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Sample records for reveals cohesin functions

  1. Single-molecule imaging reveals a collapsed conformational state for DNA-bound cohesin

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Johannes; Çamdere, Gamze Ö.; Koshland, Douglas E.; Greene, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Cohesin is essential for the hierarchical organization of the eukaryotic genome and plays key roles in many aspects of chromosome biology. The conformation of cohesin bound to DNA remains poorly defined, leaving crucial gaps in our understanding of how cohesin fulfills its biological functions. Here we use single molecule microscopy to directly observe the dynamic and functional characteristics of cohesin bound to DNA. We show that cohesin can undergo rapid one-dimensional (1D) diffusion along DNA, but individual nucleosomes, nucleosome arrays, and other protein obstacles significantly restrict its mobility. We further demonstrate that DNA motor proteins can readily push cohesin along DNA, but they cannot pass through the interior of the cohesin ring. Together, our results reveal that DNA-bound cohesin has a central pore that is substantially smaller than anticipated. These findings have direct implications for understanding how cohesin and other SMC proteins interact with and distribute along chromatin. PMID:27117417

  2. Cohesin and Polycomb Proteins Functionally Interact to Control Transcription at Silenced and Active Genes

    PubMed Central

    Schaaf, Cheri A.; Misulovin, Ziva; Gause, Maria; Koenig, Amanda; Gohara, David W.; Watson, Audrey; Dorsett, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Cohesin is crucial for proper chromosome segregation but also regulates gene transcription and organism development by poorly understood mechanisms. Using genome-wide assays in Drosophila developing wings and cultured cells, we find that cohesin functionally interacts with Polycomb group (PcG) silencing proteins at both silenced and active genes. Cohesin unexpectedly facilitates binding of Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) to many active genes, but their binding is mutually antagonistic at silenced genes. PRC1 depletion decreases phosphorylated RNA polymerase II and mRNA at many active genes but increases them at silenced genes. Depletion of cohesin reduces long-range interactions between Polycomb Response Elements in the invected-engrailed gene complex where it represses transcription. These studies reveal a previously unrecognized role for PRC1 in facilitating productive gene transcription and provide new insights into how cohesin and PRC1 control development. PMID:23818863

  3. A Cohesin-Based Partitioning Mechanism Revealed upon Transcriptional Inactivation of Centromere

    PubMed Central

    Tsabar, Michael; Haase, Julian; Harrison, Benjamin; Snider, Chloe E.; Kaminsky, Lila; Hine, Rebecca M.; Haber, James E.; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptional inactivation of the budding yeast centromere has been a widely used tool in studies of chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. In haploid cells when an essential chromosome contains a single conditionally inactivated centromere (GAL-CEN), cell growth rate is slowed and segregation fidelity is reduced; but colony formation is nearly 100%. Pedigree analysis revealed that only 30% of the time both mother and daughter cell inherit the GAL-CEN chromosome. The reduced segregation capacity of the GAL-CEN chromosome is further compromised upon reduction of pericentric cohesin (mcm21∆), as reflected in a further diminishment of the Mif2 kinetochore protein at GAL-CEN. By redistributing cohesin from the nucleolus to the pericentromere (by deleting SIR2), there is increased presence of the kinetochore protein Mif2 at GAL-CEN and restoration of cell viability. These studies identify the ability of cohesin to promote chromosome segregation via kinetochore assembly, in a situation where the centromere has been severely compromised. PMID:27128635

  4. A Cohesin-Based Partitioning Mechanism Revealed upon Transcriptional Inactivation of Centromere.

    PubMed

    Tsabar, Michael; Haase, Julian; Harrison, Benjamin; Snider, Chloe E; Eldridge, Brittany; Kaminsky, Lila; Hine, Rebecca M; Haber, James E; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    Transcriptional inactivation of the budding yeast centromere has been a widely used tool in studies of chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. In haploid cells when an essential chromosome contains a single conditionally inactivated centromere (GAL-CEN), cell growth rate is slowed and segregation fidelity is reduced; but colony formation is nearly 100%. Pedigree analysis revealed that only 30% of the time both mother and daughter cell inherit the GAL-CEN chromosome. The reduced segregation capacity of the GAL-CEN chromosome is further compromised upon reduction of pericentric cohesin (mcm21∆), as reflected in a further diminishment of the Mif2 kinetochore protein at GAL-CEN. By redistributing cohesin from the nucleolus to the pericentromere (by deleting SIR2), there is increased presence of the kinetochore protein Mif2 at GAL-CEN and restoration of cell viability. These studies identify the ability of cohesin to promote chromosome segregation via kinetochore assembly, in a situation where the centromere has been severely compromised. PMID:27128635

  5. Functional links between Drosophila Nipped-B and cohesin in somatic and meiotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Gause, Maria; Webber, Hayley A.; Misulovin, Ziva; Haller, Gabe; Rollins, Robert A.; Eissenberg, Joel C.; Bickel, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila Nipped-B is an essential protein that has multiple functions. It facilitates expression of homeobox genes and is also required for sister chromatid cohesion. Nipped-B is conserved from yeast to man, and its orthologs also play roles in deoxyribonucleic acid repair and meiosis. Mutation of the human ortholog, Nipped-B-Like (NIPBL), causes Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), associated with multiple developmental defects. The Nipped-B protein family is required for the cohesin complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion to bind to chromosomes. A key question, therefore, is whether the Nipped-B family regulates gene expression, meiosis, and development by controlling cohesin. To gain insights into Nipped-B's functions, we compared the effects of several Nipped-B mutations on gene expression, sister chromatid cohesion, and meiosis. We also examined association of Nipped-B and cohesin with somatic and meiotic chromosomes by immunostaining. Missense Nipped-B alleles affecting the same HEAT repeat motifs as CdLS-causing NIPBL mutations have intermediate effects on both gene expression and mitotic chromatid cohesion, linking these two functions and the role of NIPBL in human development. Nipped-B colocalizes extensively with cohesin on chromosomes in both somatic and meiotic cells and is present in soluble complexes with cohesin subunits in nuclear extracts. In meiosis, Nipped-B also colocalizes with the synaptonemal complex and contributes to maintenance of meiotic chromosome cores. These results support the idea that direct regulation of cohesin function underlies the diverse functions of Nipped-B and its orthologs. PMID:17909832

  6. piggyBac-Based Mosaic Screen Identifies a Postmitotic Function for Cohesin in Regulating Developmental Axon Pruning

    PubMed Central

    Schuldiner, Oren; Berdnik, Daniela; Levy, Jonathan Ma; Wu, Joy Sing-Yi; Luginbuhl, David; Gontang, Allison Camille; Luo, Liqun

    2008-01-01

    Summary Developmental axon pruning is widely used to refine neural circuits. We performed a mosaic screen to identify mutations affecting axon pruning of Drosophila mushroom body γ neurons. We constructed a modified piggyBac vector with improved mutagenicity and generated insertions in >2000 genes. We identified two cohesin subunits (SMC1 and SA) as essential for axon pruning. The cohesin complex maintains sister chromatid cohesion during cell division in eukaryotes. However, we show that the pruning phenotype in SMC1-/- clones is rescued by expressing SMC1 in neurons, revealing a new postmitotic function. SMC1-/- clones exhibit reduced levels of the ecdysone receptor EcR-B1, a key regulator of axon pruning. The pruning phenotype is significantly suppressed by overexpressing EcR-B1 and enhanced by reduced dosage of EcR, supporting a causal relationship. We also demonstrate a postmitotic role for SMC1 in dendrite targeting of olfactory projection neurons. We suggest that cohesin regulates diverse aspects of neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:18267091

  7. piggyBac-based mosaic screen identifies a postmitotic function for cohesin in regulating developmental axon pruning.

    PubMed

    Schuldiner, Oren; Berdnik, Daniela; Levy, Jonathan Ma; Wu, Joy S; Luginbuhl, David; Gontang, Allison Camille; Luo, Liqun

    2008-02-01

    Developmental axon pruning is widely used to refine neural circuits. We performed a mosaic screen to identify mutations affecting axon pruning of Drosophila mushroom body gamma neurons. We constructed a modified piggyBac vector with improved mutagenicity and generated insertions in >2000 genes. We identified two cohesin subunits (SMC1 and SA) as being essential for axon pruning. The cohesin complex maintains sister-chromatid cohesion during cell division in eukaryotes. However, we show that the pruning phenotype in SMC1(-/-) clones is rescued by expressing SMC1 in neurons, revealing a postmitotic function. SMC1(-/-) clones exhibit reduced levels of the ecdysone receptor EcR-B1, a key regulator of axon pruning. The pruning phenotype is significantly suppressed by overexpressing EcR-B1 and is enhanced by a reduced dose of EcR, supporting a causal relationship. We also demonstrate a postmitotic role for SMC1 in dendrite targeting of olfactory projection neurons. We suggest that cohesin regulates diverse aspects of neuronal morphogenesis. PMID:18267091

  8. Cohesin and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinglan; Krantz, Ian D.

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a dominant multisystem disorder caused by a disruption of cohesin function. The cohesin ring complex is composed of four protein subunits and more than 25 additional proteins involved in its regulation. The discovery that this complex also has a fundamental role in long-range regulation of transcription in Drosophila has shed light on the mechanism likely responsible for its role in development. In addition to the three cohesin proteins involved in CdLS, a second multisystem, recessively inherited, developmental disorder, Roberts-SC phocomelia, is caused by mutations in another regulator of the cohesin complex, ESCO2. Here we review the phenotypes of these disorders, collectively termed cohesinopathies, as well as the mechanism by which cohesin disruption likely causes these diseases. PMID:18767966

  9. Separase biosensor reveals that cohesin cleavage timing depends on phosphatase PP2ACdc55 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Yaakov, Gilad; Thorn, Kurt; Morgan, David O.

    2012-01-01

    Summary In anaphase, sister chromatids separate abruptly and are then segregated by the mitotic spindle. The protease separase triggers sister separation by cleaving the Scc1/Mcd1 subunit of the cohesin ring that holds sisters together. Polo-kinase phosphorylation of Scc1 promotes its cleavage, but the underlying regulatory circuits are unclear. We developed a separase biosensor in Saccharomyces cerevisae that provides a quantitative indicator of cohesin cleavage in single cells. Separase is abruptly activated and cleaves most cohesin within one minute, after which anaphase begins. Cohesin near centromeres and telomeres is cleaved at the same rate and time. Protein phosphatase PP2ACdc55 inhibits cohesin cleavage by counteracting polo-kinase phosphorylation of Scc1. In early anaphase, the previously described separase inhibition of PP2ACdc55 promotes cohesin cleavage. Thus, separase acts directly on Scc1 and also indirectly, through inhibition of PP2ACdc55, to stimulate cohesin cleavage, providing a feedforward loop that may contribute to a robust and timely anaphase. PMID:22814605

  10. Structural basis of cohesin cleavage by separase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhonghui; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-04-01

    Accurate chromosome segregation requires timely dissolution of chromosome cohesion after chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic spindle. Separase is absolutely essential for cohesion dissolution in organisms from yeast to man. It cleaves the kleisin subunit of cohesin and opens the cohesin ring to allow chromosome segregation. Cohesin cleavage is spatiotemporally controlled by separase-associated regulatory proteins, including the inhibitory chaperone securin, and by phosphorylation of both the enzyme and substrates. Dysregulation of this process causes chromosome missegregation and aneuploidy, contributing to cancer and birth defects. Despite its essential functions, atomic structures of separase have not been determined. Here we report crystal structures of the separase protease domain from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum, alone or covalently bound to unphosphorylated and phosphorylated inhibitory peptides derived from a cohesin cleavage site. These structures reveal how separase recognizes cohesin and how cohesin phosphorylation by polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) enhances cleavage. Consistent with a previous cellular study, mutating two securin residues in a conserved motif that partly matches the separase cleavage consensus converts securin from a separase inhibitor to a substrate. Our study establishes atomic mechanisms of substrate cleavage by separase and suggests competitive inhibition by securin. PMID:27027290

  11. Identification of Functional Domains in the Cohesin Loader Subunit Scc4 by a Random Insertion/Dominant Negative Screen

    PubMed Central

    Shwartz, Michal; Matityahu, Avi; Onn, Itay

    2016-01-01

    Cohesin is a multi-subunit complex that plays an essential role in genome stability. Initial association of cohesin with chromosomes requires the loader—a heterodimer composed of Scc4 and Scc2. However, very little is known about the loader’s mechanism of action. In this study, we performed a genetic screen to identify functional domains in the Scc4 subunit of the loader. We isolated scc4 mutant alleles that, when overexpressed, have a dominant negative effect on cell viability. We defined a small region in the N terminus of Scc4 that is dominant negative when overexpressed, and on which Scc2/Scc4 activity depends. When the mutant alleles are expressed as a single copy, they are recessive and do not support cell viability, cohesion, cohesin loading or Scc4 chromatin binding. In addition, we show that the mutants investigated reduce, but do not eliminate, the interaction of Scc4 with either Scc2 or cohesin. However, we show that Scc4 cannot bind cohesin in the absence of Scc2. Our results provide new insight into the roles of Scc4 in cohesin loading, and contribute to deciphering the loading mechanism. PMID:27280786

  12. Chromosomes. A comprehensive Xist interactome reveals cohesin repulsion and an RNA-directed chromosome conformation.

    PubMed

    Minajigi, Anand; Froberg, John E; Wei, Chunyao; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Kesner, Barry; Colognori, David; Lessing, Derek; Payer, Bernhard; Boukhali, Myriam; Haas, Wilhelm; Lee, Jeannie T

    2015-07-17

    The inactive X chromosome (Xi) serves as a model to understand gene silencing on a global scale. Here, we perform "identification of direct RNA interacting proteins" (iDRiP) to isolate a comprehensive protein interactome for Xist, an RNA required for Xi silencing. We discover multiple classes of interactors-including cohesins, condensins, topoisomerases, RNA helicases, chromatin remodelers, and modifiers-that synergistically repress Xi transcription. Inhibiting two or three interactors destabilizes silencing. Although Xist attracts some interactors, it repels architectural factors. Xist evicts cohesins from the Xi and directs an Xi-specific chromosome conformation. Upon deleting Xist, the Xi acquires the cohesin-binding and chromosomal architecture of the active X. Our study unveils many layers of Xi repression and demonstrates a central role for RNA in the topological organization of mammalian chromosomes. PMID:26089354

  13. Interallelic complementation provides functional evidence for cohesin–cohesin interactions on DNA

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Thomas; Guacci, Vincent; Koshland, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The cohesin complex (Mcd1p, Smc1p, Smc3p, and Scc3p) has multiple roles in chromosome architecture, such as promoting sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation, DNA repair, and transcriptional regulation. The prevailing embrace model for sister chromatid cohesion posits that a single cohesin complex entraps both sister chromatids. We report interallelic complementation between pairs of nonfunctional mcd1 alleles (mcd1-1 and mcd1-Q266) or smc3 alleles (smc3-42 and smc3-K113R). Cells bearing individual mcd1 or smc3 mutant alleles are inviable and defective for both sister chromatid cohesion and condensation. However, cells coexpressing two defective mcd1 or two defective smc3 alleles are viable and have cohesion and condensation. Because cohesin contains only a single copy of Smc3p or Mcd1p, these examples of interallelic complementation must result from interplay or communication between the two defective cohesin complexes, each harboring one of the mutant allele products. Neither mcd1-1p nor smc3-42p is bound to chromosomes when expressed individually at its restrictive temperature. However, their chromosome binding is restored when they are coexpressed with their chromosome-bound interallelic complementing partner. Our results support a mechanism by which multiple cohesin complexes interact on DNA to mediate cohesion and condensation. PMID:26378250

  14. Recent advances in cohesin biology.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Susannah; Dawson, Dean S

    2016-01-01

    Sister chromatids are tethered together from the time they are formed in S-phase until they separate at anaphase. A protein complex called cohesin is responsible for holding the sister chromatids together and serves important roles in chromosome condensation, gene regulation, and the repair of DNA damage. Cohesin contains an open central pore and becomes topologically engaged with its DNA substrates. Entrapped DNA can be released either by the opening of a gate in the cohesin ring or by proteolytic cleavage of a component of the ring. This review summarizes recent research that provides important new insights into how DNA enters and exits the cohesin ring and how the rings behave on entrapped DNA molecules to provide functional cohesion. PMID:27547382

  15. Recent advances in cohesin biology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sister chromatids are tethered together from the time they are formed in S-phase until they separate at anaphase. A protein complex called cohesin is responsible for holding the sister chromatids together and serves important roles in chromosome condensation, gene regulation, and the repair of DNA damage. Cohesin contains an open central pore and becomes topologically engaged with its DNA substrates. Entrapped DNA can be released either by the opening of a gate in the cohesin ring or by proteolytic cleavage of a component of the ring. This review summarizes recent research that provides important new insights into how DNA enters and exits the cohesin ring and how the rings behave on entrapped DNA molecules to provide functional cohesion. PMID:27547382

  16. Mechanisms of cohesin-mediated gene regulation and lessons learned from cohesinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Alexander R.; Chen, Yen-Yun; Yokomori, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Cohesins are conserved and essential Structural Maintenance of Chromosomes (SMC) protein-containing complexes that physically interact with chromatin and modulate higher-order chromatin organization. Cohesins mediate sister chromatid cohesion and cellular long-distance chromatin interactions affecting genome maintenance and gene expression. Discoveries of mutations in cohesin’s subunits and its regulator proteins in human developmental disorders, so-called “cohesinopathies,” reveal crucial roles for cohesins in development and cellular growth and differentiation. In this review, we discuss the latest findings concerning cohesin’s functions in higher-order chromatin architecture organization and gene regulation and new insight gained from studies of cohesinopathies. PMID:24269489

  17. Mechanism of Bacterial Cell-Surface Attachment Revealed by the Structure of Cellulosomal Type II Cohesin-dockerin Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Adams,J.; Pal, G.; Jia, Z.; Smith, S.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial cell-surface attachment of macromolecular complexes maintains the microorganism in close proximity to extracellular substrates and allows for optimal uptake of hydrolytic byproducts. The cellulosome is a large multienzyme complex used by many anaerobic bacteria for the efficient degradation of plant cell-wall polysaccharides. The mechanism of cellulosome retention to the bacterial cell surface involves a calcium-mediated protein-protein interaction between the dockerin (Doc) module from the cellulosomal scaffold and a cohesin (Coh) module of cell-surface proteins located within the proteoglycan layer. Here, we report the structure of an ultra-high-affinity (K{sub a} = 1.44 x 10{sup 10} M{sup 1-}) complex between type II Doc, together with its neighboring X module from the cellulosome scaffold of Clostridium thermocellum, and a type II Coh module associated with the bacterial cell surface. Identification of X module-Doc and X module-Coh contacts reveal roles for the X module in Doc stability and enhanced Coh recognition. This extremely tight interaction involves one face of the Coh and both helices of the Doc and comprises significant hydrophobic character and a complementary extensive hydrogen-bond network. This structure represents a unique mechanism for cell-surface attachment in anaerobic bacteria and provides a rationale for discriminating between type I and type II Coh modules.

  18. Cohesin is needed for bipolar mitosis in human cells.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Martínez, Laura A; Beauchene, Nicole A; Furniss, Katherine; Esponda, Pedro; Giménez-Abián, Juan F; Clarke, Duncan J

    2010-05-01

    Multi-polar mitosis is strongly linked with aggressive cancers and it is a histological diagnostic of tumor-grade. However, factors that cause chromosomes to segregate to more than two spindle poles are not well understood. Here we show that cohesins Rad21, Smc1 and Smc3 are required for bipolar mitosis in human cells. After Rad21 depletion, chromosomes align at the metaphase plate and bipolar spindles assemble in most cases, but in anaphase the separated chromatids segregate to multiple poles. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that the spindle poles often become split in Rad21-depleted metaphase cells. Interestingly, exogenous expression of non-cleavable Rad21 results in multi-polar anaphase. Since cohesins are present at the spindle poles in mitosis, these data are consistent with a non-chromosomal function of cohesin. PMID:20436271

  19. Cell Biology: Cohesin Rings Leave Loose Ends

    PubMed Central

    Skibbens, Robert V.

    2016-01-01

    Cohesins function in almost all aspects of chromosome biology. Two new studies confirm that a subset of cohesin subunits form a flexible but compressed ring that can be opened through degradation. X-ray crystallography supports potentially differing regulation of subunit associations. PMID:25649818

  20. Closing the cohesin ring: structure and function of its Smc3-kleisin interface

    PubMed Central

    Gligoris, Thomas G.; Scheinost, Johanna C.; Bürmann, Frank; Petela, Naomi; Chan, Kok-Lung; Uluocak, Pelin; Beckouët, Frédéric; Gruber, Stephan; Nasmyth, Kim; Löwe, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Through their association with a kleisin subunit (Scc1), cohesin’s Smc1 and Smc3 subunits are thought to form tripartite rings that mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Unlike the structure of Smc1/Smc3 and Smc1/Scc1 interfaces, that of Smc3/Scc1 is not known. Disconnection of this interface is thought to release cohesin from chromosomes in a process regulated by acetylation. We show here that the N-terminal domain (NTD) of yeast Scc1 contains two α helices, forming a four helix bundle with the coiled coil emerging from Smc3’s ATPase head. Mutations affecting this interaction compromise cohesin’s association with chromosomes. The interface is far from Smc3 residues whose acetylation prevents cohesin’s dissociation from chromosomes. Cohesin complexes holding chromatids together in vivo do indeed have the configuration of hetero-trimeric rings and sister DNAs are entrapped within these. PMID:25414305

  1. Dose-dependent role of the cohesin complex in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Viny, Aaron D.; Ott, Christopher J.; Spitzer, Barbara; Rivas, Martin; Meydan, Cem; Papalexi, Efthymia; Yelin, Dana; Shank, Kaitlyn; Reyes, Jaime; Chiu, April; Romin, Yevgeniy; Boyko, Vitaly; Thota, Swapna; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.; Melnick, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Cohesin complex members have recently been identified as putative tumor suppressors in hematologic and epithelial malignancies. The cohesin complex guides chromosome segregation; however, cohesin mutant leukemias do not show genomic instability. We hypothesized that reduced cohesin function alters chromatin structure and disrupts cis-regulatory architecture of hematopoietic progenitors. We investigated the consequences of Smc3 deletion in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Biallelic Smc3 loss induced bone marrow aplasia with premature sister chromatid separation and revealed an absolute requirement for cohesin in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. In contrast, Smc3 haploinsufficiency increased self-renewal in vitro and in vivo, including competitive transplantation. Smc3 haploinsufficiency reduced coordinated transcriptional output, including reduced expression of transcription factors and other genes associated with lineage commitment. Smc3 haploinsufficiency cooperated with Flt3-ITD to induce acute leukemia in vivo, with potentiated Stat5 signaling and altered nucleolar topology. These data establish a dose dependency for cohesin in regulating chromatin structure and HSC function. PMID:26438361

  2. Complex elaboration: making sense of meiotic cohesin dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Susannah

    2015-01-01

    In mitotically dividing cells, the cohesin complex tethers sister chromatids, the products of DNA replication, together from the time they are generated during S phase until anaphase. Cohesion between sister chromatids ensures accurate chromosome segregation, and promotes normal gene regulation and certain kinds of DNA repair. In somatic cells, the core cohesin complex is composed of four subunits: Smc1, Smc3, Rad21 and an SA subunit. During meiotic cell divisions meiosis-specific isoforms of several of the cohesin subunits are also expressed and incorporated into distinct meiotic cohesin complexes. The relative contributions of these meiosis-specific forms of cohesin to chromosome dynamics during meiotic progression have not been fully worked out. However, the localization of these proteins during chromosome pairing and synapsis, and their unique loss-of-function phenotypes, suggest non-overlapping roles in controlling meiotic chromosome behavior. Many of the proteins that regulate cohesin function during mitosis also appear to regulate cohesin during meiosis. Here we review how cohesin contributes to meiotic chromosome dynamics, and explore similarities and differences between cohesin regulation during the mitotic cell cycle and meiotic progression. A deeper understanding of the regulation and function of cohesin in meiosis will provide important new insights into how the cohesin complex is able to promote distinct kinds of chromosome interactions under diverse conditions. PMID:25895170

  3. Initiation and maintenance of pluripotency gene expression in the absence of cohesin

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnolli, Thais; Gupta, Preksha; Hörmanseder, Eva; Mira-Bontenbal, Hegias; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Carroll, Thomas; Gurdon, John B.; Fisher, Amanda G.

    2015-01-01

    Cohesin is implicated in establishing and maintaining pluripotency. Whether this is because of essential cohesin functions in the cell cycle or in gene regulation is unknown. Here we tested cohesin’s contribution to reprogramming in systems that reactivate the expression of pluripotency genes in the absence of proliferation (embryonic stem [ES] cell heterokaryons) or DNA replication (nuclear transfer). Contrary to expectations, cohesin depletion enhanced the ability of ES cells to initiate somatic cell reprogramming in heterokaryons. This was explained by increased c-Myc (Myc) expression in cohesin-depleted ES cells, which promoted DNA replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic fusion partners. In contrast, cohesin-depleted somatic cells were poorly reprogrammed in heterokaryons, due in part to defective DNA replication. Pluripotency gene induction was rescued by Myc, which restored DNA replication, and by nuclear transfer, where reprogramming does not require DNA replication. These results redefine cohesin’s role in pluripotency and reveal a novel function for Myc in promoting the replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic nuclei. PMID:25561493

  4. Cornelia de Lange syndrome, cohesin, and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Liu, J; Krantz, ID

    2010-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) (OMIM #122470, #300590 and #610759) is a dominant genetic disorder with multiple organ system abnormalities which is classically characterized by typical facial features, growth and mental retardation, upper limb defects, hirsutism, gastrointestinal and other visceral system involvement. Mutations in three cohesin proteins, a key regulator of cohesin, NIPBL, and two structural components of the cohesin ring SMC1A and SMC3, etiologically account for about 65% of individuals with CdLS. Cohesin controls faithful chromosome segregation during the mitotic and meiotic cell cycles. Multiple proteins in the cohesin pathway are also involved in additional fundamental biological events such as double-strand DNA break repair and long-range regulation of transcription. Moreover, chromosome instability was recently associated with defective sister chromatid cohesion in several cancer studies, and an increasing number of human developmental disorders is being reported to result from disruption of this pathway. Here, we will discuss the human disorders caused by alterations of cohesin function (termed ‘cohesinopathies’), with an emphasis on the clinical manifestations of CdLS and mechanistic studies of the CdLS-related proteins. PMID:19793304

  5. Noncellulosomal cohesin- and dockerin-like modules in the three domains of life

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Ayelet; Smith, Steven P.; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Borovok, Ilya

    2011-01-01

    The high-affinity cohesin–dockerin interaction was originally discovered as modular components, which mediate the assembly of the various subunits of the multienzyme cellulosome complex that characterizes some cellulolytic bacteria. Until recently, the presence of cohesins and dockerins within a bacterial proteome was considered a definitive signature of a cellulosome-producing bacterium. Widespread genome sequencing has since revealed a wealth of putative cohesin-and dockerin-containing proteins in Bacteria, Archaea, and in primitive eukaryotes. The newly identified modules appear to serve diverse functions that are clearly distinct from the classical cellulosome archetype, and the vast majority of parent proteins are not predicted glycoside hydrolases. In most cases, only a few such genes have been identified in a given microorganism, which encode proteins containing but a single cohesin and/or dockerin. In some cases, one or the other module appears to be missing from a given species, and in other cases both modules occur within the same protein. This review provides a bioinformatics-based survey of the current status of cohesin- and dockerin-like sequences in species from the Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Surprisingly, many identified modules and their parent proteins are clearly unrelated to cellulosomes. The cellulosome paradigm may thus be the exception rather than the rule for bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic employment of cohesin and dockerin modules. PMID:19025568

  6. Phosphorylation of the Scc2 cohesin deposition complex subunit regulates chromosome condensation through cohesin integrity

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Julie; Hoffman, Matthew; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk C.; Megee, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The cohesion of replicated sister chromatids promotes chromosome biorientation, gene regulation, DNA repair, and chromosome condensation. Cohesion is mediated by cohesin, which is deposited on chromosomes by a separate conserved loading complex composed of Scc2 and Scc4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although it is known to be required, the role of Scc2/Scc4 in cohesin deposition remains enigmatic. Scc2 is a phosphoprotein, although the functions of phosphorylation in deposition are unknown. We identified 11 phosphorylated residues in Scc2 by mass spectrometry. Mutants of SCC2 with substitutions that mimic constitutive phosphorylation retain normal Scc2–Scc4 interactions and chromatin association but exhibit decreased viability, sensitivity to genotoxic agents, and decreased stability of the Mcd1 cohesin subunit in mitotic cells. Cohesin association on chromosome arms, but not pericentromeric regions, is reduced in the phosphomimetic mutants but remains above a key threshold, as cohesion is only modestly perturbed. However, these scc2 phosphomimetic mutants exhibit dramatic chromosome condensation defects that are likely responsible for their high inviability. From these data, we conclude that normal Scc2 function requires modulation of its phosphorylation state and suggest that scc2 phosphomimetic mutants cause an increased incidence of abortive cohesin deposition events that result in compromised cohesin complex integrity and Mcd1 turnover. PMID:26354421

  7. Cohesin gene mutations in tumorigenesis: from discovery to clinical significance

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, David A.; Kim, Jung-Sik; Waldman, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Cohesin is a multi-protein complex composed of four core subunits (SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21, and either STAG1 or STAG2) that is responsible for the cohesion of sister chromatids following DNA replication until its cleavage during mitosis thereby enabling faithful segregation of sister chromatids into two daughter cells. Recent cancer genomics analyses have discovered a high frequency of somatic mutations in the genes encoding the core cohesin subunits as well as cohesin regulatory factors (e.g. NIPBL, PDS5B, ESPL1) in a select subset of human tumors including glioblastoma, Ewing sarcoma, urothelial carcinoma, acute myeloid leukemia, and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Herein we review these studies including discussion of the functional significance of cohesin inactivation in tumorigenesis and potential therapeutic mechanisms to selectively target cancers harboring cohesin mutations. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(6): 299-310] PMID:24856830

  8. Cohesin-interacting protein WAPL-1 regulates meiotic chromosome structure and cohesion by antagonizing specific cohesin complexes

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Oliver; Barroso, Consuelo; Testori, Sarah; Ferrandiz, Nuria; Silva, Nicola; Castellano-Pozo, Maikel; Jaso-Tamame, Angel Luis; Martinez-Perez, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Wapl induces cohesin dissociation from DNA throughout the mitotic cell cycle, modulating sister chromatid cohesion and higher-order chromatin structure. Cohesin complexes containing meiosis-specific kleisin subunits govern most aspects of meiotic chromosome function, but whether Wapl regulates these complexes remains unknown. We show that during C. elegans oogenesis WAPL-1 antagonizes binding of cohesin containing COH-3/4 kleisins, but not REC-8, demonstrating that sensitivity to WAPL-1 is dictated by kleisin identity. By restricting the amount of chromosome-associated COH-3/4 cohesin, WAPL-1 controls chromosome structure throughout meiotic prophase. In the absence of REC-8, WAPL-1 inhibits COH-3/4-mediated cohesion, which requires crossover-fated events formed during meiotic recombination. Thus, WAPL-1 promotes functional specialization of meiotic cohesin: WAPL-1-sensitive COH-3/4 complexes modulate higher-order chromosome structure, while WAPL-1-refractory REC-8 complexes provide stable cohesion. Surprisingly, a WAPL-1-independent mechanism removes cohesin before metaphase I. Our studies provide insight into how meiosis-specific cohesin complexes are regulated to ensure formation of euploid gametes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10851.001 PMID:26841696

  9. Cohesin: genomic insights into controlling gene transcription and development

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade it has emerged that the cohesin protein complex, which functions in sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome segregation and DNA repair, also regulates gene expression and development. Even minor changes in cohesin activity alter several aspects of development. Genome-wide analysis indicates that cohesin directly regulates transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, pluripotency, and differentiation through multiple mechanisms. These mechanisms are poorly understood, but involve both partial gene repression in concert with Polycomb group proteins, and facilitating long-range looping, both between enhancers and promoters, and between CTCF protein binding sites. PMID:21324671

  10. Cohesin loss alters adult hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis, leading to myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Mullenders, Jasper; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Lhoumaud, Priscillia; Keller, Matthew; Pae, Juhee; Wang, Kun; Kayembe, Clarisse; Rocha, Pedro P.; Raviram, Ramya; Gong, Yixiao; Premsrirut, Prem K.; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A.; Cimmino, Luisa; Hoehn, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The cohesin complex (consisting of Rad21, Smc1a, Smc3, and Stag2 proteins) is critically important for proper sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Mutations in the cohesin complex were recently identified in a variety of human malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To address the potential tumor-suppressive function of cohesin in vivo, we generated a series of shRNA mouse models in which endogenous cohesin can be silenced inducibly. Notably, silencing of cohesin complex members did not have a deleterious effect on cell viability. Furthermore, knockdown of cohesin led to gain of replating capacity of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells. However, cohesin silencing in vivo rapidly altered stem cells homeostasis and myelopoiesis. Likewise, we found widespread changes in chromatin accessibility and expression of genes involved in myelomonocytic maturation and differentiation. Finally, aged cohesin knockdown mice developed a clinical picture closely resembling myeloproliferative disorders/neoplasms (MPNs), including varying degrees of extramedullary hematopoiesis (myeloid metaplasia) and splenomegaly. Our results represent the first successful demonstration of a tumor suppressor function for the cohesin complex, while also confirming that cohesin mutations occur as an early event in leukemogenesis, facilitating the potential development of a myeloid malignancy. PMID:26438359

  11. Structural Basis and IP6 Requirement for Pds5-Dependent Cohesin Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Zhuqing; Zheng, Ge; Tomchick, Diana R; Luo, Xuelian; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-04-21

    The ring-shaped cohesin complex regulates transcription, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation by dynamically entrapping chromosomes to promote chromosome compaction and sister-chromatid cohesion. The cohesin ring needs to open and close to allow its loading to and release from chromosomes. Cohesin dynamics are controlled by the releasing factors Pds5 and Wapl and the cohesin stabilizer Sororin. Here, we report the crystal structure of human Pds5B bound to a conserved peptide motif found in both Wapl and Sororin. Our structure establishes the basis for how Wapl and Sororin antagonistically influence cohesin dynamics. The structure further reveals that Pds5 can bind inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6). The IP6-binding segment of Pds5B is shaped like the jaw of a plier lever and inhibits the binding of Scc1 to Smc3. We propose that Pds5 stabilizes a transient, open state of cohesin to promote its release from chromosomes. PMID:26971492

  12. Cohesin in determining chromosome architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Haering, Christian H.; Jessberger, Rolf

    2012-07-15

    Cells use ring-like structured protein complexes for various tasks in DNA dynamics. The tripartite cohesin ring is particularly suited to determine chromosome architecture, for it is large and dynamic, may acquire different forms, and is involved in several distinct nuclear processes. This review focuses on cohesin's role in structuring chromosomes during mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and during interphase.

  13. Cohesin, Gene Expression and Development: Lessons from Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale

    2010-01-01

    The cohesin complex, discovered for its role in sister chromatid cohesion, also plays roles in gene expression and development in organisms from yeast to man. This review highlights what has been learned about the gene control and developmental functions of cohesin and the Nipped-B (NIPBL/Scc2) cohesin loading factor in Drosophila. The Drosophila studies have provided unique insights into the etiology of Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), which is caused by mutations affecting sister chromatid cohesion proteins in humans. In vivo experiments with Drosophila show that cohesin and Nipped-B have dosage-sensitive effects on the functions of many evolutionarily conserved genes and developmental pathways. Genome-wide studies with Drosophila cultured cells show that Nipped-B and cohesin co-localize on chromosomes, and bind preferentially, but not exclusively, to many actively-transcribed genes and their regulatory sequences, including many of the proposed in vivo target genes. In contrast, the cohesion factors are largely excluded from genes silenced by Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. Combined, the in vivo genetic data and the binding patterns of cohesin and Nipped-B in cultured cells are consistent with the hypothesis that they control the action of gene regulatory sequences, including transcriptional enhancers and insulators, and suggest that they might also help define active chromatin domains and influence transcriptional elongation. PMID:19308700

  14. Scc2 regulates gene expression by recruiting cohesin to the chromosome as a transcriptional activator during yeast meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weiqiang; Jin, Hui; Liu, Xiuwen; Hampton, Kristin; Yu, Hong-Guo

    2011-01-01

    To tether sister chromatids, a protein-loading complex, including Scc2, recruits cohesin to the chromosome at discrete loci. Cohesin facilitates the formation of a higher-order chromosome structure that could also influence gene expression. How cohesin directly regulates transcription remains to be further elucidated. We report that in budding yeast Scc2 is required for sister-chromatid cohesion during meiosis for two reasons. First, Scc2 is required for activating the expression of REC8, which encodes a meiosis-specific cohesin subunit; second, Scc2 is necessary for recruiting meiotic cohesin to the chromosome to generate sister-chromatid cohesion. Using a heterologous reporter assay, we have found that Scc2 increases the activity of its target promoters by recruiting cohesin to establish an upstream cohesin-associated region in a position-dependent manner. Rec8-associated meiotic cohesin is required for the full activation of the REC8 promoter, revealing that cohesin has a positive feedback on transcriptional regulation. Finally, we provide evidence that chromosomal binding of cohesin is sufficient for target-gene activation during meiosis. Our data support a noncanonical role for cohesin as a transcriptional activator during cell differentiation. PMID:21508318

  15. Specific Sites in the C Terminus of CTCF Interact with the SA2 Subunit of the Cohesin Complex and Are Required for Cohesin-Dependent Insulation Activity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Tiaojiang; Wallace, Julie; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the protein CTCF, which plays an important role in insulation and in large-scale organization of chromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus, depends for both activities on recruitment of the cohesin complex. We show here that the interaction of CTCF with the cohesin complex involves direct contacts between the cohesin subunit SA2 and specific regions of the C-terminal tail of CTCF. All other cohesin components are recruited through their interaction with SA2. Expression in vivo of CTCF mutants lacking the C-terminal domain, or with mutations at sites within it required for SA2 binding, disrupts the normal expression profile of the imprinted genes IGF2-H19 and also results in a loss of insulation activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that specific sites on the C terminus of CTCF are essential for cohesin binding and insulator function. The only direct interaction between CTCF and cohesin involves contact with SA2, which is external to the cohesin ring. This suggests that in recruiting cohesin to CTCF, SA2 could bind first and the ring could assemble subsequently. PMID:21444719

  16. Specific sites in the C terminus of CTCF interact with the SA2 subunit of the cohesin complex and are required for cohesin-dependent insulation activity.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tiaojiang; Wallace, Julie; Felsenfeld, Gary

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that the protein CTCF, which plays an important role in insulation and in large-scale organization of chromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus, depends for both activities on recruitment of the cohesin complex. We show here that the interaction of CTCF with the cohesin complex involves direct contacts between the cohesin subunit SA2 and specific regions of the C-terminal tail of CTCF. All other cohesin components are recruited through their interaction with SA2. Expression in vivo of CTCF mutants lacking the C-terminal domain, or with mutations at sites within it required for SA2 binding, disrupts the normal expression profile of the imprinted genes IGF2-H19 and also results in a loss of insulation activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that specific sites on the C terminus of CTCF are essential for cohesin binding and insulator function. The only direct interaction between CTCF and cohesin involves contact with SA2, which is external to the cohesin ring. This suggests that in recruiting cohesin to CTCF, SA2 could bind first and the ring could assemble subsequently. PMID:21444719

  17. Cohesin and CTCF differentially regulate spatiotemporal runx1 expression during zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Marsman, Judith; O'Neill, Adam C; Kao, Betty Rui-Yun; Rhodes, Jenny M; Meier, Michael; Antony, Jisha; Mönnich, Maren; Horsfield, Julia A

    2014-01-01

    Runx1 is a transcription factor essential for definitive hematopoiesis. In all vertebrates, the Runx1 gene is transcribed from two promoters: a proximal promoter (P2), and a distal promoter (P1). We previously found that runx1 expression in a specific hematopoietic cell population in zebrafish embryos depends on cohesin. Here we show that zebrafish runx1 is directly bound by cohesin and CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) at the P1 and P2 promoters, and within the intron between P1 and P2. Cohesin initiates expression of runx1 in the posterior lateral mesoderm and influences promoter use, while CTCF represses its expression in the newly emerging cells of the tail bud. The intronic binding sites for cohesin and CTCF coincide with histone modifications that confer enhancer-like properties, and two of the cohesin/CTCF sites behaved as insulators in an in vivo assay. The identified cohesin and CTCF binding sites are likely to be cis-regulatory elements (CREs) for runx1 since they also recruit RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). CTCF depletion excluded RNAPII from two intronic CREs but not the promoters of runx1. We propose that cohesin and CTCF have distinct functions in the regulation of runx1 during zebrafish embryogenesis, and that these regulatory functions are likely to involve runx1 intronic CREs. Cohesin (but not CTCF) depletion enhanced RUNX1 expression in a human leukemia cell line, suggesting conservation of RUNX1 regulation through evolution. PMID:24321385

  18. Meiotic cohesin STAG3 is required for chromosome axis formation and sister chromatid cohesion.

    PubMed

    Winters, Tristan; McNicoll, Francois; Jessberger, Rolf

    2014-06-01

    The cohesin complex is essential for mitosis and meiosis. The specific meiotic roles of individual cohesin proteins are incompletely understood. We report in vivo functions of the only meiosis-specific STAG component of cohesin, STAG3. Newly generated STAG3-deficient mice of both sexes are sterile with meiotic arrest. In these mice, meiotic chromosome architecture is severely disrupted as no bona fide axial elements (AE) form and homologous chromosomes do not synapse. Axial element protein SYCP3 forms dot-like structures, many partially overlapping with centromeres. Asynapsis marker HORMAD1 is diffusely distributed throughout the chromatin, and SYCP1, which normally marks synapsed axes, is largely absent. Centromeric and telomeric sister chromatid cohesion are impaired. Centromere and telomere clustering occurs in the absence of STAG3, and telomere structure is not severely affected. Other cohesin proteins are present, localize throughout the STAG3-devoid chromatin, and form complexes with cohesin SMC1β. No other deficiency in a single meiosis-specific cohesin causes a phenotype as drastic as STAG3 deficiency. STAG3 emerges as the key STAG cohesin involved in major functions of meiotic cohesin. PMID:24797474

  19. Meiotic cohesin STAG3 is required for chromosome axis formation and sister chromatid cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Tristan; McNicoll, Francois; Jessberger, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    The cohesin complex is essential for mitosis and meiosis. The specific meiotic roles of individual cohesin proteins are incompletely understood. We report in vivo functions of the only meiosis-specific STAG component of cohesin, STAG3. Newly generated STAG3-deficient mice of both sexes are sterile with meiotic arrest. In these mice, meiotic chromosome architecture is severely disrupted as no bona fide axial elements (AE) form and homologous chromosomes do not synapse. Axial element protein SYCP3 forms dot-like structures, many partially overlapping with centromeres. Asynapsis marker HORMAD1 is diffusely distributed throughout the chromatin, and SYCP1, which normally marks synapsed axes, is largely absent. Centromeric and telomeric sister chromatid cohesion are impaired. Centromere and telomere clustering occurs in the absence of STAG3, and telomere structure is not severely affected. Other cohesin proteins are present, localize throughout the STAG3-devoid chromatin, and form complexes with cohesin SMC1β. No other deficiency in a single meiosis-specific cohesin causes a phenotype as drastic as STAG3 deficiency. STAG3 emerges as the key STAG cohesin involved in major functions of meiotic cohesin. PMID:24797474

  20. Cohesin-Dockerin Interactions of Cellulosomal Subunits of Clostridium cellulovorans

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Seon; Matano, Yutaka; Doi, Roy H.

    2001-01-01

    The cellulosome of Clostridium cellulovorans consists of three major subunits: CbpA, EngE, and ExgS. The C. cellulovorans scaffolding protein (CbpA) contains nine hydrophobic repeated domains (cohesins) for the binding of enzymatic subunits. Cohesin domains are quite homologous, but there are some questions regarding their binding specificity because some of the domains have regions of low-level sequence similarity. Two cohesins which exhibit 60% sequence similarity were investigated for their ability to bind cellulosomal enzymes. Cohesin 1 (Coh1) was found to contain amino acid residues corresponding to amino acids 312 to 453 of CbpA, which contains a total of 1,848 amino acid residues. Coh6 was determined to contain amino acid residues corresponding to residues 1113 to 1254 of CbpA. By genetic construction, these two cohesins were each fused to MalE, producing MalE-Coh1 and MalE-Coh6. The abilities of two fusion proteins to bind to EngE, ExgS, and CbpA were compared. Although MalE-Coh6 could bind EngE and ExgS, little or no binding of the enzymatic subunits was observed with MalE-Coh1. Significantly, the abilities of the two fusion proteins to bind CbpA were similar. The binding of dockerin-containing enzymes to cohesin-containing proteins was suggested as a model for assembly of cellulosomes. In our examination of the role of dockerins, it was also shown that the binding of endoglucanase B (EngB) to CbpA was dependent on the presence of EngB's dockerin. These results suggest that different cohesins may function with differing efficiency and specificity, that cohesins may play some role in the formation of polycellulosomes through Coh-CbpA interactions, and that dockerins play an important role during the interaction of cellulosomal enzymes and cohesins present in CbpA. PMID:11514529

  1. Cohesin: a critical chromatin organizer in mammalian gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Richard; Zeng, Weihua; Ball, Alexander R.; Yokomori, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    Cohesins are evolutionarily conserved essential multi-protein complexes important for higher-order chromatin organization. They play pivotal roles in the maintenance of genome integrity through mitotic chromosome regulation, DNA repair and replication, as well as gene regulation critical for proper development and cellular differentiation. In this review, we will discuss the multifaceted functions of mammalian cohesins and their apparent functional hierarchy in the cell, with particular focus on their actions in gene regulation and their relevance to human developmental disorders. PMID:21851156

  2. DNA Entry into and Exit out of the Cohesin Ring by an Interlocking Gate Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Yasuto; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-12-17

    Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are proteinaceous rings that embrace DNA to enable vital chromosomal functions. The ring is formed by two SMC subunits, closed at a pair of ATPase heads, whose interaction is reinforced by a kleisin subunit. Using biochemical analysis of fission-yeast cohesin, we find that a similar series of events facilitates both topological entrapment and release of DNA. DNA-sensing lysines trigger ATP hydrolysis to open the SMC head interface, whereas the Wapl subunit disengages kleisin, but only after ATP rebinds. This suggests an interlocking gate mechanism for DNA transport both into and out of the cohesin ring. The entry direction is facilitated by a cohesin loader that appears to fold cohesin to expose the DNA sensor. Our results provide a model for dynamic DNA binding by all members of the SMC family and explain how lysine acetylation of cohesin establishes enduring sister chromatid cohesion. PMID:26687354

  3. DNA Entry into and Exit out of the Cohesin Ring by an Interlocking Gate Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Murayama, Yasuto; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Summary Structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) complexes are proteinaceous rings that embrace DNA to enable vital chromosomal functions. The ring is formed by two SMC subunits, closed at a pair of ATPase heads, whose interaction is reinforced by a kleisin subunit. Using biochemical analysis of fission-yeast cohesin, we find that a similar series of events facilitates both topological entrapment and release of DNA. DNA-sensing lysines trigger ATP hydrolysis to open the SMC head interface, whereas the Wapl subunit disengages kleisin, but only after ATP rebinds. This suggests an interlocking gate mechanism for DNA transport both into and out of the cohesin ring. The entry direction is facilitated by a cohesin loader that appears to fold cohesin to expose the DNA sensor. Our results provide a model for dynamic DNA binding by all members of the SMC family and explain how lysine acetylation of cohesin establishes enduring sister chromatid cohesion. PMID:26687354

  4. The ancient and evolving roles of cohesin in DNA repair and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale; Ström, Lena

    2012-01-01

    The cohesin complex, named for its key role in sister chromatid cohesion, also plays critical roles in DNA repair and gene regulation. It performs all three functions in single cell eukaryotes such as yeasts, and in higher organisms such as man. Minor disruption of cohesin function has significant consequences for human development, even in the absence of measurable effects on chromatid cohesion or chromosome segregation. Here we survey the roles of cohesin in DNA repair and gene regulation, and how these functions vary from yeast to man. PMID:22497943

  5. The Mouse Cohesin-Associated Protein PDS5B Is Expressed in Testicular Cells and Is Associated with the Meiotic Chromosome Axes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Hoog, Christer

    2010-01-01

    During the first meiotic prophase, the cohesin complex is localized to the chromosome axis and contributes to chromosome organization, pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The PDS5 protein, an accessory factor of the cohesin complex, is known to be a component of meiotic chromosome cores in fungi and to be implicated in meiotic chromosome structure and function. We found by immunoblotting experiments that a mammalian PDS5 protein, PDS5B, is abundantly expressed in mouse testis compared to other tissues. Immunofluorescence labeling experiments revealed that PDS5B is highly expressed in spermatogonia and that most PDS5B is depleted from chromatin as cells enter meiosis. During the first meiotic prophase, PDS5B associates with the axial cores of chromosomes. The axial association of PDS5B was observed also in the absence of synaptonemal complex proteins, such as SYCP1 and SYCP3, suggesting that PDS5B is an integral part of the chromosome axis as defined by the cohesin complex. These results suggest that PDS5B modulates cohesin functions in spermatocytes as well as in spermatogonia, contributing to meiotic chromosome structure and function. PMID:24710098

  6. The Mouse Cohesin-Associated Protein PDS5B Is Expressed in Testicular Cells and Is Associated with the Meiotic Chromosome Axes

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Hoog, Christer

    2010-01-01

    During the first meiotic prophase, the cohesin complex is localized to the chromosome axis and contributes to chromosome organization, pairing, synapsis, and recombination. The PDS5 protein, an accessory factor of the cohesin complex, is known to be a component of meiotic chromosome cores in fungi and to be implicated in meiotic chromosome structure and function. We found by immunoblotting experiments that a mammalian PDS5 protein, PDS5B, is abundantly expressed in mouse testis compared to other tissues. Immunofluorescence labeling experiments revealed that PDS5B is highly expressed in spermatogonia and that most PDS5B is depleted from chromatin as cells enter meiosis. During the first meiotic prophase, PDS5B associates with the axial cores of chromosomes. The axial association of PDS5B was observed also in the absence of synaptonemal complex proteins, such as SYCP1 and SYCP3, suggesting that PDS5B is an integral part of the chromosome axis as defined by the cohesin complex. These results suggest that PDS5B modulates cohesin functions in spermatocytes as well as in spermatogonia, contributing to meiotic chromosome structure and function. PMID:24710098

  7. Divergent kleisin subunits of cohesin specify mechanisms to tether and release meiotic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Aaron F; Meyer, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    We show that multiple, functionally specialized cohesin complexes mediate the establishment and two-step release of sister chromatid cohesion that underlies the production of haploid gametes. In C. elegans, the kleisin subunits REC-8 and COH-3/4 differ between meiotic cohesins and endow them with distinctive properties that specify how cohesins load onto chromosomes and then trigger and release cohesion. Unlike REC-8 cohesin, COH-3/4 cohesin becomes cohesive through a replication-independent mechanism initiated by the DNA double-stranded breaks that induce crossover recombination. Thus, break-induced cohesion also tethers replicated meiotic chromosomes. Later, recombination stimulates separase-independent removal of REC-8 and COH-3/4 cohesins from reciprocal chromosomal territories flanking the crossover site. This region-specific removal likely underlies the two-step separation of homologs and sisters. Unexpectedly, COH-3/4 performs cohesion-independent functions in synaptonemal complex assembly. This new model for cohesin function diverges from that established in yeast but likely applies directly to plants and mammals, which utilize similar meiotic kleisins. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03467.001 PMID:25171895

  8. Mutant cohesin affects RNA polymerase II regulation in Cornelia de Lange syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Linda; C. Lamaze, Fabien; Cucco, Francesco; Amato, Clelia; Quarantotti, Valentina; Rizzo, Ilaria M; Krantz, Ian D; Bilodeau, Steve; Musio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In addition to its role in sister chromatid cohesion, genome stability and integrity, the cohesin complex is involved in gene transcription. Mutations in core cohesin subunits SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21, or their regulators NIPBL and HDAC8, cause Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Recent evidence reveals that gene expression dysregulation could be the underlying mechanism for CdLS. These findings raise intriguing questions regarding the potential role of cohesin-mediated transcriptional control and pathogenesis. Here, we identified numerous dysregulated genes occupied by cohesin by combining the transcriptome of CdLS cell lines carrying mutations in SMC1A gene and ChIP-Seq data. Genome-wide analyses show that genes changing in expression are enriched for cohesin-binding. In addition, our results indicate that mutant cohesin impairs both RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription initiation at promoters and elongation in the gene body. These findings highlight the pivotal role of cohesin in transcriptional regulation and provide an explanation for the typical gene dysregulation observed in CdLS patients. PMID:26581180

  9. Long-Range Chromosome Interactions Mediated by Cohesin Shape Circadian Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yichi; Guo, Weimin; Li, Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Meng; Fan, Zenghua; Zhao, Zhihu; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian circadian rhythm is established by the negative feedback loops consisting of a set of clock genes, which lead to the circadian expression of thousands of downstream genes in vivo. As genome-wide transcription is organized under the high-order chromosome structure, it is largely uncharted how circadian gene expression is influenced by chromosome architecture. We focus on the function of chromatin structure proteins cohesin as well as CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) in circadian rhythm. Using circular chromosome conformation capture sequencing, we systematically examined the interacting loci of a Bmal1-bound super-enhancer upstream of a clock gene Nr1d1 in mouse liver. These interactions are largely stable in the circadian cycle and cohesin binding sites are enriched in the interactome. Global analysis showed that cohesin-CTCF co-binding sites tend to insulate the phases of circadian oscillating genes while cohesin-non-CTCF sites are associated with high circadian rhythmicity of transcription. A model integrating the effects of cohesin and CTCF markedly improved the mechanistic understanding of circadian gene expression. Further experiments in cohesin knockout cells demonstrated that cohesin is required at least in part for driving the circadian gene expression by facilitating the enhancer-promoter looping. This study provided a novel insight into the relationship between circadian transcriptome and the high-order chromosome structure. PMID:27135601

  10. Arabidopsis thaliana WAPL is essential for the prophase removal of cohesin during meiosis.

    PubMed

    De, Kuntal; Sterle, Lauren; Krueger, Laura; Yang, Xiaohui; Makaroff, Christopher A

    2014-07-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, which is mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for the proper segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. The establishment of stable sister chromatid cohesion occurs during DNA replication and involves acetylation of the complex by the acetyltransferase CTF7. In higher eukaryotes, the majority of cohesin complexes are removed from chromosomes during prophase. Studies in fly and human have shown that this process involves the WAPL mediated opening of the cohesin ring at the junction between the SMC3 ATPase domain and the N-terminal domain of cohesin's α-kleisin subunit. We report here the isolation and detailed characterization of WAPL in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that Arabidopsis contains two WAPL genes, which share overlapping functions. Plants in which both WAPL genes contain T-DNA insertions show relatively normal growth and development but exhibit a significant reduction in male and female fertility. The removal of cohesin from chromosomes during meiotic prophase is blocked in Atwapl mutants resulting in chromosome bridges, broken chromosomes and uneven chromosome segregation. In contrast, while subtle mitotic alterations are observed in some somatic cells, cohesin complexes appear to be removed normally. Finally, we show that mutations in AtWAPL suppress the lethality associated with inactivation of AtCTF7. Taken together our results demonstrate that WAPL plays a critical role in meiosis and raises the possibility that mechanisms involved in the prophase removal of cohesin may vary between mitosis and meiosis in plants. PMID:25033056

  11. Arabidopsis thaliana WAPL Is Essential for the Prophase Removal of Cohesin during Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    De, Kuntal; Sterle, Lauren; Krueger, Laura; Yang, Xiaohui; Makaroff, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion, which is mediated by the cohesin complex, is essential for the proper segregation of chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis. The establishment of stable sister chromatid cohesion occurs during DNA replication and involves acetylation of the complex by the acetyltransferase CTF7. In higher eukaryotes, the majority of cohesin complexes are removed from chromosomes during prophase. Studies in fly and human have shown that this process involves the WAPL mediated opening of the cohesin ring at the junction between the SMC3 ATPase domain and the N-terminal domain of cohesin's α-kleisin subunit. We report here the isolation and detailed characterization of WAPL in Arabidopsis thaliana. We show that Arabidopsis contains two WAPL genes, which share overlapping functions. Plants in which both WAPL genes contain T-DNA insertions show relatively normal growth and development but exhibit a significant reduction in male and female fertility. The removal of cohesin from chromosomes during meiotic prophase is blocked in Atwapl mutants resulting in chromosome bridges, broken chromosomes and uneven chromosome segregation. In contrast, while subtle mitotic alterations are observed in some somatic cells, cohesin complexes appear to be removed normally. Finally, we show that mutations in AtWAPL suppress the lethality associated with inactivation of AtCTF7. Taken together our results demonstrate that WAPL plays a critical role in meiosis and raises the possibility that mechanisms involved in the prophase removal of cohesin may vary between mitosis and meiosis in plants. PMID:25033056

  12. Structural evidence for Scc4-dependent localization of cohesin loading

    PubMed Central

    Hinshaw, Stephen M; Makrantoni, Vasso; Kerr, Alastair; Marston, Adèle L; Harrison, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The cohesin ring holds newly replicated sister chromatids together until their separation at anaphase. Initiation of sister chromatid cohesion depends on a separate complex, Scc2NIPBL/Scc4Mau2 (Scc2/4), which loads cohesin onto DNA and determines its localization across the genome. Proper cohesin loading is essential for cell division, and partial defects cause chromosome missegregation and aberrant transcriptional regulation, leading to severe developmental defects in multicellular organisms. We present here a crystal structure showing the interaction between Scc2 and Scc4. Scc4 is a TPR array that envelops an extended Scc2 peptide. Using budding yeast, we demonstrate that a conserved patch on the surface of Scc4 is required to recruit Scc2/4 to centromeres and to build pericentromeric cohesion. These findings reveal the role of Scc4 in determining the localization of cohesin loading and establish a molecular basis for Scc2/4 recruitment to centromeres. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06057.001 PMID:26038942

  13. A Cohesin-Independent Role for NIPBL at Promoters Provides Insights in CdLS

    PubMed Central

    van IJcken, Wilfred F. J.; van der Sloot, Antoine; Krantz, Ian D.; van der Reijden, Michael I. J. A.; Nakato, Ryuichiro; Lenhard, Boris; Wendt, Kerstin S.

    2014-01-01

    The cohesin complex is crucial for chromosome segregation during mitosis and has recently also been implicated in transcriptional regulation and chromatin architecture. The NIPBL protein is required for the loading of cohesin onto chromatin, but how and where cohesin is loaded in vertebrate cells is unclear. Heterozygous mutations of NIPBL were found in 50% of the cases of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS), a human developmental syndrome with a complex phenotype. However, no defects in the mitotic function of cohesin have been observed so far and the links between NIPBL mutations and the observed developmental defects are unclear. We show that NIPBL binds to chromatin in somatic cells with a different timing than cohesin. Further, we observe that high-affinity NIPBL binding sites localize to different regions than cohesin and almost exclusively to the promoters of active genes. NIPBL or cohesin knockdown reduce transcription of these genes differently, suggesting a cohesin-independent role of NIPBL for transcription. Motif analysis and comparison to published data show that NIPBL co-localizes with a specific set of other transcription factors. In cells derived from CdLS patients NIPBL binding levels are reduced and several of the NIPBL-bound genes have previously been observed to be mis-expressed in CdLS. In summary, our observations indicate that NIPBL mutations might cause developmental defects in different ways. First, defects of NIPBL might lead to cohesin-loading defects and thereby alter gene expression and second, NIPBL deficiency might affect genes directly via its role at the respective promoters. PMID:24550742

  14. Rad61/Wpl1 (Wapl), a cohesin regulator, controls chromosome compaction during meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Challa, Kiran; Lee, Min-Su; Shinohara, Miki; Kim, Keun P.; Shinohara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Meiosis-specific cohesin, required for the linking of the sister chromatids, plays a critical role in various chromosomal events during meiotic prophase I, such as chromosome morphogenesis and dynamics, as well as recombination. Rad61/Wpl1 (Wapl in other organisms) negatively regulates cohesin functions. In this study, we show that meiotic chromosome axes are shortened in the budding yeast rad61/wpl1 mutant, suggesting that Rad61/Wpl1 negatively regulates chromosome axis compaction. Rad61/Wpl1 is required for efficient resolution of telomere clustering during meiosis I, indicating a positive effect of Rad61/Wpl1 on the cohesin function required for telomere dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate distinct activities of Rad61/Wpl1 during the meiotic recombination, including its effects on the efficient processing of intermediates. Thus, Rad61/Wpl1 both positively and negatively regulates various cohesin-mediated chromosomal processes during meiosis. PMID:26825462

  15. Cohesin regulates major histocompatibility complex class II genes through interactions with MHC-II insulators1

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M.

    2011-01-01

    Cohesin is a multiprotein ringed complex that is most well known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) locuscontains ten intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC transcription factor (CTCF). MHC-II insulators interact with each other forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. Here we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CTCF and the MHC-II specific transcription factors RFX and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5’ MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements; events which are required for maximal MHC-II transcription. PMID:21911605

  16. Regional chromatin decompaction in Cornelia de Lange syndrome associated with NIPBL disruption can be uncoupled from cohesin and CTCF

    PubMed Central

    Nolen, Leisha D.; Boyle, Shelagh; Ansari, Morad; Pritchard, Emily; Bickmore, Wendy A.

    2013-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a developmental disorder caused by mutations in NIPBL, a protein which has functionally been associated with the cohesin complex. Mutations in core cohesin complex components have also been reported in individuals with CdLS-like phenotypes. In addition to its role in sister chromatid cohesion, cohesin is thought to play a role in regulating gene expression during development. The mechanism of this gene regulation remains unclear, but NIPBL and cohesin have been reported to affect long-range chromosomal interactions, both independently and through interactions with CTCF. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization to investigate whether the disruption of NIPBL affects chromosome architecture. We show that cells from CdLS patients exhibit visible chromatin decompaction, that is most pronounced across gene-rich regions of the genome. Cells carrying mutations predicted to have a more severe effect on NIPBL function show more extensive chromatin decompaction than those carrying milder mutations. This cellular phenotype was reproduced in normal cells depleted for NIPBL with siRNA, but was not seen following the knockdown of either the cohesin component SMC3, or CTCF. We conclude that NIPBL has a function in modulating chromatin architecture, particularly for gene-rich areas of the chromosome, that is not dependent on SMC3/cohesin or CTCF, raising the possibility that the aetiology of disorders associated with the mutation of core cohesin components is distinct from that associated with the disruption of NIPBL itself in classical CdLS. PMID:23760082

  17. The contribution of cohesin-SA1 to gene expression and chromatin architecture in two murine tissues.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Ana; Remeseiro, Silvia; Graña, Osvaldo; Pisano, David G; Losada, Ana

    2015-03-31

    Cohesin, which in somatic vertebrate cells consists of SMC1, SMC3, RAD21 and either SA1 or SA2, mediates higher-order chromatin organization. To determine how cohesin contributes to the establishment of tissue-specific transcriptional programs, we compared genome-wide cohesin distribution, gene expression and chromatin architecture in cerebral cortex and pancreas from adult mice. More than one third of cohesin binding sites differ between the two tissues and these show reduced overlap with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and are enriched at the regulatory regions of tissue-specific genes. Cohesin/CTCF sites at active enhancers and promoters contain, at least, cohesin-SA1. Analyses of chromatin contacts at the Protocadherin (Pcdh) and Regenerating islet-derived (Reg) gene clusters, mostly expressed in brain and pancreas, respectively, revealed remarkable differences that correlate with the presence of cohesin. We could not detect significant changes in the chromatin contacts at the Pcdh locus when comparing brains from wild-type and SA1 null embryos. In contrast, reduced dosage of SA1 altered the architecture of the Reg locus and decreased the expression of Reg genes in the pancreas of SA1 heterozygous mice. Given the role of Reg proteins in inflammation, such reduction may contribute to the increased incidence of pancreatic cancer observed in these animals. PMID:25735743

  18. Direct interaction between cohesin complex and DNA replication machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Min-Jung; Kim, Beom-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Min-Woo; Choi, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Seong-Tae . E-mail: stkim@med.skku.ac.kr

    2006-03-17

    Structural maintenance of chromosome 1 (Smc1) is a multifunctional protein, which has been implicated in sister chromatid cohesion, DNA recombination and repair, and the activation of cell cycle checkpoints by ionizing radiation, ultraviolet light, and other genotoxic agents. In order to identify the proteins that interact with Smc1, we conducted the Tandem affinity purification (TAP) technique and analyzed the Smc1-interacting proteins via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We identified minichromosome maintenance 7 (Mcm7), an essential component of the pre-replication complex, as a novel Smc1-interacting protein. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed an interaction occurring between Smc1 and Mcm7, both in vitro and in vivo. Using a GST pull-down assay, we determined that Smc1 interacts physically with Mcm7 via its N-terminal and hinge regions, and Mcm7 interacts with Smc1 via its middle region. Interestingly, we also discovered that Smc1 interacts with other DNA replication proteins, including Mcm6, RFC1, and DNA polymerase {alpha}. These results suggest that a functional link exists between the cohesin complex and DNA replication proteins.

