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  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Easy-to-Read) Download PDF Download ePub Order ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  2. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence of 1 or more of ... of these behaviors. INATTENTIVE SYMPTOMS Doesn't pay attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork ...

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... finish things? If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these behaviors at times, but ADHD lasts more than 6 months and causes problems ...

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... us to find out more about ADHD. Share Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order a free ... attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder , or ADHD . What is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD? ADHD is a common mental disorder ...

  6. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD. PMID:25186567

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life. PMID:26386541

  9. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD. PMID:24787685

  10. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    1998-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may arise when key brain circuits do not develop properly, perhaps due to an altered gene or genes. Describes ADHD in detail and introduces a psychological model of ADHD. (ASK)

  11. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  12. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  13. Multicomponent attention deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Birim Günay; Sener, Sahnur; Koçkar, Aylin Ilden; Karakaş, Sirel

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the specific aspects of attention, such as selective attention, sustained attention, and short-term memory in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, combined subtype (ADHD-C). A total of 40 children with a diagnosis of ADHD from the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, aged 6-11 years old were compared with 40 controls matched for age and gender on a battery of tests. Short-term memory span and attention was measured by Visual Aural Digit Span Test-Revised. Stroop test and the Turkish version of Cancellation Test were used to assess selective and sustained attention, respectively. In order to check for factor structure in two groups on the test scores, principal component analysis was conducted for both groups separately. Relative to the comparison children, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on tests that are related to different aspects of attention. The results are consistent with the theories explaining the biological basis of ADHD by scattered attention networks in the brain, which have reciprocal dynamic interactions. Further comparative studies are needed to elucidate whether the cognitive processes that are known to be assessed by these tests are specific to ADHD. PMID:17362431

  14. Management of attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Delcau, C M

    1984-10-01

    Attention deficit disorder occurs in 5% to 10% of school-aged children. Retrospective studies have shown an increased incidence of academic and social failure in untreated children. This paper reviews the natural course of the disorder and describes some therapeutic interventions. PMID:6484648

  15. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, Mark L

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. For diagnosis, the clinician needs to establish the presence of ADHD on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria requiring information from parents and teachers and considering both alternative diagnoses and co-occurring conditions. In the treatment of ADHD as a chronic illness, the clinician needs to educate the family about the condition and partner with them about treatment decisions. The 2 treatments with demonstrated efficacy for ADHD are medications (stimulant medications and a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibiter) and behavior-modification programs. PMID:17178358

  16. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, B A; Fletcher, J M; Shaywitz, S E

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter we have reviewed the diagnosis and management of attention deficit disorder, focusing particularly on the role of stimulant therapy in ADHD. Hisorical review suggests that ADHD has roots that extend back almost a century. The definition of ADHD is based on inclusion and exclusion criteria that are established by history and reflect behavioral concerns. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a chronic disorder affecting the child's home, school, and community life. The primary symptoms of the disorder manifest a developmental pattern: activity diminishes while attentional deficits persist. Major sources of concern are the secondary and often more resistant problems of learning difficulties, behavioral problems, lack of peer acceptance, and low self-esteem. An often frustrating and perplexing characteristic of the disorder is its marked variability-over time, across situations, and within the same child and similar situations. Educational management represents an important priority and often forms the cornerstone of all other therapies, nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic. Cognitive-behavioral therapies represent the most widely used alternative to pharmacotherapy. Although the effects of CBT alone are disappointing, recent studies suggest that such therapies may provide a useful adjunct to pharmacotherapy and may be helpful when children are tapered off medication. Psychotherapy, or a combination of psychotherapy and medication (termed multimodality therapy), may also be useful. Pharmacotherapy for ADHD originated almost 60 years ago, and at this time the ameliorative effects of medications in ADHD are well established. The general skepticism of experienced clinicians, coupled with a climate where parents are reluctant to medicare children, serves to limit their use except where indicated. Although the effects of stimulants on attention and activity seem well established, effects on cognition, conduct, and social behavior are more controversial

  17. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  18. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Bokor, Gyula; Anderson, Peter D

    2014-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobiological condition of childhood onset with the hallmarks of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Inattention includes excessive daydreaming, disorganization, and being easily distracted. Impulsivity manifests as taking an action before fully thinking of the consequences. Hyperactivity includes an excessive rate of speech and motor activity. Complications of ADHD include academic failure, low self-esteem, poor work performance, substance abuse, criminal justice issues, and social problems. ADHD is predominately due to decreased activity in the frontal lobe. Dopamine and norepinephrine are the main neurotransmitters involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD. Pharmacological treatment of ADHD includes psychostimulants, norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, α2 agonists, bupropion, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most effective medications are the psychostimulants. Nonpharmacological treatment of ADHD includes coaching, providing structure, academic accommodations, and work accommodations. PMID:25092688

  19. Attention deficit disorder: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shaywitz, S E; Shaywitz, B A

    1987-01-01

    This review focuses on selected issues in the rapidly proliferating scientific literature on attention deficit disorder (ADD). It encompasses a brief overview of ADD, including a review of the historical trends, causation, and a description of the clinical characteristics. Critical issues fundamental to understanding of ADD are addressed next. Evidence is presented to suggest that there are several groups of children with ADD who are currently under-identified and therefore, underserved (girls with ADD; ADD without hyperactivity). The concept is introduced of uncomplicated ADD and ADD-Plus (ADD-P), a term used to designate ADD associated with other complicating features such as conduct disorder. Specific methodologic issues and their relationship to the under-identification of these groups of children follows. This discussion encompasses the reasons for diagnostic imprecision and inconsistency, emphasizing the problem of selective referral patterns and how it results in an inaccurate portrait of ADD. We then present new approaches to the definition and diagnosis of ADD based on empiric studies designed to circumvent some of these problems. We conclude with a summary of the implications of these findings, and recommendations for public policy in ADD, particularly the need to recognize that ADD may occur even in the most intellectually gifted individuals and even in students in select colleges. Often these children with the highest potential are penalized most, not because of conceptual limitations or because they do not understand, but because educators often fail to recognize the symptom complex. Many of these children are succeeding through intelligence and great effort, but many more could succeed with proper identification. PMID:3334012

  20. Attention Deficit Disorder. NICHCY Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Mary

    This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Questions address the following concerns: nature and incidence of ADD; causes of ADD; signs of ADD (impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, social skill deficits); the diagnostic ADD assessment; how to get…

  1. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) | Treatment What medicines are used to treat ADHD? Some of the medicines for ADHD are called psychostimulants. Some of these ...

  2. The Source for ADD/ADHD: Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Russell, Joy L.

    This book is intended for professionals who are responsible for designing and implementing educational programs for children with attention deficit disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Chapters address: (1) myths and realities about ADD/ADHD; (2) definitions, disorders associated with ADD/ADHD, and federal educational…

  3. Differentiating Attention Deficits in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder or Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooistra, Libbe; Crawford, Susan; Gibbard, Ben; Ramage, Barbara; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The attention and inhibition problems found in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are also common in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Attempts to distinguish ADHD from FASDs in terms of these deficits are rare and were pursued in this study. Method: A total of 116 children (47 with ADHD, 31…

  4. Prevalence of Attention Deficit Disorders in Arkansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Harold; Daley, Christine E.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among school children in Arkansas for the purpose of helping school districts plan appropriate educational interventions. The ADHD Survey was mailed to all 311 school superintendents; 128 surveys were returned. Findings revealed that, overall, 3 percent of…

  5. Attention Deficit Disorder and Hyperactivity. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Ronald J.; Doyal, Guy T.

    This book is designed for parents and teachers of children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. Chapter 1 describes the symptoms, diagnosis, and causes of ADD, its effect on parents and families, inborn temperament characteristics of children with ADD, and tests and rating scales used to diagnose and treat the disorder. The…

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: The Differential Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Warren A.; Emslie, Graham J.

    This paper presents information on the diagnostic criteria and management of disorders that may be wrongly identified as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or may coexist with ADHD thus complicating identification and treatment. The disorders discussed are: depression, mania, primary disorder of vigilance, narcolepsy, developmental…

  7. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  8. Educators' Knowledge of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Nancy Kincaid

    This thesis surveyed 160 teachers, 61 counselors, and 82 principals from Kansas public schools to determine their knowledge of attention deficit disorder in school-aged children. The independent variables investigated were position, extent of inservice education, gender, size of the participant's school, years of experience in education, and…

  9. Fragments: Coping with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Amy E.

    Written by a woman who, at age 25, was diagnosed as "a textbook case for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder," (ADHD) this book, examines: the pitfalls of traditional psychotherapy and medications for those diagnosed with ADD/ADHD; how an interactive, hands-on learning environment can markedly improve the educational experience of children…

  10. Behavioral Subtypes of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; Ackerman, Peggy T.

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews research on three behavioral subtypes of attention deficit disorder (ADD): (1) without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), (2) with hyperactivity, and (3) with hyperactivity and aggression (ADDHA). Children with ADDHA appear to be at increased risk of having oppositional and conduct disorders, whereas children with ADD/WO show symptoms…

  11. Students with Attention Deficit Disorders: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Rohena, Elba

    2003-01-01

    This article provides the American Psychiatric Association's definition of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and then gives an overview of ADD by considering the three types of ADD, the developmental impact of ADD, factors contributing to ADD, identification and assessment of students with ADD (emphasizing multimethod and consideration of…

  12. Attention Deficit Disorder: What Parents Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Inst., Washington, DC.

    This paper outlines practical information on children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Guidelines for identifying ADD are presented, followed by a summary of what parents and students can expect from special education and related services in public schools. Pros and cons of medication are noted, and recommendations for managing the child's…

  13. Attention Deficit Disorder: Two Mothers' Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Roy C.; O'Connor, Carol

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that investigated the decision-making process of two mothers' selection of treatment for their sons' attention deficit disorder (ADD). One mother opted for a medical treatment, and the other mother opted for a non-medical treatment. The boy who is medically treated is 14, and the non-medically treated…

  14. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  15. Effects of Stimulant Drugs on Attention and Cognitive Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    1981-01-01

    Research on the effects of stimulant drugs on attention and cognitive deficits in children with hyperactivity is reviewed. Topics covered include: attention and impulsivity, paired associate learning, school achievement, and drug induced attention and cognitive deficits. (CL)

  16. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  17. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-12-22

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  18. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  19. Approach to attention deficit disorder in adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the etiology, diagnosis, and management of attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adults. SOURCES OF INFORMATION PsycINFO, PubMed, and Psychiatry 24x7.com were searched. Several books on ADD in adults were reviewed. I also drew on my own clinical experience assessing and treating adults with ADD for more than 20 years. MAIN MESSAGE The classic triad of ADD symptoms are inattention, impulsiveness, and hyperactivity or restlessness. Although ADD is a well established brain disorder, the diagnosis remains controversial. Attention deficit disorder has been called a fad, not a legitimate diagnosis, but it is a well established, well documented, medical condition that can cause much suffering if left untreated. At one time we thought children would outgrow ADD at puberty, but we now know that many will continue to have residual symptoms throughout adolescence and adulthood. If left untreated, ADD can interfere with relationships, employment, and self-esteem. Treatment with stimulants and adjunctive care is often effective. CONCLUSION Attention deficit disorder in adults represents a substantial burden of illness. It can be diagnosed and treated successfully. PMID:17273498

  20. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties. PMID:25763856

  1. Treatment Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah; Zimmerman, Michele L

    2016-06-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children, adolescents, and adults, with a prevalence estimated from 5% to 7% across cultures and approximately 2% to 5% in adults. This lifelong disorder challenges nurses to understand the basis of ADHD, analyze symptoms, differentiate coexisting disorders, gather health information from varied sources, and implement person-centered multimodal treatment. Nurses are poised to plan, and work with patients, families, and teachers in the community and school systems to optimize academic and occupational performance and improve quality of life. Pharmacotherapy, psychoeducation, and behavioral therapies are strong components of multimodal treatment planning. PMID:27229276

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Ptáček, R; Kuželová, H; Papežová, H; Stěpánková, T

    2010-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common child diagnosis with frequent comorbidities (Quinn, 2008). According to present studies eating disorders may represent one of them (Mikami et al., 2008). Several studies reported ADHD relation to the higher predisposition to obesity (Altafas, 2002), higher values of signs of overnutrition, as body mass index (Waring and Lapane, 2008) or higher value of fat (Ptacek et al., 2009a, c). These characteristics are considered to be directly related to the disorder. They can be caused by impulsivity and probable specific feeding customs of ADHD patients. The presence of eating disorders in ADHD patients could partially explain previously described growth and weight changes. PMID:20946717

  3. Mindfulness and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Susan L.; Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Shrestha, Anshu; McGough, James; Flook, Lisa; Reise, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder characterized by attentional difficulties. Mindfulness is a receptive attention to present experience. Both ADHD and mindfulness are associated with attention and personality. This study tests whether individuals with ADHD have lower mindfulness scores than controls and, if true, whether personality contributes to these differences. 105 adults (half with ADHD) were assessed for mindfulness, using the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills, and personality, using the Tridimensional Character Inventory. Individuals with ADHD report themselves as less mindful than non-ADHD controls and more novelty-seeking, less self-directed, and more self-transcendent. Mindfulness is negatively associated with ADHD and positively associated with self-directedness and self-transcendence. Analyses of subscales of mindfulness suggest that ADHD is associated most with the ‘Acting in Awareness’ dimension perhaps due to shared items reflecting attentional variability. The current findings support that a large portion of variability in trait mindfulness can be explained by ADHD status and personality traits of self-directedness and self-transcendence. It further suggests that interventions that increase mindfulness might improve symptoms of ADHD and increase self-directedness and/or self-transcendence. PMID:19681107

  4. Attention deficit disorder during adolescence: a review.

    PubMed

    Faigel, H C; Sznajderman, S; Tishby, O; Turel, M; Pinus, U

    1995-03-01

    Attention deficit disorder (ADD) in adolescents has received scant attention when compared with that given to children. With or without hyperactivity, ADD does not disappear at puberty and is an important factor in scholastic and social failure in adolescents. As a condition associated with decreased metabolism in the premotor and prefrontal superior cerebral cortex, ADD in adolescents responds well to treatment with stimulants, tricyclic antidepressants and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Nonpharmacologic modalities such as behavior modification, individual and family therapy, and cognitive therapy are useful adjuncts to psychopharmacologic management. Without effective treatment, ADD often results in increased risk of trauma, substance abuse and conduct and affective disorders during adolescence, and marital disharmony, family dysfunction, divorce, and incarceration in adulthood. Properly treated with medication and counseling, adolescents with ADD succeed as well as their peers. PMID:7779826

