Science.gov

Sample records for returning excess flu

  1. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... enough in kids. If you get the flu vaccine, it will protect you from getting a bad case of the flu. You either won't get the flu at all, or if you do get it, you will have only mild symptoms and you should get better pretty quickly. Here's what the vaccine means for most kids: Kids older than 9 ...

  2. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... to get medical care. If you get the flu, your health care provider may prescribe medicine to help your body fight the infection and lessen symptoms. The main way to keep from getting the flu is to get a yearly flu vaccine. Good ...

  3. Earnings Quality Measures and Excess Returns

    PubMed Central

    Perotti, Pietro; Wagenhofer, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how commonly used earnings quality measures fulfill a key objective of financial reporting, i.e., improving decision usefulness for investors. We propose a stock-price-based measure for assessing the quality of earnings quality measures. We predict that firms with higher earnings quality will be less mispriced than other firms. Mispricing is measured by the difference of the mean absolute excess returns of portfolios formed on high and low values of a measure. We examine persistence, predictability, two measures of smoothness, abnormal accruals, accruals quality, earnings response coefficient and value relevance. For a large sample of US non-financial firms over the period 1988–2007, we show that all measures except for smoothness are negatively associated with absolute excess returns, suggesting that smoothness is generally a favorable attribute of earnings. Accruals measures generate the largest spread in absolute excess returns, followed by smoothness and market-based measures. These results lend support to the widespread use of accruals measures as overall measures of earnings quality in the literature. PMID:26300582

  4. Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Overview Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the flu and its complications every year. Seasonal Flu Seasonal flu refers to the flu outbreaks that ...

  5. Pandemic Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... address the pandemic. Characteristics and Challenges of a Flu Pandemic Rapid Worldwide Spread When a pandemic flu ... exposure could result in significant employee absenteeism. Seasonal Flu versus Pandemic Flu Pandemic Flu Seasonal Flu Rarely ...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6402-4 - Payments in excess of amounts shown on return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer's payments in respect of his tax liability, made before the filing of his return, may exceed the... of tax shown on the return, or where a corporation obtains an extension of time for filing its return... prescribed for payment and before the filing of the return) are in excess of the amount of tax shown on...

  7. Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to lower ... flu and spreading it to others. The flu vaccine causes antibodies to develop in your body about ...

  8. 77 FR 77180 - Notice of Transportation Services' OMB Designation, timely return of excess transit benefits to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Transportation Facilitation, 65 FR 19482 (April 11, 2000). III. Minimum Internal Controls To ensure that funds... return of excess transit benefits to the Treasury, and stakeholder notification of the minimum internal... of the Federal internal controls that now govern the Transit Benefit Program to prevent...

  9. Diagnosing Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... your symptoms and their clinical judgment. Will my health care provider test me for flu if I have flu-like ... flu symptoms do not require testing because the test results usually do not change how you are treated. Your health care provider may diagnose you with flu based on ...

  10. On return to thermal equilibrium for the excess charge distribution in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, V. V.

    1985-04-01

    The relaxation time for the return to thermal equilibrium for the excess charge distribution in metals and in semiconductors is shown to be longer than the relaxation time derived in many textbooks. In semiconductors the relaxation of charge is accompanied by an increase in temperature of the charged carriers. The time of decay τT for the temperature is considerably longer than the time of decay for the excess charge. Hence the overall relaxation time for attaining thermal equilibrium is determined by τT.

  11. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Flu Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... By Bonny McClain Whether the topic is seasonal influenza, bird flu or something called a pandemic, everyone ...

  12. Bird Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry, and wild birds such as ducks. Most bird flu viruses ... become sick. It may also be possible to catch bird flu by eating poultry or eggs that ...

  13. Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    Flu is a respiratory infection caused by a number of viruses. Most people with the flu get better on their own. But it can ... cause complications and sometimes even death. Getting the flu vaccine every year is the best way to ...

  14. "Stomach Flu"

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes "Stomach Flu" KidsHealth > For Kids > "Stomach Flu" Print A A A Text Size en español " ... virus estomacal" Many people talk about the "stomach flu" when they're feeling sick to their stomachs. ...

  15. Children, the Flu, and the Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  16. Flu.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pandemics Current Situation Global Activities Research Activities History Flu Symptoms & Severity The flu is different from a ... you know if you have the flu? (CDC) Flu Vaccine Finder The flu vaccine is your best ...

  17. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  18. Transmission of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Transmission How Flu Spreads Coughing and Sneezing People with flu can ... not be shared without washing thoroughly first. The Flu Is Contagious You may be able to pass ...

  19. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  20. 26 CFR 1.6050I-1 - Returns relating to cash in excess of $10,000 received in a trade or business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns relating to cash in excess of $10,000 received in a trade or business. 1.6050I-1 Section 1.6050I-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6050I-1 Returns relating to cash in excess...

  1. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  2. Avian Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Eckburg, Paul

    2006-11-06

    Since 2003, a severe form of H5N1 avian influenza has rapidly spread throughout Asia and Europe, infecting over 200 humans in 10 countries. The spread of H5N1 virus from person-to-person has been rare, thus preventing the emergence of a widespread pandemic. However, this ongoing epidemic continues to pose an important public health threat. Avian flu and its pandemic potential in humans will be discussed.

  3. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent or treat swine flu. There is a vaccine available to protect against swine flu. You can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza by Covering your nose and mouth with a ...

  4. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has ... do without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts ...

  5. CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159535.html CDC Panel Says FluMist Nasal Flu Vaccine Ineffective Agency advisors say the product has lost ... without the easier, nasal spray form of flu vaccine next flu season, a panel of experts decided ...

  6. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs ...

  7. How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues How Does Seasonal Flu Differ From Pandemic Flu? Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents ... this page please turn Javascript on. Seasonal Flu Pandemic Flu Outbreaks follow predictable seasonal patterns; occurs annually, ...

  8. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  9. Colds and the Flu: H1N1 Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Colds and the Flu | H1N1 Influenza What is H1N1 influenza? H1N1 influenza (also known as swine flu) is an infection caused by ... or illness that is more than “just a cold.” When should I see my doctor? If you’ ...

  10. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... at high risk for serious flu complications. 2009 H1N1 Influenza The 2009 H1N1 flu is caused by ... 1976 should still get the 2009 H1N1 vaccine. H1N1 Flu: Who Should Be Vaccinated First The Centers ...

  11. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    Babies and the flu; Your infant and the flu; Your toddler and the flu ... FLU SYMPTOMS IN INFANTS AND TODDLERS The flu is an infection of the nose, throat, and (sometimes) lungs. Call your baby’s health care provider if you notice any of ...

  12. Cancer, the Flu, and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Publications Stay Informed Cancer Home Cancer, the Flu, and You Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Patients, Survivors, and Caregivers Should Know About the Flu Everyone 6 months of age and older should ...

  13. THE MASS LOSS RETURN FROM EVOLVED STARS TO THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD: EMPIRICAL RELATIONS FOR EXCESS EMISSION AT 8 AND 24 {mu}m

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, Sundar; Meixner, Margaret; Leitherer, Claus; Vijh, Uma; Gordon, Karl D.; Sewilo, Marta; Volk, Kevin; Blum, Robert D.; Harris, Jason; Babler, Brian L.; Bracker, Steve; Meade, Marilyn; Block, Miwa; Engelbracht, Charles W.; For, Bi-Qing; Misselt, Karl A.; Cohen, Martin; Hora, Joseph L.; Indebetouw, Remy; Markwick-Kemper, Francisca

    2009-06-15

    We present empirical relations describing excess emission from evolved stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Surveying the Agents of a Galaxy's Evolution (SAGE) survey which includes the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m and Multiband Imaging Photometer (MIPS) 24, 70, and 160 {mu}m bands. We combine the SAGE data with the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS; J, H, and K {sub s}) and the optical Magellanic Cloud Photometric Survey (MCPS; U, B, V, and I) point source catalogs in order to create complete spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star candidates in the LMC. AGB star outflows are among the main producers of dust in a galaxy, and this mass loss results in an excess in the fluxes observed in the 8 and 24 {mu}m bands. The aim of this work is to investigate the mass loss return by AGB stars to the interstellar medium of the LMC by studying the dependence of the infrared excess flux on the total luminosity. We identify oxygen-rich, carbon-rich, and extreme AGB star populations in our sample based on their 2MASS and IRAC colors. The SEDs of oxygen- and carbon-rich AGB stars are compared with appropriate stellar photosphere models to obtain the excess flux in all the IRAC bands and the MIPS 24 {mu}m band. Extreme AGB stars are dominated by circumstellar emission at 8 and 24 {mu}m; thus we approximate their excesses with the flux observed in these bands. We find about 16,000 O-rich, 6300 C-rich, and 1000 extreme sources with reliable 8 {mu}m excesses, and about 4500 O-rich, 5300 C-rich, and 960 extreme sources with reliable 24 {mu}m excesses. The excesses are in the range 0.1 mJy to 5 Jy. The 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses for all three types of AGB candidates show a general increasing trend with luminosity. The color temperature of the circumstellar dust derived from the ratio of the 8 and 24 {mu}m excesses decreases with an increase in excess, while the 24 {mu

  14. Flu Symptoms & Severity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To ... this condition triggered by flu. Top of Page Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get Email Updates To ...

  15. Preventing the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... leads to serious diseases, such as pneumonia. The influenza vaccine can help protect you from getting the flu. ... 232-0233 (Spanish) Other Organizations Influenza and the Influenza Vaccine (CDC) American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) Influenza ...

  16. Treating Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be used to treat influenza illness. Antiviral drugs fight influenza viruses in your body. They are different from ... chills and fatigue. Your doctor may prescribe antiviral drugs to treat your flu illness. Should Istill get aflu vaccine? Yes. Antiviral ...

  17. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  18. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Should People With Cancer Get a Flu Shot? Getting a flu shot is recommended for ... need for the flu season. What types of flu vaccines are recommended for people with cancer? People ...

  19. Avian flu: pandemic preparedness.

    PubMed

    Jan, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is unpredictable, and the risk of an avian flu outbreak is unclear. It is critical that home health providers, who may become overburdened quickly in the event of a pandemic outbreak, be prepared to ensure a sustainable healthcare response. This article offers information on strategies that may be used by home health providers to prepare for, prevent, and manage pandemic influenza. PMID:17984642

  20. Children, the Flu and the Flu Vaccine. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Flu is more dangerous than the common cold for children. Each year, flu places a large burden on the health and well-being of children and families. Children commonly need medical care because of influenza, especially before they turn 5 years old. Each year an average of 20,000 children under the age of 5 are hospitalized because of influenza…

  1. Managing a Bird Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Del

    2006-01-01

    Concern about a possible bird flu pandemic has grown in the medical community with the spread of the avian flu virus around the globe. Health officials say there is no immediate threat but add that an influenza pandemic occurs every 30 to 40 years, and prudence demands planning now. That planning will increasingly involve local school officials,…

  2. Flu I.Q. Widget

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Winter-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ... gov/images/campaigns/seasonalflu/flu0913-Fall-150x172.gif" style="width:150px; height:172px; border:0px;" alt="The ...

  3. Getting a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Better Grasp on Flu Fundamentals Inside Life Science View All Articles | Inside Life Science Home Page Getting a Better Grasp on Flu ... Seasonal Flu Patterns? Forecasting Flu This Inside Life Science article also appears on LiveScience . Learn about related ...

  4. College students and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu symptoms. HOW DO I TREAT MY SYMPTOMS? Acetaminophen (Tylenol) and ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) help lower fever. Check with your health care provider before taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen if you have liver disease. Take ...

  5. Flu and Colds: In Depth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Allergy and Infectious Diseases Web site . What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for the Flu ... tea Oscillococcinum Vitamin C Vitamin D What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Colds The ...

  6. Pregnant Women and Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Pregnant Women & Influenza (Flu) Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook ...

  7. The Flu Vaccine and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish FAQ189, October 2015 PDF Format The Flu Vaccine ... Your Practice Patient Safety & Quality Payment Reform (MACRA) Education & Events Annual ... Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  8. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Get Your Flu Shot! Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... failure, or lung disease "For the 2010–2011 flu season, the flu vaccine provides protection against the ...

  9. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Help Stop the Flu Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents The ... vaccinated (for everyone six months or older). Find Flu Clinics Near You At www.flu.gov Use ...

  10. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu Basics Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) Influenza Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses How the Flu Virus Can Change Symptoms & Complications ... Influenza Vaccines How Flu Vaccines Are Made Selecting Viruses for the Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Vaccine Effectiveness Selected ...

  11. Get Your Flu Shot!| NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the flu vaccine provides protection against the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, as well as two seasonal flu ... Symptoms for the seasonal flu and the 2009 H1N1 flu are similar. They include fever, cough, sore ...

  12. New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children's Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu Admission by Three-Fourths

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Image Library (PHIL) New Study Shows Flu Vaccine Reduced Children’s Risk of Intensive Care Unit Flu ... Media Relations (404) 639-3286 Getting a flu vaccine reduces a child's risk of flu-related intensive ...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6050I-2 - Returns relating to cash in excess of $10,000 received as bail by court clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for any individual charged with a specified criminal offense must make a return of information with... reporting—(i) In general. The information return required by this section must be filed with the Internal... exceed $10,000, the initial payment and subsequent payments must be aggregated and the information...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6050I-2 - Returns relating to cash in excess of $10,000 received as bail by court clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for any individual charged with a specified criminal offense must make a return of information with... reporting—(i) In general. The information return required by this section must be filed with the Internal... exceed $10,000, the initial payment and subsequent payments must be aggregated and the information...

  15. 26 CFR 1.6050I-2 - Returns relating to cash in excess of $10,000 received as bail by court clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for any individual charged with a specified criminal offense must make a return of information with... reporting—(i) In general. The information return required by this section must be filed with the Internal... exceed $10,000, the initial payment and subsequent payments must be aggregated and the information...

  16. 26 CFR 1.6050I-2 - Returns relating to cash in excess of $10,000 received as bail by court clerks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for any individual charged with a specified criminal offense must make a return of information with... reporting—(i) In general. The information return required by this section must be filed with the Internal... exceed $10,000, the initial payment and subsequent payments must be aggregated and the information...

  17. H5N1 Avian Flu (H5N1 Bird Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H5N1 Avian Flu - H5N1 Bird Flu H5N1 is a highly pathogenic avian (bird) flu virus that has caused serious outbreaks in ... been no reported infections with these viruses in birds, poultry, or people in the United States. You ...

  18. H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... XYZ List of All Topics All H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  19. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibodies after getting flu vaccine. Talk to your doctor, nurse, or clinic about getting vaccinated as soon as ... have already had a flu shot--call your doctor, nurse, or clinic right away. Doctors can prescribe medicine ...

  20. Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Protect Yourself & Your Family Against the Flu Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... the most important steps to help protect your family against the flu this season. Take 3 Steps ...

  1. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  2. Expectant Mom's Flu Shot Protects 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... infant records. Information was available for nine flu seasons from December 2005 through March 2014. Only about ... shot during any trimester of pregnancy during flu season, Tan said. The new study found that 97 ...

  3. Caring for Your Child's Cold or Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Caring for Your Child’s Cold or Flu Page Content ​Unfortunately, there's no cure for the ... Liquid Medicine Safely for more information. Prevent & Treatment: Flu vaccine Children 6 months or older should get ...

  4. 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159679.html 2009 Swine Flu Originated in Mexico Genetic analysis pinpoints source ... FRIDAY, July 1, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The 2009 swine flu pandemic originated in pigs in a small ...

  5. Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158080.html Flu Shot Might Cut Stillbirth Risk Australian researchers find ... THURSDAY, March 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A seasonal flu shot may reduce a pregnant woman's risk of ...

  6. Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157852.html Flu Season Hasn't Peaked Yet This year's vaccine ... 2016 FRIDAY, March 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This flu season continues to be the mildest in the ...

  7. With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158514.html With Flu Shot, Timing May Be Everything Vaccination seems to ... 26, 2016 TUESDAY, April 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Flu shots may be more effective when people get ...

  8. Swine Flu -A Comprehensive View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vandana; Sood, Meenakshi

    2012-07-01

    The present article is aimed on comprehensive view of Swine flu. It was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in USA. Pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009 brought it in limelight. Itís a viral respiratory disease caused by viruses that infects pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine virus consist of eight RNA strands, one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains. Swine flu spreads from infected person to healthy person by inhalation or ingestion of droplets contaminated with virus while sneezing or coughing. Two antiviral agents have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu, flu shot and nasal spray. WHO recommended for pandemic period to prevent its future outbreaks through vaccines or non-vaccines means. Antiviral drugs effective against this virus are Tamiflu and Relenza. Rapid antigen testing (RIDT), DFA testing, viral culture, and molecular testing (RT-PCR) are used for its diagnosis in laboratory

  9. Key Facts about Seasonal Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... season, visit About the Current Flu Season . Vaccine Benefits What are the benefits of flu vaccination? While how well the flu ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Language: English Español File Formats Help: How do ...

  10. Problems of Excess Capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, G.

    1972-01-01

    The problems of excess capacity in the airline industry are discussed with focus on the following topics: load factors; fair rate of return on investment; service-quality rivalry among airlines; pricing (fare) policies; aircraft production; and the impacts of excess capacity on operating costs. Also included is a discussion of the interrelationships among these topics.

  11. Don't Confuse Common Flu with a Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    It is the time of year once again when students and staff members who are going around with coughs, colds, fevers, and sneezes abound in schools everywhere. Although it may seem more immediate to focus on the matter of how the seasonal/common flu will affect a particular school during the course of this school year, the fact of the situation is…

  12. Your baby and the flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... or the child has not urinated for the last 8 hours. Alternative Names Babies and the flu; Your infant and the ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  13. Knowledge and Awareness of Eye Flu among the Dentists and Dental Auxiliaries of Udaipur City, Rajasthan

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Nagesh; Patel, Rahul; Reddy, Jaddu Jyothirmai; Singh, Sopan; Sharma, Ashish; Multani, Suraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient. Methods: A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey) aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants. Results: All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries) the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08%) participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92%) of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39%) of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92%) subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside. Conclusions: Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members. PMID:25105007

  14. What You Should Know about Flu Antiviral Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... to prevent seasonal influenza . Antiviral drugs are a second line of defense to treat the flu (including seasonal flu and variant flu viruses ) if you get sick. What are the benefits of antiviral drugs? When used for treatment, antiviral ...

  15. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum: A complication of swine flu.

    PubMed

    Padhy, Ajit Kumar; Gupta, Anubhav; Aiyer, Palash; Jhajhria, Narender Singh; Grover, Vijay; Gupta, Vijay Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in swine flu, or H1N1 influenza A infection, is a rare phenomenon and only few cases have been reported in children. We describe a case of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in adult infected with swine flu. PMID:25939913

  16. Pandemic Flu: A Planning Guide for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    An influenza (flu) pandemic is a global outbreak of disease that occurs when a new flu virus appears that can spread easily from person to person. Although it is difficult to predict when the next influenza pandemic will occur or how severe it will be, effects can be lessened if preparations are made ahead of time. The illness rates for both…

  17. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of ... the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical trials ...

  18. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu What You Can Do to Stop the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents To ... Health and Human Services: http://flu.gov NIH Flu Research to Results Scientists at the National Institute ...

  19. 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu 2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine Facts Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... of the H1N1 flu vaccine. 1 The 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine is safe and well tested. Clinical ...

  20. I strong administrative buy-in, firm mandates can push flu vaccination rates up to more than 99% among health care workers.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    While flu vaccination rates are inching up among health care workers, there is still room for improvement. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that slightly more than 75% of health care workers received the flu vaccination during the 2013-14 season--an increase of roughly 3% over the 2012-13 season. However, some hospitals have been able to achieve vaccination rates in excess of 99%. The apparent key to these efforts is a firm mandate that all personnel receive a flu shot as a condition of employment. There is always pushback to such policies, but hospitals report that most personnel eventually come around. While flu vaccination rates are on the increase among health, care personnel, data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) note that rates vary widely from state to state. For example, the vaccination rate for health care workers in New Jersey stood at just 62% last year. In contrast, more than 95% of health care workers in Maryland received the shot during the 2013-14 flu season. Both Loyola University Medical Center and Henry Ford Hospital have been able to boost flu vaccination rates among their health care workers to more than 99% with the implementation of policies that require flu shots as a condition of employment. Experts say successful flu vaccination campaigns require strong administration buy-in and physician leadership. PMID:25362750

  1. H1N1 (Originally Referred to As Swine Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu Planning & Preparedness Business Planning Community Planning School ... Changes H7N9 H3N2v H1N1 - Swine Flu H5N1 - Avian/Bird Flu H1N1 - originally referred to as Swine Flu ...

  2. Swine flu fibrosis: Regressive or progressive?

    PubMed

    Singh, Nishtha; Singh, Sheetu; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2016-01-01

    Swine flu influenza had spread the world over in 2009. The main pathology was bilateral pneumonia. Majority of these cases recovered from pneumonia fully. Though in some cases, pulmonary fibrosis was reported as a sequel. However, long-term progression of such pulmonary fibrosis is uncertain. We are hereby reporting two cases of swine flu that showed residual pulmonary fibrosis. The clinical and laboratory parameters were also recorded. In both the cases, radiological shadows and spirometric values did not show deterioration. We conclude that swine flu pulmonary fibrosis is not a progressive condition. PMID:27051116

  3. Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... everyone 6 months and older should receive the influenza vaccine. Alternative Names Influenza A; Influenza B; Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) - ... LZ, et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ...

  4. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... shot. Top of Page Can pregnant women with egg allergies get vaccinated? Most people who have an ... reaction following a flu shot. Special Consideration Regarding Egg Allergy The recommendations for vaccination of people with ...

  5. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return... which the tax based on the joint return has been paid. (2) If a joint return is made under section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return... which the tax based on the joint return has been paid. (2) If a joint return is made under section...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of the excess. (ii) If any part of such excess is attributable to fraud with intent to evade tax at... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return... which the tax based on the joint return has been paid. (2) If a joint return is made under section...

  9. Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Know the Difference for Best Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services Latest Issue This Issue Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Health Capsules Genetic Clues ... infection, middle ear infection, asthma search Features Sweet Stuff Cold, Flu, or Allergy? Wise Choices Links Cold, ...

  10. Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pediatricians' Group Advises Against Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine Shot far more effective against current influenza strains, ... 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The nasal spray flu vaccine is ineffective and should not be used in ...

  11. What You Can Do to Stop the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... and treat seasonal and pandemic influenza, including 2009 H1N1 flu. Clinical Trials for Flu NIH has started ... trials to determine what dosages of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine can best protect healthy and high- ...

  12. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - adult

    MedlinePlus

    ... to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - adult; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - adult; Upper respiratory ... what to ask your doctor - adult; H1N1 ("Swine") flu - what to ask your doctor - adult

  13. Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157754.html Flu Shot Safe for Surgery Patients in Hospital: Study ... increased risk for complications if they receive a flu shot in the hospital, a new study suggests. ...

  14. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay.

    PubMed

    Popowitch, Elena B; Miller, Melissa B

    2015-08-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  15. Performance Characteristics of Xpert Flu/RSV XC Assay

    PubMed Central

    Popowitch, Elena B.

    2015-01-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay was compared to laboratory-developed tests (LDTs) (n = 207) and the Xpert Flu assay (n = 147) using archived nasopharyngeal swabs. The percentages of positive agreements with LDTs were 97.8% for influenza A, 97.2% for influenza B, and 89.3% for RSV. The sensitivity of influenza detection was improved with the Xpert Flu/RSV XC assay compared to the Xpert Flu assay. PMID:26019209

  16. Is It a Cold or the Flu (For Parents)?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zika & Pregnancy Is It a Cold or the Flu? KidsHealth > For Parents > Is It a Cold or the Flu? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿ ... cough, and high fever — could it be the flu that's been going around? Or just a common ...

  17. I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cuts? I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? KidsHealth > For Teens > I'm Pregnant. Should I Get a Flu Shot? Print A A A Text Size I ... weeks pregnant. Do I need to get the flu vaccine or will it affect my pregnancy? – Eliza* ...

  18. [Differentiation of influenza (Flu) type A, type B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) by QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV].

    PubMed

    Kohiyama, Risa; Miyazawa, Takashi; Shibano, Nobuko; Inano, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Because it is not easy to differentiate Influenza virus (Flu) from RS virus (RSV) just by clinical symptoms, to accurately diagnose those viruses in conjunction with patient's clinical symptoms, rapid diagnostic kits has been used separately for each of those viruses. In our new study, we have developed a new rapid diagnostic kit, QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV. The kit can detect Flu A, Flu B, and RSV antigens with a single sample collection and an assay. Total of 2,873 cases (including nasopharyngeal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates specimens) in 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 seasons were evaluated with QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV and a commercially available kit. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of Flu type A, type B, and RSV were above 95% when compared to commercially available kits (QuickNavi™-Flu and QuickNavi™-RSV) and considered to be equivalent to the commercially available kits. In 2011/2012 season, RSV infections increased prior to Flu season and continued during the peak of the Flu season. The kit can contribute to accurate diagnosis of Flu and RSV infections since co-infection cases have also been reported during the 2011/2012 season. QuickNavi™-Flu+RSV is useful for differential diagnosis of respiratory infectious diseases since it can detect Flu type A, type B, and RSV virus antigens with a single sample collection. PMID:24694242

  19. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amharic (amarunya) Arabic (العربية) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (简体中文) Chinese - Traditional ( ... Amharic) PDF Public Health - Seattle and King County Arabic (العربية) Home Care for Pandemic Flu (Arabic) الرعاية ...

  20. Types of flu vaccines for yearly immunization.

    PubMed

    Felicilda-Reynaldo, Rhea Faye D

    2014-01-01

    The best way to prevent influenza and its potentially life-threatening complications is by receiving the annual flu immunization at the earliest opportunity. As patient educators, nurses should help individuals, families, and the community receive the benefits of this important illness prevention strategy. PMID:25318340

  1. Symptoms and Complications of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units Flu.gov ​​​ ​​​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned off causing certain features of the ... incorrectly. Please visit your browser settings and turn JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip ...

  2. A Case of American Education Flu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Steven Jay

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that the American educational system's penchant for testing may be likened to an educational flu. Notes that teachers feel increasing pressure to abandon techniques that are engaging if they are not specifically aimed at performance on test day. Contends that the American educational system needs to keep pace with international…

  3. Is It a Cold or the Flu?

    MedlinePlus

    IS IT A Cold OR THE Flu ? SYMPTOMS FEVER HEADACHE GENERAL ACHES, PAINS FATIGUE, WEAKNESS EXTREME EXHAUSTION STUFFY NOSE SNEEZING SORE THROAT CHEST ... P L I C AT I O N S COLD Rare Rare Slight Sometimes Never Common Usual Common ...

  4. H1N1 influenza (Swine flu)

    MedlinePlus

    Swine flu; H1N1 type A influenza ... of the H1N1 virus were found in pigs (swine). Over time, the virus changed (mutated) and infected ... 25654610 . Treanor JJ. Influenza (including avian influenza and swine influenza). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  5. How Colleges Can Plan for Bird Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Media coverage of the worldwide outbreak of avian flu and the potential for a pandemic has resulted in anxiety and consternation among members of the US public. The US President George W. Bush has released the federal pandemic-preparedness plan that calls on communities to coordinate plans with local and state health departments and other…

  6. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea F.; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Objective We sought to develop a practical influenza forecast model, based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the number of influenza cases, thus allowing sufficient time to implement an intervention. Secondly, we evaluated how the addition of a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, would impact the forecasting capabilities of this model. Introduction Each year, influenza results in increased Emergency Department crowding which can be mitigated through early detection linked to an appropriate response. Although current surveillance systems, such as Google Flu Trends, yield near real-time influenza surveillance, few demonstrate ability to forecast impending influenza cases. Methods Forecasting models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004 – 2011) divided into training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear, and autoregressive methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Models were developed and evaluated through statistical measures of global deviance and log-likelihood ratio tests. An additional measure of forecast confidence, defined as the percentage of forecast values, during an influenza peak, that are within 7 influenza cases of the actual data, was examined to demonstrate practical utility of the model. Results A generalized autoregressive Poisson (GARMA) forecast model integrating previous influenza cases with Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information providing significant forecast improvements (p = 0.00002). The final model, a GARMA intercept

  7. Mitigation Approaches to Combat the Flu Pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Raman; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Madaan, Deepali; Dubey, Neha; Arora, Rajesh; Goel, Rajeev; Singh, Shefali; Kaushik, Vinod; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Chabbra, Vivek; Bhardwaj, Janak Raj

    2009-01-01

    Management of flu pandemic is a perpetual challenge for the medical fraternity since time immemorial. Animal to human transmission has been observed thrice in the last century within an average range of 11-39 years of antigenic recycling. The recent outbreak of influenza A (H1N1, also termed as swine flu), first reported in Mexico on April 26, 2009, occurred in the forty first year since last reported flu pandemic (July 1968). Within less than 50 days, it has assumed pandemic proportions (phase VI) affecting over 76 countries with 163 deaths/35,928 cases (as on 15th June 2009). It indicated the re-emergence of genetically reassorted virus having strains endemic to humans, swine and avian (H5N1). The World Health Organisation (WHO) member states have already pulled up their socks and geared up to combat such criticalities. Earlier outbreaks of avian flu (H5N1) in different countries led WHO to develop pandemic preparedness strategies with national/regional plans on pandemic preparedness. Numerous factors related to climatic conditions, socio-economic strata, governance and sharing of information/logistics at all levels have been considered critical indicators in monitoring the dynamics of escalation towards a pandemic situation. The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), Government of India, with the active cooperation of UN agencies and other stakeholders/experts has formulated a concept paper on role of nonhealth service providers during pandemics in April 2008 and released national guidelines - management of biological disasters in July 2008. These guidelines enumerate that the success of medical management endeavors like pharmaceutical (anti-viral Oseltamivir and Zanamivir therapies), nonpharmaceutical interventions and vaccination development etc., largely depends on level of resistance offered by mutagenic viral strain and rationale use of pharmaco therapeutic interventions. This article describes the mitigation approach to combat flu pandemic with its

  8. Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Andrea Freyer; Jalalpour, Mehdi; Gel, Yulia; Levin, Scott; Torcaso, Fred; Igusa, Takeru; Rothman, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background We developed a practical influenza forecast model based on real-time, geographically focused, and easy to access data, designed to provide individual medical centers with advanced warning of the expected number of influenza cases, thus allowing for sufficient time to implement interventions. Secondly, we evaluated the effects of incorporating a real-time influenza surveillance system, Google Flu Trends, and meteorological and temporal information on forecast accuracy. Methods Forecast models designed to predict one week in advance were developed from weekly counts of confirmed influenza cases over seven seasons (2004–2011) divided into seven training and out-of-sample verification sets. Forecasting procedures using classical Box-Jenkins, generalized linear models (GLM), and generalized linear autoregressive moving average (GARMA) methods were employed to develop the final model and assess the relative contribution of external variables such as, Google Flu Trends, meteorological data, and temporal information. Results A GARMA(3,0) forecast model with Negative Binomial distribution integrating Google Flu Trends information provided the most accurate influenza case predictions. The model, on the average, predicts weekly influenza cases during 7 out-of-sample outbreaks within 7 cases for 83% of estimates. Google Flu Trend data was the only source of external information to provide statistically significant forecast improvements over the base model in four of the seven out-of-sample verification sets. Overall, the p-value of adding this external information to the model is 0.0005. The other exogenous variables did not yield a statistically significant improvement in any of the verification sets. Conclusions Integer-valued autoregression of influenza cases provides a strong base forecast model, which is enhanced by the addition of Google Flu Trends confirming the predictive capabilities of search query based syndromic surveillance. This accessible and

  9. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / ... able to infect others for an even longer time. How serious is the flu? Certain people are ...