  19. STAG3-mediated stabilization of REC8 cohesin complexes promotes chromosome synapsis during meiosis.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Fukuda, Nanaho; Agostinho, Ana; Hernández-Hernández, Abrahan; Kouznetsova, Anna; Höög, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Cohesion between sister chromatids in mitotic and meiotic cells is promoted by a ring-shaped protein structure, the cohesin complex. The cohesin core complex is composed of four subunits, including two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins, one α-kleisin protein, and one SA protein. Meiotic cells express both mitotic and meiosis-specific cohesin core subunits, generating cohesin complexes with different subunit composition and possibly separate meiotic functions. Here, we have analyzed the in vivo function of STAG3, a vertebrate meiosis-specific SA protein. Mice with a hypomorphic allele of Stag3, which display a severely reduced level of STAG3, are viable but infertile. We show that meiocytes in homozygous mutant Stag3 mice display chromosome axis compaction, aberrant synapsis, impaired recombination and developmental arrest. We find that the three different α-kleisins present in meiotic cells show different dosage-dependent requirements for STAG3 and that STAG3-REC8 cohesin complexes have a critical role in supporting meiotic chromosome structure and functions. PMID:24797475

  20. In vivo analysis of cohesin architecture using FRET in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mc Intyre, John; Muller, Eric G D; Weitzer, Stefan; Snydsman, Brian E; Davis, Trisha N; Uhlmann, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Cohesion between sister chromatids in eukaryotes is mediated by the evolutionarily conserved cohesin complex. Cohesin forms a proteinaceous ring, large enough to trap pairs of replicated sister chromatids. The circumference consists of the Smc1 and Smc3 subunits, while Scc1 is thought to close the ring by bridging the Smc (structural maintenance of chromosomes) ATPase head domains. Little is known about two additional subunits, Scc3 and Pds5, and about possible conformational changes of the complex during the cell cycle. We have employed fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to analyse interactions within the cohesin complex in live budding yeast. These experiments reveal an unexpected geometry of Scc1 at the Smc heads, and suggest that Pds5 plays a role at the Smc hinge on the opposite side of the ring. Key subunit interactions, including close proximity of the two ATPase heads, are constitutive throughout the cell cycle. This depicts cohesin as a stable molecular machine undergoing only transient conformational changes during binding and dissociation from chromosomes. Using FRET, we did not observe interactions between more than one cohesin complex in vivo. PMID:17660750

  1. Dynamic and Stable Cohesins Regulate Synaptonemal Complex Assembly and Chromosome Segregation.

    PubMed

    Gyuricza, Mercedes R; Manheimer, Kathryn B; Apte, Vandana; Krishnan, Badri; Joyce, Eric F; McKee, Bruce D; McKim, Kim S

    2016-07-11

    Assembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC) in Drosophila depends on two independent pathways defined by the chromosome axis proteins C(2)M and ORD. Because C(2)M encodes a Kleisin-like protein and ORD is required for sister-chromatid cohesion, we tested the hypothesis that these two SC assembly pathways depend on two cohesin complexes. Through single- and double-mutant analysis to study the mitotic cohesion proteins Stromalin (SA) and Nipped-B (SCC2) in meiosis, we provide evidence that there are at least two meiosis-specific cohesin complexes. One complex depends on C(2)M, SA, and Nipped-B. Despite the presence of mitotic cohesins SA and Nipped-B, this pathway has only a minor role in meiotic sister-centromere cohesion and is primarily required for homolog interactions. C(2)M is continuously incorporated into pachytene chromosomes even though SC assembly is complete. In contrast, the second complex, which depends on meiosis-specific proteins SOLO, SUNN, and ORD is required for sister-chromatid cohesion, localizes to the centromeres and is not incorporated during prophase. Our results show that the two cohesin complexes have unique functions and are regulated differently. Multiple cohesin complexes may provide the diversity of activities required by the meiotic cell. For example, a dynamic complex may allow the chromosomes to regulate meiotic recombination, and a stable complex may be required for sister-chromatid cohesion. PMID:27291057

  2. Suv4-20h2 mediates chromatin compaction and is important for cohesin recruitment to heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Matthias; Dambacher, Silvia; Dulev, Stanimir; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Eck, Simon; Wörz, Stefan; Sadic, Dennis; Schulte, Maike; Mallm, Jan-Philipp; Maiser, Andreas; Debs, Pierre; von Melchner, Harald; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Schermelleh, Lothar; Rohr, Karl; Rippe, Karsten; Storchova, Zuzana; Schotta, Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    Cohesin plays an important role in chromatid cohesion and has additional functions in higher-order chromatin organization and in transcriptional regulation. The binding of cohesin to euchromatic regions is largely mediated by CTCF or the mediator complex. However, it is currently unknown how cohesin is recruited to pericentric heterochromatin in mammalian cells. Here we define the histone methyltransferase Suv4-20h2 as a major structural constituent of heterochromatin that mediates chromatin compaction and cohesin recruitment. Suv4-20h2 stably associates with pericentric heterochromatin through synergistic interactions with multiple heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) molecules, resulting in compaction of heterochromatic regions. Suv4-20h mutant cells display an overall reduced chromatin compaction and an altered chromocenter organization in interphase referred to as “chromocenter scattering.” We found that Suv4-20h-deficient cells display chromosome segregation defects during mitosis that coincide with reduced sister chromatid cohesion. Notably, cohesin subunits interact with Suv4-20h2 both in vitro and in vivo. This interaction is necessary for cohesin binding to heterochromatin, as Suv4-20h mutant cells display substantially reduced cohesin levels at pericentric heterochromatin. This defect is most prominent in G0-phase cells, where cohesin is virtually lost from heterochromatin, suggesting that Suv4-20h2 is involved in the initial loading or maintenance of cohesion subunits. In summary, our data provide the first compelling evidence that Suv4-20h2 plays essential roles in regulating nuclear architecture and ensuring proper chromosome segregation. PMID:23599346

  3. Both Interaction Surfaces within Cohesin's Hinge Domain Are Essential for Its Stable Chromosomal Association

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Ajay; Hu, Bin; Kurze, Alexander; Beckouët, Frédéric; Farcas, Ana-Maria; Dixon, Sarah E.; Katou, Yuki; Khalid, Syma; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Nasmyth, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background The cohesin complex that mediates sister chromatid cohesion contains three core subunits: Smc1, Smc3, and Scc1. Heterotypic interactions between Smc1 and Smc3 dimerization domains create stable V-shaped Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers with a hinge at the center and nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) at the ends of each arm. Interconnection of each NBD through their association with the N- and C-terminal domains of Scc1 creates a tripartite ring, within which sister DNAs are thought to be entrapped (the ring model). Crystal structures show that the Smc1/Smc3 hinge has a toroidal shape, with independent “north” and “south” interaction surfaces on an axis of pseudosymmetry. The ring model predicts that sister chromatid cohesion would be lost by transient hinge opening. Results We find that mutations within either interface weaken heterodimerization of isolated half hinges in vitro but do not greatly compromise formation of cohesin rings in vivo. They do, however, reduce the residence time of cohesin on chromosomes and cause lethal defects in sister chromatid cohesion. This demonstrates that mere formation of rings is insufficient for cohesin function. Stable cohesion requires cohesin rings that cannot easily open. Conclusions Either the north or south hinge interaction surface is sufficient for the assembly of V-shaped Smc1/Smc3 heterodimers in vivo. Any tendency of Smc proteins with weakened hinges to dissociate will be suppressed by interconnection of their NBDs by Scc1. We suggest that transient hinge dissociation caused by the mutations described here is incompatible with stable sister chromatid cohesion because it permits chromatin fibers to escape from cohesin rings. PMID:20153193

  4. Cohesin SMC1beta protects telomeres in meiocytes.

    PubMed

    Adelfalk, Caroline; Janschek, Johannes; Revenkova, Ekaterina; Blei, Cornelia; Liebe, Bodo; Göb, Eva; Alsheimer, Manfred; Benavente, Ricardo; de Boer, Esther; Novak, Ivana; Höög, Christer; Scherthan, Harry; Jessberger, Rolf

    2009-10-19

    Meiosis-specific mammalian cohesin SMC1beta is required for complete sister chromatid cohesion and proper axes/loop structure of axial elements (AEs) and synaptonemal complexes (SCs). During prophase I, telomeres attach to the nuclear envelope (NE), but in Smc1beta(-/-) meiocytes, one fifth of their telomeres fail to attach. This study reveals that SMC1beta serves a specific role at telomeres, which is independent of its role in determining AE/SC length and loop extension. SMC1beta is necessary to prevent telomere shortening, and SMC3, present in all known cohesin complexes, properly localizes to telomeres only if SMC1beta is present. Very prominently, telomeres in Smc1beta(-/-) spermatocytes and oocytes loose their structural integrity and suffer a range of abnormalities. These include disconnection from SCs and formation of large telomeric protein-DNA extensions, extended telomere bridges between SCs, ring-like chromosomes, intrachromosomal telomeric repeats, and a reduction of SUN1 foci in the NE. We suggest that a telomere structure protected from DNA rearrangements depends on SMC1beta. PMID:19841137

  5. Meiotic cohesin-based chromosome structure is essential for homologous chromosome pairing in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Ding, Da-Qiao; Matsuda, Atsushi; Okamasa, Kasumi; Nagahama, Yuki; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2016-06-01

    Chromosome structure is dramatically altered upon entering meiosis to establish chromosomal architectures necessary for the successful progression of meiosis-specific events. An early meiotic event involves the replacement of the non-SMC mitotic cohesins with their meiotic equivalents in most part of the chromosome, forming an axis on meiotic chromosomes. We previously demonstrated that the meiotic cohesin complex is required for chromosome compaction during meiotic prophase in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. These studies revealed that chromosomes are elongated in the absence of the meiotic cohesin subunit Rec8 and shortened in the absence of the cohesin-associated protein Pds5. In this study, using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy, we found that Rec8 forms a linear axis on chromosomes, which is required for the organized axial structure of chromatin during meiotic prophase. In the absence of Pds5, the Rec8 axis is shortened whereas chromosomes are widened. In rec8 or pds5 mutants, the frequency of homologous chromosome pairing is reduced. Thus, Rec8 and Pds5 play an essential role in building a platform to support the chromosome architecture necessary for the spatial alignment of homologous chromosomes. PMID:26511279

  6. Evidence for cohesin sliding along budding yeast chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo-Hafalla, Maria; Muñoz, Sofía; Samora, Catarina P.; Uhlmann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The ring-shaped cohesin complex is thought to topologically hold sister chromatids together from their synthesis in S phase until chromosome segregation in mitosis. How cohesin stably binds to chromosomes for extended periods, without impeding other chromosomal processes that also require access to the DNA, is poorly understood. Budding yeast cohesin is loaded onto DNA by the Scc2–Scc4 cohesin loader at centromeres and promoters of active genes, from where cohesin translocates to more permanent places of residence at transcription termination sites. Here we show that, at the GAL2 and MET17 loci, pre-existing cohesin is pushed downstream along the DNA in response to transcriptional gene activation, apparently without need for intermittent dissociation or reloading. We observe translocation intermediates and find that the distribution of most chromosomal cohesin is shaped by transcription. Our observations support a model in which cohesin is able to slide laterally along chromosomes while maintaining topological contact with DNA. In this way, stable cohesin binding to DNA and enduring sister chromatid cohesion become compatible with simultaneous underlying chromosomal activities, including but maybe not limited to transcription. PMID:27278645

  7. A cohesin-OCT4 complex mediates Sox enhancers to prime an early embryonic lineage.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Nesrine; Moore-Morris, Thomas; Hiriart, Emilye; Yang, Henry; Bezerra, Hudson; Gualazzi, Maria-Giovanna; Stefanovic, Sonia; Guénantin, Anne-Claire; Evans, Sylvia M; Pucéat, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Short- and long-scales intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions are linked to gene transcription, but the molecular events underlying these structures and how they affect cell fate decision during embryonic development are poorly understood. One of the first embryonic cell fate decisions (that is, mesendoderm determination) is driven by the POU factor OCT4, acting in concert with the high-mobility group genes Sox-2 and Sox-17. Here we report a chromatin-remodelling mechanism and enhancer function that mediate cell fate switching. OCT4 alters the higher-order chromatin structure at both Sox-2 and Sox-17 loci. OCT4 titrates out cohesin and switches the Sox-17 enhancer from a locked (within an inter-chromosomal Sox-2 enhancer/CCCTC-binding factor CTCF/cohesin loop) to an active (within an intra-chromosomal Sox-17 promoter/enhancer/cohesin loop) state. SALL4 concomitantly mobilizes the polycomb complexes at the Soxs loci. Thus, OCT4/SALL4-driven cohesin- and polycombs-mediated changes in higher-order chromatin structure mediate instruction of early cell fate in embryonic cells. PMID:25851587

  8. A Scaffoldin of the Bacteroides cellulosolvens Cellulosome That Contains 11 Type II Cohesins

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Shi-You; Bayer, Edward A.; Steiner, David; Shoham, Yuval; Lamed, Raphael

    2000-01-01

    A cellulosomal scaffoldin gene, termed cipBc, was identified and sequenced from the mesophilic cellulolytic anaerobe Bacteroides cellulosolvens. The gene encodes a 2,292-residue polypeptide (excluding the signal sequence) with a calculated molecular weight of 242,437. CipBc contains an N-terminal signal peptide, 11 type II cohesin domains, an internal family III cellulose-binding domain (CBD), and a C-terminal dockerin domain. Its CBD belongs to family IIIb, like that of CipV from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus but unlike the family IIIa CBDs of other clostridial scaffoldins. In contrast to all other scaffoldins thus far described, CipBc lacks a hydrophilic domain or domain X of unknown function. The singularity of CipBc, however, lies in its numerous type II cohesin domains, all of which are very similar in sequence. One of the latter cohesin domains was expressed, and the expressed protein interacted selectively with cellulosomal enzymes, one of which was identified as a family 48 glycosyl hydrolase on the basis of partial sequence alignment. By definition, the dockerins, carried by the cellulosomal enzymes of this species, would be considered to be type II. This is the first example of authentic type II cohesins that are confirmed components of a cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit rather than a cell surface anchoring component. The results attest to the emerging diversity of cellulosomes and their component sequences in nature. PMID:10940036

  9. Sororin loads to the synaptonemal complex central region independently of meiotic cohesin complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Felipe-Medina, Natalia; Ruiz-Torres, Miguel; Berenguer, Inés; Viera, Alberto; Pérez, Sara; Barbero, José Luis; Llano, Elena; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Alsheimer, Manfred; Pendás, Alberto M; Losada, Ana; Suja, José A

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and regulation of the cohesin complexes have been extensively studied during mitosis. However, the dynamics of their different regulators in vertebrate meiosis is largely unknown. In this work, we have analyzed the distribution of the regulatory factor Sororin during male mouse meiosis. Sororin is detected at the central region of the synaptonemal complex during prophase I, in contrast with the previously reported localization of other cohesin components in the lateral elements. This localization of Sororin depends on the transverse filaments protein SYCP1, but not on meiosis-specific cohesin subunits REC8 and SMC1β. By late prophase I, Sororin accumulates at centromeres and remains there up to anaphase II The phosphatase activity of PP2A seems to be required for this accumulation. We hypothesize that Sororin function at the central region of the synaptonemal complex could be independent on meiotic cohesin complexes. In addition, we suggest that Sororin participates in the regulation of centromeric cohesion during meiosis in collaboration with SGO2-PP2A. PMID:26951638

  10. Involvement of the Cohesin Cofactor PDS5 (SPO76) During Meiosis and DNA Repair in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pradillo, Mónica; Knoll, Alexander; Oliver, Cecilia; Varas, Javier; Corredor, Eduardo; Puchta, Holger; Santos, Juan L.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance and precise regulation of sister chromatid cohesion is essential for faithful chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Cohesin cofactors contribute to cohesin dynamics and interact with cohesin complexes during cell cycle. One of these, PDS5, also known as SPO76, is essential during mitosis and meiosis in several organisms and also plays a role in DNA repair. In yeast, the complex Wapl-Pds5 controls cohesion maintenance and colocalizes with cohesin complexes into chromosomes. In Arabidopsis, AtWAPL proteins are essential during meiosis, however, the role of AtPDS5 remains to be ascertained. Here we have isolated mutants for each of the five AtPDS5 genes (A–E) and obtained, after different crosses between them, double, triple, and even quadruple mutants (Atpds5a Atpds5b Atpds5c Atpds5e). Depletion of AtPDS5 proteins has a weak impact on meiosis, but leads to severe effects on development, fertility, somatic homologous recombination (HR) and DNA repair. Furthermore, this cohesin cofactor could be important for the function of the AtSMC5/AtSMC6 complex. Contrarily to its function in other species, our results suggest that AtPDS5 is dispensable during the meiotic division of Arabidopsis, although it plays an important role in DNA repair by HR. PMID:26648949

  11. Cohesin recruits the Esco1 acetyltransferase genome wide to repress transcription and promote cohesion in somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sadia; Jones, Mathew J K; Jallepalli, Prasad V

    2015-09-01

    The cohesin complex links DNA molecules and plays key roles in the organization, expression, repair, and segregation of eukaryotic genomes. In vertebrates the Esco1 and Esco2 acetyltransferases both modify cohesin's Smc3 subunit to establish sister chromatid cohesion during S phase, but differ in their N-terminal domains and expression during development and across the cell cycle. Here we show that Esco1 and Esco2 also differ dramatically in their interaction with chromatin, as Esco1 is recruited by cohesin to over 11,000 sites, whereas Esco2 is infrequently enriched at REST/NRSF target genes. Esco1's colocalization with cohesin occurs throughout the cell cycle and depends on two short motifs (the A-box and B-box) present in and unique to all Esco1 orthologs. Deleting either motif led to the derepression of Esco1-proximal genes and functional uncoupling of cohesion from Smc3 acetylation. In contrast, other mutations that preserved Esco1's recruitment separated its roles in cohesion establishment and gene silencing. We conclude that Esco1 uses cohesin as both a substrate and a scaffold for coordinating multiple chromatin-based transactions in somatic cells. PMID:26305936

  12. HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Tanushree; Antony, Jisha; Braithwaite, Antony W; Horsfield, Julia A

    2016-06-10

    Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles. PMID:27072133

  13. Epigenetic Deregulation of the LMP1/LMP2 Locus of Epstein-Barr Virus by Mutation of a Single CTCF-Cohesin Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Horng-Shen; Martin, Kayla A.; Lu, Fang; Lupey, Lena N.; Mueller, Joshua M.

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin regulatory factors CTCF and cohesin have been implicated in the coordinated control of multiple gene loci in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency. We have found that CTCF and cohesin are highly enriched at the convergent and partially overlapping transcripts for the LMP1 and LMP2A genes, but it is not yet known how CTCF and cohesin may coordinately regulate these transcripts. We now show that genetic disruption of this CTCF binding site (EBVΔCTCF166) leads to a deregulation of LMP1, LMP2A, and LMP2B transcription in EBV-immortalized B lymphocytes. EBVΔCTCF166 virus-immortalized primary B lymphocytes showed a decrease in LMP1 and LMP2A mRNA and a corresponding increase in LMP2B mRNA. The reduction of LMP1 and LMP2A correlated with a loss of euchromatic histone modification H3K9ac and a corresponding increase in heterochromatic histone modification H3K9me3 at the LMP2A promoter region in EBVΔCTCF166. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) revealed that DNA loop formation with the origin of plasmid replication (OriP) enhancer was eliminated in EBVΔCTCF166. We also observed that the EBV episome copy number was elevated in EBVΔCTCF166 and that this was not due to increased lytic cycle activity. These findings suggest that a single CTCF binding site controls LMP2A and LMP1 promoter selection, chromatin boundary function, DNA loop formation, and episome copy number control during EBV latency. PMID:24257606

  14. Epigenetic deregulation of the LMP1/LMP2 locus of Epstein-Barr virus by mutation of a single CTCF-cohesin binding site.

    PubMed

    Chen, Horng-Shen; Martin, Kayla A; Lu, Fang; Lupey, Lena N; Mueller, Joshua M; Lieberman, Paul M; Tempera, Italo

    2014-02-01

    The chromatin regulatory factors CTCF and cohesin have been implicated in the coordinated control of multiple gene loci in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency. We have found that CTCF and cohesin are highly enriched at the convergent and partially overlapping transcripts for the LMP1 and LMP2A genes, but it is not yet known how CTCF and cohesin may coordinately regulate these transcripts. We now show that genetic disruption of this CTCF binding site (EBVΔCTCF166) leads to a deregulation of LMP1, LMP2A, and LMP2B transcription in EBV-immortalized B lymphocytes. EBVΔCTCF166 virus-immortalized primary B lymphocytes showed a decrease in LMP1 and LMP2A mRNA and a corresponding increase in LMP2B mRNA. The reduction of LMP1 and LMP2A correlated with a loss of euchromatic histone modification H3K9ac and a corresponding increase in heterochromatic histone modification H3K9me3 at the LMP2A promoter region in EBVΔCTCF166. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) revealed that DNA loop formation with the origin of plasmid replication (OriP) enhancer was eliminated in EBVΔCTCF166. We also observed that the EBV episome copy number was elevated in EBVΔCTCF166 and that this was not due to increased lytic cycle activity. These findings suggest that a single CTCF binding site controls LMP2A and LMP1 promoter selection, chromatin boundary function, DNA loop formation, and episome copy number control during EBV latency. PMID:24257606

  15. CTCF and CohesinSA-1 Mark Active Promoters and Boundaries of Repressive Chromatin Domains in Primary Human Erythroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Laurie A.; Schulz, Vincent; Makismova, Yelena; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    Background CTCF and cohesinSA-1 are regulatory proteins involved in a number of critical cellular processes including transcription, maintenance of chromatin domain architecture, and insulator function. To assess changes in the CTCF and cohesinSA-1 interactomes during erythropoiesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high throughput sequencing and mRNA transcriptome analyses via RNA-seq were performed in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) and primary human erythroid cells from single donors. Results Sites of CTCF and cohesinSA-1 co-occupancy were enriched in gene promoters in HSPC and erythroid cells compared to single CTCF or cohesin sites. Cell type-specific CTCF sites in erythroid cells were linked to highly expressed genes, with the opposite pattern observed in HSPCs. Chromatin domains were identified by ChIP-seq with antibodies against trimethylated lysine 27 histone H3, a modification associated with repressive chromatin. Repressive chromatin domains increased in both number and size during hematopoiesis, with many more repressive domains in erythroid cells than HSPCs. CTCF and cohesinSA-1 marked the boundaries of these repressive chromatin domains in a cell-type specific manner. Conclusion These genome wide data, changes in sites of protein occupancy, chromatin architecture, and related gene expression, support the hypothesis that CTCF and cohesinSA-1 have multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression during erythropoiesis including transcriptional regulation at gene promoters and maintenance of chromatin architecture. These data from primary human erythroid cells provide a resource for studies of normal and perturbed erythropoiesis. PMID:27219007

  16. The 2 micron plasmid purloins the yeast cohesin complex

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Shwetal; Yang, Xian Mei; Chan, Clarence S.; Dobson, Melanie J.; Jayaram, Makkuni; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian

    2002-01-01

    The yeast 2 micron plasmid achieves high fidelity segregation by coupling its partitioning pathway to that of the chromosomes. Mutations affecting distinct steps of chromosome segregation cause the plasmid to missegregate in tandem with the chromosomes. In the absence of the plasmid stability system, consisting of the Rep1 and Rep2 proteins and the STB DNA, plasmid and chromosome segregations are uncoupled. The Rep proteins, acting in concert, recruit the yeast cohesin complex to the STB locus. The periodicity of cohesin association and dissociation is nearly identical for the plasmid and the chromosomes. The timely disassembly of cohesin is a prerequisite for plasmid segregation. Cohesin-mediated pairing and unpairing likely provides a counting mechanism for evenly partitioning plasmids either in association with or independently of the chromosomes. PMID:12177044

  17. Building a foundation for structure-based cellulosome design for cellulosic ethanol: Insight into cohesin-dockerin complexation from computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiancong; Crowley, Michael F; Smith, Jeremy C

    2009-05-01

    The organization and assembly of the cellulosome, an extracellular multienzyme complex produced by anaerobic bacteria, is mediated by the high-affinity interaction of cohesin domains from scaffolding proteins with dockerins of cellulosomal enzymes. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations on both the wild type (WT) and D39N mutant of the C. thermocellum Type I cohesin-dockerin complex in aqueous solution. The D39N mutation has been experimentally demonstrated to disrupt cohesin-dockerin binding. The present MD simulations indicate that the substitution triggers significant protein flexibility and causes a major change of the hydrogen-bonding network in the recognition strips-the conserved loop regions previously proposed to be involved in binding-through electrostatic and salt-bridge interactions between beta-strands 3 and 5 of the cohesin and alpha-helix 3 of the dockerin. The mutation-induced subtle disturbance in the local hydrogen-bond network is accompanied by conformational rearrangements of the protein side chains and bound water molecules. Additional free energy perturbation calculations of the D39N mutation provide differences in the cohesin-dockerin binding energy, thus offering a direct, quantitative comparison with experiments. The underlying molecular mechanism of cohesin-dockerin complexation is further investigated through the free energy profile, that is, potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of WT cohesin-dockerin complex. The PMF shows a high-free energy barrier against the dissociation and reveals a stepwise pattern involving both the central beta-sheet interface and its adjacent solvent-exposed loop/turn regions clustered at both ends of the beta-barrel structure. PMID:19384997

  18. Building a Foundation for Structure-Based Cellulosome Design for Cellulosic Ethanol: Insight into Cohesin-Dockerin Complexation from Computer Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J.; Crowley, M. F.; Smith, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    The organization and assembly of the cellulosome, an extracellular multienzyme complex produced by anaerobic bacteria, is mediated by the high-affinity interaction of cohesin domains from scaffolding proteins with dockerins of cellulosomal enzymes. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations on both the wild type (WT) and D39N mutant of the C. thermocellum Type I cohesin-dockerin complex in aqueous solution. The D39N mutation has been experimentally demonstrated to disrupt cohesin-dockerin binding. The present MD simulations indicate that the substitution triggers significant protein flexibility and causes a major change of the hydrogen-bonding network in the recognition strips - the conserved loop regions previously proposed to be involved in binding - through electrostatic and salt-bridge interactions between {beta}-strands 3 and 5 of the cohesin and {alpha}-helix 3 of the dockerin. The mutation-induced subtle disturbance in the local hydrogen-bond network is accompanied by conformational rearrangements of the protein side chains and bound water molecules. Additional free energy perturbation calculations of the D39N mutation provide differences in the cohesin-dockerin binding energy, thus offering a direct, quantitative comparison with experiments. The underlying molecular mechanism of cohesin-dockerin complexation is further investigated through the free energy profile, that is, potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of WT cohesin-dockerin complex. The PMF shows a high-free energy barrier against the dissociation and reveals a stepwise pattern involving both the central {beta}-sheet interface and its adjacent solvent-exposed loop/turn regions clustered at both ends of the {beta}-barrel structure.

  19. The Cohesin loading factor NIPBL recruits histone deacetylases to mediate local chromatin modifications

    PubMed Central

    Jahnke, Philipp; Xu, Weizhen; Wülling, Manuela; Albrecht, Melanie; Gabriel, Heinz; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele; Kaiser, Frank J.

    2008-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a rare congenital malformation disorder. About half of the patients with CdLS carry mutations in the NIPBL gene encoding the NIPBL protein, a subunit of the Cohesin loading complex. Recent studies show association of Cohesin with chromatin-remodeling complexes, either by establishing cohesion or by recruiting Cohesin to specific chromosome locations. In yeast two-hybrid assays, we identified an interaction of NIPBL with the histone deacetylases -1 and -3. These interactions were confirmed in mammalian cells by coimmunoprecipitation and a critical region for interaction was defined to a stretch of 163 amino acids of a highly conserved region of NIPBL, which is mutated in patients with CdLS. Utilizing reporter gene assays, we could show that NIPBL fused to the GAL4-DNA-binding domain (GAL4-DBD) represses promoter activity via the recruitment of histone deacetylases. Interestingly, this effect is dramatically reduced by both NIPBL missense mutations identified in CdLS and by chemical inhibition of the histone deacetylases. Our data are the first to indicate a molecular and functional connection of NIPBL with chromatin-remodeling processes via the direct interaction with histone deacetylases. PMID:18854353

  20. Casein Kinase 1 and Phosphorylation of Cohesin Subunit Rec11 (SA3) Promote Meiotic Recombination through Linear Element Formation

    PubMed Central

    Phadnis, Naina; Cipak, Lubos; Polakova, Silvia; Hyppa, Randy W.; Cipakova, Ingrid; Anrather, Dorothea; Karvaiova, Lucia; Mechtler, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Proper meiotic chromosome segregation, essential for sexual reproduction, requires timely formation and removal of sister chromatid cohesion and crossing-over between homologs. Early in meiosis cohesins hold sisters together and also promote formation of DNA double-strand breaks, obligate precursors to crossovers. Later, cohesin cleavage allows chromosome segregation. We show that in fission yeast redundant casein kinase 1 homologs, Hhp1 and Hhp2, previously shown to regulate segregation via phosphorylation of the Rec8 cohesin subunit, are also required for high-level meiotic DNA breakage and recombination. Unexpectedly, these kinases also mediate phosphorylation of a different meiosis-specific cohesin subunit Rec11. This phosphorylation in turn leads to loading of linear element proteins Rec10 and Rec27, related to synaptonemal complex proteins of other species, and thereby promotes DNA breakage and recombination. Our results provide novel insights into the regulation of chromosomal features required for crossing-over and successful reproduction. The mammalian functional homolog of Rec11 (STAG3) is also phosphorylated during meiosis and appears to be required for fertility, indicating wide conservation of the meiotic events reported here. PMID:25993311

  1. ChromoShake: a chromosome dynamics simulator reveals that chromatin loops stiffen centromeric chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Lawrimore, Josh; Aicher, Joseph K.; Hahn, Patrick; Fulp, Alyona; Kompa, Ben; Vicci, Leandra; Falvo, Michael; Taylor, Russell M.; Bloom, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    ChromoShake is a three-dimensional simulator designed to find the thermodynamically favored states for given chromosome geometries. The simulator has been applied to a geometric model based on experimentally determined positions and fluctuations of DNA and the distribution of cohesin and condensin in the budding yeast centromere. Simulations of chromatin in differing initial configurations reveal novel principles for understanding the structure and function of a eukaryotic centromere. The entropic position of DNA loops mirrors their experimental position, consistent with their radial displacement from the spindle axis. The barrel-like distribution of cohesin complexes surrounding the central spindle in metaphase is a consequence of the size of the DNA loops within the pericentromere to which cohesin is bound. Linkage between DNA loops of different centromeres is requisite to recapitulate experimentally determined correlations in DNA motion. The consequences of radial loops and cohesin and condensin binding are to stiffen the DNA along the spindle axis, imparting an active function to the centromere in mitosis. PMID:26538024

  2. ScaC, an Adaptor Protein Carrying a Novel Cohesin That Expands the Dockerin-Binding Repertoire of the Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 Cellulosome

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Marco T.; Martin, Jennifer C.; Aurilia, Vincenzo; McCrae, Sheila I.; Rucklidge, Garry J.; Reid, Martin D.; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Flint, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A new gene, designated scaC and encoding a protein carrying a single cohesin, was identified in the cellulolytic rumen anaerobe Ruminococcus flavefaciens 17 as part of a gene cluster that also codes for the cellulosome structural components ScaA and ScaB. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the sequence of the ScaC cohesin is distinct from the sequences of other cohesins, including the sequences of R. flavefaciens ScaA and ScaB. The scaC gene product also includes at its C terminus a dockerin module that closely resembles those found in R. flavefaciens enzymes that bind to the cohesins of the primary ScaA scaffoldin. The putative cohesin domain and the C-terminal dockerin module were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli as His6-tagged products (ScaC-Coh and ScaC-Doc, respectively). Affinity probing of protein extracts of R. flavefaciens 17 separated in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels with recombinant cohesins from ScaC and ScaA revealed that two distinct subsets of native proteins interact with ScaC-Coh and ScaA-Coh. Furthermore, ScaC-Coh failed to interact with the recombinant dockerin module from the enzyme EndB that is recognized by ScaA cohesins. On the other hand, ScaC-Doc was shown to interact specifically with the recombinant cohesin domain from ScaA, and the ScaA-Coh probe was shown to interact with a native 29-kDa protein spot identified as ScaC by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry. These results suggest that ScaC plays the role of an adaptor scaffoldin that is bound to ScaA via the ScaC dockerin module, which, via the distinctive ScaC cohesin, expands the range of proteins that can bind to the ScaA-based enzyme complex. PMID:15090497

  3. Proteomics Analysis with a Nano Random Forest Approach Reveals Novel Functional Interactions Regulated by SMC Complexes on Mitotic Chromosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Shinya; Montaño-Gutierrez, Luis F.; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ogawa, Hiromi; Toramoto, Iyo; Sato, Nobuko; Morrison, Ciaran G.; Takeda, Shunichi; Hudson, Damien F.; Earnshaw, William C.

    2016-01-01

    Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression. PMID:27231315

  4. Proteomics Analysis with a Nano Random Forest Approach Reveals Novel Functional Interactions Regulated by SMC Complexes on Mitotic Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Shinya; Montaño-Gutierrez, Luis F; de Lima Alves, Flavia; Ogawa, Hiromi; Toramoto, Iyo; Sato, Nobuko; Morrison, Ciaran G; Takeda, Shunichi; Hudson, Damien F; Rappsilber, Juri; Earnshaw, William C

    2016-08-01

    Packaging of DNA into condensed chromosomes during mitosis is essential for the faithful segregation of the genome into daughter nuclei. Although the structure and composition of mitotic chromosomes have been studied for over 30 years, these aspects are yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we used stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture to compare the proteomes of mitotic chromosomes isolated from cell lines harboring conditional knockouts of members of the condensin (SMC2, CAP-H, CAP-D3), cohesin (Scc1/Rad21), and SMC5/6 (SMC5) complexes. Our analysis revealed that these complexes associate with chromosomes independently of each other, with the SMC5/6 complex showing no significant dependence on any other chromosomal proteins during mitosis. To identify subtle relationships between chromosomal proteins, we employed a nano Random Forest (nanoRF) approach to detect protein complexes and the relationships between them. Our nanoRF results suggested that as few as 113 of 5058 detected chromosomal proteins are functionally linked to chromosome structure and segregation. Furthermore, nanoRF data revealed 23 proteins that were not previously suspected to have functional interactions with complexes playing important roles in mitosis. Subsequent small-interfering-RNA-based validation and localization tracking by green fluorescent protein-tagging highlighted novel candidates that might play significant roles in mitotic progression. PMID:27231315

  5. Genetic Tailors: CTCF and Cohesin Shape the Genome During Evolution.

    PubMed

    Vietri Rudan, Matteo; Hadjur, Suzana

    2015-11-01

    Research into chromosome structure and organization is an old field that has seen some fascinating progress in recent years. Modern molecular methods that can describe the shape of chromosomes have begun to revolutionize our understanding of genome organization and the mechanisms that regulate gene activity. A picture is beginning to emerge of chromatin loops representing a widespread organizing principle of the chromatin fiber and the proteins cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) as key players anchoring such chromatin loops. Here we review our current understanding of the features of CTCF- and cohesin-mediated genome organization and how their evolution may have helped to shape genome structure. PMID:26439501

  6. Chromosome Cohesion Established by Rec8-Cohesin in Fetal Oocytes Is Maintained without Detectable Turnover in Oocytes Arrested for Months in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Sabrina; Borsos, Máté; Szydlowska, Anna; Godwin, Jonathan; Williams, Suzannah A.; Cohen, Paula E.; Hirota, Takayuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Tachibana-Konwalski, Kikuë

    2016-01-01

    Summary Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by the cohesin complex is essential for chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis [1]. Rec8-containing cohesin, bound to Smc3/Smc1α or Smc3/Smc1β, maintains bivalent cohesion in mammalian meiosis [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]. In females, meiotic DNA replication and recombination occur in fetal oocytes. After birth, oocytes arrest at the prolonged dictyate stage until recruited to grow into mature oocytes that divide at ovulation. How cohesion is maintained in arrested oocytes remains a pivotal question relevant to maternal age-related aneuploidy. Hypothetically, cohesin turnover regenerates cohesion in oocytes. Evidence for post-replicative cohesion establishment mechanism exists, in yeast and invertebrates [7, 8]. In mouse fetal oocytes, cohesin loading factor Nipbl/Scc2 localizes to chromosome axes during recombination [9, 10]. Alternatively, cohesion is maintained without turnover. Consistent with this, cohesion maintenance does not require Smc1β transcription, but unlike Rec8, Smc1β is not required for establishing bivalent cohesion [11, 12]. Rec8 maintains cohesion without turnover during weeks of oocyte growth [3]. Whether the same applies to months or decades of arrest is unknown. Here, we test whether Rec8 activated in arrested mouse oocytes builds cohesion revealed by TEV cleavage and live-cell imaging. Rec8 establishes cohesion when activated during DNA replication in fetal oocytes using tamoxifen-inducible Cre. In contrast, no new cohesion is detected when Rec8 is activated in arrested oocytes by tamoxifen despite cohesin synthesis. We conclude that cohesion established in fetal oocytes is maintained for months without detectable turnover in dictyate-arrested oocytes. This implies that women’s fertility depends on the longevity of cohesin proteins that established cohesion in utero. PMID:26898469

  7. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L.; Bass, Hank W.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  8. Open chromatin reveals the functional maize genome.

    PubMed

    Rodgers-Melnick, Eli; Vera, Daniel L; Bass, Hank W; Buckler, Edward S

    2016-05-31

    Cellular processes mediated through nuclear DNA must contend with chromatin. Chromatin structural assays can efficiently integrate information across diverse regulatory elements, revealing the functional noncoding genome. In this study, we use a differential nuclease sensitivity assay based on micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion to discover open chromatin regions in the maize genome. We find that maize MNase-hypersensitive (MNase HS) regions localize around active genes and within recombination hotspots, focusing biased gene conversion at their flanks. Although MNase HS regions map to less than 1% of the genome, they consistently explain a remarkably large amount (∼40%) of heritable phenotypic variance in diverse complex traits. MNase HS regions are therefore on par with coding sequences as annotations that demarcate the functional parts of the maize genome. These results imply that less than 3% of the maize genome (coding and MNase HS regions) may give rise to the overwhelming majority of phenotypic variation, greatly narrowing the scope of the functional genome. PMID:27185945

  9. Identification of a region in the coiled-coil domain of Smc3 that is essential for cohesin activity.

    PubMed

    Orgil, Ola; Mor, Hadar; Matityahu, Avi; Onn, Itay

    2016-07-27

    The cohesin complex plays an important role in sister chromatin cohesion. Cohesin's core is composed of two structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins, called Smc1 and Smc3. SMC proteins are built from a globular hinge domain, a rod-shaped domain composed of long anti-parallel coiled-coil (CC), and a second globular adenosine triphosphatase domain called the head. The functions of both head and hinge domains have been studied extensively, yet the function of the CC region remains elusive. We identified a mutation in the CC of smc3 (L217P) that disrupts the function of the protein. Cells carrying the smc3-L217P allele have a strong cohesion defect and complexes containing smc3-L217P are not loaded onto the chromosomes. However, the mutation does not affect inter-protein interactions in either the core complex or with the Scc2 loader. We show by molecular dynamics and biochemistry that wild-type Smc3 can adopt distinct conformations, and that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) induces the conformational change. The L217P mutation restricts the ability of the mutated protein to switch between the conformations. We suggest that the function of the CC is to transfer ATP binding/hydrolysis signals between the head and the hinge domains. The results provide a new insight into the mechanism of cohesin activity. PMID:27307603

  10. Meiosis: Cohesins Are Not Just for Sisters Any More.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Cori K; Hawley, R Scott

    2016-07-11

    Multiple meiosis-specific cohesion proteins act to facilitate homolog segregation at the first meiotic division. A recent paper demonstrates that meiotic cohesins can be separated into two complexes, one that establishes and maintains intersister cohesion and one that promotes interhomolog adhesion by regulating synaptonemal complex assembly. PMID:27404236

  11. Spectrum and Consequences of SMC1A Mutations: The Unexpected Involvement of a Core Component of Cohesin in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Linda; Liu, Jinglan; Krantz, Ian D.; Musio, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    SMC1A encodes a structural component of the cohesin complex, which isnecessary for sister chromatid cohesion. In addition to its canonical role, cohesin has been shown to be involved in gene expression regulation and maintenance of genome stability. Recently, it has been demonstrated that mutations in the SMC1A gene are responsible for Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). CdLS is a genetically heterogeneous multisystem developmental disorder with variable expressivity, typically characterized by consistent facial dysmorphia, upper extremity malformations, hirsutism, cardiac defects, growth and cognitive retardation, gastrointestinal abnormalities and other systemic involvement. SMC1A mutations have also been identified in colorectal cancers. So far a total of 26 different mutations of the SMC1A gene have been reported. All mutations reported to date are either missense or small in frame deletions that maintain the open reading frame and presumably result in a protein with residual function. The mutations involve all domains of the protein but appear to cluster in key functional loci. At the functional level, elucidation of the effects that specific SMC1A mutations have on cohesin activity will be necessary to understand the etiopathology of CdLS and its possible involvement in tumorigenesis. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of SMC1A mutations. PMID:19842212

  12. Characterization of constitutive CTCF/cohesin loci: a possible role in establishing topological domains in mammalian genomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggested that human/mammalian genomes are divided into large, discrete domains that are units of chromosome organization. CTCF, a CCCTC binding factor, has a diverse role in genome regulation including transcriptional regulation, chromosome-boundary insulation, DNA replication, and chromatin packaging. It remains unclear whether a subset of CTCF binding sites plays a functional role in establishing/maintaining chromatin topological domains. Results We systematically analysed the genomic, transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles of the CTCF binding sites in 56 human cell lines from ENCODE. We identified ~24,000 CTCF sites (referred to as constitutive sites) that were bound in more than 90% of the cell lines. Our analysis revealed: 1) constitutive CTCF loci were located in constitutive open chromatin and often co-localized with constitutive cohesin loci; 2) most constitutive CTCF loci were distant from transcription start sites and lacked CpG islands but were enriched with the full-spectrum CTCF motifs: a recently reported 33/34-mer and two other potentially novel (22/26-mer); 3) more importantly, most constitutive CTCF loci were present in CTCF-mediated chromatin interactions detected by ChIA-PET and these pair-wise interactions occurred predominantly within, but not between, topological domains identified by Hi-C. Conclusions Our results suggest that the constitutive CTCF sites may play a role in organizing/maintaining the recently identified topological domains that are common across most human cells. PMID:23945083

  13. Association of cohesin and Nipped-B with transcriptionally active regions of the Drosophila melanogaster genome

    PubMed Central

    Misulovin, Ziva; Schwartz, Yuri B.; Li, Xiao-Yong; Kahn, Tatyana G.; Gause, Maria; MacArthur, Stewart; Fay, Justin C.; Eisen, Michael B.; Pirrotta, Vincenzo; Biggin, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    The cohesin complex is a chromosomal component required for sister chromatid cohesion that is conserved from yeast to man. The similarly conserved Nipped-B protein is needed for cohesin to bind to chromosomes. In higher organisms, Nipped-B and cohesin regulate gene expression and development by unknown mechanisms. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we find that Nipped-B and cohesin bind to the same sites throughout the entire non-repetitive Drosophila genome. They preferentially bind transcribed regions and overlap with RNA polymerase II. This contrasts sharply with yeast, where cohesin binds almost exclusively between genes. Differences in cohesin and Nipped-B binding between Drosophila cell lines often correlate with differences in gene expression. For example, cohesin and Nipped-B bind the Abd-B homeobox gene in cells in which it is transcribed, but not in cells in which it is silenced. They bind to the Abd-B transcription unit and downstream regulatory region and thus could regulate both transcriptional elongation and activation. We posit that transcription facilitates cohesin binding, perhaps by unfolding chromatin, and that Nipped-B then regulates gene expression by controlling cohesin dynamics. These mechanisms are likely involved in the etiology of Cornelia de Lange syndrome, in which mutation of one copy of the NIPBL gene encoding the human Nipped-B ortholog causes diverse structural and mental birth defects. PMID:17965872

  14. Cohesin and Polycomb: Cooperative Checks and Balances in Gene Silencing and Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Dorsett, Dale; Kassis, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    The cohesin protein complex was discovered for its roles in sister chromatid cohesion and segregation, and the Polycomb group (PcG) proteins for their roles in epigenetic gene silencing during development. Cohesin also controls gene transcription via multiple mechanisms. Genetic and molecular evidence from Drosophila argue that cohesin and the PRC1 PcG complex interact to control transcription of many active genes that are critical for development, and that via these interactions cohesin also controls the availability of PRC1 for gene silencing. PMID:24892918

  15. Positive regulation of c-Myc by cohesin is direct, and evolutionarily conserved

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Jenny M.; Bentley, Fiona K.; Print, Cristin G.; Dorsett, Dale; Misulovin, Ziva; Dickinson, Emma J.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact between sister chromatids from S phase to anaphase depends on cohesin, a large multi-subunit protein complex. Mutations in sister chromatid cohesion proteins underlie the human developmental condition, Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. Roles for cohesin in regulating gene expression, sometimes in combination with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), have emerged. We analyzed zebrafish embryos null for cohesin subunit rad21 using microarrays to determine global effects of cohesin on gene expression during embryogenesis. This identified Rad21-associated gene networks that included myca (zebrafish c-myc), p53 and mdm2. In zebrafish, cohesin binds to the transcription start sites of p53 and mdm2, and depletion of either Rad21 or CTCF increased their transcription. In contrast, myca expression was strongly downregulated upon loss of Rad21 while depletion of CTCF had little effect. Depletion of Rad21 or the cohesin-loading factor Nipped-B in Drosophila cells also reduced expression of myc and Myc target genes. Cohesin bound the transcription start site plus an upstream predicted CTCF binding site at zebrafish myca. Binding and positive regulation of the c-Myc gene by cohesin is conserved through evolution, indicating this regulation is likely to be direct. The exact mechanism of regulation is unknown, but local changes in histone modification associated with transcription repression at the myca gene were observed in rad21 mutants. PMID:20553708

  16. The roles of cohesins in mitosis, meiosis, and human health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Amanda S.; Berkowitz, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitosis and meiosis are essential processes that occur during development. Throughout these processes, cohesion is required to keep the sister chromatids together until their separation at anaphase. Cohesion is created by multi-protein subunit complexes called cohesins. Although the subunits differ slightly in mitosis and meiosis, the canonical cohesin complex is composed of four subunits that are quite diverse. The cohesin complexes are also important for DNA repair, gene expression, development, and genome integrity. Here we provide an overview of the roles of cohesins during these different events, as well as their roles in human health and disease, including the cohesinopathies. Although the exact roles and mechanisms of these proteins are still being elucidated, this review will serve as a guide for the current knowledge of cohesins. PMID:24906316

  17. Revealing neuronal function through microelectrode array recordings

    PubMed Central

    Obien, Marie Engelene J.; Deligkaris, Kosmas; Bullmann, Torsten; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Frey, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Microelectrode arrays and microprobes have been widely utilized to measure neuronal activity, both in vitro and in vivo. The key advantage is the capability to record and stimulate neurons at multiple sites simultaneously. However, unlike the single-cell or single-channel resolution of intracellular recording, microelectrodes detect signals from all possible sources around every sensor. Here, we review the current understanding of microelectrode signals and the techniques for analyzing them. We introduce the ongoing advancements in microelectrode technology, with focus on achieving higher resolution and quality of recordings by means of monolithic integration with on-chip circuitry. We show how recent advanced microelectrode array measurement methods facilitate the understanding of single neurons as well as network function. PMID:25610364

  18. Revealing remodeler function: Varied and unique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastlund, Allen

    Chromatin remodelers perform a necessary and required function for the successful expression of our genetic code. By modifying, shifting, or ejecting nucleosomes from the chromatin structure they allow access to the underlying DNA to the rest of the cell's machinery. This research has focused on two major remodeler motors from major families of chromatin remodelers: the trimeric motor domain of RSC and the motor domain of the ISWI family, ISWI. Using primarily stopped-flow spectrofluorometry, I have categorized the time-dependent motions of these motor domains along their preferred substrate, double-stranded DNA. Combined with collected ATP utilization data, I present the subsequent analysis and associated conclusions that stem from the underlying assumptions and models. Interestingly, there is little in common between the investigated proteins aside from their favored medium. While RSC exhibits modest translocation characteristics and highly effective motion with the ability for large molecular forces, ISWI is not only structurally different but highly inefficient in its motion leading to difficulties in determining its specific translocation mechanics. While chromatin remodeling is a ubiquitous facet of eukaryotic life, there remains much to be understood about their general mechanisms.

  19. Topology and structure of an engineered human cohesin complex bound to Pds5B

    PubMed Central

    Hons, Michael T.; Huis in ‘t Veld, Pim J.; Kaesler, Jan; Rombaut, Pascaline; Schleiffer, Alexander; Herzog, Franz; Stark, Holger; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2016-01-01

    The cohesin subunits Smc1, Smc3 and Scc1 form large tripartite rings which mediate sister chromatid cohesion and chromatin structure. These are thought to entrap DNA with the help of the associated proteins SA1/2 and Pds5A/B. Structural information is available for parts of cohesin, but analyses of entire cohesin complexes are limited by their flexibility. Here we generated a more rigid ‘bonsai' cohesin by truncating the coiled coils of Smc1 and Smc3 and used single-particle electron microscopy, chemical crosslinking-mass spectrometry and in silico modelling to generate three-dimensional models of cohesin bound to Pds5B. The HEAT-repeat protein Pds5B forms a curved structure around the nucleotide-binding domains of Smc1 and Smc3 and bridges the Smc3-Scc1 and SA1-Scc1 interfaces. These results indicate that Pds5B forms an integral part of the cohesin ring by contacting all other cohesin subunits, a property that may reflect the complex role of Pds5 proteins in controlling cohesin–DNA interactions. PMID:27549742

  20. Recruitment of the cohesin loading factor NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks depends on MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma} in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} NIPBL is recruited to DSBs. {yields} Localization of NIPBL to DSBs is regulated by MDC1 and RNF168. {yields} HP1{gamma} is required for NIPBL accumulation at DSBs. -- Abstract: The cohesin loading factor NIPBL is required for cohesin to associate with chromosomes and plays a role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Although the NIPBL homolog Scc2 is recruited to an enzymatically generated DSB and promotes cohesin-dependent DSB repair in yeast, the mechanism of the recruitment remains poorly understood. Here we show that the human NIPBL is recruited to the sites of DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation as well as to the sites of DSBs induced by homing endonuclease, I-PpoI. The recruitment of NIPBL was impaired by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MDC1 or RNF168, both of which also accumulate at DSBs. We also show that the recruitment of NIPBL to the sites of DNA damage is mediated by its C-terminal region containing HEAT repeats and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) interacting motif. Furthermore, NIPBL accumulation at damaged sites was also compromised by HP1{gamma} depletion. Taken together, our study reveals that human NIPBL is a novel protein recruited to DSB sites, and the recruitment is controlled by MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma}.

  1. A cohesin-based structural platform supporting homologous chromosome pairing in meiosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Da-Qiao; Haraguchi, Tokuko; Hiraoka, Yasushi

    2016-08-01

    The pairing and recombination of homologous chromosomes during the meiotic prophase is necessary for the accurate segregation of chromosomes in meiosis. However, the mechanism by which homologous chromosomes achieve this pairing has remained an open question. Meiotic cohesins have been shown to affect chromatin compaction; however, the impact of meiotic cohesins on homologous pairing and the fine structures of cohesion-based chromatin remain to be determined. A recent report using live-cell imaging and super-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the lack of meiotic cohesins alters the chromosome axis structures and impairs the pairing of homologous chromosomes. These results suggest that meiotic cohesin-based chromosome axis structures are crucial for the pairing of homologous chromosomes. PMID:26856595

  2. Genetic Inactivation of ATRX Leads to a Decrease in the Amount of Telomeric Cohesin and Level of Telomere Transcription in Human Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Eid, Rita; Demattei, Marie-Véronique; Episkopou, Harikleia; Augé-Gouillou, Corinne; Decottignies, Anabelle; Grandin, Nathalie; Charbonneau, Michel

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in ATRX (alpha thalassemia/mental retardation syndrome X-linked), a chromatin-remodeling protein, are associated with the telomerase-independent ALT (alternative lengthening of telomeres) pathway of telomere maintenance in several types of cancer, including human gliomas. In telomerase-positive glioma cells, we found by immunofluorescence that ATRX localized not far from the chromosome ends but not exactly at the telomere termini. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) experiments confirmed a subtelomeric localization for ATRX, yet short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated genetic inactivation of ATRX failed to trigger the ALT pathway. Cohesin has been recently shown to be part of telomeric chromatin. Here, using ChIP, we showed that genetic inactivation of ATRX provoked diminution in the amount of cohesin in subtelomeric regions of telomerase-positive glioma cells. Inactivation of ATRX also led to diminution in the amount of TERRAs, noncoding RNAs resulting from transcription of telomeric DNA, as well as to a decrease in RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) levels at the telomeres. Our data suggest that ATRX might establish functional interactions with cohesin on telomeric chromatin in order to control TERRA levels and that one or the other or both of these events might be relevant to the triggering of the ALT pathway in cancer cells that exhibit genetic inactivation of ATRX. PMID:26055325

  3. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in cohesin mutant human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinglan; Zhang, Zhe; Bando, Masashige; Itoh, Takehiko; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Li, Jennifer R.; Clark, Dinah; Kaur, Maninder; Tatsuro, Kondo; Kline, Antonie D.; Chang, Celia; Vega, Hugo; Jackson, Laird G.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Krantz, Ian D.

    2010-01-01

    The cohesin complex has recently been shown to be a key regulator of eukaryotic gene expression, although the mechanisms by which it exerts its effects are poorly understood. We have undertaken a genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation in cohesin-deficient cell lines from probands with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS). Heterozygous mutations in NIPBL, SMC1A and SMC3 genes account for ∼65% of individuals with CdLS. SMC1A and SMC3 are subunits of the cohesin complex that controls sister chromatid cohesion, whereas NIPBL facilitates cohesin loading and unloading. We have examined the methylation status of 27 578 CpG dinucleotides in 72 CdLS and control samples. We have documented the DNA methylation pattern in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) as well as identified specific differential DNA methylation in CdLS. Subgroups of CdLS probands and controls can be classified using selected CpG loci. The X chromosome was also found to have a unique DNA methylation pattern in CdLS. Cohesin preferentially binds to hypo-methylated DNA in control LCLs, whereas the differential DNA methylation alters cohesin binding in CdLS. Our results suggest that in addition to DNA methylation multiple mechanisms may be involved in transcriptional regulation in human cells and in the resultant gene misexpression in CdLS. PMID:20448023

  4. Cell cycle-specific cleavage of Scc2 regulates its cohesin deposition activity

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Julie; Fara, Tyler; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Trejo, Michael; Luong, Nancy; Hansen, Kirk C.; Megee, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion (SCC), efficient DNA repair, and the regulation of some metazoan genes require the association of cohesins with chromosomes. Cohesins are deposited by a conserved heterodimeric loading complex composed of the Scc2 and Scc4 proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but how the Scc2/Scc4 deposition complex regulates the spatiotemporal association of cohesin with chromosomes is not understood. We examined Scc2 chromatin association during the cell division cycle and found that the affinity of Scc2 for chromatin increases biphasically during the cell cycle, increasing first transiently in late G1 phase and then again later in G2/M. Inactivation of Scc2 following DNA replication reduces cellular viability, suggesting that this post S-phase increase in Scc2 chromatin binding affinity is biologically relevant. Interestingly, high and low Scc2 chromatin binding levels correlate strongly with the presence of full-length or amino-terminally cleaved forms of Scc2, respectively, and the appearance of the cleaved Scc2 species is promoted in vitro either by treatment with specific cell cycle-staged cellular extracts or by dephosphorylation. Importantly, Scc2 cleavage eliminates Scc2–Scc4 physical interactions, and an scc2 truncation mutant that mimics in vivo Scc2 cleavage is defective for cohesin deposition. These observations suggest a previously unidentified mechanism for the spatiotemporal regulation of cohesin association with chromosomes through cell cycle regulation of Scc2 cohesin deposition activity by Scc2 dephosphorylation and cleavage. PMID:24778232

  5. Dosage-Sensitive Regulation of Cohesin Chromosome Binding and Dynamics by Nipped-B, Pds5, and Wapl ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Gause, Maria; Misulovin, Ziva; Bilyeu, Amy; Dorsett, Dale

    2010-01-01

    The cohesin protein complex holds sister chromatids together to ensure proper chromosome segregation upon cell division and also regulates gene transcription. Partial loss of the Nipped-B protein that loads cohesin onto chromosomes, or the Pds5 protein required for sister chromatid cohesion, alters gene expression and organism development, without affecting chromosome segregation. Knowing if a reduced Nipped-B or Pds5 dosage changes how much cohesin binds chromosomes, or the stability with which it binds, is critical information for understanding how cohesin regulates transcription. We addressed this question by in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) with Drosophila salivary glands. Cohesin, Nipped-B, and Pds5 all bind chromosomes in both weak and stable modes, with residence half-lives of some 20 seconds and 6 min, respectively. Reducing the Nipped-B dosage decreases the amount of stable cohesin without affecting its chromosomal residence time, and reducing the Pds5 dosage increases the amount of stable cohesin. This argues that Nipped-B and Pds5 regulate transcription by controlling how much cohesin binds DNA in the stable mode, and not binding affinity. We also found that Nipped-B, Pds5, and the Wapl protein that interacts with Pds5 all play unique roles in cohesin chromosome binding. PMID:20696838

  6. Key herbivores reveal limited functional redundancy on inshore coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, C. L.; van de Leemput, I. A.; Depczynski, M.; Hoey, A. S.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Marine ecosystems are facing increasing exposure to a range of stressors and declines in critical ecological functions. The likelihood of further loss of functions and resilience is dependent, in part, on the extent of functional redundancy (i.e. the capacity of one species to functionally compensate for the loss of another species) within critical functional groups. We used multiple metrics; species richness, generic richness, abundance and reserve capacity (i.e. the relative number of individuals available to fulfil the function if the numerically dominant species is lost), as indicators to assess the potential functional redundancy of four functional groups of herbivorous fishes (browsers, excavators, grazers and scrapers) in two of the worlds' most intact coral reef ecosystems: the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Ningaloo Reef in Western Australia. We found marked variations in potential redundancy among habitats within each reef system and functional groups. Despite negligible fishing of herbivorous fishes, coastal habitats in both reef systems had lower functional redundancy compared to offshore locations for all herbivorous fishes collectively and the four functional groups independently. This pattern was consistent in all four indicators of redundancy. The potential vulnerability of these coastal habitats is highlighted by recent shifts from coral to macroalgal dominance on several coastal reefs of the GBR. Our approach provides a simple yet revealing evaluation of potential functional redundancy. Moreover, it highlights the spatial variation in potential vulnerability and resilience of reef systems.

  7. Revealing quantum correlation by negativity of the Wigner function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghiabadi, Razieh; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2016-05-01

    We analyze two two-mode continuous variable separable states with the same marginal states. We adopt the definition of classicality in the form of well-defined positive Wigner function describing the state and find that although the states possess positive local Wigner functions, they exhibit negative Wigner functions for the global states. Using the negativity of Wigner function as an indicator of nonclassicality, we show that despite these states possess different negativities of the Wigner function, they do not reveal this difference as phase space nonclassicalities such as negativity of the Mandel Q parameter or quadrature squeezing. We then concentrate on quantum correlation of these states and show that quantum discord and local quantum uncertainty, as two well-defined measures of quantum correlation, manifest the difference between negativity of the Wigner functions. The non-Gaussianity of these states is also examined and show that the difference in behavior of their non-Gaussianity is the same as the difference between negativity of their Wigner functions. We also investigate the influence of correlation rank criterion and find that when the states can be produced locally from classical states, the Wigner functions cannot reveal their quantum correlations.

  8. SMC1B is present in mammalian somatic cells and interacts with mitotic cohesin proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Linda; Cucco, Francesco; Quarantotti, Valentina; Amato, Clelia; Tinti, Mara; Tana, Luigi; Frattini, Annalisa; Delia, Domenico; Krantz, Ian D.; Jessberger, Rolf; Musio, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Cohesin is an evolutionarily conserved protein complex that plays a role in many biological processes: it ensures faithful chromosome segregation, regulates gene expression and preserves genome stability. In mammalian cells, the mitotic cohesin complex consists of two structural maintenance of chromosome proteins, SMC1A and SMC3, the kleisin protein RAD21 and a fourth subunit either STAG1 or STAG2. Meiotic paralogs in mammals were reported for SMC1A, RAD21 and STAG1/STAG2 and are called SMC1B, REC8 and STAG3 respectively. It is believed that SMC1B is only a meiotic-specific cohesin member, required for sister chromatid pairing and for preventing telomere shortening. Here we show that SMC1B is also expressed in somatic mammalian cells and is a member of a mitotic cohesin complex. In addition, SMC1B safeguards genome stability following irradiation whereas its ablation has no effect on chromosome segregation. Finally, unexpectedly SMC1B depletion impairs gene transcription, particularly at genes mapping to clusters such as HOX and PCDHB. Genome-wide analyses show that cluster genes changing in expression are enriched for cohesin-SMC1B binding. PMID:26673124

  9. Functionalities of expressed messenger RNAs revealed from mutant phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ben-Yang; Weng, Meng-Pin

    2016-07-01

    Total messenger RNAs mRNAs that are produced from a given gene under a certain set of conditions include both functional and nonfunctional transcripts. The high prevalence of nonfunctional mRNAs that have been detected in cells has raised questions regarding the functional implications of mRNA expression patterns and divergences. Phenotypes that result from the mutagenesis of protein-coding genes have provided the most straightforward descriptions of gene functions, and such data obtained from model organisms have facilitated investigations of the functionalities of expressed mRNAs. Mutant phenotype data from mouse tissues have revealed various attributes of functional mRNAs, including tissue-specificity, strength of expression, and evolutionary conservation. In addition, the role that mRNA expression evolution plays in driving morphological evolution has been revealed from studies designed to exploit morphological and physiological phenotypes of mouse mutants. Investigations into yeast essential genes (defined by an absence of colony growth after gene deletion) have further described gene regulatory strategies that reduce protein expression noise by mediating the rates of transcription and translation. In addition to the functional significance of expressed mRNAs as described in the abovementioned findings, the functionalities of other type of RNAs (i.e., noncoding RNAs) remain to be characterized with systematic mutations and phenotyping of the DNA regions that encode these RNA molecules. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:416-427. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1329 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26748449

  10. Synthetic protein interactions reveal a functional map of the cell

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Lisa K; Ólafsson, Guðjón; Ledesma-Fernández, Elena; Thorpe, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    To understand the function of eukaryotic cells, it is critical to understand the role of protein-protein interactions and protein localization. Currently, we do not know the importance of global protein localization nor do we understand to what extent the cell is permissive for new protein associations – a key requirement for the evolution of new protein functions. To answer this question, we fused every protein in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a partner from each of the major cellular compartments and quantitatively assessed the effects upon growth. This analysis reveals that cells have a remarkable and unanticipated tolerance for forced protein associations, even if these associations lead to a proportion of the protein moving compartments within the cell. Furthermore, the interactions that do perturb growth provide a functional map of spatial protein regulation, identifying key regulatory complexes for the normal homeostasis of eukaryotic cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13053.001 PMID:27098839

  11. Aurora B and Cdk1 mediate Wapl activation and release of acetylated cohesin from chromosomes by phosphorylating Sororin

    PubMed Central

    Nishiyama, Tomoko; Sykora, Martina M.; Huis in ’t Veld, Pim J.; Mechtler, Karl; Peters, Jan-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion depends on Sororin, a protein that stabilizes acetylated cohesin complexes on DNA by antagonizing the cohesin release factor Wings-apart like protein (Wapl). Cohesion is essential for chromosome biorientation but has to be dissolved to enable sister chromatid separation. To achieve this, the majority of cohesin is removed from chromosome arms in prophase and prometaphase in a manner that depends on Wapl and phosphorylation of cohesin’s subunit stromal antigen 2 (SA2), whereas centromeric cohesin is cleaved in metaphase by the protease separase. Here we show that the mitotic kinases Aurora B and Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) destabilize interactions between Sororin and the cohesin subunit precocious dissociation of sisters protein 5 (Pds5) by phosphorylating Sororin, leading to release of acetylated cohesin from chromosome arms and loss of cohesion. At centromeres, the cohesin protector shugoshin (Sgo1)-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) antagonizes Aurora B and Cdk1 partly by dephosphorylating Sororin and thus maintains cohesion until metaphase. We propose that the stepwise loss of cohesion between chromosome arms and centromeres is caused by local regulation of Wapl activity, which is controlled by the phosphorylation state of Sororin. PMID:23901111

  12. Cohesin removal precedes topoisomerase IIα-dependent decatenation at centromeres in male mammalian meiosis II.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rocío; Viera, Alberto; Berenguer, Inés; Llano, Elena; Pendás, Alberto M; Barbero, José Luis; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Suja, José A

    2014-03-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion is regulated by cohesin complexes and topoisomerase IIα. Although relevant studies have shed some light on the relationship between these two mechanisms of cohesion during mammalian mitosis, their interplay during mammalian meiosis remains unknown. In the present study, we have studied the dynamics of topoisomerase IIα in relation to that of the cohesin subunits RAD21 and REC8, the shugoshin-like 2 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) (SGOL2) and the polo-like kinase 1-interacting checkpoint helicase (PICH), during both male mouse meiotic divisions. Our results strikingly show that topoisomerase IIα appears at stretched strands connecting the sister kinetochores of segregating early anaphase II chromatids, once the cohesin complexes have been removed from the centromeres. Moreover, the number and length of these topoisomerase IIα-connecting strands increase between lagging chromatids at anaphase II after the chemical inhibition of the enzymatic activity of topoisomerase IIα by etoposide. Our results also show that the etoposide-induced inhibition of topoisomerase IIα is not able to rescue the loss of centromere cohesion promoted by the absence of the shugoshin SGOL2 during anaphase I. Taking into account our results, we propose a two-step model for the sequential release of centromeric cohesion during male mammalian meiosis II. We suggest that the cohesin removal is a prerequisite for the posterior topoisomerase IIα-mediated resolution of persisting catenations between segregating chromatids during anaphase II. PMID:24013524

  13. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. PMID:26045367

  14. Sequence Analysis of Scaffolding Protein CipC and ORFXp, a New Cohesin-Containing Protein in Clostridium cellulolyticum: Comparison of Various Cohesin Domains and Subcellular Localization of ORFXp

    PubMed Central

    Pagès, Sandrine; Bélaïch, Anne; Fierobe, Henri-Pierre; Tardif, Chantal; Gaudin, Christian; Bélaïch, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The gene encoding the scaffolding protein of the cellulosome from Clostridium cellulolyticum, whose partial sequence was published earlier (S. Pagès, A. Bélaïch, C. Tardif, C. Reverbel-Leroy, C. Gaudin, and J.-P. Bélaïch, J. Bacteriol. 178:2279–2286, 1996; C. Reverbel-Leroy, A. Bélaïch, A. Bernadac, C. Gaudin, J. P. Bélaïch, and C. Tardif, Microbiology 142:1013–1023, 1996), was completely sequenced. The corresponding protein, CipC, is composed of a cellulose binding domain at the N terminus followed by one hydrophilic domain (HD1), seven highly homologous cohesin domains (cohesin domains 1 to 7), a second hydrophilic domain, and a final cohesin domain (cohesin domain 8) which is only 57 to 60% identical to the seven other cohesin domains. In addition, a second gene located 8.89 kb downstream of cipC was found to encode a three-domain protein, called ORFXp, which includes a cohesin domain. By using antiserum raised against the latter, it was observed that ORFXp is associated with the membrane of C. cellulolyticum and is not detected in the cellulosome fraction. Western blot and BIAcore experiments indicate that cohesin domains 1 and 8 from CipC recognize the same dockerins and have similar affinity for CelA (Ka = 4.8 × 109 M−1) whereas the cohesin from ORFXp, although it is also able to bind all cellulosome components containing a dockerin, has a 19-fold lower Ka for CelA (2.6 × 108 M−1). Taken together, these data suggest that ORFXp may play a role in cellulosome assembly. PMID:10074072

  15. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function.

    PubMed

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S

    2014-11-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen-stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. PMID:25170101

  16. Proteomic profiling reveals insights into Triticeae stigma development and function

    PubMed Central

    Nazemof, Nazila; Couroux, Philippe; Rampitsch, Christof; Xing, Tim; Robert, Laurian S.

    2014-01-01

    To our knowledge, this study represents the first high-throughput characterization of a stigma proteome in the Triticeae. A total of 2184 triticale mature stigma proteins were identified using three different gel-based approaches combined with mass spectrometry. The great majority of these proteins are described in a Triticeae stigma for the first time. These results revealed many proteins likely to play important roles in stigma development and pollen–stigma interactions, as well as protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative comparison of the triticale stigma transcriptome and proteome showed poor correlation, highlighting the importance of having both types of analysis. This work makes a significant contribution towards the elucidation of the Triticeae stigma proteome and provides novel insights into its role in stigma development and function. PMID:25170101

  17. Genetic Interactions Between the Meiosis-Specific Cohesin Components, STAG3, REC8, and RAD21L.

    PubMed

    Ward, Ayobami; Hopkins, Jessica; Mckay, Matthew; Murray, Steve; Jordan, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    Cohesin is an essential structural component of chromosomes that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Previous studies have shown that there are cohesin complexes specific to meiosis, required to mediate homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. Meiosis-specific cohesin complexes consist of two structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins (SMC1α/SMC1β and SMC3), an α-kleisin protein (RAD21, RAD21L, or REC8), and a stromal antigen protein (STAG1, 2, or 3). STAG3 is exclusively expressed during meiosis, and is the predominant STAG protein component of cohesin complexes in primary spermatocytes from mouse, interacting directly with each α-kleisin subunit. REC8 and RAD21L are also meiosis-specific cohesin components. Stag3 mutant spermatocytes arrest in early prophase ("zygotene-like" stage), displaying failed homolog synapsis and persistent DNA damage, as a result of unstable loading of cohesin onto the chromosome axes. Interestingly, Rec8, Rad21L double mutants resulted in an earlier "leptotene-like" arrest, accompanied by complete absence of STAG3 loading. To assess genetic interactions between STAG3 and α-kleisin subunits RAD21L and REC8, our lab generated Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double knockout mice, and compared them to the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. These double mutants are phenotypically distinct from one another, and more severe than each single knockout mutant with regards to chromosome axis formation, cohesin loading, and sister chromatid cohesion. The Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double mutants both progress further into prophase I than the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. Our genetic analysis demonstrates that cohesins containing STAG3 and REC8 are the main complex required for centromeric cohesion, and RAD21L cohesins are required for normal clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Furthermore, the STAG3/REC8 and STAG3/RAD21L cohesins are the primary cohesins required for

  18. Genetic Interactions Between the Meiosis-Specific Cohesin Components, STAG3, REC8, and RAD21L

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Ayobami; Hopkins, Jessica; Mckay, Matthew; Murray, Steve; Jordan, Philip W.