  5. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bush, George

    2010-01-01

    Research attempting to elucidate the neuropathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not only shed light on the disorder itself, it has simultaneously provided new insights into the mechanisms of normal cognition and attention. This review will highlight and integrate this bidirectional flow of information. Following a brief overview of ADHD clinical phenomenology, ADHD studies will be placed into a wider historical perspective by providing illustrative examples of how major models of attention have influenced the development of neurocircuitry models of ADHD. The review will then identify major components of neural systems potentially relevant to ADHD, including attention networks, reward/feedback-based processing systems, as well as a ‘default mode' resting state network. Further, it will suggest ways in which these systems may interact and be influenced by neuromodulatory factors. Recent ADHD imaging data will be selectively provided to both illustrate the field's current level of knowledge and to show how such data can inform our understanding of normal brain functions. The review will conclude by suggesting possible avenues for future research. PMID:19759528

  6. Assessment and Characteristics of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder. Education of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykman, Roscoe A.; And Others

    This report summarizes activities and findings of a federally funded center at the Arkansas Children's Hospital which reviewed and disseminated literature on the identification and assessment of children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). Meetings throughout Arkansas led to the identification of interest areas, and findings are summarized for…

  7. Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rohit; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Mathur, Shachi

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD/ADD) is a neurobehavioral disorder of childhood onset characterized by severe, developmentally inappropriate motor hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness that result in impairment in more than one setting. It affects the home, school, and community life of 39% of school-going children worldwide. There is increasing recognition that ADHD symptoms and clinically defined disorder can persist into adult life and are associated with later drug and alcohol misuse and social and work difficulties. Added to that is the extreme variability of the disorder over time, within the same individual, between individuals, and across different circumstances. Treatment with stimulants and nonstimulants has proven effective in different subgroups, with the effectiveness of specific agents most likely related to the primary neurotransmitter involved. However, stimulants with a short duration of action have been problematic for some patients. Parent training and cognitive behavioral therapies represent the most widely adjunct psychosocial interventions to pharmacotherapy. PMID:21977081

  8. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetected feigned ADHD such as substantial costs covered by society for unnecessary assessments and treatments, unjustified occupation of limited medical resources and undermining society's trust in the existence of the disorder or the effectiveness of treatment. In times of economic crisis and cost savings in the medical sector, the detection of feigned ADHD is of importance. This review briefly describes the research on this topic with an emphasis on the approaches available for detection of feigned ADHD (i.e., self-report questionnaires, personality inventories, cognitive tests used in routine neuropsychological assessment and tests specifically designed for detecting feigned cognitive dysfunction). Promising approaches and measures are available for identifying feigned ADHD but there is an immediate need for further research. PMID:25096370

  9. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects. PMID:21069642

  10. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life. PMID:27193369

  11. Collicular dysfunction in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Overton, Paul G

    2008-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by (inter alia) an increase in distractibility. The current front-line pharmacotherapies for the treatment of ADHD, namely the psychostimulants methylphenidate and amphetamines, have clear abuse potential, hence there is a strong need to develop new drug treatments for this disorder. Central to this process is the identification of the pathophysiological changes which underlie ADHD. Given the heterogeneity of the disorder, multiple loci are probably involved, providing multiple potential therapeutic targets. Here, we hypothesise (Hypothesis 1) that one such locus is the superior colliculus (SC), a sensory structure intimately linked with distractibility and the production of eye and head movements. It is proposed that in ADHD, the colliculus is hyper-responsive, leading to the core symptom of increased distractibility. Hypothesis 1 is supported by: 1. ADHD patients show increased distractibility in tasks which are sensitive to collicular function; 2. ADHD patients have a general problem inhibiting saccades, the generation of which involves the SC; 3. Saccadic deficits in ADHD include defects in the production of saccadic types (anti-saccades and express saccades) which are particularly associated with the colliculus; 4. Covert shifts in attention (which also have been argued to involve the SC) are also impaired in ADHD; 5. Reading disorders are frequently co-morbid with ADHD; dyslexia (which is associated with eye movement problems) is linked to a specific visual perceptual deficit in the M pathway, a major recipient of which is the colliculus. Whether or not the SC is indeed hyper-responsive in ADHD as Hypothesis 1 suggests, the SC may well represent an important therapeutic target for drugs. In fact current psychostimulant therapies, which reduce distractibility, may already work at that level (Hypothesis 2), a contention which is supported by: 1. The

  12. Using Teacher Prompts and Habit Reversal to Reduce Fingernail Biting in a Student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Raymond J.; Kent, Susan; Johnson, Miriam E.

    2007-01-01

    Fingernail biting is a habit that is developed by numerous people, especially children and teenagers. Many clinicians believe that the habit of fingernail biting stems from nervousness or anxiety. Students, especially students with disabilities, can be easily distracted from instruction, can become the target of negative peer attention, and can…

  13. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  14. Raising attention to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pallanti, Stefano; Salerno, Luana

    2015-03-22

    Schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are two psychiatric disorders with a negative impact on quality of life of individuals affected. Although they are classified into distinct disorders categories, attentional dysfunction is considered as a core feature in both conditions, either at the clinical then pathophysiological level. Beyond the obvious clinical overlap between these disorders, the Research Domain Criteria approach might offer an interesting perspective for disentangling common circuits underpinning both disorders. Hence, we review evidences regarding the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, at the clinical level, and at the level of underlying brain mechanisms. The evidence regarding the influence of environmental risk factors in the emergence of both disorders, and their developmental trajectories is also reviewed. Among these, we will try to elucidate the complex relationship between stimulants use and psychotic symptoms, discussing the potential role of ADHD medication in inducing psychosis or in exacerbating it. We aim that, taken together, these findings may promote further investigation with important implications both for clinicians and research. In fact, considering the amounting evidence on the overlap between schizophrenia and ADHD, the delineation of their boundaries might help in the decision for diagnosis and treatment. Moreover, it may help to promote interventions focused on the prevention of both schizophrenia and ADHD, by the reduction of recognized environmental risk factors. PMID:25815254

  15. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  16. Disorganization as related to discoordination and attention deficit.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Nirit; Josman, Naomi; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the association of attention deficit and disorganization in boys with and without specific developmental disorder of motor function. Four groups of boys between the age of 7 and 12 years-(1) Disorganization + coordination disorder (n = 30); (2) Coordination disorder (n = 33); (3) Disorganization (n = 28); and (4) Control (n = 29)-were included. Teachers completed the Questionnaire for Assessing the Students' Organizational Abilities for the Teacher and the Conners' Teachers Rating Scale-Revised. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children and 2 subscales of an intelligence test (vocabulary and similarities) were administered. A significantly increased rate of attention deficit in children with organizational deficit was identified. Attention deficit in children with specific motor disorder was exclusively associated with an organizational deficit. Organizational deficit in childhood is highly associated with attention deficit, and this association is particularly relevant in children with specific coordination disorder. PMID:23271761

  17. Modeling Deficits in Attention, Inhibition, and Flexibility in HAND

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Landhing M.; Booze, Rosemarie M.; Mactutus, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all HIV-1-positive individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are afflicted with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The most prevalent cognitive deficits observed in the cART era are those of attention and executive function. Presently, we sought to model deficits in attention and core components of executive function (inhibition, flexibility, and set-shifting) observed in HAND using the HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rat, which expresses 7 of the 9 HIV-1 genes. Ovariectomized female Fischer HIV-1 Tg and non-transgenic control rats (ns=39–43) were tested in a series of operant tasks: signal detection, discrimination learning, reversal learning, and extradimensional set-shifting. The HIV-1 Tg animals attained the criterion of three sessions at 70% accuracy at a significantly slower rate than the control animals on all tasks with the exception of the extradimensional set-shifting task. Of the animals that met the criteria, there was no significant difference in percent accuracy in any task. However, the HIV-1 Tg rats showed a lower overall response rate in signal detection and discrimination learning. A discriminant function analysis classified the animals by genotype with 90.4% accuracy based on select measures of their performance. The functional consequences of chronic low-level expression of the HIV-1 proteins on attention, as well as inhibition and flexibility as core components of executive function, are apparent under conditions which resemble the brain proinflammatory immune responses and suppression of infection in HIV-1+ individuals under cART. Deficits in attention and core components of executive function may reflect an underlying impairment in temporal processing in HAND. PMID:24764039

  18. Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome: Similarities with Subtypes of Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matazow, Gail S.; Hynd, George W.

    Children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) often exhibit problems in visual spatial perception, math achievement, and social skills, and it has been postulated that this constellation of behaviors may constitute Right Hemisphere Deficit Syndrome (RHDS). This study examined 21 children with attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H),…

  19. Current pharmacotherapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D S

    2013-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral developmental disorder in children and adults characterized by a persistent pattern of impulsiveness, inattention and hyperactivity. It affects about 3-10% of children and 2-5% of adolescents and adults and occurs about four times more commonly in boys than girls. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but it has strong genetic and environment components. The first-line treatment options for ADHD include behavioral therapy, pharmacotherapy with stimulants or both. Methylphenidate and amphetamine salts are the stimulant drugs of choice for ADHD treatment. Amphetamines act by increasing presynaptic release of dopamine and other biogenic amines in the brain. Methylphenidate inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine and therefore its pharmacology is identical to that of amphetamines. Lisdex-amfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine with low feasibility for abuse. Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, is an alternative, non-stimulant drug for ADHD but it is less efficacious than stimulants. Stimulants are generally safe but are associated with adverse effects including headache, insomnia, anorexia and weight loss. There is increased awareness about serious cardiovascular and psychiatric adverse events with ADHD drugs including concern for growth suppression in children. Stimulants have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and should be handled safely to prevent misuse and abuse. PMID:24191257

  20. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-02-21

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD. PMID:26922966

  1. Comorbidity in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawamura, Yuuichi; Ohta, Tatsuro

    2003-10-01

    Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been noted for its high rate of comorbidity. The present study is the first report in Japan evaluating the proportion of comorbidity in ADHD cases presenting in the clinical setting, aiming at clarifying the picture of ADHD in Japan. The subjects consisted of 68 child and adolescent cases meeting criteria for ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn) under treatment at a child psychiatry clinic (IQ > 50, mental age >or= 4 years old). Disorders evaluated as comorbid disorders were mood disorders, anxiety disorders, elimination disorders, sleep disorders, tic disorders, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), school refusal, and epilepsy. Comorbidity with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, ODD, and CD, were found to be lower than the high rates conventionally reported in North America. The lower age of the present subjects, primarily in infancy and elementary school age with few adolescent cases, and a bias towards milder cases from an outpatient clinic without inpatient facilities are believed to be factors accounting for this disparity. Furthermore, it was a notable fact that mentally delayed cases (IQ: 51-84) amounted to 34% of the cases, indicating the necessity to consider intelligence level when formulating a treatment strategy for ADHD. PMID:12950698

  2. Developmental psychopathology: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz

    2009-01-01

    Background Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), formerly regarded as a typical childhood disorder, is now known as a developmental disorder persisting over the lifespan. Starting in preschool-age, symptoms vary depending on the age group affected. Method According to the variability of ADHD-symptoms and the heterogeneity of comorbid psychiatric disorders, a broad review of recent studies was performed. These findings were summarized in a developmental psychopathological model, documenting relevant facts on a timeline. Results Based on a genetic disposition and a neuropsychological deregulation, there is evidence for factors which persist across the lifespan, change age-dependently, or show validity in a specific developmental phase. Qualitative changes can be found for children in preschool-age and adults. Conclusion These differences have implications for clinical practice as they can be used for prevention, diagnostic proceedings, and therapeutic intervention as well as for planning future studies. The present article is a translated and modified version of the German article "Entwicklungspsychopathologie der ADHS", published in Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie, 56, 2008, S. 265-274. PMID:19761584

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Athletes

    PubMed Central

    White, Russell D.; Harris, George D.; Gibson, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in the general population, and many individuals with this condition participate in sports activity at all competition levels. Evidence Acquisition: Related studies were selected through literature searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane databases for the years 1991 to 2011. Key search terms were ADD, ADHD, sports, athletes, athletics, guidelines, NCAA, WADA, IOC, college, concussion, diagnosis, management, treatment, evaluation, return-to-play, pharmacotherapy, adult, adolescent, student, screening, injury, risk, neuropsychiatry, TBI, traumatic brain injury, and epidemiology. Study Design: Literature review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: ADHD usually has an early onset, with delayed diagnosis in some patients due to heterogeneous presentations. Suspected cases can be evaluated with available diagnostic tools and confirmed clinically. Athletes with ADHD may participate at all competition levels. Conclusion: Athletes with ADHD are able to participate at all competition levels by following published guidelines and requirements. Exercise benefits many athletes with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and concussion syndromes is currently under investigation. PMID:24587866

  4. Anchoring the Deficit of the Anchor Deficit: Dyslexia or Attention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willburger, Edith; Landerl, Karin

    2010-01-01

    In the anchoring deficit hypothesis of dyslexia ("Trends Cogn. Sci.", 2007; 11: 458-465), it is proposed that perceptual problems arise from the lack of forming a perceptual anchor for repeatedly presented stimuli. A study designed to explicitly test the specificity of the anchoring deficit for dyslexia is presented. Four groups, representing all…

  5. Assessment of Attention Deficit Disorder Using a Thematic Apperception Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costantino, Giuseppe; And Others

    Attention deficits and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (AD-HD) are regarded as relatively common disorders among school-age children, but the literature reveals several confounding factors with the standard assessment techniques for the disorder. Using a structured thematic apperception technique (the TEMAS Apperception Test of G.…

  6. Is Attention Deficit Disorder Becoming a Desired Diagnosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smelter, Richard W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    The rush to label schoolchildren as suffering from attention deficit disorder (ADD) or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has reached nearly epidemic proportions. The diagnosis often meets parents' needs to assign behavior control to Ritalin; it should be an explanation leading to genuine help, not a license for unacceptable student…

  7. [Drugs for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gangoso-Fermoso, A B; Martíínez-Granero, M A