  10. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... your family and other people. 2. Inactivated and recombinant flu vaccines A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every ... Vaccine Information Statement. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or ... website at www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/ ...

  11. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Vaccination It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu ... older should get the flu vaccine each year. It usually takes two weeks after you are vaccinated ...

  12. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    PubMed

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  13. Schools Urged to Prepare for Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honawar, Vaishali

    2005-01-01

    If a flu pandemic breaks out in the United States, as many as 4 in 10 school-age children will become sick, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which released a comprehensive plan on how it would deal with such an outbreak. The nearly 400-page plan says the department would consider measures such as closing schools early…

  14. Modelling the Growth of Swine Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The spread of swine flu has been a cause of great concern globally. With no vaccine developed as yet, (at time of writing in July 2009) and given the fact that modern-day humans can travel speedily across the world, there are fears that this disease may spread out of control. The worst-case scenario would be one of unfettered exponential growth.…

  15. Flu - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Japanese (日本語) Khmer (Khmer) Korean (한국어) Laotian (Lao) Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) Russian (Русский) ... Khmer) PDF Public Health - Seattle and King County Korean (한국어) Home Care for Pandemic Flu 유행성 독감 ...

  16. A Fast Test to Diagnose Flu

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A U

    2007-02-12

    People with flu-like symptoms who seek treatment at a medical clinic or hospital often must wait several hours before being examined, possibly exposing many people to an infectious virus. If a patient appears to need more than the routine fluids-and-rest prescription, effective diagnosis requires tests that must be sent to a laboratory. Hours or days may pass before results are available to the doctor, who in the meantime must make an educated guess about the patient's illness. The lengthy diagnostic process places a heavy burden on medical laboratories and can result in improper use of antibiotics or a costly hospital stay. A faster testing method may soon be available. An assay developed by a team of Livermore scientists can diagnose influenza and other respiratory viruses in about two hours once a sample has been taken. Unlike other systems that operate this quickly, the new device, called FluIDx (and pronounced ''fluidics''), can differentiate five types of respiratory viruses, including influenza. FluIDx can analyze samples at the point of patient care--in hospital emergency departments and clinics--allowing medical providers to quickly determine how best to treat a patient, saving time and potentially thousands of dollars per patient. The FluIDx project, which is led by Livermore chemist Mary McBride of the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate, received funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. To test the system and make it as useful as possible, the team worked closely with the Emergency Department staff at the University of California (UC) at Davis Medical Center in Sacramento. Flu kills more than 35,000 people every year in the US. The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome and the ongoing concern about a possible bird flu pandemic show the need for a fast, reliable test that can differentiate seasonal flu from a potentially pandemic

  17. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  18. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  19. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  1. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its administration when reasonable and necessary for the prevention of disease, if the vaccine is ordered by a...

  2. Know and Share the Facts about Flu Vaccination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohskopf, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses that infect the nose, throat, and lungs. It can cause mild to severe illness, and sometimes can lead to death. Symptoms of flu can include fever or a feverish feeling, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, muscle or body aches, headache, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Flu…

  3. E-Learning's Potential Scrutinized in Flu Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Katie; Davis, Michelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The closing of hundreds of U.S. schools in recent weeks because of concerns about swine flu underscores the need for administrators to make plans for continuing their students' education during any extended shutdown, emergency experts and federal officials say. Fears about a severe flu pandemic had eased as of late last week, but experts say…

  4. Online monitoring of flu in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Devroey, Dirk; Semaille, Pascal; Vansintejan, Johan; Vandevoorde, Jan; Van De Vijver, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Devroey et al. (2011) Online monitoring of flu in Belgium. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(5), 351–356. Background  The diagnosis and treatment of patients with the A(H1N1) pandemic flu caused some serious burden for general practitioners (GPs) in the summer and autumn of 2009. Objective  The aim of this study was to track the incidence of influenza and influenza‐like illness (ILI) in Belgium and to describe the characteristics of the affected patients. Methods  In July 2009, the Belgian online influenza surveillance system (BOISS) was set up to monitor the spread of influenza and ILI. Registrations were made by 93 GPs from all 10 Belgian provinces who participated at least 1 week during the first 12 months of the registration. Only patients who met the WHO criteria for flu were recorded. Results  In total, 1254 patients (53% men) with influenza or ILI were included. Mainly younger persons were affected: 43% was under the age of 20 years. A risk factor for influenza‐related complications was determined in 19% of cases, mainly patients with chronic respiratory problems. A treatment with oseltamivir or zanamivir was prescribed in 13%, and 3% of the patients was admitted to a hospital. The time of the peak incidence (44th week) and the magnitude (623 cases per week per 100 000 inhabitants) corresponded with the figures of the existing paper‐based registration network. The small sample size and possible reporting biases may have influenced the findings of the study. Conclusions  The BOISS provides a good alternative to conduct surveillance activities for influenza and ILI in Belgium. It provides complementary information regarding ILI compared to the existing data capturing. PMID:21668686

  5. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Shot Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2012 Table of Contents ... influenza vaccine for the Northern Hemisphere. What is influenza (also called flu)? The flu is a contagious ...

  6. Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Flu Season Time to Get Your Seasonal Flu Shot Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... protect/vaccine/index.htm Signs and Symptoms of Flu People who have the flu often feel some ...

  7. Avian flu and possible human pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant; Sharma, A K; Pradhan, S K

    2006-04-01

    Avian flu is affecting the poultry animals world over since first outbreak in 1997 in Hong Kong and has resulted in 92 human deaths and culling of more than 150 million poultry animals in Asia and Europe. The loss to the economy has also been enormous. 13 new countries, including India, reported occurrence of the disease in poultry animals in February 2006 only, to the World Health Organisation. This rapid rate of spread of virus along with notoriety of the virus for frequent genetic re-assortment, which might enable H5N1 to infect human beings, threatens of possible influenza pandemic since the last pandemic in 1968. The human influenza caused by this subtype of the virus (H5N1) has high case fatality of 54% and majority of affected humans are between the age of 5 to 23 years. Lack of effective vaccine, poor knowledge about treatment, and with scarcity of public health measures in developing countries are major causes of concern. The real threat of impending pandemic can be avoided only if we act immediately on the basis of currently available source of information and apply scientific knowledge rationally for containment and prevention of bird flu and treat human cases promptly. PMID:16651670

  8. FLU, an amino acid substitution model for influenza proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The amino acid substitution model is the core component of many protein analysis systems such as sequence similarity search, sequence alignment, and phylogenetic inference. Although several general amino acid substitution models have been estimated from large and diverse protein databases, they remain inappropriate for analyzing specific species, e.g., viruses. Emerging epidemics of influenza viruses raise the need for comprehensive studies of these dangerous viruses. We propose an influenza-specific amino acid substitution model to enhance the understanding of the evolution of influenza viruses. Results A maximum likelihood approach was applied to estimate an amino acid substitution model (FLU) from ~113, 000 influenza protein sequences, consisting of ~20 million residues. FLU outperforms 14 widely used models in constructing maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees for the majority of influenza protein alignments. On average, FLU gains ~42 log likelihood points with an alignment of 300 sites. Moreover, topologies of trees constructed using FLU and other models are frequently different. FLU does indeed have an impact on likelihood improvement as well as tree topologies. It was implemented in PhyML and can be downloaded from ftp://ftp.sanger.ac.uk/pub/1000genomes/lsq/FLU or included in PhyML 3.0 server at http://www.atgc-montpellier.fr/phyml/. Conclusions FLU should be useful for any influenza protein analysis system which requires an accurate description of amino acid substitutions. PMID:20384985

  9. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  10. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... Below are some questions you may want to ask your child's health care provider to help you ... What to ask your doctor about colds and the flu - child; Influenza - what to ask your doctor - child; Upper respiratory infection - ...

  11. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000250.htm Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - ... enable JavaScript. Many different germs, called viruses, cause colds. Symptoms of the common cold include: Runny nose ...

  12. Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Preventing the Flu: Good Health Habits Can Help Stop Germs Language: ...

  13. Flu: What to Do If You Get Sick

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters The Flu: What To Do If You Get Sick Language: ...

  14. Influenza (Flu) vaccine (Live, Intranasal): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... is taken in its entirety from the CDC Influenza Live, Intranasal Flu Vaccine Information Statement (VIS): www.cdc.gov/vaccines/ ... flulive.html . CDC review information for Live, Intranasal Influenza VIS: Vaccine Information Statement Influenza Page last reviewed: ...

  15. Help Stop the Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services (HHS). Latest NIH Flu Research Scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and ... research program. NIAID works nationally with academic medical centers ...

  16. [Pandemic without drama. Influenza vaccination and Asian flu in Germany].

    PubMed

    Witte, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    The history of the 1957/58 Asian flu in Germany is systematically presented for the first time. The focus is on flu vaccination, which is discussed as a yardstick of the perception of the pandemic. International expertise on influenza virology was predominantly based in Anglo-Saxon countries. German microbiologists issued no clear recommendation for preventative vaccination until 1960. Instead, quinine was relied upon as the traditional medicinal prophylaxis. Antibiotics were more frequently administered. In East Germany, little fuss was made over the Asian flu. In line with the authorities' social hygiene orientation, vaccination was accepted as a matter of principle. In the Federal Republic and West Berlin, the population rejected the vaccination largely. It was seen as a scandal that many employees were on sick leave because of the flu, thus adversely affecting the economy. PMID:24844113

  17. Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160138.html Is It Flu, or Is It Valley Fever? Potentially fatal infection is found in ... often-overlooked infection, and about 160 die from it, the society says. "Valley fever is underdiagnosed in ...

  18. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  19. Flu fighters use the Web to track virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantanzaro, Michele

    2009-04-01

    Physicists in Italy have begun analysing data from a new Web-based project that seeks to model how flu spreads through a population. The project, known as Influweb, involved some 2000 ordinary Italians replying over the last six months to a weekly e-mailed questionnaire about their state of health and current geographical location. The project will be able to pin down the spread of flu in real time and with a spatial resolution on the level of a person's postcode.

  20. FluShuffle and FluResort: new algorithms to identify reassorted strains of the influenza virus by mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort, which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented. Results The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain. Conclusions The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk. PMID:22906155

  1. Dealing with returned manuscripts.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-11-01

    It is useful for authors to learn to deal with returned manuscripts with a rejection decision or a request for revision. Common reasons for rejection include contents outside the scope of the journal or inappropriate for the journal, incomplete submission, poor methodology, faulty experimental design, major flaws in the interpretation of results, extremely poor writing, and duplicated or plagiarised work. Authors should use the editor's and reviewers' comments to improve their manuscripts and resubmit elsewhere. Common reasons for revision requests include minor faults in the methodology, minor inaccuracies in data, inconsistencies among different sections of the manuscript, faulty deductions, data that do not support the conclusions, excessive data or text, poor or excessive illustrations, and poor but salvageable writing. A request for revision should be viewed positively, as it means that there is a possibility that the manuscript may still be potentially publishable, provided that all the editor's and reviewers' comments are addressed. PMID:19960157

  2. Tatanka Returns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonelli, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Describes efforts of the InterTribal Bison Cooperative (Rapid City, SD) to reintroduce the buffalo for cultural purposes to American Indian reservations. Explains how the buffalo's return is contributing to community wellness. Discusses career opportunities for both Native and non-Native people in buffalo management. (LP)

  3. Lessons from the past: Familial aggregation analysis of fatal pandemic influenza (Spanish flu) in Iceland in 1918

    PubMed Central

    Gottfredsson, Magnús; Halldórsson, Bjarni V.; Jónsson, Stefán; Kristjánsson, Már; Kristjánsson, Kristleifur; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Löve, Arthur; Blöndal, Thorsteinn; Viboud, Cécile; Thorvaldsson, Sverrir; Helgason, Agnar; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefánsson, Kári; Jónsdóttir, Ingileif

    2008-01-01

    The pandemic influenza of 1918 (Spanish flu) killed 21–50 million people globally, including in Iceland, where the characteristics and spread of the epidemic were well documented. It has been postulated that genetic host factors may have contributed to this high mortality. We identified 455 individuals who died of the Spanish flu in Iceland during a 6-week period during the winter of 1918, representing >92% of all fatal domestic cases mentioned by historical accounts. The highest case fatality proportion was 2.8%, and peak excess mortality was 162/100,000/week. Fatality proportions were highest among infants, young adults, and the elderly. A genealogical database was used to study relatedness and relative risk (RR) of the fatal influenza victims and relatives of their unaffected mates. The significance of these RR computations was assessed by drawing samples randomly from the genealogical database matched for age, sex, and geographical distribution. Familial aggregation of fatalities was seen, with RRs for death ranging from 3.75 for first-degree relatives (P < 0.0001) to 1.82 (P = 0.005), 1.12 (P = 0.252), and 1.47 (P = 0.0001) for second- to fourth-degree relatives of fatal influenza victims, respectively. The RRs within the families of unaffected mates of fatal influenza victims were 2.95 (P < 0.0001), 1.27 (P = 0.267), 1.35 (P = 0.04), and 1.42 (P = 0.001), for first- to fourth-degree relatives, respectively. In conclusion, the risk of death from the Spanish flu was similar within families of patients who succumbed to the illness and within families of their mates who survived. Our data do not provide conclusive evidence for the role of genetic factors in susceptibility to the Spanish flu. PMID:18216264

  4. New Study Shows Clinicians Under-Prescribing Flu Antiviral Drugs and Possibly Overprescribing Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Should Know About Flu Antiviral Drugs Antiviral Drug Supply Mixing Tamiflu Capsules Drug Resistance Information for Health ... The Flu Season Seasonal Influenza, More Information Vaccine Supply for 2015-2016 Season Seasonal Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations ...

  5. Influenza (Flu) Vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to cause disease in the upcoming flu season. But even when the vaccine doesn’t exactly ... after vaccination, and protection lasts through the flu season. 3 Sthoismveapcecoinpele should not get Tell the person ...

  6. A Mild Flu Season, and The End Is in Sight: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158270.html A Mild Flu Season, and the End Is in Sight: CDC ... TUESDAY, April 12, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- This year's flu season may not quite be over, but it's ...

  7. It's Not Too Late to Get Vaccinated Against Flu | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... more vulnerable to serious flu illness. The 2015-2016 Season Three kinds of flu viruses commonly circulate ... common during the upcoming season. For the 2015- 2016 season, the vaccine is made to protect against ...

  8. Flu Shot Tied to Fewer Hospitalizations, Deaths in Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160085.html Flu Shot Tied to Fewer Hospitalizations, Deaths in Type ... TUESDAY, July 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The seasonal flu vaccine may offer people with type 2 diabetes ...

  9. Swine flu (H1N1 influenza): awareness profile of visitors of swine flu screening booths in Belgaum city, Karnataka.

    PubMed

    Viveki, R G; Halappanavar, A B; Patil, M S; Joshi, A V; Gunagi, Praveena; Halki, Sunanda B

    2012-06-01

    The 2009 flu pandemic was a global outbreak of a new strain of H1N1 influenza virus often referred colloquially as "swine flu". The objectives of the study were: (1) To know the sociodemographic and awareness profile of visitors attending swine flu screening booths. (2) To reveal sources of information. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken among the visitors (18 years and above) attending swine flu screening booths organised within the Belgaum city during Ganesh festival from 28-08-2009 to 03-09-2009 by interviewing them using predesigned, pretested structured questionnaire on swine flu. The data was collected and analysed using SPSS software programme for windows (version 16). Chi-square test was applied. Out of 206 visitors, 132 (64.1%) were males and 107 (51.9%) were in the age group of 30-49 years; 183 (88.8%) had heard about swine flu. More than a third of the visitors (38.3%) disclosed that there was a vaccine to prevent swine flu. Majority responded that it could be transmitted by being in close proximity to pigs (49.0%) and by eating pork (51.5%). Newspaper/magazine (64.6%), television (61.7%), and public posters/pamphlets (44.2%) were common sources of information. The present study revealed that doctors/public health workers have played little role in creating awareness in the community. The improved communication between doctors and the community would help to spread correct information about the disease and the role that the community can play in controlling the spread of the disease. PMID:23360036

  10. How to Boost Flu Vaccination Rates among Employees in Your Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Perio, Marie A.; Wiegand, Douglas M.; Evans, Stefanie M.; Niemeier, Maureen T.

    2012-01-01

    Flu viruses are typically spread by droplets, when people who are sick with flu cough, sneeze, or talk. Less often, a person may get flu from touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching his own mouth, eyes, or nose. Flu can cause mild to severe illness and may even lead to death. Child care providers are at risk of…

  11. Learning to Trust Flu Shots: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Jürgen; Harris, Katherine M

    2016-09-01

    This paper studies consumer learning in influenza vaccination decisions. We examine consumer learning in influenza vaccine demand within a reduced form instrumental variable framework that exploits differences in risk characteristics of different influenza viruses as a natural experiment to distinguish the effects of learning based on previous influenza vaccination experiences from unobserved heterogeneity. The emergence of a new virus strain (influenza A H1N1/09) during the 2009 'Swine flu' pandemic resulted in two different vaccines being recommended for distinct population subgroups with some people, who were not usually targeted by seasonal vaccination programs, being specifically recommended for the new Swine flu vaccine. We use these differences in vaccination targeting to construct instrumental variables for estimating the effect of past influenza vaccination experiences on the demand for pandemic vaccine. We find large causal effects of previous seasonal vaccination on pandemic vaccination. Causal effects of past influenza vaccination experiences on perceived vaccination safety are likely to be an important pathway linking past vaccination experiences with future vaccine uptake. Our results suggest a significant role of learning in vaccination decisions. Current efforts to expand seasonal vaccination may thus have potentially important long-term effects on future influenza vaccination levels and pandemic preparedness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27381724

  12. Excessive Sweating (Hyperhidrosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Excessive Sweating (Hyperhidrosis) Information for adults A A A Profusely ... palms. Overview Hyperhidrosis, the medical name for excessive sweating, involves overactive sweat glands, usually of a defined ...

  13. Delayed Anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine unrelated to known non-viral components.

    PubMed

    David, J; Horbal, J; Tcheurekdjian, H; Sher, T H; Hostoffer, R

    2015-09-01

    On February 4, 2010 the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices voted for universal flu vaccination to expand protection against the flu throughout the United States. In addition to this administration expansion, six new influenza vaccines have been introduced into the market possibly introducing new allergenic potentials. We report two cases of delayed anaphylaxis to the flu vaccine. PMID:26357001

  14. [The military role in a flu pandemic].

    PubMed

    Molina Hazan, Vered; Balicer, Ran D; Groto, Itamar; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Bar-Zeev, Yael; Levine, Hagai; Ash, Nachman

    2010-01-01

    Pandemic influenza is a major challenge to emergency preparedness agencies and health systems throughout the world. It requires preparation for a situation of widespread morbidity due to flu and its complications which will lead to a huge burden on the health system in the community and in hospitals, and work absenteeism, also among health care personnel. This may require major involvement of the army in both preparedness and measures to be taken to tackle such an event. This article reviews the different roles armies could take in such a crisis, and presents the Israeli test case. Defense systems are characterized by a number of attributes that may be major advantages during pandemic influenza: crisis management capacities, ability to deal with varied tasks in sub-optimal conditions, logistic resources (fuel, food and water), widespread deployment in the country and sometimes in the world, and the ability to activate people in risky situations, even against their will. The army roles during pandemic outbreaks could include: taking national and regional command of the event, assigning workforce for essential civilian missions, use of logistic and military resources, maintaining public order and implementing public health measures such as isolation and quarantine. In addition, the army must continue its primary role of maintaining the security and guarding the borders of the state, especially in times of global geopolitical changes due to pandemic. Since March 2009, the influenza A/H1N1 2009 virus spread throughout the world, leading the WHO to declare a state of pandemic influenza. According to Israeli preparedness plans, the management of the event was supposed to pass to the defense system. However, due to the moderate severity of the illness, it was decided to leave the management of the event to the health system. In view of the necessity of maintaining military combat capabilities, and the possibility of outbreaks in combat units, which actually occurred, the

  15. "FluSpec": A Simulated Experiment in Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Bigger, Andrew S.; Ghiggino, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    The "FluSpec" educational software package is a fully contained tutorial on the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy as well as a simulator on which experiments can be performed. The procedure for each of the experiments is also contained within the package along with example analyses of results that are obtained using the software.

  16. Science and Security Clash on Bird-Flu Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischman, Josh

    2012-01-01

    Censored papers on bird flu, which could help terrorists, have critics wondering if academic scientists can police their own work. The near-publication has brought out general critics of the federal panel, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity, and the voluntary self-policing approach that it embraces instead of regulation. Members…

  17. Guidance for Schools on the Recent Flu Outbreak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The document provides a transcript of a conference call moderated by Bill Modzeleski, Director of the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The focus of the call was the recent outbreak of swine flu in Mexico and the United States. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) actions and recommendations to the education community were discussed. A comparison…

  18. Flu, risks, and videotape: escalating fear and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, Heather; John, Richard S; Prager, Fynnwin

    2012-04-01

    While extensive risk perception research has focused on emotions, cognitions, and behavior at static points in time, less attention has been paid to how these variables might change over time. This study assesses how negative affect, threat beliefs, perceived risk, and intended avoidance behavior change over the course of an escalating biological disaster. A scenario simulation methodology was used that presents respondents with a video simulation of a 15-day series of local news reports to immerse respondents in the developing details of the disaster. Systemic manipulation of the virus's causal origin (terrorist attack, medical lab accident, unknown) and the respondent's proximity to the virus (local vs. opposite coast) allowed us to investigate the dynamics of public response. The unfolding scenario was presented in discrete episodes, allowing responses to be tracked over the episodes. The sample includes 600 respondents equally split by sex and by location, with half in the Washington, DC area, and half in the Los Angeles area. The results showed respondents' reactions to the flu epidemic increased as the disaster escalated. More importantly, there was considerable consistency across respondents' emotional, cognitive, and behavioral responses to the epidemic over the episodes. In addition, the reactions of respondents proximally closer to the epidemic increased more rapidly and with greater intensity than their distant counterparts. Finally, as the flu epidemic escalated, both terrorist and accidental flu releases were perceived as being less risky and were less likely to lead to avoidance behavior compared to the unknown flu release. PMID:22332702

  19. Analysing Twitter and web queries for flu trend prediction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social media platforms encourage people to share diverse aspects of their daily life. Among these, shared health related information might be used to infer health status and incidence rates for specific conditions or symptoms. In this work, we present an infodemiology study that evaluates the use of Twitter messages and search engine query logs to estimate and predict the incidence rate of influenza like illness in Portugal. Results Based on a manually classified dataset of 2704 tweets from Portugal, we selected a set of 650 textual features to train a Naïve Bayes classifier to identify tweets mentioning flu or flu-like illness or symptoms. We obtained a precision of 0.78 and an F-measure of 0.83, based on cross validation over the complete annotated set. Furthermore, we trained a multiple linear regression model to estimate the health-monitoring data from the Influenzanet project, using as predictors the relative frequencies obtained from the tweet classification results and from query logs, and achieved a correlation ratio of 0.89 (p < 0.001). These classification and regression models were also applied to estimate the flu incidence in the following flu season, achieving a correlation of 0.72. Conclusions Previous studies addressing the estimation of disease incidence based on user-generated content have mostly focused on the english language. Our results further validate those studies and show that by changing the initial steps of data preprocessing and feature extraction and selection, the proposed approaches can be adapted to other languages. Additionally, we investigated whether the predictive model created can be applied to data from the subsequent flu season. In this case, although the prediction result was good, an initial phase to adapt the regression model could be necessary to achieve more robust results. PMID:25077431

  20. Rhabdomyolysis induced by excessive coffee drinking.

    PubMed

    Chiang, W-F; Liao, M-T; Cheng, C-J; Lin, S-H

    2014-08-01

    Excessive ingestion of caffeine-containing beverages is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis. Here, we describe the case of a 44-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting, palpitations, and tea-colored urine 6 h after drinking a liter of black coffee containing approximately 565 mg of caffeine for mental alertness. Laboratory studies were notable for myoglobinuria and markedly elevated plasma creatine kinase (CK) level of 7315 U/L. With volume expansion and alkalization, her plasma CK level returned to normal within 5 days. Rhabdomyolysis should be considered a potential health hazard from excessive consumption of caffeine-containing products. PMID:24220878

  1. Excessive acquisition in hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Tolin, David F; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-06-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an Internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  2. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  3. Preparing for the Flu (Including 2009 H1N1 Flu): A Communication Toolkit for Schools (Grades K-12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of "Preparing for the Flu: A Communication Toolkit for Schools" is to provide basic information and communication resources to help school administrators implement recommendations from CDC's (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Guidance for State and Local Public Health Officials and School Administrators for School (K-12)…

  4. Excessive Blinking in Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... scratch on the front surface of the eye), conjunctivitis (pink eye), foreign body in the eye, or ... is excessive blinking treated? If an abrasion or conjunctivitis is diagnosed, eye drops or ointment may be ...

  5. Evaluation of the Xpert Flu Rapid PCR Assay in High-Risk Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Valsamakis, Alexandra; Gaydos, Charlotte A.; Forman, Michael; Hardick, Justin; Kidambi, Pranav; Amin, Sharmeen; Gupta, Alisha; Rothman, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated the performance of Cepheid's GeneXpert Xpert Flu assay in a target population of 281 adults presenting to the emergency department with an acute respiratory illness who met Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria for recommended antiviral treatment. Compared with the Prodesse ProFlu+ assay, Xpert Flu had an overall sensitivity of 95.3% and specificity of 99.2%. PMID:25253792

  6. Protecting Against the Flu: Advice for Caregivers of Children Less than 6 Months Old. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that children less than 5 years of age are at high risk of serious flu-related complications. It is estimated that more than 20,000 children less than 5 years old are hospitalized due to flu each year in the U.S. Many more have to go to a doctor, an urgent care center, or the emergency room because of flu. Complications from the…

  7. Representations of swine flu: perspectives from a Malaysian pig farm.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Robin; Haque, Shamsul; Hassan, Sharifah Binti Syed; Dhanoa, Amreeta

    2011-07-01

    Novel influenza viruses are seen, internationally, as posing considerable health challenges, but public responses to such viruses are often rooted in cultural representations of disease and risk. However, little research has been conducted in locations associated with the origin of a pandemic. We examined representations and risk perceptions associated with swine flu amongst 120 Malaysian pig farmers. Thirty-seven per cent of respondents felt at particular risk of infection, two-thirds were somewhat or very concerned about being infected. Those respondents who were the most anxious believed particular societal "out-groups" (homosexuals, the homeless and prostitutes) to be at higher infection risk. Although few (4%) reported direct discrimination, 46% claimed friends had avoided them since the swine flu outbreak. Findings are discussed in the context of evolutionary, social representations and terror management theories of response to pandemic threat. PMID:21936262

  8. [Christopher Columbus flu. A hypothesis for an ecological catastrophe].

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín

    2006-05-01

    When Christopher Columbus and his men embarked on the second Colombian expedition to the New World (1493), the crew suffered from fever, respiratory symptoms and malaise. It is generally accepted that the disease was influenza. Pigs, horses and hens acquired in Gomera (Canary Islands) traveled in the same ship. The pigs may well have been the origin of the flu and the intermediary hosts for genetic recombination of other viral subtypes. The Caribbean archipelago had a large population of birds, the natural reservoir of the avian influenza virus. In this ecological scenario there was a concurrence of several biological elements that had never before coexisted in the New World: pigs, horses, the influenza virus and humans. We propose that birds are likely to have played an important role in the epidemiology of the flu occurring on the second Colombian trip, which caused a fatal demographic catastrophe, with an estimated mortality of 90% among the natives. PMID:16762260

  9. Spanish flu, Asian flu, Hong Kong flu, and seasonal influenza in Japan under social and demographic influence: review and analysis using the two-population model.

    PubMed

    Yoshikura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    When cumulative numbers of patients (X) and deaths (Y) associated with an influenza epidemic are plotted using the log-log scale, the plots fall on an ascending straight line generally expressed as logY = k(logX - logN0). For the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the slope k was ~0.6 for Mexico and ~2 for other countries. The two-population model was proposed to explain this phenomenon (Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2012;65:279-88; Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:411-2; and Yoshikura H. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:482-4). The current article reviews and analyzes previous influenza epidemics in Japan to examine whether the two-population model is applicable to them. The slope k was found to be ~2 for the Spanish flu during 1918-1920 and the Asian flu during 1957-1958, and ~1 for the Hong Kong flu and seasonal influenza prior to 1960-1961; however, k was ~0.6 for seasonal influenza after 1960-1961. This transition of the slope k of seasonal influenza plots from ~1 to ~0.6 corresponded to the shift in influenza mortality toward the older age groups and a drastic reduction in infant mortality rates due to improvements in the standard of living during the 1950s and 1960s. All the above observations could be well explained by reconstitution of the influenza epidemic based on the two-population model. PMID:25056069

  10. Deciphering the Swine-Flu Pandemics of 1918 and 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Richard; Dos Reis, Mario; Tamuri, Asif; Hay, Alan

    The devastating "Spanish flu" of 1918 killed an estimated 50 million people worldwide, ranking it as the deadliest pandemic in recorded human history. It is generally believed that the virus transferred from birds directly to humans shortly before the start of the pandemic, subsequently jumping from humans to swine. By developing 'non-homogeneous' substitution models that consider that substitution patterns may be different in human, avian, and swine hosts, we can determine the timing of the host shift to mammals. We find it likely that the Spanish flu of 1918, like the current 2009 pandemic, was a 'swine-origin' influenza virus. Now that we are faced with a new pandemic, can we understand how influenza is able to change hosts? Again by modelling the evolutionary process, considering the different selective constraints for viruses in the different hosts, we can identify locations that seem to be under different selective constraints in humans and avian hosts. This allows us to identify changes that may have facilitated the establishment of the 2009 swine-origin flu in humans.