    2016-01-01

    Cohesin is an essential structural component of chromosomes that ensures accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Previous studies have shown that there are cohesin complexes specific to meiosis, required to mediate homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination, and segregation. Meiosis-specific cohesin complexes consist of two structural maintenance of chromosomes proteins (SMC1α/SMC1β and SMC3), an α-kleisin protein (RAD21, RAD21L, or REC8), and a stromal antigen protein (STAG1, 2, or 3). STAG3 is exclusively expressed during meiosis, and is the predominant STAG protein component of cohesin complexes in primary spermatocytes from mouse, interacting directly with each α-kleisin subunit. REC8 and RAD21L are also meiosis-specific cohesin components. Stag3 mutant spermatocytes arrest in early prophase (“zygotene-like” stage), displaying failed homolog synapsis and persistent DNA damage, as a result of unstable loading of cohesin onto the chromosome axes. Interestingly, Rec8, Rad21L double mutants resulted in an earlier “leptotene-like” arrest, accompanied by complete absence of STAG3 loading. To assess genetic interactions between STAG3 and α-kleisin subunits RAD21L and REC8, our lab generated Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double knockout mice, and compared them to the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. These double mutants are phenotypically distinct from one another, and more severe than each single knockout mutant with regards to chromosome axis formation, cohesin loading, and sister chromatid cohesion. The Stag3, Rad21L, and Stag3, Rec8 double mutants both progress further into prophase I than the Rec8, Rad21L double mutant. Our genetic analysis demonstrates that cohesins containing STAG3 and REC8 are the main complex required for centromeric cohesion, and RAD21L cohesins are required for normal clustering of pericentromeric heterochromatin. Furthermore, the STAG3/REC8 and STAG3/RAD21L cohesins are the primary cohesins required

  19. Knock-out models reveal new aquaporin functions.

    PubMed

    Verkman, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    Knockout mice have been informative in the discovery of unexpected biological functions of aquaporins. Knockout mice have confirmed the predicted roles of aquaporins in transepithelial fluid transport, as in the urinary concentrating mechanism and glandular fluid secretion. A less obvious, though predictable role of aquaporins is in tissue swelling under stress, as in the brain in stroke, tumor and infection. Phenotype analysis of aquaporin knockout mice has revealed several unexpected cellular roles of aquaporins whose mechanisms are being elucidated. Aquaporins facilitate cell migration, as seen in aquaporin-dependent tumor angiogenesis and tumor metastasis, by a mechanism that may involve facilitated water transport in lamellipodia of migrating cells. The ' aquaglyceroporins', aquaporins that transport both glycerol and water, regulate glycerol content in epidermis, fat and other tissues, and lead to a multiplicity of interesting consequences of gene disruption including dry skin, resistance to skin carcinogenesis, impaired cell proliferation and altered fat metabolism. An even more surprising role of a mammalian aquaporin is in neural signal transduction in the central nervous system. The many roles of aquaporins might be exploited for clinical benefit by modulation of aquaporin expression/function - as diuretics, and in the treatment of brain swelling, glaucoma, epilepsy, obesity and cancer. PMID:19096787

  20. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Overlapping Functions of Clustered Protocadherins*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Chengyi; Meng, Shuxia; Wang, Xiaozhong

    2010-01-01

    The three tandem-arrayed protocadherin (Pcdh) gene clusters, namely Pcdh-α, Pcdh-β, and Pcdh-γ, play important roles in the development of the vertebrate central nervous system. To gain insight into the molecular action of PCDHs, we performed a systematic proteomics analysis of PCDH-γ-associated protein complexes. We identified a list of 154 non-redundant proteins in the PCDH-γ complexes. This list includes nearly 30 members of clustered Pcdh-α, -β, and -γ families as core components of the complexes and additionally over 120 putative PCDH-associated proteins. We validated a selected subset of PCDH-γ-associated proteins using specific antibodies. Analysis of the identities of PCDH-associated proteins showed that the majority of them overlap with the proteomic profile of postsynaptic density preparations. Further analysis of membrane protein complexes revealed that several validated PCDH-γ-associated proteins exhibit reduced levels in Pcdh-γ-deficient brain tissues. Therefore, PCDH-γs are required for the integrity of the complexes. However, the size of the overall complexes and the abundance of many other proteins remained unchanged, raising a possibility that PCDH-αs and PCDH-βs might compensate for PCDH-γ function in complex formation. As a test of this idea, RNA interference knockdown of both PCDH-αs and PCDH-γs showed that PCDHs have redundant functions in regulating neuronal survival in the chicken spinal cord. Taken together, our data provide evidence that clustered PCDHs coexist in large protein complexes and have overlapping functions during vertebrate neural development. PMID:19843561

  1. Nucleotide substitutions revealing specific functions of Polycomb group genes.

    PubMed

    Bajusz, Izabella; Sipos, László; Pirity, Melinda K

    2015-04-01

    POLYCOMB group (PCG) proteins belong to the family of epigenetic regulators of genes playing important roles in differentiation and development. Mutants of PcG genes were isolated first in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, resulting in spectacular segmental transformations due to the ectopic expression of homeotic genes. Homologs of Drosophila PcG genes were also identified in plants and in vertebrates and subsequent experiments revealed the general role of PCG proteins in the maintenance of the repressed state of chromatin through cell divisions. The past decades of gene targeting experiments have allowed us to make significant strides towards understanding how the network of PCG proteins influences multiple aspects of cellular fate determination during development. Being involved in the transmission of specific expression profiles of different cell lineages, PCG proteins were found to control wide spectra of unrelated epigenetic processes in vertebrates, such as stem cell plasticity and renewal, genomic imprinting and inactivation of X-chromosome. PCG proteins also affect regulation of metabolic genes being important for switching programs between pluripotency and differentiation. Insight into the precise roles of PCG proteins in normal physiological processes has emerged from studies employing cell culture-based systems and genetically modified animals. Here we summarize the findings obtained from PcG mutant fruit flies and mice generated to date with a focus on PRC1 and PRC2 members altered by nucleotide substitutions resulting in specific alleles. We also include a compilation of lessons learned from these models about the in vivo functions of this complex protein family. With multiple knockout lines, sophisticated approaches to study the consequences of peculiar missense point mutations, and insights from complementary gain-of-function systems in hand, we are now in a unique position to significantly advance our understanding of the molecular basis of

  2. Cohesion promotes nucleolar structure and function.

    PubMed

    Harris, Bethany; Bose, Tania; Lee, Kenneth K; Wang, Fei; Lu, Shuai; Ross, Rhonda Trimble; Zhang, Ying; French, Sarah L; Beyer, Ann L; Slaughter, Brian D; Unruh, Jay R; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2014-02-01

    The cohesin complex contributes to ribosome function, although the molecular mechanisms involved are unclear. Compromised cohesin function is associated with a class of diseases known as cohesinopathies. One cohesinopathy, Roberts syndrome (RBS), occurs when a mutation reduces acetylation of the cohesin Smc3 subunit. Mutation of the cohesin acetyltransferase is associated with impaired rRNA production, ribosome biogenesis, and protein synthesis in yeast and human cells. Cohesin binding to the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is evolutionarily conserved from bacteria to human cells. We report that the RBS mutation in yeast (eco1-W216G) exhibits a disorganized nucleolus and reduced looping at the rDNA. RNA polymerase I occupancy of the genes remains normal, suggesting that recruitment is not impaired. Impaired rRNA production in the RBS mutant coincides with slower rRNA cleavage. In addition to the RBS mutation, mutations in any subunit of the cohesin ring are associated with defects in ribosome biogenesis. Depletion or artificial destruction of cohesion in a single cell cycle is associated with loss of nucleolar integrity, demonstrating that the defects at the rDNA can be directly attributed to loss of cohesion. Our results strongly suggest that organization of the rDNA provided by cohesion is critical for formation and function of the nucleolus. PMID:24307683

  3. Functional Genomics Reveals Linkers Critical for Influenza Virus Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lulan; Wu, Aiping; Wang, Yao E.; Quanquin, Natalie; Li, Chunfeng; Wang, Jingfeng; Chen, Hsiang-Wen; Liu, Suyang; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Hong; Qin, F. Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Influenza virus mRNA synthesis by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase involves binding and cleavage of capped cellular mRNA by the PB2 and PA subunits, respectively, and extension of viral mRNA by PB1. However, the mechanism for such a dynamic process is unclear. Using high-throughput mutagenesis and sequencing analysis, we have not only generated a comprehensive functional map for the microdomains of individual subunits but also have revealed the PA linker to be critical for polymerase activity. This PA linker binds to PB1 and also forms ionic interactions with the PA C-terminal channel. Nearly all mutants with five-amino-acid insertions in the linker were nonviable. Our model further suggests that the PA linker plays an important role in the conformational changes that occur between stages that favor capped mRNA binding and cleavage and those associated with viral mRNA synthesis. IMPORTANCE The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus consists of the PB1, PB2, and PA subunits. By combining genome-wide mutagenesis analysis with the recently discovered crystal structure of the influenza polymerase heterotrimer, we generated a comprehensive functional map of the entire influenza polymerase complex. We identified the microdomains of individual subunits, including the catalytic domains, the interaction interfaces between subunits, and nine linkers interconnecting different domains. Interestingly, we found that mutants with five-amino-acid insertions in individual linkers were nonviable, suggesting the critical roles these linkers play in coordinating spatial relationships between the subunits. We further identified an extended PA linker that binds to PB1 and also forms ionic interactions with the PA C-terminal channel. PMID:26719244

  4. Dynamic cohesin-mediated chromatin architecture controls epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jiyeon; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Han, Sae-Won; Yi, Eugene C; Kim, Tae-You

    2016-09-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET) are important interconnected events in tumorigenesis controlled by complex genetic networks. However, the cues that activate EMT-initiating factors and the mechanisms that reversibly connect EMT/MET are not well understood. Here, we show that cohesin-mediated chromatin organization coordinates EMT/MET by regulating mesenchymal genes. We report that RAD21, a subunit of the cohesin complex, is expressed in epithelial breast cancer cells, whereas its expression is decreased in mesenchymal cancer. Depletion of RAD21 in epithelial cancer cells causes transcriptional activation of TGFB1 and ITGA5, inducing EMT. Reduced binding of RAD21 changes intrachromosomal chromatin interactions within the TGFB1 and ITGA5 loci, creating an active transcriptional environment. Similarly, stem cell-like cancer cells also show an open chromatin structure at both genes, which correlates with high expression levels and mesenchymal fate characteristics. Conversely, overexpression of RAD21 in mesenchymal cancer cells induces MET-specific expression patterns. These findings indicate that dynamic cohesin-mediated chromatin structures are responsible for the initiation and regulation of essential EMT-related cell fate changes in cancer. PMID:27466323

  5. A regulatory role for the cohesin loader NIPBL in nonhomologous end joining during immunoglobulin class switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Enervald, Elin; Du, Likun; Visnes, Torkild; Björkman, Andrea; Lindgren, Emma; Wincent, Josephine; Borck, Guntram; Colleaux, Laurence; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; van Gent, Dik C.; Pie, Juan; Puisac, Beatriz; de Miranda, Noel FCC; Kracker, Sven; de Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Durandy, Anne; Schoumans, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are mainly repaired via homologous recombination (HR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). These breaks pose severe threats to genome integrity but can also be necessary intermediates of normal cellular processes such as immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). During CSR, DSBs are produced in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and are repaired by the classical NHEJ machinery. By studying B lymphocytes derived from patients with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome, we observed a strong correlation between heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the cohesin loading protein NIPBL and a shift toward the use of an alternative, microhomology-based end joining during CSR. Furthermore, the early recruitment of 53BP1 to DSBs was reduced in the NIPBL-deficient patient cells. Association of NIPBL deficiency and impaired NHEJ was also observed in a plasmid-based end-joining assay and a yeast model system. Our results suggest that NIPBL plays an important and evolutionarily conserved role in NHEJ, in addition to its canonical function in sister chromatid cohesion and its recently suggested function in HR. PMID:24145515

  6. Cohesin protein SMC1 is a centrosomal protein.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jikui; Ekwurtzel, Emelie; Kvist, Ulrik; Yuan, Li

    2008-08-01

    Structural maintenance of chromosome protein 1 (SMC1) is well known for its roles in sister chromatid cohesion and DNA repair. In this study, we report a novel centrosomal localization of SMC1 within the cytoplasm in a variety of mammalian cell lines. We showed that SMC1 localized to centrosomes throughout the cell cycle in a microtubule-independent manner. Biochemically, SMC1 was cofractionated with the centrosomal protein gamma-tubulin in centrosomal preparation. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy performed on mouse tissue sections revealed that SMC1 antibody strongly labeled the base of cilia in ciliated epithelia, where basal bodies were located. Furthermore, we showed that SMC1 was associated with both centrioles of a centrosome at G0/G1 stage of the cell cycle. These results demonstrate that SMC1 is a centrosomal protein, suggesting possible involvement of SMC1 in centrosome/basal body-related functions, such as organization of dynamic arrays of microtubules and ciliary formation. PMID:18515072

  7. Genome-wide RNAi Screen Identifies Cohesin Genes as Modifiers of Renewal and Differentiation in Human HSCs.

    PubMed

    Galeev, Roman; Baudet, Aurélie; Kumar, Praveen; Rundberg Nilsson, Alexandra; Nilsson, Björn; Soneji, Shamit; Törngren, Therese; Borg, Åke; Kvist, Anders; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-03-29

    To gain insights into the regulatory mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we employed a genome-wide RNAi screen in human cord-blood derived cells and identified candidate genes whose knockdown maintained the HSC phenotype during culture. A striking finding was the identification of members of the cohesin complex (STAG2, RAD21, STAG1, and SMC3) among the top 20 genes from the screen. Upon individual validation of these cohesin genes, we found that their knockdown led to an immediate expansion of cells with an HSC phenotype in vitro. A similar expansion was observed in vivo following transplantation to immunodeficient mice. Transcriptome analysis of cohesin-deficient CD34(+) cells showed an upregulation of HSC-specific genes, demonstrating an immediate shift toward a more stem-cell-like gene expression signature upon cohesin deficiency. Our findings implicate cohesin as a major regulator of HSCs and illustrate the power of global RNAi screens to identify modifiers of cell fate. PMID:26997282

  8. The Cohesin Subunit Rad21 Is Required for Synaptonemal Complex Maintenance, but Not Sister Chromatid Cohesion, during Drosophila Female Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Christian F.; Heidmann, Stefan K.

    2014-01-01

    Replicated sister chromatids are held in close association from the time of their synthesis until their separation during the next mitosis. This association is mediated by the ring-shaped cohesin complex that appears to embrace the sister chromatids. Upon proteolytic cleavage of the α-kleisin cohesin subunit at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition by separase, sister chromatids are separated and segregated onto the daughter nuclei. The more complex segregation of chromosomes during meiosis is thought to depend on the replacement of the mitotic α-kleisin cohesin subunit Rad21/Scc1/Mcd1 by the meiotic paralog Rec8. In Drosophila, however, no clear Rec8 homolog has been identified so far. Therefore, we have analyzed the role of the mitotic Drosophila α-kleisin Rad21 during female meiosis. Inactivation of an engineered Rad21 variant by premature, ectopic cleavage during oogenesis results not only in loss of cohesin from meiotic chromatin, but also in precocious disassembly of the synaptonemal complex (SC). We demonstrate that the lateral SC component C(2)M can interact directly with Rad21, potentially explaining why Rad21 is required for SC maintenance. Intriguingly, the experimentally induced premature Rad21 elimination, as well as the expression of a Rad21 variant with destroyed separase consensus cleavage sites, do not interfere with chromosome segregation during meiosis, while successful mitotic divisions are completely prevented. Thus, chromatid cohesion during female meiosis does not depend on Rad21-containing cohesin. PMID:25101996

  9. The Bilingual Brain as Revealed by Functional Neuroimaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abutalebi, Jubin; Cappa, Stefano F.; Perani, Daniela

    2001-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging of bilinguals and monolinguals used in conjunction with experimental cognitive tasks has been successful in establishing functional specialization as a principle of brain organization in humans. Consistent results show that attained proficiency and possibly language exposure are more important than age of acquisition as a…

  10. Functional organization of the fusiform gyrus revealed with connectivity profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jiaojian; Fan, Lingzhong; Zhang, Yuanchao; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-08-01

    Within the object recognition-related ventral visual stream, the human fusiform gyrus (FG), which topographically connects the striate cortex to the inferior temporal lobe, plays a pivotal role in high-level visual/cognitive functions. However, though there are many previous investigations of distinct functional modules within the FG, the functional organization of the whole FG in its full functional heterogeneity has not yet been established. In the current study, a replicable functional organization of the FG based on distinct anatomical connectivity patterns was identified. The FG was parcellated into medial (FGm), lateral (FGl), and anterior (FGa) regions using diffusion tensor imaging. We validated the reasonability of such an organizational scheme from the perspective of resting-state whole brain functional connectivity patterns and the involvement of functional subnetworks. We found corroborating support for these three distinct modules, and suggest that the FGm serves as a transition region that combines multiple stimuli, the FGl is responsible for categorical recognition, and the FGa is involved in semantic understanding. These findings support two organizational functional transitions of the ventral temporal gyrus, a posterior/anterior direction of visual/semantic processing, and a media/lateral direction of high-level visual processing. Our results may facilitate a more detailed study of the human FG in the future. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3003-3016, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27132874

  11. Distinct hippocampal functional networks revealed by tractography-based parcellation.

    PubMed

    Adnan, Areeba; Barnett, Alexander; Moayedi, Massieh; McCormick, Cornelia; Cohn, Melanie; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2016-07-01

    Recent research suggests the anterior and posterior hippocampus form part of two distinct functional neural networks. Here we investigate the structural underpinnings of this functional connectivity difference using diffusion-weighted imaging-based parcellation. Using this technique, we substantiated that the hippocampus can be parcellated into distinct anterior and posterior segments. These structurally defined segments did indeed show different patterns of resting state functional connectivity, in that the anterior segment showed greater connectivity with temporal and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas the posterior segment was more highly connected to medial and lateral parietal cortex. Furthermore, we showed that the posterior hippocampal connectivity to memory processing regions, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal, inferior temporal and fusiform gyri and the precuneus, predicted interindividual relational memory performance. These findings provide important support for the integration of structural and functional connectivity in understanding the brain networks underlying episodic memory. PMID:26206251

  12. Attentional networks reveal executive function deficits in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Leskin, Lorraine P; White, Patricia M

    2007-05-01

    Executive function was assessed with the Trail Making Test (Army Individual Test Battery; M. D. Lezak, 1983), the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (C. Reynolds, 2002), and a neurocognitive measure of executive control (Attentional Network Task [ANT]; J. I. Fan, B. D. McCandliss, T. Somer, A. Raz, & M. I. Posner, 2002) in 19 undergraduates with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale-Self-Report version; E. B. Foa, D. S. Riggs, C. V. Dancu, & B. O. Rothbaum, 1993), 15 high trauma participants without PTSD, and 18 low trauma control participants. Although groups did not differ on any trail making task or on the ANT measures of alerting or orienting, PTSD participants were significantly more impaired on the ANT executive network index than were high or low trauma control participants, even when level of depressive symptoms was covaried. Previous animal research identified a relationship between dopamine and the ANT measure of executive function. Elevated PTSD symptom severity and levels of hyperarousal, reexperiencing, and avoidance-numbing were associated significantly with executive function deficits indexed by the ANT. These results indicate a potentially subtle but specific deficit in executive function and a possible relationship between PTSD symptoms and irregularities in dopamine function. PMID:17484590

  13. Genome-Wide Association and Functional Follow-Up Reveals New Loci for Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuchsberger, Christian; Olden, Matthias; Chen, Ming-Huei; Tin, Adrienne; Taliun, Daniel; Li, Man; Gao, Xiaoyi; Gorski, Mathias; Yang, Qiong; Hundertmark, Claudia; Foster, Meredith C.; O'Seaghdha, Conall M.; Glazer, Nicole; Isaacs, Aaron; Liu, Ching-Ti; Smith, Albert V.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Struchalin, Maksim; Tanaka, Toshiko; Li, Guo; Johnson, Andrew D.; Gierman, Hinco J.; Feitosa, Mary; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Johansson, Åsa; Tönjes, Anke; Dehghan, Abbas; Chouraki, Vincent; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Sorice, Rossella; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lehtimäki, Terho; Esko, Tõnu; Deshmukh, Harshal; Ulivi, Sheila; Chu, Audrey Y.; Murgia, Federico; Trompet, Stella; Imboden, Medea; Kollerits, Barbara; Pistis, Giorgio; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Schmidt, Helena; Cavalieri, Margherita; Rao, Madhumathi; Hu, Frank B.; Demirkan, Ayse; Oostra, Ben A.; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Ding, Jingzhong; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Freedman, Barry I.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Illig, Thomas; Döring, Angela; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Kolcic, Ivana; Zemunik, Tatijana; Boban, Mladen; Minelli, Cosetta; Wheeler, Heather E.; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H.; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Nöthlings, Ute; Jacobs, Gunnar; Biffar, Reiner; Endlich, Karlhans; Ernst, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Stracke, Sylvia; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Mägi, Reedik; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Polasek, Ozren; Hastie, Nick; Vitart, Veronique; Helmer, Catherine; Wang, Jie Jin; Ruggiero, Daniela; Bergmann, Sven; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Nikopensius, Tiit; Province, Michael; Ketkar, Shamika; Colhoun, Helen; Doney, Alex; Robino, Antonietta; Giulianini, Franco; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Portas, Laura; Ford, Ian; Buckley, Brendan M.; Adam, Martin; Thun, Gian-Andri; Paulweber, Bernhard; Haun, Margot; Sala, Cinzia; Metzger, Marie; Mitchell, Paul; Ciullo, Marina; Kim, Stuart K.; Vollenweider, Peter; Raitakari, Olli; Metspalu, Andres; Palmer, Colin; Gasparini, Paolo; Pirastu, Mario; Jukema, J. Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Toniolo, Daniela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Siscovick, David S.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C.; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Franke, Andre; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rettig, Rainer; Prokopenko, Inga; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hayward, Caroline; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Bochud, Murielle; Heid, Iris M.; Goessling, Wolfram; Chasman, Daniel I.; Kao, W. H. Linda; Fox, Caroline S.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important public health problem with a genetic component. We performed genome-wide association studies in up to 130,600 European ancestry participants overall, and stratified for key CKD risk factors. We uncovered 6 new loci in association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the primary clinical measure of CKD, in or near MPPED2, DDX1, SLC47A1, CDK12, CASP9, and INO80. Morpholino knockdown of mpped2 and casp9 in zebrafish embryos revealed podocyte and tubular abnormalities with altered dextran clearance, suggesting a role for these genes in renal function. By providing new insights into genes that regulate renal function, these results could further our understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD. PMID:22479191

  14. Integrating phosphorylation network with transcriptional network reveals novel functional relationships.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Hou, Lin; Qian, Minping; Deng, Minghua

    2012-01-01

    Phosphorylation and transcriptional regulation events are critical for cells to transmit and respond to signals. In spite of its importance, systems-level strategies that couple these two networks have yet to be presented. Here we introduce a novel approach that integrates the physical and functional aspects of phosphorylation network together with the transcription network in S.cerevisiae, and demonstrate that different network motifs are involved in these networks, which should be considered in interpreting and integrating large scale datasets. Based on this understanding, we introduce a HeRS score (hetero-regulatory similarity score) to systematically characterize the functional relevance of kinase/phosphatase involvement with transcription factor, and present an algorithm that predicts hetero-regulatory modules. When extended to signaling network, this approach confirmed the structure and cross talk of MAPK pathways, inferred a novel functional transcription factor Sok2 in high osmolarity glycerol pathway, and explained the mechanism of reduced mating efficiency upon Fus3 deletion. This strategy is applicable to other organisms as large-scale datasets become available, providing a means to identify the functional relationships between kinases/phosphatases and transcription factors. PMID:22432002

  15. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  16. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-07-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  17. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    PubMed

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks). PMID:25078254

  18. Revealing the density of encoded functions in a viral RNA

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nikesh; Dykeman, Eric C.; Coutts, Robert H. A.; Lomonossoff, George P.; Rowlands, David J.; Phillips, Simon E. V.; Ranson, Neil; Twarock, Reidun; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    We present direct experimental evidence that assembly of a single-stranded RNA virus occurs via a packaging signal-mediated mechanism. We show that the sequences of coat protein recognition motifs within multiple, dispersed, putative RNA packaging signals, as well as their relative spacing within a genomic fragment, act collectively to influence the fidelity and yield of capsid self-assembly in vitro. These experiments confirm that the selective advantages for viral yield and encapsidation specificity, predicted from previous modeling of packaging signal-mediated assembly, are found in Nature. Regions of the genome that act as packaging signals also function in translational and transcriptional enhancement, as well as directly coding for the coat protein, highlighting the density of encoded functions within the viral RNA. Assembly and gene expression are therefore direct molecular competitors for different functional folds of the same RNA sequence. The strongest packaging signal in the test fragment, encodes a region of the coat protein that undergoes a conformational change upon contact with packaging signals. A similar phenomenon occurs in other RNA viruses for which packaging signals are known. These contacts hint at an even deeper density of encoded functions in viral RNA, which if confirmed, would have profound consequences for the evolution of this class of pathogens. PMID:25646435

  19. The brain's functional network architecture reveals human motives.

    PubMed

    Hein, Grit; Morishima, Yosuke; Leiberg, Susanne; Sul, Sunhae; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-03-01

    Goal-directed human behaviors are driven by motives. Motives are, however, purely mental constructs that are not directly observable. Here, we show that the brain's functional network architecture captures information that predicts different motives behind the same altruistic act with high accuracy. In contrast, mere activity in these regions contains no information about motives. Empathy-based altruism is primarily characterized by a positive connectivity from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the anterior insula (AI), whereas reciprocity-based altruism additionally invokes strong positive connectivity from the AI to the ACC and even stronger positive connectivity from the AI to the ventral striatum. Moreover, predominantly selfish individuals show distinct functional architectures compared to altruists, and they only increase altruistic behavior in response to empathy inductions, but not reciprocity inductions. PMID:26941317

  20. Cohesin Is Limiting for the Suppression of DNA Damage–Induced Recombination between Homologous Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Covo, Shay; Westmoreland, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Double-strand break (DSB) repair through homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that is generally error-free. The risk to genome stability posed by nonallelic recombination or loss-of-heterozygosity could be reduced by confining HR to sister chromatids, thereby preventing recombination between homologous chromosomes. Here we show that the sister chromatid cohesion complex (cohesin) is a limiting factor in the control of DSB repair and genome stability and that it suppresses DNA damage–induced interactions between homologues. We developed a gene dosage system in tetraploid yeast to address limitations on various essential components in DSB repair and HR. Unlike RAD50 and RAD51, which play a direct role in HR, a 4-fold reduction in the number of essential MCD1 sister chromatid cohesion subunit genes affected survival of gamma-irradiated G2/M cells. The decreased survival reflected a reduction in DSB repair. Importantly, HR between homologous chromosomes was strongly increased by ionizing radiation in G2/M cells with a single copy of MCD1 or SMC3 even at radiation doses where survival was high and DSB repair was efficient. The increased recombination also extended to nonlethal doses of UV, which did not induce DSBs. The DNA damage–induced recombinants in G2/M cells included crossovers. Thus, the cohesin complex has a dual role in protecting chromosome integrity: it promotes DSB repair and recombination between sister chromatids, and it suppresses damage-induced recombination between homologues. The effects of limited amounts of Mcd1and Smc3 indicate that small changes in cohesin levels may increase the risk of genome instability, which may lead to genetic diseases and cancer. PMID:20617204

  1. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A; Gogoi, Neeku M; Pillai, Indu V; Chernoff, Yury O; Munn, Alan L

    2014-08-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organization of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion, and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation, and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here, we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  2. Yeast studies reveal moonlighting functions of the ancient actin cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Sattlegger, Evelyn; Chernova, Tatiana A.; Gogoi, Neeku M.; Pillai, Indu V.; Chernoff, Yury O.; Munn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    Classic functions of the actin cytoskeleton include control of cell size and shape and the internal organisation of cells. These functions are manifest in cellular processes of fundamental importance throughout biology such as the generation of cell polarity, cell migration, cell adhesion and cell division. However, studies in the unicellular model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker's yeast) are giving insights into other functions in which the actin cytoskeleton plays a critical role. These include endocytosis, control of protein translation and determination of protein 3-dimensional shape (especially conversion of normal cellular proteins into prions). Here we present a concise overview of these new "moonlighting" roles for the actin cytoskeleton and how some of these roles might lie at the heart of important molecular switches. This is an exciting time for researchers interested in the actin cytoskeleton. We show here how studies of actin are leading us into many new and exciting realms at the interface of genetics, biochemistry and cell biology. While many of the pioneering studies have been conducted using yeast, the conservation of the actin cytoskeleton and its component proteins throughout eukaryotes suggests that these new roles for the actin cytoskeleton may not be restricted to yeast cells but rather may reflect new roles for the actin cytoskeleton of all eukaryotes. PMID:25138357

  3. Remote Synchronization Reveals Network Symmetries and Functional Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Valencia, Miguel; Chavez, Mario; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Latora, Vito

    2013-04-01

    We study a Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are associated with the nodes of a complex network and the interactions include a phase frustration, thus preventing full synchronization. The system organizes into a regime of remote synchronization where pairs of nodes with the same network symmetry are fully synchronized, despite their distance on the graph. We provide analytical arguments to explain this result, and we show how the frustration parameter affects the distribution of phases. An application to brain networks suggests that anatomical symmetry plays a role in neural synchronization by determining correlated functional modules across distant locations.

  4. Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human music

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Patrick E.; Brown, Steven; Sakai, Emi; Currie, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Music has been called “the universal language of mankind.” Although contemporary theories of music evolution often invoke various musical universals, the existence of such universals has been disputed for decades and has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we combine a music-classification scheme with statistical analyses, including phylogenetic comparative methods, to examine a well-sampled global set of 304 music recordings. Our analyses reveal no absolute universals but strong support for many statistical universals that are consistent across all nine geographic regions sampled. These universals include 18 musical features that are common individually as well as a network of 10 features that are commonly associated with one another. They span not only features related to pitch and rhythm that are often cited as putative universals but also rarely cited domains including performance style and social context. These cross-cultural structural regularities of human music may relate to roles in facilitating group coordination and cohesion, as exemplified by the universal tendency to sing, play percussion instruments, and dance to simple, repetitive music in groups. Our findings highlight the need for scientists studying music evolution to expand the range of musical cultures and musical features under consideration. The statistical universals we identified represent important candidates for future investigation. PMID:26124105

  5. Statistical universals reveal the structures and functions of human music.

    PubMed

    Savage, Patrick E; Brown, Steven; Sakai, Emi; Currie, Thomas E

    2015-07-21

    Music has been called "the universal language of mankind." Although contemporary theories of music evolution often invoke various musical universals, the existence of such universals has been disputed for decades and has never been empirically demonstrated. Here we combine a music-classification scheme with statistical analyses, including phylogenetic comparative methods, to examine a well-sampled global set of 304 music recordings. Our analyses reveal no absolute universals but strong support for many statistical universals that are consistent across all nine geographic regions sampled. These universals include 18 musical features that are common individually as well as a network of 10 features that are commonly associated with one another. They span not only features related to pitch and rhythm that are often cited as putative universals but also rarely cited domains including performance style and social context. These cross-cultural structural regularities of human music may relate to roles in facilitating group coordination and cohesion, as exemplified by the universal tendency to sing, play percussion instruments, and dance to simple, repetitive music in groups. Our findings highlight the need for scientists studying music evolution to expand the range of musical cultures and musical features under consideration. The statistical universals we identified represent important candidates for future investigation. PMID:26124105

  6. Functional metagenomic screen reveals new and diverse microbial rhodopsins

    PubMed Central

    Pushkarev, Alina; Béjà, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Ion-translocating retinylidene rhodopsins are widely distributed among marine and freshwater microbes. The translocation is light-driven, contributing to the production of biochemical energy in diverse microbes. Until today, most microbial rhodopsins had been detected using bioinformatics based on homology to other rhodopsins. In the past decade, there has been increased interest in microbial rhodopsins in the field of optogenetics since microbial rhodopsins were found to be most useful in vertebrate neuronal systems. Here we report on a functional metagenomic assay for detecting microbial rhodopsins. Using an array of narrow pH electrodes and light-emitting diode illumination, we were able to screen a metagenomic fosmid library to detect diverse marine proteorhodopsins and an actinorhodopsin based solely on proton-pumping activity. Our assay therefore provides a rather simple phenotypic means to enrich our understanding of microbial rhodopsins without any prior knowledge of the genomic content of the environmental entities screened. PMID:26894445

  7. Functional metagenomic screen reveals new and diverse microbial rhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Pushkarev, Alina; Béjà, Oded

    2016-09-01

    Ion-translocating retinylidene rhodopsins are widely distributed among marine and freshwater microbes. The translocation is light-driven, contributing to the production of biochemical energy in diverse microbes. Until today, most microbial rhodopsins had been detected using bioinformatics based on homology to other rhodopsins. In the past decade, there has been increased interest in microbial rhodopsins in the field of optogenetics since microbial rhodopsins were found to be most useful in vertebrate neuronal systems. Here we report on a functional metagenomic assay for detecting microbial rhodopsins. Using an array of narrow pH electrodes and light-emitting diode illumination, we were able to screen a metagenomic fosmid library to detect diverse marine proteorhodopsins and an actinorhodopsin based solely on proton-pumping activity. Our assay therefore provides a rather simple phenotypic means to enrich our understanding of microbial rhodopsins without any prior knowledge of the genomic content of the environmental entities screened. PMID:26894445

  8. Scalable Semisupervised Functional Neurocartography Reveals Canonical Neurons in Behavioral Networks.

    PubMed

    Frady, E Paxon; Kapoor, Ashish; Horvitz, Eric; Kristan, William B

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale data collection efforts to map the brain are underway at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but all face fundamental problems posed by high-dimensional data and intersubject variability. Even seemingly simple problems, such as identifying a neuron/brain region across animals/subjects, become exponentially more difficult in high dimensions, such as recognizing dozens of neurons/brain regions simultaneously. We present a framework and tools for functional neurocartography-the large-scale mapping of neural activity during behavioral states. Using a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD), we imaged the multifunctional responses of hundreds of leech neurons during several behaviors to identify and functionally map homologous neurons. We extracted simple features from each of these behaviors and combined them with anatomical features to create a rich medium-dimensional feature space. This enabled us to use machine learning techniques and visualizations to characterize and account for intersubject variability, piece together a canonical atlas of neural activity, and identify two behavioral networks. We identified 39 neurons (18 pairs, 3 unpaired) as part of a canonical swim network and 17 neurons (8 pairs, 1 unpaired) involved in a partially overlapping preparatory network. All neurons in the preparatory network rapidly depolarized at the onsets of each behavior, suggesting that it is part of a dedicated rapid-response network. This network is likely mediated by the S cell, and we referenced VSD recordings to an activity atlas to identify multiple cells of interest simultaneously in real time for further experiments. We targeted and electrophysiologically verified several neurons in the swim network and further showed that the S cell is presynaptic to multiple neurons in the preparatory network. This study illustrates the basic framework to map neural activity in high dimensions with large-scale recordings and how to extract the rich information necessary to perform

  9. Reduced cohesin destabilizes high-level gene amplification by disrupting pre-replication complex bindings in human cancers with chromosomal instability.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jiyeon; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Jee-Youn; Park, Jinah; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Tae-You

    2016-01-29

    Gene amplification is a hallmark of cancer with chromosomal instability although the underlying mechanism by which altered copy numbers are maintained is largely unclear. Cohesin, involved in sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and transcriptional regulation of key developmental genes, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer. Here we show that cohesin-dependent change in DNA replication controls the copy numbers of amplified genes in cancer cells with chromosomal instability. We found that the down-regulation of elevated cohesin leads to copy number-associated gene expression changes without disturbing chromosomal segregation. Highly amplified genes form typical long-range chromatin interactions, which are stabilized by enriched cohesin. The spatial proximities among cohesin binding sites within amplified genes are decreased by RAD21-knockdown, resulting in the rapid decline of amplified gene expression. After several passages, cohesin depletion inhibits DNA replication initiation by reducing the recruitment of pre-replication complexes such as minichromosome maintenance subunits 7 (MCM7), DNA polymerase α, and CDC45 at replication origins near the amplified regions, and as a result, decreases the DNA copy numbers of highly amplified genes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that cohesin-mediated chromatin organization and DNA replication are important for stabilizing gene amplification in cancer cells with chromosomal instability. PMID:26420833

  10. Reduced cohesin destabilizes high-level gene amplification by disrupting pre-replication complex bindings in human cancers with chromosomal instability

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jiyeon; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Jee-Youn; Park, Jinah; Kim, Hwang-Phill; Han, Sae-Won; Kim, Tae-You

    2016-01-01

    Gene amplification is a hallmark of cancer with chromosomal instability although the underlying mechanism by which altered copy numbers are maintained is largely unclear. Cohesin, involved in sister chromatid cohesion, DNA repair, cell cycle progression and transcriptional regulation of key developmental genes, is frequently overexpressed in human cancer. Here we show that cohesin-dependent change in DNA replication controls the copy numbers of amplified genes in cancer cells with chromosomal instability. We found that the down-regulation of elevated cohesin leads to copy number-associated gene expression changes without disturbing chromosomal segregation. Highly amplified genes form typical long-range chromatin interactions, which are stabilized by enriched cohesin. The spatial proximities among cohesin binding sites within amplified genes are decreased by RAD21-knockdown, resulting in the rapid decline of amplified gene expression. After several passages, cohesin depletion inhibits DNA replication initiation by reducing the recruitment of pre-replication complexes such as minichromosome maintenance subunits 7 (MCM7), DNA polymerase α, and CDC45 at replication origins near the amplified regions, and as a result, decreases the DNA copy numbers of highly amplified genes. Collectively, our data demonstrate that cohesin-mediated chromatin organization and DNA replication are important for stabilizing gene amplification in cancer cells with chromosomal instability. PMID:26420833

  11. Dolphin whistles: a functional misnomer revealed by heliox breathing.

    PubMed

    Madsen, P T; Jensen, F H; Carder, D; Ridgway, S

    2012-04-23

    Delphinids produce tonal whistles shaped by vocal learning for acoustic communication. Unlike terrestrial mammals, delphinid sound production is driven by pressurized air within a complex nasal system. It is unclear how fundamental whistle contours can be maintained across a large range of hydrostatic pressures and air sac volumes. Two opposing hypotheses propose that tonal sounds arise either from tissue vibrations or through actual whistle production from vortices stabilized by resonating nasal air volumes. Here, we use a trained bottlenose dolphin whistling in air and in heliox to test these hypotheses. The fundamental frequency contours of stereotyped whistles were unaffected by the higher sound speed in heliox. Therefore, the term whistle is a functional misnomer as dolphins actually do not whistle, but form the fundamental frequency contour of their tonal calls by pneumatically induced tissue vibrations analogous to the operation of vocal folds in terrestrial mammals and the syrinx in birds. This form of tonal sound production by nasal tissue vibrations has probably evolved in delphinids to enable impedance matching to the water, and to maintain tonal signature contours across changes in hydrostatic pressures, air density and relative nasal air volumes during dives. PMID:21900314

  12. Revealing humans' sensorimotor functions with electrical cortical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Desmurget, Michel; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-09-19

    Direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the human brain has been used by neurosurgeons for almost a century. Although this procedure serves only clinical purposes, it generates data that have a great scientific interest. Had DES not been employed, our comprehension of the organization of the sensorimotor systems involved in movement execution, language production, the emergence of action intentionality or the subjective feeling of movement awareness would have been greatly undermined. This does not mean, of course, that DES is a gold standard devoid of limitations and that other approaches are not of primary importance, including electrophysiology, modelling, neuroimaging or psychophysics in patients and healthy subjects. Rather, this indicates that the contribution of DES cannot be restricted, in humans, to the ubiquitous concepts of homunculus and somatotopy. DES is a fundamental tool in our attempt to understand the human brain because it represents a unique method for mapping sensorimotor pathways and interfering with the functioning of localized neural populations during the performance of well-defined behavioural tasks. PMID:26240422

  13. Selection on soil microbiomes reveals reproducible impacts on plant function.

    PubMed

    Panke-Buisse, Kevin; Poole, Angela C; Goodrich, Julia K; Ley, Ruth E; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Soil microorganisms found in the root zone impact plant growth and development, but the potential to harness these benefits is hampered by the sheer abundance and diversity of the players influencing desirable plant traits. Here, we report a high level of reproducibility of soil microbiomes in altering plant flowering time and soil functions when partnered within and between plant hosts. We used a multi-generation experimental system using Arabidopsis thaliana Col to select for soil microbiomes inducing earlier or later flowering times of their hosts. We then inoculated the selected microbiomes from the tenth generation of plantings into the soils of three additional A. thaliana genotypes (Ler, Be, RLD) and a related crucifer (Brassica rapa). With the exception of Ler, all other plant hosts showed a shift in flowering time corresponding with the inoculation of early- or late-flowering microbiomes. Analysis of the soil microbial community using 16 S rRNA gene sequencing showed distinct microbiota profiles assembling by flowering time treatment. Plant hosts grown with the late-flowering-associated microbiomes showed consequent increases in inflorescence biomass for three A. thaliana genotypes and an increase in total biomass for B. rapa. The increase in biomass was correlated with two- to five-fold enhancement of microbial extracellular enzyme activities associated with nitrogen mineralization in soils. The reproducibility of the flowering phenotype across plant hosts suggests that microbiomes can be selected to modify plant traits and coordinate changes in soil resource pools. PMID:25350154

  14. Cohesin phosphorylation and mobility of SMC1 at ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bauerschmidt, Christina; Helleday, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    Cohesin, a hetero-tetrameric complex of SMC1, SMC3, Rad21 and Scc3, associates with chromatin after mitosis and holds sister chromatids together following DNA replication. Following DNA damage, cohesin accumulates at and promotes the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. In addition, phosphorylation of the SMC1/3 subunits contributes to DNA damage-induced cell cycle checkpoint regulation. The aim of this study was to determine the regulation and consequences of SMC1/3 phosphorylation as part of the cohesin complex. We show here that the ATM-dependent phosphorylation of SMC1 and SMC3 is mediated by H2AX, 53BP1 and MDC1. Depletion of RAD21 abolishes these phosphorylations, indicating that only the fully assembled complex is phosphorylated. Comparison of wild type SMC1 and SMC1S966A in fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching experiments shows that phosphorylation of SMC1 is required for an increased mobility after DNA damage in G2-phase cells, suggesting that ATM-dependent phosphorylation facilitates mobilization of the cohesin complex after DNA damage.

  15. Engineering a reversible, high-affinity system for efficient protein purification based on the cohesin-dockerin interaction.

    PubMed

    Karpol, Alon; Kantorovich, Lia; Demishtein, Alik; Barak, Yoav; Morag, Ely; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2009-01-01

    Efficient degradation of cellulose by the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium, Clostridium thermocellum, is carried out by the multi-enzyme cellulosome complex. The enzymes on the complex are attached in a calcium-dependent manner via their dockerin (Doc) module to a cohesin (Coh) module of the cellulosomal scaffoldin subunit. In this study, we have optimized the Coh-Doc interaction for the purpose of protein affinity purification. A C. thermocellum Coh module was thus fused to a carbohydrate-binding module, and the resultant fusion protein was applied directly onto beaded cellulose, thereby serving as a non-covalent "activation" procedure. A complementary Doc module was then fused to a model protein target: xylanase T-6 from Geobacillus stearothermophilus. However, the binding to the immobilized Coh was only partially reversible upon treatment with EDTA, and only negligible amounts of the target protein were eluted from the affinity column. In order to improve protein elution, a series of truncated Docs were designed in which the calcium-coordinating function was impaired without appreciably affecting high-affinity binding to Coh. A shortened Doc of only 48 residues was sufficient to function as an effective affinity tag, and highly purified target protein was achieved directly from crude cell extracts in a single step with near-quantitative recovery of the target protein. Effective EDTA-mediated elution of the sequestered protein from the column was the key step of the procedure. The affinity column was reusable and maintained very high levels of capacity upon repeated rounds of loading and elution. Reusable Coh-Doc affinity columns thus provide an efficient and attractive approach for purifying proteins in high yield by modifying the calcium-binding loop of the Doc module. PMID:18979459

  16. Mutations in a Partitioning Protein and Altered Chromatin Structure at the Partitioning Locus Prevent Cohesin Recruitment by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Plasmid and Cause Plasmid Missegregation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Mei; Mehta, Shwetal; Uzri, Dina; Jayaram, Makkuni; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian

    2004-01-01

    The 2μm circle is a highly persistent “selfish” DNA element resident in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleus whose stability approaches that of the chromosomes. The plasmid partitioning system, consisting of two plasmid-encoded proteins, Rep1p and Rep2p, and a cis-acting locus, STB, apparently feeds into the chromosome segregation pathway. The Rep proteins assist the recruitment of the yeast cohesin complex to STB during the S phase, presumably to apportion the replicated plasmid molecules equally to daughter cells. The DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions of the partitioning system, as well as the chromatin organization at STB, are important for cohesin recruitment. Rep1p variants that are incompetent in binding to Rep2p, STB, or both fail to assist the assembly of the cohesin complex at STB and are nonfunctional in plasmid maintenance. Preventing the cohesin-STB association without impeding Rep1p-Rep2p-STB interactions also causes plasmid missegregation. During the yeast cell cycle, the Rep1p and Rep2p proteins are expelled from STB during a short interval between the late G1 and early S phases. This dissociation and reassociation event ensures that cohesin loading at STB is replication dependent and is coordinated with chromosomal cohesin recruitment. In an rsc2Δ yeast strain lacking a specific chromatin remodeling complex and exhibiting a high degree of plasmid loss, neither Rep1p nor the cohesin complex can be recruited to STB. The phenotypes of the Rep1p mutations and of the rsc2Δ mutant are consistent with the role of cohesin in plasmid partitioning being analogous to that in chromosome partitioning. PMID:15169893

  17. Mechanostability of cohesin-dockerin complexes in a structure-based model: anisotropy and lack of universality in the force profiles.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Thompson, Damien; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-12-28

    We use a structure-based coarse grained model to elucidate stretching of three cohesin-dockerin complexes that are found in the cellulosome. The average strength of mechanostability is comparable to that of the I27 domain of titin, but the force profiles depend on the pulling direction and anisotropy effects can be substantial. Even though the force profiles for individual cohesins and dockerins are similar, those for their complexes are visibly distinct for any pulling direction. PMID:25554187

  18. Mechanostability of cohesin-dockerin complexes in a structure-based model: Anisotropy and lack of universality in the force profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Thompson, Damien; Cieplak, Marek

    2014-12-01

    We use a structure-based coarse grained model to elucidate stretching of three cohesin-dockerin complexes that are found in the cellulosome. The average strength of mechanostability is comparable to that of the I27 domain of titin, but the force profiles depend on the pulling direction and anisotropy effects can be substantial. Even though the force profiles for individual cohesins and dockerins are similar, those for their complexes are visibly distinct for any pulling direction.

  19. Functional Constraint Profiling of a Viral Protein Reveals Discordance of Evolutionary Conservation and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Nicholas C.; Olson, C. Anders; Du, Yushen; Le, Shuai; Tran, Kevin; Remenyi, Roland; Gong, Danyang; Al-Mawsawi, Laith Q.; Qi, Hangfei; Wu, Ting-Ting; Sun, Ren

    2015-01-01

    Viruses often encode proteins with multiple functions due to their compact genomes. Existing approaches to identify functional residues largely rely on sequence conservation analysis. Inferring functional residues from sequence conservation can produce false positives, in which the conserved residues are functionally silent, or false negatives, where functional residues are not identified since they are species-specific and therefore non-conserved. Furthermore, the tedious process of constructing and analyzing individual mutations limits the number of residues that can be examined in a single study. Here, we developed a systematic approach to identify the functional residues of a viral protein by coupling experimental fitness profiling with protein stability prediction using the influenza virus polymerase PA subunit as the target protein. We identified a significant number of functional residues that were influenza type-specific and were evolutionarily non-conserved among different influenza types. Our results indicate that type-specific functional residues are prevalent and may not otherwise be identified by sequence conservation analysis alone. More importantly, this technique can be adapted to any viral (and potentially non-viral) protein where structural information is available. PMID:26132554

  20. Physical Association of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Polo-like Kinase Cdc5 with Chromosomal Cohesin Facilitates DNA Damage Response*

    PubMed Central

    Pakchuen, Sujiraporn; Ishibashi, Mai; Takakusagi, Emi; Shirahige, Katsuhiko; Sutani, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    At the onset of anaphase, a protease called separase breaks the link between sister chromatids by cleaving the cohesin subunit Scc1. This irreversible step in the cell cycle is promoted by degradation of the separase inhibitor, securin, and polo-like kinase (Plk) 1-dependent phosphorylation of the Scc1 subunit. Plk could recognize substrates through interaction between its phosphopeptide interaction domain, the polo-box domain, and a phosphorylated priming site in the substrate, which has been generated by a priming kinase beforehand. However, the physiological relevance of this targeting mechanism remains to be addressed for many of the Plk1 substrates. Here, we show that budding yeast Plk1, Cdc5, is pre-deposited onto cohesin engaged in cohesion on chromosome arms in G2/M phase cells. The Cdc5-cohesin association is mediated by direct interaction between the polo-box domain of Cdc5 and Scc1 phosphorylated at multiple sites in its middle region. Alanine substitutions of the possible priming phosphorylation sites (scc1-15A) impair Cdc5 association with chromosomal cohesin, but they make only a moderate impact on mitotic cell growth even in securin-deleted cells (pds1Δ), where Scc1 phosphorylation by Cdc5 is indispensable. The same scc1-15A pds1Δ double mutant, however, exhibits marked sensitivity to the DNA-damaging agent phleomycin, suggesting that the priming phosphorylation of Scc1 poses an additional layer of regulation that enables yeast cells to adapt to genotoxic environments. PMID:27325700

  1. A functional genomics strategy that uses metabolome data to reveal the phenotype of silent mutations.

    PubMed

    Raamsdonk, L M; Teusink, B; Broadhurst, D; Zhang, N; Hayes, A; Walsh, M C; Berden, J A; Brindle, K M; Kell, D B; Rowland, J J; Westerhoff, H V; van Dam, K; Oliver, S G

    2001-01-01

    A large proportion of the 6,000 genes present in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and of those sequenced in other organisms, encode proteins of unknown function. Many of these genes are "silent, " that is, they show no overt phenotype, in terms of growth rate or other fluxes, when they are deleted from the genome. We demonstrate how the intracellular concentrations of metabolites can reveal phenotypes for proteins active in metabolic regulation. Quantification of the change of several metabolite concentrations relative to the concentration change of one selected metabolite can reveal the site of action, in the metabolic network, of a silent gene. In the same way, comprehensive analyses of metabolite concentrations in mutants, providing "metabolic snapshots," can reveal functions when snapshots from strains deleted for unstudied genes are compared to those deleted for known genes. This approach to functional analysis, using comparative metabolomics, we call FANCY-an abbreviation for functional analysis by co-responses in yeast. PMID:11135551

  2. Measurements of relative binding of cohesin and dockerin mutants using an advanced ELISA technique for high-affinity interactions.

    PubMed

    Slutzki, Michal; Barak, Yoav; Reshef, Dan; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Lamed, Raphael; Bayer, Edward A

    2012-01-01

    The cellulosome is a large bacterial extracellular multienzyme complex able to degrade crystalline cellulosic substrates. The complex contains catalytic and noncatalytic subunits, interconnected by high-affinity cohesin-dockerin interactions. In this chapter, we introduce an optimized method for comparative binding among different cohesins or cohesin mutants to the dockerin partner. This assay offers advantages over other methods (such as ELISA, cELIA, SPR, and ITC) for particularly high-affinity binding interactions. In this approach, the high-affinity interaction of interest occurs in the liquid phase during the equilibrated binding step, whereas the interaction with the immobilized phase is used only for detection of the unbound dockerins that remain in the solution phase. Once equilibrium conditions are reached, the change in free energy of binding (ΔΔG(binding)), as well as the affinity constant of mutants, can be estimated against the known affinity constant of the wild-type interaction. In light of the above, we propose this method as a preferred alternative for the relative quantification of high-affinity protein interactions. PMID:22608739

  3. Aurora-A mediated histone H3 phosphorylation of threonine 118 controls condensin I and cohesin occupancy in mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Wike, Candice L; Graves, Hillary K; Hawkins, Reva; Gibson, Matthew D; Ferdinand, Michelle B; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Zhihong; Hudson, Damien F; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Schumacher, Jill; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H3 threonine 118 (H3 T118ph) weakens histone DNA-contacts, disrupting the nucleosome structure. We show that Aurora-A mediated H3 T118ph occurs at pericentromeres and chromosome arms during prophase and is lost upon chromosome alignment. Expression of H3 T118E or H3 T118I (a SIN mutation that bypasses the need for the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF) leads to mitotic problems including defects in spindle attachment, delayed cytokinesis, reduced chromatin packaging, cohesion loss, cohesin and condensin I loss in human cells. In agreement, overexpression of Aurora-A leads to increased H3 T118ph levels, causing cohesion loss, and reduced levels of cohesin and condensin I on chromatin. Normal levels of H3 T118ph are important because it is required for development in fruit flies. We propose that H3 T118ph alters the chromatin structure during specific phases of mitosis to promote timely condensin I and cohesin disassociation, which is essential for effective chromosome segregation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11402.001 PMID:26878753

  4. Aurora-A mediated histone H3 phosphorylation of threonine 118 controls condensin I and cohesin occupancy in mitosis.

    PubMed

    Wike, Candice L; Graves, Hillary K; Hawkins, Reva; Gibson, Matthew D; Ferdinand, Michelle B; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Zhihong; Hudson, Damien F; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Schumacher, Jill; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of histone H3 threonine 118 (H3 T118ph) weakens histone DNA-contacts, disrupting the nucleosome structure. We show that Aurora-A mediated H3 T118ph occurs at pericentromeres and chromosome arms during prophase and is lost upon chromosome alignment. Expression of H3 T118E or H3 T118I (a SIN mutation that bypasses the need for the ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF) leads to mitotic problems including defects in spindle attachment, delayed cytokinesis, reduced chromatin packaging, cohesion loss, cohesin and condensin I loss in human cells. In agreement, overexpression of Aurora-A leads to increased H3 T118ph levels, causing cohesion loss, and reduced levels of cohesin and condensin I on chromatin. Normal levels of H3 T118ph are important because it is required for development in fruit flies. We propose that H3 T118ph alters the chromatin structure during specific phases of mitosis to promote timely condensin I and cohesin disassociation, which is essential for effective chromosome segregation. PMID:26878753

  5. Function and regulation of TRPP2 ion channel revealed by a gain-of-function mutant.

    PubMed

    Arif Pavel, Mahmud; Lv, Caixia; Ng, Courtney; Yang, Lei; Kashyap, Parul; Lam, Clarissa; Valentino, Victoria; Fung, Helen Y; Campbell, Thomas; Møller, Simon Geir; Zenisek, David; Holtzman, Nathalia G; Yu, Yong

    2016-04-26

    Mutations in polycystin-1 and transient receptor potential polycystin 2 (TRPP2) account for almost all clinically identified cases of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most common human genetic diseases. TRPP2 functions as a cation channel in its homomeric complex and in the TRPP2/polycystin-1 receptor/ion channel complex. The activation mechanism of TRPP2 is unknown, which significantly limits the study of its function and regulation. Here, we generated a constitutively active gain-of-function (GOF) mutant of TRPP2 by applying a mutagenesis scan on the S4-S5 linker and the S5 transmembrane domain, and studied functional properties of the GOF TRPP2 channel. We found that extracellular divalent ions, including Ca(2+), inhibit the permeation of monovalent ions by directly blocking the TRPP2 channel pore. We also found that D643, a negatively charged amino acid in the pore, is crucial for channel permeability. By introducing single-point ADPKD pathogenic mutations into the GOF TRPP2, we showed that different mutations could have completely different effects on channel activity. The in vivo function of the GOF TRPP2 was investigated in zebrafish embryos. The results indicate that, compared with wild type (WT), GOF TRPP2 more efficiently rescued morphological abnormalities, including curly tail and cyst formation in the pronephric kidney, caused by down-regulation of endogenous TRPP2 expression. Thus, we established a GOF TRPP2 channel that can serve as a powerful tool for studying the function and regulation of TRPP2. The GOF channel may also have potential application for developing new therapeutic strategies for ADPKD. PMID:27071085

  6. Dynamic functional connectivity reveals altered variability in functional connectivity among patients with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Demirtaş, Murat; Tornador, Cristian; Falcón, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Pujol, Jesús; Menchón, José M; Ritter, Petra; Cardoner, Narcis; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deco, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    Resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) has become a useful tool to investigate the connectivity structure of mental health disorders. In the case of major depressive disorder (MDD), recent studies regarding the RS-fMRI have found abnormal connectivity in several regions of the brain, particularly in the default mode network (DMN). Thus, the relevance of the DMN to self-referential thoughts and ruminations has made the use of the resting-state approach particularly important for MDD. The majority of such research has relied on the grand averaged functional connectivity measures based on the temporal correlations between the BOLD time series of various brain regions. We, in our study, investigated the variations in the functional connectivity over time at global and local level using RS-fMRI BOLD time series of 27 MDD patients and 27 healthy control subjects. We found that global synchronization and temporal stability were significantly increased in the MDD patients. Furthermore, the participants with MDD showed significantly increased overall average (static) functional connectivity (sFC) but decreased variability of functional connectivity (vFC) within specific networks. Static FC increased to predominance among the regions pertaining to the default mode network (DMN), while the decreased variability of FC was observed in the connections between the DMN and the frontoparietal network. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2918-2930, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27120982

  7. A Zebrafish Model of Roberts Syndrome Reveals That Esco2 Depletion Interferes with Development by Disrupting the Cell Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Mönnich, Maren; Kuriger, Zoë; Print, Cristin G.; Horsfield, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    The human developmental diseases Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) and Roberts Syndrome (RBS) are both caused by mutations in proteins responsible for sister chromatid cohesion. Cohesion is mediated by a multi-subunit complex called cohesin, which is loaded onto chromosomes by NIPBL. Once on chromosomes, cohesin binding is stabilized in S phase upon acetylation by ESCO2. CdLS is caused by heterozygous mutations in NIPBL or cohesin subunits SMC1A and SMC3, and RBS is caused by homozygous mutations in ESCO2. The genetic cause of both CdLS and RBS reside within the chromosome cohesion apparatus, and therefore they are collectively known as “cohesinopathies”. However, the two syndromes have distinct phenotypes, with differences not explained by their shared ontology. In this study, we have used the zebrafish model to distinguish between developmental pathways downstream of cohesin itself, or its acetylase ESCO2. Esco2 depleted zebrafish embryos exhibit features that resemble RBS, including mitotic defects, craniofacial abnormalities and limb truncations. A microarray analysis of Esco2-depleted embryos revealed that different subsets of genes are regulated downstream of Esco2 when compared with cohesin subunit Rad21. Genes downstream of Rad21 showed significant enrichment for transcriptional regulators, while Esco2-regulated genes were more likely to be involved the cell cycle or apoptosis. RNA in situ hybridization showed that runx1, which is spatiotemporally regulated by cohesin, is expressed normally in Esco2-depleted embryos. Furthermore, myca, which is downregulated in rad21 mutants, is upregulated in Esco2-depleted embryos. High levels of cell death contributed to the morphology of Esco2-depleted embryos without affecting specific developmental pathways. We propose that cell proliferation defects and apoptosis could be the primary cause of the features of RBS. Our results show that mutations in different elements of the cohesion apparatus have distinct

  8. Functional Analysis of GLRX5 Mutants Reveals Distinct Functionalities of GLRX5 Protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Wang, Yongwei; Anderson, Gregory J; Camaschella, Clara; Chang, Yanzhong; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Glutaredoxin 5 (GLRX5) is a 156 amino acid mitochondrial protein that plays an essential role in mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster transfer. Mutations in this protein were reported to result in sideroblastic anemia and variant nonketotic hyperglycinemia in human. Recently, we have characterized a Chinese congenital sideroblastic anemia patient who has two compound heterozygous missense mutations (c. 301 A>C and c. 443 T>C) in his GLRX5 gene. Herein, we developed a GLRX5 knockout K562 cell line and studied the biochemical functions of the identified pathogenic mutations and other conserved amino acids with predicted essential functions. We observed that the K101Q mutation (due to c. 301 A>C mutation) may prevent the binding of [Fe-S] to GLRX5 protein, while L148S (due to c. 443 T>C mutation) may interfere with [Fe-S] transfer from GLRX5 to iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1), mitochondrial aconitase (m-aconitase) and ferrochelatase. We also demonstrated that L148S is functionally complementary to the K51del mutant with respect to Fe/S-ferrochelatase, Fe/S-IRP1, Fe/S-succinate dehydrogenase, and Fe/S-m-aconitase biosynthesis and lipoylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the mutations of highly conserved amino acid residues in GLRX5 protein can have different effects on downstream Fe/S proteins. Collectively, our current work demonstrates that GLRX5 protein is multifunctional in [Fe-S] protein synthesis and maturation and defects of the different amino acids of the protein will lead to distinct effects on downstream Fe/S biosynthesis. PMID:26100117

  9. Resolving dual binding conformations of cellulosome cohesin-dockerin complexes using single-molecule force spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Markus A; Milles, Lukas F; Schoeler, Constantin; Ott, Wolfgang; Fried, Daniel B; Bayer, Edward A; Gaub, Hermann E; Nash, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Receptor-ligand pairs are ordinarily thought to interact through a lock and key mechanism, where a unique molecular conformation is formed upon binding. Contrary to this paradigm, cellulosomal cohesin-dockerin (Coh-Doc) pairs are believed to interact through redundant dual binding modes consisting of two distinct conformations. Here, we combined site-directed mutagenesis and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) to study the unbinding of Coh:Doc complexes under force. We designed Doc mutations to knock out each binding mode, and compared their single-molecule unfolding patterns as they were dissociated from Coh using an atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever. Although average bulk measurements were unable to resolve the differences in Doc binding modes due to the similarity of the interactions, with a single-molecule method we were able to discriminate the two modes based on distinct differences in their mechanical properties. We conclude that under native conditions wild-type Doc from Clostridium thermocellum exocellulase Cel48S populates both binding modes with similar probabilities. Given the vast number of Doc domains with predicteddual binding modes across multiple bacterial species, our approach opens up newpossibilities for understanding assembly and catalytic properties of a broadrange of multi-enzyme complexes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10319.001 PMID:26519733

  10. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-01

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in `oxidative stress' and `detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  11. Dynamic functional network connectivity reveals unique and overlapping profiles of insula subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Nomi, Jason S; Farrant, Kristafor; Damaraju, Eswar; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Calhoun, Vince D; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2016-05-01

    The human insular cortex consists of functionally diverse subdivisions that engage during tasks ranging from interoception to cognitive control. The multiplicity of functions subserved by insular subdivisions calls for a nuanced investigation of their functional connectivity profiles. Four insula subdivisions (dorsal anterior, dAI; ventral, VI; posterior, PI; middle, MI) derived using a data-driven approach were subjected to static- and dynamic functional network connectivity (s-FNC and d-FNC) analyses. Static-FNC analyses replicated previous work demonstrating a cognition-emotion-interoception division of the insula, where the dAI is functionally connected to frontal areas, the VI to limbic areas, and the PI and MI to sensorimotor areas. Dynamic-FNC analyses consisted of k-means clustering of sliding windows to identify variable insula connectivity states. The d-FNC analysis revealed that the most frequently occurring dynamic state mirrored the cognition-emotion-interoception division observed from the s-FNC analysis, with less frequently occurring states showing overlapping and unique subdivision connectivity profiles. In two of the states, all subdivisions exhibited largely overlapping profiles, consisting of subcortical, sensory, motor, and frontal connections. Two other states showed the dAI exhibited a unique connectivity profile compared with other insula subdivisions. Additionally, the dAI exhibited the most variable functional connections across the s-FNC and d-FNC analyses, and was the only subdivision to exhibit dynamic functional connections with regions of the default mode network. These results highlight how a d-FNC approach can capture functional dynamics masked by s-FNC approaches, and reveal dynamic functional connections enabling the functional flexibility of the insula across time. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1770-1787, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26880689

  12. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of Ruminococcus flavefaciens scaffoldin C cohesin in complex with a dockerin from an uncharacterized CBM-containing protein

    PubMed Central

    Bule, Pedro; Ruimy-Israeli, Vered; Cardoso, Vânia; Bayer, Edward A.; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Najmudin, Shabir

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosomes are massive cell-bound multienzyme complexes tethered by macromolecular scaffolds that coordinate the efforts of many anaerobic bacteria to hydrolyze plant cell-wall polysaccharides, which are a major untapped source of carbon and energy. Integration of cellulosomal components occurs via highly ordered protein–protein interactions between cohesin modules, located in the scaffold, and dockerin modules, found in the enzymes and other cellulosomal proteins. The proposed cellulosomal architecture for Ruminococcus flavefaciens strain FD-1 consists of a major scaffoldin (ScaB) that acts as the backbone to which other components attach. It has nine cohesins and a dockerin with a fused X-module that binds to the cohesin on ScaE, which in turn is covalently attached to the cell wall. The ScaA dockerin binds to ScaB cohesins allowing more carbohydrate-active modules to be assembled. ScaC acts as an adaptor that binds to both ScaA and selected ScaB cohesins, thereby increasing the repertoire of dockerin-bearing proteins that integrate into the complex. In previous studies, a screen for novel cohesin–dockerin complexes was performed which led to the identification of a total of 58 probable cohesin–dockerin pairs. Four were selected for subsequent structural and biochemical characterization based on the quality of their expression and the diversity in their specificities. One of these is C12D22, which comprises the cohesin from the adaptor ScaC protein bound to the dockerin of a CBM-containing protein. This complex has been purified and crystallized, and data were collected to resolutions of 2.5 Å (hexagonal, P65), 2.16 Å (orthorhombic, P212121) and 2.4 Å (orthorhombic, P21212) from three different crystalline forms. PMID:25084382

  13. Systems-Based Analyses of Brain Regions Functionally Impacted in Parkinson's Disease Reveals Underlying Causal Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Emig-Agius, Dorothea; Bessarabova, Marina; Ivliev, Alexander E.; Schüle, Birgit; Alexander, Jeff; Wallace, William; Halliday, Glenda M.; Langston, J. William; Braxton, Scott; Yednock, Ted; Shaler, Thomas; Johnston, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Detailed analysis of disease-affected tissue provides insight into molecular mechanisms contributing to pathogenesis. Substantia nigra, striatum, and cortex are functionally connected with increasing degrees of alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease. We undertook functional and causal pathway analysis of gene expression and proteomic alterations in these three regions, and the data revealed pathways that correlated with disease progression. In addition, microarray and RNAseq experiments revealed previously unidentified causal changes related to oligodendrocyte function and synaptic vesicle release, and these and other changes were reflected across all brain regions. Importantly, subsets of these changes were replicated in Parkinson's disease blood; suggesting peripheral tissue may provide important avenues for understanding and measuring disease status and progression. Proteomic assessment revealed alterations in mitochondria and vesicular transport proteins that preceded gene expression changes indicating defects in translation and/or protein turnover. Our combined approach of proteomics, RNAseq and microarray analyses provides a comprehensive view of the molecular changes that accompany functional loss and alpha-synuclein pathology in Parkinson's disease, and may be instrumental to understand, diagnose and follow Parkinson's disease progression. PMID:25170892

  14. Functional Redundancy Patterns Reveal Non-Random Assembly Rules in a Species-Rich Marine Assemblage

    PubMed Central

    Guillemot, Nicolas; Kulbicki, Michel; Chabanet, Pascale; Vigliola, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between species and the functional diversity of assemblages is fundamental in ecology because it contains key information on functional redundancy, and functionally redundant ecosystems are thought to be more resilient, resistant and stable. However, this relationship is poorly understood and undocumented for species-rich coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we used underwater visual censuses to examine the patterns of functional redundancy for one of the most diverse vertebrate assemblages, the coral reef fishes of New Caledonia, South Pacific. First, we found that the relationship between functional and species diversity displayed a non-asymptotic power-shaped curve, implying that rare functions and species mainly occur in highly diverse assemblages. Second, we showed that the distribution of species amongst possible functions was significantly different from a random distribution up to a threshold of ∼90 species/transect. Redundancy patterns for each function further revealed that some functions displayed fast rates of increase in redundancy at low species diversity, whereas others were only becoming redundant past a certain threshold. This suggested non-random assembly rules and the existence of some primordial functions that would need to be fulfilled in priority so that coral reef fish assemblages can gain a basic ecological structure. Last, we found little effect of habitat on the shape of the functional-species diversity relationship and on the redundancy of functions, although habitat is known to largely determine assemblage characteristics such as species composition, biomass, and abundance. Our study shows that low functional redundancy is characteristic of this highly diverse fish assemblage, and, therefore, that even species-rich ecosystems such as coral reefs may be vulnerable to the removal of a few keystone species. PMID:22039543

  15. Genetic Interaction Maps in Escherichia coli Reveal Functional Crosstalk among Cell Envelope Biogenesis Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Vlasblom, James; Gagarinova, Alla; Phanse, Sadhna; Graham, Chris; Yousif, Fouad; Ding, Huiming; Xiong, Xuejian; Nazarians-Armavil, Anaies; Alamgir, Md; Ali, Mehrab; Pogoutse, Oxana; Pe'er, Asaf; Arnold, Roland; Michaut, Magali; Parkinson, John; Golshani, Ashkan; Whitfield, Chris; Wodak, Shoshana J.; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Emili, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    As the interface between a microbe and its environment, the bacterial cell envelope has broad biological and clinical significance. While numerous biosynthesis genes and pathways have been identified and studied in isolation, how these intersect functionally to ensure envelope integrity during adaptive responses to environmental challenge remains unclear. To this end, we performed high-density synthetic genetic screens to generate quantitative functional association maps encompassing virtually the entire cell envelope biosynthetic machinery of Escherichia coli under both auxotrophic (rich medium) and prototrophic (minimal medium) culture conditions. The differential patterns of genetic interactions detected among >235,000 digenic mutant combinations tested reveal unexpected condition-specific functional crosstalk and genetic backup mechanisms that ensure stress-resistant envelope assembly and maintenance. These networks also provide insights into the global systems connectivity and dynamic functional reorganization of a universal bacterial structure that is both broadly conserved among eubacteria (including pathogens) and an important target. PMID:22125496

  16. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Prochnik, Simon E.; Vallon, Olivier; Harris, Elizabeth H.; Karpowicz, Steven J.; Witman, George B.; Terry, Astrid; Salamov, Asaf; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Marshall, Wallace F.; Qu, Liang-Hu; Nelson, David R.; Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Spalding, Martin H.; Kapitonov, Vladimir V.; Ren, Qinghu; Ferris, Patrick; Lindquist, Erika; Shapiro, Harris; Lucas, Susan M.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Cardol, Pierre; Cerutti, Heriberto; Chanfreau, Guillaume; Chen, Chun-Long; Cognat, Valérie; Croft, Martin T.; Dent, Rachel; Dutcher, Susan; Fernández, Emilio; Ferris, Patrick; Fukuzawa, Hideya; González-Ballester, David; González-Halphen, Diego; Hallmann, Armin; Hanikenne, Marc; Hippler, Michael; Inwood, William; Jabbari, Kamel; Kalanon, Ming; Kuras, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul A.; Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Lobanov, Alexey V.; Lohr, Martin; Manuell, Andrea; Meier, Iris; Mets, Laurens; Mittag, Maria; Mittelmeier, Telsa; Moroney, James V.; Moseley, Jeffrey; Napoli, Carolyn; Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Niyogi, Krishna; Novoselov, Sergey V.; Paulsen, Ian T.; Pazour, Greg; Purton, Saul; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Riaño-Pachón, Diego Mauricio; Riekhof, Wayne; Rymarquis, Linda; Schroda, Michael; Stern, David; Umen, James; Willows, Robert; Wilson, Nedra; Zimmer, Sara Lana; Allmer, Jens; Balk, Janneke; Bisova, Katerina; Chen, Chong-Jian; Elias, Marek; Gendler, Karla; Hauser, Charles; Lamb, Mary Rose; Ledford, Heidi; Long, Joanne C.; Minagawa, Jun; Page, M. Dudley; Pan, Junmin; Pootakham, Wirulda; Roje, Sanja; Rose, Annkatrin; Stahlberg, Eric; Terauchi, Aimee M.; Yang, Pinfen; Ball, Steven; Bowler, Chris; Dieckmann, Carol L.; Gladyshev, Vadim N.; Green, Pamela; Jorgensen, Richard; Mayfield, Stephen; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Rajamani, Sathish; Sayre, Richard T.; Brokstein, Peter; Dubchak, Inna; Goodstein, David; Hornick, Leila; Huang, Y. Wayne; Jhaveri, Jinal; Luo, Yigong; Martínez, Diego; Ngau, Wing Chi Abby; Otillar, Bobby; Poliakov, Alexander; Porter, Aaron; Szajkowski, Lukasz; Werner, Gregory; Zhou, Kemin; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ∼120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella. PMID:17932292

  17. The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Sabeeha S

    2007-04-09

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the 120-megabase nuclear genome of Chlamydomonas and performed comparative phylogenomic analyses, identifying genes encoding uncharacterized proteins that are likely associated with the function and biogenesis of chloroplasts or eukaryotic flagella. Analyses of the Chlamydomonas genome advance our understanding of the ancestral eukaryotic cell, reveal previously unknown genes associated with photosynthetic and flagellar functions, and establish links between ciliopathy and the composition and function of flagella.