    Quantitative studies have highlighted differences in several drugs approved for use in Spain in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No clear differences are observed, however, in the case of qualitative studies. The number of patients needed to be treated in order for one to reach complete remission (NNT) of methylphenidate (MTF) is from 2.2 to 5, and the effect size (ES) is 0.9. Atomoxetine has an NNT of 4 and an ES of 0.7. The advantages of immediate-release MTF (IR-MTF) over the extended-release version (ER-MTF) lie in its low cost, its flexibility and the better results obtained in quantitative studies. In contrast, ER-MTF offers a lower risk of abuse, needs to be taken fewer times with less need for third parties to control administration, and there is a lower risk of stigmatisation. Combination or changes of IR-MTF and ER-MTF and the combination of MTF with atomoxetine are sometimes necessary to adjust the weekday or weekend doses. Starting treatment with IR-MTF and then maintaining or changing to ER-MTF offers certain advantages as regards safety, dose adjustments and dosage. Atomoxetine is the best alternative if there is a background of adverse events with low or moderate doses of stimulants, or lack of response to high doses of stimulants. In cases of notable comorbid anxiety, both MTF and atomoxetine have the same level of indication. If there is a risk of substance abuse, both atomoxetine and ER-MTF are the preferred treatment. For the other indications, MTF is the preferred treatment. PMID:19396764

  8. [Emotional dysfunctions in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Purper-Ouakil, D; Franc, N

    2011-06-01

    Inattention, motor instability, and impulsivity, associated in varying degrees of severity depending on the clinical subtype, constitute the key symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, emotional symptoms are frequent in patients with ADHD and may, in some cases, be responsible for a major part of the negative impact on functioning and outcome. Emotional problems have been described in ADHD even in the absence of characterized comorbid conditions such as depressive or anxiety disorders. They can manifest acutely in the form of severe tantrums and aggressive behaviour, generally in reaction to an environmental trigger, or show a more chronic course of irritable or labile mood. Symptoms of emotional undercontrol seem to occur more frequently when ADHD is associated with oppositional defiant behaviour, but they are not specific and may contribute to difficulties in making a differential diagnosis, especially with bipolar disorder and prodromal symptoms of personality disorders. The frequency and negative impact of emotional symptoms and the need to differentiate them from bipolar disorder has led some authors to the description of a novel clinical entity called "severe mood dysregulation" or "temper dysregulation with dysphoria." This article aims to review the recent literature on emotional symptoms associated with ADHD and to discuss relevant clinical and biological issues. Current research highlights the links between emotional self-regulation and executive functions and possible involvement of motivational systems. The role of environmental factors in the development of emotional regulation and self-control is another important issue, especially because environmental modification is the major focus of current preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21497072

  9. Career Development Needs among College and University Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Mary L.; Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.; Cook, Bryan G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the employment and career development concerns of postsecondary students with learning disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and (b) develop strategies for improving their post-graduation employment outcomes. Employing an established…

  10. Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Lou, H.C.; Henriksen, L.; Bruhn, P.; Borner, H.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    We have previously reported that periventricular structures are hypoperfused in attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study has expanded the number of patients, who were divided into two groups: six patients with pure ADHD, and 13 patients with ADHD in combination with other neurologic symptoms. By using xenon 133 inhalation and emission tomography, the regional cerebral blood flow distribution was determined and compared with a control group. Striatal regions were found to be hypoperfused and, by inference, hypofunctional in both groups. This hypoperfusion was statistically significant in the right striatum in ADHD, and in both striatal regions in ADHD with other neuropsychologic and neurologic symptoms. The primary sensory and sensorimotor cortical regions were highly perfused. Methylphenidate increased flow to striatal and posterior periventricular regions, and tended to decrease flow to primary sensory regions. Low striatal activity, partially reversible with methylphenidate, appears to be a cardinal feature in ADHD.

  11. Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Review of the Literature on Social Skills Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Brian P.; Olmi, D. Joe

    1994-01-01

    Social interactions between children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and their teachers, peers, and parents are discussed. Problematic interactions may depend on social skills deficits. Changing the focus to ADHD children who are not experiencing social skills deficits may prove beneficial. A review of the previous literature…

  12. Motor Extinction: A Deficit of Attention or Intention?

    PubMed Central

    Punt, T. David; Riddoch, M. Jane; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2013-01-01

    Motor extinction refers to a deficit of motor production on the side opposite a brain lesion that either only becomes apparent or disproportionately worsens during bilateral motor activity. It may arise due either to a contralesional deficit in setting the motor activation level (an intentional deficit) or a deficit in contralesional awareness of the sensory consequences of movement (an attentional deficit). In this study, we investigate the nature of motor extinction in a patient (LR) with a right fronto-temporal lesion through the kinematic analysis of unimanual and bimanual circle-drawing movements. While the ipsi- and contralesional limbs performed comparably for unimanual movements, the contralesional limb demonstrated marked bradykinesia and hypometria during bimanual movements. Furthermore, these deficits were not overcome when visual feedback of the contralesional limb was provided (Experiment 1). However, when performing bimanual movements in the presence of a visual template (Experiment 2), LR was able to overcome the contralesional hypometria but not the bradykinesia which proved intractable across both experiments. Both the bradykinesia and hypometria could result from an intentional deficit of motor production. However, in Experiment 2, LR also demonstrated an abnormal level of positional drift in the contralesional limb for bimanual movements indicative of an additional attentional deficit. We conclude that LR’s presentation of motor extinction is the result of a primary intentional deficit and a secondary attentional deficit. PMID:24137119

  13. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  14. Dissociations in visual attention deficits among persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Wadley, Virginia G; Ball, Karlene; Vance, David E; Crowe, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Impairments in visual attention and visual information processing have been identified as part of the neuropsychological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in its earliest stages. There is increasing recognition that these deficits may be selective rather than global, with some attentional subtypes being more vulnerable than others. The few studies that have investigated attentional deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a putatively prodromal phase of AD, have not satisfactorily addressed the possible selectivity in attentional deficits in MCI. This study examined potential dissociations in visual attention deficits in MCI using a measure that assesses simple, divided, and selective attention. The results indicated a hierarchy of attentional impairments, with divided attention being the most affected and simple attention the least. Among participants with MCI, 53% showed evidence of impairment in divided attention compared to 19% of controls (OR = 4.81, p < .001). Poorer visual attention was also associated with poorer overall cognitive status. The implications of these findings for early identification of MCI, prevention of functional decline in MCI, and delay/reversal of cognitive degradation in MCI are discussed. PMID:18584341

  15. Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserstein, Jeanette; Wasserstein, Adella; Wolf, Lorraine E.

    This digest examines attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and symptoms of the disability. Pertinent adult problems include: (1) substance abuse, antisocial behaviors, and criminality, all of which can occur in adults with ADHD; (2) poor social skills or deficits in self-awareness are also frequent; (3) occurrence of ADHD with…

  16. The Neurological Basis of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Shirley; Bolan, Morna; Burton, Michael; Snyder, Sherry; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, Claire; Martin, Don

    1997-01-01

    Reviews research on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and examines the role of neurochemical stimulation and signs of neurological deficits. Describes the chemical action of drugs used to treat ADHD, along with cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects, and side effects. Elaborates on drug treatment and basic behavior modification…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Strategies for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, Johnny R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses classroom strategies used with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), methods for controlling the ADHD child's behavior, and the need for consistency and collaboration between the school and home. (Author/JDD)

  18. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

  19. Attention and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Perry, R J; Hodges, J R

    1999-03-01

    In this review we summarize the progress that has been made in the research on attentional and executive deficits in Alzheimer's disease. Like memory, attention is now recognized as consisting of subtypes that differ in their function and anatomical basis. We base our review upon a classification of three subtypes of attention: selective, sustained and divided. This model derives from lesion studies, animal electrophysiological recordings and functional imaging. We examine how these subcomponents of attention can be reconciled with neuropsychological models of attentional control, particularly the Supervisory Attentional System and the Central Executive System of Shallice and Baddeley, respectively. We also discuss the relationship of attention to the concept of executive function. Current evidence suggests that after an initial amnesic stage in Alzheimer's disease, attention is the first non-memory domain to be affected, before deficits in language and visuospatial functions. This is consistent with the possibility that difficulties with activities of daily living, which occur in even mildly demented patients, may be related to attentional deficits. It appears that divided attention and aspects of selective attention, such as set-shifting and response selection, are particularly vulnerable while sustained attention is relatively preserved in the early stages. The phenomenon of cognitive slowing in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing emphasizes the need to discriminate quantitative changes in attention dysfunction from qualitative changes which may be specifically related to the disease process. The neuropathological basis of these attentional deficits remains unsettled, with two competing hypotheses: spread of pathology from the medial temporal to basal forebrain structures versus corticocortical tract disconnection. Finally we discuss the difficulties of comparing evidence across studies and look at the implications for the design of future studies and future

  20. Evidence of Poor Planning in Children with Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Panayiotou, Georgia; Spanoudis, George; Natsopoulos, Demetrios

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the planning performance of children with attention deficits, and also investigated the possible interactions between inattention and anxiety in the performance of executive function tasks. A group of 98 children (grades 4 and 6), derived from an initial group of 550, were assigned to an attention difficulties group (AD) and a…

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Korean Juvenile Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chae, Paul Kyuman; Jung, Hyun-Oak; Noh, Kyung-Sun

    2001-01-01

    Identifies attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in Korean juvenile delinquents. Intelligence tests, Test of Variables of Attention, Teacher Report form, Youth Self-Report, and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale were administered to 98 incarcerated youth and 84 nondelinquent youth. In the delinquent youth, 42.2% of the adolescents were…

  2. Sustained and Focused Attention Deficits in Adult ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetta, Natalie D. J.; Hurks, Petra P. M.; De Sonneville, Leo M. J.; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the specificity of deficits in focused attention and sustained attention in adults with ADHD and to evaluate the effect of comorbidity. Method: Twenty-eight adults with ADHD without comorbidity were compared with 28 ADHD outpatients with comorbidity. Two control groups were used: 68 adults referred for ADHD but with another…

  3. Experimental Training of Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piscalkiene, Viktorija

    2009-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) negatively affects the cognitive and psychomotoric spheres of the pupil's social behavior and social adaptation. The review of many studies states that pupils with AD/HD achieve worse learning results because of insufficiently functioning cognitive processes, such as attention, (work) memory,…

  4. Adults with Dyslexia Demonstrate Attentional Orienting Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Judy; Davies, Anne Aimola

    2008-01-01

    Alerting, orienting and executive control of attention are investigated in five adult cases of dyslexia. In comparison with a control group, alerting and executive control were found to be generally intact for each case. Two spatial cueing tasks were employed. For the task requiring target detection, orienting difficulties were evident only in…

  5. Larger Deficits in Brain Networks for Response Inhibition than for Visual Selective Attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, James R.; Burman, Douglas D.; Meyer, Joel R.; Lei, Zhang; Trommer, Barbara L.; Davenport, Nicholas D.; Li, Wei; Parrish, Todd B.; Gitelman, Darren R.; Mesulam, M. Marsel

    2005-01-01

    Background: Brain activation differences between 12 control and 12 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children (9- to 12-year-olds) were examined on two cognitive tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Visual selective attention was measured with the visual search of a conjunction target (red triangle) in a…

  6. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  7. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  8. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  9. Visual Field Asymmetries in Attention Vary with Self-Reported Attention Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poynter, William; Ingram, Paul; Minor, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an index of self-reported attention deficits predicts the pattern of visual field asymmetries observed in behavioral measures of attention. Studies of "normal" subjects do not present a consistent pattern of asymmetry in attention functions, with some studies showing better left visual field (LVF)…

  10. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or bipolar disorder?].

    PubMed

    Da Fonseca, D; Adida, M; Belzeaux, R; Azorin, J-M

    2014-12-01

    The attention deficit disorder and the bipolar disorder maintain a complex relation. Indeed, these two syndromes share numerous symptoms that engender numerous diagnostic difficulties. According to several studies, it seems that these two disorders are really different with significant differences at the functional and anatomical level. However, there are common cognitive deficits as well as relatively frequent co-morbidity which is necessary to know in order to adjust the treatment. PMID:25550235

  11. Treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Brian; Hechman, Lily

    2005-01-01

    A number of medication and psychologic treatment options for adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have become available during the past 5 years, while others are under investigation. This review describes the safety and effectiveness of the stimulants (i.e., methylphenidate and dexedrine), and particularly the newer long-acting stimulants (i.e., Concerta) and Adderall XR) in the treatment of this population. Some nonstimulant/nonantidepressants, particularly atomoxetine, have also been shown to improve attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Combination treatment of stimulants and antidepressants require more study with regard to safety and efficacy. Psychosocial interventions (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness training and cognitive remediation) can also benefit adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Cognitive behavioral therapy combined with medication is more effective than either intervention alone, especially for addressing the emotional and functional aspects of peoples lives and thus improving occupational, interpersonal and emotional outcomes. PMID:15853481

  12. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  13. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: a therapeutic option

    PubMed Central

    Topczewski, Abram

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use of a therapeutic regimen to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients. Methods A total of 140 patients initially underwent physical, neurological and laboratory evaluation. Thereafter, treatment was initiated with a compounding product consisting of a tricyclic antidepressant and an anxiolytic. Results The response was positive in 71.43% of patients in controlling hyperactivity and improving dispersion and attention deficit. Conclusion The therapeutic regimen utilized proved to be an effective therapeutic alternative, especially for patients who do not adapt to psychostimulant drugs. PMID:25295451

  14. Visuospatial attention deficit in patients with local brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guang-Qing; Lan, Yue; Huang, Dong-Feng; Rao, De-Zhong; Pei, Zhong; Chen, Ling; Zeng, Jin-Sheng

    2010-03-31

    The disability of visuospatial attention can lead to poor volitional movement and functional recovery in patients with brain lesions. However, the accurate clinical method to assess visuospatial attention is limited. The frontoparietal network including the posterior parietal cortex and the frontal eye fields has been shown to involve in visuospatial attention. The Attention Network Test provided measures for three different components of visuospatial attention: alerting, orienting and executive control. This study was to probe the deficit and relationship of visuospatial attention using Attention Network Test paradigm in patients with frontoparietal network lesions. During this task, patients responded significantly slower on each cue condition and target type than controls, and showed deficits in the alerting and orienting networks. The efficiency of resolving conflict was decreased in patients with frontal lesions whereas this was increased in patients with parietal lesions. These findings suggest that the frontoparietal network is involved in the alerting and orienting attentional function and the executive function is possibly selectively associated with the frontal lobe. The Attention Network Test paradigm produces sensitive, valid and reliable subject estimates of visuospatial attention function in patients with brain lesions, and may be useful for clinical rehabilitation strategy selection for patients with the frontoparietal network lesions. PMID:20132799

  15. Executive Function in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinha, Preeti; Sagar, Rajesh; Mehta, Manju

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess executive functions in medication naive children with attention deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD). Method: Group matched (age and gender) children with ADHD (N=30) and healthy children (N=30) in the age range of 6-14 years were compared on measures of executive functions (response inhibition, working memory, cognitive flexibility,…

  16. The Use of Medication for Children with Attention Deficit Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    The efficacy of medications used to treat children with attention deficit disorders is reviewed, along with the importance of monitoring the medications' side effects. Medications reviewed include psychostimulants, tricyclic antidepressants, clonidine, and thyroid hormone. Factors to consider before recommendation of medication are listed.…

  17. Emotional Intelligence in Learners with Attention Deficit Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wootton, Carol Anne; Roets, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse and evaluate the nature and quality of emotional intelligence in learners with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), and to investigate whether their emotional intelligence was enhanced, and whether the symptoms and behaviour of these learners improved, after exposure to a programme on emotional intelligence.…

  18. Discovering Focus: Helping Students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valkenburg, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a neurological disorder which effects learning and that has a confusing set of diagnostic symptoms and an even more confusing set of remedies ranging from medication to meditation to nothing at all. Current neurological research suggests, however, that there are strategies that the individual with ADD can use to…

  19. Test Anxiety and College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Test anxiety was examined in college students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results indicated that, relative to college students without ADHD, college students with ADHD reported higher total test anxiety as well as specific aspects of test anxiety, including worry (i.e., cognitive aspects of test anxiety) and…

  20. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: ADHD Task Force Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Special Education Services.