  11. Red state, blue state, flu state: media self-selection and partisan gaps in Swine flu vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Baum, Matthew A

    2011-12-01

    This study assesses the relationship between political partisanship and attitudes and behavior with respect to the H1N1 virus (swine flu) crisis of 2009 in general, and the U.S. mass vaccination program in particular. I argue that even seemingly nonpartisan political issues like public health are increasingly characterized by partisan polarization in public attitudes and that such polarization is attributable, at least partly, to the breakdown of the information commons that characterized the U.S. mass media from roughly the 1950s until the early 1990s. In its place has arisen an increasingly fragmented and niche-oriented media marketplace in which individuals are better able to limit their information exposure to attitudes and opinions that reinforce, rather than challenge, their preexisting beliefs. I test my argument against a variety of data sources, including opinion surveys and state-level swine flu vaccination rate data. PMID:21948819

  12. A flu optical immunoassay (ThermoBioStar's FLU OIA): a diagnostic tool for improved influenza management.

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, S P; Cox, C; Steaffens, J

    2001-01-01

    ThermoBioStar's and Biota's flu optical immunoassay (FLU OIA) is a rapid test designed to diagnose influenza A and B infection using a variety of specimen types. The assay uses highly sensitive thin-film detection methods, coupled with specific monoclonal antibodies to the nucleoprotein. The test is simple to perform, requires no instrumentation and is intended to provide a result within 15 min of test initiation in the 'point-of-care' environment. In initial clinical studies, the assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to culture in identifying infected individuals. Subsequent independent studies using a variety of sample types have demonstrated sensitivity ranging from 48 to 100% and specificities ranging from 93 to 97%. In addition to detecting human strains, this assay has been demonstrated to be capable of detecting a variety of avian and non-human mammalian influenza viruses. The FLU OIA test has been used in large-scale surveillance schemes intended to provide rapid epidemiological data during normal influenza seasons and has demonstrated the potential for fulfilling a similar role for multispecies surveillance in, for example, conditions that offer challenges for conventional virus isolation methods. Conceivably, such use should facilitate the timely recognition of influenza outbreaks and prioritization of positive specimens for more conventional, laboratory characterization, leading to improved interpandemic surveillance and rapid reaction in the face of the next pandemic. PMID:11779392

  13. Comparison: Flu Prescription Sales Data from a Retail Pharmacy in the US with Google Flu Trends and US ILINet (CDC) Data as Flu Activity Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) for five years' aggregate data (2007–2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson ‘r’) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). PMID:22952719

  14. Comparison: Flu prescription sales data from a retail pharmacy in the US with Google Flu trends and US ILINet (CDC) data as flu activity indicator.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Bilkovski, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The potential threat of bioterrorism along with the emergence of new or existing drug resistant strains of influenza virus, added to expanded global travel, have increased vulnerability to epidemics or pandemics and their aftermath. The same factors have also precipitated urgency for having better, faster, sensitive, and reliable syndromic surveillance systems. Prescription sales data can provide surrogate information about the development of infectious diseases and therefore serve as a useful tool in syndromic surveillance. This study compared prescription sales data from a large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States with Google Flu trends surveillance system data as a flu activity indicator. It was found that the two were highly correlated. The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') for five years' aggregate data (2007-2011) was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90-0.94). The correlation coefficients for each of the five years between 2007 and 2011 were 0.85, 0.92, 0.91, 0.88, and 0.87 respectively. Additionally, prescription sales data from the same large drug retailing pharmacy chain in the United States were also compared with US Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) data for 2007 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The correlation coefficient (Pearson 'r') was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95-0.98). PMID:22952719

  15. Reducing Excessive Television Viewing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Rooney-Rebeck, Patty

    1984-01-01

    A youngster who excessively watched television was placed on a modified token economy: earned tokens were used to activate the television for set periods of time. Positive effects resulted in the child's school work, in the amount of time his family spent together, and in his mother's perception of family social support. (KH)

  16. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Cancer.gov

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  17. 13. SETTLING TANK, OVERFLOW DITCH, NORTHEAST SIDE; OVERFLOW DITCH RETURNED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. SETTLING TANK, OVERFLOW DITCH, NORTHEAST SIDE; OVERFLOW DITCH RETURNED EXCESS WATER TO BEAVER BROOK. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  18. FluDetWeb: an interactive web-based system for the early detection of the onset of influenza epidemics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The early identification of influenza outbreaks has became a priority in public health practice. A large variety of statistical algorithms for the automated monitoring of influenza surveillance have been proposed, but most of them require not only a lot of computational effort but also operation of sometimes not-so-friendly software. Results In this paper, we introduce FluDetWeb, an implementation of a prospective influenza surveillance methodology based on a client-server architecture with a thin (web-based) client application design. Users can introduce and edit their own data consisting of a series of weekly influenza incidence rates. The system returns the probability of being in an epidemic phase (via e-mail if desired). When the probability is greater than 0.5, it also returns the probability of an increase in the incidence rate during the following week. The system also provides two complementary graphs. This system has been implemented using statistical free-software (ℝ and WinBUGS), a web server environment for Java code (Tomcat) and a software module created by us (Rdp) responsible for managing internal tasks; the software package MySQL has been used to construct the database management system. The implementation is available on-line from: http://www.geeitema.org/meviepi/fludetweb/. Conclusion The ease of use of FluDetWeb and its on-line availability can make it a valuable tool for public health practitioners who want to obtain information about the probability that their system is in an epidemic phase. Moreover, the architecture described can also be useful for developers of systems based on computationally intensive methods. PMID:19640304

  19. The otherness of sexuality: excess.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ruth

    2008-03-01

    The present essay, the second of a series of three, aims at developing an experience-near account of sexuality by rehabilitating the idea of excess and its place in sexual experience. It is suggested that various types of excess, such as excess of excitation (Freud), the excess of the other (Laplanche), excess beyond symbolization and the excess of the forbidden object of desire (Leviticus; Lacan) work synergistically to constitute the compelling power of sexuality. In addition to these notions, further notions of excess touch on its transformative potential. Such notions address excess that shatters psychic structures and that is actively sought so as to enable new ones to evolve (Bersani). Work is quoted that regards excess as a way of dealing with our lonely, discontinuous being by using the "excessive" cosmic energy circulating through us to achieve continuity against death (Bataille). Two contemporary analytic thinkers are engaged who deal with the object-relational and intersubjective vicissitudes of excess. PMID:18430702

  20. Conceptual Representations of Flu and Microbial Illness Held by Students, Teachers, and Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, M. Gail; Rua, Melissa J.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students', teachers', and medical professionals' conceptions of flu and microbial illness. Participants constructed a concept map on "flu" and participated in a semi-structured interview. The results showed that these groups of students, teachers and medical professionals held and structured their…

  1. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  2. Swine-Flu Plans Put E-Learning in the Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Ash, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Last school year, many educators were caught unprepared when schools closed in response to cases of swine flu. This time around, both the federal government and school districts are putting specific online-learning measures in place to get ready for possible closures or waves of teacher and student absences because of a flu outbreak. To prepare…

  3. H1N1 Flu & U.S. Schools: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    A severe form of influenza known as H1N1, commonly being called swine flu, has health officials around the world concerned. In the United States, the outbreak of H1N1 has prompted school closures and cancellation of school-related events. As the flu spreads, the Department of Education encourages school leaders, parents and students to know how to…

  4. Swine flu-have we learnt any lesson from the past?

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Sankalp; Rawal, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    The world has suffered the pandemics due to swine flu in the past. The present epidemic in India has claimed many lives. Even, after the first outbreak of swine flu in 2009 no concrete efforts are done to prevent this infection. There is an urgent need to take radical steps to prevent such epidemics. PMID:26848365

  5. Demystifying FluMist, a new intranasal, live influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2003-09-01

    FluMist--a cold-adapted, live-attenuated, trivalent, intranasal influenza virus vaccine approved by the US Food and Drug Administration on June 17, 2003--has been shown to be safe and effective, but its role in the general prevention of influenza is yet to be defined. Intranasal administration is expected to be more acceptable than parenteral, particularly in children, but the potential for the shedding of live virus may pose a risk to anyone with a compromised immune system. PMID:14518575

  6. Full-spectrum disease response : beyond just the flu.

    SciTech Connect

    Knazovich, Michael Ward; Cox, Warren B.; Henderson, Samuel Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Why plan beyond the flu: (1) the installation may be the target of bioterrorism - National Laboratory, military base collocated in large population center; and (2) International Airport - transport of infectious agents to the area - Sandia is a global enterprise and staff visit many foreign countries. In addition to the Pandemic Plan, Sandia has developed a separate Disease Response Plan (DRP). The DRP addresses Category A, B pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). The DRP contains the Cities Readiness Initiative sub-plan for disbursement of Strategic National Stockpile assets.

  7. Returning Samples from Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, P.; Kanik, I.; Brownlee, D.; McKay, C.; Anbar, A.; Glavin, D.; Yano, H.

    2012-12-01

    search for chemical biosignatures to understand the habitability potential of the subsurface ocean of Enceladus [Glavin et al. 2011]. By assessing the chiral excess among different amino acids, identifying chains of amino acids, isolate distinct sequences of these chains and the same for nucleic acids, we can formulate a new set of hypotheses to address some of the key science questions required for investigating the stage of extraterrestrial life at Enceladus beyond the four factors of habitability. Criticality of Analyses - For extraterrestrial organic matter analyses such as chirality and compound-specific isotopes, the repeatable robustness of laboratory measurements is a necessity. These analyses require a series of chemical extraction and derivatization steps prior to analysis that is adapted to the sample and procedures results-driven. The Stardust mission is an excellent example of the challenges in the analysis of organics. Confirmation of the cometary origin of the amino acid glycine from comet Wild 2 was obtained 3 years after the samples were returned to Earth. This long period of laboratory development allowed several modifications to the extraction protocol, multiple analytical techniques and instrumentations. Reference: Tsou et al., Astrobiology, in press 2012. McKay et al. Astrobiology 2008. Waite et al. Nature V 460 I 7254, 2009. Postberg et al. EPSC 642P 2011. Glavin et al., LPSC, #5002, 2011.

  8. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOEpatents

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  9. Comparison of Cepheid Xpert Flu/RSV XC and BioFire FilmArray for Detection of Influenza A, Influenza B, and Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    PubMed

    Wahrenbrock, Mark G; Matushek, Scott; Boonlayangoor, Sue; Tesic, Vera; Beavis, Kathleen G; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella

    2016-07-01

    The Xpert Flu/RSV XC was compared to the FilmArray respiratory panel for detection of influenza (Flu) A, Flu B, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), using 128 nasopharyngeal swabs. Positive agreements were 100% for Flu A and RSV and 92.3% for Flu B. The Xpert may be useful in clinical situations when extensive testing is not required and may serve an important role in laboratories already performing broader respiratory panel testing. PMID:27098956

  10. Why Do Staff Return?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Connie

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 211 returning staff from 25 camps and interviewed 19 returning staff to study factors that influence a counselor's decision to return to camp. Examined the following dimensions of motivation and hygiene factors: (1) stimulation or inspiration; (2) personal; (3) job-related experience; (4) living conditions and camp life; (5) camp…

  11. Healthy Bodies, Toxic Medicines: College Students and the Rhetorics of Flu Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Heidi Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines flu vaccination beliefs and practices produced during a survey of undergraduate students in Spring 2012 (IRB#10-732). This research uses the methods of rhetorical analysis — or the study of persuasive features and arguments used in language — to examine statements respondents made regarding flu and flu vaccine. In these responses, students generated unique categories of arguments about the perceived dangers of flu vaccination, including the assertion that vaccines cause disease (including illnesses and conditions other than flu), that vaccines are toxic medicines, and that vaccines carry unknown, population-wide risks that are inadequately acknowledged. This study provides insight into vaccination beliefs and rationales among a population at risk of flu (college students) and suggests that further study of this population may yield important keys to addressing flu vaccine concerns as expressed by college students. Rhetorical analysis also offers a useful set of methods to understanding vaccination beliefs and practices, adding to existing methods of study and analysis of vaccination practices and beliefs in medicine and public health. PMID:25506277

  12. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students' attitudes about population health, highlights the program's outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  13. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew

    PubMed Central

    Rizal, Rachel E; Mediratta, Rishi P; Xie, James; Kambhampati, Swetha; Hills-Evans, Kelsey; Montacute, Tamara; Zhang, Michael; Zaw, Catherine; He, Jimmy; Sanchez, Magali; Pischel, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Many national organizations call for medical students to receive more public health education in medical school. Nonetheless, limited evidence exists about successful servicelearning programs that administer preventive health services in nonclinical settings. The Flu Crew program, started in 2001 at the Stanford University School of Medicine, provides preclinical medical students with opportunities to administer influenza immunizations in the local community. Medical students consider Flu Crew to be an important part of their medical education that cannot be learned in the classroom. Through delivering vaccines to where people live, eat, work, and pray, Flu Crew teaches medical students about patient care, preventive medicine, and population health needs. Additionally, Flu Crew allows students to work with several partners in the community in order to understand how various stakeholders improve the delivery of population health services. Flu Crew teaches students how to address common vaccination myths and provides insights into implementing public health interventions. This article describes the Stanford Flu Crew curriculum, outlines the planning needed to organize immunization events, shares findings from medical students’ attitudes about population health, highlights the program’s outcomes, and summarizes the lessons learned. This article suggests that Flu Crew is an example of one viable service-learning modality that supports influenza vaccinations in nonclinical settings while simultaneously benefiting future clinicians. PMID:26170731

  14. 32 CFR 644.528 - Return of contaminated leased land to owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Return of contaminated leased land to owners. 644... Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.528 Return of contaminated leased land to owners. Where leased land has been contaminated, whether excess to military requirements or being used, it...

  15. The Evaluations of Swine Flu Magnitudes in TV News: A Comparative Analysis of Paired Influenza Pandemics.

    PubMed

    Pan, Po-Lin; Meng, Juan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined how major TV news networks covered two flu pandemics in 1976 and 2009 in terms of news frames, mortality exemplars, mortality subject attributes, vaccination, evaluation approaches, and news sources. Results showed that the first pandemic was frequently framed with the medical/scientific and political/legal issues, while the second pandemic was emphasized with the health risk issue in TV news. Both flu pandemics were regularly reported with mortality exemplars, but the focus in the first pandemic was on the flu virus threat and vaccination side effects, while the vaccination shortage was frequently revealed in the second outbreak. PMID:26075542

  16. Timely detection of localized excess influenza activity in Northern California across patient care, prescription, and laboratory data.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sharon K; Kulldorff, Martin; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard J; Kleinman, Kenneth P; Hsu, John; Platt, Richard

    2011-02-28

    Timely detection of clusters of localized influenza activity in excess of background seasonal levels could improve situational awareness for public health officials and health systems. However, no single data type may capture influenza activity with optimal sensitivity, specificity, and timeliness, and it is unknown which data types could be most useful for surveillance. We compared the performance of 10 types of electronic clinical data for timely detection of influenza clusters throughout the 2007/08 influenza season in northern California. Kaiser Permanente Northern California generated zip code-specific daily episode counts for: influenza-like illness (ILI) diagnoses in ambulatory care (AC) and emergency departments (ED), both with and without regard to fever; hospital admissions and discharges for pneumonia and influenza; antiviral drugs dispensed (Rx); influenza laboratory tests ordered (Tests); and tests positive for influenza type A (FluA) and type B (FluB). Four credible events of localized excess illness were identified. Prospective surveillance was mimicked within each data stream using a space-time permutation scan statistic, analyzing only data available as of each day, to evaluate the ability and timeliness to detect the credible events. AC without fever and Tests signaled during all four events and, along with Rx, had the most timely signals. FluA had less timely signals. ED, hospitalizations, and FluB did not signal reliably. When fever was included in the ILI definition, signals were either delayed or missed. Although limited to one health plan, location, and year, these results can inform the choice of data streams for public health surveillance of influenza. PMID:21312219

  17. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    possible scenario of the Boomerang mission includes the approach to Deimos prior to the landing of Phobos. The needed excess ΔV w.r.t. simple scenario (elliptical orbit à near-Phobos orbit) amounts to 0.67 km s-1 (1.6 vs 0.93 km s-1). The Boomerang mission basically repeats the Phobos-SR (2011) architecture, where the transfer-orbiting spacecraft lands on the Phobos surface and a small return vehicle launches the return capsule to Earth. We consider the Boomerang mission as an important step in Mars exploration and a direct precursor of Mars Sample Return. The following elements of the Boomerang mission might be directly employed, or serve as the prototypes for the Mars Sample return in future: Return vehicle, Earth descent module, Transfer-orbital spacecraft. We urge the development of this project for its high science value and recognize its elements as potential national contribution to an international Mars Sample Return project. Galimov E.M., Phobos sample return mission: scientific substantiation, Solar System Res., v.44, No.1, pp5-14, 2010. Chappaz L., H.J. Melosh, M. Vaguero, and K.C. Howell, Material transfer from the surface of Mars to Phobos and Deimos, 43rd Lunar and planetary Science Conference, paper 1422, 2012.

  18. A Multicenter Retrospective Review of Prone Position Ventilation (PPV) in Treatment of Severe Human H7N9 Avian Flu

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yun; Zhou, Lixin; He, Weiqun; Chen, Sibei; Nong, Lingbo; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Tieou; Li, Yimin; Liu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) usually have a poor clinical outcome. Prone position ventilation (PPV) has been shown to improve the prognosis of patients with severe ARDS. This study explored the effects of PPV on the respiratory and circulatory mechanics of H7N9-infected patients with severe ARDS. Methods Individuals admitted to four hospitals designated for H7N9 patients in Guangdong province were treated with PPV, and their clinical data were recorded before and after receiving PPV. Results Six of 20 critically ill patients in the ICU received PPV. After treatment with 35 PPV sessions, the oxygenation index (OI) values of the six patients when measured post-PPV and post-supine position ventilation (SPV) were significantly higher than those measured pre-PPV (P < 0.05).The six patients showed no significant differences in their values for respiratory rate (RR), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), tidal volume (TV) or arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the mean values for arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac index (CI), central venous pressure (CVP), heart rate (HR), lactic acid (LAC) levels or the doses of norepinephrine (NE) administered when compared pre-PPV, post-PPV, and post-SPV. Conclusion PPV provided improved oxygenation that was sustained after returning to a supine position, and resulted in decreased carbon dioxide retention. PPV can thus serve as an alternative lung protective ventilation strategy for use in patients with H7N9 avian flu concurrent with severe ARDS. PMID:26317621

  19. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  20. Time to Get Your Annual Flu Shot | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... flu vaccine will protect against the three influenza viruses that research indicates will be most common during ... vaccine, the recommended influenza H3N2 and B vaccine viruses are different from those in the 2011-2012 ...

  1. Time To Talk About Natural Products for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the Flu and Colds: What Does the Science Say? Share: It's that time of year again— ... But do they really work? What does the science say? Vaccination is the best protection against getting ...

  2. What You Should Know and Do This Flu Season If You Are 65 Years and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... in that age group. This includes cell-based, recombinant and flu shots made using traditional egg-based manufacturing processes . There are two vaccines designed specifically for people 65 and older: The ...

  3. JouFLU: upgrades to the fiber linked unit for optical recombination (FLUOR) interferometric beam combiner.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. J.; Lhomé, E.; ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.

    2014-07-01

    The Fiber Linked Unit for Optical Recombination (FLUOR) is a precision interferometric beam combiner operating at the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. It has recently been upgraded as part of a mission known as "Jouvence of FLUOR" or JouFLU. As part of this program JouFLU has new mechanic stages and optical payloads, new alignment systems, and new command/control software. Furthermore, new capabilities have been implemented such as a Fourier Transform Spectrograph (FTS) mode and spectral dispersion mode. These upgrades provide new capabilities to JouFLU as well as improving statistical precision and increasing observing efficiency. With these new systems, measurements of interferometric visibility to the level of 0.1% precision are expected on targets as faint as 6th magnitude in the K band. Here we detail the upgrades of JouFLU and report on its current status.

  4. Interpreting Google flu trends data for pandemic H1N1 influenza: the New Zealand experience.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N; Mason, K; Tobias, M; Peacey, M; Huang, Q S; Baker, M

    2009-01-01

    For the period of the spread of pandemic H1N1 influenza in New Zealand during 2009, we compared results from Google Flu Trends with data from existing surveillance systems. The patterns from Google Flu Trends were closely aligned with (peaking a week before and a week after) two independent national surveillance systems for influenza-like illness (ILI) cases. It was much less congruent with (delayed by three weeks) data from ILI-related calls to a national free-phone Healthline and with media coverage of pandemic influenza. Some patterns were unique to Google Flu Trends and may not have reflected the actual ILI burden in the community. Overall, Google Flu Trends appears to provide a useful free surveillance system but it should probably be seen as supplementary rather than as an alternative. PMID:19941777

  5. Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Flu: A Guide for Parents of Children or Adolescents with Chronic Health Conditions Page Content ​​What is ... younger than 2 years old, and children and adolescents with chronic health conditions are at greater risk ...

  6. Return flux experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tveekrem, June L.

    1992-01-01

    All spacecraft emit molecules via outgassing, thruster plumes, vents, etc. The return flux is the portion of those molecules that scatter from the ambient atmosphere and return to the spacecraft. Return flux allows critical spacecraft surfaces to become contaminated even when there is no direct line of sight between the contamination source and the critical surface. Data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) show that contamination of LDEF surfaces could not have come entirely from direct flux. The data suggest significant return flux. Several computer models have been developed to simulate return flux, but the predictions have never been verified in orbit. Large uncertainties in predictions lead to overly conservative spacecraft designs. The purpose of the REturn FLux EXperiment (REFLEX) is to fly a controlled experiment that can be directly compared with predictions from several models.

  7. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A

  8. ClassyFlu: classification of influenza A viruses with Discriminatively trained profile-HMMs.

    PubMed

    Van der Auwera, Sandra; Bulla, Ingo; Ziller, Mario; Pohlmann, Anne; Harder, Timm; Stanke, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and rapid characterization of influenza A virus (IAV) hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) sequences with respect to subtype and clade is at the basis of extended diagnostic services and implicit to molecular epidemiologic studies. ClassyFlu is a new tool and web service for the classification of IAV sequences of the HA and NA gene into subtypes and phylogenetic clades using discriminatively trained profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), one for each subtype or clade. ClassyFlu merely requires as input unaligned, full-length or partial HA or NA DNA sequences. It enables rapid and highly accurate assignment of HA sequences to subtypes H1-H17 but particularly focusses on the finer grained assignment of sequences of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses of subtype H5N1 according to the cladistics proposed by the H5N1 Evolution Working Group. NA sequences are classified into subtypes N1-N10. ClassyFlu was compared to semiautomatic classification approaches using BLAST and phylogenetics and additionally for H5 sequences to the new "Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Clade Classification Tool" (IRD-CT) proposed by the Influenza Research Database. Our results show that both web tools (ClassyFlu and IRD-CT), although based on different methods, are nearly equivalent in performance and both are more accurate and faster than semiautomatic classification. A retraining of ClassyFlu to altered cladistics as well as an extension of ClassyFlu to other IAV genome segments or fragments thereof is undemanding. This is exemplified by unambiguous assignment to a distinct cluster within subtype H7 of sequences of H7N9 viruses which emerged in China early in 2013 and caused more than 130 human infections. http://bioinf.uni-greifswald.de/ClassyFlu is a free web service. For local execution, the ClassyFlu source code in PERL is freely available. PMID:24404173

  9. The global swine flu pandemic 1: exploring the background to influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Robert J

    This first in a two-part unit on pandemic flu examines background information on influenza viruses and previous pandemics. As the 2009 flu pandemic gathers force, nurses and other healthcare professionals need to understand the scientific background to one of the most common and potentially the most lethal of pandemic infections. This part explores the characteristics of influenzaviruses and reviews the history and context in which human pandemics occur. PMID:19788110

  10. Assured crew return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerimele, Christopher J. (Inventor); Ried, Robert C. (Inventor); Peterson, Wayne L. (Inventor); Zupp, George A., Jr. (Inventor); Stagnaro, Michael J. (Inventor); Ross, Brian P. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A return vehicle is disclosed for use in returning a crew to Earth from low earth orbit in a safe and relatively cost effective manner. The return vehicle comprises a cylindrically-shaped crew compartment attached to the large diameter of a conical heat shield having a spherically rounded nose. On-board inertial navigation and cold gas control systems are used together with a de-orbit propulsion system to effect a landing near a preferred site on the surface of the Earth. State vectors and attitude data are loaded from the attached orbiting craft just prior to separation of the return vehicle.

  11. Waiting for the flu: cognitive inertia and the Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Tom

    2015-04-01

    This study looks at public awareness and understanding of the Spanish flu in the United States between June 1918, when the flu became "Spanish," and the end of September when the deadly second wave reached the majority of the country. Based on an extensive reading of local newspapers, it finds a near universal lack of preparation or panic or other signs of personal concern among those in the unaffected areas, despite extensive and potentially worrying coverage of the flu's progress. The normal reaction to news of the inexorable approach of a pandemic of uncertain virulence is anxiety and action. The Spanish flu produced neither in the uninfected areas for a month. The most likely reason appears to be cognitive inertia-the tendency of existing beliefs or habits of thought to blind people to changed realities. This inertia grew out of the widespread understanding of flu as a seasonal visitor that while frequently unpleasant almost never killed the strong and otherwise healthy. This view of the flu was powerful enough that it blinded many in the unaffected regions to the threat for weeks even in the face of daily or near daily coverage of the pandemic's spread. PMID:24957069

  12. Measuring Excess Noise in SDL's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, S. J.; Kowitz, H. R.; Rowland, C. W.; Shull, T. A.; Ruggles, S. L.; Matthews, L. F.

    1983-01-01

    New instrument gives quantitive information on "excess noise" in semiconductor-diode laser (SDL's). By proper selection of detector, instrument tests any SDL from visible wavelengths through thermal infrared. Lasers determine excess noise in SKL source by measuring photocurrent generated in photodetector exposed first to reference laser then to SKL under test.

  13. Can Novel Flu Surveillance Be Conducted With Limited Resources?

    PubMed Central

    Siniscalchi, Alan; Schulte, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective This project was organized to facilitate discussions on whether successful novel flu surveillance can be conducted by jurisdictions with limited resources. The discussions will focus on gathering opinions regarding the best combination of surveillance systems to quickly and efficiently identify the presence of influenza A (H3N2)v and other novel influenza viruses in circulation. Introduction The past decade has witnessed rapid development and implementation of numerous syndromic and other advanced surveillance systems to supplement traditional laboratory testing to identify the presence of novel influenza strains and track the impact on local populations. While much of the development and widespread implementation of these systems had been supported by public health preparedness funding, the loss of these monies has greatly constrained the ability of public health agencies to staff and maintain these systems. The periodic appearance of novel flu viruses, such as H3N2v, requires agencies to carefully choose which systems will provide the most cost-effective data to support their public health practice. Methods This project will be facilitated by an experienced public health practitioner who has conducted surveillance for a variety of disease agents. Additional public health practitioners are being recruited among members of the International Society for Disease Surveillance (ISDS) Public Health Practice Committee (PHPC) to contribute information on comparative approaches to cost effective surveillance. Questions were selected for discussion and responses will be collected from influenza surveillance coordinators using a web-based survey tool managed by ISDS staff on behalf of the PHPC. Survey responses and subsequent recommendations will be presented at a PHPC meeting. Results Initial questions selected for the survey tool and subsequent discussions include: What surveillance systems does your agency use for conducting influenza surveillance? Which

  14. Lightning return stroke models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. T.; Uman, M. A.; Standler, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    We test the two most commonly used lightning return stroke models, Bruce-Golde and transmission line, against subsequent stroke electric and magnetic field wave forms measured simultaneously at near and distant stations and show that these models are inadequate to describe the experimental data. We then propose a new return stroke model that is physically plausible and that yields good approximations to the measured two-station fields. Using the new model, we derive return stroke charge and current statistics for about 100 subsequent strokes.

  15. Return to Bangka Island.

    PubMed

    Spence, J

    2001-07-01

    This article is a return in a couple of ways to one of the most tragic events in the history of Australian military nursing. Firstly, it describes how the evacuation of nurses from Singapore in 1941 led to circumstances that resulted in the massacre or internment of many of those women. Then in 1993, a group of surviving World War II nurses and current serving Australian Army nurses returned to the site of their sorrow. PMID:15129536

  16. Return-to-launch-site variable range-velocity line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bown, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of moving the return-to-launch-site (RTLS) range-velocity (R-V) line closer to the landing site was studied. Results are presented which show that a five nautical mile shift in R-V line causes the last RTLS abort to occur approximately one second earlier and that the excess range capability to terminal-area-energy-management interface can be dissipated without an excessive roll angle history.