  18. Modelling NifH2 protein of Clostridium pasteurianum reveals clues about its physiological function.

    PubMed

    Kasap, Murat

    2006-11-01

    Clostridium pasteurianum is an anaerobic free-living nitrogen fixer. As a unique feature, the organism contains five extra nifH-like genes in addition to nifH1. Detailed analysis with respect to the structure and function of the nifH-like gene products is missing due to the lack of information about the presence of their translation products in the cell. Recent work indicates that the nifH2 gene is transcribed and translated into a polypeptide of expected size in nitrogen-fixing cells of C. pasteurianum and is regulated both at the transcriptional and translational levels. However, the current data do not reveal the physiological function of the NifH2 protein. In this study, we have used computer tools and the NifH1 of C. pasteurianum as the template to predict a possible tertiary structure and assign a putative function for NifH2 protein. A comparison of the structures of the NifH1 and modelled NifH2 revealed similarities in the polypeptide conformations for both monomers. Analysis of the properties of nucleotide binding, dimer interacting and cluster containing regions did not reveal major differences between NifH1 and modelled NifH2, although minor differences were observed. Rigid docking results revealed the possibility of formation of a NifH1-NifH2 heterodimer as well as formation of a NifH2 homodimer. We, therefore, propose that NifH2 can form a dimer with NifH1, albeit less efficiently and may function as a regulatory Fe-protein. PMID:16495101

  19. Aging predisposes oocytes to meiotic nondisjunction when the cohesin subunit SMC1 is reduced.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V; Bickel, Sharon E

    2008-11-01

    In humans, meiotic chromosome segregation errors increase dramatically as women age, but the molecular defects responsible are largely unknown. Cohesion along the arms of meiotic sister chromatids provides an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to keep recombinant chromosomes associated until anaphase I. One attractive hypothesis to explain age-dependent nondisjunction (NDJ) is that loss of cohesion over time causes recombinant homologues to dissociate prematurely and segregate randomly during the first meiotic division. Using Drosophila as a model system, we have tested this hypothesis and observe a significant increase in meiosis I NDJ in experimentally aged Drosophila oocytes when the cohesin protein SMC1 is reduced. Our finding that missegregation of recombinant homologues increases with age supports the model that chiasmata are destabilized by gradual loss of cohesion over time. Moreover, the stage at which Drosophila oocytes are most vulnerable to age-related defects is analogous to that at which human oocytes remain arrested for decades. Our data provide the first demonstration in any organism that, when meiotic cohesion begins intact, the aging process can weaken it sufficiently and cause missegregation of recombinant chromosomes. One major advantage of these studies is that we have reduced but not eliminated the SMC1 subunit. Therefore, we have been able to investigate how aging affects normal meiotic cohesion. Our findings that recombinant chromosomes are at highest risk for loss of chiasmata during diplotene argue that human oocytes are most vulnerable to age-induced loss of meiotic cohesion at the stage at which they remain arrested for several years. PMID:19008956

  20. Aging Predisposes Oocytes to Meiotic Nondisjunction When the Cohesin Subunit SMC1 Is Reduced

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Vijayalakshmi V.; Bickel, Sharon E.

    2008-01-01

    In humans, meiotic chromosome segregation errors increase dramatically as women age, but the molecular defects responsible are largely unknown. Cohesion along the arms of meiotic sister chromatids provides an evolutionarily conserved mechanism to keep recombinant chromosomes associated until anaphase I. One attractive hypothesis to explain age-dependent nondisjunction (NDJ) is that loss of cohesion over time causes recombinant homologues to dissociate prematurely and segregate randomly during the first meiotic division. Using Drosophila as a model system, we have tested this hypothesis and observe a significant increase in meiosis I NDJ in experimentally aged Drosophila oocytes when the cohesin protein SMC1 is reduced. Our finding that missegregation of recombinant homologues increases with age supports the model that chiasmata are destabilized by gradual loss of cohesion over time. Moreover, the stage at which Drosophila oocytes are most vulnerable to age-related defects is analogous to that at which human oocytes remain arrested for decades. Our data provide the first demonstration in any organism that, when meiotic cohesion begins intact, the aging process can weaken it sufficiently and cause missegregation of recombinant chromosomes. One major advantage of these studies is that we have reduced but not eliminated the SMC1 subunit. Therefore, we have been able to investigate how aging affects normal meiotic cohesion. Our findings that recombinant chromosomes are at highest risk for loss of chiasmata during diplotene argue that human oocytes are most vulnerable to age-induced loss of meiotic cohesion at the stage at which they remain arrested for several years. PMID:19008956

  1. CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin influence the genomic architecture of the Igh locus and antisense transcription in pro-B cells.

    PubMed

    Degner, Stephanie C; Verma-Gaur, Jiyoti; Wong, Timothy P; Bossen, Claudia; Iverson, G Michael; Torkamani, Ali; Vettermann, Christian; Lin, Yin C; Ju, Zhongliang; Schulz, Danae; Murre, Caroline S; Birshtein, Barbara K; Schork, Nicholas J; Schlissel, Mark S; Riblet, Roy; Murre, Cornelis; Feeney, Ann J

    2011-06-01

    Compaction and looping of the ~2.5-Mb Igh locus during V(D)J rearrangement is essential to allow all V(H) genes to be brought in proximity with D(H)-J(H) segments to create a diverse antibody repertoire, but the proteins directly responsible for this are unknown. Because CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been demonstrated to be involved in long-range chromosomal interactions, we hypothesized that CTCF may promote the contraction of the Igh locus. ChIP sequencing was performed on pro-B cells, revealing colocalization of CTCF and Rad21 binding at ~60 sites throughout the V(H) region and 2 other sites within the Igh locus. These numerous CTCF/cohesin sites potentially form the bases of the multiloop rosette structures at the Igh locus that compact during Ig heavy chain rearrangement. To test whether CTCF was involved in locus compaction, we used 3D-FISH to measure compaction in pro-B cells transduced with CTCF shRNA retroviruses. Reduction of CTCF binding resulted in a decrease in Igh locus compaction. Long-range interactions within the Igh locus were measured with the chromosomal conformation capture assay, revealing direct interactions between CTCF sites 5' of DFL16 and the 3' regulatory region, and also the intronic enhancer (Eμ), creating a D(H)-J(H)-Eμ-C(H) domain. Knockdown of CTCF also resulted in the increase of antisense transcription throughout the D(H) region and parts of the V(H) locus, suggesting a widespread regulatory role for CTCF. Together, our findings demonstrate that CTCF plays an important role in the 3D structure of the Igh locus and in the regulation of antisense germline transcription and that it contributes to the compaction of the Igh locus. PMID:21606361

  2. Dynamic changes in network synchrony reveal resting-state functional networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuksanović, Vesna; Hövel, Philipp

    2015-02-01

    Experimental functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that spontaneous brain activity, i.e., in the absence of any external input, exhibit complex spatial and temporal patterns of co-activity between segregated brain regions. These so-called large-scale resting-state functional connectivity networks represent dynamically organized neural assemblies interacting with each other in a complex way. It has been suggested that looking at the dynamical properties of complex patterns of brain functional co-activity may reveal neural mechanisms underlying the dynamic changes in functional interactions. Here, we examine how global network dynamics is shaped by different network configurations, derived from realistic brain functional interactions. We focus on two main dynamics measures: synchrony and variations in synchrony. Neural activity and the inferred hemodynamic response of the network nodes are simulated using a system of 90 FitzHugh-Nagumo neural models subject to system noise and time-delayed interactions. These models are embedded into the topology of the complex brain functional interactions, whose architecture is additionally reduced to its main structural pathways. In the simulated functional networks, patterns of correlated regional activity clearly arise from dynamical properties that maximize synchrony and variations in synchrony. Our results on the fast changes of the level of the network synchrony also show how flexible changes in the large-scale network dynamics could be.

  3. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A C; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light. PMID:24921648

  4. Core Microbial Functional Activities in Ocean Environments Revealed by Global Metagenomic Profiling Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ari J. S.; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S.; Dawe, Adam S.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M.; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A. C.; Jankovic, Boris R.; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B.; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light. PMID:24921648

  5. Preliminary X-ray characterization of a novel type of anchoring cohesin from the cellulosome of Ruminococcus flavefaciens

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, Orly; Noach, Ilit; Lamed, Raphael; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Bayer, Edward A.; Frolow, Felix

    2008-02-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of a novel class of cohesin module (type III) from the R. flavefaciens ScaE anchoring scaffoldin are described. Ruminococcus flavefaciens is an anaerobic bacterium that resides in the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. It produces a highly organized multi-enzyme cellulosome complex that plays a key role in the degradation of plant cell walls. ScaE is one of the critical structural components of its cellulosome that serves to anchor the complex to the cell wall. The seleno-l-methionine-labelled derivative of the ScaE cohesin module has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 155.6, b = 69.3, c = 93.0 Å, β = 123.4°, and contain four molecules in the asymmetric unit. Diffraction data were phased to 1.95 Å using the anomalous signal from the Se atoms.

  6. An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jinpu; He, Kun; Tang, Xing; Li, Zhe; Lv, Le; Zhao, Yi; Luo, Jingchu; Gao, Ge

    2015-07-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in both development and stress responses. By integrating into and rewiring original systems, novel TFs contribute significantly to the evolution of transcriptional regulatory networks. Here, we report a high-confidence transcriptional regulatory map covering 388 TFs from 47 families in Arabidopsis. Systematic analysis of this map revealed the architectural heterogeneity of developmental and stress response subnetworks and identified three types of novel network motifs that are absent from unicellular organisms and essential for multicellular development. Moreover, TFs of novel families that emerged during plant landing present higher binding specificities and are preferentially wired into developmental processes and these novel network motifs. Further unveiled connection between the binding specificity and wiring preference of TFs explains the wiring preferences of novel-family TFs. These results reveal distinct functional and evolutionary features of novel TFs, suggesting a plausible mechanism for their contribution to the evolution of multicellular organisms. PMID:25750178

  7. Structural and functional analysis of amphioxus HIFα reveals ancient features of the HIFα family.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Lu, Ling; Bai, Yan; Zhang, Peng; Song, Weibo; Duan, Cunming

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of the transcriptional response to hypoxia. To gain insight into the structural and functional evolution of the HIF family, we characterized the HIFα gene from amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate, and identified several alternatively spliced HIFα isoforms. Whereas HIFα Ia, the full-length isoform, contained a complete oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domain, the isoforms Ib, Ic, and Id had 1 or 2 deletions in the ODD domain. When tagged with GFP and tested in mammalian cells, the amphioxus HIFα Ia protein level increased in response to hypoxia or CoCl2 treatment, whereas HIFα Ib, Ic, and Id showed reduced or no hypoxia regulation. Deletion of the ODD sequence in HIFα Ia up-regulated the HIFα Ia levels under normoxia. Gene expression analysis revealed HIFα Ic to be the predominant isoform in embryos and larvae, whereas isoform Ia was the most abundant form in the adult stage. The expression levels of Ib and Id were very low. Hypoxia treatment of adults had no effect on the mRNA levels of these HIFα isoforms. Functional analyses in mammalian cells showed all 4 HIFα isoforms capable of entering the nucleus and activating hypoxia response element-dependent reporter gene expression. The functional nuclear location signal (NLS) mapped to 3 clusters of basic residues. (775)KKARL functioned as the primary NLS, but (737)KRK and (754)KK also contributed to the nuclear localization. All amphioxus HIFα isoforms had 2 functional transactivation domains (TADs). Its C-terminal transactivation (C-TAD) shared high sequence identity with the human HIF-1α and HIF-2α C-TAD. This domain contained a conserved asparagine, and its mutation resulted in an increase in transcriptional activity. These findings reveal many ancient features of the HIFα family and provide novel insights into the evolution of the HIFα family. PMID:24174425

  8. Genome-wide search for eliminylating domains reveals novel function for BLES03-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Khater, Shradha; Mohanty, Debasisa

    2014-08-01

    Bacterial phosphothreonine lyases catalyze a novel posttranslational modification involving formation of dehydrobutyrine/dehyroalanine by β elimination of the phosphate group of phosphothreonine or phosphoserine residues in their substrate proteins. Though there is experimental evidence for presence of dehydro amino acids in human proteins, no eukaryotic homologs of these lyases have been identified as of today. A comprehensive genome-wide search for identifying phosphothreonine lyase homologs in eukaryotes was carried out. Our fold-based search revealed structural and catalytic site similarity between bacterial phosphothreonine lyases and BLES03 (basophilic leukemia-expressed protein 03), a human protein with unknown function. Ligand induced conformational changes similar to bacterial phosphothreonine lyases, and movement of crucial arginines in the loop region to the catalytic pocket upon binding of phosphothreonine-containing peptides was seen during docking and molecular dynamics studies. Genome-wide search for BLES03 homologs using sensitive profile-based methods revealed their presence not only in eukaryotic classes such as chordata and fungi but also in bacterial and archaebacterial classes. The synteny of these archaebacterial BLES03-like proteins was remarkably similar to that of type IV lantibiotic synthetases which harbor LanL-like phosphothreonine lyase domains. Hence, context-based analysis reinforced our earlier sequence/structure-based prediction of phosphothreonine lyase catalytic function for BLES03. Our in silico analysis has revealed that BLES03-like proteins with previously unknown function are novel eukaryotic phosphothreonine lyases involved in biosynthesis of dehydro amino acids, whereas their bacterial and archaebacterial counterparts might be involved in biosynthesis of natural products similar to lantibiotics. PMID:25062915

  9. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-05-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.

  10. Targeted capture and resequencing of 1040 genes reveal environmentally driven functional variation in grey wolves.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Rena M; Robinson, Jacqueline; Harrigan, Ryan; Silva, Pedro; Galverni, Marco; Musiani, Marco; Green, Richard E; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-01-01

    In an era of ever-increasing amounts of whole-genome sequence data for individuals and populations, the utility of traditional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) array-based genome scans is uncertain. We previously performed a SNP array-based genome scan to identify candidate genes under selection in six distinct grey wolf (Canis lupus) ecotypes. Using this information, we designed a targeted capture array for 1040 genes, including all exons and flanking regions, as well as 5000 1-kb nongenic neutral regions, and resequenced these regions in 107 wolves. Selection tests revealed striking patterns of variation within candidate genes relative to noncandidate regions and identified potentially functional variants related to local adaptation. We found 27% and 47% of candidate genes from the previous SNP array study had functional changes that were outliers in sweed and bayenv analyses, respectively. This result verifies the use of genomewide SNP surveys to tag genes that contain functional variants between populations. We highlight nonsynonymous variants in APOB, LIPG and USH2A that occur in functional domains of these proteins, and that demonstrate high correlation with precipitation seasonality and vegetation. We find Arctic and High Arctic wolf ecotypes have higher numbers of genes under selection, which highlight their conservation value and heightened threat due to climate change. This study demonstrates that combining genomewide genotyping arrays with large-scale resequencing and environmental data provides a powerful approach to discern candidate functional variants in natural populations. PMID:26562361

  11. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  12. Analyses of soil microbial community compositions and functional genes reveal potential consequences of natural forest succession.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jing; Yang, Yunfeng; Liu, Xueduan; Lu, Hui; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Diqiang; Yin, Huaqun; Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang

    2015-01-01

    The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession. PMID:25943705

  13. Functional splicing network reveals extensive regulatory potential of the core spliceosomal machinery.

    PubMed

    Papasaikas, Panagiotis; Tejedor, J Ramón; Vigevani, Luisa; Valcárcel, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA splicing relies on the poorly understood dynamic interplay between >150 protein components of the spliceosome. The steps at which splicing can be regulated remain largely unknown. We systematically analyzed the effect of knocking down the components of the splicing machinery on alternative splicing events relevant for cell proliferation and apoptosis and used this information to reconstruct a network of functional interactions. The network accurately captures known physical and functional associations and identifies new ones, revealing remarkable regulatory potential of core spliceosomal components, related to the order and duration of their recruitment during spliceosome assembly. In contrast with standard models of regulation at early steps of splice site recognition, factors involved in catalytic activation of the spliceosome display regulatory properties. The network also sheds light on the antagonism between hnRNP C and U2AF, and on targets of antitumor drugs, and can be widely used to identify mechanisms of splicing regulation. PMID:25482510

  14. Novel aspects of COP9 signalosome functions revealed through analysis of hypomorphic csn mutants

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Jane E

    2009-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved eukaryotic protein complex implicated in the regulation of cullin-RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases by cleaving the small peptide RUB/Nedd8 from cullins. However, detailed analysis of CSN physiological functions in Arabidopsis has been hampered by the early seedling-lethality of csn null mutants. We and others have now identified a number of viable hypomorphic csn mutants which start to reveal novel CSN-dependent activities in adult Arabidopsis plants.1 Here, we present a detailed comparative analysis of the csn5a-1 and csn2-5 mutants as a mean to improve understanding of CSN functions in plant cells. Our observations point to CSN-independent activities of CSN5 and suggest a role of the CSN in cytoskeleton assembly/organization. PMID:19847120

  15. Conditional Epistatic Interaction Maps Reveal Global Functional Rewiring of Genome Integrity Pathways in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Beloglazova, Natalia; Bundalovic-Torma, Cedoljub; Phanse, Sadhna; Deineko, Viktor; Gagarinova, Alla; Musso, Gabriel; Vlasblom, James; Lemak, Sofia; Hooshyar, Mohsen; Minic, Zoran; Wagih, Omar; Mosca, Roberto; Aloy, Patrick; Golshani, Ashkan; Parkinson, John; Emili, Andrew; Yakunin, Alexander F; Babu, Mohan

    2016-01-26

    As antibiotic resistance is increasingly becoming a public health concern, an improved understanding of the bacterial DNA damage response (DDR), which is commonly targeted by antibiotics, could be of tremendous therapeutic value. Although the genetic components of the bacterial DDR have been studied extensively in isolation, how the underlying biological pathways interact functionally remains unclear. Here, we address this by performing systematic, unbiased, quantitative synthetic genetic interaction (GI) screens and uncover widespread changes in the GI network of the entire genomic integrity apparatus of Escherichia coli under standard and DNA-damaging growth conditions. The GI patterns of untreated cultures implicated two previously uncharacterized proteins (YhbQ and YqgF) as nucleases, whereas reorganization of the GI network after DNA damage revealed DDR roles for both annotated and uncharacterized genes. Analyses of pan-bacterial conservation patterns suggest that DDR mechanisms and functional relationships are near universal, highlighting a modular and highly adaptive genomic stress response. PMID:26774489

  16. Single-cell analysis reveals functionally distinct classes within the planarian stem cell compartment

    PubMed Central

    van Wolfswinkel, Josien C.; Wagner, Daniel E.; Reddien, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Planarians are flatworms capable of regenerating any missing body region. This capacity is mediated by neoblasts, a proliferative cell population that contains pluripotent stem cells. Although population-based studies have revealed many neoblast characteristics, whether functionally distinct classes exist within this population is unclear. Here, we used high-dimensional single-cell transcriptional profiling from over a thousand individual neoblasts to directly compare gene expression fingerprints during homeostasis and regeneration. We identified two prominent neoblast classes that we named ζ (zeta) and σ (sigma). Zeta-neoblasts encompass specified cells that give rise to an abundant postmitotic lineage including epidermal cells, and are not required for regeneration. By contrast, sigma-neoblasts proliferate in response to injury, possess broad lineage capacity, and can give rise to zeta-neoblasts. These findings present a new view of planarian neoblasts, in which the population is comprised of two major and functionally distinct cellular compartments. PMID:25017721

  17. Protease proteomics: revealing protease in vivo functions using systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Alain; Overall, Christopher M

    2008-10-01

    Proteases irreversibly modify proteins by cleaving their amide bonds and are implicated in virtually every important biological process such as immunity, development and tissue repair. Accordingly, it is easy to see that deregulated proteolysis is a pathognomic feature of many diseases. Most of the current information available on proteases was acquired using in vitro methods, which reveals molecular structure, enzyme kinetics and active-site specificity. However, considerably less is known about the relevant biological functions and combined roles of proteases in moulding the proteome. Although models using genetically modified animals are powerful, they are slow to develop, they can be difficult to interpret, and while useful, they remain only models of human disease. Therefore, to understand how proteases accomplish their tasks in organisms and how they participate in pathology, we need to elucidate the protease degradome-the repertoire of proteases expressed by a cell, a tissue or an organism at a particular time-their expression level, activation state, their biological substrates, also known as the substrate degradome-the repertoire of substrates for each protease-and the effect of the activity of each protease on the pathways of the system under study. Achieving this goal is challenging because several proteases might cleave the same protein, and proteases also form pathways and interact to form the protease web [Overall, C.M., Kleifeld, O., 2006. Tumour microenvironment - opinion: validating matrix metalloproteinases as drug targets and anti-targets for cancer therapy. Nat. Rev. Cancer 6 (3), 227-239]. Hence, the net proteolytic potential of the degradome at a particular time on a substrate and pathway must also be understood. Proteomics offers one of the few routes to the understanding of proteolysis in complex in vivo systems and especially in man where genetic manipulations are impossible. The aim of this chapter is to review methods and tools that allow

  18. Age-Dependent Pancreatic Gene Regulation Reveals Mechanisms Governing Human β Cell Function.

    PubMed

    Arda, H Efsun; Li, Lingyu; Tsai, Jennifer; Torre, Eduardo A; Rosli, Yenny; Peiris, Heshan; Spitale, Robert C; Dai, Chunhua; Gu, Xueying; Qu, Kun; Wang, Pei; Wang, Jing; Grompe, Markus; Scharfmann, Raphael; Snyder, Michael S; Bottino, Rita; Powers, Alvin C; Chang, Howard Y; Kim, Seung K

    2016-05-10

    Intensive efforts are focused on identifying regulators of human pancreatic islet cell growth and maturation to accelerate development of therapies for diabetes. After birth, islet cell growth and function are dynamically regulated; however, establishing these age-dependent changes in humans has been challenging. Here, we describe a multimodal strategy for isolating pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells from children and adults to identify age-dependent gene expression and chromatin changes on a genomic scale. These profiles revealed distinct proliferative and functional states of islet α cells or β cells and histone modifications underlying age-dependent gene expression changes. Expression of SIX2 and SIX3, transcription factors without prior known functions in the pancreas and linked to fasting hyperglycemia risk, increased with age specifically in human islet β cells. SIX2 and SIX3 were sufficient to enhance insulin content or secretion in immature β cells. Our work provides a unique resource to study human-specific regulators of islet cell maturation and function. PMID:27133132

  19. Separable roles of UFO during floral development revealed by conditional restoration of gene function.

    PubMed

    Laufs, Patrick; Coen, Enrico; Kronenberger, Jocelyne; Traas, Jan; Doonan, John

    2003-02-01

    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) gene is required for several aspects of floral development in Arabidopsis including specification of organ identity in the second and third whorls and the proper pattern of primordium initiation in the inner three whorls. UFO is expressed in a dynamic pattern during the early phases of flower development. Here we dissect the role of UFO by ubiquitously expressing it in ufo loss-of-function flowers at different developmental stages and for various durations using an ethanol-inducible expression system. The previously known functions of UFO could be separated and related to its expression at specific stages of development. We show that a 24- to 48-hour period of UFO expression from floral stage 2, before any floral organs are visible, is sufficient to restore normal petal and stamen development. The earliest requirement for UFO is during stage 2, when the endogenous UFO gene is transiently expressed in the centre of the wild-type flower and is required to specify the initiation patterns of petal, stamen and carpel primordia. Petal and stamen identity is determined during stages 2 or 3, when UFO is normally expressed in the presumptive second and third whorl. Although endogenous UFO expression is absent from the stamen whorl from stage 4 onwards, stamen identity can be restored by UFO activation up to stage 6. We also observed floral phenotypes not observed in loss-of-function or constitutive gain-of-function backgrounds, revealing additional roles of UFO in outgrowth of petal primordia. PMID:12506008

  20. Validation of Skeletal Muscle cis-Regulatory Module Predictions Reveals Nucleotide Composition Bias in Functional Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Chou, Alice Yi; Arenillas, David J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions. PMID:22144875

  1. High-throughput mutagenesis reveals functional determinants for DNA targeting by activation-induced deaminase.

    PubMed

    Gajula, Kiran S; Huwe, Peter J; Mo, Charlie Y; Crawford, Daniel J; Stivers, James T; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Kohli, Rahul M

    2014-09-01

    Antibody maturation is a critical immune process governed by the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the AID/APOBEC DNA deaminase family. AID/APOBEC deaminases preferentially target cytosine within distinct preferred sequence motifs in DNA, with specificity largely conferred by a small 9-11 residue protein loop that differs among family members. Here, we aimed to determine the key functional characteristics of this protein loop in AID and to thereby inform our understanding of the mode of DNA engagement. To this end, we developed a methodology (Sat-Sel-Seq) that couples saturation mutagenesis at each position across the targeting loop, with iterative functional selection and next-generation sequencing. This high-throughput mutational analysis revealed dominant characteristics for residues within the loop and additionally yielded enzymatic variants that enhance deaminase activity. To rationalize these functional requirements, we performed molecular dynamics simulations that suggest that AID and its hyperactive variants can engage DNA in multiple specific modes. These findings align with AID's competing requirements for specificity and flexibility to efficiently drive antibody maturation. Beyond insights into the AID-DNA interface, our Sat-Sel-Seq approach also serves to further expand the repertoire of techniques for deep positional scanning and may find general utility for high-throughput analysis of protein function. PMID:25064858

  2. High-throughput mutagenesis reveals functional determinants for DNA targeting by activation-induced deaminase

    PubMed Central

    Gajula, Kiran S.; Huwe, Peter J.; Mo, Charlie Y.; Crawford, Daniel J.; Stivers, James T.; Radhakrishnan, Ravi; Kohli, Rahul M.

    2014-01-01

    Antibody maturation is a critical immune process governed by the enzyme activation-induced deaminase (AID), a member of the AID/APOBEC DNA deaminase family. AID/APOBEC deaminases preferentially target cytosine within distinct preferred sequence motifs in DNA, with specificity largely conferred by a small 9–11 residue protein loop that differs among family members. Here, we aimed to determine the key functional characteristics of this protein loop in AID and to thereby inform our understanding of the mode of DNA engagement. To this end, we developed a methodology (Sat-Sel-Seq) that couples saturation mutagenesis at each position across the targeting loop, with iterative functional selection and next-generation sequencing. This high-throughput mutational analysis revealed dominant characteristics for residues within the loop and additionally yielded enzymatic variants that enhance deaminase activity. To rationalize these functional requirements, we performed molecular dynamics simulations that suggest that AID and its hyperactive variants can engage DNA in multiple specific modes. These findings align with AID's competing requirements for specificity and flexibility to efficiently drive antibody maturation. Beyond insights into the AID-DNA interface, our Sat-Sel-Seq approach also serves to further expand the repertoire of techniques for deep positional scanning and may find general utility for high-throughput analysis of protein function. PMID:25064858

  3. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-03-01

    Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator-prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator-prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. PMID:25265905

  4. Predicting invasive species impacts: a community module functional response approach reveals context dependencies

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Rachel A; Dick, Jaimie T A; Pritchard, Daniel W; Ennis, Marilyn; Hatcher, Melanie J; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Summary Predatory functional responses play integral roles in predator–prey dynamics, and their assessment promises greater understanding and prediction of the predatory impacts of invasive species. Other interspecific interactions, however, such as parasitism and higher-order predation, have the potential to modify predator–prey interactions and thus the predictive capability of the comparative functional response approach. We used a four-species community module (higher-order predator; focal native or invasive predators; parasites of focal predators; native prey) to compare the predatory functional responses of native Gammarus duebeni celticus and invasive Gammarus pulex amphipods towards three invertebrate prey species (Asellus aquaticus, Simulium spp., Baetis rhodani), thus, quantifying the context dependencies of parasitism and a higher-order fish predator on these functional responses. Our functional response experiments demonstrated that the invasive amphipod had a higher predatory impact (lower handling time) on two of three prey species, which reflects patterns of impact observed in the field. The community module also revealed that parasitism had context-dependent influences, for one prey species, with the potential to further reduce the predatory impact of the invasive amphipod or increase the predatory impact of the native amphipod in the presence of a higher-order fish predator. Partial consumption of prey was similar for both predators and occurred increasingly in the order A. aquaticus, Simulium spp. and B. rhodani. This was associated with increasing prey densities, but showed no context dependencies with parasitism or higher-order fish predator. This study supports the applicability of comparative functional responses as a tool to predict and assess invasive species impacts incorporating multiple context dependencies. PMID:25265905

  5. Dissociable Temporo-Parietal Memory Networks Revealed by Functional Connectivity during Episodic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko M.; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval most often recruits multiple separate processes that are thought to involve different temporal regions. Previous studies suggest dissociable regions in the left lateral parietal cortex that are associated with the retrieval processes. Moreover, studies using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) have provided evidence for the temporo-parietal memory networks that may support the retrieval processes. In this functional MRI study, we tested functional significance of the memory networks by examining functional connectivity of brain activity during episodic retrieval in the temporal and parietal regions of the memory networks. Recency judgments, judgments of the temporal order of past events, can be achieved by at least two retrieval processes, relational and item-based. Neuroimaging results revealed several temporal and parietal activations associated with relational/item-based recency judgments. Significant RSFC was observed between one parahippocampal region and one left lateral parietal region associated with relational recency judgments, and between four lateral temporal regions and another left lateral parietal region associated with item-based recency judgments. Functional connectivity during task was found to be significant between the parahippocampal region and the parietal region in the RSFC network associated with relational recency judgments. However, out of the four tempo-parietal RSFC networks associated with item-based recency judgments, only one of them (between the left posterior lateral temporal region and the left lateral parietal region) showed significant functional connectivity during task. These results highlight the contrasting roles of the parahippocampal and the lateral temporal regions in recency judgments, and suggest that only a part of the tempo-parietal RSFC networks are recruited to support particular retrieval processes. PMID:24009657

  6. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anmol; Kopra, Jaakko; Varendi, Kärt; Porokuokka, Lauriina L; Panhelainen, Anne; Kuure, Satu; Marshall, Pepin; Karalija, Nina; Härma, Mari-Anne; Vilenius, Carolina; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Mijatovic, Jelena; Pulkkinen, Nita; Jakobson, Madis; Jakobson, Maili; Ola, Roxana; Palm, Erik; Lindahl, Maria; Strömberg, Ingrid; Võikar, Vootele; Piepponen, T Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2015-12-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is the principal lesion in Parkinson's disease. Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo, intracranial delivery of GDNF has been attempted for Parkinson's disease treatment but with variable success. For improving GDNF-based therapies, knowledge on physiological role of endogenous GDNF at the sites of its expression is important. However, due to limitations of existing genetic model systems, such knowledge is scarce. Here, we report that prevention of transcription of Gdnf 3'UTR in Gdnf endogenous locus yields GDNF hypermorphic mice with increased, but spatially unchanged GDNF expression, enabling analysis of postnatal GDNF function. We found that increased level of GDNF in the central nervous system increases the number of adult dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the number of dopaminergic terminals in the dorsal striatum. At the functional level, GDNF levels increased striatal tissue dopamine levels and augmented striatal dopamine release and re-uptake. In a proteasome inhibitor lactacystin-induced model of Parkinson's disease GDNF hypermorphic mice were protected from the reduction in striatal dopamine and failure of dopaminergic system function. Importantly, adverse phenotypic effects associated with spatially unregulated GDNF applications were not observed. Enhanced GDNF levels up-regulated striatal dopamine transporter activity by at least five fold resulting in enhanced susceptibility to 6-OHDA, a toxin transported into dopamine neurons by DAT. Further, we report how GDNF levels regulate kidney development and identify microRNAs miR-9, miR-96, miR-133, and miR-146a as negative regulators of GDNF expression via interaction with Gdnf 3'UTR in vitro. Our results reveal the role of GDNF in nigrostriatal dopamine system postnatal development and adult function, and highlight the importance of correct spatial

  7. Diurnal Changes in Mitochondrial Function Reveal Daily Optimization of Light and Dark Respiratory Metabolism in Arabidopsis*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun Pong; Eubel, Holger; Millar, A. Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Biomass production by plants is often negatively correlated with respiratory rate, but the value of this rate changes dramatically during diurnal cycles, and hence, biomass is the cumulative result of complex environment-dependent metabolic processes. Mitochondria in photosynthetic plant tissues undertake substantially different metabolic roles during light and dark periods that are dictated by substrate availability and the functional capacity of mitochondria defined by their protein composition. We surveyed the heterogeneity of the mitochondrial proteome and its function during a typical night and day cycle in Arabidopsis shoots. This used a staged, quantitative analysis of the proteome across 10 time points covering 24 h of the life of 3-week-old Arabidopsis shoots grown under 12-h dark and 12-h light conditions. Detailed analysis of enzyme capacities and substrate-dependent respiratory processes of isolated mitochondria were also undertaken during the same time course. Together these data reveal a range of dynamic changes in mitochondrial capacity and uncover day- and night-enhanced protein components. Clear diurnal changes were evident in mitochondrial capacities to drive the TCA cycle and to undertake functions associated with nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, redox poise, and mitochondrial antioxidant defense. These data quantify the nature and nuances of a daily rhythm in Arabidopsis mitochondrial respiratory capacity. PMID:20601493

  8. Edge reconstruction in armchair phosphorene nanoribbons revealed by discontinuous Galerkin density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei; Lin, Lin; Yang, Chao

    2015-12-21

    With the help of our recently developed massively parallel DGDFT (Discontinuous Galerkin Density Functional Theory) methodology, we perform large-scale Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations on phosphorene nanoribbons with armchair edges (ACPNRs) containing a few thousands to ten thousand atoms. The use of DGDFT allows us to systematically achieve a conventional plane wave basis set type of accuracy, but with a much smaller number (about 15) of adaptive local basis (ALB) functions per atom for this system. The relatively small number of degrees of freedom required to represent the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian, together with the use of the pole expansion the selected inversion (PEXSI) technique that circumvents the need to diagonalize the Hamiltonian, results in a highly efficient and scalable computational scheme for analyzing the electronic structures of ACPNRs as well as their dynamics. The total wall clock time for calculating the electronic structures of large-scale ACPNRs containing 1080-10,800 atoms is only 10-25 s per self-consistent field (SCF) iteration, with accuracy fully comparable to that obtained from conventional planewave DFT calculations. For the ACPNR system, we observe that the DGDFT methodology can scale to 5000-50,000 processors. We use DGDFT based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) calculations to study the thermodynamic stability of ACPNRs. Our calculations reveal that a 2 × 1 edge reconstruction appears in ACPNRs at room temperature. PMID:25698178

  9. Gas7-Deficient Mouse Reveals Roles in Motor Function and Muscle Fiber Composition during Aging

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo-Tsang; Chang, Pu-Yuan; Su, Ching-Hua; Chao, Chuck C.-K.; Lin-Chao, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Background Growth arrest-specific gene 7 (Gas7) has previously been shown to be involved in neurite outgrowth in vitro; however, its actual role has yet to be determined. To investigate the physiological function of Gas7 in vivo, here we generated a Gas7-deficient mouse strain with a labile Gas7 mutant protein whose functions are similar to wild-type Gas7. Methodology/Principal Findings Our data show that aged Gas7-deficient mice have motor activity defects due to decreases in the number of spinal motor neurons and in muscle strength, of which the latter may be caused by changes in muscle fiber composition as shown in the soleus. In cross sections of the soleus of Gas7-deficient mice, gross morphological features and levels of myosin heavy chain I (MHC I) and MHC II markers revealed significantly fewer fast fibers. In addition, we found that nerve terminal sprouting, which may be associated with slow and fast muscle fiber composition, was considerably reduced at neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) during aging. Conclusions/Significance These findings indicate that Gas7 is involved in motor neuron function associated with muscle strength maintenance. PMID:22662195

  10. Hearing Without Listening: Functional Connectivity Reveals the Engagement of Multiple Nonauditory Networks During Basic Sound Processing

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study presents data challenging the traditional view that sound is processed almost exclusively in the classical auditory pathway unless imbued with behavioral significance. In a first experiment, subjects were presented with broadband noise in on/off fashion as they performed an unrelated visual task. A conventional analysis assuming predictable sound-evoked responses demonstrated a typical activation pattern that was confined to classical auditory centers. In contrast, spatial independent component analysis (sICA) disclosed multiple networks of acoustically responsive brain centers. One network comprised classical auditory centers, but four others included nominally “nonauditory” areas: cingulo-insular cortex, mediotemporal limbic lobe, basal ganglia, and posterior orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. Functional connectivity analyses confirmed the sICA results by demonstrating coordinated activity between the involved brain structures. In a second experiment, fMRI data obtained from unstimulated (i.e., resting) subjects revealed largely similar networks. Together, these two experiments suggest the existence of a coordinated system of multiple acoustically responsive intrinsic brain networks, comprising classical auditory centers but also other brain areas. Our results suggest that nonauditory centers play a role in sound processing at a very basic level, even when the sound is not intertwined with behaviors requiring the well-known functionality of these regions. PMID:22433051

  11. Conditional Degradation of Plasmodium Calcineurin Reveals Functions in Parasite Colonization of both Host and Vector

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Nisha; Waters, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Functional analysis of essential genes in the malarial parasite, Plasmodium, is hindered by lack of efficient strategies for conditional protein regulation. We report the development of a rapid, specific, and inducible chemical-genetic tool in the rodent malaria parasite, P. berghei, in which endogenous proteins engineered to contain the auxin-inducible degron (AID) are selectively degraded upon adding auxin. Application of AID to the calcium-regulated protein phosphatase, calcineurin, revealed functions in host and vector stages of parasite development. Whereas depletion of calcineurin in late-stage schizonts demonstrated its critical role in erythrocyte attachment and invasion in vivo, stage-specific depletion uncovered roles in gamete development, fertilization, and ookinete-to-oocyst and sporozoite-to-liver stage transitions. Furthermore, AID technology facilitated concurrent generation and phenotyping of transgenic lines, allowing multiple lines to be assessed simultaneously with significant reductions in animal use. This study highlights the broad applicability of AID for functional analysis of proteins across the Plasmodium life cycle. PMID:26118994

  12. Structural and Functional Studies of the Rap1 C-Terminus Reveal Novel Separation-of-Function Mutants

    SciTech Connect

    Feeser, Elizabeth A.; Wolberger, Cynthia

    2010-02-19

    The yeast Rap1 protein plays an important role in transcriptional silencing and in telomere length homeostasis. Rap1 mediates silencing at the HM loci and at telomeres by recruiting the Sir3 and Sir4 proteins to chromatin via a Rap1 C-terminal domain, which also recruits the telomere length regulators, Rif1 and Rif2. We report the 1.85 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the Rap1 C-terminus, which adopts an all-helical fold with no structural homologues. The structure was used to engineer surface mutations in Rap1, and the effects of these mutations on silencing and telomere length regulation were assayed in vivo. Our surprising finding was that there is no overlap between mutations affecting mating-type and telomeric silencing, suggesting that Rap1 plays distinct roles in silencing at the silent mating-type loci and telomeres. We also found novel Rap1 phenotypes and new separation-of-function mutants, which provide new tools for studying Rap1 function. Yeast two-hybrid studies were used to determine how specific mutations affect recruitment of Sir3, Rif1, and Rif2. A comparison of the yeast two-hybrid and functional data reveals patterns of protein interactions that correlate with each Rap1 phenotype. We find that Sir3 interactions are important for telomeric silencing, but not mating type silencing, and that Rif1 and Rif2 interactions are important in different subsets of telomeric length mutants. Our results show that the role of Rap1 in silencing differs between the HM loci and the telomeres and offer insight into the interplay between HM silencing, telomeric silencing, and telomere length regulation. These findings suggest a model in which competition and multiple recruitment events modulate silencing and telomere length regulation.

  13. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S.; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V.; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E.; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  14. Real-time Redox Measurements during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Reveal Interlinked Protein Folding Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merksamer, Philip I.; Trusina, Ala; Papa, Feroz R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes unfolded proteins to accumulate, triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR outputs in turn decrease ER unfolded proteins to close a negative feedback loop. However, because it is infeasible to directly measure the concentration of unfolded proteins in vivo, cells are generically described as experiencing “ER stress” whenever the UPR is active. Because ER redox potential is optimized for oxidative protein folding, we reasoned that measureable redox changes should accompany unfolded protein accumulation. To test this concept, we employed fluorescent protein reporters to dynamically measure ER redox status and UPR activity in single cells. Using these tools, we show that diverse stressors, both experimental and physiological, compromise ER protein oxidation when UPR-imposed homeostatic control is lost. Using genetic analysis we uncovered redox heterogeneities in isogenic cell populations, and revealed functional interlinks between ER protein folding, modification, and quality control systems. PMID:19026441

  15. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

    SciTech Connect

    P Lombardi; H Angell; D Whittington; E Flynn; K Rajashankar; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18 {angstrom} long 'L'-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes.

  16. Transcriptome analyses reveal molecular mechanisms underlying functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongmei; Ge, Weihong; Zhang, Aifeng; Xi, Yue; Chen, Zhihua; Luo, Dandan; Cheng, Yin; Fan, Kevin S; Horvath, Steve; Sofroniew, Michael V; Cheng, Liming; Yang, Zhaoyang; Sun, Yi E; Li, Xiaoguang

    2015-10-27

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is considered incurable because axonal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely challenging, due to harsh CNS injury environment and weak intrinsic regeneration capability of CNS neurons. We discovered that neurotrophin-3 (NT3)-loaded chitosan provided an excellent microenvironment to facilitate nerve growth, new neurogenesis, and functional recovery of completely transected spinal cord in rats. To acquire mechanistic insight, we conducted a series of comprehensive transcriptome analyses of spinal cord segments at the lesion site, as well as regions immediately rostral and caudal to the lesion, over a period of 90 days after SCI. Using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA), we established gene modules/programs corresponding to various pathological events at different times after SCI. These objective measures of gene module expression also revealed that enhanced new neurogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced inflammatory responses were keys to conferring the effect of NT3-chitosan on regeneration. PMID:26460053

  17. Revealing the Functions of the Transketolase Enzyme Isoforms in Rhodopseudomonas palustris Using a Systems Biology Approach

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ling; Chen, Shiang Jiuun; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Liao, James C.; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhodopseudomonas palustris (R. palustris) is a purple non-sulfur anoxygenic phototrophic bacterium that belongs to the class of proteobacteria. It is capable of absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide and converting it to biomass via the process of photosynthesis and the Calvin–Benson–Bassham (CBB) cycle. Transketolase is a key enzyme involved in the CBB cycle. Here, we reveal the functions of transketolase isoforms I and II in R. palustris using a systems biology approach. Methodology/Principal Findings By measuring growth ability, we found that transketolase could enhance the autotrophic growth and biomass production of R. palustris. Microarray and real-time quantitative PCR revealed that transketolase isoforms I and II were involved in different carbon metabolic pathways. In addition, immunogold staining demonstrated that the two transketolase isoforms had different spatial localizations: transketolase I was primarily associated with the intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM) but transketolase II was mostly distributed in the cytoplasm. Comparative proteomic analysis and network construction of transketolase over-expression and negative control (NC) strains revealed that protein folding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid transport and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase I over-expressed strain. In contrast, ATP synthesis, carbohydrate transport, glycolysis-associated carbon metabolism and CBB cycle-associated carbon metabolism were enriched in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. Furthermore, ATP synthesis assays showed a significant increase in ATP synthesis in the transketolase II over-expressed strain. A PEPCK activity assay showed that PEPCK activity was higher in transketolase over-expressed strains than in the negative control strain. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results indicate that the two isoforms of transketolase in R. palustris could affect photoautotrophic growth through both

  18. Lipidomic profiling reveals protective function of fatty acid oxidation in cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity[S

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaolei; Yao, Dan; Gosnell, Blake A.; Chen, Chi

    2012-01-01

    During cocaine-induced hepatotoxicity, lipid accumulation occurs prior to necrotic cell death in the liver. However, the exact influences of cocaine on the homeostasis of lipid metabolism remain largely unknown. In this study, the progression of subacute hepatotoxicity, including centrilobular necrosis in the liver and elevation of transaminase activity in serum, was observed in a three-day cocaine treatment, accompanying the disruption of triacylglycerol (TAG) turnover. Serum TAG level increased on day 1 of cocaine treatment but remained unchanged afterwards. In contrast, hepatic TAG level was elevated continuously during three days of cocaine treatment and was better correlated with the development of hepatotoxicity. Lipidomic analyses of serum and liver samples revealed time-dependent separation of the control and cocaine-treated mice in multivariate models, which was due to the accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines together with the disturbances of many bioactive phospholipid species in the cocaine-treated mice. An in vitro function assay confirmed the progressive inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation after the cocaine treatment. Cotreatment of fenofibrate significantly increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-targeted genes and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation activity in the cocaine-treated mice, resulting in the inhibition of cocaine-induced acylcarnitine accumulation and other hepatotoxic effects. Overall, the results from this lipidomics-guided study revealed that the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation plays an important role in cocaine-induced liver injury. PMID:22904346

  19. Functional genomic analysis reveals overlapping and distinct features of chronologically long-lived yeast populations.

    PubMed

    Wierman, Margaret B; Matecic, Mirela; Valsakumar, Veena; Li, Mingguang; Smith, Daniel L; Bekiranov, Stefan; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Yeast chronological lifespan (CLS) is extended by multiple genetic and environmental manipulations, including caloric restriction (CR). Understanding the common changes in molecular pathways induced by such manipulations could potentially reveal conserved longevity mechanisms. We therefore performed gene expression profiling on several long-lived yeast populations, including anade4∆mutant defective in de novo purine (AMP) biosynthesis, and a calorie restricted WT strain. CLS was also extended by isonicotinamide (INAM) or expired media derived from CR cultures. Comparisons between these diverse long-lived conditions revealed a common set of differentially regulated genes, several of which were potential longevity biomarkers. There was also enrichment for genes that function in CLS regulation, including a long-lived adenosine kinase mutant (ado1∆) that links CLS regulation to the methyl cycle and AMP. Genes co-regulated between the CR and ade4∆ conditions were dominated by GO terms related to metabolism of alternative carbon sources, consistent with chronological longevity requiring efficient acetate/acetic acid utilization. Alternatively, treating cells with isonicotinamide (INAM) or the expired CR media resulted in GO terms predominantly related to cell wall remodeling, consistent with improved stress resistance and protection against external insults like acetic acid. Acetic acid therefore has both beneficial and detrimental effects on CLS. PMID:25769345

  20. Targeted mutagenesis of zebrafish antithrombin III triggers disseminated intravascular coagulation and thrombosis, revealing insight into function

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Kretz, Colin A.; Maeder, Morgan L.; Richter, Catherine E.; Tsao, Philip; Vo, Andy H.; Huarng, Michael C.; Rode, Thomas; Hu, Zhilian; Mehra, Rohit; Olson, Steven T.; Joung, J. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Pathologic blood clotting is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, underlying deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Genetic predisposition to thrombosis is still poorly understood, and we hypothesize that there are many additional risk alleles and modifying factors remaining to be discovered. Mammalian models have contributed to our understanding of thrombosis, but are low throughput and costly. We have turned to the zebrafish, a tool for high-throughput genetic analysis. Using zinc finger nucleases, we show that disruption of the zebrafish antithrombin III (at3) locus results in spontaneous venous thrombosis in larvae. Although homozygous mutants survive into early adulthood, they eventually succumb to massive intracardiac thrombosis. Characterization of null fish revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation in larvae secondary to unopposed thrombin activity and fibrinogen consumption, which could be rescued by both human and zebrafish at3 complementary DNAs. Mutation of the human AT3-reactive center loop abolished the ability to rescue, but the heparin-binding site was dispensable. These results demonstrate overall conservation of AT3 function in zebrafish, but reveal developmental variances in the ability to tolerate excessive clot formation. The accessibility of early zebrafish development will provide unique methods for dissection of the underlying mechanisms of thrombosis. PMID:24782510

  1. Metagenomes from High-Temperature Chemotrophic Systems Reveal Geochemical Controls on Microbial Community Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Inskeep, William P.; Rusch, Douglas B.; Jay, Zackary J.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Kozubal, Mark A.; Richardson, Toby H.; Macur, Richard E.; Hamamura, Natsuko; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Roberto, Frank; Young, Mark; Schwartz, Ariel; Boyd, Eric S.; Badger, Jonathan H.; Mathur, Eric J.; Ortmann, Alice C.; Bateson, Mary; Geesey, Gill; Frazier, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera contains the most numerous and diverse geothermal systems on Earth, yielding an extensive array of unique high-temperature environments that host a variety of deeply-rooted and understudied Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The combination of extreme temperature and chemical conditions encountered in geothermal environments often results in considerably less microbial diversity than other terrestrial habitats and offers a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities and for establishing linkages between putative metabolisms and element cycling. Metagenome sequence (14–15,000 Sanger reads per site) was obtained for five high-temperature (>65°C) chemotrophic microbial communities sampled from geothermal springs (or pools) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) that exhibit a wide range in geochemistry including pH, dissolved sulfide, dissolved oxygen and ferrous iron. Metagenome data revealed significant differences in the predominant phyla associated with each of these geochemical environments. Novel members of the Sulfolobales are dominant in low pH environments, while other Crenarchaeota including distantly-related Thermoproteales and Desulfurococcales populations dominate in suboxic sulfidic sediments. Several novel archaeal groups are well represented in an acidic (pH 3) Fe-oxyhydroxide mat, where a higher O2 influx is accompanied with an increase in archaeal diversity. The presence or absence of genes and pathways important in S oxidation-reduction, H2-oxidation, and aerobic respiration (terminal oxidation) provide insight regarding the metabolic strategies of indigenous organisms present in geothermal systems. Multiple-pathway and protein-specific functional analysis of metagenome sequence data corroborated results from phylogenetic analyses and clearly demonstrate major differences in metabolic potential across sites. The distribution of functional genes involved in electron transport

  2. Metagenomes from high-temperature chemotrophic systems reveal geochemical controls on microbial community structure and function

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Roberto

    2010-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera contains the most numerous and diverse geothermal systems on Earth, yielding an extensive array of unique high-temperature environments that host numerous deeply-rooted and understudied Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The combination of extreme temperature and chemical conditions encountered in geothermal environments often results in considerably less microbial diversity than other terrestrial habitats and offers a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities and for establishing linkages between putative metabolisms and element cycling. Metagenome sequence (14-15,000 Sanger reads per site) was obtained for five high-temperature (> 65 oC) chemotrophic microbial communities sampled from geothermal springs (or pools) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) that exhibit a wide range in geochemistry including pH, dissolved sulfide, dissolved O2 and ferrous Fe. Metagenome data revealed significant differences in the predominant phyla associated with each of these geochemical environments. Novel members of the Sulfolobales are dominant in low pH environments, while other Crenarchaeota including distantly-related Thermoproteales and Desulfurococcales populations dominate in suboxic sulfidic sediments. Several novel archaeal groups are well represented in an acidic (pH 3) Fe-oxyhydroxide mat, where a higher O2 influx is accompanied with an increase in archaeal diversity. The presence or absence of genes and pathways important in S oxidation-reduction, H2-oxidation, and aerobic respiration (terminal oxidation) provide insight regarding the metabolic strategies of indigenous organisms present in geothermal systems. Multiple-pathway and protein-specific functional analysis of metagenome sequence data corroborated results from phylogenetic analyses and clearly demonstrate major differences in metabolic potential across sites. The distribution of functional genes involved in electron transport is

  3. Functional characterization of chicken TLR5 reveals species-specific recognition of flagellin.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; de Zoete, Marcel R; van Aubel, Rémon A M H; van Putten, Jos P M

    2008-03-01

    Mammalian Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) senses flagellin of several bacterial species and activates the innate immune system. The avian TLR repertoire exhibits considerable functional diversity compared to mammalian TLRs and evidence of a functional TLR5 in the avian species is lacking. In the present study we cloned and successfully expressed chicken TLR5 (chTLR5) in HeLa cells, as indicated by laser confocal microscopy. Infection of chTLR5 transfected cells with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis activated NF-kappaB in a dose- and flagellin-dependent fashion. Similar NF-kappaB activation was observed with recombinant bacterial flagellin. Targeted mutagenesis of the proline residue at position 737 in the chTLR5-TIR domain was detrimental to chTLR5 function, confirming that the observed effects were conferred via chTLR5 and the MyD88 signaling pathway. Comparison of human, mouse and chicken TLR5 activation by flagellin of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium revealed that chTLR5 consistently yielded stronger responses than human but not mouse TLR5. This species-specific reactivity was not observed with flagellin of serovar Enteritidis. The species-specific TLR5 response was nullified after targeted mutagenesis of a single amino acid (Q89A) in serovar Typhimurium flagellin, while L415A and N100A substitutions had no effect. These results show that chickens express a functional TLR5 albeit with different flagellin sensing qualities compared to human TLR5. The finding that single amino acid substitutions in bacterial flagellin can alter the species-specific TLR5 response may influence the host range and susceptibility of infection. PMID:17964652

  4. Multivoxel patterns reveal functionally differentiated networks underlying auditory feedback processing of speech.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zane Z; Vicente-Grabovetsky, Alejandro; MacDonald, Ewen N; Munhall, Kevin G; Cusack, Rhodri; Johnsrude, Ingrid S

    2013-03-01

    The everyday act of speaking involves the complex processes of speech motor control. An important component of control is monitoring, detection, and processing of errors when auditory feedback does not correspond to the intended motor gesture. Here we show, using fMRI and converging operations within a multivoxel pattern analysis framework, that this sensorimotor process is supported by functionally differentiated brain networks. During scanning, a real-time speech-tracking system was used to deliver two acoustically different types of distorted auditory feedback or unaltered feedback while human participants were vocalizing monosyllabic words, and to present the same auditory stimuli while participants were passively listening. Whole-brain analysis of neural-pattern similarity revealed three functional networks that were differentially sensitive to distorted auditory feedback during vocalization, compared with during passive listening. One network of regions appears to encode an "error signal" regardless of acoustic features of the error: this network, including right angular gyrus, right supplementary motor area, and bilateral cerebellum, yielded consistent neural patterns across acoustically different, distorted feedback types, only during articulation (not during passive listening). In contrast, a frontotemporal network appears sensitive to the speech features of auditory stimuli during passive listening; this preference for speech features was diminished when the same stimuli were presented as auditory concomitants of vocalization. A third network, showing a distinct functional pattern from the other two, appears to capture aspects of both neural response profiles. Together, our findings suggest that auditory feedback processing during speech motor control may rely on multiple, interactive, functionally differentiated neural systems. PMID:23467350

  5. Metagenomes from high-temperature chemotrophic systems reveal geochemical controls on microbial community structure and function.

    PubMed

    Inskeep, William P; Rusch, Douglas B; Jay, Zackary J; Herrgard, Markus J; Kozubal, Mark A; Richardson, Toby H; Macur, Richard E; Hamamura, Natsuko; Jennings, Ryan deM; Fouke, Bruce W; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Roberto, Frank; Young, Mark; Schwartz, Ariel; Boyd, Eric S; Badger, Jonathan H; Mathur, Eric J; Ortmann, Alice C; Bateson, Mary; Geesey, Gill; Frazier, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    The Yellowstone caldera contains the most numerous and diverse geothermal systems on Earth, yielding an extensive array of unique high-temperature environments that host a variety of deeply-rooted and understudied Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya. The combination of extreme temperature and chemical conditions encountered in geothermal environments often results in considerably less microbial diversity than other terrestrial habitats and offers a tremendous opportunity for studying the structure and function of indigenous microbial communities and for establishing linkages between putative metabolisms and element cycling. Metagenome sequence (14-15,000 Sanger reads per site) was obtained for five high-temperature (>65 degrees C) chemotrophic microbial communities sampled from geothermal springs (or pools) in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) that exhibit a wide range in geochemistry including pH, dissolved sulfide, dissolved oxygen and ferrous iron. Metagenome data revealed significant differences in the predominant phyla associated with each of these geochemical environments. Novel members of the Sulfolobales are dominant in low pH environments, while other Crenarchaeota including distantly-related Thermoproteales and Desulfurococcales populations dominate in suboxic sulfidic sediments. Several novel archaeal groups are well represented in an acidic (pH 3) Fe-oxyhydroxide mat, where a higher O2 influx is accompanied with an increase in archaeal diversity. The presence or absence of genes and pathways important in S oxidation-reduction, H2-oxidation, and aerobic respiration (terminal oxidation) provide insight regarding the metabolic strategies of indigenous organisms present in geothermal systems. Multiple-pathway and protein-specific functional analysis of metagenome sequence data corroborated results from phylogenetic analyses and clearly demonstrate major differences in metabolic potential across sites. The distribution of functional genes involved in electron

  6. Structure and function of Parkin E3 ubiquitin ligase reveals aspects of RING and HECT ligases

    PubMed Central

    Riley, B.E.; Lougheed, J.C.; Callaway, K.; Velasquez, M.; Brecht, E.; Nguyen, L.; Shaler, T.; Walker, D.; Yang, Y.; Regnstrom, K.; Diep, L.; Zhang, Z.; Chiou, S.; Bova, M.; Artis, D.R.; Yao, N.; Baker, J.; Yednock, T.; Johnston, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Parkin is a RING-between-RING E3 ligase that functions in the covalent attachment of ubiquitin to specific substrates, and mutations in Parkin are linked to Parkinson’s disease, cancer and mycobacterial infection. The RING-between-RING family of E3 ligases are suggested to function with a canonical RING domain and a catalytic cysteine residue usually restricted to HECT E3 ligases, thus termed ‘RING/HECT hybrid’ enzymes. Here we present the 1.58 Å structure of Parkin-R0RBR, revealing the fold architecture for the four RING domains, and several unpredicted interfaces. Examination of the Parkin active site suggests a catalytic network consisting of C431 and H433. In cells, mutation of C431 eliminates Parkin-catalysed degradation of mitochondria, and capture of an ubiquitin oxyester confirms C431 as Parkin’s cellular active site. Our data confirm that Parkin is a RING/HECT hybrid, and provide the first crystal structure of an RING-between-RING E3 ligase at atomic resolution, providing insight into this disease-related protein. PMID:23770887

  7. Evolution-guided functional analyses reveal diverse antiviral specificities encoded by IFIT1 genes in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Matthew D; Schaller, Aaron M; Geballe, Adam P; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    IFIT (interferon-induced with tetratricopeptide repeats) proteins are critical mediators of mammalian innate antiviral immunity. Mouse IFIT1 selectively inhibits viruses that lack 2'O-methylation of their mRNA 5' caps. Surprisingly, human IFIT1 does not share this antiviral specificity. Here, we resolve this discrepancy by demonstrating that human and mouse IFIT1 have evolved distinct functions using a combination of evolutionary, genetic and virological analyses. First, we show that human IFIT1 and mouse IFIT1 (renamed IFIT1B) are not orthologs, but are paralogs that diverged >100 mya. Second, using a yeast genetic assay, we show that IFIT1 and IFIT1B proteins differ in their ability to be suppressed by a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. Finally, we demonstrate that IFIT1 and IFIT1B have divergent antiviral specificities, including the discovery that only IFIT1 proteins inhibit a virus encoding a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. These functional data, combined with widespread turnover of mammalian IFIT genes, reveal dramatic species-specific differences in IFIT-mediated antiviral repertoires. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14228.001 PMID:27240734

  8. Principal Component Analysis reveals correlation of cavities evolution and functional motions in proteins.

    PubMed

    Desdouits, Nathan; Nilges, Michael; Blondel, Arnaud

    2015-02-01

    Protein conformation has been recognized as the key feature determining biological function, as it determines the position of the essential groups specifically interacting with substrates. Hence, the shape of the cavities or grooves at the protein surface appears to drive those functions. However, only a few studies describe the geometrical evolution of protein cavities during molecular dynamics simulations (MD), usually with a crude representation. To unveil the dynamics of cavity geometry evolution, we developed an approach combining cavity detection and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This approach was applied to four systems subjected to MD (lysozyme, sperm whale myoglobin, Dengue envelope protein and EF-CaM complex). PCA on cavities allows us to perform efficient analysis and classification of the geometry diversity explored by a cavity. Additionally, it reveals correlations between the evolutions of the cavities and structures, and can even suggest how to modify the protein conformation to induce a given cavity geometry. It also helps to perform fast and consensual clustering of conformations according to cavity geometry. Finally, using this approach, we show that both carbon monoxide (CO) location and transfer among the different xenon sites of myoglobin are correlated with few cavity evolution modes of high amplitude. This correlation illustrates the link between ligand diffusion and the dynamic network of internal cavities. PMID:25424655

  9. Genetic Manipulations Reveal Dynamic Cell and Gene Functions: Cre-ating a New View of Myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, David A.; Kardon, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    Development of multicellular organisms is temporally and spatially complex. The Cre/loxP and Flp/FRT systems for genetic manipulation in mammals now enable researchers to explicitly examine in vivo the temporal and spatial role of cells and genes during development via cell lineage and ablation studies and conditional gene inactivation and activation. Recently we have used these methods to genetically dissect the role of Pax3+ and Pax7+ progenitor populations and the function of β-catenin, an important regulator of myogenesis, in vertebrate limb myogenesis. Our lineage and ablation studies of Pax3+ and Pax7+ progenitors revealed surprising insights into myogenesis not apparent from Pax3 and Pax7 expression and functional studies. In addition, conditional inactivation and activation of β-catenin in different progenitor populations and their progeny demonstrated that β-catenin plays several cell-autonomous roles in myogenesis. Our studies highlight the hierarchical (i.e. genes versus cells), temporal, and spatial complexity of development and demonstrate that manipulations of both cells and genes will be required to obtain a full understanding of the development of multicellular organisms. PMID:19844163

  10. Comparative materials differences revealed in engineered bone as a function of cell-specific differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentleman, Eileen; Swain, Robin J.; Evans, Nicholas D.; Boonrungsiman, Suwimon; Jell, Gavin; Ball, Michael D.; Shean, Tamaryn A. V.; Oyen, Michelle L.; Porter, Alexandra; Stevens, Molly M.

    2009-09-01

    An important aim of regenerative medicine is to restore tissue function with implantable, laboratory-grown constructs that contain tissue-specific cells that replicate the function of their counterparts in the healthy native tissue. It remains unclear, however, whether cells used in bone regeneration applications produce a material that mimics the structural and compositional complexity of native bone. By applying multivariate analysis techniques to micro-Raman spectra of mineralized nodules formed in vitro, we reveal cell-source-dependent differences in interactions between multiple bone-like mineral environments. Although osteoblasts and adult stem cells exhibited bone-specific biological activities and created a material with many of the hallmarks of native bone, the `bone nodules' formed from embryonic stem cells were an order of magnitude less stiff, and lacked the distinctive nanolevel architecture and complex biomolecular and mineral composition noted in the native tissue. Understanding the biological mechanisms of bone formation in vitro that contribute to cell-source-specific materials differences may facilitate the development of clinically successful engineered bone.

  11. Evolution-guided functional analyses reveal diverse antiviral specificities encoded by IFIT1 genes in mammals.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Matthew D; Schaller, Aaron M; Geballe, Adam P; Malik, Harmit S

    2016-01-01

    IFIT (interferon-induced with tetratricopeptide repeats) proteins are critical mediators of mammalian innate antiviral immunity. Mouse IFIT1 selectively inhibits viruses that lack 2'O-methylation of their mRNA 5' caps. Surprisingly, human IFIT1 does not share this antiviral specificity. Here, we resolve this discrepancy by demonstrating that human and mouse IFIT1 have evolved distinct functions using a combination of evolutionary, genetic and virological analyses. First, we show that human IFIT1 and mouse IFIT1 (renamed IFIT1B) are not orthologs, but are paralogs that diverged >100 mya. Second, using a yeast genetic assay, we show that IFIT1 and IFIT1B proteins differ in their ability to be suppressed by a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. Finally, we demonstrate that IFIT1 and IFIT1B have divergent antiviral specificities, including the discovery that only IFIT1 proteins inhibit a virus encoding a cap 2'O-methyltransferase. These functional data, combined with widespread turnover of mammalian IFIT genes, reveal dramatic species-specific differences in IFIT-mediated antiviral repertoires. PMID:27240734

  12. Deletion of CFTR Translation Start Site Reveals Functional Isoforms of the Protein in CF Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Anabela S.; Lewandowska, Marzena A.; Farinha, Carlos M.; Mendes, Filipa; Gonçalves, Juan; Barreto, Celeste; Harris, Ann; Amaral, Margarida D.