    A Michigan task force examined existing and needed services for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), to assist school districts in developing services and to create a systematic plan for statewide information dissemination regarding referral, assessment, identification, intervention strategies, and legal mandates.…

  1. DSM-5 further inflates attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Batstra, Laura; Frances, Allen

    2012-06-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence and medication use unexpectedly increased significantly. In this article, we explore the DSM-5 proposals for ADHD that are likely to further increase its prevalence. We also address the possible harmful consequences of further expansion of this already broad, defined, and inflated DSM category. PMID:22652611

  2. Adolescents with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Benefit from Massage Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany M.; Quintino, Olga; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Koslovsky, Gabrielle

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-eight adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were provided either massage therapy or relaxation therapy for 10 consecutive school days. The massage therapy group, but not the relaxation therapy group, self-rated as happier, and observers rated them as fidgeting less following the sessions. Teachers reported more time on…

  3. EEG Markers for Attention Deficit Disorder: Pharmacological and Neurofeedback Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterman, M. Barry

    2000-01-01

    Examined contribution of EEG findings in the classification and treatment of attention deficit and related behavioral problems in children. Found that quantitative EEG methods disclosed patterns of abnormality in children with ADD, suggested improved guidelines for pharmacological treatment, and introduced neurofeedback, a behavioral treatment for…

  4. Professor Perceptions of College Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vance, Teresa Ann; Weyandt, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: From April to June 2005, the authors investigated professor perceptions of college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants: 253 participants completed the ADHD Beliefs Survey-Revised, a 40-question survey measuring professor perceptions of ADHD. Methods: Analysis of variance measured false and…

  5. Attention Deficit Syndrome: Educational Bugaboo of the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Svea J.

    The increase in the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and the characteristics and treatment of ADD using sensory motor exercises are discussed. Reasons for the disability are explored, including neurological differences and difficulties in interpreting sensory input. Problems with focusing and hearing as well as hypersensitivity to…

  6. Surviving Gifted Attention Deficit Disorder Children in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, Jane A.; French, Michael P.

    This paper examines characteristics of a typical 6-year-old and characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including distractibility, impulsiveness, inattention, and hyperactivity. The occurrence of ADHD in gifted students is discussed. Possible causes of ADHD are noted. The 5 "M" program of treatment is presented, which…

  7. Intellectual and Affective Characteristics of Attention Deficit Disordered Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohline, David S.

    1985-01-01

    A referral population of 108 six- to 11-year-olds was divided into Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) and non-ADD subgroups and were compared on two intelligence tests and a measure of depression. Though not intellectually distinct, the ADD group was more depressed relative to teacher ratings. The possibility that diagnostic criteria for ADD are…

  8. Gifted Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neihart, Maureen

    This digest summarizes what is known about gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It identifies three subtypes of ADHD, noting both criteria for diagnosis and the subjective determination of what constitutes significant impairment. Discussion of differences in gifted and non-gifted children with ADHD reports findings…

  9. Parents Psychopathology of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margari, Francesco; Craig, Francesco; Petruzzelli, Maria Giuseppina; Lamanna, Annalinda; Matera, Emilia; Margari, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a disorder with extremely complex etiology, not yet well defined but certainly multi-factorial. This study investigated the possible etiopathogenetic role of ADHD symptoms and psychopathology disorders in parents of children with ADHD. We present a case-control study of parents of 50 children…

  10. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Sean M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method: Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to…

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Decade of the Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Sharyn

    This guide to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is organized in three parts which address understanding the problem, getting help, and sustaining hope. A question-and-answer format addresses the following topics: symptoms of ADHD; other conditions which may produce similar symptoms; other disorders which may accompany ADHD; causes of…

  12. Emotion Regulation and Heterogeneity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erica D.; Galloway-Long, Hilary S.; Frick, Paul J.; Nigg, Joel T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: How best to capture heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using biomarkers has been elusive. This study evaluated whether emotion reactivity and regulation provide a means to achieve this. Method: Participants were classified into three groups: children with ADHD plus low prosocial behavior (hypothesized to be…

  13. Relationship between Learning Problems and Attention Deficit in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponde, Milena Pereira; Cruz-Freire, Antonio Carlos; Silveira, Andre Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of attention deficit on learning problems in a sample of schoolchildren in the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Method: All students enrolled in selected elementary schools were included in this study, making a total of 774 children. Each child was assessed by his or her teacher using a standardized scale. "The…

  14. Peer Victimization in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, Judith; Mak, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    This study explored peer victimization in 9- to 14-year-old children with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The sample comprised 104 children, 52 of whom had a previous ADHD diagnosis. Children with ADHD had higher overall rates of self-reported victimization by peers and parent- and teacher-reported bullying behavior…

  15. Taxonomic Separation of Attention Deficit Disorders and Developmental Reading Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, J. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    The behavior ratings and psychometric profiles of children with attention deficit disorders (ADD) and children with developmental reading disorders (DRD) were compared. DRD children were more impaired in academic attainment and showed evidence of qualitative disturbances in reading and spelling. ADD children showed no qualitative reading or…

  16. Intelligence and Behavior among Individuals Identified with Attention Deficit Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Ronna F.; Osborne, Susan S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe the nature of attention deficit disorders (ADDs) within an individual differences model of abilities. In so doing, a model-based explanation for the sources of learning and performance difficulties among individuals identified with ADDs is provided. Earlier models of ADDs are discussed, and the proposed loci of ADDs…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effective Methods for the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on two facets of treatment for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: educational accommodations and interventions for promoting appropriate behavior. It provides information on environmental adaptations, guidelines for effective class rules, implementing response cost, levels of time out, implementing a token…

  18. The Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Child Temperament

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Marie; McClowry, Sandra Graham; Castellanos, Francisco X.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined empirical and theoretical differences and similarities between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and child temperament in 32 ADHD children aged 6-11 years, and a comparison group of 23 children with similar sociodemographic characteristics. Children were assessed for ADHD symptoms (hyperactivity, impulsivity, and…

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Early Identification Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fewell, Rebecca R.

    A major aim of this study was to determine if Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) type behaviors observed at the age of 30 months in low birth weight children are predictive of ADHD and school difficulties at 5 and 8 years of age. Three major questions were addressed: (1) Do children who exhibit ADHD characteristics at 30 months differ…

  20. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  1. Pay Attention!: Sluggish Multisensory Attentional Shifting as a Core Deficit in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Krause, Margaret B

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this review is to provide a background on the neurocognitive aspects of the reading process and review neuroscientific studies of individuals with developmental dyslexia, which provide evidence for amodal processing deficits. Hari, Renvall, and Tanskanen (2001) propose amodal sluggish attentional shifting (SAS) as a causal factor for temporal processing deficits in dyslexia. Undergirding this theory is the notion that when dyslexics are faced with rapid sequences of stimuli, their automatic attentional systems fail to disengage efficiently, which leads to difficulty when moving from one item to the next (Lallier et al., ). This results in atypical perception of rapid stimulus sequences. Until recently, the SAS theory, particularly the examination of amodal attentional deficits, was studied solely through the use of behavioural measures (Facoetti et al., ; Facoetti, Lorusso, Cattaneo, Galli, & Molteni, ). This paper examines evidence within the literature that provides a basis for further exploration of amodal SAS as an underlying deficit in developmental dyslexia. PMID:26338085

  2. A chaotic model of sustaining attention problem in attention deficit disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghdadi, G.; Jafari, S.; Sprott, J. C.; Towhidkhah, F.; Hashemi Golpayegani, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of keeping an attention level is one of the common symptoms of attention deficit disorder. Dopamine deficiency is introduced as one of the causes of this disorder. Based on some physiological facts about the attention control mechanism and chaos intermittency, a behavioral model is presented in this paper. This model represents the problem of undesired alternation of attention level, and can also suggest different valuable predictions about a possible cause of attention deficit disorder. The proposed model reveals that there is a possible interaction between different neurotransmitters which help the individual to adaptively inhibit the attention switching over time. The result of this study can be used to examine and develop a new practical and more appropriate treatment for the problem of sustaining attention.

  3. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention Seeking? Ways of Distinguishing Two Common Childhood Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    Nigel Mellor recently retired from his work with the educational psychology service in North Tyneside. In this article, he proposes that attention-seeking behaviour may lead to major difficulties at home and school and indicates the ways in which recent research is beginning to clarify the area. Attention deficit disorders also cause great…

  4. Prefrontal and Executive Attention Network Lesions and the Development of Attention-Deficit/hyperactivity Symptomatology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Max, Jeffrey E.; Manes, Facundo F.; Robertson, Brigitte A.M.; Mathews, Katherine; Fox, Peter T.; Lancaster, Jack

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between focal stroke lesions of Posner's executive attention network and a specific region of interest in the frontal lobes (orbital frontal and mesial frontal) and either attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or traits of the disorder (ADHD symptomatology). Method: Twenty-nine children with…

  5. Sustained Attention and Response Inhibition in Young Children at Risk for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwid, Olga G.; Curko Kera, Elizabeth A.; Marks, David J.; Santra, Amita; Bender, Heidi A.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of school-aged children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have variably shown ADHD-related impairment in both inhibitory control and sustained attention. However, few studies have examined ADHD-associated patterns of performance on these tasks among younger children (below age 7…

  6. Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Attentional Functions in Children with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konrad, Kerstin; Gunther, Thomas; Hanisch, Charlotte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of methylphenidate on different attentional functions and behavior in children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: A total of 60 ADHD children aged between 8 and 12 years completed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover trial with two doses of…

  7. How Is a Computerized Attention Test Used in the Diagnosis of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael

    1986-01-01

    The computerization of attention tasks has allowed clinicians to incorporate objective data into evaluations of attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity. The Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) is described and case histories are presented which illustrate the contribution of GDS data to evaluation and treatment monitoring. (DB)

  8. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  9. A review of executive function deficits in autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Francesco; Margari, Francesco; Legrottaglie, Anna R; Palumbi, Roberto; de Giambattista, Concetta; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Executive dysfunction has been shown to be a promising endophenotype in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This article reviewed 26 studies that examined executive function comparing ASD and/or ADHD children. In light of findings from this review, the ASD + ADHD group appears to share impairment in both flexibility and planning with the ASD group, while it shares the response inhibition deficit with the ADHD group. Conversely, deficit in attention, working memory, preparatory processes, fluency, and concept formation does not appear to be distinctive in discriminating from ASD, ADHD, or ASD + ADHD group. On the basis of neurocognitive endophenotype, the common co-occurrence of executive function deficits seems to reflect an additive comorbidity, rather than a separate condition with distinct impairments. PMID:27274255

  10. The Coincidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Creativity. Attention Deficit Disorder Research-Based Decision Making Series 9508.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramond, Bonnie

    This monograph examines the particular problems that can beset creative children when their behaviors are mistaken for the frequently diagnosed psychoeducational condition of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A brief history of ADHD is given, tracing the difficulty that researchers have experienced in defining and accurately…

  11. Neuroligin-2 Expression in the Prefrontal Cortex is Involved in Attention Deficits Induced by Peripubertal Stress.

    PubMed

    Tzanoulinou, Stamatina; García-Mompó, Clara; Riccio, Orbicia; Grosse, Jocelyn; Zanoletti, Olivia; Dedousis, Panagiotis; Nacher, Juan; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that attention deficits, which are frequently observed as core symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders, may be elicited by early life stress. However, the mechanisms mediating these stress effects remain unknown. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has been implicated in the regulation of attention, including dysfunctions in GABAergic transmission, and it is highly sensitive to stress. Here, we investigated the involvement of neuroligin-2 (NLGN-2), a synaptic cell adhesion molecule involved in the stabilization and maturation of GABAergic synapses, in the PFC in the link between stress and attention deficits. First, we established that exposure of rats to stress during the peripubertal period impairs attention in the five-choice serial reaction time task and results in reductions in the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase in different PFC subregions (ie, prelimbic (PL), infralimbic, and medial and ventral orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex) and in NLGN-2 in the PL cortex. In peripubertally stressed animals, NLGN-2 expression in the PL and OFC cortex correlated with attention measurements. Subsequently, we found that adeno-associated virus-induced rescue of NLGN-2 in the PFC reverses the stress-induced attention deficits regarding omitted trials. Therefore, our findings highlight peripuberty as a period that is highly vulnerable to stress, leading to the development of attention deficits and a dysfunction in the PFC GABAergic system and NLGN-2 expression. Furthermore, NLGN-2 is underscored as a promising target to treat stress-induced cognitive alterations, and in particular attentional deficits as manifested by augmented omissions in a continuous performance task. PMID:26152839

  12. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury

    PubMed Central

    Striemer, Christopher L.; Cantelmi, David; Cusimano, Michael D.; Danckert, James A.; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past 15 years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n = 11) without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n = 11). Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50 ms) SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices—regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention. PMID:26300756