  17. The Excess Winter Deaths Measure

    PubMed Central

    Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excess winter deaths, the ratio between average daily deaths in December–March versus other months, is a measure commonly used by public health practitioners and analysts to assess health burdens associated with wintertime weather. We seek to demonstrate that this measure is fundamentally biased and can lead to misleading conclusions about health impacts associated with current and future winter climate. Methods: Time series regression analysis of 779,372 deaths from natural causes in London over 15 years (1 August 1997–31 July 2012),collapsed by day of death and linked to daily temperature values. The outcome measures were the excess winter deaths index, and daily and annual deaths attributable specifically to cold. Results: Most of the excess winter deaths are driven by cold: The excess winter deaths index decreased from 1.19 to 1.07 after excluding deaths attributable to low temperatures. Over 40% of cold-attributable deaths occurred outside of the December–March period, leading to bias in the excess winter deaths measure. Although there was no relationship between winter severity and annual excess winter deaths, there was a clear correlation with annual cold-attributable deaths. Conclusions: Excess winter deaths is not an appropriate indicator of cold-related health impacts, and its use should be discontinued. We advocate alternative measures. The findings we present bring into doubt previous claims that cold-related deaths in the UK will not reduce in future as a result of climate change. PMID:26986872

  18. Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons

    PubMed Central

    Smolinski, Mark S.; Baltrusaitis, Kristin; Chunara, Rumi; Olsen, Jennifer M.; Wójcik, Oktawia; Santillana, Mauricio; Nguyen, Andre; Brownstein, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We summarized Flu Near You (FNY) data from the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 influenza seasons in the United States. Methods. FNY collects limited demographic characteristic information upon registration, and prompts users each Monday to report symptoms of influenza-like illness (ILI) experienced during the previous week. We calculated the descriptive statistics and rates of ILI for the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 seasons. We compared raw and noise-filtered ILI rates with ILI rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ILINet surveillance system. Results. More than 61 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2012–2013 season, totaling 327 773 reports. Nearly 40 000 participants submitted at least 1 report during the 2013–2014 season, totaling 336 933 reports. Rates of ILI as reported by FNY tracked closely with ILINet in both timing and magnitude. Conclusions. With increased participation, FNY has the potential to serve as a viable complement to existing outpatient, hospital-based, and laboratory surveillance systems. Although many established systems have the benefits of specificity and credibility, participatory systems offer advantages in the areas of speed, sensitivity, and scalability. PMID:26270299

  19. Nudges or mandates? The ethics of mandatory flu vaccination.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex; Phung, Connie

    2015-05-21

    According to the CDC report for the 2012-2013 influenza season, there was a modest increase in the vaccination coverage rate among healthcare workers from 67% in 2011-2012, to 72% in 2012-2013 to the current 75% coverage. This is still far from reaching the US National Healthy People 2020 goal of 90% hospitals vaccination rates. The reported increase in coverage is attributed to the growing number of healthcare facilities with vaccination requirements with average rates of 96.5%. However, a few other public health interventions stir so much controversy and debate as vaccination mandates. The opposition stems from the belief that a mandatory flu shot policy violates an individual right to refuse unwanted treatment. This article outlines the historic push to achieve higher vaccination rates among healthcare professionals and a number of ethical issues arising from attempts to implement vaccination mandates. It then turns to a review of cognitive biases relevant in the context of decisions about influenza vaccination (omission bias, ambiguity aversion, present bias etc.) The article suggests that a successful strategy for policy-makers and others hoping to increase vaccination rates is to design a "choice architecture" that influences behavior of healthcare professionals without foreclosing other options. Nudges incentivize vaccinations and help better align vaccination intentions with near-term actions. PMID:25869886

  20. Oseltamivir: a first line defense against swine flu.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ritesh; Rewatkar, Prarthana V; Kokil, Ganesh R; Verma, Arunima; Kalra, Atin

    2010-07-01

    Oseltamivir (has known by its brand name 'Tamiflu') is a prodrug, requiring ester hydrolysis for conversion to the active form, Oseltamivir carboxylate. Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed by US based Gilead Sciences and is currently marketed by F. Hoffmann-La Roche (Roche). Oseltamivir is an antiviral drug which works by blocking the function of the viral neuraminidase protein. US FDA approved Oseltamivir for prophylaxis of uncomplicated influenza A and B. Currently, Oseltamivir is the only first line defense drug available for the treatment of Swine Flu. Orally Oseltamivir is well tolerated and effective in treatment of influenza in adolescents and adults, including the elderly and patients with chronic cardiac and/or respiratory disease. Many of the pharmaceutical companies targeted Oseltamivir as a block buster molecule. In present review, we have tried to cover chemistry, mode of binding, total synthesis, current patent status, adverse effect and clinical status of Oseltamivir giving emphasis on medicinal chemistry aspect. PMID:20843284

  1. Evaluation of a Rapid Optical Immunoassay for Influenza Viruses (FLU OIA Test) in Comparison with Cell Culture and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Guy; Hardy, Isabelle; Kress, Andrew

    2001-01-01

    The FLU OIA test was evaluated with 146 throat swab specimens from subjects with a flu-like illness in six Canadian clinics during the 1999–2000 flu season. The rate of positivity of the FLU OIA test (41.5%) was significantly lower than that of cell culture (55.2%) or reverse transcription-PCR (55.9%) during a season in which only influenza A virus was detected. PMID:11158137

  2. Intranasal Flu Vaccine Protective against Seasonal and H5N1 Avian Influenza Infections

    PubMed Central

    Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lobigs, Mario; Koskinen, Aulikki; Regner, Matthias; Trinidad, Lee; Boyle, David B.; Müllbacher, Arno

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza A (flu) virus causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, and current vaccines require annual updating to protect against the rapidly arising antigenic variations due to antigenic shift and drift. In fact, current subunit or split flu vaccines rely exclusively on antibody responses for protection and do not induce cytotoxic T (Tc) cell responses, which are broadly cross-reactive between virus strains. We have previously reported that γ-ray inactivated flu virus can induce cross-reactive Tc cell responses. Methodology/Principal Finding Here, we report that intranasal administration of purified γ-ray inactivated human influenza A virus preparations (γ-Flu) effectively induces heterotypic and cross-protective immunity. A single intranasal administration of γ-A/PR8[H1N1] protects mice against lethal H5N1 and other heterotypic infections. Conclusions/Significance Intranasal γ-Flu represents a unique approach for a cross-protective vaccine against both seasonal as well as possible future pandemic influenza A virus infections. PMID:19401775

  3. The Non-canonical Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Domain of Fluorescent (FLU) Mediates Complex Formation with Glutamyl-tRNA Reductase*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Zhang, Feilong; Fang, Ying; Chen, Xuemin; Chen, Yuhong; Zhang, Wenxia; Dai, Huai-En; Lin, Rongcheng; Liu, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing protein FLU is a negative regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis in plants. It directly interacts through its TPR domain with glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR), the rate-limiting enzyme in the formation of δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). Delineation of how FLU binds to GluTR is important for understanding the molecular basis for FLU-mediated repression of synthesis of ALA, the universal tetrapyrrole precursor. Here, we characterize the FLU-GluTR interaction by solving the crystal structures of the uncomplexed TPR domain of FLU (FLUTPR) at 1.45-Å resolution and the complex of the dimeric domain of GluTR bound to FLUTPR at 2.4-Å resolution. Three non-canonical TPR motifs of each FLUTPR form a concave surface and clamp the helix bundle in the C-terminal dimeric domain of GluTR. We demonstrate that a 2:2 FLUTPR-GluTR complex is the functional unit for FLU-mediated GluTR regulation and suggest that the formation of the FLU-GluTR complex prevents glutamyl-tRNA, the GluTR substrate, from binding with this enzyme. These results also provide insights into the spatial regulation of ALA synthesis by the membrane-located FLU protein. PMID:26037924

  4. Clinical evaluation of the ZstatFlu-II test: a chemiluminescent rapid diagnostic test for influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marilyn S; Abel, David M; Ballam, Yolanda J; Otto, Mary K; Nickell, Angela F; Pence, Lisa M; Appleman, James R; Shimasaki, Craig D; Achyuthan, Komandoor E

    2002-07-01

    Exploiting the high sensitivity of the chemiluminescence phenomenon, an accurate and sensitive point-of-care test, called the ZstatFlu-II test (ZymeTx, Inc., Oklahoma City, Okla.), was developed to detect influenza virus infections. The ZstatFlu-II test takes 20 min and requires approximately 2 min of "hands-on" time for operational steps. The ZstatFlu-II test does not distinguish between infections with influenza virus types A and B. ZstatFlu-II test results are printed on Polaroid High-Speed Detector Film, allowing test results to be archived. A prototype version of the ZstatFlu-II test was evaluated during the 2000-to-2001 flu season with 300 nasal aspirate specimens from children at a pediatric hospital. Compared to culture, the ZstatFlu-II test had 88% sensitivity and 92% specificity. The Directigen test had a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 93%. The sensitivity of the ZstatFlu-II test was significantly higher than that of the Directigen test (P < 0.0574). PMID:12089243

  5. It's coming: cold and flu season--can we make a difference? Implications for home care and hospice.

    PubMed

    Polzien, Gladys

    2006-10-01

    Health promotion and disease prevention is possible with accurate information and patient education. By being prepared to answer questions from patients and caregivers early this cold and flu season, we can make a difference to prevent the spread of colds and flu and their potentially serious complications. PMID:17252968

  6. [The flu epidemic after World War I and homeopathy--an international comparison].

    PubMed

    Jahn, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    The "Spanish Flu" began in 1918 and was the most devastating pandemic in human history that had ever been, claiming more lives than World War I. The flu virus had not yet been discovered, and the usual therapy measures were merely symptomatic. In many parts of the world the pandemic was treated by homeopaths. At the time, homeopathic medical practices, out-patient clinics and hospitals existed in various countries. To this day homeopaths refer to the successful homeopathic treatment of the "Spanish Flu". The following paper looks at what this treatment consisted in and whether it was based on a particular concept. It also examines contemporary evaluations and figures, as well as the question as to whether homeopathy experienced a rise in demand as a consequence of its success during the pandemic. PMID:25134258

  7. Indoor Staying During Winter Season Makes People More Susceptible to Flu.

    PubMed

    Acharya, B; Thapa, K

    2016-01-01

    An infectious diseases caused by RNA virus, the influenza is also commonly known as Flu. It mainly transmitted through air by coughs or sneezes of infected. The symptoms of flu like fever and headache are the result of the huge amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (such as interferon or tumor necrosis factor) produced from influenza-infected cells. The activated vitamin has extreme effects on human immunity. Vitamin D prevents too much release of cytokines and chemokines. Staying much time indoor, away from contact of sunlight during winter season lowers the vitamin D level in human body. Thus, the chance of getting flu increases in winter season. Formulation of policy regarding vitamin D supplementation in diet for people such as elderly and with low sunlight exposure is hereby recommended. It will be beneficial to reduce influenza related morbidity and mortality during winter season. PMID:27426715

  8. Infection with influenza a virus leads to flu antigen-induced cutaneous anaphylaxis in mice.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, Susanne M; Hahn, Christian; Wohlleben, Gisela; Teufel, Martin; Major, Tamas; Moll, Heidrun; Bröcker, Eva-B; Erb, Klaus J

    2002-04-01

    It is well established, that viral infections may trigger urticaria or allergic asthma; however, as viral infections induce T helper 1 polarized responses, which lead to the inhibition of T helper 2 cell development, the opposite would be plausible. We wanted to investigate how viral infections may mediate allergic symptoms in a mouse model; therefore, we infected BALB/C mice with influenza A virus intranasally. Histologic analyses of lung sections and bronchoalveolar lavages were performed. In addition, cells from the mediastinal lymph nodes were restimulated in vitro to analyze which types of cytokines were induced by the flu infection. Furthermore, flu-specific antibody titers were determined and local anaphylaxis was measured after rechallenge with flu antigen. We found that airways inflammation consisted predominately of macrophages and lymphocytes, whereas only a few eosinophils were observed. interferon-gamma but no interleukin-4 and little interleukin-5 could be detected in the culture supernatants from in vitro restimulated T cells from the draining lymph nodes. The antibody response was characterized by high levels of virus-specific IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG1 and, surprisingly, low levels of virus-specific IgE antibodies. Interestingly, flu-infected mice developed active and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis after rechallenge with flu-antigen. As the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction persisted over 48 h and was significantly lower after passive transfer of the serum, which was IgE depleted, local anaphylaxis seemed to be mediated predominately by specific IgE antibodies. Taken together, our results demonstrate that mice infected with flu virus develop virus-specific mast cell degranulation in the skin. Our results may also have implications for the pathogenesis of urticaria or other atopic disorders in humans. PMID:11918711

  9. Prisons' preparedness for pandemic flu and the ethical issues.

    PubMed

    van't Hoff, G; Fedosejeva, R; Mihailescu, L

    2009-06-01

    In Europe at any given time there are about 1,8 million people imprisoned in penal institutions. About 1 million personnel are working in prisons. With prisons, from the start there are fundamental problems in many parts of Europe. Poor housing conditions in prisons and a high proportion of prisoners who already suffer from severe health problems mean the chance of an outbreak in prison during a pandemic must be quite high. We expect it can be up to 90%. In this article we explain what the characteristics are of the prison population from a health point of view. A high rate of detainees suffers from mental health disorders and/or addiction. A high prevalence of communicable and infectious diseases is the rule, not an exception. According to the European Prison Rules and many other international rules, statements and documents prison health care should be an integral part of the public health system of any country. However, it has to be accepted that the prison population is the least popular in society and in politics. In reality in many countries in Europe the situation in prison cannot meet the level strived for by the European Prison Rules. We compare preparedness on pandemic flu in The Netherlands, Latvia and Romania. We explore the problems and ethical issues that may arise if a pandemic breaks out. There are three ethical dilemmas that require consideration: equivalence of care and prisoners' right to health care; prisoners' interests verses society's interests; countries in need and calls for bilateral help. PMID:19482323

  10. [Fever in returning travelers].

    PubMed

    Burchard, G

    2014-03-01

    Travel-related illness is most often due to gastrointestinal, febrile, and dermatologic diseases. Fever in a returned traveler demands prompt attention because it may be a manifestation of an infection that could be rapidly progressive and lethal. The approach to the febrile patient should be stepwise and consider travel and exposure history. Malaria is the most common cause of fever in patients returning from Sub-Saharan Africa, whereas dengue is more frequent in travelers from other tropical and subtropical areas. Other serious diseases are typhoid and paratyphoid fever, amebic liver abscess, visceral leishmaniasis, leptospirosis and-rarely-viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24557143

  11. Electrostatic Return of Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rantanen, R.; Gordon, T.

    2003-01-01

    A Model has been developed capable of calculating the electrostatic return of spacecraft-emitted molecules that are ionized and attracted back to the spacecraft by the spacecraft electric potential on its surfaces. The return of ionized contaminant molecules to charged spacecraft surfaces is very important to all altitudes. It is especially important at geosynchronous and interplanetary environments, since it may be the only mechanism by which contaminants can degrade a surface. This model is applicable to all altitudes and spacecraft geometries. In addition to results of the model will be completed to cover a wide range of potential space systems.

  12. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  13. Higher Education Endowments Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahlmann, David; Walda, John D.; Sedlacek, Verne O.

    2012-01-01

    A new study of endowments by the National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) and the Commonfund Institute has brought good news to college and universities: While endowment returns dropped precipitously in fiscal year 2009 as a result of the financial crisis and accompanying slide in equity markets, they climbed to an…

  14. Return to Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Call it physical activity, call it games, or call it play. Whatever its name, it's a place we all need to return to. In the physical education, recreation, and dance professions, we need to redesign programs to address the need for and want of play that is inherent in all of us.

  15. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, R.; Marwah, Rohit; Arora, P.; Sharma, R. K.; Kaushik, Vinod; Goel, R.; Kaur, A.; Silambarasan, M.; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhardwaj, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations. PMID:20976081

  16. MP-AzeFlu is more effective than fluticasone propionate for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children.

    PubMed

    Berger, W; Bousquet, J; Fox, A T; Just, J; Muraro, A; Nieto, A; Valovirta, E; Wickman, M; Wahn, U

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of MP-AzeFlu (Dymista(®) ) vs fluticasone propionate (FP), (both 1 spray/nostril bid), in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). MP-AzeFlu combines azelastine hydrochloride, FP and a novel formulation in a single spray. Children were randomized in a 3 : 1 ratio to MP-AzeFlu or FP in this open-label, 3-month study. Efficacy was assessed in children aged ≥ 6 to <12 years (MP-AzeFlu: n = 264; FP: n = 89), using a 4-point symptom severity rating scale from 0 to 3 (0 = no symptoms; 3 = severe symptoms). Over the 3-month period, MP-AzeFlu-treated children experienced significantly greater symptom relief than FP-treated children (Diff: -0.14; 95% CI: -0.28, -0.01; P = 0.04), noted from the first day (particularly the first 7 days) and sustained for 90 days. More MP-AzeFlu children achieved symptom-free or mild symptom severity status, and did so up to 16 days faster than FP. MP-AzeFlu provides significantly greater, more rapid and clinically relevant symptom relief than FP in children with AR. PMID:27043452

  17. Excessive or unwanted hair in women

    MedlinePlus

    Hypertrichosis; Hirsutism; Hair - excessive (women); Excessive hair in women; Hair - women - excessive or unwanted ... much of this hormone, you may have unwanted hair growth. In most cases, the exact cause is ...

  18. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung K.

    2015-08-01

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  19. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)
    <...

  20. Influenza 2005-2006: vaccine supplies adequate, but bird flu looms.

    PubMed

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2005-11-01

    Influenza vaccine supplies appear to be adequate for the 2005-2006 season, though delivery has been somewhat delayed. However, in the event of a pandemic of avian flu-considered inevitable by most experts, although no one knows when it will happen-the United States would be woefully unprepared. PMID:16315443

  1. Can movie theater advertisements promote health behaviors? Evaluation of a flu vaccination pilot campaign.

    PubMed

    Peddecord, K Michael; Jacobson, Isabel Gomez; Engelberg, Moshe; Kwizera, Lisa; Macias, Violet; Gustafson, Kathleen W

    2008-09-01

    As part of a multimedia campaign to promote annual influenza vaccination, three slides were shown as part of the slide show of advertisements prior to the beginning of previews in movie theaters in San Diego County. Intercept surveys were conducted following the movie. The primary target groups for the campaign were adults with children 6 months to 2 years of age and adults over 50 years of age. Overall, 88% of exposed patrons reported seeing some type of movie ad. Among those who recalled any ad, 24% recalled the flu advertisement. In contrast, recall of flu-related news coverage was high, with over 95% of exposed and comparison interviewees recalling news stories during the campaign period. While 56% of those interviewed remembered one or more specific flu-related news items, individuals within this group who also had also been exposed to the movie ads were not more likely to recall flu campaign advertisements. We describe a method for estimating valid recalls and cost per valid exposure. Further research that compares movie ads with public service announcements (PSAs) in other venues is necessary to solidify our conclusions that movie advertising is a highly cost-effective medium for health communication. PMID:18726815

  2. 108 Development of universal vaccines against flu: reality and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Shmarov, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Two surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase are the main antigens for obtaining traditional flu vaccines due to their high immunogenicity and ability to induce generation of neutralizing antibodies. High genetically instability of influenza virus provides antigenic diversity of these glycoproteins between strains. Subunit vaccines based on one of these surface antigens are characterized by narrow specificity. Modern vaccines should provide protection against several or all subtypes of influenza A viruses. In addition sporadic influenza outbreaks of newly emerged influenza A viruses may cause the next pandemic. Today there are no flu vaccines of a wide range of action, so-called “universal” vaccines. Several flu vaccines with a broad cross-protectivity are tested in different phases of clinical trials. In this report the analysis of the modern researches directed on creation of flu “universal” vaccines including data obtained by researchers of Gamaleya institute of epidemiology and microbiology is carried out. Genetic immunization technology is used for development of “universal” vaccine. Recombinant pseudoadenoviral particles coding of influenza virus conservative antigens were used as a vector for gene delivery. Polypeptide, containing hemagglutinin conservative epitopes, was used in addition to traditional influenza conservative antigens M1, M2 and NP. Animal experiments demonstrated that developed vaccines were very efficient against different influenza subtypes (80%–100% survivability).

  3. Preparing for the Flu During the 2009-10 School Year: Questions and Answers for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This brochure provides answers to the following questions: (1) Why do school districts, schools, teachers, parents, and communities need to plan for the continuation of learning for students during flu season this year? (2) How should districts and schools go about planning to continue students' education when they are at home because of H1N1?…

  4. Mathematical formulation and numerical simulation of bird flu infection process within a poultry farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Arrival Rince; Nova, Tertia Delia; Watanabe, M.

    2016-02-01

    Bird flu infection processes within a poultry farm are formulated mathematically. A spatial effect is taken into account for the virus concentration with a diffusive term. An infection process is represented in terms of a traveling wave solutions. For a small removal rate, a singular perturbation analysis lead to existence of traveling wave solutions, that correspond to progressive infection in one direction.

  5. Five Thorny Questions to Ask when Planning for an Avian Flu Pandemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostroth, D. David; Frias, Mary Lou; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2006-01-01

    Public health experts project a strong possibility that an avian flu pandemic will occur in the next 4 years, and the federal government has already warned that states and localities must make their own plans for this event since such a broad scale public health crises would far outstrip federal capacity to respond. Colleges and universities are…

  6. Swine-Flu Scare Offers Lessons for Study-Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Reports of swine flu have led some colleges to pull students and faculty members out of Mexico, the epicenter of the outbreak, and to cancel study-abroad programs there. But even as the number of new cases appears to be falling, the health scare offers some lasting lessons for colleges, says Gary Rhodes, director of the Center for Global Education…

  7. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine 'PUBMED' to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  8. The neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza/swine flu: A selective review

    PubMed Central

    Manjunatha, Narayana; Math, Suresh Bada; Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Chaturvedi, Santosh Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The world witnessed the influenza virus during the seasonal epidemics and pandemics. The current strain of H1N1 (swine flu) pandemic is believed to be the legacy of the influenza pandemic (1918-19). The influenza virus has been implicated in many neuropsychiatric disorders. In view of the recent pandemic, it would be interesting to review the neuropsychiatric aspects of influenza, specifically swine flu. Author used popular search engine ‘PUBMED’ to search for published articles with different MeSH terms using Boolean operator (AND). Among these, a selective review of the published literature was done. Acute manifestations of swine flu varied from behavioral changes, fear of misdiagnosis during outbreak, neurological features like seizures, encephalopathy, encephalitis, transverse myelitis, aseptic meningitis, multiple sclerosis, and Guillian-Barre Syndrome. Among the chronic manifestations, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, mood disorder, dementia, and mental retardation have been hypothesized. Further research is required to understand the etiological hypothesis of the chronic manifestations of influenza. The author urges neuroscientists around the world to make use of the current swine flu pandemic as an opportunity for further research. PMID:23271861

  9. Pandemic influenza: Experience in a flu OPD of a tertiary care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, S.H.; Kushwaha, A.S.; Kotwal, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Background In April 2009, Mexican health authorities announced an outbreak of a novel H1N1 influenza virus, which subsequently caused a pandemic. The world is now moving into the post-pandemic period. The experience gained in handling this pandemic at various levels under different settings has provided us many lessons for the future. Objective To study the profile of various activities undertaken at flu screening centre as a response to pandemic influenza in a tertiary care hospital. Methods Record-based study conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Pune. Required data was collected from records of flu OPD, ward and local health authority and interviewing related staff. Study included data from October 2009 to October 2010. Results A total of 8020 people presenting with influenza like illness (ILI) were screened in the flu OPD under study. Out of these, only 388 (4.84%) met clinical criteria where throat samples were collected, out of which only 81 were found to be positive (20.88%). Total three fatalities (3.7%) occurred out of 81 who had tested positive. Most cases of flu were managed at home (76.54%) while only 19 (23.4%) lab confirmed cases of H1N1 required hospitalisation. Conclusion Majority of cases of H1N1 (2009) were managed at home. Early diagnosis, quick initiation of treatment, infection control measures, and good care at the hospital can effectively reduce morbidity and mortality in H1N1 pandemic. PMID:24623946

  10. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  11. Interleukin 6 is a cause of flu-like symptoms in treatment with a deoxycytidine analogue.

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, N.; Negoro, S.; Takeda, K.; Kurata, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Fukuoka, M.

    1998-01-01

    The precise mechanism of fever and flu-like syndrome that occurs in treatment with deoxycytidine analogues remains unclear. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between plasma interleukin 6 levels and fever in treatment with oral (E)-2'-deoxy-2'(fluoromethylene)cytidine, another deoxycytidine analogue. PMID:9703288

  12. Phobos Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  13. Assured Crew Return Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, D. A.; Craig, J. W.; Drone, B.; Gerlach, R. H.; Williams, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The developmental status is discussed regarding the 'lifeboat' vehicle to enhance the safety of the crew on the Space Station Freedom (SSF). NASA's Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) is intended to provide a means for returning the SSF crew to earth at all times. The 'lifeboat' philosophy is the key to managing the development of the ACRV which further depends on matrixed support and total quality management for implementation. The risk of SSF mission scenarios are related to selected ACRV mission requirements, and the system and vehicle designs are related to these precepts. Four possible ACRV configurations are mentioned including the lifting-body, Apollo shape, Discoverer shape, and a new lift-to-drag concept. The SCRAM design concept is discussed in detail with attention to the 'lifeboat' philosophy and requirements for implementation.

  14. Talking about colds and flu: the lay diagnosis of two common illnesses among older British people.

    PubMed

    Prior, Lindsay; Evans, Meirion R; Prout, Hayley

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports on a study of the ways in which 54 older people in South Wales (UK) talk about the symptoms and causes of cold and influenza (flu). The study was designed to understand why older people might reject or accept the offer of seasonal flu vaccine, and in the course of the interviews respondents were also asked to express their views about the nature and causes of the two key illnesses. The latter are among the most common infections in human beings. In terms of the biomedical paradigm the common cold is caused by numerous respiratory viruses, whilst flu is caused by the influenza virus. Medical diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds without laboratory confirmation. Symptoms of flu include sudden onset of fever and cough, and colds are characterized by sneezing, sore throat, and runny nose, but in practice the symptoms often overlap. In this study we examine the degree by which the views of lay people with respect to both diagnosis and epidemiology diverge with that which is evident in biomedical discourse. Our results indicate that whilst most of the identified symptoms are common to lay and professional people, the former integrate symptoms into a markedly different observational frame from the latter. And as far as causation is concerned it is clear that lay people emphasize the role of 'resistance' and 'immunity' at least as much as 'infection' in accounting for the onset of colds and flu. The data are analyzed using novel methods that focus on the co-occurrence of concepts and are displayed as semantic networks. As well as reporting on its findings the authors draw out some implications of the study for social scientific and policy discussions concerning lay diagnosis, lay expertise and the concept of an expert patient. PMID:21186076

  15. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus

    PubMed Central

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27 000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  16. OpenFluDB, a database for human and animal influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Liechti, Robin; Gleizes, Anne; Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Bougueleret, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Bairoch, Amos; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    Although research on influenza lasted for more than 100 years, it is still one of the most prominent diseases causing half a million human deaths every year. With the recent observation of new highly pathogenic H5N1 and H7N7 strains, and the appearance of the influenza pandemic caused by the H1N1 swine-like lineage, a collaborative effort to share observations on the evolution of this virus in both animals and humans has been established. The OpenFlu database (OpenFluDB) is a part of this collaborative effort. It contains genomic and protein sequences, as well as epidemiological data from more than 27,000 isolates. The isolate annotations include virus type, host, geographical location and experimentally tested antiviral resistance. Putative enhanced pathogenicity as well as human adaptation propensity are computed from protein sequences. Each virus isolate can be associated with the laboratories that collected, sequenced and submitted it. Several analysis tools including multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis and sequence similarity maps enable rapid and efficient mining. The contents of OpenFluDB are supplied by direct user submission, as well as by a daily automatic procedure importing data from public repositories. Additionally, a simple mechanism facilitates the export of OpenFluDB records to GenBank. This resource has been successfully used to rapidly and widely distribute the sequences collected during the recent human swine flu outbreak and also as an exchange platform during the vaccine selection procedure. Database URL: http://openflu.vital-it.ch. PMID:20624713

  17. Excess mortality among the elderly in 12 European countries, February and March 2012.

    PubMed

    Mazick, A; Gergonne, B; Nielsen, J; Wuillaume, F; Virtanen, M J; Fouillet, A; Uphoff, H; Sideroglou, T; Paldy, A; Oza, A; Nunes, B; Flores-Segovia, V M; Junker, C; McDonald, S A; Green, H K; Pebody, R; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    In February and March 2012, excess deaths among the elderly have been observed in 12 European countries that carry out weekly monitoring of all-cause mortality. These preliminary data indicate that the impact of influenza in Europe differs from the recent pandemic and post-pandemic seasons. The current excess mortality among the elderly may be related to the return of influenza A(H3N2) virus, potentially with added effects of a cold snap. PMID:22516003

  18. Outflows in Sodium Excess Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jongwon; Jeong, Hyunjin; Yi, Sukyoung

    2016-01-01

    van Dokkum and Conroy reported that some giant elliptical galaxies show extraordinarily strong Na I absorption lines and suggested that this is the evidence of unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later studied galaxies with unexpectedly strong Na D absorption lines (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that the origins of NEOs are different for different types of galaxies. According to their study, the origin of Na D excess seems to be related to interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, but there seems to be no contributions from ISM in smooth-looking early-type galaxies. In order to test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in Na D lines of NEOs. We hypothesized that if Na D absorption line is related to ISM, the absorption line is more likely to be blueshifted in the spectrum by the motion of ISM caused by outflow. Many of late-type NEOs show blueshifted Na D absorption lines, so their origin seems related to ISM. On the other hand, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show Doppler departure and Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM, which is consistent with the finding of Jeong et al.

  19. The Cosmic Ray Electron Excess

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Christl, M.; Ganel, O.; Guzik, T. G.; Isbert, J.; Kim, K. C.; Kuznetsov, E. N.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Panov, A. D.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Seo, E. S.; Sokolskaya, N. V.; Watts, J. W.; Wefel, J. P.; Wu, J.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the possible sources for the apparent excess of Cosmic Ray Electrons. The presentation reviews the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) instrument, the various parts, how cosmic ray electrons are measured, and shows graphs that review the results of the ATIC instrument measurement. A review of Cosmic Ray Electrons models is explored, along with the source candidates. Scenarios for the excess are reviewed: Supernova remnants (SNR) Pulsar Wind nebulae, or Microquasars. Each of these has some problem that mitigates the argument. The last possibility discussed is Dark Matter. The Anti-Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA) mission is to search for evidence of annihilations of dark matter particles, to search for anti-nuclei, to test cosmic-ray propagation models, and to measure electron and positron spectra. There are slides explaining the results of Pamela and how to compare these with those of the ATIC experiment. Dark matter annihilation is then reviewed, which represent two types of dark matter: Neutralinos, and kaluza-Kline (KK) particles, which are next explained. The future astrophysical measurements, those from GLAST LAT, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), and HEPCAT are reviewed, in light of assisting in finding an explanation for the observed excess. Also the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) could help by revealing if there are extra dimensions.

  20. Excess carbon in silicon carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, X; Oxley, Mark P.; Puzyrev, Y; Tuttle, B R; Duscher, Gerd; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2010-01-01

    The application of SiC in electronic devices is currently hindered by low carrier mobility at the SiC/SiO{sub 2} interfaces. Recently, it was reported that 4H-SiC/SiO{sub 2} interfaces might have a transition layer on the SiC substrate side with C/Si ratio as high as 1.2, suggesting that carbon is injected into the SiC substrate during oxidation or other processing steps. We report finite-temperature quantum molecular dynamics simulations that explore the behavior of excess carbon in SiC. For SiC with 20% excess carbon, we find that, over short time ({approx} 24 ps), carbon atoms bond to each other and form various complexes, while the silicon lattice is largely unperturbed. These results, however, suggest that at macroscopic times scale, C segregation is likely to occur; therefore a transition layer with 20% extra carbon would not be stable. For a dilute distribution of excess carbon, we explore the pairing of carbon interstitials and show that the formation of dicarbon interstitial cluster is kinetically very favorable, which suggests that isolated carbon clusters may exist inside SiC substrate.

  1. Verification of excess defense material

    SciTech Connect

    Fearey, B.L.; Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has expressed an interest in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) using its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring excess materials, which include both classified and unclassified materials. Although the IAEA has suggested the need to address inspections of both types of materials, the most troublesome and potentially difficult problems involve approaches to the inspection of classified materials. The key issue for placing classified nuclear components and materials under IAEA safeguards is the conflict between these traditional IAEA materials accounting procedures and the US classification laws and nonproliferation policy designed to prevent the disclosure of critical weapon-design information. Possible verification approaches to classified excess defense materials could be based on item accountancy, attributes measurements, and containment and surveillance. Such approaches are not wholly new; in fact, they are quite well established for certain unclassified materials. Such concepts may be applicable to classified items, but the precise approaches have yet to be identified, fully tested, or evaluated for technical and political feasibility, or for their possible acceptability in an international inspection regime. Substantial work remains in these areas. This paper examines many of the challenges presented by international inspections of classified materials.

  2. 12 CFR 925.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess stock. 925.23 Section 925.23 Banks and... BANKS Stock Requirements § 925.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of this section, a member may purchase excess stock as long as the purchase is approved by...

  3. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  4. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  5. 34 CFR 300.16 - Excess costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Excess costs. 300.16 Section 300.16 Education... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.16 Excess costs. Excess costs means those costs that... for an example of how excess costs must be calculated.) (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1401(8))...

  6. Returns to Education in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asadullah, Mohammad Niaz

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports labour market returns to education in Bangladesh using data from recent nationwide household survey. Returns are estimated separately for rural and urban samples, males, females and private-sector employees. Substantial heterogeneity in returns is observed; for example, estimates are higher for urban (than rural sample) and…

  7. Energy Vs. Productivity: Diminishing Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Energy invested in corn production is compared with food energy returned in calculations by David Pimentel at Cornell University. The rate of return is falling off sharply in this already energy-intensive agriculture. Increased energy input, in the form of fertilizer, would yield far greater returns where agriculture is less sophisticated.…

  8. A Look at Returning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeAngelis, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that one-quarter to one-third of teachers who leave the profession return, the majority after only a short absence. Though returning teachers can constitute a substantial share of newly hired teachers in schools each year, little is known about them, the factors associated with their decisions to return, or the schools to which…

  9. Puerto Rican Return Migrant Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrasquillo, Angela; Carrasquillo, Ceferino

    Among Puerto Ricans who have migrated to the United States, a significant number have returned to Puerto Rico, while others shuttle between Puerto Rico and the United States. These groups of people are identified as return migrants. Studies suggest that return migrant youth in Puerto Rico have had to make environmental and cultural adjustments…

  10. Sample Return Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williford, K. H.; Allwood, A.; Beegle, L. W.; Bhartia, R.; Flannery, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Mora, M. F.; Orbay, J.; Petrizzo, D. A.; Tuite, M. L., Jr.; Willis, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The first clear identification of an ancient habitable environment on Mars by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission relied on a synthetic analytical approach combining orbital and surface imagery and spectroscopy with sophisticated sample acquisition and handling technology including a rotary percussive drill that provided powdered rock for bulk geochemical analysis [1]. The recent announcement of the instrument package for the proposed NASA Mars2020 rover mission, including micro x-ray fluorescence (PIXL) for elemental mapping as well as scanning ultraviolet laser fluorescence and Raman (SHERLOC) suggests a shift in emphasis of Mars surface science towards spatially resolved geochemical analysis that will support the selection and acquisition of samples for coring, caching, and possible return to Earth for further analysis. During a recent field expedition to investigate Archean and Proterozoic biosignatures in the Pilbara region of Western Australia, we deployed a dry, rotary percussive coring drill with a bit assembly analogous to that being considered for Mars2020. Six targets of varying age and lithology were sampled with the coring drill, and surrounding and adjacent rock samples were collected simultaneously. These samples were subsequently prepared and subsampled for bulk and in situ, spatially resolved analysis using conventional laboratory methods as well as the existing PIXL and SHERLOC platforms currently in development. Here we present new approaches and data from this integrated and ongoing program of "sample return science" designed to simulate, and eventually reduce risk associated with a long-term effort towards Mars sample return. [1] Grotzinger, J.P. et al. 2014. Science 343 DOI: 10.1126/science.1242777.

