health, reproduction and survival. We have investigated baleen as a possible novel tissue type for retrospective assessment of stress and reproductive hormones. We found that pulverized baleen powder from bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) contained immunoreactive cortisol and progesterone that were detectable with commercially available enzyme immunoassay kits. Both assays passed parallelism and accuracy validations using baleen extracts. We analysed cortisol and progesterone at the base of the baleen plate (most recently grown baleen) from 16 bowhead whales of both sexes. For a subset of 11 whales, we also analysed older baleen from 10, 20 and 30 cm distal to the base of the baleen plate. Immunoreactive cortisol and progesterone were detectable in all baleen samples tested. In base samples, females had significantly higher concentrations of cortisol and progesterone compared with males. Cortisol concentrations in older baleen (10, 20 and 30 cm locations) were significantly lower than at the base and did not exhibit correlations with age-class or sex. Progesterone concentrations were significantly higher in females than in males at all baleen locations tested and were significantly higher in pregnant females than in non-pregnant females. Four of five mature females showed dramatic variation in progesterone concentrations at different locations along the baleen plate that may be indicative of previous pregnancies or luteal phases. In contrast, all males and all immature females had uniformly low progesterone. Baleen hormone analysis is a novel approach that, with further methodological development, may be useful for determining individual longitudinal profiles of reproductive cycles and stress responses. PMID:27293651

  2. Advancing environmental risk assessment for transgenic biofeedstock crops

    PubMed Central

    Wolt, Jeffrey D

    2009-01-01

    Transgenic modification of plants is a key enabling technology for developing sustainable biofeedstocks for biofuels production. Regulatory decisions and the wider acceptance and development of transgenic biofeedstock crops are considered from the context of science-based risk assessment. The risk assessment paradigm for transgenic biofeedstock crops is fundamentally no different from that of current generation transgenic crops, except that the focus of the assessment must consider the unique attributes of a given biofeedstock crop and its environmental release. For currently envisioned biofeedstock crops, particular emphasis in risk assessment will be given to characterization of altered metabolic profiles and their implications relative to non-target environmental effects and food safety; weediness and invasiveness when plants are modified for abiotic stress tolerance or are domesticated; and aggregate risk when plants are platforms for multi-product production. Robust risk assessments for transgenic biofeedstock crops are case-specific, initiated through problem formulation, and use tiered approaches for risk characterization. PMID:19883509

  3. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  4. Environmental impact assessment and control of pharmaceuticals: the role of environmental agencies.

    PubMed

    Adler, N E; Koschorreck, J; Rechenberg, B

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the new legislation for pharmaceuticals came into effect. Since then environmental risk assessments are required for all new marketing authorisation applications. The German Federal Environment Agency has been assessing the environmental impact of 136 veterinary and 134 human pharmaceuticals. The authorisation of pharmaceuticals has shown that the authorisation of some groups of substances have to be combined with risk mitigation measures. Environmental risks may also arise from those pharmaceuticals which were authorised before the environmental risk assessment was added to the requirements of authorisation. Four examples of "existing" pharmaceuticals, i.e. diclofenac, ethinyl estradiol, ivermectin, and florfenicol are highlighted in this article. Risk management options for veterinary and human pharmaceuticals are discussed. PMID:18192745

  5. Environmental monitoring, restoration and assessment: What have we learned

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Twenty-Eighth Hanford Symposium on Health and the Environment was held in Richland, Washington, October 16--19, 1989. The symposium was sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The symposium was organized to review and evaluate some of the monitoring and assessment programs that have been conducted or are currently in place. Potential health and environmental effects of energy-related and other industrial activities have been monitored and assessed at various government and private facilities for over three decades. Most monitoring is required under government regulations; some monitoring is implemented because facility operators consider it prudent practice. As a result of these activities, there is now a substantial radiological, physical, and chemical data base for various environmental components, both in the United States and abroad. Symposium participants, both platform and poster presenters, were asked to consider, among other topics, the following: Has the expenditure of millions of dollars for radiological monitoring and assessment activities been worth the effort How do we decide when enough monitoring is enough Can we adequately assess the impacts of nonradiological components -- both inorganic and organic -- of wastes Are current regulatory requirements too restrictive or too lenient Can monitoring and assessment be made more cost effective Papers were solicited in the areas of environmental monitoring; environmental regulations; remediation, restoration, and decommissioning; modeling and dose assessment; uncertainty, design, and data analysis; and data management and quality assurance. Individual reports are processed separately for the databases.

  6. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

  7. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  8. Mapping environmental injustices: pitfalls and potential of geographic information systems in assessing environmental health and equity.