  13. Deficits in reflexive covert attention following cerebellar injury.

    PubMed

    Striemer, Christopher L; Cantelmi, David; Cusimano, Michael D; Danckert, James A; Schweizer, Tom A

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally the cerebellum has been known for its important role in coordinating motor output. Over the past 15 years numerous studies have indicated that the cerebellum plays a role in a variety of cognitive functions including working memory, language, perceptual functions, and emotion. In addition, recent work suggests that regions of the cerebellum involved in eye movements also play a role in controlling covert visual attention. Here we investigated whether regions of the cerebellum that are not strictly tied to the control of eye movements might also contribute to covert attention. To address this question we examined the effects of circumscribed cerebellar lesions on reflexive covert attention in a group of patients (n = 11) without any gross motor or oculomotor deficits, and compared their performance to a group of age-matched controls (n = 11). Results indicated that the traditional RT advantage for validly cued targets was significantly smaller at the shortest (50 ms) SOA for cerebellar patients compared to controls. Critically, a lesion overlap analysis indicated that this deficit in the rapid deployment of attention was linked to damage in Crus I and Crus II of the lateral cerebellum. Importantly, both cerebellar regions have connections to non-motor regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices-regions important for controlling visuospatial attention. Together, these data provide converging evidence that both lateral and midline regions of the cerebellum play an important role in the control of reflexive covert visual attention. PMID:26300756

  14. Functional deficits of the attentional networks in autism

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jin; Bernardi, Silvia; Dam, Nicholas T; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Gu, Xiaosi; Martin, Laura; Park, Yunsoo; Liu, Xun; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha; Grodberg, David; Hollander, Eric; Hof, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    Attentional dysfunction is among the most consistent observations of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, the neural nature of this deficit in ASD is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the neurobehavioral correlates of attentional dysfunction in ASD. We used the Attention Network Test-Revised and functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine alerting, orienting, and executive control functions, as well as the neural substrates underlying these attentional functions in unmedicated, high-functioning adults with ASD (n = 12) and matched healthy controls (HC, n = 12). Compared with HC, individuals with ASD showed increased error rates in alerting and executive control, accompanied by lower activity in the mid-frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus for alerting, and by the absence of significant functional activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for executive control. In addition, greater behavioral deficiency in executive control in ASD was correlated with less functional activation of the ACC. These findings of behavioral and neural abnormalities in alerting and executive control of attention in ASD may suggest core attentional deficits, which require further investigation. PMID:23139910

  15. [Assessment of the attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults].

    PubMed

    Gross, J; Blocher, D; Trott, G E; Rösler, M

    1999-01-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common disorders in childhood and adolescence with a prevalence of app. 5%. The importance of ADHD in childhood as a factor of vulnerability for psychiatric disorders in adults is becoming a focus of discussion. It was shown that there is a comorbidity in adults with substance abuse, delinquency and personality disorders. There is a growing evidence that ADHD will persist in a significant number of patients during adulthood. This is the first german study to evaluate this interdependence. We examined 164 adult inpatients and 48 healthy volunteers with the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a retrospective self-evaluation scale for the diagnosis of ADHD in childhood, and the Eysenck impulsiveness questionnaire I7. It could be shown that the WURS and the I7 are suitable instruments for the evaluation of the ADHD in adults especially concerning the aspects of attention deficits and impulsiveness. PMID:10087514

  16. Sleep in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kanwaljit; Zimmerman, Andrew W

    2015-06-01

    Sleep problems are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep problems in these disorders may not only worsen daytime behaviors and core symptoms of ASD and ADHD but also contribute to parental stress levels. Therefore, the presence of sleep problems in ASD and ADHD requires prompt attention and management. This article is presented in 2 sections, one each for ASD and ADHD. First, a detailed literature review about the burden and prevalence of different types of sleep disorders is presented, followed by the pathophysiology and etiology of the sleep problems and evaluation and management of sleep disorders in ASD and ADHD. PMID:26072341

  17. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Dusan; Keller, Amanda; Golfinopoulos, Maria; Cumyn, Lucy; Syer, Cassidy; Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD. PMID:18728745

  18. Treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kolar, Dusan; Keller, Amanda; Golfinopoulos, Maria; Cumyn, Lucy; Syer, Cassidy; Hechtman, Lily

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It briefly addresses prevalence, diagnostic and differential diagnostic issues specific to adults. Stimulant medication, non-stimulant medication, and psychosocial treatments are thoroughly reviewed. For each class of medication possible mechanism of action, efficacy and side effects are summarized. Special attention is given to the pharmacological treatment for patients with adult ADHD and various comorbidities. In summary, stimulant medications are most effective and combined medication and psychosocial treatment is the most beneficial treatment option for most adult patients with ADHD. PMID:18728812

  19. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  20. Cross-training in hemispatial neglect: auditory sustained attention training ameliorates visual attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, Thomas M; DeGutis, Joseph M

    2013-03-01

    Prominent deficits in spatial attention evident in patients with hemispatial neglect are often accompanied by equally prominent deficits in non-spatial attention (e.g., poor sustained and selective attention, pronounced vigilance decrement). A number of studies now show that deficits in non-spatial attention influence spatial attention. Treatment strategies focused on improving vigilance or sustained attention may effectively remediate neglect. For example, a recent study employing Tonic and Phasic Alertness Training (TAPAT), a task that requires monitoring a constant stream of hundreds of novel scenes, demonstrated group-level (n=12) improvements after training compared to a test-retest control group or active treatment control condition on measures of visual search, midpoint estimation and working memory (DeGutis and Van Vleet, 2010). To determine whether the modality of treatment or stimulus novelty are key factors to improving hemispatial neglect, we designed a similar continuous performance training task in which eight patients with chronic and moderate to severe neglect were challenged to rapidly and continuously discriminate a limited set of centrally presented auditory tones once a day for 9 days (36-min/day). All patients demonstrated significant improvement in several, untrained measures of spatial and non-spatial visual attention, and as a group failed to demonstrate a lateralized attention deficit 24-h post-training compared to a control group of chronic neglect patients who simply waited during the training period. The results indicate that TAPAT-related improvements in hemispatial neglect are likely due to improvements in the intrinsic regulation of supramodal, non-spatial attentional resources. PMID:22578712

  1. Developmental pesticide exposure reproduces features of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jason R; Taylor, Michele M; Shalat, Stuart L; Guillot, Thomas S; Caudle, W Michael; Hossain, Muhammad M; Mathews, Tiffany A; Jones, Sara R; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Miller, Gary W

    2015-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 8-12% of school-age children worldwide. ADHD is a complex disorder with significant genetic contributions. However, no single gene has been linked to a significant percentage of cases, suggesting that environmental factors may contribute to ADHD. Here, we used behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical techniques to characterize the effects of developmental exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin. We also used epidemiologic methods to determine whether there is an association between pyrethroid exposure and diagnosis of ADHD. Mice exposed to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin during development exhibit several features reminiscent of ADHD, including elevated dopamine transporter (DAT) levels, hyperactivity, working memory and attention deficits, and impulsive-like behavior. Increased DAT and D1 dopamine receptor levels appear to be responsible for the behavioral deficits. Epidemiologic data reveal that children aged 6-15 with detectable levels of pyrethroid metabolites in their urine were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD. Our epidemiologic finding, combined with the recapitulation of ADHD behavior in pesticide-treated mice, provides a mechanistic basis to suggest that developmental pyrethroid exposure is a risk factor for ADHD. PMID:25630971

  2. Emotion perception in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Bisch, Jeanne; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Bretscher, Johannes; Wildgruber, Dirk; Fallgatter, Andreas; Ethofer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    This study examined identification of emotional information in facial expression, prosody, and their combination in 23 adult patients with combined attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) versus 31 healthy controls (HC) matched for gender, age, and education. We employed a stimulus set which was carefully balanced for valence as well as recognizability of the expressed emotions as determined in an independent sample of HC to avoid potential biases due to different levels of task difficulty. ADHD patients were characterized by impaired recognition of all employed categories (neutral, happiness, eroticism, disgust, anger). Basic cognitive functions as assessed by neuropsychological testing, such as sustained attention, constancy of alertness, and verbal intelligence partially explained lower recognition rates. Removal of the correlated variance by means of regression analyses did not abolish lower performance in ADHD indicating deficits in social cognition independent of these neuropsychological factors (p < 0.05). Lower performance correlated with self-rated emotional intelligence (r = 0.38, p < 0.05) indicating that adults with ADHD are aware of their problems in emotion perception. ADHD patients could partly compensate their deficit in unimodal emotion perception by audiovisual integration as revealed by larger gains in emotion recognition accuracy during bimodal presentation (p < 0.05) as compared to HC. These behavioral results can serve as foundation for future neuroimaging studies and point rather towards sensory-specific regions than audiovisual integration areas in perception of emotional information in adult ADHD. PMID:26850439

  3. Altered salience processing in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Tegelbeckers, Jana; Bunzeck, Nico; Duzel, Emrah; Bonath, Björn; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Krauel, Kerstin

    2015-06-01

    Attentional problems in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have often been linked with deficits in cognitive control. Whether these deficits are associated with increased sensitivity to external salient stimuli remains unclear. To address this issue, we acquired functional brain images (fMRI) in 38 boys with and without ADHD (age: 11-16 years). To differentiate the effects of item novelty, contextual rareness and task relevance, participants performed a visual oddball task including four stimulus categories: a frequent standard picture (62.5%), unique novel pictures (12.5%), one repeated rare picture (12.5%), and a target picture (12.5%) that required a specific motor response. As a main finding, we can show considerable overlap in novelty-related BOLD responses between both groups, but only healthy participants showed neural deactivation in temporal as well as frontal regions in response to novel pictures. Furthermore, only ADHD patients, but not healthy controls, engaged wide parts of the novelty network when processing the rare but familiar picture. Our results provide first evidence that ADHD patients show enhanced neural activity in response to novel but behaviorally irrelevant stimuli as well as reduced habituation to familiar items. These findings suggest an inefficient use of neuronal resources in children with ADHD that could be closely linked to increased distractibility. PMID:25648705

  4. The neurological basis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Ballard, S; Bolan, M; Burton, M; Snyder, S; Pasterczyk-Seabolt, C; Martin, D

    1997-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious disability with long-term consequences. At present the disorder is considered organic in pathology, particularly in regard to central nervous system functioning. This paper reviews research on ADHD. The role of neurochemical stimulation is discussed, and the signs of neurological deficits are explored. Nearly 600,000 young people in the United States receive medication daily for ADHD, and these drugs mimic brain neurotransmitters. The chemical action of these drugs and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects are discussed. Side effects and dosage levels are also examined. Basic behavior modification with ADHD children and how these techniques can be combined with effective drug treatment are elaborated. PMID:9426808

  5. Dexamphetamine normalises electrophysiological activity in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder during the Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, S L; McNair, N A; Kirk, I J; Waldie, K E

    2007-10-01

    A case study was conducted to investigate whether dexamphetamine enhances interference control in an adult with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Continuous electroencephalography was recorded both on and off dexamphetamine during performance on a Stroop task. An age-, gender- and IQ-matched control also completed the same task. Event related potentials for the control participant revealed a positive potential to incongruent stimuli between 270 and 440 ms, whereas for the participant with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder off medication, the reverse polarity was observed in a later time window. Following administration of dexamphetamine, however, the event-related potentials for the incongruent condition closely resembled those in the control, suggesting that dexamphetamine successfully normalises electroencephalographic activity. PMID:18781428

  6. Overcoming Attention Deficit Disorders in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. Fourth Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Dale R.

    2006-01-01

    Previously published as "Attention Deficit Disorder: ADHD and ADD Syndromes," this popular book is now in its fourth edition. It provides up-to-date research and more complete explanations of how Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) interfere with classroom learning, behavior at home, job…

  7. Helping Children and Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health and Human Services. Children and Adults With Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder www.chadd.org Tel: 301.306.7070 Federation ... information, contact: 4 Helping Children and Youth With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Systems of Care Attention -Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder Helping ...

  8. Dissociated functional connectivity profiles for motor and attention deficits in acute right-hemisphere stroke.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Antonello; Ramsey, Lenny; Rengachary, Jennifer; Zinn, Kristi; Siegel, Joshua S; Metcalf, Nicholas V; Strube, Michael J; Snyder, Abraham Z; Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L

    2016-07-01

    Strokes often cause multiple behavioural deficits that are correlated at the population level. Here, we show that motor and attention deficits are selectively associated with abnormal patterns of resting state functional connectivity in the dorsal attention and motor networks. We measured attention and motor deficits in 44 right hemisphere-damaged patients with a first-time stroke at 1-2 weeks post-onset. The motor battery included tests that evaluated deficits in both upper and lower extremities. The attention battery assessed both spatial and non-spatial attention deficits. Summary measures for motor and attention deficits were identified through principal component analyses on the raw behavioural scores. Functional connectivity in structurally normal cortex was estimated based on the temporal correlation of blood oxygenation level-dependent signals measured at rest with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Any correlation between motor and attention deficits and between functional connectivity in the dorsal attention network and motor networks that might spuriously affect the relationship between each deficit and functional connectivity was statistically removed. We report a double dissociation between abnormal functional connectivity patterns and attention and motor deficits, respectively. Attention deficits were significantly more correlated with abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity within the dorsal attention network than motor networks, while motor deficits were significantly more correlated with abnormal interhemispheric functional connectivity patterns within the motor networks than dorsal attention network. These findings indicate that functional connectivity patterns in structurally normal cortex following a stroke link abnormal physiology in brain networks to the corresponding behavioural deficits. PMID:27225794

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta.

    PubMed

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  10. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among inmates in Bergen Prison.