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: Mutations in the CFTR gene cause Cystic Fibrosis (CF) the most common life-threatening autosomal recessive disease affecting Caucasians. We identified a CFTR mutation (c.120del23) abolishing the normal translation initiation codon, which occurs in two Portuguese CF patients. This study aims at functionally characterizing the effect of this novel mutation. Methods: RNA and protein techniques were applied to both native tissues from CF patients and recombinant cells expressing CFTR constructs to determine whether c.120del23 allows CFTR protein production through usage of alternative internal codons, and to characterize the putative truncated CFTR form(s). Results: Our data show that two shorter forms of CFTR protein are produced when the initiation translation codon is deleted indicating usage of internal initiation codons. The N-truncated CFTR generated by this mutation has decreased stability, very low processing efficiency, and drastically reduced function. Analysis of mutants of four methionine codons downstream to M1 (M82, M150, M152, M156) revealed that each of the codons M150/M152/M156 (exon 4) can mediate CFTR alternative translation. Conclusions: The CFTR N-terminus has an important role in avoiding CFTR turnover and in rendering effective its plasma membrane traffic. These data correlate well with the severe clinical phenotype of CF patients bearing the c.120del23 mutation. PMID:19910674

  13. Metagenomics Reveals Microbial Community Composition And Function With Depth In Arctic Permafrost Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansson, J.; Tas, N.; Wu, Y.; Ulrich, C.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Torn, M. S.; Hubbard, S. S.; Chakraborty, R.; Graham, D. E.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic is one of the most climatically sensitive regions on Earth and current surveys show that permafrost degradation is widespread in arctic soils. Biogeochemical feedbacks of permafrost thaw are expected to be dominated by the release of currently stored carbon back into the atmosphere as CO2 and CH4. Understanding the dynamics of C release from permafrost requires assessment of microbial functions from different soil compartments. To this end, as part of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment in the Arctic, we collected two replicate permafrost cores (1m and 3m deep) from a transitional polygon near Barrow, AK. At this location, permafrost starts from 0.5m in depth and is characterized by variable ice content and higher pH than surface soils. Prior to sectioning, the cores were CT-scanned to determine the physical heterogeneity throughout the cores. In addition to detailed geochemical characterization, we used Illumina MiSeq technology to sequence 16SrRNA genes throughout the depths of the cores at 1 cm intervals. Selected depths were also chosen for metagenome sequencing of total DNA (including phylogenetic and functional genes) using the Illumina HiSeq platform. The 16S rRNA gene sequence data revealed that the microbial community composition and diversity changed dramatically with depth. The microbial diversity decreased sharply below the first few centimeters of the permafrost and then gradually increased in deeper layers. Based on the metagenome sequence data, the permafrost microbial communities were found to contain members with a large metabolic potential for carbon processing, including pathways for fermentation and methanogenesis. The surface active layers had more representatives of Verrucomicrobia (potential methane oxidizers) whereas the deep permafrost layers were dominated by several different species of Actinobacteria. The latter are known to have a diverse metabolic capability and are able to adapt to stress by entering a dormant yet

  14. Revealing the Functional Neuroanatomy of Intrinsic Alertness Using fMRI: Methodological Peculiarities

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Benjamin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Sack, Alexander; Heinecke, Armin; Willmes, Klaus; Sturm, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Clinical observations and neuroimaging data revealed a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal-thalamic-brainstem network for intrinsic alertness, and additional left fronto-parietal activity during phasic alertness. The primary objective of this fMRI study was to map the functional neuroanatomy of intrinsic alertness as precisely as possible in healthy participants, using a novel assessment paradigm already employed in clinical settings. Both the paradigm and the experimental design were optimized to specifically assess intrinsic alertness, while at the same time controlling for sensory-motor processing. The present results suggest that the processing of intrinsic alertness is accompanied by increased activity within the brainstem, thalamus, anterior cingulate gyrus, right insula, and right parietal cortex. Additionally, we found increased activation in the left hemisphere around the middle frontal gyrus (BA 9), the insula, the supplementary motor area, and the cerebellum. Our results further suggest that rather minute aspects of the experimental design may induce aspects of phasic alertness, which in turn might lead to additional brain activation in left-frontal areas not normally involved in intrinsic alertness. Accordingly, left BA 9 activation may be related to co-activation of the phasic alertness network due to the switch between rest and task conditions functioning as an external warning cue triggering the phasic alertness network. Furthermore, activation of the intrinsic alertness network during fixation blocks due to enhanced expectancy shortly before the switch to the task block might, when subtracted from the task block, lead to diminished activation in the typical right hemisphere intrinsic alertness network. Thus, we cautiously suggest that – as a methodological artifact – left frontal activations might show up due to phasic alertness involvement and intrinsic alertness activations might be weakened due to contrasting with fixation blocks, when assessing

  15. Genetic Analysis Reveals Different Functions for the Products of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor α Locus

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Karine; Plateroti, Michelina; Harvey, Clare B.; Williams, Graham R.; Weiss, Roy E.; Refetoff, Samuel; Willott, James F.; Sundin, Victoria; Roux, Jean-Paul; Malaval, Luc; Hara, Masahiro; Samarut, Jacques; Chassande, Olivier

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by the TRα (NR1A1) and TRβ (NR1A2) loci. These genes are transcribed into multiple variants whose functions are unclear. Analysis by gene inactivation in mice has provided new insights into the functional complexity of these products. Different strategies designed to modify the TRα locus have led to strikingly different phenotypes. In order to analyze the molecular basis for these alterations, we generated mice devoid of all known isoforms produced from the TRα locus (TRα0/0). These mice are viable and exhibit reduced linear growth, bone maturation delay, moderate hypothermia, and reduced thickness of the intestinal mucosa. Compounding TRα0 and TRβ− mutations produces viable TRα0/0β−/− mice, which display a more severe linear growth reduction and a more profound hypothermia as well as impaired hearing. A striking phenotypic difference is observed between TRα0/0 and the previously described TRα−/− mice, which retain truncated TRΔα isoforms arising from a newly described promoter in intron 7. The lethality and severe impairment of the intestinal maturation in TRα−/− mice are rescued in TRα0/0 animals. We demonstrate that the TRΔα protein isoforms, which are natural products of the TRα locus, are the key determinants of these phenotypical differences. These data reveal the functional importance of the non-T3-binding variants encoded by the TRα locus in vertebrate postnatal development and homeostasis. PMID:11416150

  16. Antigenic and Mutational Analyses of Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein B Reveal Four Functional Regions▿

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Florent C.; Samanta, Minu; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.; de Leon, Manuel Ponce; Bilman, Elina; Lou, Huan; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein B (gB), along with gD, gH, and gL, is essential for herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry. The crystal structure of the gB ectodomain revealed it to be an elongated multidomain trimer. We generated and characterized a panel of 67 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eleven of the MAbs had virus-neutralizing activity. To organize gB into functional regions within these domains, we localized the epitopes recognized by the entire panel of MAbs and mapped them onto the crystal structure of gB. Most of the MAbs were directed to continuous or discontinuous epitopes, but several recognized discontinuous epitopes that showed some resistance to denaturation, and we refer to them as pseudo-continuous. Each category contained some MAbs with neutralizing activity. To map continuous epitopes, we used overlapping peptides that spanned the gB ectodomain and measured binding by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To identify discontinuous and pseudocontinuous epitopes, a purified form of the ectodomain of gB, gB(730t), was cleaved by α-chymotrypsin into two major fragments comprising amino acids 98 to 472 (domains I and II) and amino acids 473 to 730 (major parts of domains III, IV, and V). We also constructed a series of gB truncations to augment the other mapping strategies. Finally, we used biosensor analysis to assign the MAbs to competition groups. Together, our results identified four functional regions: (i) one formed by residues within domain I and amino acids 697 to 725 of domain V; (ii) a second formed by residues 391 to 410, residues 454 to 475, and a less-defined region within domain II; (iii) a region containing residues of domain IV that lie close to domain III; and (iv) the first 12 residues of the N terminus that were not resolved in the crystal structure. Our data suggest that multiple domains are critical for gB function. PMID:17267495

  17. Prokaryotic Caspase Homologs: Phylogenetic Patterns and Functional Characteristics Reveal Considerable Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Bergman, Birgitta; Larsson, John

    2012-01-01

    Caspases accomplish initiation and execution of apoptosis, a programmed cell death process specific to metazoans. The existence of prokaryotic caspase homologs, termed metacaspases, has been known for slightly more than a decade. Despite their potential connection to the evolution of programmed cell death in eukaryotes, the phylogenetic distribution and functions of these prokaryotic metacaspase sequences are largely uncharted, while a few experiments imply involvement in programmed cell death. Aiming at providing a more detailed picture of prokaryotic caspase homologs, we applied a computational approach based on Hidden Markov Model search profiles to identify and functionally characterize putative metacaspases in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Out of the total of 1463 analyzed genomes, merely 267 (18%) were identified to contain putative metacaspases, but their taxonomic distribution included most prokaryotic phyla and a few archaea (Euryarchaeota). Metacaspases were particularly abundant in Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria, which harbor many morphologically and developmentally complex organisms, and a distinct correlation was found between abundance and phenotypic complexity in Cyanobacteria. Notably, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, known to undergo genetically regulated autolysis, lacked metacaspases. Pfam domain architecture analysis combined with operon identification revealed rich and varied configurations among the metacaspase sequences. These imply roles in programmed cell death, but also e.g. in signaling, various enzymatic activities and protein modification. Together our data show a wide and scattered distribution of caspase homologs in prokaryotes with structurally and functionally diverse sub-groups, and with a potentially intriguing evolutionary role. These features will help delineate future characterizations of death pathways in prokaryotes. PMID:23185476

  18. Functional TCR retrieval from single antigen-specific human T cells reveals multiple novel epitopes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Petra; Omokoko, Tana A; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Hebich, Lisa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Attig, Sebastian; Konur, Abdo; Britten, Cedrik M; Paret, Claudia; Dhaene, Karl; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2014-12-01

    The determination of the epitope specificity of disease-associated T-cell responses is relevant for the development of biomarkers and targeted immunotherapies against cancer, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The lack of known T-cell epitopes and corresponding T-cell receptors (TCR) for novel antigens hinders the efficient development and monitoring of new therapies. We developed an integrated approach for the systematic retrieval and functional characterization of TCRs from single antigen-reactive T cells that includes the identification of epitope specificity. This is accomplished through the rapid cloning of full-length TCR-α and TCR-β chains directly from single antigen-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The functional validation of cloned TCRs is conducted using in vitro-transcribed RNA transfer for expression of TCRs in T cells and HLA molecules in antigen-presenting cells. This method avoids the work and bias associated with repetitive cycles of in vitro T-cell stimulation, and enables fast characterization of antigen-specific T-cell responses. We applied this strategy to viral and tumor-associated antigens (TAA), resulting in the retrieval of 56 unique functional antigen-specific TCRs from human CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells (13 specific for CMV-pp65, 16 specific for the well-known TAA NY-ESO-1, and 27 for the novel TAA TPTE), which are directed against 39 different epitopes. The proof-of-concept studies with TAAs NY-ESO-1 and TPTE revealed multiple novel TCR specificities. Our approach enables the rational development of immunotherapy strategies by providing antigen-specific TCRs and immunogenic epitopes. PMID:25245536

  19. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    PubMed

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  20. GDNF Overexpression from the Native Locus Reveals its Role in the Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System Function

    PubMed Central

    Porokuokka, Lauriina L.; Panhelainen, Anne; Kuure, Satu; Marshall, Pepin; Karalija, Nina; Härma, Mari-Anne; Vilenius, Carolina; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Mijatovic, Jelena; Pulkkinen, Nita; Jakobson, Madis; Jakobson, Maili; Ola, Roxana; Palm, Erik; Lindahl, Maria; Strömberg, Ingrid; Võikar, Vootele; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle

    2015-01-01

    Degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is the principal lesion in Parkinson’s disease. Because glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) promotes survival of dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo, intracranial delivery of GDNF has been attempted for Parkinson’s disease treatment but with variable success. For improving GDNF-based therapies, knowledge on physiological role of endogenous GDNF at the sites of its expression is important. However, due to limitations of existing genetic model systems, such knowledge is scarce. Here, we report that prevention of transcription of Gdnf 3’UTR in Gdnf endogenous locus yields GDNF hypermorphic mice with increased, but spatially unchanged GDNF expression, enabling analysis of postnatal GDNF function. We found that increased level of GDNF in the central nervous system increases the number of adult dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the number of dopaminergic terminals in the dorsal striatum. At the functional level, GDNF levels increased striatal tissue dopamine levels and augmented striatal dopamine release and re-uptake. In a proteasome inhibitor lactacystin-induced model of Parkinson’s disease GDNF hypermorphic mice were protected from the reduction in striatal dopamine and failure of dopaminergic system function. Importantly, adverse phenotypic effects associated with spatially unregulated GDNF applications were not observed. Enhanced GDNF levels up-regulated striatal dopamine transporter activity by at least five fold resulting in enhanced susceptibility to 6-OHDA, a toxin transported into dopamine neurons by DAT. Further, we report how GDNF levels regulate kidney development and identify microRNAs miR-9, miR-96, miR-133, and miR-146a as negative regulators of GDNF expression via interaction with Gdnf 3’UTR in vitro. Our results reveal the role of GDNF in nigrostriatal dopamine system postnatal development and adult function, and highlight the importance of correct

  1. Functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals a noncategorical representation of hue in early visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Persichetti, Andrew S.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.; Butt, Omar H.; Brainard, David H.; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Color names divide the fine-grained gamut of color percepts into discrete categories. A categorical transition must occur somewhere between the initial encoding of the continuous spectrum of light by the cones and the verbal report of the name of a color stimulus. Here, we used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation experiment to examine the representation of hue in the early visual cortex. Our stimuli varied in hue between blue and green. We found in the early visual areas (V1, V2/3, and hV4) a smoothly increasing recovery from adaptation with increasing hue distance between adjacent stimuli during both passive viewing (Experiment 1) and active categorization (Experiment 2). We examined the form of the adaptation effect and found no evidence that a categorical representation mediates the release from adaptation for stimuli that cross the blue–green color boundary. Examination of the direct effect of stimulus hue on the fMRI response did, however, reveal an enhanced response to stimuli near the blue–green category border. This was largest in hV4 and when subjects were engaged in active categorization of the stimulus hue. In contrast with a recent report from another laboratory (Bird, Berens, Horner, & Franklin, 2014), we found no evidence for a categorical representation of color in the middle frontal gyrus. A post hoc whole-brain analysis, however, revealed several regions in the frontal cortex with a categorical effect in the adaptation response. Overall, our results support the idea that the representation of color in the early visual cortex is primarily fine grained and does not reflect color categories. PMID:26024465

  2. Metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and single cell genomics reveal functional response of active Oceanospirillales to Gulf oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Borglin, Sharon; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Dubinsky, Eric A.; Fortney, Julian L.; Han, James; Holman, Hoi-Ying N.; Hultman, Jenni; Lamendella, Regina; Mackelprang, Rachel; Malfatti, Stephanie; Tom, Lauren M.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Woyke, Tanja; Zhou, Jizhong; Rubin, Edward M.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2012-06-12

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.

  3. REVEALING PROBABLE UNIVERSAL FEATURES IN THE LOWER RED GIANT BRANCH LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kravtsov, V. V.

    2009-06-15

    This paper aims at demonstrating, for the first time, very probable universal peculiarities of the evolution of stars in the lower red giant branch (RGB) of Galactic globular clusters (GCs), reflected in two corresponding dips in the luminosity functions (LFs). By relying on the database of Hubble Space Telescope photometry of GCs, we analyze the lower RGB LFs of a sample of 18 GCs in a wide metallicity range, {delta}[Fe/H] {approx} 1.9 dex. We first show that in the F555W-(F439W-F555W) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the lower RGB of GCs, except for the most metal-poor of them, frequently shows an apparent 'knee'. It reveals itself as a fairly abrupt change of the RGB slope. At the same luminosity level, the RGB LFs show a feature in the form of a more or less pronounced dip. We find that the magnitude difference between the RGB base and the given feature is, on average, around {delta} F555W{sup dip} {sub base}{approx} 1.4 mag. It shows a marginal variation with metallicity, if any, comparable to the error. At the same time, the magnitude difference between the dip and the RGB bump, {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip}, decreases with increasing metallicity and falls within the range 0.8 {approx}< {delta} F555W{sup bump} {sub dip} {approx}< 1.7 mag. Generalized LFs (GLFs) have been obtained for three subsamples of GCs within limited metallicity ranges and with different horizontal branch (HB) morphology. They reproduce the 'knee-related' dip that is statistically significant in two of the GLFs. This feature turns out to be more pronounced in the GLFs of GCs with either the blue or red HB morphology than with the intermediate one. The same GLFs also reveal an additional probable universal dip. It shows up below the RGB bump at {delta} F555W slightly increasing from {approx}0.3 to {approx}0.5 mag with increasing metallicity. Also, the statistical significance of this 'prebump' dip increases, on average, toward higher metallicity. Except for the well known RGB bump, no

  4. Live Imaging of Calcium Dynamics during Axon Degeneration Reveals Two Functionally Distinct Phases of Calcium Influx

    PubMed Central

    Yamagishi, Yuya; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is a key regulator of axon degeneration caused by trauma and disease, but its specific spatial and temporal dynamics in injured axons remain unclear. To clarify the function of calcium in axon degeneration, we observed calcium dynamics in single injured neurons in live zebrafish larvae and tested the temporal requirement for calcium in zebrafish neurons and cultured mouse DRG neurons. Using laser axotomy to induce Wallerian degeneration (WD) in zebrafish peripheral sensory axons, we monitored calcium dynamics from injury to fragmentation, revealing two stereotyped phases of axonal calcium influx. First, axotomy triggered a transient local calcium wave originating at the injury site. This initial calcium wave only disrupted mitochondria near the injury site and was not altered by expression of the protective WD slow (WldS) protein. Inducing multiple waves with additional axotomies did not change the kinetics of degeneration. In contrast, a second phase of calcium influx occurring minutes before fragmentation spread as a wave throughout the axon, entered mitochondria, and was abolished by WldS expression. In live zebrafish, chelating calcium after the first wave, but before the second wave, delayed the progress of fragmentation. In cultured DRG neurons, chelating calcium early in the process of WD did not alter degeneration, but chelating calcium late in WD delayed fragmentation. We propose that a terminal calcium wave is a key instructive component of the axon degeneration program. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Axon degeneration resulting from trauma or neurodegenerative disease can cause devastating deficits in neural function. Understanding the molecular and cellular events that execute axon degeneration is essential for developing treatments to address these conditions. Calcium is known to contribute to axon degeneration, but its temporal requirements in this process have been unclear. Live calcium imaging in severed zebrafish neurons and temporally controlled

  5. Transcriptional profiling of the pea shoot apical meristem reveals processes underlying its function and maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chui E; Bhalla, Prem L; Ottenhof, Harald; Singh, Mohan B

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) in plant development and organ formation, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling its function is limited. Genomic tools have the potential to unravel the molecular mysteries of the SAM, and legume systems are increasingly being used in plant-development studies owing to their unique characteristics such as nitrogen fixation, secondary metabolism, and pod development. Garden pea (Pisum sativum) is a well-established classic model species for genetics studies that has been used since the Mendel era. In addition, the availability of a plethora of developmental mutants makes pea an ideal crop legume for genomics studies. This study aims to utilise genomics tools in isolating genes that play potential roles in the regulation of SAM activity. Results In order to identify genes that are differentially expressed in the SAM, we generated 2735 ESTs from three cDNA libraries derived from freshly micro-dissected SAMs from 10-day-old garden peas (Pisum sativum cv Torsdag). Custom-designed oligonucleotide arrays were used to compare the transcriptional profiles of pea SAMs and non-meristematic tissues. A total of 184 and 175 transcripts were significantly up- or down-regulated in the pea SAM, respectively. As expected, close to 61% of the transcripts down-regulated in the SAM were found in the public database, whereas sequences from the same source only comprised 12% of the genes that were expressed at higher levels in the SAM. This highlights the under-representation of transcripts from the meristematic tissues in the current public pea protein database, and demonstrates the utility of our SAM EST collection as an essential genetic resource for revealing further information on the regulation of this developmental process. In addition to unknowns, many of the up-regulated transcripts are known to encode products associated with cell division and proliferation, epigenetic regulation, auxin

  6. Functional malignant cell heterogeneity in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors revealed by targeting of PDGF-DD

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Eliane; Gladh, Hanna; Braun, Sebastian; Bocci, Matteo; Cordero, Eugenia; Björkström, Niklas K.; Miyazaki, Hideki; Michael, Iacovos P.; Eriksson, Ulf; Folestad, Erika; Pietras, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most human cancers and has profound implications for cancer therapy. As a result, there is an emergent need to explore previously unmapped mechanisms regulating distinct subpopulations of tumor cells and to understand their contribution to tumor progression and treatment response. Aberrant platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ) signaling in cancer has motivated the development of several antagonists currently in clinical use, including imatinib, sunitinib, and sorafenib. The discovery of a novel ligand for PDGFRβ, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-DD, opened the possibility of a previously unidentified signaling pathway involved in tumor development. However, the precise function of PDGF-DD in tumor growth and invasion remains elusive. Here, making use of a newly generated Pdgfd knockout mouse, we reveal a functionally important malignant cell heterogeneity modulated by PDGF-DD signaling in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET). Our analyses demonstrate that tumor growth was delayed in the absence of signaling by PDGF-DD. Surprisingly, ablation of PDGF-DD did not affect the vasculature or stroma of PanNET; instead, we found that PDGF-DD stimulated bulk tumor cell proliferation by induction of paracrine mitogenic signaling between heterogeneous malignant cell clones, some of which expressed PDGFRβ. The presence of a subclonal population of tumor cells characterized by PDGFRβ expression was further validated in a cohort of human PanNET. In conclusion, we demonstrate a previously unrecognized heterogeneity in PanNET characterized by signaling through the PDGF-DD/PDGFRβ axis. PMID:26831065

  7. Proteomic analysis of chromoplasts from six crop species reveals insights into chromoplast function and development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Yang, Yong; Fei, Zhangjun; Yuan, Hui; Fish, Tara; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Mazourek, Michael; Kochian, Leon V; Wang, Xiaowu; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Chromoplasts are unique plastids that accumulate massive amounts of carotenoids. To gain a general and comparative characterization of chromoplast proteins, this study performed proteomic analysis of chromoplasts from six carotenoid-rich crops: watermelon, tomato, carrot, orange cauliflower, red papaya, and red bell pepper. Stromal and membrane proteins of chromoplasts were separated by 1D gel electrophoresis and analysed using nLC-MS/MS. A total of 953-2262 proteins from chromoplasts of different crop species were identified. Approximately 60% of the identified proteins were predicted to be plastid localized. Functional classification using MapMan bins revealed large numbers of proteins involved in protein metabolism, transport, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and redox in chromoplasts from all six species. Seventeen core carotenoid metabolic enzymes were identified. Phytoene synthase, phytoene desaturase, ζ-carotene desaturase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 1 were found in almost all crops, suggesting relative abundance of them among the carotenoid pathway enzymes. Chromoplasts from different crops contained abundant amounts of ATP synthase and adenine nucleotide translocator, which indicates an important role of ATP production and transport in chromoplast development. Distinctive abundant proteins were observed in chromoplast from different crops, including capsanthin/capsorubin synthase and fibrillins in pepper, superoxide dismutase in watermelon, carrot, and cauliflower, and glutathione-S-transferease in papaya. The comparative analysis of chromoplast proteins among six crop species offers new insights into the general metabolism and function of chromoplasts as well as the uniqueness of chromoplasts in specific crop species. This work provides reference datasets for future experimental study of chromoplast biogenesis, development, and regulation in plants. PMID:23314817

  8. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential.

    PubMed

    White, Richard Allen; Power, Ian M; Dipple, Gregory M; Southam, Gordon; Suttle, Curtis A

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R (2) < 0.750) with freshwater microbial mats from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R (2) > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale. PMID:26441900

  9. Quantitative Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy Reveals a 1000-Fold Increase in Lifetime of Protein Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dianwen; Lans, Hannes; Vermeulen, Wim; Lenferink, Aufried; Otto, Cees

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated dilute protein solutions with fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and have observed that a rapid loss of proteins occurs from solution. It is commonly assumed that such a loss is the result of protein adsorption to interfaces. A protocol was developed in which this mode of protein loss can be prevented. However, FCS on fluorescent protein (enhanced green fluorescent protein, mCherry, and mStrawberry) solutions enclosed by adsorption-protected interfaces still reveals a decrease of the fluorescent protein concentration, while the diffusion time is stable over long periods of time. We interpret this decay as a loss of protein functionality, probably caused by denaturation of the fluorescent proteins. We show that the typical lifetime of protein functionality in highly dilute, approximately single molecule per femtoliter solutions can be extended more than 1000-fold (typically from a few hours to >40 days) by adding compounds with surfactant behavior. No direct interactions between the surfactant and the fluorescent proteins were observed from the diffusion time measured by FCS. A critical surfactant concentration of more than 23 μM was required to achieve the desired protein stabilization for Triton X-100. The surfactant does not interfere with DNA-protein binding, because similar observations were made using DNA-cutting restriction enzymes. We associate the occurrence of denaturation of proteins with the activity of water at the water-protein interface, which was recently proposed in terms of the “water attack model”. Our observations suggest that soluble biomolecules can extend an influence over much larger distances than suggested by their actual volume. PMID:18586843

  10. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Wesley R; Malarkey, Erik B; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C; Porath, Jonathan D; Birket, Susan E; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Knowles, Michael R; Leigh, Margaret W; Zariwala, Maimoona A; Challa, Anil K; Kesterson, Robert A; Rowe, Steven M; Drummond, Iain A; Parant, John M; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Porter, Mary E; Yoder, Bradley K; Berbari, Nicolas F

    2016-07-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or 'primary' cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants in

  11. Mutation of Growth Arrest Specific 8 Reveals a Role in Motile Cilia Function and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Wesley R.; Malarkey, Erik B.; Tritschler, Douglas; Bower, Raqual; Pasek, Raymond C.; Porath, Jonathan D.; Birket, Susan E.; Saunier, Sophie; Antignac, Corinne; Leigh, Margaret W.; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Drummond, Iain A.; Parant, John M.; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm; Yoder, Bradley K.

    2016-01-01

    Ciliopathies are genetic disorders arising from dysfunction of microtubule-based cellular appendages called cilia. Different cilia types possess distinct stereotypic microtubule doublet arrangements with non-motile or ‘primary’ cilia having a 9+0 and motile cilia have a 9+2 array of microtubule doublets. Primary cilia are critical sensory and signaling centers needed for normal mammalian development. Defects in their structure/function result in a spectrum of clinical and developmental pathologies including abnormal neural tube and limb patterning. Altered patterning phenotypes in the limb and neural tube are due to perturbations in the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Motile cilia are important in fluid movement and defects in motility result in chronic respiratory infections, altered left-right asymmetry, and infertility. These features are the hallmarks of Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD, OMIM 244400). While mutations in several genes are associated with PCD in patients and animal models, the genetic lesion in many cases is unknown. We assessed the in vivo functions of Growth Arrest Specific 8 (GAS8). GAS8 shares strong sequence similarity with the Chlamydomonas Nexin-Dynein Regulatory Complex (NDRC) protein 4 (DRC4) where it is needed for proper flagella motility. In mammalian cells, the GAS8 protein localizes not only to the microtubule axoneme of motile cilia, but also to the base of non-motile cilia. Gas8 was recently implicated in the Hh signaling pathway as a regulator of Smoothened trafficking into the cilium. Here, we generate the first mouse with a Gas8 mutation and show that it causes severe PCD phenotypes; however, there were no overt Hh pathway phenotypes. In addition, we identified two human patients with missense variants in Gas8. Rescue experiments in Chlamydomonas revealed a subtle defect in swim velocity compared to controls. Further experiments using CRISPR/Cas9 homology driven repair (HDR) to generate one of these human missense variants

  12. Evolution of TNF-induced apoptosis reveals 550 My of functional conservation.

    PubMed

    Quistad, Steven D; Stotland, Aleksandr; Barott, Katie L; Smurthwaite, Cameron A; Hilton, Brett Jameson; Grasis, Juris A; Wolkowicz, Roland; Rohwer, Forest L

    2014-07-01

    The Precambrian explosion led to the rapid appearance of most major animal phyla alive today. It has been argued that the complexity of life has steadily increased since that event. Here we challenge this hypothesis through the characterization of apoptosis in reef-building corals, representatives of some of the earliest animals. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that all of the major components of the death receptor pathway are present in coral with high-predicted structural conservation with Homo sapiens. The TNF receptor-ligand superfamilies (TNFRSF/TNFSF) are central mediators of the death receptor pathway, and the predicted proteome of Acropora digitifera contains more putative coral TNFRSF members than any organism described thus far, including humans. This high abundance of TNFRSF members, as well as the predicted structural conservation of other death receptor signaling proteins, led us to wonder what would happen if corals were exposed to a member of the human TNFSF (HuTNFα). HuTNFα was found to bind directly to coral cells, increase caspase activity, cause apoptotic blebbing and cell death, and finally induce coral bleaching. Next, immortalized human T cells (Jurkats) expressing a functional death receptor pathway (WT) and a corresponding Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) KO cell line were exposed to a coral TNFSF member (AdTNF1) identified and purified here. AdTNF1 treatment resulted in significantly higher cell death (P < 0.0001) in WT Jurkats compared with the corresponding FADD KO, demonstrating that coral AdTNF1 activates the H. sapiens death receptor pathway. Taken together, these data show remarkable conservation of the TNF-induced apoptotic response representing 550 My of functional conservation. PMID:24927546

  13. Molecular processes during fat cell development revealed by gene expression profiling and functional annotation

    PubMed Central

    Hackl, Hubert; Burkard, Thomas Rainer; Sturn, Alexander; Rubio, Renee; Schleiffer, Alexander; Tian, Sun; Quackenbush, John; Eisenhaber, Frank; Trajanoski, Zlatko

    2005-01-01

    Background Large-scale transcription profiling of cell models and model organisms can identify novel molecular components involved in fat cell development. Detailed characterization of the sequences of identified gene products has not been done and global mechanisms have not been investigated. We evaluated the extent to which molecular processes can be revealed by expression profiling and functional annotation of genes that are differentially expressed during fat cell development. Results Mouse microarrays with more than 27,000 elements were developed, and transcriptional profiles of 3T3-L1 cells (pre-adipocyte cells) were monitored during differentiation. In total, 780 differentially expressed expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were subjected to in-depth bioinformatics analyses. The analysis of 3'-untranslated region sequences from 395 ESTs showed that 71% of the differentially expressed genes could be regulated by microRNAs. A molecular atlas of fat cell development was then constructed by de novo functional annotation on a sequence segment/domain-wise basis of 659 protein sequences, and subsequent mapping onto known pathways, possible cellular roles, and subcellular localizations. Key enzymes in 27 out of 36 investigated metabolic pathways were regulated at the transcriptional level, typically at the rate-limiting steps in these pathways. Also, coexpressed genes rarely shared consensus transcription-factor binding sites, and were typically not clustered in adjacent chromosomal regions, but were instead widely dispersed throughout the genome. Conclusions Large-scale transcription profiling in conjunction with sophisticated bioinformatics analyses can provide not only a list of novel players in a particular setting but also a global view on biological processes and molecular networks. PMID:16420668

  14. Metagenomic analysis reveals that modern microbialites and polar microbial mats have similar taxonomic and functional potential

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard Allen; Power, Ian M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Southam, Gordon; Suttle, Curtis A.

    2015-01-01

    Within the subarctic climate of Clinton Creek, Yukon, Canada, lies an abandoned and flooded open-pit asbestos mine that harbors rapidly growing microbialites. To understand their formation we completed a metagenomic community profile of the microbialites and their surrounding sediments. Assembled metagenomic data revealed that bacteria within the phylum Proteobacteria numerically dominated this system, although the relative abundances of taxa within the phylum varied among environments. Bacteria belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the microbialites and sediments, respectively. The microbialites were also home to many other groups associated with microbialite formation including filamentous cyanobacteria and dissimilatory sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria, consistent with the idea of a shared global microbialite microbiome. Other members were present that are typically not associated with microbialites including Gemmatimonadetes and iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria, which participate in carbon metabolism and iron cycling. Compared to the sediments, the microbialite microbiome has significantly more genes associated with photosynthetic processes (e.g., photosystem II reaction centers, carotenoid, and chlorophyll biosynthesis) and carbon fixation (e.g., CO dehydrogenase). The Clinton Creek microbialite communities had strikingly similar functional potentials to non-lithifying microbial mats from the Canadian High Arctic and Antarctica, but are functionally distinct, from non-lithifying mats or biofilms from Yellowstone. Clinton Creek microbialites also share metabolic genes (R2 < 0.750) with freshwater microbial mats from Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico, but are more similar to polar Arctic mats (R2 > 0.900). These metagenomic profiles from an anthropogenic microbialite-forming ecosystem provide context to microbialite formation on a human-relevant timescale. PMID:26441900

  15. Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for β-retroviral intasome function

    PubMed Central

    Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J.; Dewdney, Tamaria G.; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral integrase (IN) catalyzes the integration of viral DNA (vDNA) into host target (tDNA), which is an essential step in the lifecycle of all retroviruses1. Prior structural characterization of IN-vDNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus (PFV) revealed a functional IN tetramer2–5, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera will employ tetrameric IN6–9. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and X-ray crystallography, we determine here an unexpected octameric IN architecture for the β-retrovirus mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) intasome. The structure is composed of two core IN dimers, which interact with the vDNA ends and structurally mimic the PFV IN tetramer, and two flanking IN dimers that engage the core structure via their IN C-terminal domains (CTDs). Contrary to the belief that tetrameric IN components are sufficient to catalyze integration, the flanking IN dimers were necessary for MMTV IN activity. The IN octamer solves a conundrum for the β- as well as α-retroviruses by providing critical CTDs to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis due to evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain (CCD)-CTD linker regions. The octameric architecture of the MMTV intasome provides a new paradigm for the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration. PMID:26887496

  16. Structure-function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family.

    PubMed

    Yin, DeLu Tyler; Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H; Davies, Gideon J; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure-function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  17. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  18. Context Differences Reveal Insulator and Activator Functions of a Su(Hw) Binding Region

    PubMed Central

    Wehling, Misty D.; Geyer, Pamela K.

    2008-01-01

    Insulators are DNA elements that divide chromosomes into independent transcriptional domains. The Drosophila genome contains hundreds of binding sites for the Suppressor of Hairy-wing [Su(Hw)] insulator protein, corresponding to locations of the retroviral gypsy insulator and non-gypsy binding regions (BRs). The first non-gypsy BR identified, 1A-2, resides in cytological region 1A. Using a quantitative transgene system, we show that 1A-2 is a composite insulator containing enhancer blocking and facilitator elements. We discovered that 1A-2 separates the yellow (y) gene from a previously unannotated, non-coding RNA gene, named yar for y-achaete (ac) intergenic RNA. The role of 1A-2 was elucidated using homologous recombination to excise these sequences from the natural location, representing the first deletion of any Su(Hw) BR in the genome. Loss of 1A-2 reduced yar RNA accumulation, without affecting mRNA levels from the neighboring y and ac genes. These data indicate that within the 1A region, 1A-2 acts an activator of yar transcription. Taken together, these studies reveal that the properties of 1A-2 are context-dependent, as this element has both insulator and enhancer activities. These findings imply that the function of non-gypsy Su(Hw) BRs depends on the genomic environment, predicting that Su(Hw) BRs represent a diverse collection of genomic regulatory elements. PMID:18704163

  19. Structure and function of a mitochondrial late embryogenesis abundant protein are revealed by desiccation.

    PubMed

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Jaquinod, Michel; Mangavel, Cécile; Passirani, Catherine; Saulnier, Patrick; Manon, Stephen; Teyssier, Emeline; Payet, Nicole; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Macherel, David

    2007-05-01

    Few organisms are able to withstand desiccation stress; however, desiccation tolerance is widespread among plant seeds. Survival without water relies on an array of mechanisms, including the accumulation of stress proteins such as the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. These hydrophilic proteins are prominent in plant seeds but also found in desiccation-tolerant organisms. In spite of many theories and observations, LEA protein function remains unclear. Here, we show that LEAM, a mitochondrial LEA protein expressed in seeds, is a natively unfolded protein, which reversibly folds into alpha-helices upon desiccation. Structural modeling revealed an analogy with class A amphipathic helices of apolipoproteins that coat low-density lipoprotein particles in mammals. LEAM appears spontaneously modified by deamidation and oxidation of several residues that contribute to its structural features. LEAM interacts with membranes in the dry state and protects liposomes subjected to drying. The overall results provide strong evidence that LEAM protects the inner mitochondrial membrane during desiccation. According to sequence analyses of several homologous proteins from various desiccation-tolerant organisms, a similar protection mechanism likely acts with other types of cellular membranes. PMID:17526751

  20. Genome-wide analysis of Musashi-2 targets reveals novel functions in governing epithelial cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Christopher G.; Riemondy, Kent; Chapnick, Douglas A.; Bunker, Eric; Liu, Xuedong; Kuersten, Scott; Yi, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The Musashi-2 (Msi2) RNA-binding protein maintains stem cell self-renewal and promotes oncogenesis by enhancing cell proliferation in hematopoietic and gastrointestinal tissues. However, it is unclear how Msi2 recognizes and regulates mRNA targets in vivo and whether Msi2 primarily controls cell growth in all cell types. Here we identified Msi2 targets with HITS-CLIP and revealed that Msi2 primarily recognizes mRNA 3′UTRs at sites enriched in multiple copies of UAG motifs in epithelial progenitor cells. RNA-seq and ribosome profiling demonstrated that Msi2 promotes targeted mRNA decay without affecting translation efficiency. Unexpectedly, the most prominent Msi2 targets identified are key regulators that govern cell motility with a high enrichment in focal adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, in addition to regulators of cell growth and survival. Loss of Msi2 stimulates epithelial cell migration, increases the number of focal adhesions and also compromises cell growth. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of Msi2's recognition and repression of targets and uncover a key function of Msi2 in restricting epithelial cell migration. PMID:27034466

  1. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  2. Structure–function characterization reveals new catalytic diversity in the galactose oxidase and glyoxal oxidase family

    PubMed Central

    Yin, DeLu (Tyler); Urresti, Saioa; Lafond, Mickael; Johnston, Esther M.; Derikvand, Fatemeh; Ciano, Luisa; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Henrissat, Bernard; Walton, Paul H.; Davies, Gideon J.; Brumer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol oxidases, including carbohydrate oxidases, have a long history of research that has generated fundamental biological understanding and biotechnological applications. Despite a long history of study, the galactose 6-oxidase/glyoxal oxidase family of mononuclear copper-radical oxidases, Auxiliary Activity Family 5 (AA5), is currently represented by only very few characterized members. Here we report the recombinant production and detailed structure–function analyses of two homologues from the phytopathogenic fungi Colletotrichum graminicola and C. gloeosporioides, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx, respectively, to explore the wider biocatalytic potential in AA5. EPR spectroscopy and crystallographic analysis confirm a common active-site structure vis-à-vis the archetypal galactose 6-oxidase from Fusarium graminearum. Strikingly, however, CgrAlcOx and CglAlcOx are essentially incapable of oxidizing galactose and galactosides, but instead efficiently catalyse the oxidation of diverse aliphatic alcohols. The results highlight the significant potential of prospecting the evolutionary diversity of AA5 to reveal novel enzyme specificities, thereby informing both biology and applications. PMID:26680532

  3. Structure of Tetrahymena telomerase reveals previously unknown subunits, functions, and interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiansen; Chan, Henry; Cash, Darian D.; Miracco, Edward J.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Upton, Heather E.; Cascio, Duilio; Johnson, Reid O’Brien; Collins, Kathleen; Loo, Joseph A.; Zhou, Z. Hong; Feigon, Juli

    2015-01-01

    Telomerase helps maintain telomeres by processive synthesis of telomere repeat DNA at their 3′-ends, using an integral telomerase RNA (TER) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). We report the cryo–electron microscopy structure of Tetrahymena telomerase at ~9 angstrom resolution. In addition to seven known holoenzyme proteins, we identify two additional proteins that form a complex (TEB) with single-stranded telomere DNA-binding protein Teb1, paralogous to heterotrimeric replication protein A (RPA). The p75-p45-p19 subcomplex is identified as another RPA-related complex, CST (CTC1-STN1-TEN1). This study reveals the paths of TER in the TERT-TER-p65 catalytic core and single-stranded DNA exit; extensive subunit interactions of the TERT essential N-terminal domain, p50, and TEB; and other subunit identities and structures, including p19 and p45C crystal structures. Our findings provide structural and mechanistic insights into telomerase holoenzyme function. PMID:26472759

  4. Proteomics profiling reveals novel proteins and functions of the plant stigma exudate

    PubMed Central

    Rejón, Juan David; Delalande, François; Castro, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of the stigmatic exudate of Lilium longiflorum and Olea europaea led to the identification of 51 and 57 proteins, respectively, most of which are described for the first time in this secreted fluid. These results indicate that the stigmatic exudate is an extracellular environment metabolically active, participating in at least 80 different biological processes and 97 molecular functions. The stigma exudate showed a markedly catabolic profile and appeared to possess the enzyme machinery necessary to degrade large polysaccharides and lipids secreted by papillae to smaller units, allowing their incorporation into the pollen tube during pollination. It may also regulate pollen-tube growth in the pistil through the selective degradation of tube-wall components. Furthermore, some secreted proteins were involved in pollen-tube adhesion and orientation, as well as in programmed cell death of the papillae cells in response to either compatible pollination or incompatible pollen rejection. Finally, the results also revealed a putative cross-talk between genetic programmes regulating stress/defence and pollination responses in the stigma. PMID:24151302

  5. Histone-DNA contacts in structure/function relationships of nucleosomes as revealed by crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Usachenko, S.I.; Bradbury, E.M. |

    1998-12-31

    The magnitude of the problem of understanding the structure/function relationships of eukaryotic chromosomes can be appreciated from the fact that the human diploid genome contains more than 2 meters of DNA packaged into 46 chromosomes, each at metaphase being several microns in length. Each chromatid of a chromosome contains a single DNA molecule several centimeters in length. In addition to the DNA, chromosomes contain an equal weight of histones and an equal weight of non-histone chromosomal proteins. These histones are the major chromosomal structural proteins. The non-histone chromosomal proteins are involved in the DNA processes of transcription and replication, in chromosome organization and in nuclear architecture. Polytene chromosomes with their bands and interbands and puffs of active genetic loci provide visual evidence for long range order as do the bands and interbands of mammalian metaphase chromosomes. The gentle removal of histones and all but the most tightly bound 2--3% of non-histone proteins from metaphase chromosomes revealed by electron microscopy a residual protein scaffold constraining a halo of DNA loops extending out from the scaffold.

  6. Abnormal affective decision making revealed in adolescent binge drinkers using a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Xiangrui; Xue, Gui; Wong, Savio; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Palmer, Paula; Wei, Yonglan; Jia, Yong; Johnson, C Anderson

    2013-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of affective decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which are associated with adolescent binge drinking. Fourteen adolescent binge drinkers (16-18 years of age) and 14 age-matched adolescents who had never consumed alcohol--never drinkers--were recruited from local high schools in Chengdu, China. Questionnaires were used to assess academic performance, drinking experience, and urgency. Brain regions activated by the IGT performance were identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that, compared to never drinkers, binge drinkers performed worse on the IGT and showed higher activity in the subcomponents of the decision-making neural circuitry implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors, namely, the left amygdala and insula bilaterally. Moreover, measures of the severity of drinking problems in real life, as well as high urgency scores, were associated with increased activity within the insula, combined with decreased activity within the orbitofrontal cortex. These results suggest that hyperreactivity of a neural system implicated in the execution of emotional and incentive-related behaviors can be associated with socially undesirable behaviors, such as binge drinking, among adolescents. These findings have social implications because they potentially reveal underlying neural mechanisms for making poor decisions, which may increase an individual's risk and vulnerability for alcoholism. PMID:22486330

  7. Structural and functional characterizations reveal the importance of a zinc binding domain in Bloom's syndrome helicase

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rong-bin; Rigolet, Pascal; Zargarian, Loussiné; Fermandjian, Serge; Xi, Xu Guang

    2005-01-01

    Bloom's syndrome (BS) is an autosomal recessive human disorder characterized by genomic instability and a predisposition to a wide variety of cancers. The gene mutated in BS, BLM, encodes a protein containing three domains: an N-terminal domain whose function remains elusive, a helicase domain characterized by seven ‘signature’ motifs conserved in a wide range of helicases and a C-terminal extension that can be further divided into two sub-domains: RecQ-Ct and HRDC. The RecQ-Ct domain appears essential because two point-mutations altering highly conserved cysteine residues within this domain have been found in BS patients. We report herein that BLM contains a zinc ion. Modelling studies suggest that four conserved cysteine residues within the RecQ-Ct domain coordinate this zinc ion and subsequent mutagenesis studies further confirm this prediction. Biochemical and biophysical studies show that the ATPase, helicase and DNA binding activities of the mutants are severely modified. Structural analysis of both wild-type and mutant proteins reveal that alteration of cysteine residues does not significantly change the overall conformation. The observed defects in ATPase and helicase activities were inferred to result from a compromise of DNA binding. Our results implicate an important role of this zinc binding domain in both DNA binding and protein conformation. They could be pivotal for understanding the molecular basis of BS disease. PMID:15930159

  8. Cryo-EM reveals a novel octameric integrase structure for betaretroviral intasome function.

    PubMed

    Ballandras-Colas, Allison; Brown, Monica; Cook, Nicola J; Dewdney, Tamaria G; Demeler, Borries; Cherepanov, Peter; Lyumkis, Dmitry; Engelman, Alan N

    2016-02-18

    Retroviral integrase catalyses the integration of viral DNA into host target DNA, which is an essential step in the life cycle of all retroviruses. Previous structural characterization of integrase-viral DNA complexes, or intasomes, from the spumavirus prototype foamy virus revealed a functional integrase tetramer, and it is generally believed that intasomes derived from other retroviral genera use tetrameric integrase. However, the intasomes of orthoretroviruses, which include all known pathogenic species, have not been characterized structurally. Here, using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography, we determine an unexpected octameric integrase architecture for the intasome of the betaretrovirus mouse mammary tumour virus. The structure is composed of two core integrase dimers, which interact with the viral DNA ends and structurally mimic the integrase tetramer of prototype foamy virus, and two flanking integrase dimers that engage the core structure via their integrase carboxy-terminal domains. Contrary to the belief that tetrameric integrase components are sufficient to catalyse integration, the flanking integrase dimers were necessary for mouse mammary tumour virus integrase activity. The integrase octamer solves a conundrum for betaretroviruses as well as alpharetroviruses by providing critical carboxy-terminal domains to the intasome core that cannot be provided in cis because of evolutionarily restrictive catalytic core domain-carboxy-terminal domain linker regions. The octameric architecture of the intasome of mouse mammary tumour virus provides new insight into the structural basis of retroviral DNA integration. PMID:26887496

  9. Functional studies of Drosophila zinc transporters reveal the mechanism for dietary zinc absorption and regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zinc is key to the function of many proteins, but the process of dietary zinc absorption is not well clarified. Current knowledge about dietary zinc absorption is fragmented, and mostly derives from incomplete mammalian studies. To gain a comprehensive picture of this process, we systematically characterized all zinc transporters (that is, the Zip and ZnT family members) for their possible roles in dietary zinc absorption in a genetically amenable model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Results A set of plasma membrane-resident zinc transporters was identified to be responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte and the subsequent exit of zinc to the circulation. dZip1 and dZip2, two functionally overlapping zinc importers, are responsible for absorbing zinc from the lumen into the enterocyte. Exit of zinc to the circulation is mediated through another two functionally overlapping zinc exporters, dZnT1, and its homolog CG5130 (dZnT77C). Somewhat surprisingly, it appears that the array of intracellular ZnT proteins, including the Golgi-resident dZnT7, is not directly involved in dietary zinc absorption. By modulating zinc status in different parts of the body, we found that regulation of dietary zinc absorption, in contrast to that of iron, is unresponsive to bodily needs or zinc status outside the gut. The zinc transporters that are involved in dietary zinc absorption, including the importers dZip1 and dZip2, and the exporter dZnT1, are respectively regulated at the RNA and protein levels by zinc in the enterocyte. Conclusions Our study using the model organism Drosophila thus starts to reveal a comprehensive sketch of dietary zinc absorption and its regulatory control, a process that is still incompletely understood in mammalian organisms. The knowledge gained will act as a reference for future mammalian studies, and also enable an appreciation of this important process from an evolutionary perspective. PMID:24063361

  10. Probing the mechanism of cellulosome attachment to the Clostridium thermocellum cell surface: computer simulation of the Type II Cohesin-Dockerin complex and its variants

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiancong; Smith, Jeremy C

    2010-10-01

    The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass to hydrolysis is the bottleneck in cellulosic ethanol production. Efficient degradation of biomass by the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium thermocellum is carried out by the multicomponent cellulosome complex. The bacterial cell-surface attachment of the cellulosome is mediated by high-affinity protein-protein interactions between the Type II cohesin domain borne by the cell envelope protein and the Type II dockerin domain, together with neighboring X-module present at the C-terminus of the scaffolding protein (Type II coh-Xdoc). Here, the Type II coh-Xdoc interaction is probed using molecular dynamics simulations, free-energy calculations and essential dynamics analyses on both the wild type and various mutants of the C. thermocellum Type II coh-Xdoc in aqueous solution. The simulations identify the hot spots, i.e. the amino acid residues that may lead to a dramatic decrease in binding affinity upon mutation and also probe the effects of mutations on the mode of binding. The results suggest that bulky and hydrophobic residues at the protein interface, which make specific contacts with their counterparts, may play essential roles in retaining a rigid cohesin-dockerin interface. Moreover, dynamical cross-correlation analysis indicates that the X-module has a dramatic effect on the cohesin-dockerin interaction and is required for the dynamical integrity of the interface.

  11. Functional Heterogeneity of Embryonic Stem Cells Revealed through Translational Amplification of an Early Endodermal Transcript

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Maurice A.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Brickman, Joshua M.

    2010-01-01

    ES cells are defined as self-renewing, pluripotent cell lines derived from early embryos. Cultures of ES cells are also characterized by the expression of certain markers thought to represent the pluripotent state. However, despite the widespread expression of key markers such as Oct4 and the appearance of a characteristic undifferentiated morphology, functional ES cells may represent only a small fraction of the cultures grown under self-renewing conditions. Thus phenotypically “undifferentiated” cells may consist of a heterogeneous population of functionally distinct cell types. Here we use a transgenic allele designed to detect low level transcription in the primitive endoderm lineage as a tool to identify an immediate early endoderm-like ES cell state. This reporter employs a tandem array of internal ribosomal entry sites to drive translation of an enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (Venus) from the transcript that normally encodes for the early endodermal marker Hex. Expression of this Venus transgene reports on single cells with low Hex transcript levels and reveals the existence of distinct populations of Oct4 positive undifferentiated ES cells. One of these cells types, characterized by both the expression of the Venus transgene and the ES cells marker SSEA-1 (V+S+), appears to represent an early step in primitive endoderm specification. We show that the fraction of cells present within this state is influenced by factors that both promote and suppress primitive endoderm differentiation, but conditions that support ES cell self-renewal prevent their progression into differentiation and support an equilibrium between this state and at least one other that resembles the Nanog positive inner cell mass of the mammalian blastocysts. Interestingly, while these subpopulations are equivalently and clonally interconvertible under self-renewing conditions, when induced to differentiate both in vivo and in vitro they exhibit different behaviours. Most strikingly

  12. Network Analyses Reveal Pervasive Functional Regulation Between Proteases in the Human Protease Web

    PubMed Central

    Fortelny, Nikolaus; Cox, Jennifer H.; Kappelhoff, Reinhild; Starr, Amanda E.; Lange, Philipp F.; Pavlidis, Paul; Overall, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing is an irreversible posttranslational modification affecting a large portion of the proteome. Protease-cleaved mediators frequently exhibit altered activity, and biological pathways are often regulated by proteolytic processing. Many of these mechanisms have not been appreciated as being protease-dependent, and the potential in unraveling a complex new dimension of biological control is increasingly recognized. Proteases are currently believed to act individually or in isolated cascades. However, conclusive but scattered biochemical evidence indicates broader regulation of proteases by protease and inhibitor interactions. Therefore, to systematically study such interactions, we assembled curated protease cleavage and inhibition data into a global, computational representation, termed the protease web. This revealed that proteases pervasively influence the activity of other proteases directly or by cleaving intermediate proteases or protease inhibitors. The protease web spans four classes of proteases and inhibitors and so links both recently and classically described protease groups and cascades, which can no longer be viewed as operating in isolation in vivo. We demonstrated that this observation, termed reachability, is robust to alterations in the data and will only increase in the future as additional data are added. We further show how subnetworks of the web are operational in 23 different tissues reflecting different phenotypes. We applied our network to develop novel insights into biologically relevant protease interactions using cell-specific proteases of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte as a system. Predictions from the protease web on the activity of matrix metalloproteinase 8 (MMP8) and neutrophil elastase being linked by an inactivating cleavage of serpinA1 by MMP8 were validated and explain perplexing Mmp8 −/− versus wild-type polymorphonuclear chemokine cleavages in vivo. Our findings supply systematically derived and

  13. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  14. Ribosomal protein uS19 mutants reveal its role in coordinating ribosome structure and function.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Alicia M; Musalgaonkar, Sharmishtha; Moomau, Christine A; Gulay, Suna P; Mirvis, Mary; Dinman, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies identified allosteric information pathways connecting functional centers in the large ribosomal subunit to the decoding center in the small subunit through the B1a and B1b/c intersubunit bridges in yeast. In prokaryotes a single SSU protein, uS13, partners with H38 (the A-site finger) and uL5 to form the B1a and B1b/c bridges respectively. In eukaryotes, the SSU component was split into 2 separate proteins during the course of evolution. One, also known as uS13, participates in B1b/c bridge with uL5 in eukaryotes. The other, called uS19 is the SSU partner in the B1a bridge with H38. Here, polyalanine mutants of uS19 involved in the uS19/uS13 and the uS19/H38 interfaces were used to elucidate the important amino acid residues involved in these intersubunit communication pathways. Two key clusters of amino acids were identified: one located at the junction between uS19 and uS13, and a second that appears to interact with the distal tip of H38. Biochemical analyses reveal that these mutations shift the ribosomal rotational equilibrium toward the unrotated state, increasing ribosomal affinity for tRNAs in the P-site and for ternary complex in the A-site, and inhibit binding of the translocase, eEF2. These defects in turn affect specific aspects of translational fidelity. These findings suggest that uS19 plays a critical role as a conduit of information exchange between the large and small ribosomal subunits directly through the B1a, and indirectly through the B1b/c bridges. PMID:26824029

  15. Egg colour mimicry in the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus as revealed by modelling host retinal function.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Jesús M

    2008-10-22

    Some parasite cuckoo species lay eggs that, to the human eye, appear to mimic the appearance of the eggs of their favourite hosts, which hinders discrimination and removal of their eggs by host species. Hitherto, perception of cuckoo-host egg mimicry has been estimated based on human vision or spectrophotometry, which does not account for what the receivers' eye (i.e. hosts) actually discriminates. Using a discrimination model approach that reproduces host retinal functioning, and museum egg collections collected in the south of Finland, where at least six different races of the European cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) coexist, I first assess whether the colour design of cuckoo eggs of different races maximizes matching for two favourite avian hosts, viz. the redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and the pied wagtail (Motacilla alba). Second, I assess the role of nest luminosity on host perception of mimicry by the same two hosts. Phoenicurus-cuckoo eggs showed a better chromatic matching with the redstart-host eggs than other cuckoo races, and in most cases can not be discriminated. Sylvia-cuckoo eggs, however, showed better achromatic matching with redstart-host eggs than Phoenicurus-cuckoo eggs. Also, Motacilla-cuckoo eggs showed poorer chromatic and achromatic matching with pied wagtail-host eggs than Sylvia-cuckoo eggs. Nest luminosity affected chromatic and achromatic differences between cuckoo and host eggs, although only minimally affected the proportion of cuckoo eggs discriminated by chromatic signals. These results reveal that cuckoo races as assessed by humans do not entirely match with host perception of matching and that achromatic mechanisms could play a main role in the discrimination of cuckoo eggs at low-light levels. PMID:18595836

  16. Functional Coding Variation in Recombinant Inbred Mouse Lines Reveals Novel Serotonin Transporter-Associated Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Carneiro, Ana; Airey, David; Thompson, Brent; Zhu, C; Rinchik, Eugene M; Lu, Lu; Chesler, Elissa J; Erikson, Keith; Blakely, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) transporter (hSERT, SLC6A4) figures prominently in the etiology or treatment of many prevalent neurobehavioral disorders including anxiety, alcoholism, depression, autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Here we utilize naturally occurring polymorphisms in recombinant inbred (RI) lines to identify novel phenotypes associated with altered SERT function. The widely used mouse strain C57BL/6J, harbors a SERT haplotype defined by two nonsynonymous coding variants (Gly39 and Lys152 (GK)). At these positions, many other mouse lines, including DBA/2J, encode Glu39 and Arg152 (ER haplotype), assignments found also in hSERT. Synaptosomal 5-HT transport studies revealed reduced uptake associated with the GK variant. Heterologous expression studies confirmed a reduced SERT turnover rate for the GK variant. Experimental and in silico approaches using RI lines (C57Bl/6J X DBA/2J=BXD) identifies multiple anatomical, biochemical and behavioral phenotypes specifically impacted by GK/ER variation. Among our findings are multiple traits associated with anxiety and alcohol consumption, as well as of the control of dopamine (DA) signaling. Further bioinformatic analysis of BXD phenotypes, combined with biochemical evaluation of SERT knockout mice, nominates SERT-dependent 5-HT signaling as a major determinant of midbrain iron homeostasis that, in turn, dictates ironregulated DA phenotypes. Our studies provide a novel example of the power of coordinated in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches using murine RI lines to elucidate and quantify the system-level impact of gene variation.

  17. Effects of synthetic cohesin-containing scaffold protein architecture on binding dockerin-enzyme fusions on the surface of Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The microbial synthesis of fuels, commodity chemicals, and bioactive compounds necessitates the assemblage of multiple enzyme activities to carry out sequential chemical reactions, often via substrate channeling by means of multi-domain or multi-enzyme complexes. Engineering the controlled incorporation of enzymes in recombinant protein complexes is therefore of interest. The cellulosome of Clostridium thermocellum is an extracellular enzyme complex that efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose. Enzymes interact with protein scaffolds via type 1 dockerin/cohesin interactions, while scaffolds in turn bind surface anchor proteins by means of type 2 dockerin/cohesin interactions, which demonstrate a different binding specificity than their type 1 counterparts. Recombinant chimeric scaffold proteins containing cohesins of different specificity allow binding of multiple enzymes to specific sites within an engineered complex. Results We report the successful display of engineered chimeric scaffold proteins containing both type 1 and type 2 cohesins on the surface of Lactococcus lactis cells. The chimeric scaffold proteins were able to form complexes with the Escherichia coli β-glucuronidase fused to either type 1 or type 2 dockerin, and differences in binding efficiencies were correlated with scaffold architecture. We used E. coli β-galactosidase, also fused to type 1 or type 2 dockerins, to demonstrate the targeted incorporation of two enzymes into the complexes. The simultaneous binding of enzyme pairs each containing a different dockerin resulted in bi-enzymatic complexes tethered to the cell surface. The sequential binding of the two enzymes yielded insights into parameters affecting assembly of the complex such as protein size and position within the scaffold. Conclusions The spatial organization of enzymes into complexes is an important strategy for increasing the efficiency of biochemical pathways. In this study, chimeric protein scaffolds

  18. Architecture of the Smc5/6 Complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Reveals a Unique Interaction between the Nse5-6 Subcomplex and the Hinge Regions of Smc5 and Smc6.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xinyuan; Yang, Yan; Chen, Yu-Hung; Arenz, Jacqueline; Rangi, Gurdish K; Zhao, Xiaolan; Ye, Hong

    2009-03-27

    The evolutionarily conserved structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) proteins forms the core structures of three multisubunit complexes as follows: cohesin, condensin, and the Smc5/6 complex. These complexes play crucial roles in different aspects of chromosomal organization, duplication, and segregation. Although the architectures of cohesin and condensin are better understood, that of the more recently identified Smc5/6 complex remains to be elucidated. We have previously shown that the Smc5/6 complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains Smc5, Smc6, and six non-SMC elements (Nse1-6). In this study, we investigated the architecture of the budding yeast Smc5/6 complex employing the yeast two-hybrid assay as well as in vitro biochemical approaches using purified recombinant proteins. These analyses revealed that Smc5 and Smc6 associate with each other at their hinge regions and constitute the backbone of the complex, whereas the Nse1-6 subunits form three distinct subcomplexes/entities that interact with different regions of Smc5 and Smc6. The Nse1, -3, and -4 subunits form a stable subcomplex that binds to the head and the adjacent coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse2 binds to the middle of the coiled-coil region of Smc5. Nse5 and Nse6 interact with each other and, as a heterodimer, bind to the hinge regions of Smc5 and Smc6. These findings provide new insights into the structures of the Smc5/6 complex and lay the foundation for further investigations into the mechanism of its functions. PMID:19141609

  19. Inherited cobalamin malabsorption. Mutations in three genes reveal functional and ethnic patterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inherited malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl) causes hematological and neurological abnormalities that can be fatal. Three genes have been implicated in Cbl malabsorption; yet, only about 10% of ~400-500 reported cases have been molecularly studied to date. Recessive mutations in CUBN or AMN cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (IGS), while recessive mutations in GIF cause Intrinsic Factor Deficiency (IFD). IGS and IFD differ in that IGS usually presents with proteinuria, which is not observed in IFD. The genetic heterogeneity and numerous differential diagnoses make clinical assessment difficult. Methods We present a large genetic screening study of 154 families or patients with suspected hereditary Cbl malabsorption. Patients and their families have been accrued over a period spanning >12 years. Systematic genetic testing of the three genes CUBN, AMN, and GIF was accomplished using a combination of single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA and RNA sequencing. In addition, six genes that were contenders for a role in inherited Cbl malabsorption were studied in a subset of these patients. Results Our results revealed population-specific mutations, mutational hotspots, and functionally distinct regions in the three causal genes. We identified mutations in 126/154 unrelated cases (82%). Fifty-three of 126 cases (42%) were mutated in CUBN, 45/126 (36%) were mutated in AMN, and 28/126 (22%) had mutations in GIF. We found 26 undescribed mutations in CUBN, 19 in AMN, and 7 in GIF for a total of 52 novel defects described herein. We excluded six other candidate genes as culprits and concluded that additional genes might be involved. Conclusions Cbl malabsorption is found worldwide and genetically complex. However, our results indicate that population-specific founder mutations are quite common. Consequently, targeted genetic testing has become feasible if ethnic ancestry is considered. These results will facilitate clinical and molecular genetic testing of

  20. Genomic insights of protein arginine methyltransferase Hmt1 binding reveals novel regulatory functions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Protein arginine methylation is a post-translational modification involved in important biological processes such as transcription and RNA processing. This modification is catalyzed by both type I and II protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs). One of the most conserved type I PRMTs is PRMT1, the homolog of which is Hmt1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Hmt1 has been shown to play a role in various gene expression steps, such as promoting the dynamics of messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) biogenesis, pre-mRNA splicing, and silencing of chromatin. To determine the full extent of Hmt1’s involvement during gene expression, we carried out a genome-wide location analysis for Hmt1. Results A comprehensive genome-wide binding profile for Hmt1 was obtained by ChIP-chip using NimbleGen high-resolution tiling microarrays. Of the approximately 1000 Hmt1-binding sites found, the majority fall within or proximal to an ORF. Different occupancy patterns of Hmt1 across genes with different transcriptional rates were found. Interestingly, Hmt1 occupancy is found at a number of other genomic features such as tRNA and snoRNA genes, thereby implicating a regulatory role in the biogenesis of these non-coding RNAs. RNA hybridization analysis shows that Hmt1 loss-of-function mutants display higher steady-state tRNA abundance relative to the wild-type. Co-immunoprecipitation studies demonstrate that Hmt1 interacts with the TFIIIB component Bdp1, suggesting a mechanism for Hmt1 in modulating RNA Pol III transcription to regulate tRNA production. Conclusions The genome-wide binding profile of Hmt1 reveals multiple potential new roles for Hmt1 in the control of eukaryotic gene expression, especially in the realm of non-coding RNAs. The data obtained here will provide an important blueprint for future mechanistic studies on the described occupancy relationship for genomic features bound by Hmt1. PMID:23268696

  1. Dosage Effects of Cohesin Regulatory Factor PDS5 on Mammalian Development: Implications for Cohesinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Chang, Jufang; Fu, Ming; Huang, Jie; Kashyap, Rakesh; Salavaggione, Ezequiel; Jain, Sanjay; Shashikant, Kulkarni; Deardorff, Matthew A.; Uzielli, Maria L. Giovannucci; Dorsett, Dale; Beebe, David C.; Jay, Patrick Y.; Heuckeroth, Robert O.; Krantz, Ian; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder caused by mutations in cohesion proteins, is characterized by multisystem developmental abnormalities. PDS5, a cohesion protein, is important for proper chromosome segregation in lower organisms and has two homologues in vertebrates (PDS5A and PDS5B). Pds5B mutant mice have developmental abnormalities resembling CdLS; however the role of Pds5A in mammals and the association of PDS5 proteins with CdLS are unknown. To delineate genetic interactions between Pds5A and Pds5B and explore mechanisms underlying phenotypic variability, we generated Pds5A-deficient mice. Curiously, these mice exhibit multiple abnormalities that were previously observed in Pds5B-deficient mice, including cleft palate, skeletal patterning defects, growth retardation, congenital heart defects and delayed migration of enteric neuron precursors. They also frequently display renal agenesis, an abnormality not observed in Pds5B−/− mice. While Pds5A−/− and Pds5B−/− mice die at birth, embryos harboring 3 mutant Pds5 alleles die between E11.5 and E12.5 most likely of heart failure, indicating that total Pds5 gene dosage is critical for normal development. In addition, characterization of these compound homozygous-heterozygous mice revealed a severe abnormality in lens formation that does not occur in either Pds5A−/− or Pds5B−/− mice. We further identified a functional missense mutation (R1292Q) in the PDS5B DNA-binding domain in a familial case of CdLS, in which affected individuals also develop megacolon. This study shows that PDS5A and PDS5B functions other than those involving chromosomal dynamics are important for normal development, highlights the sensitivity of key developmental processes on PDS5 signaling, and provides mechanistic insights into how PDS5 mutations may lead to CdLS. PMID:19412548

  2. Dosage effects of cohesin regulatory factor PDS5 on mammalian development: implications for cohesinopathies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Chang, Jufang; Fu, Ming; Huang, Jie; Kashyap, Rakesh; Salavaggione, Ezequiel; Jain, Sanjay; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shashikant, Kulkarni; Deardorff, Matthew A; Uzielli, Maria L Giovannucci; Dorsett, Dale; Beebe, David C; Jay, Patrick Y; Heuckeroth, Robert O; Krantz, Ian; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS), a disorder caused by mutations in cohesion proteins, is characterized by multisystem developmental abnormalities. PDS5, a cohesion protein, is important for proper chromosome segregation in lower organisms and has two homologues in vertebrates (PDS5A and PDS5B). Pds5B mutant mice have developmental abnormalities resembling CdLS; however the role of Pds5A in mammals and the association of PDS5 proteins with CdLS are unknown. To delineate genetic interactions between Pds5A and Pds5B and explore mechanisms underlying phenotypic variability, we generated Pds5A-deficient mice. Curiously, these mice exhibit multiple abnormalities that were previously observed in Pds5B-deficient mice, including cleft palate, skeletal patterning defects, growth retardation, congenital heart defects and delayed migration of enteric neuron precursors. They also frequently display renal agenesis, an abnormality not observed in Pds5B(-/-) mice. While Pds5A(-/-) and Pds5B(-/-) mice die at birth, embryos harboring 3 mutant Pds5 alleles die between E11.5 and E12.5 most likely of heart failure, indicating that total Pds5 gene dosage is critical for normal development. In addition, characterization of these compound homozygous-heterozygous mice revealed a severe abnormality in lens formation that does not occur in either Pds5A(-/-) or Pds5B(-/-) mice. We further identified a functional missense mutation (R1292Q) in the PDS5B DNA-binding domain in a familial case of CdLS, in which affected individuals also develop megacolon. This study shows that PDS5A and PDS5B functions other than those involving chromosomal dynamics are important for normal development, highlights the sensitivity of key developmental processes on PDS5 signaling, and provides mechanistic insights into how PDS5 mutations may lead to CdLS. PMID:19412548

  3. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles of various biological soil crust organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Mau, R.L.; Maestre, F.T.; Escolar, C.; Castillo-Monroy, A. P.

    2011-01-01

    1. At the heart of the body of research on biodiversity effects on ecosystem function is the debate over whether different species tend to be functionally singular or redundant. When we consider ecosystem multi-function, the provision of multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously, we may find that seemingly redundant species may in fact play unique roles in ecosystems. 2. Over the last few decades, the significance of biological soil crusts (BSCs) as ecological boundaries and ecosystem engineers, and their multi-functional nature, has become increasingly well documented. We compiled 'functional profiles' of the organisms in this understudied community, to determine whether functional singularity emerges when multiple ecosystem functions are considered. 3. In two data sets, one representing multiple sites around the semi-arid regions of Spain (regional scale), and another from a single site in central Spain (local scale), we examined correlations between the abundance or frequency of BSC species in a community, and multiple surrogates of ecosystem functioning. There was a wide array of apparent effects of species on specific functions. 4. Notably, in gypsiferous soils and at regional scale, we found that indicators of carbon (C) and phosphorus cycling were apparently suppressed and promoted by the lichens Diploschistes diacapsis and Squamarina lentigera, respectively. The moss Pleurochaete squarrosa appears to promote C cycling in calcareous soils at this spatial scale. At the local scale in gypsiferous soils, D. diacapsis positively correlated with carbon cycling, but negatively with nitrogen cycling, whereas numerous lichens exhibited the opposite profile. 5. We found a high degree of functional singularity, i.e. that species were highly individualistic in their effects on multiple functions. Many functional attributes were not easily predictable from existing functional grouping systems based primarily on morphology. 6. Our results suggest that maintaining

  4. Gene-specific repression of the p53 target gene PUMA via intragenic CTCF–Cohesin binding

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Nathan P.; Espinosa, Joaquín M.