    PubMed

    Maantay, Juliana

    2002-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been used increasingly to map instances of environmental injustice, the disproportionate exposure of certain populations to environmental hazards. Some of the technical and analytic difficulties of mapping environmental injustice are outlined in this article, along with suggestions for using GIS to better assess and predict environmental health and equity. I examine 13 GIS-based environmental equity studies conducted within the past decade and use a study of noxious land use locations in the Bronx, New York, to illustrate and evaluate the differences in two common methods of determining exposure extent and the characteristics of proximate populations. Unresolved issues in mapping environmental equity and health include lack of comprehensive hazards databases; the inadequacy of current exposure indices; the need to develop realistic methodologies for determining the geographic extent of exposure and the characteristics of the affected populations; and the paucity and insufficiency of health assessment data. GIS have great potential to help us understand the spatial relationship between pollution and health. Refinements in exposure indices; the use of dispersion modeling and advanced proximity analysis; the application of neighborhood-scale analysis; and the consideration of other factors such as zoning and planning policies will enable more conclusive findings. The environmental equity studies reviewed in this article found a disproportionate environmental burden based on race and/or income. It is critical now to demonstrate correspondence between environmental burdens and adverse health impacts--to show the disproportionate effects of pollution rather than just the disproportionate distribution of pollution sources. PMID:11929725

  9. Environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils

    SciTech Connect

    Atalay, A.

    1990-10-01

    The development of environmental impact assessment of selenium from coal mine spoils will provide a useful guideline to predict the environmental impact of Se from abandoned coal mine operations. Information obtained from such a study can be applied in areas where coal mining has not yet begun in order to predict and identify the geochemistry of rocks, soils, surface waters and groundwaters likely to be disturbed by coal mining operation.

  10. Hellsgate Winter Range : Wildlife Mitigation Project. Preliminary Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration proposes funding the Hellsgate Winter Range Wildlife Mitigation Project in cooperation with the Colville Convederated Tribes and Bureau of Indian Affairs. This Preliminary Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and managing property for wildlife and wildlife habitat within a large project area. The Propose action is intended to meet the need for mitigation of wildlife and wild life habitat that was adversely affected by the construction of Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Dams and their reservoirs.

  11. Power Systems Development Facility. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell.

  12. Environmental, health, and safety assessment of photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.C.

    1983-10-15

    Potential enviornmental, health, and safety (E,H and S) concerns associated with all phases of the photovoltaic (PV) energy system life cycle are identified and assessed. E,H and S concerns affecting the achievement of National PV Program goals or the viability of specific PV technologies are emphasized. The report is limited to near-term manufacturing process alternatives for crystalline silicon PV materials, addresses flat-plate and concentrator collector designs, and reviews system deployment in grid-connected, roof-mounted, residential and ground-mounted central-station applications. The PV life-cycle phases examined include silicon refinement and manufacture of PV collectors, system deployment, and decommissioning. The primary E,H and S concerns that arise during collector fabrication are associated with occupational exposure to materials of undetermined toxicity or to materials that are known to be hazardous, but for which process control technology may be inadequate. Stricter exposure standards are anticipated for some materials and may indicate a need for further control technology development. Minimizing electric shock hazards is a significant concern during system construction, operation and maintenance, and decommissioning.

  13. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rajan R.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  14. Environmental health impact assessment of National Aluminum Company, Orissa.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajan R

    2011-05-01

    Environmental Health Impact Assessment of industries is an important tool help decision-makers make choices about alternatives and improvements to prevent disease/injury and to actively promote health around industrial sites. A rapid environmental health hazard and vulnerability assessment of National Aluminum Company was undertaken in the villages in the vicinity plant in Angul region of Orissa. Aluminum smelter plant was known to discharge hundreds of tones of fluoride in to the environment contaminating the ecosystem around the plant. The present Environmental health impact assessment was carried out in 2005-06 at the request of officials from Government of Orissa. The findings showed adverse effects on human, veterinary and ecological health. Human health effects manifestations included dental and skeletal fluorosis. Veternary health effects were manifested through skeletal fluorosis. Ecological adverse effects were manifested by damage to paddy fields and crop yield. PMID:22223954

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Process of V1 NPP Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Matejovic, Igor; Polak, Vincent