  11. Mars sample return - Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, Douglas P.

    1988-01-01

    The possible scientific goals of a Mars sample return mission are reviewed, including the value of samples and the selection of sampling sites. The fundamental questions about Mars which could be studied using samples are examined, including planetary formation, differentiation, volcanism and petrogenesis, weathering, and erosion. Scenarios are presented for sample acquisition and analysis. Possible sampling methods and tools are discussed, including drilling techniques, types of rovers, and processing instruments. In addition, the possibility of aerocapture out of elliptical or circular orbit is considered.

  12. Titan Science Return Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, Charles R.; Lincoln, William

    2014-01-01

    Each proposal for a NASA mission concept includes a Science Traceability Matrix (STM), intended to show that what is being proposed would contribute to satisfying one or more of the agency's top-level science goals. But the information traditionally provided cannot be used directly to quantitatively compare anticipated science return. We added numerical elements to NASA's STM and developed a software tool to process the data. We then applied this methodology to evaluate a group of competing concepts for a proposed mission to Saturn's moon, Titan.

  13. [Excessive energy drink consumption caused marked QT prolongation. Case report].

    PubMed

    Tomcsányi, János; Jávor, Kinga

    2015-10-25

    The authors report a case of a 22-year-old man with atypical chest pain after consumption of six energy drinks (1.5 liter containing 470 mg coffein) with vodka. On admission ECG showed marked QT/QTc prolongation (QT/QTc, 520/580 msec). Next day the QT/QTc returned to fully normal (QT/QTc, 360/430 msec). It was assumed that the patient had a silent long QT syndrome and that high dose of highly caffeinated energy drink triggered the (paradoxical) prolonged QT/QTc. The authors conclude that excessive energy drink intake with alcohol or during physical exercise should be avoided. PMID:26477618

  14. Stress fracture of ulna due to excessive push-ups

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Rastogi, Devarshi; Solanki, Bipin; Chowdhury, Buddhadev

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities and spine, but are rarely found in non-weight-bearing bones of the body. Stress fracture of the ulna is extremely rare. We report a case of complete stress fracture of ulna caused due to excessive push ups in a young athlete. Conservative management was successful in healing of fracture and returning this patient back to his previous activity level. Physician should have high index of suspicion, whenever they encounter a young athlete complaining of forearm pain. PMID:24678236

  15. Application of Directigen FLU-A for the detection of influenza A virus in human and nonhuman specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan-Poirier, K A; Katz, J M; Webster, R G; Kawaoka, Y

    1992-01-01

    Directigen FLU-A, a new enzyme immunoassay membrane test, rapidly detects influenza A virus antigen in specimens from patients. Nasopharyngeal washes and pharyngeal gargles were used to determine the effectiveness of the assay as applied to different types of routinely collected clinical samples. All specimens had been previously shown to contain influenza A virus by virus isolation in tissue culture. Directigen FLU-A was 90% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 56 to 99.7%) with nasopharyngeal washes but only 39% sensitive (95% confidence interval, 17 to 64%) with pharyngeal gargles (P = 0.018) when used with samples containing similar amounts of infectious virus (50% tissue culture infective dose, 1.0 to 4.5). The intensity of the positive reaction with Directigen FLU-A did not correlate with the amount of virus in the specimens. Directigen FLU-A was found to detect cell-associated antigen more readily than free virus; only 20 infected cells were required to identify cell-associated influenza A virus antigen, whereas the limit of detection for free virus was 1.63 x 10(3) infectious virus particles. These findings suggest that Directigen FLU-A detects the cell-associated antigen present in clinical specimens rather than free virus. In addition, Directigen FLU-A detected avian and swine influenza A viruses in both cloacal swabs (75% sensitivity) and swine lung homogenates (86% sensitivity), indicating its potential usefulness in the surveillance of nonhuman influenza A viruses. PMID:1583103

  16. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B.

    PubMed

    DiMaio, Michael A; Sahoo, Malaya K; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2012-12-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A+B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. PMID:22841669

  17. Comparison of Xpert Flu rapid nucleic acid testing with rapid antigen testing for the diagnosis of influenza A and B

    PubMed Central

    DiMaio, Michael A.; Sahoo, Malaya K.; Waggoner, Jesse; Pinsky, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza infections are associated with thousands of hospital admissions and deaths each year. Rapid detection of influenza is important for prompt initiation of antiviral therapy and appropriate patient triage. In this study the Cepheid Xpert Flu assay was compared with two rapid antigen tests, BinaxNOW Influenza A & B and BD Directigen EZ Flu A + B, as well as direct fluorescent antibody testing for the rapid detection of influenza A and B. Using real-time, hydrolysis probe-based, reverse transcriptase PCR as the reference method, influenza A sensitivity was 97.3% for Xpert Flu, 95.9% for direct fluorescent antibody testing, 62.2% for BinaxNOW, and 71.6% for BD Directigen. Influenza B sensitivity was 100% for Xpert Flu and direct fluorescent antibody testing, 54.5% for BinaxNOW, and 48.5% for BD Directigen. Specificity for influenza A was 100% for Xpert Flu, BinaxNOW, and BD Directigen, and 99.2% for direct fluorescent antibody testing. All methods demonstrated 100% specificity for influenza B. These findings support the use of the Xpert Flu assay in settings requiring urgent diagnosis of influenza A and B. PMID:22841669

  18. Prospective and retrospective evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert® Flu/RSV XC assay for rapid detection of influenza A, influenza B, and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Remi N

    2015-04-01

    A total of 281 clinical specimens (nasal swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates) were tested with the Xpert® Flu/RSV XC. The results were compared to those obtained with the real-time retro transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays routinely used in our laboratory. The Xpert® Flu/RSV XC showed sensitivity/specificity of 97.8%/100% and 97.9%/100% for flu and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively. PMID:25662018

  19. Social representation of a food risk: the Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic.

    PubMed

    Joffe, Hélène; Lee, N Y Louis

    2004-07-01

    The paper explores the social representation of the 2001 Hong Kong avian bird flu epidemic from the perspective of local women. Fifty women were asked to describe their first thoughts about the flu, and these were subsequently explored. Thematic analysis of the semi-structured interviews revealed that the first thoughts were characterized by: (a) the origin of the epidemic, (b) anchors for it, (c) emotions about it, and (d) images of it. Aspersion concerning the lack of hygiene of Mainland Chinese chicken rearers and chicken sellers in Hong Kong dominated the interviews. Other environmental factors were also stressed, as was regulation leniency and a drive to profit. Comparisons between old traditions and newer practices formed a central feature. The findings are discussed in terms of their continuity with western risk findings as well as their specific cultural nuances. PMID:15231054

  20. Improvement of the Trivalent Inactivated Flu Vaccine Using PapMV Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Savard, Christian; Guérin, Annie; Drouin, Karine; Bolduc, Marilène; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Dumas, Marie-Christine; Majeau, Nathalie; Leclerc, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Commercial seasonal flu vaccines induce production of antibodies directed mostly towards hemaglutinin (HA). Because HA changes rapidly in the circulating virus, the protection remains partial. Several conserved viral proteins, e.g., nucleocapsid (NP) and matrix proteins (M1), are present in the vaccine, but are not immunogenic. To improve the protection provided by these vaccines, we used nanoparticles made of the coat protein of a plant virus (papaya mosaic virus; PapMV) as an adjuvant. Immunization of mice and ferrets with the adjuvanted formulation increased the magnitude and breadth of the humoral response to NP and to highly conserved regions of HA. They also triggered a cellular mediated immune response to NP and M1, and long-lasting protection in animals challenged with a heterosubtypic influenza strain (WSN/33). Thus, seasonal flu vaccine adjuvanted with PapMV nanoparticles can induce universal protection to influenza, which is a major advancement when facing a pandemic. PMID:21747909

  1. New pandemics: HIV and AIDS, HCV and chronic hepatitis, Influenza virus and flu

    PubMed Central

    Gatignol, Anne; Dubuisson, Jean; Wainberg, Mark A; Cohen, Éric A; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    New pandemics are a serious threat to the health of the entire world. They are essentially of viral origin and spread at large speed. A meeting on this topic was held in Lyon, France, within the XIXth Jacques Cartier Symposia, a series of France-Québec meetings held every year. New findings on HIV and AIDS, on HCV and chronic hepatitis, and an update on influenza virus and flu were covered during this meeting on December 4 and 5, 2006. Aspects of viral structure, virus-host interactions, antiviral defenses, drugs and vaccinations, and epidemiological aspects were discussed for HIV and HCV. Old and recent data on the flu epidemics ended this meeting. PMID:17270043

  2. Xpert Flu for point-of-care diagnosis of human influenza in industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Salez, Nicolas; Nougairede, Antoine; Ninove, Laetitia; Zandotti, Christine; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Charrel, Rémi N

    2014-05-01

    Respiratory infections, particularly those caused by influenza viruses, represent the third-most important cause of death in the world due to infectious diseases. Nevertheless, despite the enormous publicity attracted by epidemics due to these viruses, laboratory diagnosis, documentation and recording of respiratory diseases is still unsatisfactory. Available diagnostic tests capable of providing results rapidly are either limited and insufficiently sensitive or highly sensitive and specific but insufficiently rapid. Considerable investment and research efforts have been made towards the development of new diagnostics for influenza A and B viruses and the Xpert(®) Flu assay (Cepheid(®), CA, USA) has emerged as one of the most promising. In this article, we review current knowledge of the Xpert Flu test, discuss its potential value as a point-of-care test and outline the potential leads for future development. PMID:24707995

  3. Return to Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  4. Return to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-08-01

    This video documents the preparations for Shuttle Flight STS-26 with Shuttle Discovery, NASA's return to manned space flight after the Challenger disaster. Footage and descriptions document such changes to the new Shuttle as new joints, improved insulation, and added O-rings to the solid rocket boosters; new safety hardware and procedures such as parachute and sidewire evacuations during liftoff, and new pressure suits; modified landing gear, brakes, and nose wheel steering, as well as a modified landing runway. Also profiled are the 5 member crew of all veteran Shuttle astronauts, the TDRS 3 Satellite to be released from the cargo bay in orbit, and 11 commercial and student experiments to be performed during the mission.

  5. Perfluoroalkyl substance serum concentrations and immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Stein, Cheryl R; Ge, Yongchao; Wolff, Mary S; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M; Kraus, Thomas; Moran, Thomas M

    2016-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) were shown to be immunotoxic in laboratory animals. There is some epidemiological evidence that PFAS exposure is inversely associated with vaccine-induced antibody concentration. We examined immune response to vaccination with FluMist intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine in relation to four PFAS (perfluorooctanoate, perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorohexane sulfonate) serum concentrations among 78 healthy adults vaccinated during the 2010-2011 influenza season. We measured anti-A H1N1 antibody response and cytokine and chemokine concentrations in serum pre-vaccination, 3 days post-vaccination, and 30 days post-vaccination. We measured cytokine, chemokine, and mucosal IgA concentration in nasal secretions 3 days post-vaccination and 30 days post-vaccination. Adults with higher PFAS concentrations were more likely to seroconvert after FluMist vaccination as compared to adults with lower PFAS concentrations. The associations, however, were imprecise and few participants seroconverted as measured either by hemagglutination inhibition (9%) or immunohistochemical staining (25%). We observed no readily discernable or consistent pattern between PFAS concentration and baseline cytokine, chemokine, or mucosal IgA concentration, or between PFAS concentration and change in these immune markers between baseline and FluMist-response states. The results of this study do not support a reduced immune response to FluMist vaccination among healthy adults in relation to serum PFAS concentration. Given the study's many limitations, however, it does not rule out impaired vaccine response to other vaccines or vaccine components in either children or adults. PMID:27208468

  6. Research priorities in modeling the transmission risks of H7N9 bird flu

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The epidemic of H7N9 bird flu in eastern China in early 2013 has caused much attention from researchers as well as public health workers. The issue on modeling the transmission risks is very interesting topic. In this article, this issue is debated and discussed in order to promote further researches on prediction and prevention of avian influenza viruses supported by better interdisciplinary datasets from the surveillance and response system. PMID:23927386

  7. ZstatFlu-II test: a chemiluminescent neuraminidase assay for influenza viral diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Achyuthan, Komandoor E; Pence, Lisa M; Appleman, James R; Shimasaki, Craig D

    2003-01-01

    The ZstatFlu-II test is a highly sensitive, specific, rapid, point-of-care chemiluminescent diagnostic test for influenza infection. Influenza viral neuraminidase-specific substrate, spiroadamantyl-1,2-dioxetane-4,7-dimethoxy-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, is at the core of the ZstatFlu-II Test. The enzymatic reaction was carried out at 25 degrees C and neutral pH, representing the optimum assay conditions for influenza types A and B viral neuraminidases. The results were outputted on a Polaroid trade mark High Speed Detector Film. Positive results appeared as a '+'-shaped white film image; negative results produced no image. The 'glow' kinetics, facilitated by a unique combination of light enhancers, also 'tuned' the wavelength of emission to match the spectral properties of the film. The substrate hydrolysed non-enzymatically at acid pH or at temperatures above 25 degrees C. In order to minimize false positives, the ZstatFlu-II Test was formatted with 0.3-0.4 K(m) substrate and freezing the test kit until use. The pH optimization of the ZstatFlu-II test is discussed with reference to model compounds of sialyl-glycosides. A nucleophilic attack or an electrostatic stabilization of a developing carbonium ion under the influence of the adjacent carboxyl group was probably responsible for non-enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate. Intramolecular general acid catalysis is proposed as a mechanism for the lability of the O-glycosidic linkage of the substrate. PMID:12701088

  8. [Influenza vaccines dispensed in community pharmacies during the 2010-2011 flu season].

    PubMed

    De Bruyn, K; Hamelinck, W

    2011-12-01

    In this article we consider the delivery of influenza vaccines in the Belgian communiy pharmacies during the influenza season 2010-2011. We compare this season with the previous influenza seasons and consider the age distribution the flu-vaccinated patients. The vaccination rate of the entire population is compared to the vaccination rate among the risk group of diabetic patients. Also the market introduction of intradermal vaccinations in investigated. PMID:22299238

  9. The aromatic fluctuation index (FLU): A new aromaticity index based on electron delocalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matito, Eduard; Duran, Miquel; Solà, Miquel

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the aromatic fluctuation index (FLU) that describes the fluctuation of electronic charge between adjacent atoms in a given ring is introduced as a new aromaticity measure. This new electronic criterion of aromaticity is based on the fact that aromaticity is related to the cyclic delocalized circulation of π electrons. It is defined not only considering the amount of electron sharing between contiguous atoms, which should be substantial in aromatic molecules, but also taking into account the similarity of electron sharing between adjacent atoms. For a series of rings in 15 planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we have found that, in general, FLU is strongly correlated with other widely used indicators of local aromaticity, such as the harmonic-oscillator model of aromaticity, the nucleus independent chemical shift, and the para-delocalization index (PDI). In contrast to PDI, the FLU index can be applied to study the aromaticity of rings with any number of members and it can be used to analyze both the local and global aromatic character of rings and molecules.

  10. Degradation of toluene by ortho cleavage enzymes in Burkholderia fungorum FLU100

    PubMed Central

    Dobslaw, Daniel; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia fungorum FLU100 simultaneously oxidized any mixture of toluene, benzene and mono-halogen benzenes to (3-substituted) catechols with a selectivity of nearly 100%. Further metabolism occurred via enzymes of ortho cleavage pathways with complete mineralization. During the transformation of 3-methylcatechol, 4-carboxymethyl-2-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (2-methyl-2-enelactone, 2-ML) accumulated transiently, being further mineralized only after a lag phase of 2 h in case of cells pre-grown on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes. No lag phase, however, occurred after growth on toluene. Cultures inhibited by chloramphenicol after growth on benzene or mono-halogen benzenes were unable to metabolize 2-ML supplied externally, even after prolonged incubation. A control culture grown with toluene did not show any lag phase and used 2-ML as a substrate. This means that 2-ML is an intermediate of toluene degradation and converted by specific enzymes. The conversion of 4-methylcatechol as a very minor by-product of toluene degradation in strain FLU100 resulted in the accumulation of 4-carboxymethyl-4-methylbut-2-en-4-olide (4-methyl-2-enelactone, 4-ML) as a dead-end product, excluding its nature as a possible intermediate. Thus, 3-methylcyclohexa-3,5-diene-1,2-diol, 3-methylcatechol, 2-methyl muconate and 2-ML were identified as central intermediates of productive ortho cleavage pathways for toluene metabolism in B. fungorum FLU100. PMID:25130674

  11. Crying wolf? Biosecurity and metacommunication in the context of the 2009 swine flu pandemic.

    PubMed

    Nerlich, Brigitte; Koteyko, Nelya

    2012-07-01

    This article explores how the 2009 pandemic of swine flu (H1N1) intersected with issues of biosecurity in the context of an increasing entanglement between the spread of disease and the spread of information. Drawing on research into metacommunication, the article studies the rise of communication about ways in which swine flu was communicated, both globally and locally, during the pandemic. It examines and compares two corpora of texts, namely UK newspaper articles and blogs, written between 28 March and 11 June 2009, that is, the period from the start of the outbreak till the WHO announcement of the pandemic. Findings show that the interaction between traditional and digital media as well as the interaction between warnings about swine flu and previous warnings about other epidemics contributed to a heightened discourse of blame and counter-blame but also, more surprisingly, self-blame and reflections about the role the media in pandemic communication. The consequences of this increase in metacommunication for research into crisis communication are explored. PMID:21470893

  12. The changing nature and scope of public health emergencies in response to annual flu.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G

    2013-06-01

    The rapid spread of influenza during the 2012-13 season brought a series of public health challenges and corresponding response efforts. For decades, responses to annual flu have been undertaken routinely without extensive legal intervention. With the recent declaration of states of public health emergencies in Boston (January 9, 2013) and New York State (January 12, 2013), however, the legal baseline is changing. Propelled by a slate of state and local emergency declarations during the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, public officials are beginning to show cause for the issuance of formal emergency declarations in support of flu response efforts. The legal effects of these types of declarations are profound. Public and private actors are given significant, expedited public health powers. Scarce resources like vaccines can be more efficiently allocated. Laws relating to licensure, scope of practice, and liability can be effectively waived. Though originally conceptualized and once reserved for catastrophic, long-term health-related or bioterrorism events, public health emergency declarations are evolving to address temporary impacts on health care and public health services arising annually from flu outbreaks. This commentary explores the changing nature of public health emergencies and their current and potential impact on the provision of healthcare services in response to national or regional threats to the public's health. PMID:23641729

  13. [Iodine excess induced thyroid dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Egloff, Michael; Philippe, Jacques

    2016-04-20

    The principle sources of iodine overload, amiodarone and radiologic contrast media, are frequently used in modern medicine. The thyroid gland exerts a protective effect against iodine excess by suppressing iodine internalization into the thyrocyte and iodine organification, the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Insufficiency of this effect or lack of escape from it leads to hypo- or hyperthyroidism respectively. Amiodarone induced thyrotoxicosis is a complex condition marked by two different pathophysiological mechanisms with different treatments. Thyroid metabolism changes after exposure to radiologic contrast media are frequent, but they rarely need to be treated. High risk individuals need to be identifed in order to delay the exam or to monitor thyroid function or apply prophylactic measures in selected cases. PMID:27276725

  14. Diphoton excess and running couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kyu Jung; Endo, Motoi; Hamaguchi, Koichi; Moroi, Takeo

    2016-06-01

    The recently observed diphoton excess at the LHC may suggest the existence of a singlet (pseudo-)scalar particle with a mass of 750 GeV which couples to gluons and photons. Assuming that the couplings to gluons and photons originate from loops of fermions and/or scalars charged under the Standard Model gauge groups, we show that there is a model-independent upper bound on the cross section σ (pp → S → γγ) as a function of the cutoff scale Λ and masses of the fermions and scalars in the loop. Such a bound comes from the fact that the contribution of each particle to the diphoton event amplitude is proportional to its contribution to the one-loop β functions of the gauge couplings. We also investigate the perturbativity of running Yukawa couplings in models with fermion loops, and show the upper bounds on σ (pp → S → γγ) for explicit models.

  15. 12 CFR 1263.23 - Excess stock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess stock. 1263.23 Section 1263.23 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS MEMBERS OF THE BANKS Stock Requirements § 1263.23 Excess stock. (a) Sale of excess stock. Subject to the restriction in paragraph (b) of...

  16. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  17. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  18. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  19. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  20. 7 CFR 985.56 - Excess oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess oil. 985.56 Section 985.56 Agriculture... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Volume Limitations § 985.56 Excess oil. Oil of any class in excess of a producer's applicable annual allotment shall be identified...

  1. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess land. 426.12 Section 426.12 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.12 Excess land. (a) The process of designating excess and nonexcess land. If a landowner owns...

  2. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  3. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  4. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  5. 10 CFR 904.10 - Excess energy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess energy. 904.10 Section 904.10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.10 Excess energy. (a) If excess Energy is determined by the United States to be...

  6. 11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF A SITE RETURN WEAPONS COMPONENT. SITE RETURNS WERE NUCLEAR WEAPONS SHIPPED TO THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT FROM THE NUCLEAR WEAPON STOCKPILE FOR RETIREMENT, TESTING, OR UPGRADING. FISSILE MATERIALS (PLUTONIUM, URANIUM, ETC.) AND RARE MATERIALS (BERYLLIUM) WERE RECOVERED FOR REUSE, AND THE REMAINDER WAS DISPOSED. (8/7/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  8. The Point of No Return

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Gordon D.

    2015-01-01

    Bartlett (1958) described the point of no return as a point of irrevocable commitment to action, which was preceded by a period of gradually increasing commitment. As such, the point of no return reflects a fundamental limit on the ability to control thought and action. I review the literature on the point of no return, taking three perspectives. First, I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the controlled act, as a locus in the architecture and anatomy of the underlying processes. I review experiments from the stop-signal paradigm that suggest that the point of no return is located late in the response system. Then I consider the point of no return from the perspective of the act of control that tries to change the controlled act before it becomes irrevocable. From this perspective, the point of no return is a point in time that provides enough “lead time” for the act of control to take effect. I review experiments that measure the response time to the stop signal as the lead time required for response inhibition in the stop-signal paradigm. Finally, I consider the point of no return in hierarchically controlled tasks, in which there may be many points of no return at different levels of the hierarchy. I review experiments on skilled typing that suggest different points of no return for the commands that determine what is typed and the countermands that inhibit typing, with increasing commitment to action the lower the level in the hierarchy. I end by considering the point of no return in perception and thought as well as action. PMID:25633089

  9. Non-Returning Student Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles County Community Coll., La Plata, MD. Dept. of Institutional Research and Assessment.

    In spring 1992, Charles County Community College (CCCC) conducted a telephone survey of non-returning fall 1991 students to determine their reasons for not returning to CCCC. In order to obtain comparison data, a questionnaire designed and administered by Prince George's Community College (PGCC) (Largo, Maryland) in 1988 was used with one minor…

  10. Capital Structure and Stock Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Ivo

    2004-01-01

    U.S. corporations do not issue and repurchase debt and equity to counteract the mechanistic effects of stock returns on their debt-equity ratios. Thus over one- to five-year horizons, stock returns can explain about 40 percent of debt ratio dynamics. Although corporate net issuing activity is lively and although it can explain 60 percent of debt…

  11. Mars Double-Flyby Free Returns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    A subset of Earth-originating Mars double-flyby ballistic trajectories is documented. The subset consists of those trajectories that, after the first Mars flyby, perform a half-revolution transfer with Mars before returning to Earth. This class of free returns is useful for both human and robotic Mars missions because of its low geocentric energy at departure and arrival, and because of its extended stay time in the vicinity of Mars. Ballistic opportunities are documented over Earth departure dates ranging from 2015 through 2100. The mission is viable over three or four consecutive Mars synodic periods and unavailable for the next four, with the pattern repeating approximately every 15 years. Over the remainder of the century, a minimum Earth departure hyperbolic excess speed of 3.16 km/s, a minimum Earth atmospheric entry speed of 11.47 km/s, and a minimum flight time of 904 days are observed. The algorithm used to construct these trajectories is presented along with several examples.

  12. Adsorption and excess fission xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of Xe and Kr on lunar soil 10084 was measured by a method that employs only very low fractions of monolayer coverage. Results are presented as parameters for calculation of the Henry constant for adsorption as a function of temperature. The adsorption potentials are about 3 kcal/mole for Kr and 5 kcal/mole for Xe; heating the sample in vacuum increased the Xe potential to nearly 7 kcal/mole. Henry constants at the characteristic lunar temperature are about 0.3 cu cm STP/g-atm. These data were applied to consider whether adsorption is important in producing the excess fission Xe effect characteristic of highland breccias. Sorption equilibrium with a transient lunar atmosphere vented fission Xe produces concentrations seven orders of magnitude lower than observed concentrations. Higher concentrations result because of the resistance of the regolith to upward diffusion of Xe. A diffusion coefficient of 0.26 sq cm/sec is estimated for this process.

  13. Behavioral adjustment to avian flu in Europe during spring 2006: the roles of knowledge and proximity to risk.

    PubMed

    Rudisill, Caroline; Costa-Font, Joan; Mossialos, Elias

    2012-10-01

    The threat of a widespread avian flu influenza outbreak represented a significant public health challenge for the European region during late 2005 and early 2006. Little is known, however, about how individuals learn about new global-level health risks, especially influenza outbreaks. We empirically test the hypothesis that knowledge about and geographic proximity to avian flu play a role in individuals' consumption behavior regarding this health risk. This article employs Eurobarometer survey data collected in spring 2006 to examine how Europeans (from 27 European Union countries plus Croatia and Turkey) altered their consumption of poultry, eggs and egg-based products during the virus' emergence in Europe. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that behavioral change indeed depends on proximity to those risks. Significant differences emerged between individuals' likelihood of behavioral change in countries where avian flu had been found in humans either in individuals' countries of residence or in bordering countries. Furthermore, we find that those who were more knowledgeable about avian flu risks were less likely to have reduced their consumption of poultry, eggs or egg-related products in the spring of 2006 compared to six months prior. Yet, the influence knowledge has on consumption behavior is found to change depending on proximity to avian flu risks. These findings have implications for our larger understanding of how individuals alter their behavior in the face of new health risks. PMID:22835921

  14. Mineralocorticoid Excess or Glucocorticoid Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Christopher J.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Conway, Bryan R.; Diaz, Mary E.; Mullins, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and hypertension are 2 major health issues of the 21st century. The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess is caused by deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (Hsd11b2), which normally inactivates glucocorticoids, rendering the mineralocorticoid receptor aldosterone–specific. The metabolic consequences of Hsd11b2 knockout in the rat are investigated in parallel with electrolyte homeostasis. Hsd11b2 was knocked out, by pronuclear microinjection of targeted zinc-finger nuclease mRNAs, and 1 line was characterized for its response to renal and metabolic challenges. Plasma 11-dehydrocorticosterone was below detection thresholds, and Hsd11b2 protein was undetected by Western blot, indicating complete ablation. Homozygotes were 13% smaller than wild-type littermates, and were polydipsic and polyuric. Their kidneys, adrenals, and hearts were significantly enlarged, but mesenteric fat pads and liver were significantly smaller. On a 0.3% Na diet, mean arterial blood pressure was ≈65 mm Hg higher than controls but only 25 mm Hg higher on a 0.03% Na+ diet. Urinary Na/K ratio of homozygotes was similar to controls on 0.3% Na+ diet but urinary albumin and calcium were elevated. Corticosterone and aldosterone levels showed normal circadian variation on both a 0.3% and 0.03% Na+ diet, but plasma renin was suppressed in homozygotes on both diets. Plasma glucose responses to an oral glucose challenge were reduced despite low circulating insulin, indicating much greater sensitivity to insulin in homozygotes. The rat model reveals mechanisms linking electrolyte homeostasis and metabolic control through the restriction of Hsd11b1 substrate availability. PMID:26077568

  15. Clinical Accuracy of a PLEX-ID Flu Device for Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Influenza Viruses A and B

    PubMed Central

    Lowery, Kristin S.; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C.; Chappell, James D.; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D.; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A.; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M.; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E.; Parker, Michelle L.; Ortenberg, Elaine V.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A.

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  16. Clinical accuracy of a PLEX-ID flu device for simultaneous detection and identification of influenza viruses A and B.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yi-Wei; Lowery, Kristin S; Valsamakis, Alexandra; Schaefer, Virginia C; Chappell, James D; White-Abell, Jill; Quinn, Criziel D; Li, Haijing; Washington, Cicely A; Cromwell, Jenna; Giamanco, Chantel M; Forman, Michael; Holden, Jeffery; Rothman, Richard E; Parker, Michelle L; Ortenberg, Elaine V; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Yea-Lin; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections caused by influenza A and B viruses often present nonspecifically, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can identify influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. The PLEX-ID Flu assay (Abbott Molecular Inc., Des Plaines, IL) incorporates multilocus PCR and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry to detect and differentiate influenza A 2009 H1N1 (H1N1-p), seasonal H1N1 (H1N1-s), influenza A H3N2, and influenza B viruses in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) specimens. The clinical performance characteristics of the PLEX-ID Flu assay in symptomatic patients were determined in this multicenter trial. A total of 2,617 prospectively and retrospectively collected NPS specimens from patients with influenza-like illness between February 2008 and 28 May 2010 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Each specimen was tested in parallel by the PLEX-ID Flu assay and by the Prodesse ProFLU+ assay (Prodesse Inc., Madison, WI), to detect influenza A and B viruses. Specimens testing positive for influenza A virus by ProFLU+ were subtyped as H1N1-p, H1N1-s, or H3N2 by using the ProFAST+ assay (Gen-Probe Prodesse Inc.). The reproducibility of the PLEX-ID Flu assay ranged from 98.3 to 100.0%, as determined by testing a nine-specimen panel at three clinical sites on each of 5 days. Positive percent agreements (PPAs) and negative percent agreements (NPAs) of the PLEX-ID Flu assay were 94.5% and 99.0% for influenza A virus and 96.0% and 99.9% for influenza B virus, respectively. For the influenza A virus subtyping characterization, the PLEX-ID Flu assay had PPAs and NPAs of 98.3% and 97.5% for H1N1-p, 88.6% and 100.0% for H1N1-s, and 98.0% and 99.9% for H3N2, respectively. The overall agreements between the PLEX-ID and Prodesse ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were 97.1 to 100.0%. Bidirectional Sanger sequencing analysis revealed that 87.5% of 96 discrepant results between the PLEX-ID Flu and ProFLU+/ProFAST+ assays were found upon

  17. Flu Near You: An Online Self-reported Influenza Surveillance System in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Chunara, Rumi; Aman, Susan; Smolinski, Mark; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a participatory system for monitoring the activity of influenza-like-illness among the United States general population. Introduction The emergence of new influenza strains including H1N1, H5N1, H3N2v as well as other respiratory pathogens such as SARS, along with generally weak information about household and community transmission of influenza, enforce the need for augmented influenza surveillance. At the same time, Internet penetration and access has grown, with 82% of American adults using the Internet [1], enabling transfer and communication of information that can be collected and aggregated in near real-time. Surveillance targeted towards influenza in other countries, and towards malaria in India, has previously been executed with good user engagement [2,3]. In this study, we created an online participatory influenza surveillance tool in the United States, called Flu Near You. Methods Volunteer users were primarily solicited via collaboration with the American Public Health Association and their members’ networks starting Oct. 24, 2011. Upon registration, each user is sent a weekly email, taking them to the Flu Near You website. On the website they fill in a short survey asking if they had any of 10 symptoms: fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, chills/night sweats, fatigue, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, body aches and headache, in the last week. Users can also enroll their household members and enter information in for them weekly. A map of influenza activity is made available to users, and anyone accessing the website [Figure 1]. On the map, the number of individuals reporting with no symptoms, some symptoms, or Influenza-like illness are visualized, aggregated to the zip code level. Users can also compare the contributed data with other surveillance systems: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Google Flu Trends for the same time period [Figure 1]. We also obtained user feedback through a survey in early

  18. APOLLO 11: The heroes Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The crew of APOLLO 11 return as heroes after their succesfull landing on the lunar surface. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 11:'The Eagle Has Landed'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 11: First manned lunar landing and return to Earth with Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin E. Aldrin. Landed in the Sea of Tranquilityon July 20, 1969; deployed TV camera and EASEP experiments, performed lunar surface EVA, returned lunar soil samples. Mission Duration 195 hrs 18 min 35sec

  19. Feature discrimination/identification based upon SAR return variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasco, W. A., Sr.; Pietsch, R.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the statistics of The look-to-look variation statistics in the returns recorded in-flight by a digital, realtime SAR system are analyzed. The determination that the variations in the look-to-look returns from different classes do carry information content unique to the classes was illustrated by a model based on four variants derived from four look in-flight SAR data under study. The model was limited to four classes of returns: mowed grass on a athletic field, rough unmowed grass and weeds on a large vacant field, young fruit trees in a large orchard, and metal mobile homes and storage buildings in a large mobile home park. The data population in excess of 1000 returns represented over 250 individual pixels from the four classes. The multivariant discriminant model operated on the set of returns for each pixel and assigned that pixel to one of the four classes, based on the target variants and the probability distribution function of the four variants for each class.