    2010-01-01

    The p53 transcriptional program orchestrates alternative responses to stress, including cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, but the mechanism of cell fate choice upon p53 activation is not fully understood. Here we report that PUMA (p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis), a key mediator of p53-dependent cell death, is regulated by a noncanonical, gene-specific mechanism. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that the first half of the PUMA locus (∼6 kb) is constitutively occupied by RNA polymerase II and general transcription factors regardless of p53 activity. Using various RNA analyses, we found that this region is constitutively transcribed to generate a long unprocessed RNA with no known coding capacity. This permissive intragenic domain is constrained by sharp chromatin boundaries, as illustrated by histone marks of active transcription (histone H3 Lys9 trimethylation [H3K4me3] and H3K9 acetylation [H3K9Ac]) that precipitously transition into repressive marks (H3K9me3). Interestingly, the insulator protein CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) and the Cohesin complex occupy these intragenic chromatin boundaries. CTCF knockdown leads to increased basal expression of PUMA concomitant with a reduction in chromatin boundary signatures. Importantly, derepression of PUMA upon CTCF depletion occurs without p53 activation or activation of other p53 target genes. Therefore, CTCF plays a pivotal role in dampening the p53 apoptotic response by acting as a gene-specific repressor. PMID:20478995

  5. The role of meiotic cohesin REC8 in chromosome segregation in {gamma} irradiation-induced endopolyploid tumour cells

    SciTech Connect

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Cragg, Mark S.; Salmina, Kristine; Hausmann, Michael; Scherthan, Harry

    2009-09-10

    Escape from mitotic catastrophe and generation of endopolyploid tumour cells (ETCs) represents a potential survival strategy of tumour cells in response to genotoxic treatments. ETCs that resume the mitotic cell cycle have reduced ploidy and are often resistant to these treatments. In search for a mechanism for genome reduction, we previously observed that ETCs express meiotic proteins among which REC8 (a meiotic cohesin component) is of particular interest, since it favours reductional cell division in meiosis. In the present investigation, we induced endopolyploidy in p53-dysfunctional human tumour cell lines (Namalwa, WI-L2-NS, HeLa) by gamma irradiation, and analysed the sub-cellular localisation of REC8 in the resulting ETCs. We observed by RT-PCR and Western blot that REC8 is constitutively expressed in these tumour cells, along with SGOL1 and SGOL2, and that REC8 becomes modified after irradiation. REC8 localised to paired sister centromeres in ETCs, the former co-segregating to opposite poles. Furthermore, REC8 localised to the centrosome of interphase ETCs and to the astral poles in anaphase cells where it colocalised with the microtubule-associated protein NuMA. Altogether, our observations indicate that radiation-induced ETCs express features of meiotic cell divisions and that these may facilitate chromosome segregation and genome reduction.

  6. Probabilistic model-based functional parcellation reveals a robust, fine-grained subdivision of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Janssen, R J; Jylänki, P; Kessels, R P C; van Gerven, M A J

    2015-10-01

    The striatum is involved in many different aspects of behaviour, reflected by the variety of cortical areas that provide input to this structure. This input is topographically organized and is likely to result in functionally specific signals. Such specificity can be examined using functional clustering approaches. Here, we propose a Bayesian model-based functional clustering approach applied solely to resting state striatal functional MRI timecourses to identify intrinsic striatal functional modules. Data from two sets of ten participants were used to obtain parcellations and examine their robustness. This stable clustering was used to initialize a more constrained model in order to obtain individualized parcellations in 57 additional participants. Resulting cluster time courses were used to examine functional connectivity between clusters and related to the rest of the brain in a GLM analysis. We find six distinct clusters in each hemisphere, with clear inter-hemispheric correspondence and functional relevance. These clusters exhibit functional connectivity profiles that further underscore their homologous nature and are consistent with existing notions on segregation and integration in parallel cortico-basal ganglia loops. Our findings suggest that multiple territories within both the affective and motor regions can be distinguished solely using resting state functional MRI from these regions. PMID:26163800

  7. Structure Function Studies of Vaccinia Virus Host Range Protein K1 Reveal a Novel Functional Surface for Ankyrin Repeat Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Meng, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Yan; Deng, Junpeng

    2010-06-15

    Poxvirus host tropism at the cellular level is regulated by virus-encoded host range proteins acting downstream of virus entry. The functioning mechanisms of most host range proteins are unclear, but many contain multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a motif that is known for ligand interaction through a concave surface. We report here the crystal structure of one of the ANK repeat-containing host range proteins, the vaccinia virus K1 protein. The structure, at a resolution of 2.3 {angstrom}, showed that K1 consists entirely of ANK repeats, including seven complete ones and two incomplete ones, one each at the N and C terminus. Interestingly, Phe82 and Ser83, which were previously shown to be critical for K1's function, are solvent exposed and located on a convex surface, opposite the consensus ANK interaction surface. The importance of this convex surface was further supported by our additional mutagenesis studies. We found that K1's host range function was negatively affected by substitution of either Asn51 or Cys47 and completely abolished by substitution of both residues. Cys47 and Asn51 are also exposed on the convex surface, spatially adjacent to Phe82 and Ser83. Altogether, our data showed that K1 residues on a continuous convex ANK repeat surface are critical for the host range function, suggesting that K1 functions through ligand interaction and does so with a novel ANK interaction surface.

  8. Aberrant regional neural fluctuations and functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hou, Jingming; Qian, Shaowen; Liu, Kai; Li, Bo; Li, Min; Peng, Zhaohui; Xin, Kuolin; Sun, Gang

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) during resting state, and how these alterations correlate to patients' symptoms. Twenty-eight GAD patients and 28 matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) scans. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) were computed to explore regional activity and functional integration, and were compared between the two groups using the voxel-based two-sample t test. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed to examine the neural relationships with demographics and clinical symptoms scores. Compared to controls, GAD patients showed functional abnormalities: higher ALFF in the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex; lower connectivity in prefrontal gyrus; lower in prefrontal-limbic and cingulate RSFC and higher prefrontal-hippocampus RSFC were correlated with clinical symptoms severity, but these associations were unable to withstand correction for multiple testing. These findings may help facilitate further understanding of the potential neural substrate of GAD. PMID:27163197

  9. Structure Function Studies of Vaccinia Virus Host Range Protein K1 Reveal a Novel Functional Surface for Ankyrin Repeat Proteins▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongchao; Meng, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Yan; Deng, Junpeng

    2010-01-01

    Poxvirus host tropism at the cellular level is regulated by virus-encoded host range proteins acting downstream of virus entry. The functioning mechanisms of most host range proteins are unclear, but many contain multiple ankyrin (ANK) repeats, a motif that is known for ligand interaction through a concave surface. We report here the crystal structure of one of the ANK repeat-containing host range proteins, the vaccinia virus K1 protein. The structure, at a resolution of 2.3 Å, showed that K1 consists entirely of ANK repeats, including seven complete ones and two incomplete ones, one each at the N and C terminus. Interestingly, Phe82 and Ser83, which were previously shown to be critical for K1's function, are solvent exposed and located on a convex surface, opposite the consensus ANK interaction surface. The importance of this convex surface was further supported by our additional mutagenesis studies. We found that K1's host range function was negatively affected by substitution of either Asn51 or Cys47 and completely abolished by substitution of both residues. Cys47 and Asn51 are also exposed on the convex surface, spatially adjacent to Phe82 and Ser83. Altogether, our data showed that K1 residues on a continuous convex ANK repeat surface are critical for the host range function, suggesting that K1 functions through ligand interaction and does so with a novel ANK interaction surface. PMID:20089642

  10. Structural and Functional Dissection of the Abp1 ADFH Actin-binding Domain Reveals Versatile In Vivo Adapter Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Quintero-Monzon,O.; Rodal, A.; Strokopytov, B.; Almo, S.; Goode, B.

    2005-01-01

    Abp1 is a multidomain protein that regulates the Arp2/3 complex and links proteins involved in endocytosis to the actin cytoskeleton. All of the proposed cellular functions of Abp1 involve actin filament binding, yet the actin binding site(s) on Abp1 have not been identified, nor has the importance of actin binding for Abp1 localization and function in vivo been tested. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Abp1 actin-binding actin depolymerizing factor homology (ADFH) domain and dissect its activities by mutagenesis. Abp1-ADFH domain and ADF/cofilin structures are similar, and they use conserved surfaces to bind actin; however, there are also key differences that help explain their differential effects on actin dynamics. Using point mutations, we demonstrate that actin binding is required for localization of Abp1 in vivo, the lethality caused by Abp1 overexpression, and the ability of Abp1 to activate Arp2/3 complex. Furthermore, we genetically uncouple ABP1 functions that overlap with SAC6, SLA1, and SLA2, showing they require distinct combinations of activities and interactions. Together, our data provide the first structural and functional view of the Abp1-actin interaction and show that Abp1 has distinct cellular roles as an adapter, linking different sets of ligands for each function.

  11. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of the fourth scaffoldin A cohesin from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus in complex with a dockerin from a family 5 glycoside hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Bule, Pedro; Correia, Ana; Cameron, Kate; Alves, Victor D.; Cardoso, Vânia; Fontes, Carlos M. G. A.; Najmudin, Shabir

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosomes are cell-bound multienzyme complexes secreted by anaerobic bacteria that play a crucial role in carbon turnover by degrading plant cell walls to simple sugars. Integration of cellulosomal components occurs via highly ordered protein–protein interactions between cohesin modules located in a molecular scaffold and dockerin modules found in cellulosomal enzymes. Acetivibrio cellulolyticus possesses a complex cellulosome arrangement which is organized by a primary enzyme-binding scaffoldin (ScaA), two anchoring scaffoldins (ScaC and ScaD) and an unusual adaptor scaffoldin (ScaB). A dockerin from a family 5 glycoside hydrolase (GH5), which was engineered to inactivate one of the two putative cohesin-binding interfaces, complexed with one of the ScaA cohesins from A. cellulolyticus has been purified and crystallized, and data were processed to a resolution of 1.57 Å in the orthorhombic space group P212121. PMID:25084383

  12. Distribution of neurons in functional areas of the mouse cerebral cortex reveals quantitatively different cortical zones

    PubMed Central

    Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Watson, Charles; Paxinos, George

    2013-01-01

    How are neurons distributed along the cortical surface and across functional areas? Here we use the isotropic fractionator (Herculano-Houzel and Lent, 2005) to analyze the distribution of neurons across the entire isocortex of the mouse, divided into 18 functional areas defined anatomically. We find that the number of neurons underneath a surface area (the N/A ratio) varies 4.5-fold across functional areas and neuronal density varies 3.2-fold. The face area of S1 contains the most neurons, followed by motor cortex and the primary visual cortex. Remarkably, while the distribution of neurons across functional areas does not accompany the distribution of surface area, it mirrors closely the distribution of cortical volumes—with the exception of the visual areas, which hold more neurons than expected for their volume. Across the non-visual cortex, the volume of individual functional areas is a shared linear function of their number of neurons, while in the visual areas, neuronal densities are much higher than in all other areas. In contrast, the 18 functional areas cluster into three different zones according to the relationship between the N/A ratio and cortical thickness and neuronal density: these three clusters can be called visual, sensory, and, possibly, associative. These findings are remarkably similar to those in the human cerebral cortex (Ribeiro et al., 2013) and suggest that, like the human cerebral cortex, the mouse cerebral cortex comprises two zones that differ in how neurons form the cortical volume, and three zones that differ in how neurons are distributed underneath the cortical surface, possibly in relation to local differences in connectivity through the white matter. Our results suggest that beyond the developmental divide into visual and non-visual cortex, functional areas initially share a common distribution of neurons along the parenchyma that become delimited into functional areas according to the pattern of connectivity established later

  13. Spectral imaging reveals microvessel physiology and function from anastomoses to thromboses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wankhede, Mamta; Agarwal, Nikita; Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A.; Dedeugd, Casey; Raizada, Mohan K.; Oh, S. Paul; Sorg, Brian S.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal microvascular physiology and function is common in many diseases. Numerous pathologies include hypervascularity, aberrant angiogenesis, or abnormal vascular remodeling among the characteristic features of the disease, and quantitative imaging and measurement of microvessel function can be important to increase understanding of these diseases. Several optical techniques are useful for direct imaging of microvascular function. Spectral imaging is one such technique that can be used to assess microvascular oxygen transport function with high spatial and temporal resolution in microvessel networks through measurements of hemoglobin saturation. We highlight novel observation made with our intravital microscopy spectral imaging system employed with mouse dorsal skin-fold window chambers for imaging hemoglobin saturation in microvessel networks. Specifically, we image acute oxygenation fluctuations in a tumor microvessel network, the development of arteriovenous malformations in a mouse model of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and the formation of spontaneous and induced microvascular thromboses and occlusions.

  14. Selective Actions of Novel Allosteric Modulators Reveal Functional Heteromers of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shen; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Johnson, Kari A.; Zamorano, Rocio; Jalan-Sakrikar, Nidhi; Gregory, Karen J.; Conn, P. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors play important roles in regulating CNS function and are known to function as obligatory dimers. Although recent studies have suggested heterodimeric assembly of mGlu receptors in vitro, the demonstration that distinct mGlu receptor proteins can form heterodimers or hetero-complexes with other mGlu subunits in native tissues, such as neurons, has not been shown. Using biochemical and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate here that mGlu2 and mGlu4 form a hetero-complex in native rat and mouse tissues which exhibits a distinct pharmacological profile. These data greatly extend our current understanding of mGlu receptor interaction and function and provide compelling evidence that mGlu receptors can function as heteromers in intact brain circuits. PMID:24381270

  15. Annotation of Protein Domains Reveals Remarkable Conservation in the Functional Make up of Proteomes Across Superkingdoms

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Arshan; Naeem, Aisha; Khan, Muhammad Jawad; Lopez-Nicora, Horacio D.; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    The functional repertoire of a cell is largely embodied in its proteome, the collection of proteins encoded in the genome of an organism. The molecular functions of proteins are the direct consequence of their structure and structure can be inferred from sequence using hidden Markov models of structural recognition. Here we analyze the functional annotation of protein domain structures in almost a thousand sequenced genomes, exploring the functional and structural diversity of proteomes. We find there is a remarkable conservation in the distribution of domains with respect to the molecular functions they perform in the three superkingdoms of life. In general, most of the protein repertoire is spent in functions related to metabolic processes but there are significant differences in the usage of domains for regulatory and extra-cellular processes both within and between superkingdoms. Our results support the hypotheses that the proteomes of superkingdom Eukarya evolved via genome expansion mechanisms that were directed towards innovating new domain architectures for regulatory and extra/intracellular process functions needed for example to maintain the integrity of multicellular structure or to interact with environmental biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., cell signaling and adhesion, immune responses, and toxin production). Proteomes of microbial superkingdoms Archaea and Bacteria retained fewer numbers of domains and maintained simple and smaller protein repertoires. Viruses appear to play an important role in the evolution of superkingdoms. We finally identify few genomic outliers that deviate significantly from the conserved functional design. These include Nanoarchaeum equitans, proteobacterial symbionts of insects with extremely reduced genomes, Tenericutes and Guillardia theta. These organisms spend most of their domains on information functions, including translation and transcription, rather than on metabolism and harbor a domain repertoire characteristic of

  16. Outcome measures for hand function naturally reveal three latent domains in older adults: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Emily L.; Dayanidhi, Sudarshan; Fassola, Isabella; Requejo, Philip; Leclercq, Caroline; Winstein, Carolee J.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mapping between individual outcome measures and the latent functional domains of interest is critical to a quantitative evaluation and rehabilitation of hand function. We examined whether and how the associations among six hand-specific outcome measures reveal latent functional domains in elderly individuals. We asked 66 healthy older adult participants (38F, 28M, 66.1 ± 11.6 years, range: 45–88 years) and 33 older adults (65.8 ± 9.7 years, 44–81 years, 51 hands) diagnosed with osteoarthritis (OA) of the carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, to complete six functional assessments: hand strength (Grip, Key and Precision Pinch), Box and Block, Nine Hole Pegboard, and Strength-Dexterity tests. The first three principal components suffice to explain 86% of variance among the six outcome measures in healthy older adults, and 84% of variance in older adults with CMC OA. The composition of these dominant associations revealed three distinct latent functional domains: strength, coordinated upper extremity function, and sensorimotor processing. Furthermore, in participants with thumb CMC OA we found a blurring of the associations between the latent functional domains of strength and coordinated upper extremity function. This motivates future work to understand how the physiological effects of thumb CMC OA lead upper extremity coordination to become strongly associated with strength, while dynamic sensorimotor ability remains an independent functional domain. Thus, when assessing the level of hand function in our growing older adult populations, it is particularly important to acknowledge its multidimensional nature—and explicitly consider how each outcome measure maps to these three latent and fundamental domains of function. Moreover, this ability to distinguish among latent functional domains may facilitate the design of treatment modalities to target the rehabilitation of each of them. PMID:26097455

  17. The function of histamine receptor H4R in the brain revealed by interaction partners.

    PubMed

    Moya-Garcia, Aurelio A; Rodriguez, Carlos E; Morilla, Ian; Sanchez-Jimenez, Francisca; Ranea, Juan A G

    2011-01-01

    The histamine H4 receptor is mainly expressed in haematopoietic cells, hence is linked to inflammatory and immune system conditions. It has been recently discovered that the receptor is expressed also in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), but its role in the brain remains unclear. We address the potential functions of the histamine H4 receptor in the human brain using a 'guilty by association' logic, by close examination of protein-protein functional associations networks in the human proteome. PMID:21622255

  18. Single-molecule studies reveal the function of a third polymerase in the replisome

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Roxana E; Kurth, Isabel; O'Donnell, Mike E

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli replisome contains three polymerases, one more than necessary to duplicate the two parental strands. Using single-molecule studies, we reveal two advantages conferred by the third polymerase. First, dipolymerase replisomes are inefficient at synthesizing lagging strands, leaving single-strand gaps, whereas tripolymerase replisomes fill strands almost to completion. Second, tripolymerase replisomes are much more processive than dipolymerase replisomes. These features account for the unexpected three-polymerase-structure of bacterial replisomes. PMID:22157955

  19. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D

    2016-01-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification. PMID:27193056

  20. Comparative transcriptome analyses of seven anurans reveal functions and adaptations of amphibian skin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Li; Li, Jun; Anboukaria, Housseni; Luo, Zhenhua; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Animal skin, which is the tissue that directly contacts the external surroundings, has evolved diverse functions to adapt to various environments. Amphibians represent the transitional taxon from aquatic to terrestrial life. Exploring the molecular basis of their skin function and adaptation is important to understand the survival and evolutionary mechanisms of vertebrates. However, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanisms of skin functions in amphibians are scarce. In this study, we sequenced the skin transcriptomes of seven anurans belonging to three families and compared the similarities and differences in expressed genes and proteins. Unigenes and pathways related to basic biological processes and special functions, such as defense, immunity, and respiration, were enriched in functional annotations. A total of 108 antimicrobial peptides were identified. The highly expressed genes were similar in species of the same family but were different among families. Additionally, the positively selected orthologous groups were involved in biosynthesis, metabolism, immunity, and defense processes. This study is the first to generate extensive transcriptome data for the skin of seven anurans and provides unigenes and pathway candidates for further studies on amphibian skin function and adaptation. PMID:27040083

  1. An integrative architecture for general intelligence and executive function revealed by lesion mapping

    PubMed Central

    Colom, Roberto; Solomon, Jeffrey; Krueger, Frank; Forbes, Chad; Grafman, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    Although cognitive neuroscience has made remarkable progress in understanding the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in executive control, the broader functional networks that support high-level cognition and give rise to general intelligence remain to be well characterized. Here, we investigated the neural substrates of the general factor of intelligence (g) and executive function in 182 patients with focal brain damage using voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System were used to derive measures of g and executive function, respectively. Impaired performance on these measures was associated with damage to a distributed network of left lateralized brain areas, including regions of frontal and parietal cortex and white matter association tracts, which bind these areas into a coordinated system. The observed findings support an integrative framework for understanding the architecture of general intelligence and executive function, supporting their reliance upon a shared fronto-parietal network for the integration and control of cognitive representations and making specific recommendations for the application of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Delis–Kaplan Executive Function System to the study of high-level cognition in health and disease. PMID:22396393

  2. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-01-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification. PMID:27193056

  3. Comparative transcriptome analyses of seven anurans reveal functions and adaptations of amphibian skin.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li; Li, Jun; Anboukaria, Housseni; Luo, Zhenhua; Zhao, Mian; Wu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Animal skin, which is the tissue that directly contacts the external surroundings, has evolved diverse functions to adapt to various environments. Amphibians represent the transitional taxon from aquatic to terrestrial life. Exploring the molecular basis of their skin function and adaptation is important to understand the survival and evolutionary mechanisms of vertebrates. However, comprehensive studies on the molecular mechanisms of skin functions in amphibians are scarce. In this study, we sequenced the skin transcriptomes of seven anurans belonging to three families and compared the similarities and differences in expressed genes and proteins. Unigenes and pathways related to basic biological processes and special functions, such as defense, immunity, and respiration, were enriched in functional annotations. A total of 108 antimicrobial peptides were identified. The highly expressed genes were similar in species of the same family but were different among families. Additionally, the positively selected orthologous groups were involved in biosynthesis, metabolism, immunity, and defense processes. This study is the first to generate extensive transcriptome data for the skin of seven anurans and provides unigenes and pathway candidates for further studies on amphibian skin function and adaptation. PMID:27040083

  4. In actio optophysiological analyses reveal functional diversification of dopaminergic neurons in the nematode C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Yuki; Zheng, Ying Grace; Fei, Xianfeng; Fujie, Yukako; Hashimoto, Koichi; Kimura, Koutarou D.

    2016-05-01

    Many neuronal groups such as dopamine-releasing (dopaminergic) neurons are functionally divergent, although the details of such divergence are not well understood. Dopamine in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans modulates various neural functions and is released from four left-right pairs of neurons. The terminal identities of these dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the same genetic program, and previous studies have suggested that they are functionally redundant. In this study, however, we show functional divergence within the dopaminergic neurons of C. elegans. Because dopaminergic neurons of the animals were supposedly activated by mechanical stimulus upon entry into a lawn of their food bacteria, we developed a novel integrated microscope system that can auto-track a freely-moving (in actio) C. elegans to individually monitor and stimulate the neuronal activities of multiple neurons. We found that only head-dorsal pair of dopaminergic neurons (CEPD), but not head-ventral or posterior pairs, were preferentially activated upon food entry. In addition, the optogenetic activation of CEPD neurons alone exhibited effects similar to those observed upon food entry. Thus, our results demonstrated functional divergence in the genetically similar dopaminergic neurons, which may provide a new entry point toward understanding functional diversity of neurons beyond genetic terminal identification.

  5. Association between Periodontal Disease and Inflammatory Arthritis Reveals Modulatory Functions by Melanocortin Receptor Type 3

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Melendez, Trinidad; Madeira, Mila F.M.; Norling, Lucy V.; Alsam, Asil; Curtis, Michael A.; da Silva, Tarcília A.; Perretti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Because there is clinical evidence for an association between periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis, it is important to develop suitable experimental models to explore pathogenic mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities. The K/BxN serum model of inflammatory arthritis was applied using distinct protocols, and modulation of joint disruption afforded by dexamethasone and calcitonin was established in comparison to the melanocortin (MC) receptor agonist DTrp8–γ-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH; DTrp). Wild-type and MC receptor type 3 (MC3)-null mice of different ages were also used. There was significant association between severity of joint disease, induced with distinct protocols and volumes of the arthritogenic K/BxN serum, and periodontal bone damage. Therapeutic treatment with 10 μg dexamethasone, 30 ng elcatonin, and 20 μg DTrp per mouse revealed unique and distinctive pharmacological properties, with only DTrp protecting both joint and periodontal tissue. Further analyses in nonarthritic animals revealed higher susceptibility to periodontal bone loss in Mc3r−/− compared with wild-type mice, with significant exacerbation at 14 weeks of age. These data reveal novel protective properties of endogenous MC3 on periodontal status in health and disease and indicate that MC3 activation could lead to the development of a new genus of anti-arthritic bone-sparing therapeutics. PMID:24979595

  6. Functional diversity of the p24γ homologue Erp reveals physiological differences between two filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangzhong; Liang, Ya; Wang, Mingyu; Yang, Hui; Liu, Kuimei; Zhao, Qiushuang; Fang, Xu

    2013-12-01

    The protein hyper-secreting filamentous fungi impact their surrounding environments by secreting cellulases and digesting plant cell wall via microbe-plant interspecies interaction. This process is of paramount importance in biofuel production from the renewable lignocellulosic biomass, because cellulase production is the key factor in cost determination. Despite the importance of protein secretion, p24 protein, a key factor in eukaryotic protein maturation and secretion, was never investigated in filamentous fungi. The erp genes encoding p24γ homologues were identified in Trichoderma reesei and Penicillium decumbens. The roles of Erp and their participated cellular pathways were investigated via disruption of erp, revealing significant differences: sporulation was hampered in T. reesei Δerp but not in P. decumbens Δerp; in both species Erp maintains membrane integrity; Erp is likely involved in hyphae polarity maintenance in T. reesei. Protein- and transcription-level investigations of Erp participation in cellulase production revealed distinct regulatory mechanisms. In T. reesei, cellulase encoding genes were repressed under secretion stress. In contrast, activation of the same genes under the same stress was identified in P. decumbens. These observations revealed a novel cellulase gene regulation mechanism, clearly suggested the different physiological roles of Erp, and further demonstrated the different physiology of T. reesei and P. decumbens, despite above 75% sequence identity between the proteins and the close evolutionary relationship between the two species. PMID:24035805

  7. Functional Assays and Metagenomic Analyses Reveals Differences between the Microbial Communities Inhabiting the Soil Horizons of a Norway Spruce Plantation

    PubMed Central

    Uroz, Stéphane; Ioannidis, Panos; Lengelle, Juliette; Cébron, Aurélie; Morin, Emmanuelle; Buée, Marc; Martin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    In temperate ecosystems, acidic forest soils are among the most nutrient-poor terrestrial environments. In this context, the long-term differentiation of the forest soils into horizons may impact the assembly and the functions of the soil microbial communities. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the ecology and functional potentials of these microbial communities, a suite of analyses including comparative metagenomics was applied on independent soil samples from a spruce plantation (Breuil-Chenue, France). The objectives were to assess whether the decreasing nutrient bioavailability and pH variations that naturally occurs between the organic and mineral horizons affects the soil microbial functional biodiversity. The 14 Gbp of pyrosequencing and Illumina sequences generated in this study revealed complex microbial communities dominated by bacteria. Detailed analyses showed that the organic soil horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Bacteria, Chordata, Arthropoda and Ascomycota. On the contrary the mineral horizon was significantly enriched in sequences related to Archaea. Our analyses also highlighted that the microbial communities inhabiting the two soil horizons differed significantly in their functional potentials according to functional assays and MG-RAST analyses, suggesting a functional specialisation of these microbial communities. Consistent with this specialisation, our shotgun metagenomic approach revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of sequences related glycoside hydrolases in the organic horizon compared to the mineral horizon that was significantly enriched in glycoside transferases. This functional stratification according to the soil horizon was also confirmed by a significant correlation between the functional assays performed in this study and the functional metagenomic analyses. Together, our results suggest that the soil stratification and particularly the soil resource availability impact the

  8. A CapG gain-of-function mutant reveals critical structural and functional determinants for actin filament severing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y; Vorobiev, Sergey M; Gibson, Bruce G; Hao, Binghua; Sidhu, Gurjit S; Mishra, Vishnu S; Yarmola, Elena G; Bubb, Michael R; Almo, Steven C; Southwick, Frederick S

    2006-01-01

    CapG is the only member of the gelsolin family unable to sever actin filaments. Changing amino acids 84–91 (severing domain) and 124–137 (WH2-containing segment) simultaneously to the sequences of gelsolin results in a mutant, CapG-sev, capable of severing actin filaments. The gain of severing function does not alter actin filament capping, but is accompanied by a higher affinity for monomeric actin, and the capacity to bind and sequester two actin monomers. Analysis of CapG-sev crystal structure suggests a more loosely folded inactive conformation than gelsolin, with a shorter S1–S2 latch. Calcium binding to S1 opens this latch and S1 becomes separated from a closely interfaced S2–S3 complex by an extended arm consisting of amino acids 118–137. Modeling with F-actin predicts that the length of this WH2-containing arm is critical for severing function, and the addition of a single amino acid (alanine or histidine) eliminates CapG-sev severing activity, confirming this prediction. We conclude that efficient severing utilizes two actin monomer-binding sites, and that the length of the WH2-containing segment is a critical functional determinant for severing. PMID:16977317

  9. The structure of BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus reveals a superfamily of bacterial periplasmic proteins with possible inhibitory function

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debanu; Finn, Robert D.; Carlton, Dennis; Miller, Mitchell D.; Abdubek, Polat; Astakhova, Tamara; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Bakolitsa, Constantina; Chen, Connie; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Chiu, Michelle; Clayton, Thomas; Deller, Marc C.; Duan, Lian; Ellrott, Kyle; Ernst, Dustin; Farr, Carol L.; Feuerhelm, Julie; Grant, Joanna C.; Grzechnik, Anna; Han, Gye Won; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Jin, Kevin K.; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Kozbial, Piotr; Krishna, S. Sri; Kumar, Abhinav; Marciano, David; McMullan, Daniel; Morse, Andrew T.; Nigoghossian, Edward; Nopakun, Amanda; Okach, Linda; Puckett, Christina; Reyes, Ron; Rife, Christopher L.; Sefcovic, Natasha; Tien, Henry J.; Trame, Christine B.; van den Bedem, Henry; Weekes, Dana; Wooten, Tiffany; Xu, Qingping; Hodgson, Keith O.; Wooley, John; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    Proteins that contain the DUF2874 domain constitute a new Pfam family PF11396. Members of this family have predominantly been identified in microbes found in the human gut and oral cavity. The crystal structure of one member of this family, BVU2987 from Bacteroides vulgatus, has been determined, revealing a β-lactamase inhibitor protein-like structure with a tandem repeat of domains. Sequence analysis and structural comparisons reveal that BVU2987 and other DUF2874 proteins are related to β-lactamase inhibitor protein, PepSY and SmpA_OmlA proteins and hence are likely to function as inhibitory proteins. PMID:20944221

  10. Intraoperative mapping during repeat awake craniotomy reveals the functional plasticity of adult cortex.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Derek G; Hervey-Jumper, Shawn L; Perry, David W; Berger, Mitchel S

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT To avoid iatrogenic injury during the removal of intrinsic cerebral neoplasms such as gliomas, direct electrical stimulation (DES) is used to identify cortical and subcortical white matter pathways critical for language, motor, and sensory function. When a patient undergoes more than 1 brain tumor resection as in the case of tumor recurrence, the use of DES provides an unusual opportunity to examine brain plasticity in the setting of neurological disease. METHODS The authors examined 561 consecutive cases in which patients underwent DES mapping during surgery forglioma resection. "Positive" and "negative" sites-discrete cortical regions where electrical stimulation did (positive) or did not (negative) produce transient sensory, motor, or language disturbance-were identified prior to tumor resection and documented by intraoperative photography for categorization into functional maps. In this group of 561 patients, 18 were identified who underwent repeat surgery in which 1 or more stimulation sites overlapped with those tested during the initial surgery. The authors compared intraoperative sensory, motor, or language mapping results between initial and repeat surgeries, and evaluated the clinical outcomes for these patients. RESULTS A total of 117 sites were tested for sensory (7 sites, 6.0%), motor (9 sites, 7.7%), or language (101 sites, 86.3%) function during both initial and repeat surgeries. The mean interval between surgical procedures was 4.1 years. During initial surgeries, 95 (81.2%) of 117 sites were found to be negative and 22 (18.8%) of 117 sites were found to be positive. During repeat surgeries, 103 (88.0%) of 117 sites were negative and 14 (12.0%) of 117 were positive. Of the 95 sites that were negative at the initial surgery, 94 (98.9%) were also negative at the repeat surgery, while 1 (1.1%) site was found to be positive. Of the 22 sites that were initially positive, 13 (59.1%) remained positive at repeat surgery, while 9 (40.9%) had become

  11. Clostridium clariflavum: Key Cellulosome Players Are Revealed by Proteomic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Artzi, Lior; Morag, Ely; Barak, Yoav; Lamed, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium clariflavum is an anaerobic, cellulosome-forming thermophile, containing in its genome genes for a large number of cellulosomal enzyme and a complex scaffoldin system. Previously, we described the major cohesin-dockerin interactions of the cellulosome components, and on this basis a model of diverse cellulosome assemblies was derived. In this work, we cultivated C. clariflavum on cellobiose-, microcrystalline cellulose-, and switchgrass-containing media and isolated cell-free cellulosome complexes from each culture. Gel filtration separation of the cellulosome samples revealed two major fractions, which were analyzed by label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to identify the key players of the cellulosome assemblies therein. From the 13 scaffoldins present in the C. clariflavum genome, 11 were identified, and a variety of enzymes from different glycoside hydrolase and carbohydrate esterase families were identified, including the glycoside hydrolase families GH48, GH9, GH5, GH30, GH11, and GH10. The expression level of the cellulosomal proteins varied as a function of the carbon source used for cultivation of the bacterium. In addition, the catalytic activity of each cellulosome was examined on different cellulosic substrates, xylan and switchgrass. The cellulosome isolated from the microcrystalline cellulose-containing medium was the most active of all the cellulosomes that were tested. The results suggest that the expression of the cellulosome proteins is regulated by the type of substrate in the growth medium. Moreover, both cell-free and cell-bound cellulosome complexes were produced which together may degrade the substrate in a synergistic manner. These observations are compatible with our previously published model of cellulosome assemblies in this bacterium. PMID:25991683

  12. Metagenomic Analysis of Streptomyces lividans Reveals Host-Dependent Functional Expression

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Matthew D.; Guan, Changhui; Handelsman, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Most functional metagenomic studies have been limited by the poor expression of many genes derived from metagenomic DNA in Escherichia coli, which has been the predominant surrogate host to date. To expand the range of expressed genes, we developed tools for construction and functional screening of metagenomic libraries in Streptomyces lividans. We expanded on previously published protocols by constructing a system that enables retrieval and characterization of the metagenomic DNA from biologically active clones. To test the functionality of these methods, we constructed and screened two metagenomic libraries in S. lividans. One was constructed with pooled DNA from 14 bacterial isolates cultured from Alaskan soil and the second with DNA directly extracted from the same soil. Functional screening of these libraries identified numerous clones with hemolytic activity, one clone that produces melanin by a previously unknown mechanism, and one that induces the overproduction of a secondary metabolite native to S. lividans. All bioactive clones were functional in S. lividans but not in E. coli, demonstrating the advantages of screening metagenomic libraries in more than one host. PMID:22427497

  13. Fundamental gaps with approximate density functionals: the derivative discontinuity revealed from ensemble considerations.

    PubMed

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-05-14

    The fundamental gap is a central quantity in the electronic structure of matter. Unfortunately, the fundamental gap is not generally equal to the Kohn-Sham gap of density functional theory (DFT), even in principle. The two gaps differ precisely by the derivative discontinuity, namely, an abrupt change in slope of the exchange-correlation energy as a function of electron number, expected across an integer-electron point. Popular approximate functionals are thought to be devoid of a derivative discontinuity, strongly compromising their performance for prediction of spectroscopic properties. Here we show that, in fact, all exchange-correlation functionals possess a derivative discontinuity, which arises naturally from the application of ensemble considerations within DFT, without any empiricism. This derivative discontinuity can be expressed in closed form using only quantities obtained in the course of a standard DFT calculation of the neutral system. For small, finite systems, addition of this derivative discontinuity indeed results in a greatly improved prediction for the fundamental gap, even when based on the most simple approximate exchange-correlation density functional--the local density approximation (LDA). For solids, the same scheme is exact in principle, but when applied to LDA it results in a vanishing derivative discontinuity correction. This failure is shown to be directly related to the failure of LDA in predicting fundamental gaps from total energy differences in extended systems. PMID:24832348

  14. Fundamental gaps with approximate density functionals: The derivative discontinuity revealed from ensemble considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kraisler, Eli; Kronik, Leeor

    2014-05-14

    The fundamental gap is a central quantity in the electronic structure of matter. Unfortunately, the fundamental gap is not generally equal to the Kohn-Sham gap of density functional theory (DFT), even in principle. The two gaps differ precisely by the derivative discontinuity, namely, an abrupt change in slope of the exchange-correlation energy as a function of electron number, expected across an integer-electron point. Popular approximate functionals are thought to be devoid of a derivative discontinuity, strongly compromising their performance for prediction of spectroscopic properties. Here we show that, in fact, all exchange-correlation functionals possess a derivative discontinuity, which arises naturally from the application of ensemble considerations within DFT, without any empiricism. This derivative discontinuity can be expressed in closed form using only quantities obtained in the course of a standard DFT calculation of the neutral system. For small, finite systems, addition of this derivative discontinuity indeed results in a greatly improved prediction for the fundamental gap, even when based on the most simple approximate exchange-correlation density functional – the local density approximation (LDA). For solids, the same scheme is exact in principle, but when applied to LDA it results in a vanishing derivative discontinuity correction. This failure is shown to be directly related to the failure of LDA in predicting fundamental gaps from total energy differences in extended systems.

  15. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  16. Systems biology approach reveals possible evolutionarily conserved moonlighting functions for enolase.

    PubMed

    Paludo, Gabriela Prado; Lorenzatto, Karina Rodrigues; Bonatto, Diego; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer

    2015-10-01

    Glycolytic enzymes, such as enolase, have been described as multifunctional complex proteins that also display non-glycolytic activities, termed moonlighting functions. Although enolase multifunctionality has been described for several organisms, the conservation of enolase alternative functions through different phyla has not been explored with more details. A useful strategy to investigate moonlighting functions is the use of systems biology tools, which allow the prediction of protein functions/interactions by graph design and analysis. In this work, available information from protein-protein interaction (PPI) databases were used to design enolase PPI networks for four eukaryotic organisms, namely Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, covering a wide spectrum of this domain of life. PPI networks with number of nodes ranging from 140 to 411 and up to 15,855 connections were generated, and modularity and centrality analyses, and functional enrichment were performed for all of them. The performed analyses showed that enolase is a central node within the networks, and that, in addition to its canonical interactions with proteins related to glycolysis and energetic metabolism, it is also part of protein clusters related to different biological processes, like transcription, development, and apoptosis, among others. Some of these non-glycolytic clusters, are partially conserved between networks, in terms of overall sharing of orthologs, overall cluster structure, and/or at the levels of key regulatory proteins within clusters. Overall, our results provided evidences of enolase multifunctionality and evolutionary conservation of enolase PPIs at all these levels. PMID:25978602

  17. Exercise reveals impairments in left ventricular systolic function in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Sara B.; Reger, Brian L.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; Warden, Bradford E.; Gharib, Wissam; Failinger, Conard F.; Olfert, Melissa D.; Frisbee, Jefferson C.; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    MetS is the manifestation of a cluster of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and is associated with a three-fold increase risk of CV morbidity and mortality, which is suggested to be mediated, in part, by resting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, to what extent resting LV systolic function is impaired in MetS is controversial, and there are no data indicating whether LV systolic function is impaired during exercise. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to comprehensively examine LV and arterial responses to exercise in MetS individuals without diabetes and/or overt CVD compared to a healthy control population. CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange in MetS (n=27) vs. healthy controls (n=20) at rest and during peak exercise. At rest, MetS individuals displayed normal LV systolic function but reduced LV diastolic function vs. healthy controls. During peak exercise, individuals with MetS had impaired contractility; pump performance, and vasodilator reserve capacity vs. controls. A blunted contractile reserve response resulted in diminished arterial-ventricular coupling reserve and limited aerobic capacity in MetS vs. controls. These findings possess clinical importance as they provide insight to the pathophysiological changes in MetS that may predispose this population of individuals to an increased risk of CV morbidity and mortality. PMID:24036595

  18. Positron Emission Tomography Reveals Abnormal Topological Organization in Functional Brain Network in Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xiangzhe; Zhang, Yanjun; Feng, Hongbo; Jiang, Donglang

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated alterations in the topological organization of structural brain networks in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the DM-related changes in the topological properties in functional brain networks are unexplored so far. We therefore used fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) data to construct functional brain networks of 73 DM patients and 91 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs), followed by a graph theoretical analysis. We found that both DM patients and NCs had a small-world topology in functional brain network. In comparison to the NC group, the DM group was found to have significantly lower small-world index, lower normalized clustering coefficients and higher normalized characteristic path length. Moreover, for diabetic patients, the nodal centrality was significantly reduced in the right rectus, the right cuneus, the left middle occipital gyrus, and the left postcentral gyrus, and it was significantly increased in the orbitofrontal region of the left middle frontal gyrus, the left olfactory region, and the right paracentral lobule. Our results demonstrated that the diabetic brain was associated with disrupted topological organization in the functional PET network, thus providing functional evidence for the abnormalities of brain networks in DM. PMID:27303259

  19. A novel fragile X syndrome mutation reveals a conserved role for the carboxy-terminus in FMRP localization and function

    PubMed Central

    Okray, Zeynep; de Esch, Celine EF; Van Esch, Hilde; Devriendt, Koen; Claeys, Annelies; Yan, Jiekun; Verbeeck, Jelle; Froyen, Guy; Willemsen, Rob; de Vrij, Femke MS; Hassan, Bassem A

    2015-01-01

    Loss of function of the FMR1 gene leads to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of intellectual disability. The loss of FMR1 function is usually caused by epigenetic silencing of the FMR1 promoter leading to expansion and subsequent methylation of a CGG repeat in the 5′ untranslated region. Very few coding sequence variations have been experimentally characterized and shown to be causal to the disease. Here, we describe a novel FMR1 mutation and reveal an unexpected nuclear export function for the C-terminus of FMRP. We screened a cohort of patients with typical FXS symptoms who tested negative for CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 locus. In one patient, we identified a guanine insertion in FMR1 exon 15. This mutation alters the open reading frame creating a short novel C-terminal sequence, followed by a stop codon. We find that this novel peptide encodes a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) targeting the patient FMRP to the nucleolus in human cells. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved nuclear export function associated with the endogenous C-terminus of FMRP. In vivo analyses in Drosophila demonstrate that a patient-mimetic mutation alters the localization and function of Dfmrp in neurons, leading to neomorphic neuronal phenotypes. PMID:25693964

  20. The scaling behavior of hand motions reveals self-organization during an executive function task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastas, Jason R.; Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent approaches to cognition explain cognitive phenomena in terms of interaction-dominant dynamics. In the current experiment, we extend this approach to executive function, a construct used to describe flexible, goal-oriented behavior. Participants were asked to perform a widely used executive function task, card sorting, under two conditions. In one condition, participants were given a rule with which to sort the cards. In the other condition, participants had to induce the rule from experimenter feedback. The motion of each participant’s hand was tracked during the sorting task. Detrended fluctuation analysis was performed on the inter-point time series using a windowing strategy to capture changes over each trial. For participants in the induction condition, the Hurst exponent sharply increased and then decreased. The Hurst exponents for the explicit condition did not show this pattern. Our results suggest that executive function may be understood in terms of changes in stability that arise from interaction-dominant dynamics.

  1. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis reveals interconnected functional units in the alkaline phosphatase active site.

    PubMed

    Sunden, Fanny; Peck, Ariana; Salzman, Julia; Ressl, Susanne; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes enable life by accelerating reaction rates to biological timescales. Conventional studies have focused on identifying the residues that have a direct involvement in an enzymatic reaction, but these so-called 'catalytic residues' are embedded in extensive interaction networks. Although fundamental to our understanding of enzyme function, evolution, and engineering, the properties of these networks have yet to be quantitatively and systematically explored. We dissected an interaction network of five residues in the active site of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase. Analysis of the complex catalytic interdependence of specific residues identified three energetically independent but structurally interconnected functional units with distinct modes of cooperativity. From an evolutionary perspective, this network is orders of magnitude more probable to arise than a fully cooperative network. From a functional perspective, new catalytic insights emerge. Further, such comprehensive energetic characterization will be necessary to benchmark the algorithms required to rationally engineer highly efficient enzymes. PMID:25902402

  2. Continental cichlid radiations: functional diversity reveals the role of changing ecological opportunity in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Jessica Hilary; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2016-08-17

    Adaptive radiations have been hypothesized to contribute broadly to the diversity of organisms. Models of adaptive radiation predict that ecological opportunity and ecological release, the availability of empty ecological niches and the response by adapting lineages to occupy them, respectively, drive patterns of phenotypic and lineage diversification. Adaptive radiations driven by 'ecological opportunity' are well established in island systems; it is less clear if ecological opportunity influences continent-wide diversification. We use Neotropical cichlid fishes to test if variation in rates of functional evolution is consistent with changing ecological opportunity. Across a functional morphological axis associated with ram-suction feeding traits, evolutionary rates declined through time as lineages diversified in South America. Evolutionary rates of ram-suction functional morphology also appear to have accelerated as cichlids colonized Central America and encountered renewed opportunity. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity may play an important role in shaping patterns of morphological diversity of even broadly distributed lineages like Neotropical cichlids. PMID:27512144

  3. Whole brain resting-state analysis reveals decreased functional connectivity in major depression.

    PubMed

    Veer, Ilya M; Beckmann, Christian F; van Tol, Marie-José; Ferrarini, Luca; Milles, Julien; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; van Buchem, Mark A; van der Wee, Nic J; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2010-01-01

    Recently, both increases and decreases in resting-state functional connectivity have been found in major depression. However, these studies only assessed functional connectivity within a specific network or between a few regions of interest, while comorbidity and use of medication was not always controlled for. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whole-brain functional connectivity, unbiased by a priori definition of regions or networks of interest, in medication-free depressive patients without comorbidity. We analyzed resting-state fMRI data of 19 medication-free patients with a recent diagnosis of major depression (within 6 months before inclusion) and no comorbidity, and 19 age- and gender-matched controls. Independent component analysis was employed on the concatenated data sets of all participants. Thirteen functionally relevant networks were identified, describing the entire study sample. Next, individual representations of the networks were created using a dual regression method. Statistical inference was subsequently done on these spatial maps using voxel-wise permutation tests. Abnormal functional connectivity was found within three resting-state networks in depression: (1) decreased bilateral amygdala and left anterior insula connectivity in an affective network, (2) reduced connectivity of the left frontal pole in a network associated with attention and working memory, and (3) decreased bilateral lingual gyrus connectivity within ventromedial visual regions. None of these effects were associated with symptom severity or gray matter density. We found abnormal resting-state functional connectivity not previously associated with major depression, which might relate to abnormal affect regulation and mild cognitive deficits, both associated with the symptomatology of the disorder. PMID:20941370

  4. A spatial and nondegenerative autocorrelation function to reveal the inner similarity structure of irregular sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

    2012-07-01

    When applied to signals defined on fractal sets, the classical autocorrelation function has generally been exploited through its power law properties, the main hypothesis being that the exponent involved in this power law is uniquely defined. In this paper, we show that different power laws can likely be retrieved for the same signal. This non uniqueness turns out to be associated to the uncertainty in determination of the exponent value. To avoid such degeneracy, we propose to use a generalized form of the autocorrelation function, a version of which we have previously introduced in the context of characterization of fractal sets.

  5. Integrating abundance and functional traits reveals new global hotspots of fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Bates, Amanda E; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Duffy, J Emmett; Baker, Susan C; Thomson, Russell J; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F; Hill, Nicole A; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Airoldi, Laura; Becerro, Mikel A; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Navarrete, Sergio A; Soler, German A; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Willis, Trevor J; Edgar, Graham J

    2013-09-26

    Species richness has dominated our view of global biodiversity patterns for centuries. The dominance of this paradigm is reflected in the focus by ecologists and conservation managers on richness and associated occurrence-based measures for understanding drivers of broad-scale diversity patterns and as a biological basis for management. However, this is changing rapidly, as it is now recognized that not only the number of species but the species present, their phenotypes and the number of individuals of each species are critical in determining the nature and strength of the relationships between species diversity and a range of ecological functions (such as biomass production and nutrient cycling). Integrating these measures should provide a more relevant representation of global biodiversity patterns in terms of ecological functions than that provided by simple species counts. Here we provide comparisons of a traditional global biodiversity distribution measure based on richness with metrics that incorporate species abundances and functional traits. We use data from standardized quantitative surveys of 2,473 marine reef fish species at 1,844 sites, spanning 133 degrees of latitude from all ocean basins, to identify new diversity hotspots in some temperate regions and the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. These relate to high diversity of functional traits amongst individuals in the community (calculated using Rao's Q), and differ from previously reported patterns in functional diversity and richness for terrestrial animals, which emphasize species-rich tropical regions only. There is a global trend for greater evenness in the number of individuals of each species, across the reef fish species observed at sites ('community evenness'), at higher latitudes. This contributes to the distribution of functional diversity hotspots and contrasts with well-known latitudinal gradients in richness. Our findings suggest that the contribution of species diversity to a range of

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Acetivibrio cellulolyticus cellulosomal type II cohesin module: two versions having different linker lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Noach, Ilit; Alber, Orly; Bayer, Edward A.; Lamed, Raphael; Levy-Assaraf, Maly; Shimon, Linda J. W.; Frolow, Felix

    2008-01-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of two protein constructs of the second type II cohesin module from A. cellulolyticus ScaB are described. Both constructs contain the native N-terminal linker, but only one of them contains the full-length 45-residue C-terminal linker; the other contains a five-residue segment of this linker. The second type II cohesin module of the cellulosomal scaffoldin polypeptide ScaB from Acetivibrio cellulolyticus (CohB2) was cloned into two constructs: one containing a short (five-residue) C-terminal linker (CohB2-S) and the second incorporating the full native 45-residue linker (CohB2-L). Both constructs encode proteins that also include the full native six-residue N-terminal linker. The CohB2-S and CohB2-L proteins were expressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic crystal system, but with different unit cells and symmetries: space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} with unit-cell parameters a = 90.36, b = 68.65, c = 111.29 Å for CohB2-S and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 with unit-cell parameters a = 68.76, b = 159.22, c = 44.21 Å for CohB2-L. The crystals diffracted to 2.0 and 2.9 Å resolution, respectively. The asymmetric unit of CohB2-S contains three cohesin molecules, while that of CohB2-L contains two molecules.

  7. Analysis of Graph Invariants in Functional Neocortical Circuitry Reveals Generalized Features Common to Three Areas of Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gururangan, Suchin S.; Sadovsky, Alexander J.; MacLean, Jason N.

    2014-01-01

    Correlations in local neocortical spiking activity can provide insight into the underlying organization of cortical microcircuitry. However, identifying structure in patterned multi-neuronal spiking remains a daunting task due to the high dimensionality of the activity. Using two-photon imaging, we monitored spontaneous circuit dynamics in large, densely sampled neuronal populations within slices of mouse primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex. Using the lagged correlation of spiking activity between neurons, we generated functional wiring diagrams to gain insight into the underlying neocortical circuitry. By establishing the presence of graph invariants, which are label-independent characteristics common to all circuit topologies, our study revealed organizational features that generalized across functionally distinct cortical regions. Regardless of sensory area, random and -nearest neighbors null graphs failed to capture the structure of experimentally derived functional circuitry. These null models indicated that despite a bias in the data towards spatially proximal functional connections, functional circuit structure is best described by non-random and occasionally distal connections. Eigenvector centrality, which quantifies the importance of a neuron in the temporal flow of circuit activity, was highly related to feedforwardness in all functional circuits. The number of nodes participating in a functional circuit did not scale with the number of neurons imaged regardless of sensory area, indicating that circuit size is not tied to the sampling of neocortex. Local circuit flow comprehensively covered angular space regardless of the spatial scale that we tested, demonstrating that circuitry itself does not bias activity flow toward pia. Finally, analysis revealed that a minimal numerical sample size of neurons was necessary to capture at least 90 percent of functional circuit topology. These data and analyses indicated that functional circuitry

  8. Resting state functional MRI reveals abnormal network connectivity in neurofibromatosis 1.

    PubMed

    Tomson, Steffie N; Schreiner, Matthew J; Narayan, Manjari; Rosser, Tena; Enrique, Nicole; Silva, Alcino J; Allen, Genevera I; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Bearden, Carrie E

    2015-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in the neurofibromin 1 gene at locus 17q11.2. Individuals with NF1 have an increased incidence of learning disabilities, attention deficits, and autism spectrum disorders. As a single-gene disorder, NF1 represents a valuable model for understanding gene-brain-behavior relationships. While mouse models have elucidated molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying learning deficits associated with this mutation, little is known about functional brain architecture in human subjects with NF1. To address this question, we used resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) to elucidate the intrinsic network structure of 30 NF1 participants compared with 30 healthy demographically matched controls during an eyes-open rs-fcMRI scan. Novel statistical methods were employed to quantify differences in local connectivity (edge strength) and modularity structure, in combination with traditional global graph theory applications. Our findings suggest that individuals with NF1 have reduced anterior-posterior connectivity, weaker bilateral edges, and altered modularity clustering relative to healthy controls. Further, edge strength and modular clustering indices were correlated with IQ and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that Ras signaling disruption may lead to abnormal functional brain connectivity; further investigation into the functional consequences of these alterations in both humans and in animal models is warranted. PMID:26304096

  9. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions. PMID:26067561

  10. Metaproteomics Reveals Functional Shifts in Microbial and Human Proteins During Infant Gut Colonization Case

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Young, Jacque C.; Pan, Chongle; Adams, Rachel M.; Brooks, Brandon; Banfield, Jillian F.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    The microbial colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in establishing health and homeostasis. However, the time-dependent functional signatures of microbial and human proteins during early colonization of the gut have yet to be determined. Thus, we employed shotgun proteomics to simultaneously monitor microbial and human proteins in fecal samples from a preterm infant during the first month of life. Microbial community complexity and functions increased over time, with compositional changes that were consistent with previous metagenomic and rRNA gene data indicating three distinct colonization phases. Overall microbial community functions were established relatively early in development andmore » remained stable. Human proteins detected included those responsible for epithelial barrier function and antimicrobial activity. Some neutrophil-derived proteins increased in abundance early in the study period, suggesting activation of the innate immune system. Moreover, abundances of cytoskeletal and mucin proteins increased later in the time course, suggestive of subsequent adjustment to the increased microbial load. Our study provides the first snapshot of coordinated human and microbial protein expression in the infant gut during early development.« less

  11. Metaproteomics reveals functional shifts in microbial and human proteins during a preterm infant gut colonization case.

    PubMed

    Young, Jacque C; Pan, Chongle; Adams, Rachel M; Brooks, Brandon; Banfield, Jillian F; Morowitz, Michael J; Hettich, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Microbial colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in establishing health and homeostasis. However, the time-dependent functional signatures of microbial and human proteins during early colonization of the gut have yet to be determined. To this end, we employed shotgun proteomics to simultaneously monitor microbial and human proteins in fecal samples from a preterm infant during the first month of life. Microbial community complexity increased over time, with compositional changes that were consistent with previous metagenomic and rRNA gene data. More specifically, the function of the microbial community initially involved biomass growth, protein production, and lipid metabolism, and then switched to more complex metabolic functions, such as carbohydrate metabolism, once the community stabilized and matured. Human proteins detected included those responsible for epithelial barrier function and antimicrobial activity. Some neutrophil-derived proteins increased in abundance early in the study period, suggesting activation of the innate immune system. Likewise, abundances of cytoskeletal and mucin proteins increased later in the time course, suggestive of subsequent adjustment to the increased microbial load. This study provides the first snapshot of coordinated human and microbial protein expression in a preterm infant's gut during early development. PMID:26077811

  12. Comprehensive analysis reveals how single nucleotides contribute to noncoding RNA function in bacterial quorum sensing

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Steven T.; Valastyan, Julie S.; Taillefumier, Thibaud; Wingreen, Ned S.; Bassler, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    Five homologous noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs), called the Qrr1-5 sRNAs, function in the Vibrio harveyi quorum-sensing cascade to drive its operation. Qrr1-5 use four different regulatory mechanisms to control the expression of ∼20 mRNA targets. Little is known about the roles individual nucleotides play in mRNA target selection, in determining regulatory mechanism, or in defining Qrr potency and dynamics of target regulation. To identify the nucleotides vital for Qrr function, we developed a method we call RSort-Seq that combines saturating mutagenesis, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, high-throughput sequencing, and mutual information theory to explore the role that every nucleotide in Qrr4 plays in regulation of two mRNA targets, luxR and luxO. Companion biochemical assays allowed us to assign specific regulatory functions/underlying molecular mechanisms to each important base. This strategy yielded a regional map of nucleotides in Qrr4 vital for stability, Hfq interaction, stem-loop formation, and base pairing to both luxR and luxO, to luxR only, and to luxO only. In terms of nucleotides critical for sRNA function, the RSort-Seq analysis provided strikingly different results from those predicted by commonly used regulatory RNA-folding algorithms. This approach is applicable to any RNA–RNA interaction, including sRNAs in other bacteria and regulatory RNAs in higher organisms. PMID:26483489

  13. The functional interactome of PYHIN immune regulators reveals IFIX is a sensor of viral DNA

    PubMed Central

    Diner, Benjamin A; Li, Tuo; Greco, Todd M; Crow, Marni S; Fuesler, John A; Wang, Jennifer; Cristea, Ileana M

    2015-01-01

    The human PYHIN proteins, AIM2, IFI16, IFIX, and MNDA, are critical regulators of immune response, transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle. However, their protein interactions and underlying mechanisms remain largely uncharacterized. Here, we provide the interaction network for all PYHIN proteins and define a function in sensing of viral DNA for the previously uncharacterized IFIX protein. By designing a cell-based inducible system and integrating microscopy, immunoaffinity capture, quantitative mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, we identify over 300 PYHIN interactions reflective of diverse functions, including DNA damage response, transcription regulation, intracellular signaling, and antiviral response. In view of the IFIX interaction with antiviral factors, including nuclear PML bodies, we further characterize IFIX and demonstrate its function in restricting herpesvirus replication. We discover that IFIX detects viral DNA in both the nucleus and cytoplasm, binding foreign DNA via its HIN domain in a sequence-non-specific manner. Furthermore, IFIX contributes to the induction of interferon response. Our results highlight the value of integrative proteomics in deducing protein function and establish IFIX as an antiviral DNA sensor important for mounting immune responses. PMID:25665578

  14. Metagenomes reveal microbial structures, functional potentials, and biofouling-related genes in a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinxing; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Huan; Park, Hee-Deung; Wu, Zhichao

    2016-06-01

    Metagenomic sequencing was used to investigate the microbial structures, functional potentials, and biofouling-related genes in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). The results showed that the microbial community in the MBR was highly diverse. Notably, function analysis of the dominant genera indicated that common genes from different phylotypes were identified for important functional potentials with the observation of variation of abundances of genes in a certain taxon (e.g., Dechloromonas). Despite maintaining similar metabolic functional potentials with a parallel full-scale conventional activated sludge (CAS) system due to treating the identical wastewater, the MBR had more abundant nitrification-related bacteria and coding genes of ammonia monooxygenase, which could well explain its excellent ammonia removal in the low-temperature period. Furthermore, according to quantification of the genes involved in exopolysaccharide and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) protein metabolism, the MBR did not show a much different potential in producing EPS compared to the CAS system, and bacteria from the membrane biofilm had lower abundances of genes associated with EPS biosynthesis and transport compared to the activated sludge in the MBR. PMID:26816093

  15. Metaproteomics Reveals Functional Shifts in Microbial and Human Proteins During Infant Gut Colonization Case

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Jacque C.; Pan, Chongle; Adams, Rachel M.; Brooks, Brandon; Banfield, Jillian F.; Morowitz, Michael J.; Robert L. Hettich

    2015-01-01

    The microbial colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in establishing health and homeostasis. However, the time-dependent functional signatures of microbial and human proteins during early colonization of the gut have yet to be determined. Thus, we employed shotgun proteomics to simultaneously monitor microbial and human proteins in fecal samples from a preterm infant during the first month of life. Microbial community complexity and functions increased over time, with compositional changes that were consistent with previous metagenomic and rRNA gene data indicating three distinct colonization phases. Overall microbial community functions were established relatively early in development and remained stable. Human proteins detected included those responsible for epithelial barrier function and antimicrobial activity. Some neutrophil-derived proteins increased in abundance early in the study period, suggesting activation of the innate immune system. Moreover, abundances of cytoskeletal and mucin proteins increased later in the time course, suggestive of subsequent adjustment to the increased microbial load. Our study provides the first snapshot of coordinated human and microbial protein expression in the infant gut during early development.

  16. Muscle contraction phenotypic analysis enabled by optogenetics reveals functional relationships of sarcomere components in Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Barnes, Dawn E.; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M.; Ono, Shoichiro; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    The sarcomere, the fundamental unit of muscle contraction, is a highly-ordered complex of hundreds of proteins. Despite decades of genetics work, the functional relationships and the roles of those sarcomeric proteins in animal behaviors remain unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of the motor neurons that induce muscle contraction can facilitate quantitative studies of muscle kinetics in C. elegans. To increase the throughput of the study, we trapped multiple worms in parallel in a microfluidic device and illuminated for photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 to induce contractions in body wall muscles. Using image processing, the change in body size was quantified over time. A total of five parameters including rate constants for contraction and relaxation were extracted from the optogenetic assay as descriptors of sarcomere functions. To potentially relate the genes encoding the sarcomeric proteins functionally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted on the basis of those parameters. Because it assesses physiological output different from conventional assays, this method provides a complement to the phenotypic analysis of C. elegans muscle mutants currently performed in many labs; the clusters may provide new insights and drive new hypotheses for functional relationships among the many sarcomere components.

  17. Enrichment of SNPs in Functional Categories Reveals Genes Affecting Complex Traits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huiying; Fan, Dongsheng; Nyholt, Dale R; Yang, Yuedong

    2016-08-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have indicated potential to identify heritability of common complex phenotypes, but traditional approaches have limited ability to detect hiding signals because single SNP has weak effect size accounting for only a small fraction of overall phenotypic variations. To improve the power of GWAS, methods have been developed to identify truly associated genes by jointly testing effects of all SNPs. However, equally considering all SNPs within a gene might dilute strong signals of SNPs in real functional categories. Here, we observed a consistent pattern on enrichment of significant SNPs in eight functional categories across six phenotypes, with the highest enrichment in coding and both UTR regions while the lowest enrichment in the intron. Based on the pattern of SNP enrichment in functional categories, we developed a new approach for detecting gene associations on traits (DGAT) by selecting the most significant functional category and then using SNPs within it to assess gene associations. The method was found to be robust in type I error rate on simulated data, and to have mostly higher power in detecting associated genes for three different diseases than other methods. Further analysis indicated ability of the DGAT to detect novel genes. The DGAT is available by http://sparks-lab.org/server/DGAT. PMID:27113629

  18. fMRI of cocaine self-administration in macaques reveals functional inhibition of basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, Joseph B; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Jarraya, Bechir; Rosen, Bruce R; Jenkins, Bruce G; Vanduffel, Wim

    2011-05-01

    Disparities in cocaine-induced neurochemical and metabolic responses between human beings and rodents motivate the use of non-human primates (NHP) to model consequences of repeated cocaine exposure in human subjects. To characterize the functional response to cocaine infusion in NHP brain, we employed contrast-enhanced fMRI during both non-contingent injection of drug and self-administration of cocaine in the magnet. Cocaine robustly decreased cerebral blood volume (CBV) throughout basal ganglia and motor/pre-motor cortex and produced subtle functional inhibition of prefrontal cortex. No brain regions exhibited significant elevation of CBV in response to cocaine challenge. Theses effects in NHP brain are opposite in sign to the cocaine-induced fMRI response in rats, but consistent with previous measurements in NHP based on glucose metabolism. Because the striatal ratio of D2 to D1 receptors is larger in human beings and NHP than rats, we hypothesize that the inhibitory effects of D2 receptor binding dominate the functional response in primates, whereas excitatory D1 receptor stimulation predominates in the rat. If the NHP accurately models the human response to cocaine, downregulation of D2 receptors in human cocaine-abusing populations can be expected to blunt cocaine-induced functional responses, contributing to the weak and variable fMRI responses reported in human basal ganglia following cocaine infusion. PMID:21307843

  19. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

    2015-01-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions. PMID:26067561

  20. Site-directed mutants of human RECQ1 reveal functional importance of the zinc binding domain.

    PubMed

    Sami, Furqan; Gary, Ronald K; Fang, Yayin; Sharma, Sudha

    2016-08-01

    RecQ helicases are a highly conserved family of ATP-dependent DNA-unwinding enzymes with key roles in DNA replication and repair in all kingdoms of life. The RECQ1 gene encodes the most abundant RecQ homolog in humans. We engineered full-length RECQ1 harboring point mutations in the zinc-binding motif (amino acids 419-480) within the conserved RecQ-specific-C-terminal (RQC) domain known to be critical for diverse biochemical and cellular functions of RecQ helicases. Wild-type RECQ1 contains a zinc ion. Substitution of three of the four conserved cysteine residues that coordinate zinc severely impaired the ATPase and DNA unwinding activities but retained DNA binding and single strand DNA annealing activities. Furthermore, alteration of these residues attenuated zinc binding and significantly changed the overall conformation of full-length RECQ1 protein. In contrast, substitution of cysteine residue at position 471 resulted in a wild-type like RECQ1 protein. Differential contribution of the conserved cysteine residues to the structure and functions of the RECQ1 protein is also inferred by homology modeling. Overall, our results indicate that the zinc binding motif in the RQC domain of RECQ1 is a key structural element that is essential for the structure-functions of RECQ1. Given the recent association of RECQ1 mutations with breast cancer, these results will contribute to understanding the molecular basis of RECQ1 functions in cancer etiology. PMID:27248010

  1. Resting state functional MRI reveals abnormal network connectivity in orthostatic tremor.

    PubMed

    Benito-León, Julián; Louis, Elan D; Manzanedo, Eva; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Molina-Arjona, José Antonio; Matarazzo, Michele; Romero, Juan Pablo; Domínguez-González, Cristina; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Sánchez-Ferro, Álvaro

    2016-07-01

    Very little is known about the pathogenesis of orthostatic tremor (OT). We have observed that OT patients might have deficits in specific aspects of neuropsychological function, particularly those thought to rely on the integrity of the prefrontal cortex, which suggests a possible involvement of frontocerebellar circuits. We examined whether resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) might provide further insights into the pathogenesis on OT. Resting-state fMRI data in 13 OT patients (11 women and 2 men) and 13 matched healthy controls were analyzed using independent component analysis, in combination with a "dual-regression" technique, to identify group differences in several resting-state networks (RSNs). All participants also underwent neuropsychological testing during the same session. Relative to healthy controls, OT patients showed increased connectivity in RSNs involved in cognitive processes (default mode network [DMN] and frontoparietal networks), and decreased connectivity in the cerebellum and sensorimotor networks. Changes in network integrity were associated not only with duration (DMN and medial visual network), but also with cognitive function. Moreover, in at least 2 networks (DMN and medial visual network), increased connectivity was associated with worse performance on different cognitive domains (attention, executive function, visuospatial ability, visual memory, and language). In this exploratory study, we observed selective impairments of RSNs in OT patients. This and other future resting-state fMRI studies might provide a novel method to understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of motor and nonmotor features of OT. PMID:27442678

  2. Muscle contraction phenotypic analysis enabled by optogenetics reveals functional relationships of sarcomere components in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyundoo; Barnes, Dawn E.; Matsunaga, Yohei; Benian, Guy M.; Ono, Shoichiro; Lu, Hang

    2016-01-01

    The sarcomere, the fundamental unit of muscle contraction, is a highly-ordered complex of hundreds of proteins. Despite decades of genetics work, the functional relationships and the roles of those sarcomeric proteins in animal behaviors remain unclear. In this paper, we demonstrate that optogenetic activation of the motor neurons that induce muscle contraction can facilitate quantitative studies of muscle kinetics in C. elegans. To increase the throughput of the study, we trapped multiple worms in parallel in a microfluidic device and illuminated for photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 to induce contractions in body wall muscles. Using image processing, the change in body size was quantified over time. A total of five parameters including rate constants for contraction and relaxation were extracted from the optogenetic assay as descriptors of sarcomere functions. To potentially relate the genes encoding the sarcomeric proteins functionally, a hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted on the basis of those parameters. Because it assesses physiological output different from conventional assays, this method provides a complement to the phenotypic analysis of C. elegans muscle mutants currently performed in many labs; the clusters may provide new insights and drive new hypotheses for functional relationships among the many sarcomere components. PMID:26822332

  3. Functional specialization among insect chitinase family genes revealed by RNA interference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological functions of individual members of the large family of chitinase-like proteins from the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, were examined using gene-specific RNA interference (RNAi). One chitinase, TcCHT5, was found to be required for pupal-adult molting only. A lethal phenotype ...