    2007-07-01

    Through the adoption of Governmental Resolution No. 801/99 the Slovak Republic undertook a commitment to shutdown units 1 and 2 of Jaslovske Bohunice V 1 NPP (WWER 230 reactor type) in 2006 and 2008 respectively. Therefore the more intensive preparation of a decommissioning documentation has been commenced. Namely, the VI NPP Conceptual Decommissioning Plan and subsequently the Environmental Impact Assessment Report of VI NPP Decommissioning were developed. Thus, the standard environmental impact assessment process was performed and the most suitable alternative of V1 NPP decommissioning was selected as a basis for development of further decommissioning documents. The status and main results of the environmental impact assessment process and EIA report are discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  16. A new paradigm for Environmental Assessment (EA) in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Young-Il; Glasson, John

    2010-02-15

    Over the last 30 years, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in Korea has played an important role in decision-making processes particularly for environmentally sensitive projects. However, the EIA system alone has sometimes not been effective enough to ensure the successful resolution of environmental concerns. In order to compensate for the limitations of the EIA system, a new assessment system called Prior Environmental Review System (PERS), which is relevant to Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in some aspects, was introduced in 1993. PERS aims to balance development and preservation by identifying possible environmental impacts of some administrative plans mainly related to development projects in the early stages of planning. However, PERS still appeared to have some weak points such as a limited range of subjects to be assessed, and weakness of tiering (or vertical integration) from PERS to EIA. Therefore, the necessity for reform of the Korean Environmental Assessment (EA) system, including PERS, was raised. In response, the Korean government sought to establish its policy direction for implementing SEA by enhancing the objectivity and expertise of PERS. The policy was approved by the National Assembly in May 2005, and went into effect in June 2006. The introduction of SEA, by enhancing PERS, provides a framework for a system of EA from the strategic level, including PPPs, to the project level. Yet, despite such improvements, some managerial and technical problems associated with subsequent EA implementation remain. This paper critically reviews the evolution of the EA system in Korea and suggests essential improvements for the current EA system based on experiences of implementation of both EIA and SEA since June 2006, in the context of international good practice.

  17. Environmental Assessment: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Winnett School District complex`s existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds provided from a grant under the Institutional Conservation Program. This Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), the Council on Environmental Quality`s regulations; the Department`s Implementing Procedures and Guidelines Revocation; and the May 1993 ``Recommendations for the Preparation of Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements,`` by the Department`s Office of NEPA Oversight. Under the Institutional Conservation Programs, created by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (PL 95--619), the Department is authorized to encourage energy conservation-by providing funding for up to 50 percent of the costs of installation of qualified energy conservation measures by entities such as schools, hospitals, and other buildings owned by local governments. This proposed action to fund partially the installation of a new coal-fired heating system for the Winnett School District is part of this energy conservation program.

  18. A qualitative method proposal to improve environmental impact assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Toro, Javier; Requena, Ignacio; Duarte, Oscar; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-11-15

    In environmental impact assessment, qualitative methods are used because they are versatile and easy to apply. This methodology is based on the evaluation of the strength of the impact by grading a series of qualitative attributes that can be manipulated by the evaluator. The results thus obtained are not objective, and all too often impacts are eliminated that should be mitigated with corrective measures. However, qualitative methodology can be improved if the calculation of Impact Importance is based on the characteristics of environmental factors and project activities instead on indicators assessed by evaluators. In this sense, this paper proposes the inclusion of the vulnerability of environmental factors and the potential environmental impact of project activities. For this purpose, the study described in this paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. The results obtained in the case study of oil drilling in Colombia reflect greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts as well as a positive correlation between impact values, the environmental characteristics at and near the project location, and the technical characteristics of project activities. -- Highlights: • Concept of vulnerability has been used to calculate the importance impact assessment. • This paper defined Total Impact Importance and specified a quantification procedure. • The method includes the characteristics of environmental and project activities. • The application has shown greater objectivity in the evaluation of impacts. • Better correlation between impact values, environment and the project has been shown.

  19. Assessing the influence of two environmental variables on microfossil stratigraphies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachsel, Mathias; Telford, Richard; Birks, John

    2014-05-01

    Biological assemblages are controlled by several environmental variables (e.g. temperature, precipitation, soil, etc.). Usually, the quantitative influence of several environmental variables on modern species assemblages is evaluated by assessing the influence of different variables on modern species assemblages by means of canonical correspondence analysis or related multivariate regression methods (e.g. Juggins 2013). For fossil assemblages, palaeoecologists have only recently started to assess the statistical influence of one environmental variable (Telford and Birks 2011) and have rarely attempted to assess the joint influence of different environmental variables. For this purpose, we propose a simple approach, generating synthetic variables with different proportions of two environmental variables and testing how much variation in the fossil data the reconstructions of these synthetic variables explain. We first applied this approach to simulated environmental and species data, and then applied the method to pollen data from two transects in Norway that both cover gradients from oceanic to continental sites. We found that our method was able to detect variables used to simulate species assemblages, differences in importance of these variables, and correlations between these variables. Applying the method to pollen data we find that pollen assemblages at coastal sites are mainly sensitive to past changes in July temperature, whereas inland continental sites are influenced by both July temperature and annual precipitation. References Juggins (2013) QSR 64, 20 - 32. Telford and Birks (2011) QSR 30, 1272 - 1278