    PubMed

    Stokkeland, Lisa; Fasmer, Ole Bernt; Waage, Leif; Hansen, Anita L

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical findings are consistent with research indicating a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among prison inmates. Forty-three male inmates who were referred for ADHD assessment at the health service in Bergen prison participated. Although most of them reported symptoms in accordance with ADHD both in childhood and adulthood, only 35% of the referred inmates fulfilled the criteria for ADHD when a comprehensive assessment was conducted. The results emphasize the importance of a comprehensive assessment when diagnosing ADHD among prison inmates. PMID:24818657

  11. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder presenting as dermatitis artefacta

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Suravi; Sirka, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Dermatitis artefacta, a self-inflicted intentional dermatosis is a very rare diagnosis in childhood. In a large proportion, the underlying psychiatric disorders go unidentified due to lack of collaboration between dermatologist and psychiatrist. The underlying psychological reasons for childhood dermatitis artefacta include emotional distress and interpersonal conflicts. A multitude of psychosocial factors interact to precipitate this disorder. Here, we report a child with dermatitis artefacta who was diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during psychiatric evaluation. Parental expectations and sibling rivalry were further increasing the stress of the index child. Appropriate diagnosis and management lead to treatment compliance and functional improvement in the child. PMID:27195043

  12. Psychosocial interventions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: update.

    PubMed

    Antshel, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry clinics. Although stimulant medications represent an evidence-based approach to managing ADHD, psychosocial interventions for child/adolescent ADHD target functional impairments as the intervention goal, and rely heavily on behavioral therapy techniques and operant conditioning principles. Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for managing pediatric ADHD include behavioral parent training, school-based interventions relying on behavioral modification, teaching skills, and operant conditioning principles, and intensive summer treatment programs. The use of conjoint psychosocial treatments with ADHD medications may enable lower doses of each form of treatment. PMID:25455577

  13. Psychosocial treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Barkley, Russell A

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of the major psychosocial treatments that have some efficacy for the management of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. Parent training in effective child behavior management methods, classroom behavior modification methods and academic interventions, and special educational placement appear to have the greatest promise of efficacy. Augmenting these, additional family therapy in problem-solving and communication skills and the coordination of multiple school resources across the day may be necessary. To be effective in improving prognosis, treatments must be maintained over extended periods of time. PMID:12562060

  14. Psychotherapy of Adults With Attention-Deficit Disorder

    PubMed Central

    BEMPORAD, JULES; ZAMBENEDETTI, MAURIZIO

    1996-01-01

    The multimodal treatment of adults with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) is described as consisting of a sequence of overlapping therapeutic measures. The initial objective is symptom amelioration through adequate pharmacotherapy. Once this has been accomplished, a period of psychoeducational therapy is recommended to teach the individual to live successfully with a chronic disorder. These two aspects of treatment may suffice for some ADD adults, but many others may require an additional course of psychotherapy to deal with dysfunctional personality characteristics resulting from having grown up with ADD. Among these are modes of defenses against painful affects, resistances to treatment, and inaccurate estimations and expectations of the self and others. PMID:22700291

  15. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  16. Drug therapy of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: current trends.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Avinash; Kalra, Gurvinder

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as α-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future. PMID:22654382

  17. Drug Therapy of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Trends

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash; Kalra, Gurvinder

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a developmental disorder with an age onset prior to 7 years. Children with ADHD have significantly lower ability to focus and sustain attention and also score higher on impulsivity and hyperactivity. Stimulants, such as methylphenidate, have remained the mainstay of ADHD treatment for decades with evidence supporting their use. However, recent years have seen emergence of newer drugs and drug delivery systems, like osmotic release oral systems and transdermal patches, to mention a few. The use of nonstimulant drugs like atomoxetine and various other drugs, such as α-agonists, and a few antidepressants, being used in an off-label manner, have added to the pharmacotherapy of ADHD. This review discusses current trends in drug therapy of ADHD and highlights the promise pharmacogenomics may hold in the future. PMID:22654382

  18. Testing computational models of dopamine and noradrenaline dysfunction in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael J; Santamaria, Amy; O'Reilly, Randall C; Willcutt, Erik

    2007-07-01

    We test our neurocomputational model of fronto-striatal dopamine (DA) and noradrenaline (NA) function for understanding cognitive and motivational deficits in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Our model predicts that low striatal DA levels in ADHD should lead to deficits in 'Go' learning from positive reinforcement, which should be alleviated by stimulant medications, as observed with DA manipulations in other populations. Indeed, while nonmedicated adult ADHD participants were impaired at both positive (Go) and negative (NoGo) reinforcement learning, only the former deficits were ameliorated by medication. We also found evidence for our model's extension of the same striatal DA mechanisms to working memory, via interactions with prefrontal cortex. In a modified AX-continuous performance task, ADHD participants showed reduced sensitivity to working memory contextual information, despite no global performance deficits, and were more susceptible to the influence of distractor stimuli presented during the delay. These effects were reversed with stimulant medications. Moreover, the tendency for medications to improve Go relative to NoGo reinforcement learning was predictive of their improvement in working memory in distracting conditions, suggestive of common DA mechanisms and supporting a unified account of DA function in ADHD. However, other ADHD effects such as erratic trial-to-trial switching and reaction time variability are not accounted for by model DA mechanisms, and are instead consistent with cortical noradrenergic dysfunction and associated computational models. Accordingly, putative NA deficits were correlated with each other and independent of putative DA-related deficits. Taken together, our results demonstrate the usefulness of computational approaches for understanding cognitive deficits in ADHD. PMID:17164816

  19. Effects of megavitamin therapy on children with attention deficit disorders.

    PubMed

    Haslam, R H; Dalby, J T; Rademaker, A W

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a megavitamin regimen utilizing a two-stage trial in 41 subjects with attention deficit disorders was studied. Stage 1 was a 3-month clinical trial of vitamins (daily maximum: 3 g of niacinamide and ascorbic acid, 1.2 g of calcium pantothenate, and 0.6 g of pyridoxine). State 2 consisted of four, 6-week, double-blind repeated crossover periods. Twenty-nine per cent of the subjects showed significant behavior improvement during stage 1, and these subjects were used in the double-blind crossover phase of the study to evaluate megavitamin therapy. Using analysis of variance methods for crossover studies, there was no significant difference (P greater than .05) in most behavior scores between children receiving vitamin and those receiving placebo during stage 2. Children exhibited 25% more disruptive classroom behavior when treated with vitamins v placebo (P less than .01). There was no significant difference in serum pyridoxine and ascorbic acid levels between subjects and control subjects. Forty-two per cent of subjects exceeded the upper limits of serum transaminase levels while receiving vitamins. It is concluded that megavitamins are ineffective in the management of attention deficit disorders and should not be utilized because of their potential hepatotoxicity. PMID:6234505

  20. Mindfulness Meditation Improves Mood, Quality of Life, and Attention in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Viviane Freire; Kozasa, Elisa H.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Alves, Tânia Maria; Louzã, Mario Rodrigues; Pompéia, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) display affective problems and impaired attention. Mood in ADHD can be improved by mindful awareness practices (MAP), but results are mixed regarding the enhancement of attentional performance. Here we evaluated MAP-induced changes in quality of life (QoL), mood, and attention in adult ADHD patients and controls using more measures of attention than prior studies. Methods. Twenty-one ADHD patients and 8 healthy controls underwent 8 weekly MAP sessions; 22 similar patients and 9 controls did not undergo the intervention. Mood and QoL were assessed using validated questionnaires, and attention was evaluated using the Attentional Network Test (ANT) and the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT II), before and after intervention. Results. MAP enhanced sustained attention (ANT) and detectability (CPT II) and improved mood and QoL of patients and controls. Conclusion. MAP is a complementary intervention that improves affect and attention of adults with ADHD and controls. PMID:26137496

  1. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7–15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior–posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  2. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7-15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners' continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior-posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  3. Attention-deficit disorder (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity): A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity)

    PubMed Central

    DIAMOND, ADELE

    2006-01-01

    Most studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have focused on the combined type and emphasized a core problem in response inhibition. It is proposed here that the core problem in the truly inattentive type of ADHD (not simply the subthreshold combined type) is in working memory. It is further proposed that laboratory measures, such as complex-span and dual-task dichotic listening tasks, can detect this. Children with the truly inattentive type of ADHD, rather than being distractible, may instead be easily bored, their problem being more in motivation (under-arousal) than in inhibitory control. Much converging evidence points to a primary disturbance in the striatum (a frontal–striatal loop) in the combined type of ADHD. It is proposed here that the primary disturbance in truly inattentive-type ADHD (ADD) is in the cortex (a frontal–parietal loop). Finally, it is posited that these are not two different types of ADHD, but two different disorders with different cognitive and behavioral profiles, different patterns of comorbidities, different responses to medication, and different underlying neurobiologies. PMID:16262993

  4. Antidepressants in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Popper, C W

    1997-01-01

    Antidepressants differ in their effectiveness for treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. None are as effective as psychostimulants for treating the attentional and cognitive symptoms, but they can help reduce impulsive and hyperactive behavior. Tricyclic antidepressants have well-demonstrated efficacy in treating behavioral symptoms, but desipramine should be avoided, at least in youths and adolescents (and perhaps adults), because safer tricyclics are available. Bupropion was effective in its few controlled trials, but tics and (especially in youth) skin rash limit its value. Venlafaxine appears effective, but controlled studies are needed. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors have not been tested in controlled trials, but they cause inconsistent changes, often aggravate ADHD symptoms, and can cause frontal apathy and disinhibition. Clonidine has not been adequately examined but seems to have small or uncertain effects. Psychostimulants remain the treatment of choice because of their unique effect on attention. Multimodal treatments (medications plus psychosocial) might not be more effective than medications alone. PMID:9418743

  5. Distributed attentional deficits in chronic methamphetamine abusers: Evidence from the Attentional Network Task (ANT)

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Ruth; Gabay, Shai; Fassbender, Catherine; Henik, Avishai

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to examine distributed attentional functions in long-term but currently abstinent methamphetamine (MA) abusers using a task that measures attentional alertness, orienting, and conflict resolution. Methods Thirty currently abstinent MA abusers (1 month–5 years) and 22 healthy non-substance using adults were administered a multimodal version of the Attentional Network Task (ANT-I). In this task subjects identified the direction of a centrally presented arrow using a key press. Analyses examined the interaction between alerting tones, location cueing and congruency between the target arrows and flanking distractor stimuli. Results All participants were faster when an auditory tone preceded the trial onset (p < 0.001), on trials in which a valid cue preceded the location of the target arrow (p < 0.001), and on congruent trials (i.e., when all display arrows faced in the same direction) (p < 0.001). Of primary interest was the finding that MA abusers were more influenced by the conflict between the peripheral arrows and the central target arrow (p = 0.009). There were also correlations between length of drug sobriety and executive function as well as between drug-induced psychiatric symptoms and alertness. Conclusions These results suggest that chronic MA abusers display cognitive deficits that may reflect a specific vulnerability to distraction on a task of executive function. These findings are consistent with other studies that have reported deficits in anterior attentional systems and top-down cognitive control. PMID:21906864

  6. Attentional networks reveal executive function deficits in posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Leskin, Lorraine P; White, Patricia M

    2007-05-01

    Executive function was assessed with the Trail Making Test (Army Individual Test Battery; M. D. Lezak, 1983), the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (C. Reynolds, 2002), and a neurocognitive measure of executive control (Attentional Network Task [ANT]; J. I. Fan, B. D. McCandliss, T. Somer, A. Raz, & M. I. Posner, 2002) in 19 undergraduates with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale-Self-Report version; E. B. Foa, D. S. Riggs, C. V. Dancu, & B. O. Rothbaum, 1993), 15 high trauma participants without PTSD, and 18 low trauma control participants. Although groups did not differ on any trail making task or on the ANT measures of alerting or orienting, PTSD participants were significantly more impaired on the ANT executive network index than were high or low trauma control participants, even when level of depressive symptoms was covaried. Previous animal research identified a relationship between dopamine and the ANT measure of executive function. Elevated PTSD symptom severity and levels of hyperarousal, reexperiencing, and avoidance-numbing were associated significantly with executive function deficits indexed by the ANT. These results indicate a potentially subtle but specific deficit in executive function and a possible relationship between PTSD symptoms and irregularities in dopamine function. PMID:17484590

  7. Emotional dysregulation and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stringaris, Argyris; Nigg, Joel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    It has long been recognized that many individuals with ADHD also have difficulties with emotion regulation but lack of consensus on how to conceptualize this clinically challenging domain renders a review timely. The authors examine the current literature using both quantitative and qualitative methods. Three key findings emerge. First, emotion dysregulation is prevalent in ADHD throughout the lifespan and is a major contributor to impairment. Second, emotion dysregulation in ADHD may arise from deficits in orienting towards, recognizing and/or allocating attention to emotional stimuli; these deficits that implicate dysfunction within a striato-amygdalo-medial prefrontal cortical network. Third, while current treatments for ADHD often also ameliorate emotion dysregulation, a focus on this combination of symptoms reframes clinical questions and could stimulate novel therapeutic approaches. Three models to explain the overlap between emotion dysregulation and ADHD are considered: emotion dysregulation and ADHD are correlated but distinct dimensions; emotion dysregulation is a core, diagnostic feature of ADHD; and the combination constitutes a nosological entity, distinct from both ADHD and emotion dysreguation alone. The differing predictions from each model can guide future research into this much-neglected population. PMID:24480998

  8. Vocal characteristics in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Deeb, Reem; Sibai, Abla; Rameh, Charbel; Rifai, Hani; Fayyad, John

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate vocal changes in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nineteen children diagnosed to have ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria and 19 controls were enrolled in this study. They underwent vocal perceptual evaluation and acoustic analysis. Hoarseness, breathiness, strain, and loudness were graded on a scale of 0-3. The following acoustic parameters were recorded: Fundamental frequency, Shimmer, Relative average perturbation, Noise-to-Harmony ratio, Voice Turbulence Index, and Habitual pitch. Children with ADHD were perceived to have significantly more hoarseness, breathiness, and straining in their voice. They were also louder compared to controls. There were no significant changes in the acoustic parameters except for the Fundamental frequency, which was lower in the ADHD group. The vocal behavior in children with ADHD is different than controls. Early diagnosis of such behavior in this group of children is important. PMID:18082369

  9. Is Adult Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Being Overdiagnosed?

    PubMed Central

    Paris, Joel; Bhat, Venkat; Thombs, Brett

    2015-01-01

    This review offers a perspective on the question as to whether attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is being overdiagnosed in adults. Considering underlying causes as well as consequences, we conclude that the diagnosis of adult ADHD should be made cautiously, making use of multiple sources of information, including self-report, clinical interviews, collateral information, childhood documentation, and neuropsychological testing. Routine screening with symptom checklists is insufficient, and stimulant response is diagnostically uninformative. The causes of overdiagnosis may include changes in diagnostic thresholds, poor diagnostic practices, and advertising by the pharmaceutical industry. Overdiagnosis leads to overtreatment, and dramatic increases in prescriptions for adult ADHD during the last decade should arouse concern. PMID:26175391