  4. Cells transplanted onto the surface of the glial scar reveal hidden potential for functional neural regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sekiya, Tetsuji; Holley, Matthew C.; Hashido, Kento; Ono, Kazuya; Shimomura, Koichiro; Horie, Rie T.; Hamaguchi, Kiyomi; Yoshida, Atsuhiro; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Ito, Juichi

    2015-01-01

    Cell transplantation therapy has long been investigated as a therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative disorders, including spinal cord injury, Parkinson’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Indeed, patients have high hopes for a cell-based therapy. However, there are numerous practical challenges for clinical translation. One major problem is that only very low numbers of donor cells survive and achieve functional integration into the host. Glial scar tissue in chronic neurodegenerative disorders strongly inhibits regeneration, and this inhibition must be overcome to accomplish successful cell transplantation. Intraneural cell transplantation is considered to be the best way to deliver cells to the host. We questioned this view with experiments in vivo on a rat glial scar model of the auditory system. Our results show that intraneural transplantation to the auditory nerve, preceded by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC)-treatment, is ineffective. There is no functional recovery, and almost all transplanted cells die within a few weeks. However, when donor cells are placed on the surface of a ChABC-treated gliotic auditory nerve, they autonomously migrate into it and recapitulate glia- and neuron-guided cell migration modes to repair the auditory pathway and recover auditory function. Surface transplantation may thus pave the way for improved functional integration of donor cells into host tissue, providing a less invasive approach to rescue clinically important neural tracts. PMID:26080415

  5. Functional Ecological Gene Networks to Reveal the Changes Among Microbial Interactions Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Ye; Zhou, Jizhong; Luo, Feng; He, Zhili; Tu, Qichao; Zhi, Xiaoyang

    2010-05-17

    Biodiversity and its responses to environmental changes is a central issue in ecology, and for society. Almost all microbial biodiversity researches focus on species richness and abundance but ignore the interactions among different microbial species/populations. However, determining the interactions and their relationships to environmental changes in microbial communities is a grand challenge, primarily due to the lack of information on the network structure among different microbial species/populations. Here, a novel random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework for identifying functional ecological gene networks (fEGNs) is developed with the high throughput functional gene array hybridization data from the grassland microbial communities in a long-term FACE (Free Air CO2 Enrichment) experiment. Both fEGNs under elevated CO2 (eCO2) and ambient CO2 (aCO2) possessed general characteristics of many complex systems such as scale-free, small-world, modular and hierarchical. However, the topological structure of the fEGNs is distinctly different between eCO2 and aCO2, suggesting that eCO2 dramatically altered the interactions among different microbial functional groups/populations. In addition, the changes in network structure were significantly correlated with soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics, and plant productivity, indicating the potential importance of network interactions in ecosystem functioning. Elucidating network interactions in microbial communities and their responses to environmental changes are fundamentally important for research in microbial ecology, systems microbiology, and global change.

  6. TURKEY FECAL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND ECOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS REVEALED BY 16S RDNA AND METAGENOME SEQUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Turkey feces are an important source of fecal waste in the United States. With the exception of isolated studies on bacterial pathogens, little is known about the type of bacteria inhabiting the turkey gut. In order to understand the microbial diversity and functional genes assoc...

  7. Diversity and functions of bacterial community in drinking water biofilms revealed by high-throughput sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yuanqing; Mao, Yanping; Wang, Zhiping; Zhang, Tong

    2015-06-01

    The development of biofilms in drinking water (DW) systems may cause various problems to water quality. To investigate the community structure of biofilms on different pipe materials and the global/specific metabolic functions of DW biofilms, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing data for 16S rRNA genes and Illumina metagenomic data were generated and analysed. Considerable differences in bacterial diversity and taxonomic structure were identified between biofilms formed on stainless steel and biofilms formed on plastics, indicating that the metallic materials facilitate the formation of higher diversity biofilms. Moreover, variations in several dominant genera were observed during biofilm formation. Based on PCA analysis, the global functions in the DW biofilms were similar to other DW metagenomes. Beyond the global functions, the occurrences and abundances of specific protective genes involved in the glutathione metabolism, the SoxRS system, the OxyR system, RpoS regulated genes, and the production/degradation of extracellular polymeric substances were also evaluated. A near-complete and low-contamination draft genome was constructed from the metagenome of the DW biofilm, based on the coverage and tetranucleotide frequencies, and identified as a Bradyrhizobiaceae-like bacterium according to a phylogenetic analysis. Our findings provide new insight into DW biofilms, especially in terms of their metabolic functions.

  8. Single-cell gene expression profiling reveals functional heterogeneity of undifferentiated human epidermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, David W. M.; Jensen, Kim B.; Trotter, Matthew W. B.; Connelly, John T.; Broad, Simon; Watt, Fiona M.

    2013-01-01

    Human epidermal stem cells express high levels of β1 integrins, delta-like 1 (DLL1) and the EGFR antagonist LRIG1. However, there is cell-to-cell variation in the relative abundance of DLL1 and LRIG1 mRNA transcripts. Single-cell global gene expression profiling showed that undifferentiated cells fell into two clusters delineated by expression of DLL1 and its binding partner syntenin. The DLL1+ cluster had elevated expression of genes associated with endocytosis, integrin-mediated adhesion and receptor tyrosine kinase signalling. Differentially expressed genes were not independently regulated, as overexpression of DLL1 alone or together with LRIG1 led to the upregulation of other genes in the DLL1+ cluster. Overexpression of DLL1 and LRIG1 resulted in enhanced extracellular matrix adhesion and increased caveolin-dependent EGFR endocytosis. Further characterisation of CD46, one of the genes upregulated in the DLL1+ cluster, revealed it to be a novel cell surface marker of human epidermal stem cells. Cells with high endogenous levels of CD46 expressed high levels of β1 integrin and DLL1 and were highly adhesive and clonogenic. Knockdown of CD46 decreased proliferative potential and β1 integrin-mediated adhesion. Thus, the previously unknown heterogeneity revealed by our studies results in differences in the interaction of undifferentiated basal keratinocytes with their environment. PMID:23482486

  9. Functional Screening of Hydrolytic Activities Reveals an Extremely Thermostable Cellulase from a Deep-Sea Archaeon

    PubMed Central

    Leis, Benedikt; Heinze, Simon; Angelov, Angel; Pham, Vu Thuy Trang; Thürmer, Andrea; Jebbar, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N.; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Daniel, Rolf; Liebl, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Extreme habitats serve as a source of enzymes that are active under extreme conditions and are candidates for industrial applications. In this work, six large-insert mixed genomic libraries were screened for hydrolase activities in a broad temperature range (8–70°C). Among a variety of hydrolytic activities, one fosmid clone, derived from a library of pooled isolates of hyperthermophilic archaea from deep sea vents, displayed hydrolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose substrate plates at 70°C but not at lower temperatures. Sequence analysis of the fosmid insert revealed a gene encoding a novel glycoside hydrolase family 12 (GHF12) endo-1,4-β-glucanase, termed Cel12E. The enzyme shares 45% sequence identity with a protein from the archaeon Thermococcus sp. AM4 and displays a unique multidomain architecture. Biochemical characterization of Cel12E revealed a remarkably thermostable protein, which appears to be of archaeal origin. The enzyme displayed maximum activity at 92°C and was active on a variety of linear 1,4-β-glucans like carboxymethyl cellulose, β-glucan, lichenan, and phosphoric acid swollen cellulose. The protein is able to bind to various insoluble β-glucans. Product pattern analysis indicated that Cel12E is an endo-cleaving β-glucanase. Cel12E expands the toolbox of hyperthermostable archaeal cellulases with biotechnological potential. PMID:26191525

  10. Can sliding-window correlations reveal dynamic functional connectivity in resting-state fMRI?

    PubMed

    Hindriks, R; Adhikari, M H; Murayama, Y; Ganzetti, M; Mantini, D; Logothetis, N K; Deco, G

    2016-02-15

    During the last several years, the focus of research on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shifted from the analysis of functional connectivity averaged over the duration of scanning sessions to the analysis of changes of functional connectivity within sessions. Although several studies have reported the presence of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), statistical assessment of the results is not always carried out in a sound way and, in some studies, is even omitted. In this study, we explain why appropriate statistical tests are needed to detect dFC, we describe how they can be carried out and how to assess the performance of dFC measures, and we illustrate the methodology using spontaneous blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI recordings of macaque monkeys under general anesthesia and in human subjects under resting-state conditions. We mainly focus on sliding-window correlations since these are most widely used in assessing dFC, but also consider a recently proposed non-linear measure. The simulations and methodology, however, are general and can be applied to any measure. The results are twofold. First, through simulations, we show that in typical resting-state sessions of 10 min, it is almost impossible to detect dFC using sliding-window correlations. This prediction is validated by both the macaque and the human data: in none of the individual recording sessions was evidence for dFC found. Second, detection power can be considerably increased by session- or subject-averaging of the measures. In doing so, we found that most of the functional connections are in fact dynamic. With this study, we hope to raise awareness of the statistical pitfalls in the assessment of dFC and how they can be avoided by using appropriate statistical methods. PMID:26631813

  11. Distinct functional roles of cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations revealed by a 3D simulation model.

    PubMed

    Hatano, Asuka; Okada, Jun-Ichi; Washio, Takumi; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-06-01

    Experimental characterization of two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations, namely, subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM), has been hampered by technical difficulties, and an alternative approach is eagerly awaited. We previously developed a three-dimensional computational cardiomyocyte model that integrates electrophysiology, metabolism, and mechanics with subcellular structure. In this study, we further developed our model to include intracellular oxygen diffusion, and determined whether mitochondrial localization or intrinsic properties cause functional variations. For this purpose, we created two models: one with equal SSM and IFM properties and one with IFM having higher activity levels. Using these two models to compare the SSM and IFM responses of [Ca(2+)], tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, [NADH], and mitochondrial inner membrane potential to abrupt changes in pacing frequency (0.25-2 Hz), we found that the reported functional differences between these subpopulations appear to be mostly related to local [Ca(2+)] heterogeneity, and variations in intrinsic properties only serve to augment these differences. We also examined the effect of hypoxia on mitochondrial function. Under normoxic conditions, intracellular oxygen is much higher throughout the cell than the half-saturation concentration for oxidative phosphorylation. However, under limited oxygen supply, oxygen is mostly exhausted in SSM, leaving the core region in an anoxic condition. Reflecting this heterogeneous oxygen environment, the inner membrane potential continues to decrease in IFM, whereas it is maintained to nearly normal levels in SSM, thereby ensuring ATP supply to this region. Our simulation results provide clues to understanding the origin of functional variations in two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations and their differential roles in maintaining cardiomyocyte function as a whole. PMID:26039174

  12. Functional genomic screen and network analysis reveal novel modifiers of tauopathy dissociated from tau phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Ambegaokar, Surendra S.; Jackson, George R.

    2011-01-01

    A functional genetic screen using loss-of-function and gain-of-function alleles was performed to identify modifiers of tau-induced neurotoxicity using the 2N/4R (full-length) isoform of wild-type human tau expressed in the fly retina. We previously reported eye pigment mutations, which create dysfunctional lysosomes, as potent modifiers; here, we report 37 additional genes identified from ∼1900 genes screened, including the kinases shaggy/GSK-3beta, par-1/MARK, CamKI and Mekk1. Tau acts synergistically with Mekk1 and p38 to down-regulate extracellular regulated kinase activity, with a corresponding decrease in AT8 immunoreactivity (pS202/T205), suggesting that tau can participate in signaling pathways to regulate its own kinases. Modifiers showed poor correlation with tau phosphorylation (using the AT8, 12E8 and AT270 epitopes); moreover, tested suppressors of wild-type tau were equally effective in suppressing toxicity of a phosphorylation-resistant S11A tau construct, demonstrating that changes in tau phosphorylation state are not required to suppress or enhance its toxicity. Genes related to autophagy, the cell cycle, RNA-associated proteins and chromatin-binding proteins constitute a large percentage of identified modifiers. Other functional categories identified include mitochondrial proteins, lipid trafficking, Golgi proteins, kinesins and dynein and the Hsp70/Hsp90-organizing protein (Hop). Network analysis uncovered several other genes highly associated with the functional modifiers, including genes related to the PI3K, Notch, BMP/TGF-β and Hedgehog pathways, and nuclear trafficking. Activity of GSK-3β is strongly upregulated due to TDP-43 expression, and reduced GSK-3β dosage is also a common suppressor of Aβ42 and TDP-43 toxicity. These findings suggest therapeutic targets other than mitigation of tau phosphorylation. PMID:21949350

  13. Can sliding-window correlations reveal dynamic functional connectivity in resting-state fMRI?

    PubMed Central

    Hindriks, R.; Adhikari, M.H.; Murayama, Y.; Ganzetti, M.; Mantini, D.; Logothetis, N.K.; Deco, G.

    2016-01-01

    During the last several years, the focus of research on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has shifted from the analysis of functional connectivity averaged over the duration of scanning sessions to the analysis of changes of functional connectivity within sessions. Although several studies have reported the presence of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC), statistical assessment of the results is not always carried out in a sound way and, in some studies, is even omitted. In this study, we explain why appropriate statistical tests are needed to detect dFC, we describe how they can be carried out and how to assess the performance of dFC measures, and we illustrate the methodology using spontaneous blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI recordings of macaque monkeys under general anesthesia and in human subjects under resting-state conditions. We mainly focus on sliding-window correlations since these are most widely used in assessing dFC, but also consider a recently proposed non-linear measure. The simulations and methodology, however, are general and can be applied to any measure. The results are twofold. First, through simulations, we show that in typical resting-state sessions of 10 min, it is almost impossible to detect dFC using sliding-window correlations. This prediction is validated by both the macaque and the human data: in none of the individual recording sessions was evidence for dFC found. Second, detection power can be considerably increased by session- or subject-averaging of the measures. In doing so, we found that most of the functional connections are in fact dynamic. With this study, we hope to raise awareness of the statistical pitfalls in the assessment of dFC and how they can be avoided by using appropriate statistical methods. PMID:26631813

  14. High frequency functional brain networks in neonates revealed by rapid acquisition resting state fMRI.

    PubMed

    Smith-Collins, Adam P R; Luyt, Karen; Heep, Axel; Kauppinen, Risto A

    2015-07-01

    Understanding how spatially remote brain regions interact to form functional brain networks, and how these develop during the neonatal period, provides fundamental insights into normal brain development, and how mechanisms of brain disorder and recovery may function in the immature brain. A key imaging tool in characterising functional brain networks is examination of T2*-weighted fMRI signal during rest (resting state fMRI, rs-fMRI). The majority of rs-fMRI studies have concentrated on slow signal fluctuations occurring at <0.1 Hz, even though neuronal rhythms, and haemodynamic responses to these fluctuate more rapidly, and there is emerging evidence for crucial information about functional brain connectivity occurring more rapidly than these limits. The characterisation of higher frequency components has been limited by the sampling frequency achievable with standard T2* echoplanar imaging (EPI) sequences. We describe patterns of neonatal functional brain network connectivity derived using accelerated T2*-weighted EPI MRI. We acquired whole brain rs-fMRI data, at subsecond sampling frequency, from preterm infants at term equivalent age and compared this to rs-fMRI data acquired with standard EPI acquisition protocol. We provide the first evidence that rapid rs-fMRI acquisition in neonates, and adoption of an extended frequency range for analysis, allows identification of a substantial proportion of signal power residing above 0.2 Hz. We thereby describe changes in brain connectivity associated with increasing maturity which are not evident using standard rs-fMRI protocols. Development of optimised neonatal fMRI protocols, including use of high speed acquisition sequences, is crucial for understanding the physiology and pathophysiology of the developing brain. PMID:25787931

  15. Distinct Functional Roles of Cardiac Mitochondrial Subpopulations Revealed by a 3D Simulation Model

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Asuka; Okada, Jun-ichi; Washio, Takumi; Hisada, Toshiaki; Sugiura, Seiryo

    2015-01-01

    Experimental characterization of two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations, namely, subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and interfibrillar mitochondria (IFM), has been hampered by technical difficulties, and an alternative approach is eagerly awaited. We previously developed a three-dimensional computational cardiomyocyte model that integrates electrophysiology, metabolism, and mechanics with subcellular structure. In this study, we further developed our model to include intracellular oxygen diffusion, and determined whether mitochondrial localization or intrinsic properties cause functional variations. For this purpose, we created two models: one with equal SSM and IFM properties and one with IFM having higher activity levels. Using these two models to compare the SSM and IFM responses of [Ca2+], tricarboxylic acid cycle activity, [NADH], and mitochondrial inner membrane potential to abrupt changes in pacing frequency (0.25–2 Hz), we found that the reported functional differences between these subpopulations appear to be mostly related to local [Ca2+] heterogeneity, and variations in intrinsic properties only serve to augment these differences. We also examined the effect of hypoxia on mitochondrial function. Under normoxic conditions, intracellular oxygen is much higher throughout the cell than the half-saturation concentration for oxidative phosphorylation. However, under limited oxygen supply, oxygen is mostly exhausted in SSM, leaving the core region in an anoxic condition. Reflecting this heterogeneous oxygen environment, the inner membrane potential continues to decrease in IFM, whereas it is maintained to nearly normal levels in SSM, thereby ensuring ATP supply to this region. Our simulation results provide clues to understanding the origin of functional variations in two cardiac mitochondrial subpopulations and their differential roles in maintaining cardiomyocyte function as a whole. PMID:26039174

  16. Variation analysis of transcriptome changes reveals cochlear genes and their associated functions in cochlear susceptibility to acoustic overstimulation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuzhi; Cai, Qunfeng; Bard, Jonathan; Jamison, Jennifer; Wang, Jianmin; Yang, Weiping; Hu, Bo Hua

    2015-12-01

    Individual variation in the susceptibility of the auditory system to acoustic overstimulation has been well-documented at both the functional and structural levels. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for this variation is unclear. The current investigation was designed to examine the variation patterns of cochlear gene expression using RNA-seq data and to identify the genes with expression variation that increased following acoustic trauma. This study revealed that the constitutive expressions of cochlear genes displayed diverse levels of gene-specific variation. These variation patterns were altered by acoustic trauma; approximately one-third of the examined genes displayed marked increases in their expression variation. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that the genes that exhibited increased variation were functionally related to cell death, biomolecule metabolism, and membrane function. In contrast, the stable genes were primarily related to basic cellular processes, including protein and macromolecular syntheses and transport. There was no functional overlap between the stable and variable genes. Importantly, we demonstrated that glutamate metabolism is related to the variation in the functional response of the cochlea to acoustic overstimulation. Taken together, the results indicate that our analyses of the individual variations in transcriptome changes of cochlear genes provide important information for the identification of genes that potentially contribute to the generation of individual variation in cochlear responses to acoustic overstimulation. PMID:26024952

  17. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Grover, Amit; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Giustacchini, Alice; Gambardella, Adriana; Macaulay, Iain; Mancini, Elena; Luis, Tiago C; Mead, Adam; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC transcriptomes and HSC function at the single-cell level, we identify increased molecular platelet priming and functional platelet bias as the predominant age-dependent change to HSCs, including a significant increase in a previously unrecognized class of HSCs that exclusively produce platelets. Depletion of HSC platelet programming through loss of the FOG-1 transcription factor is accompanied by increased lymphoid output. Therefore, increased platelet bias may contribute to the age-associated decrease in lymphopoiesis. PMID:27009448

  18. A genome-wide screen for genes affecting eisosomes reveals Nce102 function in sphingolipid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Florian; Moreira, Karen; Aguilar, Pablo S.; Hubner, Nina C.; Mann, Matthias; Walter, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The protein and lipid composition of eukaryotic plasma membranes is highly dynamic and regulated according to need. The sphingolipid-responsive Pkh kinases are candidates for mediating parts of this regulation, as they affect a diverse set of plasma membrane functions, such as cortical actin patch organization, efficient endocytosis, and eisosome assembly. Eisosomes are large protein complexes underlying the plasma membrane and help to sort a group of membrane proteins into distinct domains. In this study, we identify Nce102 in a genome-wide screen for genes involved in eisosome organization and Pkh kinase signaling. Nce102 accumulates in membrane domains at eisosomes where Pkh kinases also localize. The relative abundance of Nce102 in these domains compared with the rest of the plasma membrane is dynamically regulated by sphingolipids. Furthermore, Nce102 inhibits Pkh kinase signaling and is required for plasma membrane organization. Therefore, Nce102 might act as a sensor of sphingolipids that regulates plasma membrane function. PMID:19564405

  19. Amino acid coevolution reveals three-dimensional structure and functional domains of insect odorant receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Thomas A.; Morinaga, Satoshi; Ihara, Sayoko; Touhara, Kazushige; Marks, Debora S.; Benton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Insect Odorant Receptors (ORs) comprise an enormous protein family that translates environmental chemical signals into neuronal electrical activity. These heptahelical receptors are proposed to function as ligand-gated ion channels and/or to act metabotropically as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Resolving their signalling mechanism has been hampered by the lack of tertiary structural information and primary sequence similarity to other proteins. We use amino acid evolutionary covariation across these ORs to define restraints on structural proximity of residue pairs, which permit de novo generation of three-dimensional models. The validity of our analysis is supported by the location of functionally important residues in highly constrained regions of the protein. Importantly, insect OR models exhibit a distinct transmembrane domain packing arrangement to that of canonical GPCRs, establishing the structural unrelatedness of these receptor families. The evolutionary couplings and models predict odour binding and ion conduction domains, and provide a template for rationale structure-activity dissection. PMID:25584517

  20. Single-cell RNA sequencing reveals molecular and functional platelet bias of aged haematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Amit; Sanjuan-Pla, Alejandra; Thongjuea, Supat; Carrelha, Joana; Giustacchini, Alice; Gambardella, Adriana; Macaulay, Iain; Mancini, Elena; Luis, Tiago C.; Mead, Adam; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Nerlov, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Aged haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate more myeloid cells and fewer lymphoid cells compared with young HSCs, contributing to decreased adaptive immunity in aged individuals. However, it is not known how intrinsic changes to HSCs and shifts in the balance between biased HSC subsets each contribute to the altered lineage output. Here, by analysing HSC transcriptomes and HSC function at the single-cell level, we identify increased molecular platelet priming and functional platelet bias as the predominant age-dependent change to HSCs, including a significant increase in a previously unrecognized class of HSCs that exclusively produce platelets. Depletion of HSC platelet programming through loss of the FOG-1 transcription factor is accompanied by increased lymphoid output. Therefore, increased platelet bias may contribute to the age-associated decrease in lymphopoiesis. PMID:27009448

  1. Community Structure Reveals Biologically Functional Modules in MEF2C Transcriptional Regulatory Network

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Corona, Sergio A.; Velázquez-Caldelas, Tadeo E.; Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks are useful to understand the activity behind the complex mechanisms in transcriptional regulation. A main goal in contemporary biology is using such networks to understand the systemic regulation of gene expression. In this work, we carried out a systematic study of a transcriptional regulatory network derived from a comprehensive selection of all potential transcription factor interactions downstream from MEF2C, a human transcription factor master regulator. By analyzing the connectivity structure of such network, we were able to find different biologically functional processes and specific biochemical pathways statistically enriched in communities of genes into the network, such processes are related to cell signaling, cell cycle and metabolism. In this way we further support the hypothesis that structural properties of biological networks encode an important part of their functional behavior in eukaryotic cells. PMID:27252657

  2. Feeding characteristics reveal functional distinctions among browsing herbivorous fishes on coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Robert P.; Hoey, Andrew S.; Bellwood, David R.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of macroalgal biomass by fishes is a key process on coral reefs. Numerous studies have identified the fish species responsible for removing mature macroalgae, and have identified how this varies spatially, temporally, and among different algal types. None, however, have considered the behavioural and morphological traits of the browsing fishes and how this may influence the removal of macroalgal material. Using video observations of fish feeding on the brown macroalga Sargassum polycystum, we quantified the feeding behaviour and morphology of the four dominant browsing species on the Great Barrier Reef ( Kyphosus vaigiensis, Naso unicornis, Siganus canaliculatus, and Siganus doliatus). The greatest distinction between species was the algal material they targeted. K. vaigiensis and N. unicornis bit on the entire macroalgal thallus in approximately 90 % of bites. In contrast, Si. canaliculatus and Si. doliatus avoided biting the stalks, with 80-98 % of bites being on the macroalgal leaves only. This distinctive grouping into `entire thallus-biters' versus `leaf-biters' was not supported by size-standardized measures of biting morphology. Rather, species-specific adult body sizes, tooth shape, and feeding behaviour appear to underpin this functional distinction, with adults of the two larger fish species ( N. unicornis and K. vaigiensis) eating the entire macroalgal thallus, while the two smaller species ( Si. canaliculatus and Si. doliatus) bite only leaves. These findings caution against assumed homogeneity within this, and potentially other, functional groups on coral reefs. As functional redundancy within the macroalgal browsers is limited, the smaller `leaf-biting' species are unlikely to be able to compensate functionally for the loss of larger `entire thallus-biting' species.

  3. Analysis of spliceosomal proteins in Trypanosomatids reveals novel functions in mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    Tkacz, Itai Dov; Gupta, Sachin Kumar; Volkov, Vadim; Romano, Mali; Haham, Tomer; Tulinski, Pawel; Lebenthal, Ilana; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2010-09-01

    In trypanosomatids, all mRNAs are processed via trans-splicing, although cis-splicing also occurs. In trans-splicing, a common small exon, the spliced leader (SL), which is derived from a small SL RNA species, is added to all mRNAs. Sm and Lsm proteins are core proteins that bind to U snRNAs and are essential for both these splicing processes. In this study, SmD3- and Lsm3-associated complexes were purified to homogeneity from Leishmania tarentolae. The purified complexes were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and 54 and 39 proteins were purified from SmD3 and Lsm complexes, respectively. Interestingly, among the proteins purified from Lsm3, no mRNA degradation factors were detected, as in Lsm complexes from other eukaryotes. The U1A complex was purified and mass spectrometry analysis identified, in addition to U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) proteins, additional co-purified proteins, including the polyadenylation factor CPSF73. Defects observed in cells silenced for U1 snRNP proteins suggest that the U1 snRNP functions exclusively in cis-splicing, although U1A also participates in polyadenylation and affects trans-splicing. The study characterized several trypanosome-specific nuclear factors involved in snRNP biogenesis, whose function was elucidated in Trypanosoma brucei. Conserved factors, such as PRP19, which functions at the heart of every cis-spliceosome, also affect SL RNA modification; GEMIN2, a protein associated with SMN (survival of motor neurons) and implicated in selective association of U snRNA with core Sm proteins in trypanosomes, is a master regulator of snRNP assembly. This study demonstrates the existence of trypanosomatid-specific splicing factors but also that conserved snRNP proteins possess trypanosome-specific functions. PMID:20592024

  4. The Structure of a Gene Co-Expression Network Reveals Biological Functions Underlying eQTLs

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Liaubet, Laurence; Laurent, Thibault; Cherel, Pierre; Gamot, Adrien; SanCristobal, Magali

    2013-01-01

    What are the commonalities between genes, whose expression level is partially controlled by eQTL, especially with regard to biological functions? Moreover, how are these genes related to a phenotype of interest? These issues are particularly difficult to address when the genome annotation is incomplete, as is the case for mammalian species. Moreover, the direct link between gene expression and a phenotype of interest may be weak, and thus difficult to handle. In this framework, the use of a co-expression network has proven useful: it is a robust approach for modeling a complex system of genetic regulations, and to infer knowledge for yet unknown genes. In this article, a case study was conducted with a mammalian species. It showed that the use of a co-expression network based on partial correlation, combined with a relevant clustering of nodes, leads to an enrichment of biological functions of around 83%. Moreover, the use of a spatial statistics approach allowed us to superimpose additional information related to a phenotype; this lead to highlighting specific genes or gene clusters that are related to the network structure and the phenotype. Three main results are worth noting: first, key genes were highlighted as a potential focus for forthcoming biological experiments; second, a set of biological functions, which support a list of genes under partial eQTL control, was set up by an overview of the global structure of the gene expression network; third, pH was found correlated with gene clusters, and then with related biological functions, as a result of a spatial analysis of the network topology. PMID:23577081

  5. The structure of a gene co-expression network reveals biological functions underlying eQTLs.

    PubMed

    Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Liaubet, Laurence; Laurent, Thibault; Cherel, Pierre; Gamot, Adrien; SanCristobal, Magali

    2013-01-01

    What are the commonalities between genes, whose expression level is partially controlled by eQTL, especially with regard to biological functions? Moreover, how are these genes related to a phenotype of interest? These issues are particularly difficult to address when the genome annotation is incomplete, as is the case for mammalian species. Moreover, the direct link between gene expression and a phenotype of interest may be weak, and thus difficult to handle. In this framework, the use of a co-expression network has proven useful: it is a robust approach for modeling a complex system of genetic regulations, and to infer knowledge for yet unknown genes. In this article, a case study was conducted with a mammalian species. It showed that the use of a co-expression network based on partial correlation, combined with a relevant clustering of nodes, leads to an enrichment of biological functions of around 83%. Moreover, the use of a spatial statistics approach allowed us to superimpose additional information related to a phenotype; this lead to highlighting specific genes or gene clusters that are related to the network structure and the phenotype. Three main results are worth noting: first, key genes were highlighted as a potential focus for forthcoming biological experiments; second, a set of biological functions, which support a list of genes under partial eQTL control, was set up by an overview of the global structure of the gene expression network; third, pH was found correlated with gene clusters, and then with related biological functions, as a result of a spatial analysis of the network topology. PMID:23577081

  6. Brain neural synchronization and functional coupling in Alzheimer's disease as revealed by resting state EEG rhythms.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Lizio, Roberta; Marzano, Nicola; Capotosto, Paolo; Soricelli, Andrea; Triggiani, Antonio Ivano; Cordone, Susanna; Gesualdo, Loreto; Del Percio, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of neurodegenerative disorder, typically causing dementia along aging. AD is mainly characterized by a pathological extracellular accumulation of amyloid-beta peptides that affects excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission, inducing aberrant patterns in neuronal circuits. Growing evidence shows that AD targets cortical neuronal networks related to cognitive functions including episodic memory and visuospatial attention. This is partially reflected by the abnormal mechanisms of cortical neural synchronization and coupling that generate resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. The cortical neural synchronization is typically indexed by EEG power density. The EEG coupling between electrode pairs probes functional (inter-relatedness of EEG signals) and effective (casual effect from one over the other electrode) connectivity. The former is typically indexed by synchronization likelihood (linear and nonlinear) or spectral coherence (linear), the latter by granger causality or information theory indexes. Here we reviewed literature concerning EEG studies in condition of resting state in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects as a window on abnormalities of the cortical neural synchronization and functional and effective connectivity. Results showed abnormalities of the EEG power density at specific frequency bands (<12Hz) in the MCI and AD populations, associated with an altered functional and effective EEG connectivity among long range cortical networks (i.e. fronto-parietal and fronto-temporal). These results suggest that resting state EEG rhythms reflect the abnormal cortical neural synchronization and coupling in the brain of prodromal and overt AD subjects, possibly reflecting dysfunctional neuroplasticity of the neural transmission in long range cortical networks. PMID:25660305

  7. Probabilistic modelling of chromatin code landscape reveals functional diversity of enhancer-like chromatin states

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Troyanskaya, Olga G.

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the functional state of chromatin from the combinatorial binding patterns of chromatin factors, that is, the chromatin codes, is crucial for decoding the epigenetic state of the cell. Here we present a systematic map of Drosophila chromatin states derived from data-driven probabilistic modelling of dependencies between chromatin factors. Our model not only recapitulates enhancer-like chromatin states as indicated by widely used enhancer marks but also divides these states into three functionally distinct groups, of which only one specific group possesses active enhancer activity. Moreover, we discover a strong association between one specific enhancer state and RNA Polymerase II pausing, linking transcription regulatory potential and chromatin organization. We also observe that with the exception of long-intron genes, chromatin state transition positions in transcriptionally active genes align with an absolute distance to their corresponding transcription start site, regardless of gene length. Using our method, we provide a resource that helps elucidate the functional and spatial organization of the chromatin code landscape. PMID:26841971

  8. Psychophysical "blinding" methods reveal a functional hierarchy of unconscious visual processing.

    PubMed

    Breitmeyer, Bruno G

    2015-09-01

    Numerous non-invasive experimental "blinding" methods exist for suppressing the phenomenal awareness of visual stimuli. Not all of these suppressive methods occur at, and thus index, the same level of unconscious visual processing. This suggests that a functional hierarchy of unconscious visual processing can in principle be established. The empirical results of extant studies that have used a number of different methods and additional reasonable theoretical considerations suggest the following tentative hierarchy. At the highest levels in this hierarchy is unconscious processing indexed by object-substitution masking. The functional levels indexed by crowding, the attentional blink (and other attentional blinding methods), backward pattern masking, metacontrast masking, continuous flash suppression, sandwich masking, and single-flash interocular suppression, fall at progressively lower levels, while unconscious processing at the lowest levels is indexed by eye-based binocular-rivalry suppression. Although unconscious processing levels indexed by additional blinding methods is yet to be determined, a tentative placement at lower levels in the hierarchy is also given for unconscious processing indexed by Troxler fading and adaptation-induced blindness, and at higher levels in the hierarchy indexed by attentional blinding effects in addition to the level indexed by the attentional blink. The full mapping of levels in the functional hierarchy onto cortical activation sites and levels is yet to be determined. The existence of such a hierarchy bears importantly on the search for, and the distinctions between, neural correlates of conscious and unconscious vision. PMID:25704454

  9. Role of Survivin in cytokinesis revealed by a separation-of-function allele

    PubMed Central

    Szafer-Glusman, Edith; Fuller, Margaret T.; Giansanti, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), containing Aurora B kinase, Inner Centromere Protein, Survivin, and Borealin, regulates chromosome condensation and interaction between kinetochores and microtubules at metaphase, then relocalizes to midzone microtubules at anaphase and regulates central spindle organization and cytokinesis. However, the precise role(s) played by the CPC in anaphase have been obscured by its prior functions in metaphase. Here we identify a missense allele of Drosophila Survivin that allows CPC localization and function during metaphase but not cytokinesis. Analysis of mutant cells showed that Survivin is essential to target the CPC and the mitotic kinesin-like protein 1 orthologue Pavarotti (Pav) to the central spindle and equatorial cell cortex during anaphase in both larval neuroblasts and spermatocytes. Survivin also enabled localization of Polo kinase and Rho at the equatorial cortex in spermatocytes, critical for contractile ring assembly. In neuroblasts, in contrast, Survivin function was not required for localization of Rho, Polo, or Myosin II to a broad equatorial cortical band but was required for Myosin II to transition to a compact, fully constricted ring. Analysis of this “separation-of-function” allele demonstrates the direct role of Survivin and the CPC in cytokinesis and highlights striking differences in regulation of cytokinesis in different cell systems. PMID:21865602

  10. The pseudogenes of Mycobacterium leprae reveal the functional relevance of gene order within operons.

    PubMed

    Muro, Enrique M; Mah, Nancy; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2011-03-01

    Almost 50 years following the discovery of the prokaryotic operon, the functional relevance of gene order within operons remains unclear. In this work, we take advantage of the eroded genome of Mycobacterium leprae to add evidence supporting the notion that functionally less important genes have a tendency to be located at the end of its operons. M. leprae's genome includes 1133 pseudogenes and 1614 protein-coding genes and can be compared with the close genome of M. tuberculosis. Assuming M. leprae's pseudogenes to represent dispensable genes, we have studied the position of these pseudogenes in the operons of M. leprae and of their orthologs in M. tuberculosis. We observed that both tend to be located in the 3' (downstream) half of the operon (P-values of 0.03 and 0.18, respectively). Analysis of pseudogenes in all available prokaryotic genomes confirms this trend (P-value of 7.1 × 10(-7)). In a complementary analysis, we found a significant tendency for essential genes to be located at the 5' (upstream) half of the operon (P-value of 0.006). Our work provides an indication that, in prokarya, functionally less important genes have a tendency to be located at the end of operons, while more relevant genes tend to be located toward operon starts. PMID:21051341

  11. The pseudogenes of Mycobacterium leprae reveal the functional relevance of gene order within operons

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Enrique M.; Mah, Nancy; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Almost 50 years following the discovery of the prokaryotic operon, the functional relevance of gene order within operons remains unclear. In this work, we take advantage of the eroded genome of Mycobacterium leprae to add evidence supporting the notion that functionally less important genes have a tendency to be located at the end of its operons. M. leprae’s genome includes 1133 pseudogenes and 1614 protein-coding genes and can be compared with the close genome of M. tuberculosis. Assuming M. leprae’s pseudogenes to represent dispensable genes, we have studied the position of these pseudogenes in the operons of M. leprae and of their orthologs in M. tuberculosis. We observed that both tend to be located in the 3′ (downstream) half of the operon (P-values of 0.03 and 0.18, respectively). Analysis of pseudogenes in all available prokaryotic genomes confirms this trend (P-value of 7.1 × 10−7). In a complementary analysis, we found a significant tendency for essential genes to be located at the 5′ (upstream) half of the operon (P-value of 0.006). Our work provides an indication that, in prokarya, functionally less important genes have a tendency to be located at the end of operons, while more relevant genes tend to be located toward operon starts. PMID:21051341

  12. The functional micro-organization of grid cells revealed by cellular-resolution imaging

    PubMed Central

    Heys, James G.; Rangarajan, Krsna V.; Dombeck, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Establishing how grid cells are anatomically arranged, on a microscopic scale, in relation to their firing patterns in the environment would facilitate a greater micro-circuit level understanding of the brain’s representation of space. However, all previous grid cell recordings used electrode techniques that provide limited descriptions of fine-scale organization. We therefore developed a technique for cellular-resolution functional imaging of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) neurons in mice navigating a virtual linear track, enabling a new experimental approach to study MEC. Using these methods, we show that grid cells are physically clustered in MEC compared to non-grid cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that grid cells are functionally micro-organized: The similarity between the environment firing locations of grid cell pairs varies as a function of the distance between them according to a “Mexican Hat” shaped profile. This suggests that, on average, nearby grid cells have more similar spatial firing phases than those further apart. PMID:25467986

  13. Nitrogen niches revealed through species and functional group removal in a boreal shrub community.

    PubMed

    Gundale, Michael J; Hyodo, Fujio; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    Most theories attempting to explain the coexistence of species in local communities make fundamental assumptions regarding whether neighbors exhibit competitive, neutral, or positive resource-use interactions; however, few long-term data from naturally assembled plant communities exist to test these assumptions. We utilized a 13-year experiment consisting of factorial removal of three shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and factorial removal of two functional groups (tree roots and feather mosses) to assess how neighbors affect N acquisition and growth of each of the three shrub species. The removal plots were established on each of 30 lake islands in northern Sweden that form a natural gradient of resource availability. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) the presence of functionally similar neighbors would reduce shrub N acquisition through competition for a shared N resource; (2) the removal of functional groups would affect shrub N acquisition by altering the breadth of their niches; and (3) soil fertility would influence the effects of neighbor removals. We found that the removal of functionally similar neighbors (i.e., other shrub species) usually resulted in higher biomass and biomass N, with the strength of these effects varying strongly with site fertility. Shrub species removals never resulted in altered stable N isotope ratios (delta(15)N), suggesting that the niche breadth of the three shrubs was unaffected by the presence of neighboring shrub species. In the functional group removal experiment, we found positive effects of feather moss removal on V. myrtillus biomass and biomass N, and negative effects on E. hermaphrotium N concentration and V. vitis-idaea biomass and biomass N. Tree root removal also caused a significant shift in foliar delta(15)N of V. myrtillus and altered the delta(15)N, biomass, and biomass N of E. hermaphroditum. Collectively, these results show that the resource acquisition and niche

  14. Fosmid-Based Structure-Function Analysis Reveals Functionally Distinct Domains in the Cytoplasmic Domain of Drosophila Crumbs

    PubMed Central

    Klose, Sven; Flores-Benitez, David; Riedel, Falko; Knust, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved transmembrane protein Crumbs is required for epithelial polarity and morphogenesis in the embryo, control of tissue size in imaginal discs and morphogenesis of photoreceptor cells, and prevents light-dependent retinal degeneration. The small cytoplasmic domain contains two highly conserved regions, a FERM (i.e., protein 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin)-binding and a PDZ (i.e., postsynaptic density/discs large/ZO-1)-binding domain. Using a fosmid-based transgenomic approach, we analyzed the role of the two domains during invagination of the tracheae and the salivary glands in the Drosophila embryo. We provide data to show that the PDZ-binding domain is essential for the maintenance of cell polarity in both tissues. In contrast, in embryos expressing a Crumbs protein with an exchange of a conserved Tyrosine residue in the FERM-binding domain to an Alanine, both tissues are internalized, despite some initial defects in apical constriction, phospho-Moesin recruitment, and coordinated invagination movements. However, at later stages these embryos fail to undergo dorsal closure, germ band retraction, and head involution. In addition, frequent defects in tracheal fusion were observed. These results suggest stage and/or tissue specific binding partners. We discuss the power of this fosmid-based system for detailed structure-function analyses in comparison to the UAS/Gal4 system. PMID:23390593

  15. In situ Expression of Functional Genes Reveals Nitrogen Cycling at High Temperatures in Terrestrial Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiacono, S. T.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    An essential element for life, nitrogen occurs in all living organisms and is critical for the synthesis of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other forms of biomass. Thus, nitrogen cycling likely plays a vital role in microbial metabolic processes as well as nutrient availability. For microorganisms in "extreme" environments, this means developing adaptations that allow them to survive in harsh conditions and still perform the metabolisms essential to sustain life. Recent studies have screened biofilms and thermal sediments of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) thermal features for the presence of nifH genes, which code for a key enzyme in the nitrogen fixation process [1-4]. Furthermore, analysis of nitrogen isotopes in biofilms across a temperature and chemical gradient revealed that nitrogen fixation likely varies across the chemosynthetic/photosynthetic ecotone [5]. Although research has evaluated and confirmed the presence of nifH genes in various thermophilic microbial communities, the existence of a gene in the DNA of an organism does not verify its use. Instead, other methods, such as culturing, isotope tracer assays, and gene expression studies are required to provide direct evidence of biological nitrogen fixation. Culturing and isotope tracer approaches have successfully revealed high-temperature biological nitrogen fixation in both marine hydrothermal vent microbial communities [6] and in acidic, terrestrial hydrothermal sediment [3]. Transcriptomics-based techniques (using mRNA extracted from samples to confirm in situ expression of targeted genes) have been much more limited in number, and only a few studies have, to date, investigated in situ expression of the nifH gene in thermophilic microbial communities [2, 7]. This study explores the presence and expression of nifH genes in several features of the Lower Geyser Basin (LGB) of YNP. Nucleic acids from chemosynthetic and photosynthetic microbial communities were extracted and then amplified

  16. A Novel Flow Cytometric HTS Assay Reveals Functional Modulators of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter ABCB6

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J.; Haynes, Mark K.; Bologa, Cristian G.; Oprea, Tudor I.; Tegos, George P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6’s ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity. PMID:22808084

  17. Fine mapping of the celiac disease-associated LPP locus reveals a potential functional variant

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rodrigo; Ricaño-Ponce, Isis; Kumar, Vinod; Deelen, Patrick; Szperl, Agata; Trynka, Gosia; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Westra, Harm-Jan; Franke, Lude; Swertz, Morris A.; Platteel, Mathieu; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Barisani, Donatella; Greco, Luigi; Mearin, Luisa; Wolters, Victorien M.; Mulder, Chris; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Sood, Ajit; Cukrowska, Bozena; Núñez, Concepción; Pratesi, Riccardo; Withoff, Sebo; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Using the Immunochip for genotyping, we identified 39 non-human leukocyte antigen (non-HLA) loci associated to celiac disease (CeD), an immune-mediated disease with a worldwide frequency of ∼1%. The most significant non-HLA signal mapped to the intronic region of 70 kb in the LPP gene. Our aim was to fine map and identify possible functional variants in the LPP locus. We performed a meta-analysis in a cohort of 25 169 individuals from six different populations previously genotyped using Immunochip. Imputation using data from the Genome of the Netherlands and 1000 Genomes projects, followed by meta-analysis, confirmed the strong association signal on the LPP locus (rs2030519, P = 1.79 × 10−49), without any novel associations. The conditional analysis on this top SNP-indicated association to a single common haplotype. By performing haplotype analyses in each population separately, as well as in a combined group of the four populations that reach the significant threshold after correction (P < 0.008), we narrowed down the CeD-associated region from 70 to 2.8 kb (P = 1.35 × 10−44). By intersecting regulatory data from the ENCODE project, we found a functional SNP, rs4686484 (P = 3.12 × 10−49), that maps to several B-cell enhancer elements and a highly conserved region. This SNP was also predicted to change the binding motif of the transcription factors IRF4, IRF11, Nkx2.7 and Nkx2.9, suggesting its role in transcriptional regulation. We later found significantly low levels of LPP mRNA in CeD biopsies compared with controls, thus our results suggest that rs4686484 is the functional variant in this locus, while LPP expression is decreased in CeD. PMID:24334606

  18. Roots Revealed - Neutron imaging insight of spatial distribution, morphology, growth and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, J.; Bilheux, H.; Kang, M.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C.; Horita, J.; Perfect, E.

    2013-05-01

    Root production, distribution and turnover are not easily measured, yet their dynamics are an essential part of understanding and modeling ecosystem response to changing environmental conditions. Root age, order, morphology and mycorrhizal associations all regulate root uptake of water and nutrients, which along with along with root distribution determines plant response to, and impact on its local environment. Our objectives were to demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor fine root distribution, root growth and root functionality in Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings using neutron imaging. Plants were propagated in aluminum chambers containing sand then placed into a high flux cold neutron beam line. Dynamics of root distribution and growth were assessed by collecting consecutive CCD radiographs through time. Root functionality was assessed by tracking individual root uptake of water (H2O) or deuterium oxide (D2O) through time. Since neutrons strongly scatter H atoms, but not D atoms, biological materials such as plants are prime candidates for neutron imaging. 2D and 3D neutron radiography readily illuminated root structure, root growth, and relative plant and soil water content. Fungal hyphae associated with the roots were also visible and appeared as dark masses since their diameter was likely several orders of magnitude less than ~100 μm resolution of the detector. The 2D pulse-chase irrigation experiments with H2O and D2O successfully allowed observation of uptake and mass flow of water within the root system. Water flux within individual roots responded differentially to foliar illumination based on internal water potential gradients, illustrating the ability to track root functionality based on root size, order and distribution within the soil. (L) neutron image of switchgrass growing in sandy soil with 100 μm diameter roots (R) 3D reconstruction of maize seedling following neutron tomography

  19. Computer Simulations Reveal Multiple Functions for Aromatic Residues in Cellulase Enzymes (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    NREL researchers use high-performance computing to demonstrate fundamental roles of aromatic residues in cellulase enzyme tunnels. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) computer simulations of a key industrial enzyme, the Trichoderma reesei Family 6 cellulase (Cel6A), predict that aromatic residues near the enzyme's active site and at the entrance and exit tunnel perform different functions in substrate binding and catalysis, depending on their location in the enzyme. These results suggest that nature employs aromatic-carbohydrate interactions with a wide variety of binding affinities for diverse functions. Outcomes also suggest that protein engineering strategies in which mutations are made around the binding sites may require tailoring specific to the enzyme family. Cellulase enzymes ubiquitously exhibit tunnels or clefts lined with aromatic residues for processing carbohydrate polymers to monomers, but the molecular-level role of these aromatic residues remains unknown. In silico mutation of the aromatic residues near the catalytic site of Cel6A has little impact on the binding affinity, but simulation suggests that these residues play a major role in the glucopyranose ring distortion necessary for cleaving glycosidic bonds to produce fermentable sugars. Removal of aromatic residues at the entrance and exit of the cellulase tunnel, however, dramatically impacts the binding affinity. This suggests that these residues play a role in acquiring cellulose chains from the cellulose crystal and stabilizing the reaction product, respectively. These results illustrate that the role of aromatic-carbohydrate interactions varies dramatically depending on the position in the enzyme tunnel. As aromatic-carbohydrate interactions are present in all carbohydrate-active enzymes, the results have implications for understanding protein structure-function relationships in carbohydrate metabolism and recognition, carbon turnover in nature, and protein engineering strategies for

  20. Thermodynamic Characterization of a Triheme Cytochrome Family from Geobacter sulfurreducens Reveals Mechanistic and Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Morgado, Leonor; Bruix, Marta; Pessanha, Miguel; Londer, Yuri Y.; Salgueiro, Carlos A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A family of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes (PpcA-E) was identified in Geobacter sulfurreducens, where they play a crucial role by driving electron transfer from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior and assisting the reduction of extracellular acceptors. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA using NMR and visible spectroscopies was previously achieved under experimental conditions identical to those used for the triheme cytochrome c7 from Desulfuromonas acetoxidans. Under such conditions, attempts to obtain NMR data were complicated by the relatively fast intermolecular electron exchange. This work reports the detailed thermodynamic characterization of PpcB, PpcD, and PpcE under optimal experimental conditions. The thermodynamic characterization of PpcA was redone under these new conditions to allow a proper comparison of the redox properties with those of other members of this family. The heme reduction potentials of the four proteins are negative, differ from each other, and cover different functional ranges. These reduction potentials are strongly modulated by heme-heme interactions and by interactions with protonated groups (the redox-Bohr effect) establishing different cooperative networks for each protein, which indicates that they are designed to perform different functions in the cell. PpcA and PpcD appear to be optimized to interact with specific redox partners involving e−/H+ transfer via different mechanisms. Although no evidence of preferential electron transfer pathway or e−/H+ coupling was found for PpcB and PpcE, the difference in their working potential ranges suggests that they may also have different physiological redox partners. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to characterize homologous cytochromes from the same microorganism and provide evidence of their different mechanistic and functional properties. These findings provide an explanation for the coexistence of five periplasmic triheme cytochromes in G

  1. The Hierarchical Structure of the Face Network Revealed by Its Functional Connectivity Pattern.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhen, Zonglei; Song, Yiying; Huang, Lijie; Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-20

    A major principle of human brain organization is "integrating" some regions into networks while "segregating" other sets of regions into separate networks. However, little is known about the cognitive function of the integration and segregation of brain networks. Here, we examined the well-studied brain network for face processing, and asked whether the integration and segregation of the face network (FN) are related to face recognition performance. To do so, we used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) and the between-network connectivity (BNC) of the FN. We found that 95.4% of voxels in the FN had a significantly stronger WNC than BNC, suggesting that the FN is a relatively encapsulated network. Importantly, individuals with a stronger WNC (i.e., integration) in the right fusiform face area were better at recognizing faces, whereas individuals with a weaker BNC (i.e., segregation) in the right occipital face area performed better in the face recognition tasks. In short, our study not only demonstrates the behavioral relevance of integration and segregation of the FN but also provides evidence supporting functional division of labor between the occipital face area and fusiform face area in the hierarchically organized FN. Significance statement: Although the integration and segregation are major principles of human brain organization, little is known about whether they support the cognitive processes. By correlating the within-network connectivity (WNC) and between-network connectivity (BNC) of the face network with face recognition performance, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right fusiform face area or weaker BNC in the right occipital face area were better at recognizing faces. Our study not only demonstrates the behavioral relevance of the integration and segregation but also provides evidence supporting functional division of labor between the

  2. Evolution of the snake body form reveals homoplasy in amniote Hox gene function.

    PubMed

    Head, Jason J; Polly, P David

    2015-04-01

    Hox genes regulate regionalization of the axial skeleton in vertebrates, and changes in their expression have been proposed to be a fundamental mechanism driving the evolution of new body forms. The origin of the snake-like body form, with its deregionalized pre-cloacal axial skeleton, has been explained as either homogenization of Hox gene expression domains, or retention of standard vertebrate Hox domains with alteration of downstream expression that suppresses development of distinct regions. Both models assume a highly regionalized ancestor, but the extent of deregionalization of the primaxial domain (vertebrae, dorsal ribs) of the skeleton in snake-like body forms has never been analysed. Here we combine geometric morphometrics and maximum-likelihood analysis to show that the pre-cloacal primaxial domain of elongate, limb-reduced lizards and snakes is not deregionalized compared with limbed taxa, and that the phylogenetic structure of primaxial morphology in reptiles does not support a loss of regionalization in the evolution of snakes. We demonstrate that morphometric regional boundaries correspond to mapped gene expression domains in snakes, suggesting that their primaxial domain is patterned by a normally functional Hox code. Comparison of primaxial osteology in fossil and modern amniotes with Hox gene distributions within Amniota indicates that a functional, sequentially expressed Hox code patterned a subtle morphological gradient along the anterior-posterior axis in stem members of amniote clades and extant lizards, including snakes. The highly regionalized skeletons of extant archosaurs and mammals result from independent evolution in the Hox code and do not represent ancestral conditions for clades with snake-like body forms. The developmental origin of snakes is best explained by decoupling of the primaxial and abaxial domains and by increases in somite number, not by changes in the function of primaxial Hox genes. PMID:25539083

  3. A Thirty-Year Survey Reveals That Ecosystem Function of Fungi Predicts Phenology of Mushroom Fruiting

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hirotoshi; Morimoto, Shigeo; Hattori, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Mushroom fruiting, the reproduction of fungi, has broad implications for forest health, terrestrial biomass turnover, and global carbon cycle. However, little is known about the difference in phenology and environmental drivers of mushroom fruiting between functional guilds, e.g., ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mutualists and saprotrophs (SAP). There is a remarkable difference between ECM and SAP fungi in their available carbon sources and lifecycles, and thus these fungal groups are likely to differ in fruiting phenology. We analyzed intra- and inter-annual phenological patterns of mushroom fruiting throughout the year using a long-term census dataset of mushroom-forming fungi in a Japanese oak forest in which a total of 11,923 mushroom counts (668 species) were recorded during monthly intervals from 1982 to 2011. ECM fungi showed a unimodal seasonal fruiting peak from mid-summer to early autumn; litter-decomposing fungi showed moderate fruiting peaks from early summer or early autumn, and the phenology of wood-decomposing fungi varied considerably among the genera. Each functional group was controlled by a different set of external factors; temperature and rainfall increased ECM fungal fruiting, but key factors substantially differed among the genera of litter- and wood-decomposing fungi in taxon-specific ways. Our results suggest that fungal fruiting phenology may be affected by the seasonality of carbohydrate availability. The highly scheduled reproduction of ECM fungi may reflect temperature-dependent increases and drought-induced decreases of photosynthetic activity in host plants rather than improved growth conditions for fungi during the summer. We argue that the way a fungus obtains carbohydrates may explain a substantial fraction of the fruiting phenology, which may make a differential contribution to the community structure of fungus-associated organisms and terrestrial biomass turnover based on fungal functional groups. PMID:23209598

  4. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L; Adams, Marvin E; Froehner, Stanley C

    2015-10-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26417069

  5. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Nicholas P.; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L.; Adams, Marvin E.; Froehner, Stanley C.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases. PMID:26417069

  6. Alanine scan of core positions in ubiquitin reveals links between dynamics, stability, and function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shirley Y; Pullen, Lester; Virgil, Daniel J; Castañeda, Carlos A; Abeykoon, Dulith; Bolon, Daniel N A; Fushman, David

    2014-04-01

    Mutations at solvent-inaccessible core positions in proteins can impact function through many biophysical mechanisms including alterations to thermodynamic stability and protein dynamics. As these properties of proteins are difficult to investigate, the impacts of core mutations on protein function are poorly understood for most systems. Here, we determined the effects of alanine mutations at all 15 core positions in ubiquitin on function in yeast. The majority (13 of 15) of alanine substitutions supported yeast growth as the sole ubiquitin. Both the two null mutants (I30A and L43A) were less stable to temperature-induced unfolding in vitro than wild type (WT) but were well folded at physiological temperatures. Heteronuclear NMR studies indicated that the L43A mutation reduces temperature stability while retaining a ground-state structure similar to WT. This structure enables L43A to bind to common ubiquitin receptors in vitro. Many of the core alanine ubiquitin mutants, including one of the null variants (I30A), exhibited an increased accumulation of high-molecular-weight species, suggesting that these mutants caused a defect in the processing of ubiquitin-substrate conjugates. In contrast, L43A exhibited a unique accumulation pattern with reduced levels of high-molecular-weight species and undetectable levels of free ubiquitin. When conjugation to other proteins was blocked, L43A ubiquitin accumulated as free ubiquitin in yeast. Based on these findings, we speculate that ubiquitin's stability to unfolding may be required for efficient recycling during proteasome-mediated substrate degradation. PMID:24361330

  7. Structural-Functional Analysis Reveals a Specific Domain Organization in Family GH20 Hexosaminidases

    PubMed Central

    Val-Cid, Cristina; Biarnés, Xevi; Faijes, Magda; Planas, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Hexosaminidases are involved in important biological processes catalyzing the hydrolysis of N-acetyl-hexosaminyl residues in glycosaminoglycans and glycoconjugates. The GH20 enzymes present diverse domain organizations for which we propose two minimal model architectures: Model A containing at least a non-catalytic GH20b domain and the catalytic one (GH20) always accompanied with an extra α-helix (GH20b-GH20-α), and Model B with only the catalytic GH20 domain. The large Bifidobacterium bifidum lacto-N-biosidase was used as a model protein to evaluate the minimal functional unit due to its interest and structural complexity. By expressing different truncated forms of this enzyme, we show that Model A architectures cannot be reduced to Model B. In particular, there are two structural requirements general to GH20 enzymes with Model A architecture. First, the non-catalytic domain GH20b at the N-terminus of the catalytic GH20 domain is required for expression and seems to stabilize it. Second, the substrate-binding cavity at the GH20 domain always involves a remote element provided by a long loop from the catalytic domain itself or, when this loop is short, by an element from another domain of the multidomain structure or from the dimeric partner. Particularly, the lacto-N-biosidase requires GH20b and the lectin-like domain at the N- and C-termini of the catalytic GH20 domain to be fully soluble and functional. The lectin domain provides this remote element to the active site. We demonstrate restoration of activity of the inactive GH20b-GH20-α construct (model A architecture) by a complementation assay with the lectin-like domain. The engineering of minimal functional units of multidomain GH20 enzymes must consider these structural requirements. PMID:26024355

  8. Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Functional Genes and Microbiome Associated with Bovine Digital Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Zinicola, Martin; Higgins, Hazel; Lima, Svetlana; Machado, Vinicius; Guard, Charles; Bicalho, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic methods amplifying 16S ribosomal RNA genes have been used to describe the microbial diversity of healthy skin and lesion stages of bovine digital dermatitis (DD) and to detect critical pathogens involved with disease pathogenesis. In this study, we characterized the microbiome and for the first time, the composition of functional genes of healthy skin (HS), active (ADD) and inactive (IDD) lesion stages using a whole-genome shotgun approach. Metagenomic sequences were annotated using MG-RAST pipeline. Six phyla were identified as the most abundant. Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial phyla in the microbiome of HS, while Spirochetes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were highly abundant in ADD and IDD. T. denticola-like, T. vincentii-like and T. phagedenis-like constituted the most abundant species in ADD and IDD. Recruitment plots comparing sequences from HS, ADD and IDD samples to the genomes of specific Treponema spp., supported the presence of T. denticola and T. vincentii in ADD and IDD. Comparison of the functional composition of HS to ADD and IDD identified a significant difference in genes associated with motility/chemotaxis and iron acquisition/metabolism. We also provide evidence that the microbiome of ADD and IDD compared to that of HS had significantly higher abundance of genes associated with resistance to copper and zinc, which are commonly used in footbaths to prevent and control DD. In conclusion, the results from this study provide new insights into the HS, ADD and IDD microbiomes, improve our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and generate unprecedented knowledge regarding the functional genetic composition of the digital dermatitis microbiome. PMID:26193110

  9. Multimodal Characterization of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy Reveals Alterations in Outer Retinal Function and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Boynton, Grace E.; Stem, Maxwell S.; Kwark, Leon; Jackson, Gregory R.; Farsiu, Sina; Gardner, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To identify changes in retinal function and structure in persons with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), including the effects of panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). Design Cross-sectional study Participants 30 adults who received PRP for PDR, 15 adults with untreated PDR, and 15 age-matched controls Methods Contrast sensitivity, frequency doubling perimetry (FDP), Humphrey visual fields, photostress recovery, and dark adaptation were assessed in all subjects. Fundus photography and macular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) were also obtained. SD-OCT scans were semi-automatically segmented to quantify retinal layer thicknesses. Main Outcome Measures Visual function test results were compared between patients with PDR and PRP, untreated patients with PDR, and controls. Mean retinal layer thicknesses were also compared between groups. Correlation analyses were performed to evaluate associations between visual function test results and retinal layer thicknesses. Results Patients with PDR exhibited significant reduction of FDP mean deviation (MD) in PRP-treated (MD ± SD: −8.20 ± 5.76 dB, p<0.0001) and untreated (−5.48 ± 4.48 dB, p<0.0001) patients relative to controls (1.07 ± 2.50 dB). Reduced log contrast sensitivity compared with controls (1.80 ± 0.14) was also observed in both PRP-treated (1.42 ± 0.17, p<0.0001) and untreated (1.56 ± 0.20, p= 0.001) patients with PDR. Compared to controls, patients treated with PRP demonstrated increased photostress recovery time (151.02 ± 104.43 sec vs 70.64 ± 47.14 sec, p=0.001) and dark adaptation speed (12.80 ± 5.15 min vs 9.74 ± 2.56 min, p=0.022) whereas untreated patients had no significant differences in photostress recovery time or dark adaptation speed relative to controls. PRP-treated patients had diffusely thickened nerve fiber layers (p=0.024) and diffusely thinned retinal pigment epithelial layers (RPE) (p=0.009) versus controls. Untreated patients with PDR also had

  10. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rats with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Reveals Brain Cortex Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Tambalo, Stefano; Peruzzotti-Jametti, Luca; Rigolio, Roberta; Fiorini, Silvia; Bontempi, Pietro; Mallucci, Giulia; Balzarotti, Beatrice; Marmiroli, Paola; Sbarbati, Andrea; Cavaletti, Guido

    2015-01-01

    Cortical reorganization occurring in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is thought to play a key role in limiting the effect of structural tissue damage. Conversely, its exhaustion may contribute to the irreversible disability that accumulates with disease progression. Several aspects of MS-related cortical reorganization, including the overall functional effect and likely modulation by therapies, still remain to be elucidated. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of functional cortical reorganization and its brain structural/pathological correlates in Dark Agouti rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely accepted preclinical model of chronic MS. Morphological and functional MRI (fMRI) were performed before disease induction and during the relapsing and chronic phases of EAE. During somatosensory stimulation of the right forepaw, fMRI demonstrated that cortical reorganization occurs in both relapsing and chronic phases of EAE with increased activated volume and decreased laterality index versus baseline values. Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated gray matter (GM) atrophy in the cerebral cortex, and both GM and white matter atrophy were assessed by ex vivo pathology of the sensorimotor cortex and corpus callosum. Neuroinflammation persisted in the relapsing and chronic phases, with dendritic spine density in the layer IV sensory neurons inversely correlating with the number of cluster of differentiation 45-positive inflammatory lesions. Our work provides an innovative experimental platform that may be pivotal for the comprehension of key mechanisms responsible for the accumulation of irreversible brain damage and for the development of innovative therapies to reduce disability in EAE/MS. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Since the early 2000s, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated profound modifications in the recruitment of cortical areas during motor, cognitive, and sensory tasks in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Experimental autoimmune

  11. Nitrogen cycling in Yellowstone National Park thermal features: using gene expression to reveal ecological function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafree, S. T.; Burton, M. S.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Studies of biodiversity, metabolic strategies, and functional ecology in modern hydrothermal systems have the potential to provide insight into the metabolism and evolution of life. The geochemical and microbial diversity present at Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, makes it an ideal place for studying the functional ecology and metabolic processes of prokaryotic organisms. While much work in terrestrial hydrothermal features is focused on phylogenetic and geochemical analyses, a few recent investigations in YNP and other hydrothermal areas have focused on “gene hunting”: screening thermal sediment and biofilm samples for the presence of genes utilized in specific metabolic processes [2, 3, 6, 7, 8]. Although research has evaluated and confirmed the presence of many of these genes in various thermophilic microbial communities, the existence of a gene in the DNA of an organism does not verify its use, and few researchers have done work to confirm the utilization (expression) of the genes discovered in thermal samples [1, 6, 7, 8]. Disequilibrium between reduced hydrothermal fluid of YNP thermal features and the atmosphere provides a copious source of potential energy to be harnessed through microbial metabolic processes, with NO3- and NO2- serving as the preferred electron acceptors and top energy sources after O2 [4, 5]. Consequentially, nitrogen cycling likely plays a vital role in microbial metabolic processes, as well as nutrient availability. This study explores the presence and utilization of functional genes that are key in steps of the nitrogen cycle, such as nitrogen fixation (NifH), denitrification (nirKS), and ammonia oxidation (amoA). Both DNA and RNA were extracted from thermal sediment and streamer biofilm communities collected in the chemosynthetic zone of various thermal features of the Sentinel Meadows Group in Lower Geyser Basin, YNP. Extracted DNA and reverse transcribed RNA (cDNA) were amplified using the polymerase chain

  12. Lipid Profiling and Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals a Functional Interplay between Estradiol and Growth Hormone in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Santana-Farré, Ruymán; de Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; García, Irma; Guerra, Borja; Mateo-Díaz, Carlos; Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Díaz-Chico, Juan Carlos; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) may interfere with endocrine, metabolic, and gender-differentiated functions in liver in both females and males. Indirect mechanisms play a crucial role because of the E2 influence on the pituitary GH secretion and the GHR-JAK2-STAT5 signaling pathway in the target tissues. E2, through its interaction with the estrogen receptor, exerts direct effects on liver. Hypothyroidism also affects endocrine and metabolic functions of the liver, rendering a metabolic phenotype with features that mimic deficiencies in E2 or GH. In this work, we combined the lipid and transcriptomic analysis to obtain comprehensive information on the molecular mechanisms of E2 effects, alone and in combination with GH, to regulate liver functions in males. We used the adult hypothyroid-orchidectomized rat model to minimize the influence of internal hormones on E2 treatment and to explore its role in male-differentiated functions. E2 influenced genes involved in metabolism of lipids and endo-xenobiotics, and the GH-regulated endocrine, metabolic, immune, and male-specific responses. E2 induced a female-pattern of gene expression and inhibited GH-regulated STAT5b targeted genes. E2 did not prevent the inhibitory effects of GH on urea and amino acid metabolism-related genes. The combination of E2 and GH decreased transcriptional immune responses. E2 decreased the hepatic content of saturated fatty acids and induced a transcriptional program that seems to be mediated by the activation of PPARα. In contrast, GH inhibited fatty acid oxidation. Both E2 and GH replacements reduced hepatic CHO levels and increased the formation of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerols. Notably, the hepatic lipid profiles were endowed with singular fingerprints that may be used to segregate the effects of different hormonal replacements. In summary, we provide in vivo evidence that E2 has a significant impact on lipid content and transcriptome in male liver and that E2 exerts a marked influence on

  13. Muscle biopsies from human muscle diseases with myopathic pathology reveal common alterations in mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Sunitha, Balaraju; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Kumar, Manish; Keshava Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya; Nalini, Atchayaram; Padmanabhan, Balasundaram; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2016-07-01

    Muscle diseases are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and manifest as dystrophic, inflammatory and myopathic pathologies, among others. Our previous study on the cardiotoxin mouse model of myodegeneration and inflammation linked muscle pathology with mitochondrial damage and oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies from muscle disease patients, represented by dysferlinopathy (dysfy) (dystrophic pathology; n = 43), polymyositis (PM) (inflammatory pathology; n = 24), and distal myopathy with rimmed vacuoles (DMRV) (distal myopathy; n = 31) were analyzed. Mitochondrial damage (ragged blue and COX-deficient fibers) was revealed in dysfy, PM, and DMRV cases by enzyme histochemistry (SDH and COX-SDH), electron microscopy (vacuolation and altered cristae) and biochemical assays (significantly increased ADP/ATP ratio). Proteomic analysis of muscle mitochondria from all three muscle diseases by isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation labeling and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated down-regulation of electron transport chain (ETC) complex subunits, assembly factors and Krebs cycle enzymes. Interestingly, 80 of the under-expressed proteins were common among the three pathologies. Assay of ETC and Krebs cycle enzyme activities validated the MS data. Mitochondrial proteins from muscle pathologies also displayed higher tryptophan (Trp) oxidation and the same was corroborated in the cardiotoxin model. Molecular modeling predicted Trp oxidation to alter the local structure of mitochondrial proteins. Our data highlight mitochondrial alterations in muscle pathologies, represented by morphological changes, altered mitochondrial proteome and protein oxidation, thereby establishing the role of mitochondrial damage in human muscle diseases. We investigated whether human muscle diseases display mitochondrial changes. Muscle biopsies

  14. Chromatin states reveal functional associations for globally defined transcription start sites in four human cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deciphering the most common modes by which chromatin regulates transcription, and how this is related to cellular status and processes is an important task for improving our understanding of human cellular biology. The FANTOM5 and ENCODE projects represent two independent large scale efforts to map regulatory and transcriptional features to the human genome. Here we investigate chromatin features around a comprehensive set of transcription start sites in four cell lines by integrating data from these two projects. Results Transcription start sites can be distinguished by chromatin states defined by specific combinations of both chromatin mark enrichment and the profile shapes of these chromatin marks. The observed patterns can be associated with cellular functions and processes, and they also show association with expression level, location relative to nearby genes, and CpG content. In particular we find a substantial number of repressed inter- and intra-genic transcription start sites enriched for active chromatin marks and Pol II, and these sites are strongly associated with immediate-early response processes and cell signaling. Associations between start sites with similar chromatin patterns are validated by significant correlations in their global expression profiles. Conclusions The results confirm the link between chromatin state and cellular function for expressed transcripts, and also indicate that active chromatin states at repressed transcripts may poise transcripts for rapid activation during immune response. PMID:24669905

  15. Association Mapping across Numerous Traits Reveals Patterns of Functional Variation in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Jason G.; Bradbury, Peter J.; Zhang, Nengyi; Gibon, Yves; Stitt, Mark; Buckler, Edward S.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic variation in natural populations results from a combination of genetic effects, environmental effects, and gene-by-environment interactions. Despite the vast amount of genomic data becoming available, many pressing questions remain about the nature of genetic mutations that underlie functional variation. We present the results of combining genome-wide association analysis of 41 different phenotypes in ∼5,000 inbred maize lines to analyze patterns of high-resolution genetic association among of 28.9 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and ∼800,000 copy-number variants (CNVs). We show that genic and intergenic regions have opposite patterns of enrichment, minor allele frequencies, and effect sizes, implying tradeoffs among the probability that a given polymorphism will have an effect, the detectable size of that effect, and its frequency in the population. We also find that genes tagged by GWAS are enriched for regulatory functions and are ∼50% more likely to have a paralog than expected by chance, indicating that gene regulation and gene duplication are strong drivers of phenotypic variation. These results will likely apply to many other organisms, especially ones with large and complex genomes like maize. PMID:25474422

  16. Who is who in litter decomposition? Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biogeochemical functions

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Thomas; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Schmid, Emanuel; Sterflinger-Gleixner, Katja; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Roschitzki, Bernd; Richter, Andreas; Eberl, Leo; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Riedel, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    Leaf-litter decomposition is a central process in carbon cycling; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scarce. Metaproteomics allows us to link the abundance and activity of enzymes during nutrient cycling to their phylogenetic origin based on proteins, the ‘active building blocks' in the system. Moreover, we employed metaproteomics to investigate the influence of environmental factors and nutrients on the decomposer structure and function during beech litter decomposition. Litter was collected at forest sites in Austria with different litter nutrient content. Proteins were analyzed by 1-D-SDS-PAGE followed by liquid-chromatography and tandem mass-spectrometry. Mass spectra were assigned to phylogenetic and functional groups by a newly developed bioinformatics workflow, assignments being validated by complementary approaches. We provide evidence that the litter nutrient content and the stoichiometry of C:N:P affect the decomposer community structure and activity. Fungi were found to be the main producers of extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, with no bacterial hydrolases being detected by our metaproteomics approach. Detailed investigation of microbial succession suggests that it is influenced by litter nutrient content. Microbial activity was stimulated at higher litter nutrient contents via a higher abundance and activity of extracellular enzymes. PMID:22402400

  17. Revealing the spiral arms through radial migration and the shape of the Metallicity Distribution Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Pichardo, B.; Moreno, E.; Peimbert, A.