  20. Environmentally Based Assessment Practices: Viable Alternatives to Standardized Assessment for Assessing Emergent Literacy Skills in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, S. Kenneth; McGrath, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological validity is an important construct in the assessment of young children. The argument is made that using environmentally based assessment practices as well as understanding the child's ecology will help assure that assessments are carried out in an ecologically valid manner. The discussion focuses on play-based assessment,…

  1. Genotoxic assessment of environmental tobacco smoke using bacterial bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Claxton, L.D.; Morin, R.S.; Hughes, T.J.; Lewtas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper demonstrates that integrated chemical and bacterial mutagenicity information can be used to identify environmental tobacco smoke genotoxicants, monitor human exposure, and make comparative assessments. Approximately one-third of the environmental tobacco-smoke constituents for which there is quantitative analytical-chemistry information also have associated genotoxicity information. For example, 11 of the quantitated compounds are animal carcinogens. Work presented in this paper demonstrates that both the nonparticle-bound semi-volatile and the particulate-bound organic material contain bacterial mutagens. These environmental tobacco-smoke organics give an equivalent of about 86,000 revertants per cigarette. In addition, this article summarizes efforts to estimate environmental tobacco smoke bacterial mutagenicity, to use bacterial tests for the monitoring of environmental tobacco smoke-impacted indoor environments, and to use bacterial assays for the direct monitoring of human exposure.

  2. Methodology for the environmental assessment of advanced coal extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Hutchinson, C.F.; Makihara, J.; Evensizer, J.

    1980-06-15

    This document describes the methodology which was developed to identify and assess potential environmental impacts of advanced mining technology as it moves from a generic concept to a more precise systems definition. Two levels of assessment are defined in terms of the design stage of the technology being evaluated. The first level of analysis is appropriate to a conceptual design. At this level it is assumed that each mining process has known and potential environmental impacts that are generic to each mining activity. By using this assumption, potential environmental impacts can be identified for new mining systems. When two or more systems have been assessed, they can be evaluated by comparing potential environmental impacts. At the preliminary stage of design, a systems performance can be assessed again with more precision. At this level of systems definition, potential environmental impacts can be analyzed and their significance determined in a manner to facilitate comparisons between systems. An important output of each level of analysis is suggestions calculated to help the designer mitigate potentially harmful impacts.

  3. Formalizing expert judgment in the environmental impact assessment process

    SciTech Connect

    Lein, J.K. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-01-01

    As the debate surrounding the adequacy of the environmental impact statement (EIS) process and its intended role in environmental decision-making continues, there is growing concern that the present guidelines used to develop the EIS may not be adequate given the methodological and theoretical advances that have been introduced in environmental impact assessment (EIA) since the last Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) revisions. This concern is particularly evident when the issues surrounding the application of expert judgment and the role it plays in impact prediction are considered. Presently, there is no standardized procedure for applying expert judgment in EIA, and although the use of expert judgment has long been acknowledged in the impact assessment literature, methodologies that draw upon expert judgment have not attempted to render those judgmental aspects of an assessment visible to decision-makers. This paper presents an approach for formalizing expert judgment using the experience gained from the development of expert systems designed to assist the EIA process. Following a critical examination of judgmental approaches to impact prediction, this paper illustrates how through the application of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and fuzzy logic, substantive improvements in EIA can be made, moving the practice of impact assessment more closely into alignment with the goals expressed in Section 102(2)(a) and Section 102(2)(b) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969.