  10. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Telemental Health

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Nancy B.; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Geyer, John R.; DeSalvo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:20625857

  12. Psychosocial treatments for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Daly, Brian P; Creed, Torrey; Xanthopoulos, Melissa; Brown, Ronald T

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews studies examining the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A specific emphasis is placed on evidence-based interventions that include parent training, classroom, academic, and peer interventions. Results indicate that school-aged children respond to behavioral interventions when they are appropriately implemented both at home and in the classroom setting. Combined treatments (behavioral management and stimulant medication) represent the gold standard in ADHD treatment and are often recommended as the first-line treatment option due to the many problems faced by children with ADHD. Diversity issues, although an important consideration in the treatment of ADHD, continue to remain an understudied area. Recommendations for future research are made pertaining to treatment sequencing with regard to behavior management as well as for subgroups of ADHD children who may respond best to specific treatments. PMID:17260167

  13. Peer victimization in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Jamie L; Storch, Eric A; Geffken, Gary R

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the correlation of peer victimization to psychosocial adjustment in a sample of children diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 303 files of youth who received a psycho-educational assessment were reviewed; of these, 116 had an ADHD diagnosis. The data collected included the Child Behavior Checklist (which includes items assessing peer victimization), Conner's Parent Rating Scale, Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale and Children's Depression Inventory. Peer victimization was positively correlated with parent reports of anxiety, depression, social problems, delinquent behavior and aggressive behavior. Children with a comorbid psychiatric diagnosis with ADHD reported higher rates of peer victimization than those without a comorbid diagnosis. Children diagnosed with ADHD along with a comorbid externalizing psychiatric diagnosis experienced higher rates of peer victimization than those with a comorbid internalizing psychiatric diagnosis. The implications of this study concerning peer victimization and psychosocial adjustment in children with ADHD are discussed. PMID:17709359

  14. Nutritional and dietary influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Natalie

    2008-10-01

    An abundance of research has investigated causes and treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The research includes identification of suboptimal levels of nutrients and sensitivities to certain foods and food additives. This review gives an overview of this research and provides an up-to-date account of clinical trials that have been conducted with zinc, iron, magnesium, Pycnogenol, omega-3 fatty acids, and food sensitivities. A literature search was conducted using PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar and included studies published before April 2008. Although further research is required, the current evidence supports indications of nutritional and dietary influences on behavior and learning in these children, with the strongest support to date reported for omega-3s and behavioral food reactions. PMID:18826452

  15. Controversial approaches to treating learning disabilities and attention deficit disorder.

    PubMed

    Silver, L B

    1986-10-01

    It is estimated that between 3% and 7% of children and adolescents in this country--up to 4 million--are learning disabled. Of this group, about 20% also have attention deficit disorder. Many professionals in multiple disciplines have proposed treatment approaches. When research has been done to support the approach, the reports and data may be published in journals not normally read by the practicing physician. When research data are not available, the information may be in a popular book, newspapers, or lay magazines or on television. Thus, parents may know of ideas and suggestions before the professional in clinical practice. These acceptable and controversial approaches to treatment are reviewed. It is understandable that a parent would seek out improved ways of helping his or her child. I reviewed the significant literature in an effort to assist the practicing physician in providing appropriate parental guidance and clinical interventions. PMID:2875647

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the current debate and neglected dimensions.

    PubMed

    Blew, Helen; Kenny, Gerard

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this article is to identify and highlight the issues facing children, young people and families experiencing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in an United Kingdom context. In presenting these issues it is hoped that wider discussion and awareness of the challenges of this condition may have an effect on the planning and delivery of services within the UK. We seek to highlight that an overreliance on a medical perspective has the effect of neglecting the wider context of the rights of the child and the needs of the family. We advocate for an approach that recognizes the importance of the contributions of other professionals and the implementation of locally-agreed guidelines that incorporate the perspectives of families and the rights of the child. PMID:16940347

  17. Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Minami, Haruka; Silva, Raul R

    2006-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects a large number of children. For decades, the stimulants have been the mainstay of pharmacological treatment for ADHD. Dexmethylphenidate (d-MPH), the d-isomer of the traditional racemic mixtures of d,l-threo-(R,R)-MPH, was recently introduced as another potential option in the stimulant class of medications. This paper reviews and summarizes the available research literature on d-MPH regarding pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic, chemical structure, receptor binding, toxicology, and clinical perspectives. d-MPH potentially may offer some advantages in the realms of absorption and duration of action compared with its racemic counterpart. The differences in pharmacokinetics and clinical implications of the immediate-release and extended-release forms of d-MPH are also compared and contrasted. PMID:19412495

  18. Methylphenidate use in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Felipe Salles Neves; Caetano, Sheila Cavalcante; Hounie, Ana Gabriela; Scivoletto, Sandra; Muszkat, Mauro; Gattás, Ivete Gianfaldoni; Casella, Erasmo Barbante; de Andrade, Ênio Roberto; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; do Rosário, Maria Conceição

    2015-01-01

    A Brazilian Health Technology Assessment Bulletin (BRATS) article regarding scientific evidence of the efficacy and safety of methylphenidate for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has caused much controversy about its methods. Considering the relevance of BRATS for public health in Brazil, we critically reviewed this article by remaking the BRATS search and discussing its methods and results. Two questions were answered: did BRATS include all references available in the literature? Do the conclusions reflect the reviewed articles? The results indicate that BRATS did not include all the references from the literature on this subject and also that the proposed conclusions are different from the results of the articles chosen by the BRATS authors themselves. The articles selected by the BRATS authors showed that using methylphenidate is safe and effective. However, the BRATS final conclusion does not reflect the aforementioned and should not be used to support decisions on the use of methylphenidate. PMID:26061456

  19. Understanding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder From Childhood to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Wilens, Timothy E.; Spencer, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common neurobehavioral disorders presenting for treatment in children and adolescents. ADHD is often chronic with prominent symptoms and impairment spanning into adulthood. ADHD is often associated with co-occurring disorders including disruptive, mood, anxiety, and substance abuse. The diagnosis of ADHD is clinically established by review of symptoms and impairment. The biological underpinning of the disorder is supported by genetic, neuroimaging, neurochemistry and neuropsychological data. Consideration of all aspects of an individual’s life needs to be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. Multimodal treatment includes educational, family, and individual support. Psychotherapy alone and in combination with medication is helpful for ADHD and comorbid problems. Pharmacotherapy including stimulants, noradrenergic agents, alpha agonists, and antidepressants plays a fundamental role in the long-term management of ADHD across the lifespan. PMID:20861593

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the behavior of "Che" Guevara.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Zavala, Jorge A; Munhoz, Renato P; Lara, Diogo R; Lima, Pedro; Palmini, André

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is related to several co-morbidities, such as opposition defiant disorder, conduct disorder, mood and anxiety disturbances, as well as tics and Tourette's syndrome. The objective of this report is to shed an alternative light on the personality of Ernesto "Che" Guevara, discussing whether he might have had ADHD. Several published biographies of Che Guevara were reviewed. Established ADHD criteria (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition), were used as a framework to evaluate Che's behaviour. In addition, we compared the main features of Che's reported behaviour to the set of abnormalities leading to the diagnosis of ADHD in adults proposed by Wender and colleagues and known as the UTAH ADHD criteria. Analysis of the most renowned biographies of Ernesto "Che" Guevara suggests that he may have had ADHD. PMID:19497749

  1. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and telemental health.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Nancy B; Myers, Kathleen M; Vander Stoep, Ann; McCarty, Carolyn A; Geyer, John R; Desalvo, Amy

    2010-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders diagnosed in children and adolescents (youth). ADHD is equally distributed geographically, but services are not. Access to expert evaluation and treatment remains limited for youth with ADHD living in rural areas, as well as for ethnic and racial minority youth. Telepsychiatry is a service delivery model with the potential to reach these youth and to develop collaborative models of care among local primary care physicians, remote telepsychiatrists, and local families. Care delivered through telepsychiatry can readily adhere to the practice parameters of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Work to date indicates that ADHD is the most common disorder treated through telepsychiatry. This article reviews the status of child and adolescent telepsychiatry, with particular focus on its potential to improve the care and outcomes of underserved populations of youth diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:20625857

  2. Atomoxetine. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: no better than methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    2010-02-01

    When attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder in children is truly problematic, methylphenidate, an amphetamine, can be tried as a last resort. Methylphenidate has short-term symptomatic efficacy but also many adverse effects, including a risk of sudden death. After having been evaluated, unsuccessfully, in depression, atomoxetine, a noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, was authorised in some EU member states for use in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In France it has only received temporary authorisation for prescription on a named-patient basis. Two double-blind trials comparing atomoxetine versus methylphenidate provided somewhat different results, based on a symptom rating scale completed by the investigator after an interview with the parents. In a trial in 516 children treated for 6 weeks, the "response" rate was statistically higher than with methylphenidate (56% versus 45%). In the other trial in 330 children treated for 8 weeks, the response rate was about 80% in both groups. A meta-analysis of 9 placebo-controlled trials in a total of 1828 children showed that atomoxetine was more effective than placebo in the short term. The main adverse effects identified in clinical trials and pharmacovigilance studies conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States were gastrointestinal disorders (abdominal pain, reduced appetite, vomiting, and weight loss) and neuropsychological disorders (drowsiness, irritability, mood swings, aggressive behaviour). A meta-analysis of 12 trials and pharmacovigilance studies showed an increased risk of suicide. Atomoxetine also provokes seizures, arterial hypotension, tachycardia, and hepatic disorders. Little is known about the risk of abuse or dependence, or the long-term efficacy of treatment. Atomoxetine carries a risk of multiple drug interactions due to its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 and its inhibitory effect on noradrenaline reuptake. In practice, atomoxetine has a similar safety profile to

  3. Deconstructing Spatial Working Memory and Attention Deficits in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gmeindl, Leon; Courtney, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether spatial working memory (WM) is impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS), and, if it is, to localize impairment to specific cognitive subprocess(es). Method In Experiment 1, MS and control participants performed computerized memory-span and visuomotor tasks. WM subprocesses were taxed by manipulating (1) the requirement to remember serial order, (2) delay duration, and (3) the presence of irrelevant stimuli during target presentation. In Experiment 2, recall and recognition tests varied the difficulty of WM retrieval. In Experiment 3, an attention-cueing task tested the ability to voluntarily and rapidly reorient attention. Results Performance was worse for MS than for control participants in both spatial recall (Exp. 1 span: 95% CIMS = [5.11, 5.57], 95% CIControls = [5.58, 6.03], p = 0.003, 1-tailed; Exp. 2 span: 95% CIMS = [4.44, 5.54], 95% CIControls = [5.47, 6.57], p = 0.006, 1-tailed) and recognition (accuracy: 95% CIMS = [0.71, 0.81], 95% CIControls = [0.79, 0.88], p = 0.01, 1-tailed) tests. However, there was no evidence for deficits in spatiotemporal binding, maintenance, retrieval, distractor suppression, or visuomotor processing. In contrast, MS participants were abnormally slow to reorient attention (cueing effect (ms): 95% CIMS: [90, 169], 95% CIControls: [29, 107], p = 0.015, 1-tailed). Conclusions Results suggest that, whereas spatial WM is impaired in MS, once spatial information has been adequately encoded into WM, individuals with MS are, on average, able to maintain and retrieve this information. Impoverished encoding of spatial information, however, may be due to inefficient voluntary orienting of attention. PMID:22059650

  4. Attention and Other Cognitive Deficits in Aphasia: Presence and Relation to Language and Communication Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to further elucidate the relationship between cognition and aphasia, with a focus on attention. It was hypothesized that individuals with aphasia would display variable deficit patterns on tests of attention and other cognitive functions and that their attention deficits, particularly those of complex attention…

  5. Attention Deficits: Current Concepts, Controversies, Management, and Approaches to Classroom Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Betsy

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews diagnostic criteria for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and undifferentiated attention deficit disorder; typical presenting features; theories of the biological basis of attentional disorders; and treatments, including medical treatments with stimulants and tricyclic antidepressants and nonmedical treatments such as…

  6. Assessment of attention deficit disorder using a thematic apperception technique.

    PubMed

    Costantino, G; Colon-Malgady, G; Malgady, R G; Perez, A

    1991-08-01

    Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (AD-HD) is regarded as being relatively common among school-age children, but the literature reveals a number of confounding factors with standard assessment techniques of the disorder. Using a structured thematic apperception technique (the Tell-Me-A-Story [TEMAS] test) to measure attention to pictorial stimuli depicting characters, events, settings, and covert psychological conflicts, a study was conducted with 152 normal and 95 clinical Hispanic, Black, and White school-age children. Results reveal that the AD-HD children are significantly more likely than normal children to omit information in the stimuli about characters, events, settings, and psychological conflicts. Differences between the groups are large and persistent in the presence of structured inquiries by the test examiners. Results suggest the potential utility of structured thematic apperception techniques for the assessment of AD-HD, eventually to facilitate DSM-III-R (American Psychiatric Association, 1987) diagnosis, but also to invite closer scrutiny in carefully controlled validity studies. PMID:1920038

  7. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in postsecondary students

    PubMed Central

    Nugent, Kevin; Smart, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A PubMed review was conducted for papers reporting on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in postsecondary students. The review was performed in order to determine the prevalence and symptomatology of ADHD in postsecondary students, to examine its effects on academic achievement, and discuss appropriate management. The prevalence of ADHD symptoms among postsecondary students ranges from 2% to 12%. Students with ADHD have lower grade point averages and are more likely to withdraw from courses, to indulge in risky behaviors, and to have other psychiatric comorbidities than their non-ADHD peers. Ensuring that students with ADHD receive appropriate support requires documented evidence of impairment to academic and day-to-day functioning. In adults with ADHD, stimulants improve concentration and attention, although improved academic productivity remains to be demonstrated. ADHD negatively impacts academic performance in students and increases the likelihood of drug and alcohol problems. Affected students may therefore benefit from disability support services, academic accommodations, and pharmacological treatment. PMID:25298735

  8. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, CNS stimulants and sport.