  20. [Google Flu Trends--the initial application of big data in public health].

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaohui; Zhu, Wenfei; Yang, Lei; Shu, Yuelong

    2015-06-01

    Google Flu Trends (GFT) was the first application of big data in the public health field. GFT was open online in 2009 and attracted worldwide attention immediately. However, GFT failed catching the 2009 pandemic H1N1 and kept overestimating the intensity of influenza-like illness in the 2012-2014 season in the United States. GFT model has been updated for three times since 2009, making its prediction bias controlled. Here, we summarized the mechanism GFT worked, the strategy GFT used to update, and its influence on public health. PMID:26310351

  1. Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu'): diagnostic and other challenges.

    PubMed

    Burkardt, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic H1N1 2009 ('swine flu') virus was 'the virus of the year 2009' because it affected the lives of many people in this year. H1N1 was first described in California in April 2009 and spread very rapidly all over the globe. The fast global penetration of the swine flu caused the WHO in Geneva to call the infection with H1N1 a new pandemic with a rapid escalation of the different pandemic phases that ended on 11 June 2009, with the declaration of phase 6 (full-blown pandemic). This had far-reaching consequences for the local health authorities in the different affected countries and created awareness in the public and fear in the experts and even more so in many lay people. The consequences were: setting up reliable diagnostic tests as soon as possible; enhanced production, distribution and stock creation of the few drugs that were available to treat newly infected persons; and development, production, distribution and stock creation of new and appropriate anti-H1N1 swine flu vaccines. This all resulted in enormous costs in the local healthcare systems and also required smart and diligent logistics, because demand for all this was, in most cases, much higher than availability. Fortunately, the pandemic ended quite quickly (there was no 'second wave' as had been anticipated by some experts) and the death toll was moderate, compared with other influenza pandemic in the past and even to the regular annual appearance of the seasonal flu. This favorable outcome, however, provoked some harsh criticism that the WHO and healthcare systems in general had over-reacted and by doing so, a lot of money was thrown out of the window. This article describes the history of the H1N1 pandemic, the diagnostic challenges and resolutions, touches on treatment and vaccination very briefly and also comments on the criticism and arguments that came up immediately at the end and following the termination of the pandemic situation. PMID:21171919

  2. JouFLU: an upgraded FLUOR beam combiner at the CHARA Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomé, E.; Scott, N.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Mollier, B.; Reess, J. M.; Chapron, F.; Buey, T.; Sevin, A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Coudé du Foresto, V.

    2012-07-01

    FLUOR, which has been operational on CHARA since 2002, is an infrared fiber beam combiner. The telescope array will soon be fitted with an adaptive optics system, which will enhance the interferometer performance. In this framework, FLUOR has been entirely redeveloped and will be able to measure visibilities with higher accuracy and better sensitivity. The technical upgrades consist of improving some existing systems and developing new features. The bench, which is now remotely operable, primarily offers spectral dispersion (long fringes scanning), a more sensitive camera and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer mode. This paper presents the detailed opto-mechanical design of JouFLU (FLUOR rejuvenation), and the current instrument status.

  3. Evaluating the effectiveness of swine flu contingency policies in healthcare education.

    PubMed

    Lee, Polly

    Swine flu has brought about the need to implement policy quickly, not only in healthcare but also in healthcare education, which has considered greater use of e-learning during potential disruption to classroom teaching. This article looks at measuring the success of these alternative teaching methods by using the known tangible benefits of e-learning. Consideration should also be given to supporting students on placements during this time, and as a consequence, some possible future areas for development are identified. PMID:19791673

  4. Influenza A H1N1 2009 (Swine Flu) and Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Boon H; Mahmood, Tahir A

    2011-08-01

    The Influenza A H1N1 pandemic (A H1N1) occurred between June 2009 and August 2010. Although the pandemic is now over, the virus has emerged as the predominant strain in the current seasonal influenza phase in the northern hemisphere. The A H1N1 influenza is a novel strain of the influenza A virus and is widely known as swine flu. The virus contains a mixture of genetic material from human, pig and bird flu virus. It is a new variety of flu which people have not had much immunity to. Much has been learnt from the Pandemic of 2009/2010 but the messages about vaccination and treatment seem to be taken slowly by the clinical profession. Most people affected by the virus, including pregnant women, suffer a mild viral illness, and make a full recovery. The median duration of illness is around seven days. This influenza typically affects the younger age group i.e. from the ages of 5-65 years. Current experience shows that the age group experiencing increased morbidity and mortality rates are in those under 65 years of age. Pregnant women, because of their altered immunity and physiological adaptations, are at higher risk of developing pulmonary complications, especially in the second and third trimesters. In the United Kingdom, twelve maternal deaths were reported to be associated with the H1N1 virus during the pandemic and clear avoidable factors were identified (Modder, Review of Maternal Deaths in the UK related to A H1N1 2009 influenza (CMACE). www.cmace.org.uk, 2010). The pregnancy outcomes were also poor for women who were affected by the virus with a fivefold increase in the perinatal mortality rate and threefold increase in the preterm delivery rate (Yates et al. Health Technol Assess 14(34):109-182, 2010). There continues to be a low uptake of the flu vaccine and commencement of antiviral treatment for pregnant women. PMID:22851818

  5. Understanding the risk of an avian flu pandemic: rational waiting or precautionary failure?

    PubMed

    Basili, Marcello; Franzini, Maurizio

    2006-06-01

    The precautionary principle (PP) has been proposed as the proper guide for the decision-making criteria to be adopted in the face of the new catastrophic risks that have arisen in the last decades. This article puts forward a workable definition of the PP based on the so-called alpha-maximin expected utility approach, applying it to the possible outbreak of the avian flu disease among humans. Moreover, it shows how the shortage and/or lack of effective drugs against the infection of the virus A(H5N1) among humans can be considered a precautionary failure. PMID:16834622

  6. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to the.... Any returned mail qualifying as “special mail” is opened and inspected for contraband in the...

  7. 28 CFR 540.24 - Returned mail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contraband all undelivered mail returned to an institution by the Post Office before returning it to the.... Any returned mail qualifying as “special mail” is opened and inspected for contraband in the...

  8. Extreme deuterium excesses in ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites from central Antarctic snow.

    PubMed

    Duprat, J; Dobrică, E; Engrand, C; Aléon, J; Marrocchi, Y; Mostefaoui, S; Meibom, A; Leroux, H; Rouzaud, J-N; Gounelle, M; Robert, F

    2010-05-01

    Primitive interplanetary dust is expected to contain the earliest solar system components, including minerals and organic matter. We have recovered, from central Antarctic snow, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites whose organic matter contains extreme deuterium (D) excesses (10 to 30 times terrestrial values), extending over hundreds of square micrometers. We identified crystalline minerals embedded in the micrometeorite organic matter, which suggests that this organic matter reservoir could have formed within the solar system itself rather than having direct interstellar heritage. The high D/H ratios, the high organic matter content, and the associated minerals favor an origin from the cold regions of the protoplanetary disk. The masses of the particles range from a few tenths of a microgram to a few micrograms, exceeding by more than an order of magnitude those of the dust fragments from comet 81P/Wild 2 returned by the Stardust mission. PMID:20448182

  9. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  10. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  11. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as excess is binding on the land. However, the landowner may change the designation under the...) If the status of land is changed by law or regulations. (1) If the district had a contract with... 25, 1926 (43 U.S.C. 423e); (ii) If the status of this land changes from nonexcess into excess after...

  12. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  13. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  14. Part B Excess Cost Quick Reference Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Wayne; Beridon, Virginia; Hamre, Kent; Morse, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    This Quick Reference Document has been prepared by the Regional Resource Center Program ARRA/Fiscal Priority Team to aid RRCP State Liaisons and other (Technical Assistance) TA providers in understanding the general context of state questions surrounding excess cost. As a "first-stop" for TA providers in investigating excess cost questions on…

  15. 43 CFR 426.12 - Excess land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... financial institution as defined in § 426.14(a) of the Acreage Limitation Rules and Regulations (43 CFR Part... transfers such excess land to an eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by Reclamation; or (iv...) Sells or transfers such excess land to an eligible buyer at a price and on terms approved by...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  20. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  1. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  2. 30 CFR 56.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 56.6902 Section 56.6902... Requirements § 56.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature detonation, explosive... an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific mine conditions...

  3. 30 CFR 57.6902 - Excessive temperatures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Excessive temperatures. 57.6902 Section 57.6902... Requirements-Surface and Underground § 57.6902 Excessive temperatures. (a) Where heat could cause premature... shall— (1) Measure an appropriate number of blasthole temperatures in order to assess the specific...

  4. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  5. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  6. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  7. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  8. 7 CFR 929.59 - Excess cranberries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess cranberries. 929.59 Section 929.59 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.59 Excess...

  9. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption. Because of the J shaped relation between alcohol consumption and death the excess mortality used as a baseline was an alcohol consumption of 1-10 units/week and an adjustment was made for the slight excess mortality of abstainers. The number of excess deaths was obtained by subtracting the number of deaths expected if all the population had the consumption of the lowest risk group; correction for the total observed mortality in the population was made. This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption. PMID:3140936

  10. Who uses pharmacy for flu vaccinations? Population profiling through a UK pharmacy chain.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Claire; Thornley, Tracey

    2016-04-01

    Background There is a need to increase influenza vaccination rates in England particularly among those who are under 65 years of age and at-risk because of other conditions and treatments. Objective To understand the profile of people accessing flu vaccination services within a large pharmacy chain. Method Pharmacists requested people who had been vaccinated in 2014/15 to complete a questionnaire. Data was captured electronically on vaccine delivery levels across 1201 pharmacies. Deprivation profiles were calculated using the Carstairs index. Results 1741 patients from a total of 55 pharmacies completed the survey. Convenience and accessibility remain the key reasons for attending pharmacy. Pharmacy services are accessed by people from all postcode areas, including some from the most deprived localities. Conclusion Pharmacy flu vaccination services complement those provided by general practitioners to help improve overall coverage and vaccination rates for patients in at-risk groups. These services are highly accessed by patients from all socio demographic areas, and seem to be particularly attractive to carers, frontline healthcare workers, and those of working age. PMID:26821372

  11. Infodemiology: Tracking Flu-Related Searches on the Web for Syndromic Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2006-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance uses health-related data that precede diagnosis and signal a sufficient probability of a case or an outbreak to warrant further public health response. Objective While most syndromic surveillance systems rely on data from clinical encounters with health professionals, I started to explore in 2004 whether analysis of trends in Internet searches can be useful to predict outbreaks such as influenza epidemics and prospectively gathered data on Internet search trends for this purpose. Results There is an excellent correlation between the number of clicks on a keyword-triggered link in Google with epidemiological data from the flu season 2004/2005 in Canada (Pearson correlation coefficient of current week clicks with the following week influenza cases r=.91). The “Google ad sentinel method” proved to be more timely, more accurate and – with a total cost of Can$365.64 for the entire flu-season – considerably cheaper than the traditional method of reports on influenza-like illnesses observed in clinics by sentinel physicians. Conclusion Systematically collecting and analyzing health information demand data from the Internet has considerable potential to be used for syndromic surveillance. Tracking web searches on the Internet has the potential to predict population-based events relevant for public health purposes, such as real outbreaks, but may also be confounded by “epidemics of fear”. Data from such “infodemiology studies” should also include longitudinal data on health information supply. PMID:17238340

  12. Pathology of the swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) flu.

    PubMed

    Calore, E E; Uip, D E; Perez, N M

    2011-02-15

    Pathological studies would aid in finding the real causes of death and in outlining adequate strategies for treatment regarding patients with poor clinical outcome of influenza A H1N1 swine flu. We describe the autopsy findings of six cases of influenza A H1N1 swine flu. The lungs in these cases had an alveolitis with hyaline membranes. Immunohistochemistry for influenza was positive only in lungs (in pneumocytes, in macrophages, in some multinucleate cells in alveoli, and in blood vessel walls) of two cases. Disseminated petechial brain hemorrhage was observed in four of the cases and focally in one case. Focal myocarditis was observed in one case. Coagulation infarcts (ischemic) were observed in the pancreas of two cases and in the spleen of two cases. Our results indicate that there was marked replication of the virus in alveoli in the more recently infected cases, which could explain the extensive diffuse alveolar damage. In our cases, there were important vascular phenomena that resulted in hemorrhage and thrombosis, but without marked decrease of platelet count and coagulation cascade disruptions. This would be attributed to hemodynamic disruption. However, it is possible that the hemorrhagic petechial lesions in the brain are due to vascular lesions or to an increase of endothelial permeability. PMID:21176866

  13. Comparing Prescription Sales, Google Trends and CDC Data as Flu Activity Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Lorber, David

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if the prescription sales data from a large retail pharmacy chain in the US were comparable to Google Flu trends and CDC’s US ILI Network data as flu activity indicator. Introduction In a 2007 survey of public health officials in the United States, International Society for Disease Surveillance found that only 7% used pharmacy prescription sales data for surveillance (1). There have been many reports suggesting effective use of prescription sales data in syndromic surveillance (2, 3, 4, 5). Community pharmacies can provide a valuable supplementary tool for syndromic surveillance of infectious diseases. Methods We extracted five years of de-identified prescription sales data from the proprietary pharmacy computer system of a large retail pharmacy chain in the United States. The prescriptions were written for the common drugs for the treatment of influenza: Amantadine, Os-eltamivir, Rimantadine, and Zanamivir. We acquired Google Flu trends national aggregate counts data that represented the estimates of the ILI cases per 100,000 physician visits. We acquired CDC ILINET data for 2007. We calculated Pearson ‘r’ between our data and Google and CDC data. We also created comparable trends graphs after converting the counts of the influenza scripts and the counts of the Google estimated ILI cases to logarithmic scale. Results The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts for all the four drugs and the Google estimates of the ILI cases for years 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.75–0.91), 0.92 (95% CI, 0.86–0.95), 0.91(95% CI, 0.85–0.95), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.80–0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.78–0.92) and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.90–0.94) for years 2007 through 2011 together. The Pearson ‘r’ between the aggregate counts of scripts and the CDC % unweighted ILI (2007) was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95–0.98). Conclusions A strong to very strong correlation between prescription sales data and Google Flu trends and CDC’s ILI

  14. Predictors of returning to work.

    PubMed

    Ash, P; Goldstein, S I

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of predictors of returning to work in a sample of physically injured persons who are receiving workers' compensation benefits and vocational rehabilitation is presented. One hundred fourteen injured subjects (86 with back injury; 28, other injury) undergoing vocational rehabilitation and receiving workers' compensation benefits were assessed on demographic, emotional, cognitive, financial incentive, and miscellaneous variables. Predictors for returning to work were identified using stepwise logistic regression. Patients with moderate or severe depression, defined as a score greater than 16 on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), were significantly less likely to return to work following vocational rehabilitation efforts than patients with less severe depression (for back-injured patients, odds ratio (OR) = 31, 95% CI [8.8, 108]). BDI scores correctly classified 84 percent of the back-injury and 86% of the other-injury groups with respect to their return to work. The level of workers' compensation benefit was the only variable that added (marginally) to the predictive power of the BDI. In a physically injured population receiving workers' compensation benefits, who are judged to be not clearly permanently disabled, level of depressive symptoms is a strong predictor of returning to work. Caution is warranted in using the BDI as the sole determinant in a forensic situation for making a real-world prediction, as BDI responses are easy to fake. Treatment of concurrent depression is an important component of helping physically injured workers resume gainful employment. PMID:8605404

  15. Flu Outbreaks Force Schools to Adjust Plans: Classes Canceled in Some Places to Prevent Spread of Influenza

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Linda; Bowman, Darcia Harris

    2004-01-01

    A flu outbreak at Madison Junior High School in Ohio prompted school officials to close the building for two days. At Webber Junior High School in Fort Collins, Colorado, where absenteeism recently hit 20 percent for two bad weeks, educators were forced to slow the pace of schoolwork so sick students did not fall behind. This article reports on…

  16. A pandemic flu: not if, but when. SARS was the wake-up call we slept through.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    If an influenza pandemic struck today, borders might close, the global economy would be severely impacted, international vaccine supplies and health are systems would be overwhelmed, and some people might panic. To limit the fallout, the industrialized world must create a detailed response strategy involving the public and private sectors. Some experts feel we are overdue for a flu pandemic and the SARS pandemic of 2003 could have been the wake up call to begin preparations. Fortunately there is some assistance coming from the federal government. On January 12, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Secretary Mike Leavitt announced funding to assist in the preparation for a pandemic flu response. $100 million is being provided initially with another $250 million due later this year to assist states in pandemic flu preparedness. Texas' initial allocation is $5,875,044. While some believe that the AI (H5N1) causing illness and deaths in Asia and Turkey will be the pandemic flu strain, there is no guarantee that will occur. Thus, without knowing which strain may lead to a pandemic, development and manufacturing of a vaccine is delayed. PMID:16681227

  17. UK newspapers' representations of the 2009–10 outbreak of swine flu: one health scare not over-hyped by the media?

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Background A/H1N1, more commonly referred to as swine flu, emerged in Mexico in spring 2009. It rapidly spread across the world and was classed as a global pandemic on 11 June 2009. Objective To analyse UK newsprint coverage of the swine flu pandemic. Methods Content analysis of 2374 newsprint articles published in eight UK national newspapers between 1 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Results Newsprint coverage of the swine flu epidemic was immense. The threat from swine flu was portrayed as greatest in the spring and summer of 2009 when scientific uncertainties about the impact on the UK and global population were at their height and when swine flu cases in the UK first peaked. Thereafter the number of news articles waned, failing to mirror the October peak in flu cases as the virus failed to be as virulent as first feared. Content analysis found little evidence of the media ‘over-hyping’ the swine flu pandemic. Conclusions The news media's role as a disseminator of scientific information is particularly important in areas of risk perception. Despite a succession of health scares in recent years in which the media has been accused of exaggerating the risks and contributing to public misunderstandings of the issues, this analysis suggests that the UK newsprint reporting of swine flu in the 2009–10 outbreak was largely measured. The news media's role as disseminators of factual health information on swine flu is to be welcomed, particularly in relation to their handling and responsible reporting on scientific uncertainty. PMID:21131303

  18. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for rapid identification and differentiation of influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Novak-Weekley, S M; Marlowe, E M; Poulter, M; Dwyer, D; Speers, D; Rawlinson, W; Baleriola, C; Robinson, C C

    2012-05-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection. PMID:22378908

  19. Evaluation of the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay for Rapid Identification and Differentiation of Influenza A, Influenza A 2009 H1N1, and Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, E. M.; Poulter, M.; Dwyer, D.; Speers, D.; Rawlinson, W.; Baleriola, C.; Robinson, C. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Xpert Flu Assay cartridge is a next-generation nucleic acid amplification system that provides multiplexed PCR detection of the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses in approximately 70 min with minimal hands-on time. Six laboratories participated in a clinical trial comparing the results of the new Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay to those of culture or real-time PCR with archived and prospectively collected nasal aspirate-wash (NA-W) specimens and nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs from children and adults. Discrepant results were resolved by DNA sequence analysis. After discrepant-result analysis, the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for prospective NA-W specimens containing the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses compared to those of culture were 90.0%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the assay for prospective NP swabs compared to those of culture were 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NA-W specimens compared to those of Gen-Probe ProFlu+ PCR for the influenza A, influenza A 2009 H1N1, and influenza B viruses were 99.4%, 98.4%, and 100%, respectively, while the sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay for archived NP swabs compared to those of ProFlu+ were 98.1%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. The sensitivities of the Xpert Flu Assay with archived NP specimens compared to those of culture for the three targets were 97.5%, 100%, and 93.8%, respectively. We conclude that the Cepheid Xpert Flu Assay is an accurate and rapid method that is suitable for on-demand testing for influenza viral infection. PMID:22378908

  20. Responses of domestic fowl to excess iodine: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, P D

    2004-01-01

    Typically, poultry diets contain 1-2 mg I/kg, but higher concentrations are sometimes used to enhance the I content of eggs. In addition to an increased deposition of I in the yolk, other often adverse responses occur, especially at exceptionally high concentrations. Excess I in grower diets can prevent sexual maturation in male and female fowl, and in layer diets will progressively reduce egg production until, by about 2500 mg I/kg diet, ovulation is inhibited and egg production ceases. Most I accumulates in the thyroid gland, and it is likely that the mechanism responsible for these reproductive disorders involves a modification of thyroid hormone activity. Simultaneous with the declining rate of lay, feed intake declines, egg weight and yolk-cholesterol contents decrease and body weight increases. Whereas fertility is unaffected in female breeders, hatch of fertile eggs is reduced, hatch time extended and embryonic mortality and dead-in-shell proportions increased. In contrast, male fertility is decreased because of an increased incidence of dead spermatozoa, although hatchability of eggs from normally fed hens is unaffected. All reproductive variables, together with feed intake and body weight, are normalised within about 7 d of returning to a diet with normal I levels. Excess I suppresses growth in meat-type chickens, but does not affect feed conversion efficiency. There are transient increases in plasma I and cholesterol concentration during excess I intake in all types of bird. The evidence for varying responses to different I sources is equivocal, but the consensus is that source is probably not important. PMID:14748936

  1. Developmental characterization and chromosomal mapping of the 5-azacytidine-sensitive fluF locus of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed Central

    Tamame, M; Antequera, F; Santos, E

    1988-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans, a fungus that possesses negligible, if any, levels of methylation in its genome, low concentrations of 5-azacytidine (5-AC) convert a high percentage of the cell population to fluffy phenotypic variants through a heritable modification of a single nuclear gene (M. Tamame, F. Antequera, J. R. Villanueva, and T. Santos, Mol. Cell. Biol. 3:2287-2297, 1983). This new 5-AC-altered locus, designated here fluF1, was mapped as the closest marker to the centromere that has been identified so far on the right arm of chromosome VIII. Of all mutagens tested, only 5-AC induced the fluffy phenotype with a significant frequency. Furthermore, we determined that the wild-type, dominant allele of the fluF gene was primarily accessible to modification by 5-AC at the initial stages of fungal vegetative growth. These results indicated that 5-AC does not act through random mutagenic action but, rather, that fluF constitutes a specific target for this drug during a well-defined period of fungal development. Alteration of fluF by 5-AC resulted in a dramatic modification of the developmental program of A. nidulans. The resulting fluffy clones were characterized by massive, uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated hyphae, a drastic delay in the onset of asexual differentiation (conidiation), and colonies with an invasive nature. These features are reminiscent of the malignant properties of tumor cells. We propose that the locus fluF plays a primary role in the control of cell proliferation in A. nidulans and that its alteration by 5-AC produces pleiotropic modifications of the developmental program of this fungus. Images PMID:2463470

  2. Singlet oxygen-mediated signaling in plants: moving from flu to wild type reveals an increasing complexity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chanhong

    2013-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2)-mediated signaling has been established in the conditional fluorescent (flu) mutant of Arabidopsis. In the dark, the flu mutant accumulates free protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), a photosensitizer that in the light generates 1O2. The release of 1O2 leads to growth inhibition of mature plants and bleaching of seedlings. These 1O2-mediated responses depend on two plastid proteins, EXECUTER (EX) 1 and 2. An ex1/ex2/flu mutant accumulates in the dark Pchlide and upon illumination generates similar amounts of 1O2 as flu, but 1O2-mediated responses are abrogated in the triple mutant. The 1O2- and EX-dependent signaling pathway operates also in wild type placed under light stress. However, it does not act alone as in flu, but interacts with other signaling pathways that modulate 1O2-mediated responses. Depending on how severe the light stress is, 1O2- and EX-dependent signaling may be superimposed by 1O2-mediated signaling that does not depend on EX and is associated with photo-oxidative damage. Because of its high reactivity and short half-life, 1O2 is unlikely to be a signal that is translocated across the chloroplast envelope, but is likely to interact with other plastid components close to its site of production and to generate more stable signaling molecules during this interaction. Depending on the site of 1O2 production and the severity of stress, different signaling molecules may be expected that give rise to different 1O2-mediated responses. PMID:23832611

  3. Monitoring Influenza Activity in the United States: A Comparison of Traditional Surveillance Systems with Google Flu Trends

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Justin R.; Zhou, Hong; Shay, David K.; Neuzil, Kathleen M.; Fowlkes, Ashley L.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Google Flu Trends was developed to estimate US influenza-like illness (ILI) rates from internet searches; however ILI does not necessarily correlate with actual influenza virus infections. Methods and Findings Influenza activity data from 2003–04 through 2007–08 were obtained from three US surveillance systems: Google Flu Trends, CDC Outpatient ILI Surveillance Network (CDC ILI Surveillance), and US Influenza Virologic Surveillance System (CDC Virus Surveillance). Pearson's correlation coefficients with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to compare surveillance data. An analysis was performed to investigate outlier observations and determine the extent to which they affected the correlations between surveillance data. Pearson's correlation coefficient describing Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance over the study period was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.64, 0.79). The correlation between CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance over the same period was 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.89). Most of the outlier observations in both comparisons were from the 2003–04 influenza season. Exclusion of the outlier observations did not substantially improve the correlation between Google Flu Trends and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.82; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.87) or CDC ILI Surveillance and CDC Virus Surveillance (0.86; 95%CI: 0.82, 0.90). Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that while Google Flu Trends is highly correlated with rates of ILI, it has a lower correlation with surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza. Most of the outlier observations occurred during the 2003–04 influenza season that was characterized by early and intense influenza activity, which potentially altered health care seeking behavior, physician testing practices, and internet search behavior. PMID:21556151

  4. Uncertain Educational Returns in a Developing Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohapatra, Sandeep; Luckert, Martin K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the distribution of educational returns by gender for India. While previous studies focus on mean returns, the variance of educational returns has important implications for policy-making and micro-level decision making with respect to education. If the variance of educational returns is large, it can leave large sections of…

  5. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  6. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required to be made...

  9. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  10. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  11. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  12. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  13. 32 CFR 644.533 - Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contamination discovered after return of land to owner, or sale. 644.533 Section 644.533 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Other Contamination from Proposed Excess Land and Improvements § 644.533 Contamination discovered...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: aromatase excess syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... males, the increased aromatase and subsequent conversion of androgens to estrogen are responsible for the gynecomastia and limited bone growth characteristic of aromatase excess syndrome . Increased estrogen in females can cause symptoms ...

  15. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    MedlinePlus

    ... excessive blood clotting in the heart and brain: Atherosclerosis is a disease in which a waxy substance ... is considered healthy. These conditions can lead to atherosclerosis, which increases the risk of clots. Metabolic syndrome ...

  16. Characterization of avalanche photodiodes for lidar atmospheric return signal detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antill, C. W., Jr.; Holloway, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from tests to characterize noise, dark current, overload, and gain versus bias, relationships of ten avalanche photodiodes. The advantages of avalanche photodiodes over photomultiplier tubes for given laser wavelengths and return signal amplitudes are outlined. The relationship between responsivity and temperature and dark current and temperature are examined. Also, measurements of the noise equivalent power, the excess noise factor, and linearity are given. The advantages of using avalanche photodiodes in the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment and the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment are discussed.

  17. Fate of excess sulfur in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rennenberg, H.

    1984-01-01

    The mechanisms which have evolved in higher plants to cope with excess sulfur in their environments are reviewed. Survival in a sulfur-rich environment is seldom achieved through avoidance of the intake of sulfur. The presence of excess sulfur in the soil or in the air usually results in an intake of excess sulfur into plants. An immediate injury by the excess sulfur taken up is, however, prevented by a series of metabolic processes. Storage of excess sulfur in a metabolically inactive compartment, i.e. the vacuole, appears to occur in most plants. The finding of a storage of glutathione is several investigations suggests that with increasing accumulation of sulfate its reduction also increases. Under these conditions the cysteine concentration in different compartments of the cell may still be maintained at a low level by the incorporation of the excess cysteine synthesized into glutathione. This peptide appears to be the storage form of reduced sulfur in higher plants. 167 references, 2 figures.

  18. Deuterium excess in the Rayleigh model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütsch, Marina; Pfahl, Stephan; Sodemann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The deuterium excess is a useful quantity for measuring nonequilibrium effects of isotopic fractionation, and can therefore provide information about the meteorological conditions in evaporation regions (e.g., relative humidity over the ocean or the fraction of plant transpiration over land). In addition to nonequilibrium fractionation, there are two other effects that can change the deuterium excess during phase transitions. The first is the dependence of the equilibrium fractionation factors on temperature, the second is the nonlinearity of the delta scale, on which the deuterium excess is defined. We tested the impact of these three effects (nonequilibrium, temperature and delta scale) in a simple Rayleigh condensation model simulating the isotopic composition of an air parcel during a moist adiabatic ascent. The delta scale effect is important especially for depleted air parcels where it can change the sign of the deuterium excess in the remaining vapour from negative to positive. In this case the deuterium excess to a large extent reflects an artefact of its own definition, which overwrites both the nonequilibrium and the temperature effect. This problem can be solved by an alternative definition for the deuterium excess that is not based on the delta scale.

  19. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eninger, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  20. Return to the Red Planet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W.

    1996-01-01

    In November 1996, NASA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory will begin America's return to Mars after a 20-year absence by launching the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. This mission will usher in a new and exciting era of scientific missions to study the red planet.