  4. Oklahoma State University proposed Advanced Technology Research Center. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the construction and equipping of the proposed Advanced Technology Research Center (ATRC) at Oklahoma State University (OSU) in Stillwater, Oklahoma. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  5. Ecological Recovery Potential of Freshwater Organisms: Consequences for Environmental Risk Assessment of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gergs, Andre; Classen, Silke; Strauss, Tido; Ottermanns, Richard; Brock, Theo C M; Ratte, Hans Toni; Hommen, Udo; Preuss, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    Chemical contaminants released into the in the environment may have adverse effects on (non-target) species, populations and communities. The return of a stressed system to its pre-disturbance or other reference state, i.e. the ecological recovery, may depend on various factors related to the affected taxon, the ecosystem of concern and the type of stressor with consequences for the assessment and management of risks associated with chemical contaminants. Whereas the effects caused by short-term exposure might be acceptable to some extent, the conditions under which ecological recovery can serve as a decision criterion in the environmental risk assessment of chemical stressors remains to be evaluated. For a generic consideration of recovery in the risk assessment of chemicals, we reviewed case studies of natural and artificial aquatic systems and evaluate five aspects that might cause variability in population recovery time: (1) taxonomic differences and life-history variability, (2) factors related to ecosystem type and community processes, (3) type of disturbance, (4) comparison of field and semi-field studies, and (5) effect magnitude, i.e., the decline in population size following disturbance. We discuss our findings with regard to both retrospective assessments and prospective risk assessment. PMID:26423077

  6. 40 CFR 1501.3 - When to prepare an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... assessment. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.3 When to prepare an environmental assessment. (a) Agencies shall prepare an environmental... environmental impact statement. (b) Agencies may prepare an environmental assessment on any action at any...

  7. 40 CFR 1501.3 - When to prepare an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... assessment. 1501.3 Section 1501.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY NEPA AND AGENCY PLANNING § 1501.3 When to prepare an environmental assessment. (a) Agencies shall prepare an environmental... environmental impact statement. (b) Agencies may prepare an environmental assessment on any action at any...

  8. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R L; Sherins, R J; Lee, I P

    1979-06-01

    Exposure to drinking water containing as much as 500 ppm aluminum chloride for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days had no apparent effect on male reproductive processes. In an attempt to correlate enzyme activity with particular spermatogenic cell types, postnatal development of testicular enzymes was studied. Eight enzymes were selected: hyaluronidase (H), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-X (LDH-X), dehydrogenases of sorbitol (SDH), alpha-glycerophosphate (GPDH), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PDH), malate (MDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3PDH), and isocitrate (ICDH). Enzyme specific activities in testicular homogenates were determined. Two types of enzyme developmental patterns were observed. One was represented by H, LDH-X, SDH, and GPDH; and the other by G6PDH, MDH, G3PDH, and ICDH. The former was characterized by a change in enzyme activities from low in newborn to high in adult while in the latter this pattern was reversed. The two complementary enzyme systems crossed each other at puberty. Prior to puberty, only spermatogonial cells are present; sperm differentiation initiated at puberty adds spermatocytes and spermatids to the testicular cell population. Male rats were exposed to borax in their diet for periods of 30 and 60 days. Concentrations of boron were 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. At the end of each experimental period, the specific activities of the selected enzymes were determined in the testis and prostate. Correlations of enzyme activity with testicular histology and androgen activities of the male accessory organs were sought. In addition, plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were measured to assess pituitary-testicular interaction. Plasma and testicular boron concentrations were determined and a minimum boron concentration which induced germinal aplasia and male infertility was estimated. In both 30 and 60 day feeding studies, male rats receiving 500 ppm failed to demonstrate any significant adverse effects. In contrast, male rats receiving 100 and 2000

  9. Environmental flow assessment for river Trebizat, BiH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolar-Zvanut, N.; Kupusovic, E.; Vucijak, B.; Mijatovic, A.; Grizelj, Z.; Antonelli, F.

    2009-04-01

    The alteration of the water flow downstream of dams is one of the most stressful factors influencing the aquatic and riverine ecosystem. The environmental flow assessment is a tool for finding the balance between water use by humans and nature and ensuring a long-term and good quality water supply both for human purposes and for ecosystems. In 2007/08 WWF has implemented a project in the Neretva basin (Bosnia and Herzegovina) with a focus on environmental flow evaluation for the river Trebizat, located in the western region of Herzegovina. The water regime of the Trebizat river is affected by the abstraction of its water for hydropower plants, irrigation and fish farming not to mention pollution problems. The Trebizat river flows through an area of remarkable ecological value hosting also protected areas (the travertine-formation around Kravice waterfall). The main aim of this paper is to present the results of the application of a methodology for environmental flow assessment, namely the GEP methodology (guaranteed ecological flow). It belongs to the category of hydrological environmental flow assessment methods and the test was done to assess the environmental flow in the river Trebizat. Using existing hydrological data as well as samples specifically collected on the field, the environmental flow was assessed applying the GEP methodology. Additionally, instream ecological values and critical parameters for environmental flow assessment were evaluated. The area was assessed in terms of its geography, climate conditions, historic heritage of the river, demography, geology of the river and its tributaries, river hydrology and morphology, ecological characteristics, river pollution, river use and river management. At five selected sampling sites along the Trebizat river, additional data on macrophytes, phytobenthos and physico-chemical parameters were collected and analysed. Although there have been many negative impacts in recent years on the Trebizat river, the