    2016-08-01

    Recent observations show that the Milky Way's metallicity distribution function (MDF) changes its shape as a function of radius. This new evidence of radial migration within the stellar disc sets additional constraints on Galactic models. By performing controlled test particle simulations in a very detailed, observationally motivated model of the Milky Way, we demonstrate that, in the inner region of the disc, the MDF is shaped by the joint action of the bar and spiral arms, while at outer radii the MDF is mainly shaped by the spiral arms. We show that the spiral arms are able to imprint their signature in the radial migration, shaping the MDF in the outskirts of the Galactic disc with a minimal participation of the bar. Conversely, this work has the potential to characterise some structural and dynamical parameters of the spiral arms based on radial migration and the shape of the MDF. Finally, the resemblance obtained with this approximation to the MDF curves of the Galaxy as seen by APOGEE, show that a fundamental factor influencing their shape is the Galactic potential.

  18. Renal outer medullary potassium channel knockout models reveal thick ascending limb function and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong

    2012-02-01

    The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) is an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive inward-rectifier potassium channel (Kir1.1 or KCNJ1) highly expressed in the cortical and medullary thick ascending limbs (TAL), connecting segment (CNT) and cortical collecting duct (CCD) in the mammalian kidney, where it serves to recycle potassium (K(+)) across the apical membrane in TAL and to secrete K(+) in the CNT and CCD. ROMK channel mutations cause type II Bartter's syndrome with salt wasting and dehydration, and ROMK knockout mice display a similar phenotype of Bartter's syndrome in humans. Studies from ROMK null mice indicate that ROMK is required to form both the small-conductance (30pS, SK) K channels and the 70pS (IK) K channels in the TAL. The availability of ROMK(-/-) mice has made it possible to study electrolyte transport along the nephron in order to understand the TAL function under physiological conditions and the compensatory mechanisms of salt and water transport under the conditions of TAL dysfunction. This review summarizes previous progress in the study of K(+) channel activity in the TAL and CCD, ion transporter expression and activities along the nephron, and renal functions under physiological and pathophysiological conditions using ROMK(-/-) mice. PMID:22038261

  19. Conditional deletion of Sox17 reveals complex effects on uterine adenogenesis and function.

    PubMed

    Guimarães-Young, Amy; Neff, Traci; Dupuy, Adam J; Goodheart, Michael J

    2016-06-15

    The importance of canonical Wnt signaling to murine uterine development is well established. Mouse models in which uterine-specific Wnt ligands, β-catenin, or Lef1 are disrupted result in failure of postnatal endometrial gland development. Sox17 is a transcription factor characterized in numerous tissues as an antagonist of Wnt signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that conditional ablation of Sox17 would lead to hyperproliferation of endometrial glands in mice. Contrary to our prediction, disruption of Sox17 in epithelial and stromal compartments led to inhibition of endometrial adenogenesis and a loss of reproductive capacity. Epithelium-specific Sox17 disruption resulted in normal adenogenesis although reproductive capacity remained impaired. These findings suggest that non-epithelial, Sox17-positive cells are necessary for adenogenesis and that glands require Sox17 to properly function. To our knowledge, these findings are the first to implicate Sox17 in endometrial gland formation and reproductive success. The data presented herein underscore the importance of studying Sox17 in uterine homeostasis and function. PMID:27102016

  20. Velocity Selective Networks in Human Cortex Reveal Two Functionally Distinct Auditory Motion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jhao-An; Saberi, Kourosh; Hsieh, I-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system encounters motion cues through an acoustic object’s movement or rotation of the listener’s head in a stationary sound field, generating a wide range of naturally occurring velocities from a few to several hundred degrees per second. The angular velocity of moving acoustic objects relative to a listener is typically slow and does not exceed tens of degrees per second, whereas head rotations in a stationary acoustic field may generate fast-changing spatial cues in the order of several hundred degrees per second. We hypothesized that these two types of systems (i.e., encoding slow movements of an object or fast head rotations) may engage functionally distinct substrates in processing spatially dynamic auditory cues, with the latter potentially involved in maintaining perceptual constancy in a stationary field during head rotations and therefore possibly involving corollary-discharge mechanisms in premotor cortex. Using fMRI, we examined cortical response patterns to sound sources moving at a wide range of velocities in 3D virtual auditory space. We found a significant categorical difference between fast and slow moving sounds, with stronger activations in response to higher velocities in the posterior superior temporal regions, the planum temporale, and notably the premotor ventral-rostral (PMVr) area implicated in planning neck and head motor functions. PMID:27294673

  1. Exonic remnants of whole-genome duplication reveal cis-regulatory function of coding exons

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xianjun; Navratilova, Pavla; Fredman, David; Drivenes, Øyvind; Becker, Thomas S.; Lenhard, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Using a comparative genomics approach to reconstruct the fate of genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) and identify exonic remnants that have survived the disappearance of their host genes after whole-genome duplication (WGD) in teleosts, we discover a set of 38 candidate cis-regulatory coding exons (RCEs) with predicted target genes. These elements demonstrate evolutionary separation of overlapping protein-coding and regulatory information after WGD in teleosts. We present evidence that the corresponding mammalian exons are still under both coding and non-coding selection pressure, are more conserved than other protein coding exons in the host gene and several control sets, and share key characteristics with highly conserved non-coding elements in the same regions. Their dual function is corroborated by existing experimental data. Additionally, we show examples of human exon remnants stemming from the vertebrate 2R WGD. Our findings suggest that long-range cis-regulatory inputs for developmental genes are not limited to non-coding regions, but can also overlap the coding sequence of unrelated genes. Thus, exonic regulatory elements in GRBs might be functionally equivalent to those in non-coding regions, calling for a re-evaluation of the sequence space in which to look for long-range regulatory elements and experimentally test their activity. PMID:19969543

  2. Optical nanoscopy to reveal structural and functional properties of liver cells (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCourt, Peter; Huser, Thomas R.; Sørensen, Karen K.; Øie, Cristina I.; Mönkemöller, Viola; Ahluwalia, Balpreet S.

    2015-08-01

    The advent of optical nanoscopy has provided an opportunity to study fundamental properties of nanoscale biological functions, such as liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and their fenestrations. The fenestrations are nano-pores (50-200 nm) on the LSEC plasma membrane that allow free passage of molecules through cells. The fenestrated LSEC also hase a voracious appetite for waste molecules, viruses and nanoparticles. LSEC daily remove huge amounts of waste, nanoparticles and virus from the blood. Pharmaceuticals also need to pass through these fenestrations to be activated (e.g. cholesterol reducing statins) or detoxified by hepatocytes. And, when we age, our LSEC fenestrations become smaller and fewer. Today, we study these cells and structures using either conventional light microscopy on living cells, or high-resolution (but static) methods such as transmission and scanning electron microscopy on fixed (i.e. dead) tissue. Such methods, while very powerful, yield no real time information about the uptake of virus or nanoparticles, nor any information about fenestration dynamics. Therefore, to study LS-SEC, we are now using optical nanoscopy methods, and developing our own, to map their functions in 4 dimensions. Attaining this goal will shed new light on the cell biology of the liver and how it keeps us alive. This paper describes the challenges of studying LS-SEC with light microscopy, as well as current and potential solutions to this challenge using optical nanoscopy.

  3. Spontaneous Neuronal Network Dynamics Reveal Circuit’s Functional Adaptations for Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Sebastián A.; Pietri, Thomas; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Jouary, Adrien; Haudrechy, Mathieu; Sumbre, Germán

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spontaneous neuronal activity is spatiotemporally structured, influencing brain computations. Nevertheless, the neuronal interactions underlying these spontaneous activity patterns, and their biological relevance, remain elusive. Here, we addressed these questions using two-photon calcium imaging of intact zebrafish larvae to monitor the neuron-to-neuron spontaneous activity fine structure in the tectum, a region involved in visual spatial detection. Spontaneous activity was organized in topographically compact assemblies, grouping functionally similar neurons rather than merely neighboring ones, reflecting the tectal retinotopic map despite being independent of retinal drive. Assemblies represent all-or-none-like sub-networks shaped by competitive dynamics, mechanisms advantageous for visual detection in noisy natural environments. Notably, assemblies were tuned to the same angular sizes and spatial positions as prey-detection performance in behavioral assays, and their spontaneous activation predicted directional tail movements. Therefore, structured spontaneous activity represents “preferred” network states, tuned to behaviorally relevant features, emerging from the circuit’s intrinsic non-linear dynamics, adapted for its functional role. PMID:25704948

  4. Spectral sensitivity measurements reveal partial success in restoring missing rod function with gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Caterina; Henning, G Bruce; Robbie, Scott J; Sundaram, Venki; van den Born, L Ingeborgh; Casteels, Ingele; de Ravel, Thomy J L; Moore, Anthony T; Smith, Alexander J; Bainbridge, James W; Ali, Robin R; Stockman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Restored rod visual function after gene therapy can be established unequivocally by demonstrating that, after dark adaptation, spectral sensitivity has the shape characteristic of rods and that this shape collapses to a cone-like shape before rods have recovered after an intense bleach. We used these tests to assess retinal function in eight young adults and children with early-onset severe retinal dystrophy from Phase II of a clinical gene-therapy trial for RPE65 deficiency that involved the subretinal delivery of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector carrying RPE65. We found substantial improvements in rod sensitivity in two participants: dark-adapted spectral sensitivity was rod-like after treatment and was cone-like before rods had recovered after a bleach. After 40 min of dark adaptation, one participant showed up to 1,000-fold sensitivity improvements 4 months after treatment and the second up to 100-fold improvements 6 months after treatment. The dark-adapted spectral sensitivities of the other six participants remained cone-like and showed little improvement in sensitivity. PMID:26605849

  5. Microbial structures, functions, and metabolic pathways in wastewater treatment bioreactors revealed using high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ye, Lin; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Taitao; Fang, Zhiwei

    2012-12-18

    The objective of this study was to explore microbial community structures, functional profiles, and metabolic pathways in a lab-scale and a full-scale wastewater treatment bioreactors. In order to do this, over 12 gigabases of metagenomic sequence data and 600,000 paired-end sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated with the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, using DNA extracted from activated sludge in the two bioreactors. Three kinds of sequences (16S rRNA gene amplicons, 16S rRNA gene sequences obtained from metagenomic sequencing, and predicted proteins) were used to conduct taxonomic assignments. Specially, relative abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were analyzed. Compared with quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), metagenomic sequencing was demonstrated to be a better approach to quantify AOA and AOB in activated sludge samples. It was found that AOB were more abundant than AOA in both reactors. Furthermore, the analysis of the metabolic profiles indicated that the overall patterns of metabolic pathways in the two reactors were quite similar (73.3% of functions shared). However, for some pathways (such as carbohydrate metabolism and membrane transport), the two reactors differed in the number of pathway-specific genes. PMID:23151157

  6. Global analysis of SUMO chain function reveals multiple roles in chromatin regulation

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, Tharan; Lewicki, Megan C.; Costanzo, Michael; Tkach, Johnny M.; van Bakel, Harm; Tsui, Kyle; Johnson, Erica S.; Brown, Grant W.; Andrews, Brenda J.; Boone, Charles; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Like ubiquitin, the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins can form oligomeric “chains,” but the biological functions of these superstructures are not well understood. Here, we created mutant yeast strains unable to synthesize SUMO chains (smt3allR) and subjected them to high-content microscopic screening, synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis, and high-density transcript profiling to perform the first global analysis of SUMO chain function. This comprehensive assessment identified 144 proteins with altered localization or intensity in smt3allR cells, 149 synthetic genetic interactions, and 225 mRNA transcripts (primarily consisting of stress- and nutrient-response genes) that displayed a >1.5-fold increase in expression levels. This information-rich resource strongly implicates SUMO chains in the regulation of chromatin. Indeed, using several different approaches, we demonstrate that SUMO chains are required for the maintenance of normal higher-order chromatin structure and transcriptional repression of environmental stress response genes in budding yeast. PMID:23547032

  7. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, Cristian; Bartholomäus, Alexander; Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-10-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  8. Altering lamina assembly reveals lamina-dependent and -independent functions for A-type lamins.

    PubMed

    Zwerger, Monika; Roschitzki-Voser, Heidi; Zbinden, Reto; Denais, Celine; Herrmann, Harald; Lammerding, Jan; Grütter, Markus G; Medalia, Ohad

    2015-10-01

    Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that form a fibrous meshwork, called the nuclear lamina, between the inner nuclear membrane and peripheral heterochromatin of metazoan cells. The assembly and incorporation of lamin A/C into the lamina, as well as their various functions, are still not well understood. Here, we employed designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) as new experimental tools for lamin research. We screened for DARPins that specifically bound to lamin A/C, and interfered with lamin assembly in vitro and with incorporation of lamin A/C into the native lamina in living cells. The selected DARPins inhibited lamin assembly and delocalized A-type lamins to the nucleoplasm without modifying lamin expression levels or the amino acid sequence. Using these lamin binders, we demonstrate the importance of proper integration of lamin A/C into the lamina for nuclear mechanical properties and nuclear envelope integrity. Finally, our study provides evidence for cell-type-specific differences in lamin functions. PMID:26275827

  9. Metagenomic analysis reveals microbial diversity and function in the rhizosphere soil of a constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Liang, Jinsong; Liu, Ruiping; Hu, Chengzhi; Qu, Jiuhui

    2014-01-01

    Microbial communities play a critical role in the degradation of effluent contaminants in constructed wetlands. Many questions remain, however, regarding the role ofmicrobial communities in rhizospheric soil. In this study, we used metagenomic analysis to assess microbial community composition and function in a constructed wetland receiving surface water. The diversity of the microbial community of rhizosphere soil was found to be significantly greater than that of the wetland influent water. This enhancement is likely due to the availability of diverse habitats and nutrients provided by the wetland plants. From function annotation of metagenomic data, a number of biodegradation pathways associated with 14 xenobiotic compounds were identified in soil. Nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification genes were semi-quantitatively analysed. By screening of manganese transformation genes, we found that the biological oxidation of Mn2+ (mainly catalysed by multicopper oxidase) in the influent water yielded insoluble Mn4+, which subsequently precipitated and were incorporated into the wetland soil. These data show that the use of metagenomic analysis can provide important new insights for the study of wetland ecosystems and, in particular, how biologically mediated transformation or degradation can be used to reduce contamination of point and non-point source wastewater. PMID:25145207

  10. Characterization of Lipoprotein Composition and Function in Pediatric Psoriasis Reveals a More Atherogenic Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tom, Wynnis L.; Playford, Martin P.; Admani, Shehla; Natarajan, Balaji; Joshi, Aditya A.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Mehta, Nehal N.

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but the risk profile of children with psoriasis remains to be fully characterized. We measured lipoprotein composition and function in 44 pediatric psoriasis patients and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, using NMR spectroscopy and a validated ex vivo assay of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). Mean age was 13.0 years and the population was ethnically diverse. Children with psoriasis had higher waist-hip ratios (0.85 vs. 0.80; p<0.002) and insulin resistance measures (log transformed HOMA-IR 0.65 vs. 0.41; p=0.07). Despite comparable traditional lipid values, having psoriasis was associated with higher apolipoprotein B concentrations (72.4 vs. 64.6; p=0.02), decreased large HDL particles (5.3 vs. 6.7; p<0.01), and reduced CEC after adjusting for age, sex, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, apolipoprotein A-1, and HDL cholesterol concentration (beta -0.22, p=0.02). Pediatric psoriasis patients have a more atherogenic cardiometabolic risk profile, with evidence of insulin resistance and lipoprotein dysfunction by particle size, number, and functional assessment. These findings may provide a basis for the observed link later in life between psoriasis and CVD and support the need to screen and educate young patients to minimize later complications. PMID:26763425

  11. Activity-dependent silencing reveals functionally distinct itch-generating sensory neurons

    PubMed Central

    Roberson, David P.; Gudes, Sagi; Sprague, Jared M.; Patoski, Haley A. W.; Robson, Victoria K.; Blasl, Felix; Duan, Bo; Oh, Seog Bae; Bean, Bruce P.; Ma, Qiufu

    2013-01-01

    The peripheral terminals of primary sensory neurons detect histamine and non-histamine itch-provoking ligands through molecularly distinct transduction mechanisms. It remains unclear, however, whether these distinct pruritogens activate the same or different afferent fibers. We utilized a strategy of reversibly silencing specific subsets of murine pruritogen-sensitive sensory axons by targeted delivery of a charged sodium-channel blocker and found that functional blockade of histamine itch did not affect the itch evoked by chloroquine or SLIGRL-NH2, and vice versa. Notably, blocking itch-generating fibers did not reduce pain-associated behavior. However, silencing TRPV1+ or TRPA1+ neurons allowed AITC or capsaicin respectively to evoke itch, implying that certain peripheral afferents may normally indirectly inhibit algogens from eliciting itch. These findings support the presence of functionally distinct sets of itch-generating neurons and suggest that targeted silencing of activated sensory fibers may represent a clinically useful anti-pruritic therapeutic approach for histaminergic and non-histaminergic pruritus. PMID:23685721

  12. Current Progress in Tonoplast Proteomics Reveals Insights into the Function of the Large Central Vacuole

    PubMed Central

    Trentmann, Oliver; Haferkamp, Ilka

    2013-01-01

    Vacuoles of plants fulfill various biologically important functions, like turgor generation and maintenance, detoxification, solute sequestration, or protein storage. Different types of plant vacuoles (lytic versus protein storage) are characterized by different functional properties apparently caused by a different composition/abundance and regulation of transport proteins in the surrounding membrane, the tonoplast. Proteome analyses allow the identification of vacuolar proteins and provide an informative basis for assigning observed transport processes to specific carriers or channels. This review summarizes techniques required for vacuolar proteome analyses, like e.g., isolation of the large central vacuole or tonoplast membrane purification. Moreover, an overview about diverse published vacuolar proteome studies is provided. It becomes evident that qualitative proteomes from different plant species represent just the tip of the iceberg. During the past few years, mass spectrometry achieved immense improvement concerning its accuracy, sensitivity, and application. As a consequence, modern tonoplast proteome approaches are suited for detecting alterations in membrane protein abundance in response to changing environmental/physiological conditions and help to clarify the regulation of tonoplast transport processes. PMID:23459586

  13. Functional Phylogenetics Reveals Contributions of Pleiotropic Peptide Action to Ligand-Receptor Coevolution

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hongbo; Wei, Zhaojun; Nachman, Ronald J.; Adams, Michael E.; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of peptidergic signaling has been accompanied by a significant degree of ligand-receptor coevolution. Closely related clusters of peptide signaling molecules are observed to activate related groups of receptors, implying that genes encoding these ligands may orchestrate an array of functions, a phenomenon known as pleiotropy. Here we examine whether pleiotropic actions of peptide genes might influence ligand-receptor coevolution. Four test groups of neuropeptides characterized by conserved C-terminal amino acid sequence motifs and their cognate receptors were examined in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum): 1) cardioacceleratory peptide 2b (CAPA); CAPAr, 2) pyrokinin/diapause hormone (PK1/DH); PKr-A, -B, 3) pyrokinin/pheromone biosynthesis activating hormone (PK2/PBAN); PKr-C, and 4) ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH); ETHr-b. Ligand-receptor specificities were established through heterologous expression of receptors in cell-based assays for 9 endogenous ligands. Based on ligand-receptor specificity analysis, we found positive pleiotropism exhibited by ETH on ETHR-b and CAPAr, whereas PK1/DH and CAPA are more highly selective for their respective authentic receptors than would be predicted by phylogenetic analysis. Disparities between evolutionary trees deduced from receptor sequences vs. functional ligand-receptor specificities lead to the conclusion that pleiotropy exhibited by peptide genes influences ligand-receptor coevolution. PMID:25348027

  14. Axonal and dendritic synaptotagmin isoforms revealed by a pHluorin-syt functional screen

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Camin; Dunning, F. Mark; Liu, Huisheng; Bomba-Warczak, Ewa; Martens, Henrik; Bharat, Vinita; Ahmed, Saheeb; Chapman, Edwin R.

    2012-01-01

    The synaptotagmins (syts) are a family of molecules that regulate membrane fusion. There are 17 mammalian syt isoforms, most of which are expressed in the brain. However, little is known regarding the subcellular location and function of the majority of these syts in neurons, largely due to a lack of isoform-specific antibodies. Here we generated pHluorin-syt constructs harboring a luminal domain pH sensor, which reports localization, pH of organelles to which syts are targeted, and the kinetics and sites of exocytosis and endocytosis. Of interest, only syt-1 and 2 are targeted to synaptic vesicles, whereas other isoforms selectively recycle in dendrites (syt-3 and 11), axons (syt-5, 7, 10, and 17), or both axons and dendrites (syt-4, 6, 9, and 12), where they undergo exocytosis and endocytosis with distinctive kinetics. Hence most syt isoforms localize to distinct secretory organelles in both axons and dendrites and may regulate neuropeptide/neurotrophin release to modulate neuronal function. PMID:22398727

  15. Secondary Structure across the Bacterial Transcriptome Reveals Versatile Roles in mRNA Regulation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Fedyunin, Ivan; Ignatova, Zoya

    2015-01-01

    Messenger RNA acts as an informational molecule between DNA and translating ribosomes. Emerging evidence places mRNA in central cellular processes beyond its major function as informational entity. Although individual examples show that specific structural features of mRNA regulate translation and transcript stability, their role and function throughout the bacterial transcriptome remains unknown. Combining three sequencing approaches to provide a high resolution view of global mRNA secondary structure, translation efficiency and mRNA abundance, we unraveled structural features in E. coli mRNA with implications in translation and mRNA degradation. A poorly structured site upstream of the coding sequence serves as an additional unspecific binding site of the ribosomes and the degree of its secondary structure propensity negatively correlates with gene expression. Secondary structures within coding sequences are highly dynamic and influence translation only within a very small subset of positions. A secondary structure upstream of the stop codon is enriched in genes terminated by UAA codon with likely implications in translation termination. The global analysis further substantiates a common recognition signature of RNase E to initiate endonucleolytic cleavage. This work determines for the first time the E. coli RNA structurome, highlighting the contribution of mRNA secondary structure as a direct effector of a variety of processes, including translation and mRNA degradation. PMID:26495981

  16. Pitch Memory in Nonmusicians and Musicians: Revealing Functional Differences Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Schaal, N K; Krause, V; Lange, K; Banissy, M J; Williamson, V J; Pollok, B

    2015-09-01

    For music and language processing, memory for relative pitches is highly important. Functional imaging studies have shown activation of a complex neural system for pitch memory. One region that has been shown to be causally involved in the process for nonmusicians is the supramarginal gyrus (SMG). The present study aims at replicating this finding and at further examining the role of the SMG for pitch memory in musicians. Nonmusicians and musicians received cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left SMG, right SMG, or sham stimulation, while completing a pitch recognition, pitch recall, and visual memory task. Cathodal tDCS over the left SMG led to a significant decrease in performance on both pitch memory tasks in nonmusicians. In musicians, cathodal stimulation over the left SMG had no effect, but stimulation over the right SMG impaired performance on the recognition task only. Furthermore, the results show a more pronounced deterioration effect for longer pitch sequences indicating that the SMG is involved in maintaining higher memory load. No stimulation effect was found in both groups on the visual control task. These findings provide evidence for a causal distinction of the left and right SMG function in musicians and nonmusicians. PMID:24770704

  17. Advanced Echocardiography in Adult Zebrafish Reveals Delayed Recovery of Heart Function after Myocardial Cryoinjury

    PubMed Central

    Kossack, Mandy; Juergensen, Lonny; Fuchs, Dieter; Katus, Hugo A.; Hassel, David

    2015-01-01

    Translucent zebrafish larvae represent an established model to analyze genetics of cardiac development and human cardiac disease. More recently adult zebrafish are utilized to evaluate mechanisms of cardiac regeneration and by benefiting from recent genome editing technologies, including TALEN and CRISPR, adult zebrafish are emerging as a valuable in vivo model to evaluate novel disease genes and specifically validate disease causing mutations and their underlying pathomechanisms. However, methods to sensitively and non-invasively assess cardiac morphology and performance in adult zebrafish are still limited. We here present a standardized examination protocol to broadly assess cardiac performance in adult zebrafish by advancing conventional echocardiography with modern speckle-tracking analyses. This allows accurate detection of changes in cardiac performance and further enables highly sensitive assessment of regional myocardial motion and deformation in high spatio-temporal resolution. Combining conventional echocardiography measurements with radial and longitudinal velocity, displacement, strain, strain rate and myocardial wall delay rates after myocardial cryoinjury permitted to non-invasively determine injury dimensions and to longitudinally follow functional recovery during cardiac regeneration. We show that functional recovery of cryoinjured hearts occurs in three distinct phases. Importantly, the regeneration process after cryoinjury extends far beyond the proposed 45 days described for ventricular resection with reconstitution of myocardial performance up to 180 days post-injury (dpi). The imaging modalities evaluated here allow sensitive cardiac phenotyping and contribute to further establish adult zebrafish as valuable cardiac disease model beyond the larval developmental stage. PMID:25853735

  18. 'Candidatus Competibacter'-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon J; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva K; Saunders, Aaron M; Kristiansen, Rikke; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kåre L; Nielsen, Per H

    2014-03-01

    The glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) 'Candidatus Competibacter' (Competibacter) uses aerobically stored glycogen to enable anaerobic carbon uptake, which is subsequently stored as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This biphasic metabolism is key for the Competibacter to survive under the cyclic anaerobic-'feast': aerobic-'famine' regime of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. As they do not contribute to phosphorus (P) removal, but compete for resources with the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), thought responsible for P removal, their proliferation theoretically reduces the EBPR capacity. In this study, two complete genomes from Competibacter were obtained from laboratory-scale enrichment reactors through metagenomics. Phylogenetic analysis identified the two genomes, 'Candidatus Competibacter denitrificans' and 'Candidatus Contendobacter odensis', as being affiliated with Competibacter-lineage subgroups 1 and 5, respectively. Both have genes for glycogen and PHA cycling and for the metabolism of volatile fatty acids. Marked differences were found in their potential for the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas and Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathways, as well as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes--identifying a key metabolic difference with the PAO physiology. These genomes are the first from any GAO organism and provide new insights into the complex interaction and niche competition between PAOs and GAOs in EBPR systems. PMID:24173461

  19. Novel gene function revealed by mouse mutagenesis screens for models of age-related disease

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Paul K.; Bowl, Michael R.; Jeyarajan, Prashanthini; Wisby, Laura; Blease, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Michelle E.; Simon, Michelle M.; Greenaway, Simon; Michel, Vincent; Barnard, Alun; Aguilar, Carlos; Agnew, Thomas; Banks, Gareth; Blake, Andrew; Chessum, Lauren; Dorning, Joanne; Falcone, Sara; Goosey, Laurence; Harris, Shelley; Haynes, Andy; Heise, Ines; Hillier, Rosie; Hough, Tertius; Hoslin, Angela; Hutchison, Marie; King, Ruairidh; Kumar, Saumya; Lad, Heena V.; Law, Gemma; MacLaren, Robert E.; Morse, Susan; Nicol, Thomas; Parker, Andrew; Pickford, Karen; Sethi, Siddharth; Starbuck, Becky; Stelma, Femke; Cheeseman, Michael; Cross, Sally H.; Foster, Russell G.; Jackson, Ian J.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Vincent, Tonia; Scudamore, Cheryl; Wells, Sara; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M.; Cox, Roger; Mallon, Anne-Marie; Brown, Steve D. M.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the genetic bases of age-related disease remains a major challenge requiring a spectrum of approaches from human and clinical genetics to the utilization of model organism studies. Here we report a large-scale genetic screen in mice employing a phenotype-driven discovery platform to identify mutations resulting in age-related disease, both late-onset and progressive. We have utilized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis to generate pedigrees of mutagenized mice that were subject to recurrent screens for mutant phenotypes as the mice aged. In total, we identify 105 distinct mutant lines from 157 pedigrees analysed, out of which 27 are late-onset phenotypes across a range of physiological systems. Using whole-genome sequencing we uncover the underlying genes for 44 of these mutant phenotypes, including 12 late-onset phenotypes. These genes reveal a number of novel pathways involved with age-related disease. We illustrate our findings by the recovery and characterization of a novel mouse model of age-related hearing loss. PMID:27534441

  20. Elevated intracellular Ca2+ reveals a functional membrane nucleotide pool in intact human red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Tiffert, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Elevated intracellular calcium generates rapid, profound, and irreversible changes in the nucleotide metabolism of human red blood cells (RBCs), triggered by the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity of the powerful plasma membrane calcium pump (PMCA). In the absence of glycolytic substrates, Ca2+-induced nucleotide changes are thought to be determined by the interaction between PMCA ATPase, adenylate kinase, and AMP-deaminase enzymes, but the extent to which this three-enzyme system can account for the Ca2+-induced effects has not been investigated in detail before. Such a study requires the formulation of a model incorporating the known kinetics of the three-enzyme system and a direct comparison between its predictions and precise measurements of the Ca2+-induced nucleotide changes, a precision not available from earlier studies. Using state-of-the-art high-performance liquid chromatography, we measured the changes in the RBC contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, and IMP during the first 35 min after ionophore-induced pump-saturating Ca2+ loads in the absence of glycolytic substrates. Comparison between measured and model-predicted changes revealed that for good fits it was necessary to assume mean ATPase Vmax values much higher than those ever measured by PMCA-mediated Ca2+ extrusion. These results suggest that the local nucleotide concentrations generated by ATPase activity at the inner membrane surface differed substantially from those measured in bulk cell extracts, supporting previous evidence for the existence of a submembrane microdomain with a distinct nucleotide metabolism. PMID:21948947

  1. The Intracellular Interactome of Tetraspanin-enriched Microdomains Reveals Their Function as Sorting Machineries toward Exosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Hernandez, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Vázquez, Cristina; Jorge, Inmaculada; López-Martín, Soraya; Ursa, Angeles; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Vázquez, Jesús; Yáñez-Mó, María

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles are emerging as a potent mechanism of intercellular communication because they can systemically exchange genetic and protein material between cells. Tetraspanin molecules are commonly used as protein markers of extracellular vesicles, although their role in the unexplored mechanisms of cargo selection into exosomes has not been addressed. For that purpose, we have characterized the intracellular tetraspanin-enriched microdomain (TEM) interactome by high throughput mass spectrometry, in both human lymphoblasts and their derived exosomes, revealing a clear pattern of interaction networks. Proteins interacting with TEM receptors cytoplasmic regions presented a considerable degree of overlap, although some highly specific CD81 tetraspanin ligands, such as Rac GTPase, were detected. Quantitative proteomics showed that TEM ligands account for a great proportion of the exosome proteome and that a selective repertoire of CD81-associated molecules, including Rac, is not correctly routed to exosomes in cells from CD81-deficient animals. Our data provide evidence that insertion into TEM may be necessary for protein inclusion into the exosome structure. PMID:23463506

  2. ‘Candidatus Competibacter'-lineage genomes retrieved from metagenomes reveal functional metabolic diversity

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon J; Albertsen, Mads; Andresen, Eva K; Saunders, Aaron M; Kristiansen, Rikke; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Nielsen, Kåre L; Nielsen, Per H

    2014-01-01

    The glycogen-accumulating organism (GAO) ‘Candidatus Competibacter' (Competibacter) uses aerobically stored glycogen to enable anaerobic carbon uptake, which is subsequently stored as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). This biphasic metabolism is key for the Competibacter to survive under the cyclic anaerobic-‘feast': aerobic-‘famine' regime of enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) wastewater treatment systems. As they do not contribute to phosphorus (P) removal, but compete for resources with the polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), thought responsible for P removal, their proliferation theoretically reduces the EBPR capacity. In this study, two complete genomes from Competibacter were obtained from laboratory-scale enrichment reactors through metagenomics. Phylogenetic analysis identified the two genomes, ‘Candidatus Competibacter denitrificans' and ‘Candidatus Contendobacter odensis', as being affiliated with Competibacter-lineage subgroups 1 and 5, respectively. Both have genes for glycogen and PHA cycling and for the metabolism of volatile fatty acids. Marked differences were found in their potential for the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas and Entner–Doudoroff glycolytic pathways, as well as for denitrification, nitrogen fixation, fermentation, trehalose synthesis and utilisation of glucose and lactate. Genetic comparison of P metabolism pathways with sequenced PAOs revealed the absence of the Pit phosphate transporter in the Competibacter-lineage genomes—identifying a key metabolic difference with the PAO physiology. These genomes are the first from any GAO organism and provide new insights into the complex interaction and niche competition between PAOs and GAOs in EBPR systems. PMID:24173461

  3. Function of the hydration layer around an antifreeze protein revealed by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, David; Smith, Jeremy C

    2008-10-01

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the mechanism by which the antifreeze protein from the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana, binds to ice. Comparison of structural and dynamic properties of the water around the three faces of the triangular prism-shaped protein in aqueous solution reveals that at low temperature the water structure is ordered and the dynamics slowed down around the ice-binding face of the protein, with a disordering effect observed around the other two faces. These results suggest a dual role for the solvation water around the protein. The preconfigured solvation shell around the ice-binding face is involved in the initial recognition and binding of the antifreeze protein to ice by lowering the barrier for binding and consolidation of the protein:ice interaction surface. Thus, the antifreeze protein can bind to the molecularly rough ice surface by becoming actively involved in the formation of its own binding site. Also, the disruption of water structure around the rest of the protein helps prevent the adsorbed protein becoming covered by further ice growth.

  4. Novel gene function revealed by mouse mutagenesis screens for models of age-related disease.

    PubMed

    Potter, Paul K; Bowl, Michael R; Jeyarajan, Prashanthini; Wisby, Laura; Blease, Andrew; Goldsworthy, Michelle E; Simon, Michelle M; Greenaway, Simon; Michel, Vincent; Barnard, Alun; Aguilar, Carlos; Agnew, Thomas; Banks, Gareth; Blake, Andrew; Chessum, Lauren; Dorning, Joanne; Falcone, Sara; Goosey, Laurence; Harris, Shelley; Haynes, Andy; Heise, Ines; Hillier, Rosie; Hough, Tertius; Hoslin, Angela; Hutchison, Marie; King, Ruairidh; Kumar, Saumya; Lad, Heena V; Law, Gemma; MacLaren, Robert E; Morse, Susan; Nicol, Thomas; Parker, Andrew; Pickford, Karen; Sethi, Siddharth; Starbuck, Becky; Stelma, Femke; Cheeseman, Michael; Cross, Sally H; Foster, Russell G; Jackson, Ian J; Peirson, Stuart N; Thakker, Rajesh V; Vincent, Tonia; Scudamore, Cheryl; Wells, Sara; El-Amraoui, Aziz; Petit, Christine; Acevedo-Arozena, Abraham; Nolan, Patrick M; Cox, Roger; Mallon, Anne-Marie; Brown, Steve D M

    2016-01-01

    Determining the genetic bases of age-related disease remains a major challenge requiring a spectrum of approaches from human and clinical genetics to the utilization of model organism studies. Here we report a large-scale genetic screen in mice employing a phenotype-driven discovery platform to identify mutations resulting in age-related disease, both late-onset and progressive. We have utilized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis to generate pedigrees of mutagenized mice that were subject to recurrent screens for mutant phenotypes as the mice aged. In total, we identify 105 distinct mutant lines from 157 pedigrees analysed, out of which 27 are late-onset phenotypes across a range of physiological systems. Using whole-genome sequencing we uncover the underlying genes for 44 of these mutant phenotypes, including 12 late-onset phenotypes. These genes reveal a number of novel pathways involved with age-related disease. We illustrate our findings by the recovery and characterization of a novel mouse model of age-related hearing loss. PMID:27534441

  5. Functional brain mapping of the macaque related to spatial working memory as revealed by PET.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masato; Mikami, Akichika; Ando, Ichiro; Tsukada, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    To define the cortical areas that subserve spatial working memory in a nonhuman primate, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with [(15)O]H(2)O and positron emission tomography while monkeys performed a visually guided saccade (VGS) task and an oculomotor delayed-response (ODR) task. Both Statistical Parametric Mapping and regions of interest-based analyses revealed an increase of rCBF in the area surrounding the principal sulcus (PS), the superior convexity, the anterior bank of the arcuate sulcus (AS), the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), the frontal pole (FP), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the lateral bank of the intraparietal sulcus (lIPS) and the prestriate cortex. In the prefrontal cortex (PS, superior convexity, AS, lOFC and FP), rCBF values correlated positively with ODR task performance scores. From the hippocampus, rCBF values correlated negatively with ODR task performance. From the AS, superior convexity, lOFC, FP, ACC and lIPS, rCBF values of the PS correlated positively with rCBF values and negatively with hippocampus rCBF values. These results suggest that neural circuitry in the prefrontal cortex directly contributes the spatial working memory processes and that, in spatial working memory processes, the posterior parietal cortex and hippocampus have a different role to the prefrontal cortex. PMID:14654462

  6. Differential proteomic analysis of STAT6 knockout mice reveals new regulatory function in liver lipid homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Iff, Joël; Wang, Wei; Sajic, Tatjana; Oudry, Nathalie; Gueneau, Estelle; Hopfgartner, Gérard; Varesio, Emmanuel; Szanto, Ildiko

    2009-10-01

    Increased inflammatory signaling is a key feature of metabolic disorders. In this context, the role of increased pro-inflammatory signals has been extensively studied. By contrast, no efforts have been dedicated to study the contrasting scenario: the attenuation of anti-inflammatory signals and their role in metabolic homeostasis. IL-4 and IL-13 are anti-inflammatory cytokines signaling through the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 6 (STAT6). Our study was aimed at evaluating the lack of STAT6 signaling on liver homeostasis. To this end we analyzed the liver proteome of wild type and STAT6 knock-out mice using 2D nanoscale LC-MS/MS with iTRAQ labeling technique. The coordinated changes in proteins identified by this quantitative proteome analysis indicated disturbed lipid homeostasis and a state of hepatocellular stress. Most significantly, the expression of the liver fatty acid binding protein (FABP1) was increased in the knock-out mice. In line with the elevated FABP1 expression we found latent liver lipid accumulation in the STAT6-deficient mice which was further aggravated when mice were challenged by a high fat diet. In conclusion, our study revealed a so far uncharacterized role for STAT6 in regulating liver lipid homeostasis and demonstrates the importance of anti-inflammatory signaling in the defense against the development of liver steatosis. PMID:19663508

  7. Evolution and Functional Implications of the Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle as Revealed by Phylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, João Henrique Frota; Esteves-Ferreira, Alberto A.; Quinhones, Carla G.S.; Pereira-Lima, Italo A.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Araújo, Wagner L.

    2014-01-01

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, a crucial component of respiratory metabolism, is composed of a set of eight enzymes present in the mitochondrial matrix. However, most of the TCA cycle enzymes are encoded in the nucleus in higher eukaryotes. In addition, evidence has accumulated demonstrating that nuclear genes were acquired from the mitochondrial genome during the course of evolution. For this reason, we here analyzed the evolutionary history of all TCA cycle enzymes in attempt to better understand the origin of these nuclear-encoded proteins. Our results indicate that prior to endosymbiotic events the TCA cycle seemed to operate only as isolated steps in both the host (eubacterial cell) and mitochondria (alphaproteobacteria). The origin of isoforms present in different cell compartments might be associated either with gene-transfer events which did not result in proper targeting of the protein to mitochondrion or with duplication events. Further in silico analyses allow us to suggest new insights into the possible roles of TCA cycle enzymes in different tissues. Finally, we performed coexpression analysis using mitochondrial TCA cycle genes revealing close connections among these genes most likely related to the higher efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation in this specialized organelle. Moreover, these analyses allowed us to identify further candidate genes which might be used for metabolic engineering purposes given the importance of the TCA cycle during development and/or stress situations. PMID:25274566

  8. Sequencing of transcriptomes from two Miscanthus species reveals functional specificity in rhizomes, and clarifies evolutionary relationships

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Miscanthus is a promising biomass crop for temperate regions. Despite the increasing interest in this plant, limited sequence information has constrained research into its biology, physiology, and breeding. The whole genome transcriptomes of M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus presented in this study may provide good resources to understand functional compositions of two important Miscanthus genomes and their evolutionary relationships. Results For M. sinensis, a total of 457,891 and 512,950 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were produced from leaf and rhizome tissues, respectively, which were assembled into 12,166 contigs and 89,648 singletons for leaf, and 13,170 contigs and 112,138 singletons for rhizome. For M. sacchariflorus, a total of 288,806 and 267,952 ESTs from leaf and rhizome tissues, respectively, were assembled into 8,732 contigs and 66,881 singletons for leaf, and 8,104 contigs and 63,212 singletons for rhizome. Based on the distributions of synonymous nucleotide substitution (Ks), sorghum and Miscanthus diverged about 6.2 million years ago (MYA), Saccharum and Miscanthus diverged 4.6 MYA, and M. sinensis and M. sacchariflorus diverged 1.5 MYA. The pairwise alignment of predicted protein sequences from sorghum-Miscanthus and two Miscanthus species found a total of 43,770 and 35,818 nsSNPs, respectively. The impacts of striking mutations found by nsSNPs were much lower between sorghum and Miscanthus than those between the two Miscanthus species, perhaps as a consequence of the much higher level of gene duplication in Miscanthus and resulting ability to buffer essential functions against disturbance. Conclusions The ESTs generated in the present study represent a significant addition to Miscanthus functional genomics resources, permitting us to discover some candidate genes associated with enhanced biomass production. Ks distributions based on orthologous ESTs may serve as a guideline for future research into the evolution of Miscanthus species

  9. Metatranscriptomics reveals temperature-driven functional changes in microbiome impacting cheese maturation rate.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Francesca; Genovese, Alessandro; Ferranti, Pasquale; Gilbert, Jack A; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cheeses harbour complex microbial consortia that play an important role in shaping typical sensorial properties. However, the microbial metabolism is considered difficult to control. Microbial community succession and the related gene expression were analysed during ripening of a traditional Italian cheese, identifying parameters that could be modified to accelerate ripening. Afterwards, we modulated ripening conditions and observed consistent changes in microbial community structure and function. We provide concrete evidence of the essential contribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in ripening-related activities. An increase in the ripening temperature promoted the expression of genes related to proteolysis, lipolysis and amino acid/lipid catabolism and significantly increases the cheese maturation rate. Moreover, temperature-promoted microbial metabolisms were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of proteins and volatile organic compounds in the cheese. The results clearly indicate how processing-driven microbiome responses can be modulated in order to optimize production efficiency and product quality. PMID:26911915

  10. Functionally distinct melanocyte populations revealed by reconstitution of hair follicles in mice.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Hitomi; Hara, Akira; Motohashi, Tsutomu; Osawa, Masatake; Kunisada, Takahiro

    2011-02-01

    Hair follicle reconstitution analysis was used to test the contribution of melanocytes or their precursors to regenerated hair follicles. In this study, we first confirmed the process of chimeric hair follicle regeneration by both hair keratinocytes and follicular melanocytes. Then, as first suggested from the differential growth requirements of epidermal skin melanocytes and non-cutaneous or dermal melanocytes, we confirmed the inability of the latter to be involved as follicular melanocytes to regenerate hair follicles during the hair reconstitution assay. This clear functional discrimination between non-cutaneous or dermal melanocytes and epidermal melanocytes suggests the presence of two different melanocyte cell lineages, a finding that might be important in the pathogenesis of melanocyte-related diseases and melanomas. PMID:21054816

  11. Functional multiplicity of motor molecules revealed by a simple kinetic analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lark, E; Omoto, C K; Schumaker, M F

    1994-01-01

    We present a simple analytical solution for a kinetic model of motor molecule function with multiple arms. This model has a rate of motion proportional to the probability that all arms in a complex are detached from the cytoskeleton and, therefore, we refer to it as obligate cooperativity. The model has the form: v = Vmax/(1 + q/S)n, where Vmax is the maximum velocity, the product nq is the effective Michaelis constant at high [ATP], and n is the number of arms. Values of n = 2 and n = 1 give good fits to the heavy meromyosin and myosin S1 sliding velocity data, respectively, consistent with the number of active sites. Despite the complexity of the eukaryotic axoneme, beat frequency data from Chlamydomonas wild-type and oda mutants are also fit by this model. PMID:7811925

  12. High-resolution temporal analysis reveals a functional timeline for the molecular regulation of cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Tim; Jordan, Shawn N.; Chand, Vandana; Sees, Jennifer A.; Laband, Kimberley; Carvalho, Ana; Shirasu-Hiza, Mimi; Kovar, David R.; Dumont, Julien; Canman, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary To take full advantage of fast-acting temperature-sensitive mutations, thermal control must be extremely rapid. We developed the Therminator, a device capable of shifting sample temperature in ~17s while simultaneously imaging cell division in vivo. Applying this technology to six key regulators of cytokinesis, we found that each has a distinct temporal requirement in the C. elegans zygote. Specifically, myosin-II is required throughout cytokinesis until contractile ring closure. In contrast, formin-mediated actin nucleation is only required during assembly and early contractile ring constriction. Centralspindlin is required to maintain division after ring closure, though its GAP activity is only required until just prior to closure. Finally, the Chromosomal Passenger Complex is required for cytokinesis only early in mitosis, but not during metaphase or cytokinesis. Together, our results provide a precise functional timeline for molecular regulators of cytokinesis using the Therminator, a powerful tool for ultra-rapid protein inactivation. PMID:25073157

  13. Crystal structure of folliculin reveals a hidDENN function in genetically inherited renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nookala, Ravi K.; Langemeyer, Lars; Pacitto, Angela; Ochoa-Montaño, Bernardo; Donaldson, Jane C.; Blaszczyk, Beata K.; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Barr, Francis A.; Bazan, J. Fernando; Blundell, Tom L.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the renal tumour suppressor protein, folliculin, lead to proliferative skin lesions, lung complications and renal cell carcinoma. Folliculin has been reported to interact with AMP-activated kinase, a key component of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Most cancer-causing mutations lead to a carboxy-terminal truncation of folliculin, pointing to a functional importance of this domain in tumour suppression. We present here the crystal structure of folliculin carboxy-terminal domain and demonstrate that it is distantly related to differentially expressed in normal cells and neoplasia (DENN) domain proteins, a family of Rab guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Using biochemical analysis, we show that folliculin has GEF activity, indicating that folliculin is probably a distantly related member of this class of Rab GEFs. PMID:22977732

  14. A FRET biosensor reveals spatiotemporal activation and functions of aurora kinase A in living cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Giulia; Sizaire, Florian; Herbomel, Gaëtan; Reboutier, David; Prigent, Claude; Tramier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of AURKA is a major hallmark of epithelial cancers. It encodes the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase aurora A, which is activated at metaphase and is required for cell cycle progression; assessing its activation in living cells is mandatory for next-generation drug design. We describe here a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor detecting the conformational changes of aurora kinase A induced by its autophosphorylation on Thr288. The biosensor functionally replaces the endogenous kinase in cells and allows the activation of the kinase to be followed throughout the cell cycle. Inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase prevents the conformational changes of the biosensor. Using this approach, we discover that aurora kinase A activates during G1 to regulate the stability of microtubules in cooperation with TPX2 and CEP192. These results demonstrate that the aurora kinase A biosensor is a powerful tool to identify new regulatory pathways controlling aurora kinase A activation. PMID:27624869

  15. Revealing the supramolecular nature of side-chain terpyridine-functionalized polymer networks.

    PubMed

    Brassinne, Jérémy; Jochum, Florian D; Fustin, Charles-André; Gohy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, finely controlling the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is possible by incorporating supramolecular motifs into their architecture. In this context, the synthesis of a side-chain terpyridine-functionalized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) is reported via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. By addition of transition metal ions, concentrated aqueous solutions of this polymer turn into metallo-supramolecular hydrogels whose dynamic mechanical properties are investigated by rotational rheometry. Hence, the possibility for the material to relax mechanical constrains via dissociation of transient cross-links is brought into light. In addition, the complex phenomena occurring under large oscillatory shear are interpreted in the context of transient networks. PMID:25569082

  16. Acetic Acid Bacteria Genomes Reveal Functional Traits for Adaptation to Life in Insect Guts

    PubMed Central

    Chouaia, Bessem; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Crotti, Elena; Comandatore, Francesco; Degli Esposti, Mauro; Ricci, Irene; Alma, Alberto; Favia, Guido; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) live in sugar rich environments, including food matrices, plant tissues, and the gut of sugar-feeding insects. By comparing the newly sequenced genomes of Asaia platycodi and Saccharibacter sp., symbionts of Anopheles stephensi and Apis mellifera, respectively, with those of 14 other AAB, we provide a genomic view of the evolutionary pattern of this bacterial group and clues on traits that explain the success of AAB as insect symbionts. A specific pre-adaptive trait, cytochrome bo3 ubiquinol oxidase, appears ancestral in AAB and shows a phylogeny that is congruent with that of the genomes. The functional properties of this terminal oxidase might have allowed AAB to adapt to the diverse oxygen levels of arthropod guts. PMID:24682158

  17. Network Analysis of Circular Permutations in Multidomain Proteins Reveals Functional Linkages for Uncharacterized Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Adjeroh, Donald; Jiang, Yue; Jiang, Bing-Hua; Lin, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have implicated different multidomain proteins in cancer. However, there has been little or no detailed study on the role of circular multidomain proteins in the general problem of cancer or on specific cancer types. This work represents an initial attempt at investigating the potential for predicting linkages between known cancer-associated proteins with uncharacterized or hypothetical multidomain proteins, based primarily on circular permutation (CP) relationships. First, we propose an efficient algorithm for rapid identification of both exact and approximate CPs in multidomain proteins. Using the circular relations identified, we construct networks between multidomain proteins, based on which we perform functional annotation of multidomain proteins. We then extend the method to construct subnetworks for selected cancer subtypes, and performed prediction of potential link-ages between uncharacterized multidomain proteins and the selected cancer types. We include practical results showing the performance of the proposed methods. PMID:25741177

  18. Metatranscriptomics reveals temperature-driven functional changes in microbiome impacting cheese maturation rate

    PubMed Central

    De Filippis, Francesca; Genovese, Alessandro; Ferranti, Pasquale; Gilbert, Jack A.; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cheeses harbour complex microbial consortia that play an important role in shaping typical sensorial properties. However, the microbial metabolism is considered difficult to control. Microbial community succession and the related gene expression were analysed during ripening of a traditional Italian cheese, identifying parameters that could be modified to accelerate ripening. Afterwards, we modulated ripening conditions and observed consistent changes in microbial community structure and function. We provide concrete evidence of the essential contribution of non-starter lactic acid bacteria in ripening-related activities. An increase in the ripening temperature promoted the expression of genes related to proteolysis, lipolysis and amino acid/lipid catabolism and significantly increases the cheese maturation rate. Moreover, temperature-promoted microbial metabolisms were consistent with the metabolomic profiles of proteins and volatile organic compounds in the cheese. The results clearly indicate how processing-driven microbiome responses can be modulated in order to optimize production efficiency and product quality. PMID:26911915

  19. Fluorescent false neurotransmitter reveals functionally silent dopamine vesicle clusters in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Daniela B; Schmitz, Yvonne; Mészáros, József; Merchant, Paolomi; Hu, Gang; Li, Shu; Henke, Adam; Lizardi-Ortiz, José E; Karpowicz, Richard J; Morgenstern, Travis J; Sonders, Mark S; Kanter, Ellen; Rodriguez, Pamela C; Mosharov, Eugene V; Sames, Dalibor; Sulzer, David

    2016-04-01

    Neurotransmission at dopaminergic synapses has been studied with techniques that provide high temporal resolution, but cannot resolve individual synapses. To elucidate the spatial dynamics and heterogeneity of individual dopamine boutons, we developed fluorescent false neurotransmitter 200 (FFN200), a vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) substrate that selectively traces monoamine exocytosis in both neuronal cell culture and brain tissue. By monitoring electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients with GCaMP3 and FFN200 release simultaneously, we found that only a small fraction of dopamine boutons that exhibited Ca(2+) influx engaged in exocytosis, a result confirmed with activity-dependent loading of the endocytic probe FM1-43. Thus, only a low fraction of striatal dopamine axonal sites with uptake-competent VMAT2 vesicles are capable of transmitter release. This is consistent with the presence of functionally 'silent' dopamine vesicle clusters and represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first report suggestive of presynaptically silent neuromodulatory synapses. PMID:26900925

  20. Revealing the Supramolecular Nature of Side-Chain Terpyridine-Functionalized Polymer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brassinne, Jérémy; Jochum, Florian D.; Fustin, Charles-André; Gohy, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, finely controlling the mechanical properties of polymeric materials is possible by incorporating supramolecular motifs into their architecture. In this context, the synthesis of a side-chain terpyridine-functionalized poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) is reported via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. By addition of transition metal ions, concentrated aqueous solutions of this polymer turn into metallo-supramolecular hydrogels whose dynamic mechanical properties are investigated by rotational rheometry. Hence, the possibility for the material to relax mechanical constrains via dissociation of transient cross-links is brought into light. In addition, the complex phenomena occurring under large oscillatory shear are interpreted in the context of transient networks. PMID:25569082

  1. Ty3 Capsid Mutations Reveal Early and Late Functions of the Amino-Terminal Domain▿

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Liza S. Z.; Zhang, Min; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Bilanchone, Virginia; Lamsa, Anne; Nagashima, Kunio; Najdi, Rani; Kosaka, Kathryn; Kovacevic, Vuk; Cheng, Jianlin; Baldi, Pierre; Hatfield, G. Wesley; Sandmeyer, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The Ty3 retrotransposon assembles into 50-nm virus-like particles that occur in large intracellular clusters in the case of wild-type (wt) Ty3. Within these particles, maturation of the Gag3 and Gag3-Pol3 polyproteins by Ty3 protease produces the structural proteins capsid (CA), spacer, and nucleocapsid. Secondary and tertiary structure predictions showed that, like retroviral CA, Ty3 CA contains a large amount of helical structure arranged in amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal bundles. Twenty-six mutants in which alanines were substituted for native residues were used to study CA subdomain functions. Transposition was measured, and particle morphogenesis and localization were characterized by analysis of protein processing, cDNA production, genomic RNA protection, and sedimentation and by fluorescence and electron microscopy. These measures defined five groups of mutants. Proteins from each group could be sedimented in a large complex. Mutations in the amino-terminal domain reduced the formation of fluorescent Ty3 protein foci. In at least one major homology region mutant, Ty3 protein concentrated in foci but no wt clusters of particles were observed. One mutation in the carboxyl-terminal domain shifted assembly from spherical particles to long filaments. Two mutants formed foci separate from P bodies, the proposed sites of assembly, and formed defective particles. P-body association was therefore found to be not necessary for assembly but correlated with the production of functional particles. One mutation in the amino terminus blocked transposition after cDNA synthesis. Our data suggest that Ty3 proteins are concentrated first, assembly associated with P bodies occurs, and particle morphogenesis concludes with a post-reverse transcription, CA-dependent step. Particle formation was generally resistant to localized substitutions, possibly indicating that multiple domains are involved. PMID:17442718

  2. Mechanism of Mss116 ATPase reveals functional diversity of DEAD-box proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Wenxiang; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Ding, Steve; Henn, Arnon; Middleton, Elizabeth R.; Bradley, Michael J.; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Hackney, David D.; Pyle, Anna Marie; De La Cruz, Enrique M.

    2011-01-01

    Mss116 is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial DEAD-box RNA helicase protein essential for efficient in vivo splicing of all group I and II introns and activation of mRNA translation. Catalysis of intron splicing by Mss116 is coupled to its ATPase activity. Knowledge of the kinetic pathway(s) and biochemical intermediates populated during RNA-stimulated Mss116 ATPase is fundamental for defining how Mss116 ATP utilization is linked to in vivo function. We therefore measured the rate and equilibrium constants underlying Mss116 ATP utilization and nucleotide-linked RNA binding. RNA accelerates the Mss116 steady-state ATPase ~7-fold by promoting rate-limiting ATP hydrolysis, such that Pi release becomes (partially) rate-limiting. RNA binding displays strong thermodynamic coupling to the chemical states of the Mss116-bound nucleotide such that Mss116 with bound ADP-Pi binds RNA more strongly than with bound ADP or in the absence of nucleotide. The predominant biochemical intermediate populated during in vivo steady-state cycling is the strong RNA binding, Mss116-ADP-Pi state. Strong RNA binding allows Mss116 to fulfill its biological role in stabilization of group II intron folding intermediates. ATPase cycling allows for transient population of the weak RNA binding, ADP state of Mss116 and linked dissociation from RNA, which is required for the final stages of intron folding. In cases where Mss116 functions as a helicase, the data collectively favor a model in which ATP hydrolysis promotes a weak-to-strong RNA binding transition that disrupts stable RNA duplexes. The subsequent strong-to-weak RNA binding transition associated with Pi release dissociates RNA-Mss116 complexes, regenerating free Mss116. PMID:21501623

  3. Metatranscriptomes reveal functional variation in diatom communities from the Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Gareth A; Lago-Leston, Asuncion; Cánovas, Fernando; Cox, Cymon J; Verret, Frederic; Lasternas, Sebastian; Duarte, Carlos M; Agusti, Susana; Serrão, Ester A

    2015-10-01

    Functional genomics of diatom-dominated communities from the Antarctic Peninsula was studied using comparative metatranscriptomics. Samples obtained from diatom-rich communities in the Bransfield Strait, the western Weddell Sea and sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea/Wilkins Ice Shelf yielded more than 500K pyrosequencing reads that were combined to produce a global metatranscriptome assembly. Multi-gene phylogenies recovered three distinct communities, and diatom-assigned contigs further indicated little read-sharing between communities, validating an assembly-based annotation and analysis approach. Although functional analysis recovered a core of abundant shared annotations that were expressed across the three diatom communities, over 40% of annotations (but accounting for <10% of sequences) were community-specific. The two pelagic communities differed in their expression of N-metabolism and acquisition genes, which was almost absent in post-bloom conditions in the Weddell Sea community, while enrichment of transporters for ammonia and urea in Bransfield Strait diatoms suggests a physiological stance towards acquisition of reduced N-sources. The depletion of carbohydrate and energy metabolism pathways in sea ice relative to pelagic communities, together with increased light energy dissipation (via LHCSR proteins), photorespiration, and NO3(-) uptake and utilization all pointed to irradiance stress and/or inorganic carbon limitation within sea ice. Ice-binding proteins and cold-shock transcription factors were also enriched in sea ice diatoms. Surprisingly, the abundance of gene transcripts for the translational machinery tracked decreasing environmental temperature across only a 4 °C range, possibly reflecting constraints on translational efficiency and protein production in cold environments. PMID:25871931

  4. Meiotic Interactors of a Mitotic Gene TAO3 Revealed by Functional Analysis of its Rare Variant.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Saumya; Radhakrishnan, Aparna; Nitin, Rachana; Raharja-Liu, Pandu; Lin, Gen; Steinmetz, Lars M; Gagneur, Julien; Sinha, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Studying the molecular consequences of rare genetic variants has the potential to identify novel and hitherto uncharacterized pathways causally contributing to phenotypic variation. Here, we characterize the functional consequences of a rare coding variant of TAO3, previously reported to contribute significantly to sporulation efficiency variation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae During mitosis, the common TAO3 allele interacts with CBK1-a conserved NDR kinase. Both TAO3 and CBK1 are components of the RAM signaling network that regulates cell separation and polarization during mitosis. We demonstrate that the role of the rare allele TAO3(4477C) in meiosis is distinct from its role in mitosis by being independent of ACE2-a RAM network target gene. By quantitatively measuring cell morphological dynamics, and expressing the TAO3(4477C) allele conditionally during sporulation, we show that TAO3 has an early role in meiosis. This early role of TAO3 coincides with entry of cells into meiotic division. Time-resolved transcriptome analyses during early sporulation identified regulators of carbon and lipid metabolic pathways as candidate mediators. We show experimentally that, during sporulation, the TAO3(4477C) allele interacts genetically with ERT1 and PIP2, regulators of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis metabolic pathways, respectively. We thus uncover a meiotic functional role for TAO3, and identify ERT1 and PIP2 as novel regulators of sporulation efficiency. Our results demonstrate that studying the causal effects of genetic variation on the underlying molecular network has the potential to provide a more extensive understanding of the pathways driving a complex trait. PMID:27317780

  5. Characterization of Lipoprotein Composition and Function in Pediatric Psoriasis Reveals a More Atherogenic Profile.

    PubMed

    Tom, Wynnis L; Playford, Martin P; Admani, Shehla; Natarajan, Balaji; Joshi, Aditya A; Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Mehta, Nehal N

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with increased cardiovascular disease in adults, but the risk profile of children with psoriasis remains to be fully characterized. We measured lipoprotein composition and function in 44 patients with pediatric psoriasis and 44 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and a validated ex vivo assay of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity. The mean age of the patients was 13 years and the population was ethnically diverse. Children with psoriasis had higher waist-to-hip ratios (0.85 vs. 0.80; P < 0.002) and insulin resistance measures (log-transformed homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance 0.65 vs. 0.41; P = 0.07). Despite comparable traditional lipid values, having psoriasis was associated with higher apolipoprotein B concentrations (72.4 vs. 64.6; P = 0.02), decreased large high-density lipoprotein particles (5.3 vs. 6.7; P < 0.01), and reduced cholesterol efflux capacity after adjusting for age, sex, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, apolipoprotein A-1, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (β -0.22; P = 0.02). Patients with pediatric psoriasis have a more atherogenic cardiometabolic risk profile, with evidence of insulin resistance and lipoprotein dysfunction by particle size, number, and functional assessment. These findings may provide a basis for the observed link later in life between psoriasis and cardiovascular disease, and support the need to screen and educate young patients to minimize later complications. PMID:26763425

  6. Crustal structure and deformation under the Longmenshan and its surroundings revealed by receiver function data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya; Liu, Jianxin; Zhou, Keping; Chen, Bo; Guo, Rongwen

    2015-07-01

    The convergence of India and Eurasia and the obstruction from the rigid Sichuan Basin cause the Longmenshan (LMS) to have the steepest topographic gradient at the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. However, the mechanisms of surface uplift are still controversial. In this paper, we estimate the crustal structure and deformation under the LMS and its surroundings by analyzing a large amount of receiver function data recorded by regional seismic networks of the China Earthquake Administration. We apply a comprehensive splitting measurement technique on Ps conversion phase at the Moho (Moho Ps splitting) to calculate crustal anisotropy from azimuthal variations of receiver functions. Our results show that most of the seismic stations beneath the LMS area exhibit significant seismic anisotropy with the splitting time of 0.22-0.94 s and a fast polarization direction of NW-SE, while less or even no crustal anisotropy has been observed under the Sichuan Basin. Comparing the fast polarization directions of Moho Ps splitting with the indicators of lithospheric deformation (such as shear wave splitting, absolute plate motion, and global positioning system) imply a consistent tendency of deformation between the lower crust and upper mantle, but decoupling deformation in the crust beneath the LMS area. We further compare Moho Ps splitting time to that estimated from previous SKS splitting, indicating that crustal anisotropy is an important source of the SKS splitting time in this study area. In addition, a thick crust (>50 km) with high Vp/Vs values (1.74-1.86) is also observed using the H-κ stacking method. These seismic observations are consistent with the scenario that the LMS area has been built by the lower crustal flow. Combined with the seismic reflection/refraction profile and geology studies, we further suggest that the lower crustal flow may extrude upward into the upper crust along the steeply dipping strike faults under the LMS area, resulting in the surface

  7. Expression analysis of Arabidopsis vacuolar sorting receptor 3 reveals a putative function in guard cells.

    PubMed

    Avila, Emily L; Brown, Michelle; Pan, Songqin; Desikan, Radhika; Neill, Steven J; Girke, Thomas; Surpin, Marci; Raikhel, Natasha V

    2008-01-01

    Vacuolar sorting receptors (VSRs) are responsible for the proper targeting of soluble cargo proteins to their destination compartments. The Arabidopsis genome encodes seven VSRs. In this work, the spatio-temporal expression of one of the members of this gene family, AtVSR3, was determined by RT-PCR and promoter::reporter gene fusions. AtVSR3 was expressed specifically in guard cells. Consequently, a reverse genetics approach was taken to determine the function of AtVSR3 by using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Plants expressing little or no AtVSR3 transcript had a compressed life cycle, bolting approximately 1 week earlier and senescing up to 2 weeks earlier than the wild-type parent line. While the development and distribution of stomata in AtVSR3 RNAi plants appeared normal, stomatal function was altered. The guard cells of mutant plants did not close in response to abscisic acid treatment, and the mean leaf temperatures of the RNAi plants were on average 0.8 degrees C lower than both wild type and another vacuolar sorting receptor mutant, atvsr1-1. Furthermore, the loss of AtVSR3 protein caused the accumulation of nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide, signalling molecules implicated in the regulation of stomatal opening and closing. Finally, proteomics and western blot analyses of cellular proteins isolated from wild-type and AtVSR3 RNAi leaves showed that phospholipase Dgamma, which may play a role in abscisic acid signalling, accumulated to higher levels in AtVSR3 RNAi guard cells. Thus, AtVSR3 may play an important role in responses to plant stress. PMID:18436547

  8. Unexpected functional similarities between gatekeeper tumour suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes revealed by systems biology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongzhong; Epstein, Richard J

    2011-05-01

    Familial tumor suppressor genes comprise two subgroups: caretaker genes (CTs) that repair DNA, and gatekeeper genes (GKs) that trigger cell death. Since GKs may also induce cell cycle delay and thus enhance cell survival by facilitating DNA repair, we hypothesized that the prosurvival phenotype of GKs could be selected during cancer progression, and we used a multivariable systems biology approach to test this. We performed multidimensional data analysis, non-negative matrix factorization and logistic regression to compare the features of GKs with those of their putative antagonists, the proto-oncogenes (POs), as well as with control groups of CTs and functionally unrelated congenital heart disease genes (HDs).