  1. Return to the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consuela, Sister Mary

    In this speech, a plea is made to return content to the social studies. Content is seen as essential to cognitive and affective learning. Although the author feels that the introduction of behavioral objectives is a significant development of the various social studies projects, it is meaningless unless it is related to content. Clearly stated…

  2. Comet coma sample return instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  3. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  4. Skin lesions in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Juszczak, Dariusz; Jerzemowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Skin lesions, apart from diarrhoeas, fever of unknown origin, and respiratory tract infections belong to the most frequent medical problems in travellers returned from tropical and subtropical destinations, accounting more than 10% of reported cases. Most dermatoses have their clinical onset during travel, although some of them can occur after return. Travel-related dermatological problems can have a wide spectrum of clinical picture, from macular, popular or nodular rash, linear and migratory lesions, to plaques, vesicles, bullae, erosions or ulcers. Skin conditions in returning travellers may be of infectious and non-infectious aetiologies. Infectious lesions may be originally tropical (e.g. dengue, chikungunya, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, myiasis, tungiasis, loiasis), although the majority are cosmopolitan (arthropod bites, sunburns, allergic rashes). The evaluation of skin lesions depends on many factors, including immune status of patients, use of medicines, exposure on health hazards (fauna, flora, risky behaviours), as well as the time, duration and location of travel. As the number of travellers to tropical and subtropical destinations has been continuously rising, the number of skin illnesses has also been increasing. This means that specialists in travel medicine need to extend their knowledge of epidemiology, clinical features and diagnosis of travel-related health problems including skin lesions in returning travellers. PMID:26394319

  5. The Returns to Apprenticeship Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses recent data from the UK Labour Force Survey to estimate the wage gains that individuals make on average if they complete an apprenticeship programme. The results suggest gains of around 5-7% for men, but no benefit for women. Further analysis extends the results by considering the returns by age group, by qualification obtained, by…

  6. The Returns to Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agan, Amanda Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Almost half of postsecondary students are currently enrolled in community colleges. These institutions imply that even amongst students with the same degree outcome there is considerable heterogeneity in the path taken to get there. I estimate the life-cycle private and social returns to the different postsecondary paths and sequential decisions…

  7. Analysing Enterprise Returns on Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moy, Janelle; McDonald, Rod

    Recent Australian and overseas studies on evaluation of enterprises' return on training investment (ROTI) were reviewed to identify key issues in encouraging increased evaluation of training benefits by enterprises and successful approaches that may inform future "enterprise-friendly" studies of ROTI. It was concluded that more practical,…

  8. Flu Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... En Español Making a Change – Your Personal Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse ... your body. You're cold one minute and hot the next. Your throat is scratchy and you' ...

  9. Flu Checkup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schueler, MD How it Works Testimonials FAQ for Consumers FAQ for Physicians News Advertising Terms of Use Contact Us Site Map How it Works When people are sick, they must make critical decisions about when and where they should receive healthcare. ...

  10. Understanding Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... H5N1. Control measures have been less effective in China, Indonesia and Vietnam; and the problem that has allowed the virus to take root in those countries and repeatedly jump from poultry to other species, including humans, has not been solved." Fall 2006 ...

  11. Age and ethnic differences in cold weather and contagion theories of colds and flu.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-02-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with other people causes disease were more causally sophisticated than explanations of how cold weather causes it. Finally, Mexican American and other minority children were more likely than European American children to subscribe to cold weather theories, a difference partially but not wholly attributable to ethnic group differences in parent education. Findings support the value of an intuitive or naïve theories perspective in understanding developmental and sociocultural differences in concepts of disease and in planning health education to help both children and their parents shed misconceptions so that they can focus on effective preventive actions. PMID:21586668

  12. Bench-to-bedside review: Vaccine protection strategies during pandemic flu outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the most effective means for the prevention of influenza, including pandemic strains. An ideal pandemic influenza vaccine should provide effective protection with the fewest number of doses in the shortest amount of time, and among the greatest proportion of the population. The current manufacturing processes required for embryonated chicken-egg-based influenza vaccines are limited in their ability to respond to pandemic situations - these limitations include problems with surge capacity, the need for egg-adapted strains, the possibility of contamination, and the presence of trace egg protein. Several vaccine strategies to circumvent the deficiencies intrinsic to an egg-based influenza vaccine are in various phases of development. These include the use of cell-culture-based growth systems, concomitant use of adjuvants, whole virus vaccines, recombinant protein vaccines, plasmid DNA vaccines, virus-like particle vaccines, and universal flu vaccines. PMID:20497595

  13. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza

    PubMed Central

    Ailes, Elizabeth C.; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L.; McIntyre, Anne F.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010–11 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and 10 deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010–11). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

  14. BirdFlu2009: Avian Influenza and Human Health. 9-10 September 2009, Oxford, UK.

    PubMed

    Temperton, Nigel

    2009-11-01

    The BirdFlu2009 meeting entitled Avian Influenza and Human Health, held in Oxford, included topics covering new developments in the control of seasonal, avian and swine influenza virus infection, with a focus on the human-animal interface. This conference report highlights selected presentations on sialidase therapy for influenza infection, the use of IVIgs to study antibody diversity and reactivity, detecting oseltamivir carboxylate in waste water, H5N1 infection in Egyptian children, preparedness for an influenza pandemic and an indirect sandwich ELISA to detect H5 avian influenza virus. Investigational drugs discussed include NEX-DAS-181 (NexBio Inc) and MVA-NP-M1 (The Edward Jenner Institute for Vaccine Research). PMID:19844852

  15. CDC Pregnancy Flu Line: monitoring severe illness among pregnant women with influenza.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Newsome, Kimberly; Williams, Jennifer L; McIntyre, Anne F; Jamieson, Denise J; Finelli, Lyn; Honein, Margaret A

    2014-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the Pregnancy Flu Line (PFL) during the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) pandemic and continued operation through the 2010-2011 influenza season to collect reports of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions and deaths among pregnant women with influenza. The system documented the severe impact of influenza on pregnant women during both seasons with 181 ICU/survivals and 37 deaths reported during the 2009 fall pandemic wave and 69 ICU/survivals and ten deaths reported in the subsequent influenza season (2010-2011). A health department survey suggests PFL participants perceived public health benefits and minimum time burdens. PMID:24368408

  16. Emergency department and 'Google flu trends' data as syndromic surveillance indicators for seasonal influenza.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L H; Malik, M T; Gumel, A; Strome, T; Mahmud, S M

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated syndromic indicators of influenza disease activity developed using emergency department (ED) data - total ED visits attributed to influenza-like illness (ILI) ('ED ILI volume') and percentage of visits attributed to ILI ('ED ILI percent') - and Google flu trends (GFT) data (ILI cases/100 000 physician visits). Congruity and correlation among these indicators and between these indicators and weekly count of laboratory-confirmed influenza in Manitoba was assessed graphically using linear regression models. Both ED and GFT data performed well as syndromic indicators of influenza activity, and were highly correlated with each other in real time. The strongest correlations between virological data and ED ILI volume and ED ILI percent, respectively, were 0·77 and 0·71. The strongest correlation of GFT was 0·74. Seasonal influenza activity may be effectively monitored using ED and GFT data. PMID:24480399

  17. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Joint return after filing separate return. 1... filing separate return. (a) In general. (1) Where an individual has filed a separate return for a taxable... separate return of either spouse are to be taken into account in determining the extent to which the...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6013-2 - Joint return after filing separate return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Joint return after filing separate return. 1.6013-2 Section 1.6013-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6013-2 Joint return after filing separate return. (a) In general....

  19. 26 CFR 20.6075-1 - Returns; time for filing estate tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Returns; time for filing estate tax return. 20.6075-1 Section 20.6075-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Administration § 20.6075-1 Returns; time for filing estate tax return. The estate tax return required by...

  20. 26 CFR 20.6075-1 - Returns; time for filing estate tax return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns; time for filing estate tax return. 20.6075-1 Section 20.6075-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Administration § 20.6075-1 Returns; time for filing estate tax return. The estate tax return required by...

  1. Immunogenicity and tolerability of inactivated flu vaccine in high risk and healthy children.

    PubMed

    Avila Aguero, María Luisa; Soriano-Fallas, Alejandra; Umaña-Sauma, María de los Angeles; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Arnoux, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza-related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR) for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP). The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications. PMID:17891930

  2. Evaluation of the limit of detection of the BD Veritor™ system flu A+B test and two rapid influenza detection tests for influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Peters, Timothy R; Blakeney, Elizabeth; Vannoy, Lauren; Poehling, Katherine A

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the limits of detection of 3 rapid influenza diagnostic tests-BD Veritor™ System for Flu A+B, Binax NOW® Influenza A+B, and QuickVue® Influenza-for influenza strains circulating in 2010-2012. Limits of detection varied by influenza strain, with Veritor™ Flu A+B test showing the lowest limit of detection for all strains. PMID:23219228

  3. New vector bosons and the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Blas, Jorge; Santiago, José; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    We consider the possibility that the recently observed diphoton excess at ∼ 750 GeV can be explained by the decay of a scalar particle (φ) to photons. If the scalar is the remnant of a symmetry-breaking sector of some new gauge symmetry, its coupling to photons can be generated by loops of the charged massive vectors of the broken symmetry. If these new W‧ vector bosons carry color, they can also generate an effective coupling to gluons. In this case the diphoton excess could be entirely explained in a simplified model containing just φ and W‧. On the other hand, if W‧ does not carry color, we show that, provided additional colored particles exist to generate the required φ to gluon coupling, the diphoton excess could be explained by the same W‧ commonly invoked to explain the diboson excess at ∼ 2 TeV. We also explore possible connections between the diphoton and diboson excesses with the anomalous t t bar forward-backward asymmetry.

  4. Excess Plutonium: Weapons Legacy or National Asset?

    SciTech Connect

    Klipa, G.; Boeke, S.; Hottel, R.

    2002-02-27

    The Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative was established in January, 2000, to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of nuclear materials. As part of that initiative, the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), has established Nuclear Material Management Groups for the management of excess nuclear materials. As one of these groups, the Plutonium Material Management Group (PMMG) has been chartered to serve as DOE's complex wide resource and point of contact for technical coordination and program planning support in the safe and efficient disposition of the nations excess Plutonium 239. This paper will explain the mission, goals, and objectives of the PMMG. In addition, the paper will provide a broad overview of the status of the plutonium inventories throughout the DOE complex. The DOE currently manages approximately 99.5 MT of plutonium isotopes. Details of the various categories of plutonium, from material designated for national security needs through material that has been declared excess, will be explained. For the plutonium that has been declared excess, the various pathways to disposition (including reuse, recycling, sale, transfer, treatment, consumption, and disposal) will be discussed. At this time 52.5 MT of plutonium has been declared excess and the method of disposition for that material is the subject of study and evaluation within DOE. The role of the PMMG in those evaluations will be outlined.

  5. Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning.

    PubMed

    Petit, Aymeric; Karila, Laurent; Chalmin, Florence; Lejoyeux, Michel

    2014-06-01

    Excessive indoor tanning, defined by the presence of an impulse towards and repetition of tanning that leads to personal distress, has only recently been recognized as a psychiatric disorder. This finding is based on the observations of many dermatologists who report the presence of addictive relationships with tanning salons among their patients despite being given diagnoses of malignant melanoma. This article synthesizes the existing literature on excessive indoor tanning and addiction to investigate possible associations. This review focuses on the prevalence, clinical features, etiology, and treatment of this disorder. A literature review was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE and PsycINFO, to identify articles published in English from 1974 to 2013. Excessive indoor tanning may be related to addiction, obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, seasonal affective disorder, anorexia, body dysmorphic disorder, or depression. Excessive indoor tanning can be included in the spectrum of addictive behavior because it has clinical characteristics in common with those of classic addictive disorders. It is frequently associated with anxiety, eating disorders, and tobacco dependence. Further controlled studies are required, especially in clinical psychopathology and neurobiology, to improve our understanding of excessive indoor tanning. PMID:24601904

  6. FluKB: A Knowledge-Based System for Influenza Vaccine Target Discovery and Analysis of the Immunological Properties of Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Christian; Kudahl, Ulrich J.; Sun, Jing; Olsen, Lars Rønn; Zhang, Guang Lan; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Brusic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    FluKB is a knowledge-based system focusing on data and analytical tools for influenza vaccine discovery. The main goal of FluKB is to provide access to curated influenza sequence and epitope data and enhance the analysis of influenza sequence diversity and the analysis of targets of immune responses. FluKB consists of more than 400,000 influenza protein sequences, known epitope data (357 verified T-cell epitopes, 685 HLA binders, and 16 naturally processed MHC ligands), and a collection of 28 influenza antibodies and their structurally defined B-cell epitopes. FluKB was built using a modular framework allowing the implementation of analytical workflows and includes standard search tools, such as keyword search and sequence similarity queries, as well as advanced tools for the analysis of sequence variability. The advanced analytical tools for vaccine discovery include visual mapping of T- and B-cell vaccine targets and assessment of neutralizing antibody coverage. FluKB supports the discovery of vaccine targets and the analysis of viral diversity and its implications for vaccine discovery as well as potential T-cell breadth and antibody cross neutralization involving multiple strains. FluKB is representation of a new generation of databases that integrates data, analytical tools, and analytical workflows that enable comprehensive analysis and automatic generation of analysis reports. PMID:26504853

  7. Comparison of Directigen FLU-A with viral isolation and direct immunofluorescence for the rapid detection and identification of influenza A virus.

    PubMed Central

    Waner, J L; Todd, S J; Shalaby, H; Murphy, P; Wall, L V

    1991-01-01

    Directigen FLU-A, an enzyme immunoassay membrane test, was compared prospectively to isolation in cell culture and direct immunofluorescence (IF) for the detection of influenza A virus. One hundred ninety specimens were evaluated by Directigen FLU-A and cell culture; 184 of these specimens were also tested by direct IF. The sensitivity of Directigen FLU-A compared to isolation in cell culture and direct IF was 100%. The specificities of Directigen FLU-A compared to isolation and direct IF were identical, 91.6%. Fourteen specimens that were positive by Directigen FLU-A did not yield virus in culture; two of the specimens, however, were positive by direct IF, and four other specimens were not specimens of choice for the test. A positive Directigen result had positive predictive values of 62.6 and 75.0% compared to isolation and direct IF, respectively; a positive Directigen result with an intensity reading of 2+ or greater, however, had positive predictive values of 85 and 100% compared to isolation and direct IF, respectively. In all comparisons, the negative predictive value was 100%. There was no evidence that cross-reactivity occurred with non-influenza A antigens. Directigen FLU-A should serve as a convenient screening test for influenza A and as a rapid test supported by isolation in cell culture during an influenza outbreak. PMID:2037665

  8. Asteroid Return Mission Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Gershman, Robert; Landau, Damon; Polk, James; Porter, Chris; Yeomans, Don; Allen, Carlton; Williams, Willie; Asphaug, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the technological feasibility of finding, characterizing, robotically capturing, and returning an entire Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) to the International Space Station (ISS) for scientific investigation, evaluation of its resource potential, determination of its internal structure and other aspects important for planetary defense activities, and to serve as a testbed for human operations in the vicinity of an asteroid. Reasonable projections suggest that several dozen candidates NEAs in the size range of interest (approximately 2-m diameter) will be known before the end of the decade from which a suitable target could be selected. The conceptual mission objective is to return an approximately 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a total flight time of approximately 5 years using a single Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle. Preliminary calculations indicate that this could be accomplished using a solar electric propulsion (SEP) system with high-power Hall thrusters and a maximum power into the propulsion system of approximately 40 kW. The SEP system would be used to provide all of the post-launch delta V. The asteroid would have an unrestricted Earth return Planetary Protection categorization, and would be curated at the ISS where numerous scientific and resource utilization experiments would be conducted. Asteroid material brought to the ground would be curated at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This preliminary study identified several areas where additional work is required, but no show stoppers were identified for the approach that would return an entire 10,000-kg asteroid to the ISS in a mission that could be launched by the end of this decade.

  9. Singlet scalar resonances and the diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Samuel D.; Meade, Patrick; Ramani, Harikrishnan

    2016-04-01

    ATLAS and CMS recently released the first results of searches for diphoton resonances in 13 TeV data, revealing a modest excess at an invariant mass of approximately 750 GeV. We find that it is generically possible that a singlet scalar resonance is the origin of the excess while avoiding all other constraints. We highlight some of the implications of this model and how compatible it is with certain features of the experimental results. In particular, we find that the very large total width of the excess is difficult to explain with loop-level decays alone, pointing to other interesting bounds and signals if this feature of the data persists. Finally we comment on the robust Zγ signature that will always accompany the model we investigate.

  10. Excessive crying in infants with regulatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Duran, M; Sauceda-Garcia, J M

    1996-01-01

    The authors point out a correlation between regulatory disorders in infants and the problem of excessive crying. The literature describes other behavioral problems involving excessive crying in very young children, but with little emphasis on this association. The recognition and diagnosis of regulatory disorders in infants who cry excessively can help practitioners design appropriate treatment interventions. Understanding these conditions can also help parents tailor their caretaking style, so that they provide appropriate soothing and stimulation to their child. In so doing, they will be better able to develop and preserve a satisfactory parent-child relationship, as well as to maintain their own sense of competence and self-esteem as parents. PMID:8742673

  11. Systemic causes of excessive uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lusher, J M

    1999-07-01

    In assessing a patient with excessive uterine bleeding, the clinician should consider systemic causes in the differential diagnosis. Both hereditary and acquired conditions can result in mucous membrane bleeding, including menorrhagia, epistaxis, and gum bleeding, as well as excessive bruising. Among hereditary conditions, von Willebrand disease (vWD) is by far the most common, affecting an estimated 1% of the population worldwide. It is important to consider the possibility of vWD, and to establish the proper diagnosis (including subtype), as safe, effective, and easy-to-use treatment is available for most persons with this disorder. This review also covers a number of other systemic conditions that can be manifested by excessive uterine bleeding, including congenital deficiency of factor XI, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and other acquired platelet disorders, acquired autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII), and vitamin K deficiency states. PMID:10513767

  12. Comet nucleus sample return mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A comet nucleus sample return mission in terms of its relevant science objectives, candidate mission concepts, key design/technology requirements, and programmatic issues is discussed. The primary objective was to collect a sample of undisturbed comet material from beneath the surface of an active comet and to preserve its chemical and, if possible, its physical integrity and return it to Earth in a minimally altered state. The secondary objectives are to: (1) characterize the comet to a level consistent with a rendezvous mission; (2) monitor the comet dynamics through perihelion and aphelion with a long lived lander; and (3) determine the subsurface properties of the nucleus in an area local to the sampled core. A set of candidate comets is discussed. The hazards which the spacecraft would encounter in the vicinity of the comet are also discussed. The encounter strategy, the sampling hardware, the thermal control of the pristine comet material during the return to Earth, and the flight performance of various spacecraft systems and the cost estimates of such a mission are presented.

  13. Tick size and stock returns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  14. The Mars Sample Return Project.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, W J; Cazaux, C

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) Project is underway. A 2003 mission to be launched on a Delta III Class vehicle and a 2005 mission launched on an Ariane 5 will culminate in carefully selected Mars samples arriving on Earth in 2008. NASA is the lead agency and will provide the Mars landed elements, namely, landers, rovers, and Mars ascent vehicles (MAVs). The French Space Agency CNES is the largest international partner and will provide for the joint NASA/CNES 2005 Mission the Ariane 5 launch and the Earth Return Mars Orbiter that will capture the sample canisters from the Mars parking orbits the MAVs place them in. The sample canisters will be returned to Earth aboard the CNES Orbiter in the Earth Entry Vehicles provided by NASA. Other national space agencies are also expected to participate in substantial roles. Italy is planning to provide a drill that will operate from the Landers to provide subsurface samples. Other experiments in addition to the MSR payload will also be carried on the Landers. This paper will present the current status of the design of the MSR missions and flight articles. PMID:11708368

  15. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6103(c)-1 - Disclosure of returns and return information to designee of taxpayer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure of returns and return information to... and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(c)-1 Disclosure of returns and return information to... Service to disclose a taxpayer's return or return information to such person or persons as the...

  19. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-12-07

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variable on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB.

  20. Excess Electron Localization in Solvated DNA Bases

    SciTech Connect

    Smyth, Maeve; Kohanoff, Jorge

    2011-06-10

    We present a first-principles molecular dynamics study of an excess electron in condensed phase models of solvated DNA bases. Calculations on increasingly large microsolvated clusters taken from liquid phase simulations show that adiabatic electron affinities increase systematically upon solvation, as for optimized gas-phase geometries. Dynamical simulations after vertical attachment indicate that the excess electron, which is initially found delocalized, localizes around the nucleobases within a 15 fs time scale. This transition requires small rearrangements in the geometry of the bases.

  1. Infrared excess and extended emission around Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallenne, A.; Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.

    2011-12-01

    We present new thermal IR photometry and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the classical Cepheids W Sgr, Y Oph and FF Aql, using newly obtained VISIR thermal IR photometric measurements. We used the BURST mode of the instrument to get diffraction-limited images at 8.59, 11.25 and 11.85 μm. For these three stars, the SEDs show an IR excess at long wavelengths. These excesses are likely extended emissions surrounding the stars linked to a possible mass loss mechanism. We also detected a spatially extended emission around W Sgr and Y Oph while we do not resolve the circumstellar envelope of FF Aql.

  2. Quark seesaw, vectorlike fermions and diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao

    2016-02-01

    We present a possible interpretation of the recent diphoton excess reported by the early √{s}=13 TeV LHC data in quark seesaw left-right models with vectorlike fermions proposed to solve the strong CP problem without the axion. The gauge singlet real scalar field responsible for the mass of the vectorlike fermions has the right production cross section and diphoton branching ratio to be identifiable with the reported excess at around 750 GeV diphoton invariant mass. Various ways to test this hypothesis as more data accumulates at the LHC are proposed.

  3. Diphoton excess as a hidden monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masaki; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2016-08-01

    We provide a theory with a monopole of a strongly-interacting hidden U(1) gauge symmetry that can explain the 750-GeV diphoton excess reported by ATLAS and CMS. The excess results from the resonance of monopole, which is produced via gluon fusion and decays into two photons. In the low energy, there are only mesons and a monopole in our model because any baryons cannot be gauge invariant in terms of strongly interacting Abelian symmetry. This is advantageous of our model because there is no unwanted relics around the BBN epoch.

  4. New health risks and sociocultural contexts: bird flu impacts on consumers and poultry businesses in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suder, Gabriele; Inthavong, Saynakhone

    2008-02-01

    Avian flu has been identified as one of the most challenging new risks, global in impact due to the "highly interconnected and integrated world economy along with other unpredictable events such as the Asian financial crisis and global terrorism." We have chosen the case of Lao PDR to shed light on an area in which local people consume chicken as one of their staple foods. Our research analyzes consumer behavior, poultry business modification patterns in a high-risk country, and government reaction for business resilience. The geographic choice is motivated by the 2006 EIU report on Catastrophe Risk Management that indicated that Asian-Pacific companies are better prepared for such risks as bird flu than European business is, despite the many cases found in both regions. PMID:18304102

  5. Regional differences in pathogen prevalence and defensive reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak among East Asians and Westerners.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Takeshi; Park, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the "swine flu" outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas); rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence. PMID:22947816

  6. Effectiveness of allergic rhinitis treatments in real-life with a focus on MP-AzeFlu.

    PubMed

    Klimek, Ludger; Demoly, Pascal; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    For any allergic rhinitis (AR) treatment, it is crucial to provide evidence not only of efficacy (assessed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs)) but also of effectiveness in real-life. Observational studies provide valuable data on the use and results associated with interventions prescribed in real-life. However, real-life evidence supporting available AR treatment options is sparse with effectiveness only established for oral antihistamines (desloratadine, ebastine), intranasal corticosteroids (mometasone furoate, fluticasone propionate (FP)), allergen immunotherapy and omalizumab. A novel intranasal formulation of azelastine hydrochloride and FP in a single spray (MP-AzeFlu) shows great promise, with the effectiveness observed in real-life exceeding that noted in RCTs. This review summarises real-life data on MP-AzeFlu, which provides rapid and sustained symptom control irrespective of patient age, AR phenotype or disease severity. We call for high quality real-life research in addition to RCTs to inform future AR treatment guidelines. PMID:26839083

  7. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  8. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  9. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  10. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  11. 26 CFR 54.4979-1 - Excise tax on certain excess contributions and excess aggregate contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (SEP) as defined in section 408(k) that accepts elective contributions is exempted from the tax of... employer's notification to each affected employee of the excess SEP contributions must specifically state... employees by the last day of the 12-month period following the year of excess SEP contributions, the...

  12. 75 FR 27572 - Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Monthly Report of Excess Income and Annual Report of Uses of Excess Income AGENCY... Development, 451 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20410; e-mail Leroy McKinney Jr. at Leroy.McKinneyJr@hud... public that the Department of Housing and Urban Development has submitted to OMB a request for...

  13. The effects and underlying mechanism of excessive iodide on excessive fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongliang; Zeng, Qiang; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Zhao, Liang; Hou, Changchun; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Lei; Fu, Gang; Liu, Yeming; Jiang, Chunyang; Chen, Xuemin; Wang, Aiguo

    2014-07-01

    In many regions, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide coexist in groundwater, which may lead to biphasic hazards to human thyroid. To explore fluoride-induced thyroid cytotoxicity and the mechanism underlying the effects of excessive iodide on fluoride-induced cytotoxicity, a thyroid cell line (Nthy-ori 3-1) was exposed to excessive fluoride and/or excessive iodide. Cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, apoptosis, and the expression levels of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related molecules were detected. Fluoride and/or iodide decreased cell viability and increased LDH leakage and apoptosis. ROS, the expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), IRE1, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (sXBP-1) were enhanced by fluoride or the combination of the two elements. Collectively, excessive fluoride and excessive iodide have detrimental influences on human thyroid cells. Furthermore, an antagonistic interaction between fluoride and excessive iodide exists, and cytotoxicity may be related to IRE1 pathway-induced apoptosis. PMID:25104093

  14. Comet coma sample return via Giotto II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsou, P.; Brownlee, D. E.; Albee, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A comet coma sample return is possible with a low-cost flyby mission. Collecting coma materials and returning them to earth can be accomplished in a free-return trajectory. Intact capture of coma dust, preserving the cometary dust mineralogy, is possible at low encounter speeds. Samples from a known cometary source can then be compared with the wealth of information on meteorites and interplanetary dust. Sample return via Giotto II is a unique, low-cost NASA/ESA cooperative opportunity. With ESA providing the Giotto spacecraft and payload and NASA the sample return capability, first-class science can be accomplished at a very low cost for both NASA and ESA. This paper focuses on the sample return aspects, including sample return objectives, sample collection techniques, experimental work to verify collection concepts, and some of the characteristics of the cometary targets for sample return.

  15. 7 CFR 966.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 966.44 Section 966.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  16. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  17. [Children's Television Advertising Excesses and Abuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Robert B.

    This testimony presents evidence of children's television advertising excesses and abuses. The testimony points out that the average TV-watching child sees more than 22,000 commercials a year, and that on the programs most popular with children large numbers of over-the-counter drugs and hazardous products are advertised. The history of private…

  18. Excess capacity: markets regulation, and values.

    PubMed Central

    Madden, C W

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the conceptual bases for the conflicting views of excess capacity in healthcare markets and their application in the context of today's turbulent environment. STUDY SETTING: The policy and research literature of the past three decades. STUDY DESIGN: The theoretical perspectives of alternative economic schools of thought are used to support different policy positions with regard to excess capacity. Changes in these policy positions over time are linked to changes in the economic and political environment of the period. The social values implied by this history are articulated. DATA COLLECTION: Standard library search procedures are used to identify relevant literature. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Alternative policy views of excess capacity in healthcare markets rely on differing theoretical foundations. Changes in the context in which policy decisions are made over time affect the dominant theoretical framework and, therefore, the dominant policy view of excess capacity. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1990s, multiple perspectives of optimal capacity still exist. However, our evolving history suggests a set of persistent values that should guide future policy in this area. PMID:10029502

  19. Search for excess showers from Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirov, I. N.; Stamenov, J. N.; Ushev, S. Z.; Janminchev, V. D.; Aseikin, V. S.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Nikolskaja, N. M.; Yakovlev, V. I.; Morozov, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    The arrival directions of muon poor showers registrated in the Tien Shan experiment during an effective running time about I,8.IO(4)h were analyzed. It is shown that there is a significant excess of these showers coming the direction of Crab Nebula.

  20. Controlled expedient disposal of excess gun propellant.

    PubMed

    Walsh, M R; Thiboutot, S; Walsh, M E; Ampleman, G

    2012-06-15

    The expedient field disposal of excess gun propellants on the ground is an integral part of live-fire training in many countries. However, burning excess propellant in the field will leave significant quantities of energetic residues and heavy metals in the environment. Compounds such as dinitrotoluene and nitroglycerin and metals such as lead will leach into the soil column, eventually migrating to groundwater. Contamination of the environment will lead to high remediation costs and the possible loss of the training facility. After investigating the contamination at several propellant disposal sites, a portable propellant burn pan was developed and tested. The pan was transported to training sites where excess propellant was loaded and burned in a controlled manner. Up to 120 kg of excess single-base propellant charges have been burned during two series of tests at a consumption rate of greater than 99.9%. Less than 0.03% of the energetic material was recovered outside the burn pan. Recovered lead is largely contained within the pan. The turnover rate for burns is 15 min. The residues can be collected following cool-down for proper disposal. PMID:22503215

  1. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  2. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  3. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  4. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  5. Low excess air operations of oil boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Celebi, Y.; Litzke, Wai Lin

    1997-09-01

    To quantify the benefits which operation at very low excess air operation may have on heat exchanger fouling BNL has recently started a test project. The test allows simultaneous measurement of fouling rate, flue gas filterable soot, flue gas sulfuric acid content, and flue gas sulfur dioxide.

  6. ESTIMATING EXCESS DIETARY EXPOSURES OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine children in a daycare that routinely applied the pesticide, esfenvalerate, were studied to assess excess dietary exposures. Surface wipes, a standard food item of processed American cheese slice pressed on the surface and handled by the child, an accelerometer reading, and ...

  7. Can Excess Bilirubin Levels Cause Learning Difficulties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, E.; Naude, H.; Becker, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined learning problems in South African sample of 7- to 14-year-olds whose mothers reported excessively high infant bilirubin shortly after the child's birth. Found that this sample had lowered verbal ability with the majority also showing impaired short-term and long-term memory. Findings suggested that impaired formation of astrocytes…

  8. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  9. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  10. 7 CFR 956.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 956.44 Section 956.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA...

  11. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  12. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  13. 7 CFR 955.44 - Excess funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Excess funds. 955.44 Section 955.44 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN...

  14. 43 CFR 2653.10 - Excess selections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess selections. 2653.10 Section 2653.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) ALASKA NATIVE SELECTIONS Miscellaneous...

  15. 34 CFR 668.166 - Excess cash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... funds that an institution receives from the Secretary under the just-in-time payment method. (b) Excess...; and (2) Providing funds to the institution under the reimbursement payment method or cash monitoring payment method described in § 668.163(d) and (e), respectively. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1094)...

  16. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results. PMID:27391232

  17. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina; Turner, Stephen J.

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we comparemore » pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.« less

  18. Pilot Evaluation of RT-PCR/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PLEX-ID/Flu assay) on Influenza-Positive Specimens.