  10. Exposure to o-toluidine, aniline, and nitrobenzene in a rubber chemical manufacturing plant: a retrospective exposure assessment update.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kevin W; Viet, Susan M; Hein, Misty J; Carreón, Tania; Ruder, Avima M

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously conducted a retrospective cancer incidence and mortality study of workers employed at a rubber chemical manufacturing plant. Compared with New York State incidence, the bladder cancer risk was 6.5 times higher for workers considered to have definite exposure to ortho-toluidine and aniline, and 4 times higher for workers with possible exposure. Exposure characterization in the original study utilized a surrogate measure based only on departments in which each worker was ever employed. As part of an update of that study, some departments in the three original exposure groups were reclassified based on a follow-up site visit; interviews with employees, management, and union representatives; and review of records including exposure data. An additional evaluation of department-job combinations, rather than only departments, was used to stratify exposure into four categories. An approximate rank of "relative" exposure level for each department-job-year combination was also assigned using a ranking scale of 0 to 10. The ranks were supported by quantitative exposure levels and by professional judgment. The numerical ranking scale was applied to each worker by multiplying the exposure rank by duration for each job held based on comprehensive individual work histories. The cumulative rank scores for this cohort ranged from 0 to 300 unit-years. The medians of the cumulative rank scores for the exposure categories showed very good agreement with increasing exposure classifications (e.g., 0.72, 4.6, 11, 14 unit-years for the four exposure categories). Workers' breathing zone air sampling data collected at this plant from 1976-2004 were well below published occupational exposure limits for these chemicals, but additional cases of bladder cancer have been reported. The exposure assessment revisions and rank estimates will be used to analyze the updated bladder cancer incidence data. PMID:22708702

  11. 43 CFR 46.315 - How to format an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How to format an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment may be prepared in any format useful to facilitate planning, decision-making, and appropriate public participation. (b) An environmental assessment may...

  12. 43 CFR 46.305 - Public involvement in the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involvement in the environmental assessment process. (a) The bureau must, to the extent practicable, provide for public notification and public involvement when an environmental assessment is being prepared... scoping process to an environmental assessment. (b) Publication of a “draft” environmental assessment...

  13. 43 CFR 46.315 - How to format an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true How to format an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment may be prepared in any format useful to facilitate planning, decision-making, and appropriate public participation. (b) An environmental assessment may...

  14. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conclusion of the environmental assessment... the environmental assessment process. Upon review of the environmental assessment by the Responsible Official, the environmental assessment process concludes with one of the following: (1) A notice of...

  15. 43 CFR 46.315 - How to format an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How to format an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment may be prepared in any format useful to facilitate planning, decision-making, and appropriate public participation. (b) An environmental assessment may...

  16. 43 CFR 46.305 - Public involvement in the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involvement in the environmental assessment process. (a) The bureau must, to the extent practicable, provide for public notification and public involvement when an environmental assessment is being prepared... scoping process to an environmental assessment. (b) Publication of a “draft” environmental assessment...

  17. 43 CFR 46.315 - How to format an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How to format an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment may be prepared in any format useful to facilitate planning, decision-making, and appropriate public participation. (b) An environmental assessment may...

  18. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conclusion of the environmental assessment... the environmental assessment process. Upon review of the environmental assessment by the Responsible Official, the environmental assessment process concludes with one of the following: (1) A notice of...

  19. 43 CFR 46.305 - Public involvement in the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involvement in the environmental assessment process. (a) The bureau must, to the extent practicable, provide for public notification and public involvement when an environmental assessment is being prepared... scoping process to an environmental assessment. (b) Publication of a “draft” environmental assessment...

  20. 43 CFR 46.305 - Public involvement in the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involvement in the environmental assessment process. (a) The bureau must, to the extent practicable, provide for public notification and public involvement when an environmental assessment is being prepared... scoping process to an environmental assessment. (b) Publication of a “draft” environmental assessment...

  1. 43 CFR 46.315 - How to format an environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How to format an environmental assessment... environmental assessment. (a) An environmental assessment may be prepared in any format useful to facilitate planning, decision-making, and appropriate public participation. (b) An environmental assessment may...

  2. 43 CFR 46.305 - Public involvement in the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involvement in the environmental assessment process. (a) The bureau must, to the extent practicable, provide for public notification and public involvement when an environmental assessment is being prepared... scoping process to an environmental assessment. (b) Publication of a “draft” environmental assessment...

  3. 43 CFR 46.325 - Conclusion of the environmental assessment process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conclusion of the environmental assessment... the environmental assessment process. Upon review of the environmental assessment by the Responsible Official, the environmental assessment process concludes with one of the following: (1) A notice of...

  4. Perspectives for integrating human and environmental exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Ciffroy, P; Péry, A R R; Roth, N

    2016-10-15

    Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) has been defined by the EU FP7 HEROIC Coordination action as "the mutual exploitation of Environmental Risk Assessment for Human Health Risk Assessment and vice versa in order to coherently and more efficiently characterize an overall risk to humans and the environment for better informing the risk analysis process" (Wilks et al., 2015). Since exposure assessment and hazard characterization are the pillars of risk assessment, integrating Environmental Exposure assessment (EEA) and Human Exposure assessment (HEA) is a major component of an IRA framework. EEA and HEA typically pursue different targets, protection goals and timeframe. However, human and wildlife species also share the same environment and they similarly inhale air and ingest water and food through often similar overlapping pathways of exposure. Fate models used in EEA and HEA to predict the chemicals distribution among physical and biological media are essentially based on common properties of chemicals, and internal concentration estimations are largely based on inter-species (i.e. biota-to-human) extrapolations. Also, both EEA and HEA are challenged by increasing scientific complexity and resources constraints. Altogether, these points create the need for a better exploitation of all currently existing data, experimental approaches and modeling tools and it is assumed that a more integrated approach of both EEA and HEA may be part of the solution. Based on the outcome of an Expert Workshop on Extrapolations in Integrated Exposure Assessment organized by the HEROIC project in January 2014, this paper identifies perspectives and recommendations to better harmonize and extrapolate exposure assessment data, models and methods between Human Health and Environmental Risk Assessments to support the further development and promotion of the concept of IRA. Ultimately, these recommendations may feed into guidance showing when and how to apply IRA in the regulatory decision

  5. Radiological assessment. A textbook on environmental dose analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Till, J.E.; Meyer, H.R.

    1983-09-01

    Radiological assessment is the quantitative process of estimating the consequences to humans resulting from the release of radionuclides to the biosphere. It is a multidisciplinary subject requiring the expertise of a number of individuals in order to predict source terms, describe environmental transport, calculate internal and external dose, and extrapolate dose to health effects. Up to this time there has been available no comprehensive book describing, on a uniform and comprehensive level, the techniques and models used in radiological assessment. Radiological Assessment is based on material presented at the 1980 Health Physics Society Summer School held in Seattle, Washington. The material has been expanded and edited to make it comprehensive in scope and useful as a text. Topics covered include (1) source terms for nuclear facilities and Medical and Industrial sites; (2) transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere; (3) transport of radionuclides in surface waters; (4) transport of radionuclides in groundwater; (5) terrestrial and aquatic food chain pathways; (6) reference man; a system for internal dose calculations; (7) internal dosimetry; (8) external dosimetry; (9) models for special-case radionuclides; (10) calculation of health effects in irradiated populations; (11) evaluation of uncertainties in environmental radiological assessment models; (12) regulatory standards for environmental releases of radionuclides; (13) development of computer codes for radiological assessment; and (14) assessment of accidental releases of radionuclides.

  6. Environmental risk assessment of Polish wastewater treatment plant activity.

    PubMed

    Kudłak, Błażej; Wieczerzak, Monika; Yotova, Galina; Tsakovski, Stefan; Simeonov, Vasil; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) play an extremely important role in shaping modern society's environmental well-being and awareness, however only well operated and supervised systems can be considered as environmentally sustainable. For this reason, an attempt was undertaken to assess the environmental burden posed by WWTPs in major Polish cities by collecting water samples prior to and just after wastewater release points. Both classical and biological methods (Microtox(®), Ostracodtoxkit F™ and comet assay) were utilized to assess environmental impact of given WWTP. Interestingly, in some cases, water quality improvement indicated as a toxicity decrement toward one of the bio-indicating organisms makes water worse for others in the systems. This fact is particularly noticeable in case of Silesian cities where heavy industry and high population density is present. It proves that WWTP should undergo individual evaluation of pollutant removal efficiency and tuned to selectively remove pollutants of highest risk to surrounding regional ecosystems. Biotests again proved to be an extremely important tool to fully assess the impact of environmental stressors on water bodies receiving effluents from WWTPs. PMID:27376857