    PubMed

    Cordey, Samuel; Thomas, Yves; Suter, Patricia; Kaiser, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The PLEX-ID/Flu assay has been recently developed to enable the detection and typing of influenza viruses based on the RT-PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry technology.This novel assay was evaluated for typing performance on 201 positive influenza A or B nasopharyngeal swab specimens (NPS) detected by real-time RT-PCR during the 2010-2011 season. The PLEX-ID/Flu assay detected and characterized 91.3% and 95.3% of all influenza A and B samples, respectively. All non-typeable influenza A and B specimens by the assay showed low viral loads with threshold cycle values ≥ 33. Taken together, and although our results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, the PLEX-ID/Flu assay detected positively and gave a typing result for 93% of all NPS detected positively by real-time RT-PCR, thus suggesting a potential role for influenza virus surveillance among other techniques. PMID:22611461

  19. Multi-spectral fluorescent reporter influenza viruses (Color-flu) as powerful tools for in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Satoshi; Katsura, Hiroaki; Zhao, Dongming; Ozawa, Makoto; Ando, Tomomi; Shoemaker, Jason E; Ishikawa, Izumi; Yamada, Shinya; Neumann, Gabriele; Watanabe, Shinji; Kitano, Hiroaki; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics of respiratory disease; highly pathogenic avian H5N1 and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses cause severe infections in humans, often with fatal outcomes. Although numerous studies have addressed the pathogenicity of influenza viruses, influenza pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here we generate influenza viruses expressing fluorescent proteins of different colours ('Color-flu' viruses) to facilitate the study of viral infection in in vivo models. On adaptation to mice, stable expression of the fluorescent proteins in infected animals allows their detection by different types of microscopy and by flow cytometry. We use this system to analyse the progression of viral spread in mouse lungs, for live imaging of virus-infected cells, and for differential gene expression studies in virus antigen-positive and virus antigen-negative live cells in the lungs of Color-flu-infected mice. Collectively, Color-flu viruses are powerful tools to analyse virus infections at the cellular level in vivo to better understand influenza pathogenesis. PMID:25807527

  20. Pilot Evaluation of RT-PCR/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (PLEX-ID/Flu assay) on Influenza-Positive Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Cordey, Samuel; Thomas, Yves; Suter, Patricia; Kaiser, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The PLEX-ID/Flu assay has been recently developed to enable the detection and typing of influenza viruses based on the RT-PCR/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry technology. This novel assay was evaluated for typing performance on 201 positive influenza A or B nasopharyngeal swab specimens (NPS) detected by real-time RT-PCR during the 2010-2011 season. The PLEX-ID/Flu assay detected and characterized 91.3% and 95.3% of all influenza A and B samples, respectively. All non-typeable influenza A and B specimens by the assay showed low viral loads with threshold cycle values ≥ 33. Taken together, and although our results need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, the PLEX-ID/Flu assay detected positively and gave a typing result for 93% of all NPS detected positively by real-time RT-PCR, thus suggesting a potential role for influenza virus surveillance among other techniques. PMID:22611461

  1. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results. PMID:27391232

  2. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  3. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  4. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  5. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  6. 5 CFR 1650.5 - Returned funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Returned funds. 1650.5 Section 1650.5 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD METHODS OF WITHDRAWING FUNDS FROM THE THRIFT SAVINGS PLAN General § 1650.5 Returned funds. If a withdrawal is returned as undeliverable, the TSP...

  7. 50 CFR 12.51 - Return procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Return procedure. 12.51 Section 12.51 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING... SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Return of Property § 12.51 Return procedure. If, at the conclusion...

  8. 21 CFR 203.23 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 203.23 Section 203.23 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.23 Returns. The return of a prescription drug purchased...

  9. Mars 2005 Sample Return Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulick, V. C. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Convened at the request of Dr. Jurgen Rahe of the NASA Office of Space Science, the purpose of this workshop was to reexamine the science issues that will determine how an optimum sample return mission would be carried out in 2005 given the new context that has emerged for Mars exploration since the last such workshop was held (in 1987). The results and summary of discussion that took place at the meeting are contained in this volume. The community was invited to participate in the preparation of the final written report by browsing through the agenda and reading the text and viewgraphs provided by workshop participants and submitting comments for that section.

  10. Data link and return link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuron, Bruce R.; Lyons, Joseph B., Jr.

    1991-05-01

    This invention relates to a data coder, code searching mechanism, data decoder, and range computer for a missile wherein the missile receiver is able to discriminate between the real signals and jamming signals. The system provides discrimination in aircraft receiver systems for the return synchronization signal. This is accomplished by utilizing a random code generator wherein the command data signals modulate the code train which in turn modulates the RF carrier. The missile contains a second code generator with a code searching mechanism which synchronizes the second code generator with the first generator. The comparison of the second code generator signal with the received signal produces the command signal as an output.

  11. Mars rover sample return missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Glenn E.; Rea, Donald G.; Pivirotto, Donna; Kwok, Johnny; Craig, Mark K.

    1988-01-01

    An important intermediate step in the path to human exploration of Mars is the accomplishment of a mission which lands an unmanned rover on the Martian surface, selects and collects various samples of the terrain and atmosphere, and returns them to earth for analysis. Such a mission is being developed under the management of NASA's JPL and the Johnson Space Center. The concepts for a wide range of rover capabilities are studied and an assessment of the driving technological developments required to implement these capabilities is made.

  12. Return to Flight Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    It has been 29 months since Columbia was lost over East Texas in February 2003. Seven months after the accident, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) released the first volume of its final report, citing a variety of technical, managerial, and cultural issues within NASA and the Space Shuttle Program. To their credit, NASA offered few excuses, embraced the report, and set about correcting the deficiencies noted by the accident board. Of the 29 recommendations issued by the CAIB, 15 were deemed critical enough that the accident board believed they should be implemented prior to returning the Space Shuttle to flight. Some of these recommendations were relatively easy, most were straightforward, a few bordered on the impossible, and others were largely overcome by events, particularly the decision by the President to retire the Space Shuttle by 2010. The Return to Flight Task Group (RTF TG, or simply, the Task Group) was chartered by the NASA Administrator in July 2003 to provide an independent assessment of the implementation of the 15 CAIB return-to-flight recommendations. An important observation must be stated up-front: neither the CAIB nor the RTF TG believes that all risk can be eliminated from Space Shuttle operations; nor do we believe that the Space Shuttle is inherently unsafe. What the CAIB and RTF TG do believe, however, is that NASA and the American public need to understand the risks associated with space travel, and that NASA must make every reasonable effort to minimize such risk. Since the release of the CAIB report, NASA and the Space Shuttle Program expended enormous effort and resources toward correcting the causes of the accident and preparing to fly again. Relative to the 15 specific recommendations that the CAIB indicated should be implemented prior to returning to flight, NASA has met or exceeded most of them the Task Group believes that NASA met the intent of the CAIB for 12 of these recommendations. The remaining three

  13. Return to Play After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cook, Ralph W; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-10-01

    Surgical management of lumbar spine conditions can produce excellent outcomes in athletes. Microdiscectomy for lumbar disc herniation has favorable outcomes; most athletes return to play at preoperative performance levels. Direct pars repair is successful in younger athletes, with high rates of return to play for a variety of fixation techniques. Fusion in athletes with scoliosis is a negative predictor. There are few evidence-based return to play criteria. Athletes should demonstrate full resolution of symptoms and flexibility, endurance, and strength before returning to play. Deciding when to return an athlete to sport depends on particular injury sustained, sport, and individual factors. PMID:27543402

  14. 12 CFR 210.12 - Return of cash items and handling of returned checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accounting entries) subject to this subpart and to the Reserve Banks' operating circulars. (2) Warranties for... the returned check, in paper or electronic form, for forward collection or return. (3) Warranties for all returned checks that are electronic items. A paying bank or returning bank that sends a...

  15. The dynamics of health and return migration.

    PubMed

    Davies, Anita A; Borland, Rosilyne M; Blake, Carolyn; West, Haley E

    2011-06-01

    The increasing importance and complexity of migration globally also implies a global increase in return migration, and thus an increased interest in the health of returning migrants. The health of returning migrants is impacted by the cumulative exposure to social determinants and risk factors of health during the migration process, during the return movement, and following return. Circular migration often occurs among the diaspora, which can result in the transfer of knowledge and skills that contribute to development, including health system strengthening. Migrants with dual nationality often return to countries with better health services than their country of origin when they are sick and can not get care at home. To maintain and improve the health of returning migrants, multi-sectoral policies at global and national levels should facilitate access to appropriate and equitable health services, social services, and continuity of care across and within borders. PMID:21738448

  16. Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Anthony A B; Nicki, Richard M

    2010-08-01

    Despite the widespread rise of online poker playing, there is a paucity of research examining potential predictors for excessive poker playing. The aim of this study was to build on recent research examining motives for Texas Hold'em play in students by determining whether predictors of other kinds of excessive gambling apply to Texas Hold'em. Impulsivity, negative mood states, dissociation, and boredom proneness have been linked to general problem gambling and may play a role in online poker. Participants of this study were self-selected online poker players (N = 179) who completed an online survey. Results revealed that participants played an average of 20 hours of online poker a week and approximately 9% of the sample was classified as a problem gambler according to the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Problem gambling, in this sample, was uniquely predicted by time played, dissociation, boredom proneness, impulsivity, and negative affective states, namely depression, anxiety, and stress. PMID:20712496

  17. Scalar explanation of diphoton excess at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Huayong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Sibo

    2016-06-01

    Inspired by the diphoton signal excess observed in the latest data of 13 TeV LHC, we consider either a 750 GeV real scalar or pseudo-scalar responsible for this anomaly. We propose a concrete vector-like quark model, in which the vector-like fermion pairs directly couple to this scalar via Yukawa interaction. For this setting the scalar is mainly produced via gluon fusion, then decays at the one-loop level to SM diboson channels gg , γγ , ZZ , WW. We show that for the vector-like fermion pairs with exotic electric charges, such model can account for the diphoton excess and is consistent with the data of 8 TeV LHC simultaneously in the context of perturbative analysis.

  18. 750 GeV diphoton excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Galloway, Jamison; Gori, Stefania; Kagan, Alexander L.; Martin, Adam; Zupan, Jure

    2016-05-01

    We explore several perturbative scenarios in which the diphoton excess at 750 GeV can potentially be explained: a scalar singlet, a two Higgs doublet model (2HDM), a 2HDM with an extra singlet, and the decays of heavier resonances, both vector and scalar. We draw the following conclusions: (i) due to gauge invariance a 750 GeV scalar singlet can accommodate the observed excess more readily than a scalar S U (2 )L doublet; (ii) scalar singlet production via gluon fusion is one option, however, vector boson fusion can also provide a large enough rate, (iii) 2HDMs with an extra singlet and no extra fermions can only give a signal in a severely tuned region of the parameter space; (iv) decays of heavier resonances can give a large enough diphoton signal at 750 GeV, while simultaneously explaining the absence of a signal at 8 TeV.

  19. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  20. 31 CFR 315.11 - Excess purchases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Excess purchases. 315.11 Section 315.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, AND K, AND...

  1. Metallic return transfer breaker development. Research project 667. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, N.

    1981-04-01

    EPRI and Hughes Research Laboratories (HRL) contracted to develop and test a metallic return transfer breaker (MRTB) utilizing the novel Hughes crossed-field tube, which, on an earlier contract (EPRI Project RP 91) had become the world's first HVDC circuit breaker to successfully clear a fault on a multiterminal HVDC system. The function of an MRTB is to transfer load current between earth and metallic returns on a bipolar HVDC system. THE MRTB with a single crossed-field tube, mechanical in-line switch (MIS), and zinc-oxide resistor was completed and successfully passed high-voltage withstand and electro-magnetic interference (EMI) tests at Hughes Malibu facility in July of 1978. The unit was installed at the Celilo station of the Bonneville Power Administration in December of 1978. An operational test in December 1978 was to include transfer from the earth-return to the metallic-return mode at line currents 300, 600, 1200, and 1800 A. The 300- and 600-A tests were completely successful and produced no unusual results. At the start of the 1200-A transfer, an arc was struck from the top of the entrance bushing to the enclosure of the interrupter, followed by an explosion that blew the doors off the enclosure. An ensuing fire was self-extinguishing. A thorough analysis revealed that the primary cause of failure was an arc struck from a temporary instrumentation lead previously opened at the connecting lug by excess tension from mechanical flexing. A secondary cause was rupture of the case of the interrupter head of the MIS, which created a flammable state within the MRTB enclosure. EPRI and HRL jointly decided termination appeared the most practical option because the MIS could not easily be replaced by HRL with a unit of different design. EPRI decided to pursue an alternative approach. The control and communication electronics of EPRI MRTB, which survived the explosion without failure, could be utilized.

  2. Search for bright stars with infrared excess

    SciTech Connect

    Raharto, Moedji

    2014-03-24

    Bright stars, stars with visual magnitude smaller than 6.5, can be studied using small telescope. In general, if stars are assumed as black body radiator, then the color in infrared (IR) region is usually equal to zero. Infrared data from IRAS observations at 12 and 25μm (micron) with good flux quality are used to search for bright stars (from Bright Stars Catalogues) with infrared excess. In magnitude scale, stars with IR excess is defined as stars with IR color m{sub 12}−m{sub 25}>0; where m{sub 12}−m{sub 25} = −2.5log(F{sub 12}/F{sub 25})+1.56, where F{sub 12} and F{sub 25} are flux density in Jansky at 12 and 25μm, respectively. Stars with similar spectral type are expected to have similar color. The existence of infrared excess in the same spectral type indicates the existence of circum-stellar dust, the origin of which is probably due to the remnant of pre main-sequence evolution during star formation or post AGB evolution or due to physical process such as the rotation of those stars.

  3. Origin of Excess 176Hf in Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James N.; Bizzarro, Martin; Meyer, Bradley S.; The, Lih-Sin

    2010-07-01

    After considerable controversy regarding the 176Lu decay constant (λ176Lu), there is now widespread agreement that (1.867 ± 0.008) × 10-11 yr-1 as confirmed by various terrestrial objects and a 4557 Myr meteorite is correct. This leaves the 176Hf excesses that are correlated with Lu/Hf elemental ratios in meteorites older than ~4.56 Ga meteorites unresolved. We attribute 176Hf excess in older meteorites to an accelerated decay of 176Lu caused by excitation of the long-lived 176Lu ground state to a short-lived 176m Lu isomer. The energy needed to cause this transition is ascribed to a post-crystallization spray of cosmic rays accelerated by nearby supernova(e) that occurred after 4564.5 Ma. The majority of these cosmic rays are estimated to penetrate accreted material down to 10-20 m, whereas a small fraction penetrate as deep as 100-200 m, predicting decreased excesses of 176Hf with depth of burial at the time of the irradiation event.

  4. [Adaptation of thyroid function to excess iodine].

    PubMed

    Aurengo, Andre; Leenhardt, Laurence; Aurengo, Helyett

    2002-10-26

    NORMALLY: The production of thyroid hormones is normally stable, despite iodine supplies that may vary widely and even on sudden excess iodine. The metabolism of iodine is characterised by adapted thyroid uptake, the requirements varying on the age and physiological status of the individual (pregnancy, breastfeeding) and by insufficient supplies in several areas in France. IN THE CASE OF EXCESS: The mechanisms that permit the thyroid to adapt to a sudden or chronic excess of iodine are immature in the newborn and sometimes deficient in adults, and may lead to iodine-induced dysthyroidism. Thanks to the recent progress made in thyroid physiology, these mechanisms are now better known. PATHOLOGICAL IMPACT: Iodine-induced hyperthyroidisms in a healthy or pathological thyroid are frequent. They are predominantly related to amiodarone. Iodine-related hypothyroidism frequently appears in cases of pre-existing thyroid diseases (asymptomatic autoimmune thyroiditis, for example). They are frequent in the newborn, notably in the premature. The iodine prophylaxis organised in Poland following the Tchernobyl accident led to very few pathological consequences in adults or children. PMID:12448332

  5. Negative excess noise in gated quantum wires

    SciTech Connect

    Dolcini, F.; Trauzettel, B.; Safi, I.; Grabert, H.

    2009-04-23

    The electrical current noise of a quantum wire is expected to increase with increasing applied voltage. We show that this intuition can be wrong. Specifically, we consider a single channel quantum wire with impurities and with a capacitive coupling to a metallic gate, and find that its excess noise, defined as the change in the noise caused by the finite voltage, can be negative at zero temperature. This feature is present both for large (c>>c{sub q}) and small (c<>c{sub q}, negativity of the excess noise can occur at finite frequency when the transmission coefficients are energy dependent, i.e. in the presence of Fabry-Perot resonances or band curvature. In the opposite regime c < or approx. c{sub q}, a non trivial voltage dependence of the noise arises even for energy independent transmission coefficients: at zero frequency the noise decreases with voltage as a power law when cexcess noise are present due to Andreev-type resonances.

  6. Leptophilic dark matter in Galactic Center excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Bo-Qiang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2016-04-01

    Herein we explore the possibility of explaining a gamma-ray excess in the Galactic Center with the dark matter scenario. After taking into account the constraints from both the AMS-02 experiment and the gamma-ray observation on dwarf spheroidal satellite galaxies in Fermi-LAT, we find that the τ lepton channel is the only permissive channel for the interpretation of the Galaxy center excess. Tau leptophilic dark matter provides a well-motivated framework in which the dark matter can dominantly couple to τ lepton at tree-level. We describe the interactions with a general effective field theory approach by using higher-dimensional operators, and this approach provides for a model independent analysis. We consider the constraints from the measurement of the DM relic density in the Planck experiment and the AMS-02 cosmic rays experiment, and find that most of the interaction operators except O7 , O9 and O12 have been excluded. Due to the quantum fluctuations, even in such a scenario there are loop induced dark matter-nucleon interactions. We calculate the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section at loop-level, and if the limits on the dark matter-nucleon scattering cross-section from direct detection experiments are also taken into account, we find that the operators remaining available for accounting for the Galaxy center excess are O9 and O12.

  7. [CLINICAL INVESTIGATION OF AN EXCESSIVE SLEEPINESS COMPLAINT].

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Elisa; Barateau, Lucie; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-06-01

    Excessive sleepiness is a common problem, defined by a complaint of excessive daytime sleepiness almost daily with an inability to stay awake and alert dosing periods at sleep, with episodes of irresistible sleep need or drowsiness or non-intentional sleep, or by a night's sleep time overly extended often associated with sleep inertia. This sleepiness is variable in terms of phenotype and severity to be specified by the out-patient clinic. It is considered to be chronic beyond three months and often responsible for significant functional impairment of school and professional performance, of the accidents and cardiovascular risk. We need to decipher the causes of excessive sleepiness: sleep deprivation, toxic and iatrogenic, psychiatric disorders (including depression), non-psychiatric medical problems (obesity, neurological pathologies...), sleep disorders (as for example the sleep apnea syndrome), and finally the central hypersomnias namely narcolepsy type 1 and 2, idiopathic hypersomnia, and Kleine-Levin syndrome. If careful questioning often towards one of these etiologies, need most of the time a paraclinical balance with a sleep recording to confirm the diagnosis. Patients affected with potential central hypersomnia must be referred to the Sleep Study Centers that have the skills and the appropriate means to achieve this balance sheet. PMID:27538325

  8. Hyperthyroidism caused by excessive consumption of sausages.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, L E L; Looij, B J

    2010-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism results from excessive production of thyroid hormones. This is usually caused by Graves disease, but exogenous thyroid hormones can lead to similar symptoms. Recognition of the latter is difficult as excessive intake of thyroid hormone is not usually admitted nor recognised. To our knowledge, exogenous hyperthyroidism caused by thyroid-contaminated food has been described twice, but not in the Netherlands. A 77-year-old man presented at the Outpatient Department of Internal Medicine with lab values revealing hyperthyroidism. There were no abnormal findings at the physical examination. Antibodies against the thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) receptor were not detectable. Thyroid scintigraphy with 123I showed an uptake of less than 1%. Silent thyroiditis was diagnosed and the natural course was awaited, but with no improvement in the thyroid values. The thyroglobulin was very low. Further anamnesis revealed an excessive daily consumption of sausages. Thyroid hormones were detectable in these sausages. After the patient stopped eating them, he became and remained euthyroid. The case stipulates the importance of a thorough anamnesis. PMID:20308711

  9. Design of multiligand inhibitors for the swine flu H1N1 neuraminidase binding site.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Manoj M; Nair, Chandrasekhar B; Sanjeeva, Shilpa K; Rao, Pv Subba; Pullela, Phani K; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir and zanamivir prevent early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. These drugs are effective for the treatment of a variety of influenza subtypes, including swine flu (H1N1). The binding site for these drugs is well established and they were designed based on computational docking studies. We show here that some common natural products have moderate inhibitory activity for H1N1 neuraminidase under docking studies. Significantly, docking studies using AutoDock for biligand and triligand forms of these compounds (camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate linked via methylene bridges) indicate that they may bind in combination with high affinity to the H1N1 neuraminidase active site. These results also indicate that chemically linked biligands and triligands of these natural products could provide a new class of drug leads for the prevention and treatment of influenza. This study also highlights the need for a multiligand docking algorithm to understand better the mode of action of natural products, wherein multiple active ingredients are present. PMID:23983477

  10. [The "Spanish flu" pandemic of 1918-1919 in La Réunion (Indian Ocean)].

    PubMed

    Gaüzère, B-A; Aubry, P

    2015-01-01

    Brought in by the ship Madonna, which was taking local survivors of World War I back to Reunion, the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic reached the island in March 1919 and lasted for three months. The controversies between doctors and between doctors and the colonial administrators, officials' desertion of their posts, and food shortages together caused a major panic. The epidemic appears to have ravaged people under the age of 40 and the most disadvantaged neighborhoods, at a period when the economy was already in the doldrums and the population had been declining since the late 19th century. Estimates indicate 2000 deaths in the capital of Saint-Denis, among a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and 7 to 20,000 deaths on the island as a whole, representing 4-11% of the population - far more than the 949 local soldiers killed on the battlefields of Europe. According to legend, salvation came from the sky as a small cyclone on May 11, 1919: it lasted an hour, swept away the "miasmas" and washed the island clean of all its impurities. PMID:25500279

  11. MapMyFlu: visualizing spatio-temporal relationships between related influenza sequences.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Nicholas; Kurzawa, Nils; Eils, Roland; Herrmann, Carl

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular dynamics of viral spreading is crucial for anticipating the epidemiological implications of disease outbreaks. In the case of influenza, reassortments or point mutations affect the adaption to new hosts or resistance to anti-viral drugs and can determine whether a new strain will result in a pandemic infection or a less severe progression. To this end, tools integrating molecular information with epidemiological parameters are important to understand how molecular characteristics reflect in the infection dynamics. We present a new web tool, MapMyFlu, which allows to spatially and temporally display influenza viruses related to a query sequence on a Google Map based on BLAST results against the NCBI Influenza Database. Temporal and geographical trends appear clearly and may help in reconstructing the evolutionary history of a particular sequence. The tool is accessible through a web server, hence without the need for local installation. The website has an intuitive design and provides an easy-to-use service, and is available at http://mapmyflu.ipmb.uni-heidelberg.de. PMID:25940623

  12. Clinical performance evaluation of the BD Veritor System Flu A+B assay.

    PubMed

    Nam, Myung-Hyun; Jang, Jin Woo; Lee, Jong-Han; Cho, Chi Hyun; Lim, Chae Seung; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-08-01

    Early identification of influenza is important for optimal patient management and infection control. Rapid influenza antigen tests have been used routinely in clinical settings to confirm clinical suspicion, despite their low sensitivity. To improve sensitivity, various influenza point-of-care test reader systems have been developed. This study evaluated the clinical performance of a digital readout rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT), the BD Veritor™ System Flu A+B assay (BD). Nasopharyngeal swabs taken from 250 patients (influenza A positive, n=75; influenza B positive, n=75; and influenza negative, n=100) were analyzed using the BinaxNOW® Influenza A/B antigen kit (BN), SD Influenza Ag A/B kit (SD), BD, real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and an influenza virus culture. Compared to RT-PCR, the sensitivities of BN, SD, and BD were 56.0, 53.3, and 72.0%, respectively, for influenza A and 57.3, 65.3, and 69.3%, respectively, for influenza B. No false-positive results were noted with the three rapid antigen tests. For influenza A, the average RT-PCR threshold cycle (Ct) for specimens that tested positive using BD was higher than that for specimens that tested positive using BN and SD. BD is a sensitive and easy method for the early detection of influenza A and B. PMID:24747589

  13. PapMV nanoparticles improve mucosal immune responses to the trivalent inactivated flu vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. Findings In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination. PMID:24885884

  14. Design of multiligand inhibitors for the swine flu H1N1 neuraminidase binding site

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Manoj M; Nair, Chandrasekhar B; Sanjeeva, Shilpa K; Rao, PV Subba; Pullela, Phani K; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-01-01

    Viral neuraminidase inhibitors such as oseltamivir and zanamivir prevent early virus multiplication by blocking sialic acid cleavage on host cells. These drugs are effective for the treatment of a variety of influenza subtypes, including swine flu (H1N1). The binding site for these drugs is well established and they were designed based on computational docking studies. We show here that some common natural products have moderate inhibitory activity for H1N1 neuraminidase under docking studies. Significantly, docking studies using AutoDock for biligand and triligand forms of these compounds (camphor, menthol, and methyl salicylate linked via methylene bridges) indicate that they may bind in combination with high affinity to the H1N1 neuraminidase active site. These results also indicate that chemically linked biligands and triligands of these natural products could provide a new class of drug leads for the prevention and treatment of influenza. This study also highlights the need for a multiligand docking algorithm to understand better the mode of action of natural products, wherein multiple active ingredients are present. PMID:23983477

  15. Nurses’ Perspective on Approaches to Limit Flu-Like Symptoms During Interferon Therapy for Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beavin, Jill; Brillante, Raquel T.; Costello, Kathleen; Hartley, Gail C.; Hartley, Kay; Namey, Marie; O'Leary, Shirley; Remington, Gina

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several interferon beta (IFNβ) formulations are approved for first-line use as disease-modifying therapies to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Systemic post-injection reactions, often termed flu-like symptoms (FLS), occur in approximately half of all patients treated with IFNβs and can affect adherence to therapy. These symptoms, which include pyrexia, chills, malaise, myalgia, and headaches, usually resolve within 24 hours or persist intermittently following each injection. Because FLS, which usually occur early in the treatment course and diminish over time, are a primary cause of nonadherence to IFNβ therapy, it is important to employ strategies that can attenuate these side effects. Methods: To identify interventions effective in limiting FLS, a panel of United States–based nurses with expertise in MS patient care was convened and a literature review completed. Results: Panel consensus was reached on specific interventions that can attenuate FLS. These prevention and mitigation strategies include dose titration, analgesia, and optimal injection timing, as well as other techniques that panel members have found useful in their clinical practice experience. Conclusions: These measures, in addition to effective patient education, will help to reduce the incidence of FLS secondary to IFNβ therapy, improve patient medication adherence, and positively affect long-term clinical outcomes. PMID:24688355

  16. Multitask Learning of Signaling and Regulatory Networks with Application to Studying Human Response to Flu

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Siddhartha; Gitter, Anthony; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructing regulatory and signaling response networks is one of the major goals of systems biology. While several successful methods have been suggested for this task, some integrating large and diverse datasets, these methods have so far been applied to reconstruct a single response network at a time, even when studying and modeling related conditions. To improve network reconstruction we developed MT-SDREM, a multi-task learning method which jointly models networks for several related conditions. In MT-SDREM, parameters are jointly constrained across the networks while still allowing for condition-specific pathways and regulation. We formulate the multi-task learning problem and discuss methods for optimizing the joint target function. We applied MT-SDREM to reconstruct dynamic human response networks for three flu strains: H1N1, H5N1 and H3N2. Our multi-task learning method was able to identify known and novel factors and genes, improving upon prior methods that model each condition independently. The MT-SDREM networks were also better at identifying proteins whose removal affects viral load indicating that joint learning can still lead to accurate, condition-specific, networks. Supporting website with MT-SDREM implementation: http://sb.cs.cmu.edu/mtsdrem PMID:25522349

  17. Implications of stress range for inelastic analysis. [CRBRP flued head containment penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Karabin, M.E.; Dhalla, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    The elastic stress range over a complete load cycle is routinely used to formulate simplified rules regarding the inelastic behavior of structures operating at elevated temperature. For example, a 300 series stainless steel structure operating at elevated temperature, in all probability, would satisfy the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria if the linearized elastic stress range is less than three times the material yield strength. However, at higher elastic stress ranges it is difficult to judge, a priori, that a structural component would comply with inelastic Code criteria after a detailed inelastic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate that it is not the elastic stress range but the stress intensities at specific times during a thermal transient which provide a better insight into the inelastic response of the structure. The specific example of the CRBRP flued head design demonstrates that the temperature differential between various parts of the structure can be changed by modifying the insulation pattern and heat flow path in the structure, without significantly altering the elastic stress range over a complete load cycle. However, the modified design did reduce the stress intensity during steady state elevated temperature operation. This modified design satisfied the inelastic Code criteria whereas the initial design failed to comply with the strain accumulation criterion.

  18. Chimpanzee deaths at Mahale caused by a flu-like disease.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Shunkichi; Kiyono, Mieko; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mlengeya, Titus; Fujimoto, Mariko; Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2008-01-01

    A flu-like disease spread among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) of the M group at Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, from June to July 2006. This epizootic or epidemic killed up to 12 chimpanzees. The obvious evidence of their deaths came from finding the bodies of three infants who had previously shown some symptoms of the disease. At least one of these infants died of pneumonia. In addition, nine chimpanzees were missing after the outbreak. These individuals were assumed to have been killed by this epizootic because most of them had contact with the infected individuals on the last days they were observed. We also found two dead bodies during this period, which were thought to be those of two missing individuals. We confirmed 23 (35.4%) of 65 individuals of the M group showed some symptoms of the disease, although most of them (20/23) did not die. More than half of them (14/23) had kin showing symptoms. Since this epizootic may have been caused by contact with humans, it will be necessary to establish and follow appropriate protocols for researchers, tourists, and park staff to observe chimpanzees, and to explore the mechanism of disease transmission from humans to chimpanzees and among chimpanzees. PMID:17721678

  19. MapMyFlu: visualizing spatio-temporal relationships between related influenza sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Nicholas; Kurzawa, Nils; Eils, Roland; Herrmann, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the molecular dynamics of viral spreading is crucial for anticipating the epidemiological implications of disease outbreaks. In the case of influenza, reassortments or point mutations affect the adaption to new hosts or resistance to anti-viral drugs and can determine whether a new strain will result in a pandemic infection or a less severe progression. To this end, tools integrating molecular information with epidemiological parameters are important to understand how molecular characteristics reflect in the infection dynamics. We present a new web tool, MapMyFlu, which allows to spatially and temporally display influenza viruses related to a query sequence on a Google Map based on BLAST results against the NCBI Influenza Database. Temporal and geographical trends appear clearly and may help in reconstructing the evolutionary history of a particular sequence. The tool is accessible through a web server, hence without the need for local installation. The website has an intuitive design and provides an easy-to-use service, and is available at http://mapmyflu.ipmb.uni-heidelberg.de PMID:25940623

  20. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS).

    PubMed

    Ding, Helen; Santibanez, Tammy A; Jamieson, Denise J; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Euler, Gary L; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Lu, Peng-Jun; Singleton, James A

    2011-06-01

    We sought to describe vaccination with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent (2009 H1N1) and trivalent seasonal (seasonal) vaccines among pregnant women during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. A national H1N1 flu survey was conducted April through June 2010. The 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage estimates were 45.7% and 32.1%, respectively, among pregnant women aged 18-49 years. Receipt of a health care provider's recommendation for vaccination, perceived effectiveness of influenza vaccinations, and perceived high chance of influenza infection were independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage. Pregnancy during October 2009 through January 2010 was independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage. The 2009 H1N1 vaccination level among pregnant women was higher than the seasonal vaccination level during the 2009 through 2010 season; it was also higher than vaccination among nonpregnant women with and without high-risk conditions. Health care providers and public health messaging played important roles in influencing vaccination behavior. PMID:21640233