  7. Environmental site assessments and audits: Building inspection requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, John H.; Kaiser, Genevieve; Thomulka, Kenneth W.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental site assessment criteria were originally developed by organizations that focused, almost exclusively, on surface, subsurface, and pollution source contamination. Many of the hazards associated with indoor environments and building structures were traditionally not considered when evaluating sources and entities of environmental pollution. Since a large number of building materials are potentially hazardous, careful evaluation is necessary. Until recently, little information on building inspection requirements of environmental problems has been published. Traditionally, asbestos has been the main component of concern. The ever-changing environmental standards have dramatically expanded the scope of building surveys. Indoor environmental concerns, for example, currently include formaldehyde, lead-based paint, polychlorinated biphenyls, radon, and indoor air pollution. Environmental regulations are being expanded and developed that specifically include building structures. These regulatory standards are being triggered by an increased awareness of health effects from indoor exposure, fires, spills, and other accidents that have resulted in injury, death, and financial loss. This article discusses various aspects of assessments for building structures.

  8. Environmental Hazards Assessment Program: Quarterly report, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report describes activities and reports on progress for the second quarter (October 93 - December 93) of the second year of the grant to support the Environmental Hazards Assessment Program (EHAP). It reports progress against grant objectives and the Program Implementation Plan published at the end of the first year of the grant.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF COKE BY-PRODUCT RECOVERY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an initial screening study, initiating a multimedia environmental assessment of coke by-product recovery plants in the U.S. The study included both the gathering and analysis of existing data and sampling and analysis at one plant based on EPA's Indust...

  10. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program: comprehensive bibliography, January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography lists reports from investigators of the Alaska Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Some non-program documents are also included. More than 3600 entries are sorted by author and citation number. Cross-references are available by Alaska region, discipline and research unit number.

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: AGROECOSYSTEM 1992 PILOT PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Agroecosystem Resource Group (ARG) of the Environmental Protection Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) has developed a five year program strategy for implementation of a suite of indicators for monitoring agroecosystem status and trends. he five-year period (1991-1995) i...

  12. USEPA REGION 10 REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM: DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA designed and implemented the Environmental Assessment Program (EMAP) to determine the current status, extent, changes, and trends in indicators of the condition of the Nations ecological resources on regional and national scales with known confidence. USEPA Region 10s ...

  13. Biased Data and Potential Solutions for Health and Environmental Assessments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utility and credibility of environmental assessments depend on the use of unbiased data. However, it is increasingly clear that, despite peer review, much of the scientific literature is biased. Sources of bias may include publication practices, research design and implemen...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A STEEL FABRICATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. aste Minimization Assessment Centers (WMACs) were established at selected un...

  15. TERRESTRIAL ECOLOGY PROTOCOLS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS; WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is the proceedings of a workshop held in Corvallis, Oregon, during November 1978, to discuss potential tests for inclusion in, and make recommendations for, a terrestrial ecology bioassay testing protocol for use in EPA/IERTL-RTP's environmental assessment programs. Th...

  16. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF URANIUM MINING AND MILLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was initiated with the basic objective of making a preliminary assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with the mining and milling of domestic uranium ores. All forms of pollution except radiation were considered. The program included a ...

  17. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF HIGH-BTU GASIFICATION: ANNUAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of initial efforts of a 3-year program, initiated May 3, 1977, with the dual objectives of assessing environmental impacts associated with technologies for converting coal to high-Btu gaseous fuel and to identify control technologies required to reduce or...

  18. Measurement of Environmental Constructs in Disability Assessment Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guscia, Roma; Ekberg, Stuart; Harries, Julia; Kirby, Neil

    2006-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) assumes a biopsychosocial basis for disability and provides a framework for understanding how environmental factors contribute to the experience of disability. To determine the utility of prevalent disability assessment instruments, the authors examined the extent to…

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF DRY COKE QUENCHING VS. CONTINUOUS WET QUENCHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of the multimedia environmental impacts of continuous wet and dry quenching at National Steel's Weirton, West Virginia, Brown's Island coke plant. The report, based primarily on design data, test data from related processes, and engineeri...

  20. Life Cycle Assessment as an Environmental Management Tool

    EPA Science Inventory

    Listed by Time Magazine as the method behind calculating “Ecological Intelligence,” one of “10 Ideas Changing the World Right Now” (March 23, 2009), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is the tool that is used to understand the environmental impacts of the products we make and sell. Jo...