    PubMed

    Hickey, G; Fricker, P

    1999-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects 1 to 10% of children and is characterised by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Over one-half of children with ADHD have associated conditions, including learning disabilities, conduct disorders, poor coordination, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorders and bipolar disorders. CNS stimulant medication used in the management of ADHD is not permitted for use in competition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and this poses a problem for the physicians of patients with ADHD. On the one hand, attention and concentration are improved by stimulant medication and fine motor coordination and balance are improved after methylphenidate administration, but these therapeutic and sport-related benefits are not available to the athlete with ADHD who wishes to compete under IOC rules. It has been suggested that treatment with methylphenidate may be suitable for athletes with ADHD, as cessation of therapy 24 hours before competition is usually adequate to allow drug clearance which should avoid a positive result being returned on drug testing. More research is needed to establish whether stimulant medication for athletes with ADHD provides an unfair advantage in competition. PMID:10028130

  9. Sleep disturbances in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we advocate the need for better understanding and treatment of children exhibiting inattentive, hyperactive, impulsive behaviors, by in-depth questioning on sleepiness, sleep-disordered breathing or problematic behaviors at bedtime, during the night and upon awakening, as well as night-to-night sleep duration variability. The relationships between sleep and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are complex and are routinely overlooked by practitioners. Motricity and somnolence, the most consistent complaints and objectively measured sleep problems in children with ADHD, may develop as a consequence of multidirectional and multifactorial pathways. Therefore, subjectively perceived or reported restless sleep should be evaluated with specific attention to restless legs syndrome or periodic limb movement disorder, and awakenings should be queried with regard to parasomnias, dyssomnias and sleep-disordered breathing. Sleep hygiene logs detailing sleep onset and offset quantitatively, as well as qualitatively, are required. More studies in children with ADHD are needed to reveal the 24-h phenotype, or its sleep comorbidities. PMID:21469929

  10. A Rare Presentation of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sharbati, Marwan; Al-Zaidi, Rashid; Al-Naamani, Rahma; Al-Futaisi, Amna; Jain, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 7 year-old Omani girl with tuberous sclerosis (TS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and bipolar disorder (BD), at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman. For a year she had been suffering from hyperactivity, aggression, over talkativeness, insomnia, risk-taking behaviour, distractibility, poor attention and seizures. This clinical picture evolved slowly, but was progressive in nature. Before the consultation at her local health centre, she was given four drugs without being properly investigated; she continued to deteriorate. In SQUH, she showed hyperactive-impulsive behaviour, elation, flight of ideas, preoccupation with self and high self-confidence. The physical examination revealed multiple hypomelanotic patches all over the body and a shagreen patch at the sacral area. The electroencephalogram showed generalised epileptic discharges, while brain imaging showed multiple parenchymal calcified foci in both cerebral hemispheres. Other investigations were normal. She was given valproate, and then a psychostimulant, methylphenidate, that controlled her state. Our aim in reporting this case is not only because it is unique, given its rare comorbidity (ADHD, TS and BD), but also to remind our junior colleagues to be alert to the possibility of an underlying neuropathology when performing clinical examinations and investigations of children presenting with neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:21509086

  11. [Autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: pharmacological intervention].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jaén, Alberto; Martín Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel; Fernández-Perrone, Ana Laura; Calleja-Pérez, Beatriz; Muñoz-Jareño, Nuria; López-Arribas, Sonia

    2013-09-01

    The cardinal symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)--inattention, hyperactivity and impulsiveness--are not specific and may be found in the general population and in other disorders. These symptoms are present in over 50% of patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It thus seems quite clear that both problems can coexist in these patients. The usual pharmacological treatments for ADHD, methylphenidate and atomoxetine, appear to be useful in reducing the above-mentioned symptoms in patients with ADHD and ASD. Effectiveness seems to be lower in patients with ASD and tolerance is slightly poorer. This may be conditioned by a number of variables, including: the complexity of ASD, association with mental retardation, polypharmacotherapy, and so on. Given the long-term tolerance profile of methylphenidate and atomoxetine, these treatments appear to be a good alternative with which to improve the problems of attention and self-control these patients have. Nevertheless, further controlled studies are needed to confirm this proposition. PMID:23897149

  12. Two attentional deficits in serial target search: the visual attentional blink and an amodal task-switch deficit.

    PubMed

    Potter, M C; Chun, M M; Banks, B S; Muckenhoupt, M

    1998-07-01

    When monitoring a rapid serial visual presentation at 100 ms per item for 2 targets among distractors, viewers have difficulty reporting the 2nd target (T2) when it appears 200-500 ms after the onset of the 1st letter target (T1): an attentional blink (AB; M. M. Chun & M. C. Potter, 1995b; J. E. Raymond, K. L. Shapiro, & K. M. Arnell, 1992). Does the same deficit occur with auditory search? The authors compared search for auditory, visual, and cross-modal targets in 2 tasks: (a) identifying 2 target letters among digits (Experiments 1-3 and 5) or digits among letters (Experiment 6), and (b) identifying 1 digit among letters and deciding whether an X occurred among the subsequent letters (Experiment 4). In the experiments using the 1st task, the standard AB was found only when both targets were visual. In the 2nd task, with a change in selective set from T1 to T2, a task-switching deficit was obtained regardless of target modality. PMID:9699304

  13. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a Canadian prison population.

    PubMed

    Usher, Amelia M; Stewart, Lynn A; Wilton, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has shown that a significant percentage of offenders are affected by adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its related symptoms, however it is unknown the extent to which this disorder affects federal inmates in Canada and the impact ADHD has on key correctional outcomes. Four hundred and ninety-seven male federal offenders were assessed at intake over a fourteen month period using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Approximately 16.5% scored in the highest range, which is consistent with the clinical threshold for diagnosis for the disorder; a further 25.2% reported sub-threshold symptoms in the moderate range. ADHD symptoms were found to be associated with unstable job history, presence of a learning disability, lower educational attainment, substance abuse, higher criminal risk and need levels, and other mental health problems. ADHD symptoms were also found to predict institutional misconduct. Additionally, offenders with high levels of ADHD symptomatology fared more poorly on release to the community. Implications for institutional behavior management and the need for additional resources and adapted interventions are discussed. PMID:23639768

  15. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Guzmán; Pereda, Ernesto; Mañas, Soledad; Méndez, Leopoldo D; González, Almudena; González, Julián J

    2015-01-01

    The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures) and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures), the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. PMID:26543369

  16. Association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder with gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Retz, Wolfgang; Ringling, Jutta; Retz-Junginger, Petra; Vogelgesang, Monika; Rösler, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with childhood onset and high persistence into adulthood. There is much evidence that ADHD increases the risk for the development of other psychiatric disorders and functional problems in several domains of everyday life. In this study, the association of ADHD with gambling disorder (GD) was investigated. 163 adult subjects suffering from GD were examined for childhood and current ADHD according to DSM-5 as well as co-morbid psychiatric disorders. Moreover, characteristics of gambling behavior have been evaluated. The prevalence of lifetime ADHD was 28.8 %, with 25.2 % of the study population presenting ADHD as a full syndrome according to DSM-5. The prevalence of co-morbid substance use disorders and adjustment disorders and cluster B personality disorders was higher in GD patients with current ADHD than in the group without. Also, an increased rate of suicide attempts was detected in gamblers with ADHD. In contrast with gamblers without ADHD, those with ADHD were reported to spend more time with gambling, a sedative effect of gambling and a faster development of GD. The high prevalence of ADHD in patients with GD indicates that childhood ADHD is a risk factor for the development of GD in later life. Moreover, treatment of patients with GD and ADHD is complicated by a high rate of co-morbid disorders. Regarding therapeutic approaches, it should be considered that functional aspects of gambling differ in GD patients with and without ADHD. PMID:27328979

  17. Functional MRI compliance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Karakaş, Sirel; Dinçer, Elvin Doğutepe; Ceylan, Arzu Özkan; Tileylioğlu, Emre; Karakaş, Hakkı Muammer; Talı, E. Turgut

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to test the effect of prescan training and orientation in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to investigate whether fMRI compliance was modified by state anxiety. METHODS Subjects included 77 males aged 6–12 years; there were 53 patients in the ADHD group and 24 participants in the healthy control group. Exclusion criteria included neurological and/or psychiatric comorbidities (other than ADHD), the use of psychoactive drugs, and an intelligence quotient outside the normal range. Children were individually subjected to prescan orientation and training. Data were acquired using a 1.5 Tesla scanner and an 8-channel head coil. Functional scans were performed using a standard neurocognitive task. RESULTS The neurocognitive task led to reliable fMRI maps. Compliance was not significantly different between ADHD and control groups based on success, failure, and repetition rates of fMRI. Compliance of ADHD patients with extreme levels of anxiety was also not significantly different. CONCLUSION The fMRI compliance of ADHD children is typically lower than that of healthy children. However, compliance can be increased to the level of age-matched healthy control children by addressing concerns about the technical and procedural aspects of fMRI, providing orientation programs, and performing on-task training. In patients thus trained, compliance does not change with the level of state anxiety suggesting that the anxiety hypothesis of fMRI compliance is not supported. PMID:25519454

  18. Language Impairment in the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Context

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a ubiquitous designation that affects the identification, assessment, treatment, and study of pediatric language impairments (LIs). Method Current literature is reviewed in 4 areas: (a) the capacity of psycholinguistic, neuropsychological, and socioemotional behavioral indices to differentiate cases of LI from ADHD; (b) the impact of co-occurring ADHD on children's LI; (c) cross-etiology comparisons of the nonlinguistic abilities of children with ADHD and specific LI (SLI); and (d) the extent to which ADHD contributes to educational and health disparities among individuals with LI. Results Evidence is presented demonstrating the value of using adjusted parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and targeted assessments of children's tense marking, nonword repetition, and sentence recall for differential diagnosis and the identification of comorbidity. Reports suggest that the presence of ADHD does not aggravate children's LI. The potential value of cross-etiology comparisons testing the necessity and sufficiency of proposed nonlinguistic contributors to the etiology of SLI is demonstrated through key studies. Reports suggest that children with comorbid ADHD+LI receive speech-language services at a higher rate than children with SLI. Conclusion The ADHD context is multifaceted and provides the management and study of LI with both opportunities and obstacles. PMID:26502026

  19. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. Results: The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Conclusions: Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients. PMID:25830120

  20. Understanding intentionality in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Mohammadzadeh, Azar; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Khorrami, Anahita; Noorian, Nahid

    2016-06-01

    One of the main aspects of theory of mind is intentionality which refers to recognizing other people's intentions in their behaviors. The aim of this study was to investigate intentionality in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Thirty children with ADHD were compared to thirty age- and IQ-matched normal children. All participants were assessed using the moving shapes paradigm task which contains one large red and one small blue triangle moving around a black screen. They were asked to describe what the movements mean and how the triangles interact with each other. The answers were rated based on the accuracy, type of descriptions applied, mental states, and length of phrases. With regard to intentionality score, children with ADHD performed significantly worse than normal children (P < .05). Based on appropriateness score, the accuracy of patients' answers was lower in comparison with the control group. Children with ADHD used longer phrases as compared to controls. Children with ADHD can have problems with comprehending others' intentionality. This leads to impairment in social relationship. PMID:26613599

  1. Pathway analysis in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: An ensemble approach.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Michael A; McWeeney, Shannon K; Faraone, Stephen V; Hinney, Anke; Hebebrand, Johannes; Nigg, Joel T; Wilmot, Beth

    2016-09-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence for the role of genetics in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), specific and definitive genetic mechanisms have not been identified. Pathway analyses, a subset of gene-set analyses, extend the knowledge gained from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by providing functional context for genetic associations. However, there are numerous methods for association testing of gene sets and no real consensus regarding the best approach. The present study applied six pathway analysis methods to identify pathways associated with ADHD in two GWAS datasets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Methods that utilize genotypes to model pathway-level effects identified more replicable pathway associations than methods using summary statistics. In addition, pathways implicated by more than one method were significantly more likely to replicate. A number of brain-relevant pathways, such as RhoA signaling, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis, fibroblast growth factor receptor activity, and pathways containing potassium channel genes, were nominally significant by multiple methods in both datasets. These results support previous hypotheses about the role of regulation of neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance in contributing to the ADHD phenotype and suggest the value of cross-method convergence in evaluating pathway analysis results. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27004716

  2. The search for biomarkers for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Deeann

    2010-09-01

    The main characteristic of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity which is more frequent and severe than is usually expected in individuals at a comparable level of development. ADHD is estimated to affect approximately 5.29% of school-aged children and is therefore the most common childhood onset psychological disorder. A conservative estimate of the annual societal cost of illness for ADHD in childhood and adolescence is USD 42.5 billion in the U.S. alone. Global sales of ADHD medicines could reach USD 4.3 billion by 2012. Despite the prevalence, high heritability and costs of ADHD, biological markers do not exist. Such biomarkers are in high demand as they would help eliminate the subjective diagnoses based on interviews and potentially allow for earlier diagnosis and personalized medicine. Lack of markers likely stems from several factors that complicate ADHD research and the assessment of pharmacological responses. This review analyses complicating factors in defining ADHD phenotype and etiology, identifying specific diagnostic markers and the difficulties in the assessment of pharmacogenomic markers. The dopamine transporter (DAT1) genotype and methylphenidate (MPH) response are detailed as an example of a biomarker. A recent report of a novel ADHD gene and its possible role as a biomarker is explored. Finally, suggestions for strategies and study designs for future research for the definition of effective ADHD biomarkers are made. PMID:20862396

  3. Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an overview

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Katja; Scherag, Susann; Franke, Barbara; Coghill, David

    2010-01-01

    As heritability is high in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), genetic factors must play a significant role in the development and course of this disorder. In recent years a large number of studies on different candidate genes for ADHD have been published, most have focused on genes involved in the dopaminergic neurotransmission system, such as DRD4, DRD5, DAT1/SLC6A3, DBH, DDC. Genes associated with the noradrenergic (such as NET1/SLC6A2, ADRA2A, ADRA2C) and serotonergic systems (such as 5-HTT/SLC6A4, HTR1B, HTR2A, TPH2) have also received considerable interest. Additional candidate genes related to neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity that have been studied less intensively include SNAP25, CHRNA4, NMDA, BDNF, NGF, NTF3, NTF4/5, GDNF. This review article provides an overview of these candidate gene studies, and summarizes findings from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS is a relatively new tool that enables the identification of new ADHD genes in a hypothesis-free manner. Although these latter studies could be improved and need to be replicated they are starting to implicate processes like neuronal migration and cell adhesion and cell division as potentially important in the aetiology of ADHD and have suggested several new directions for future ADHD genetics studies. PMID:20145962

  4. Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Parenting Styles.

    PubMed

    Karbalaei Sabagh, Ali; Khademi, Mojgan; Noorbakhsh, Simasadat; Razjooyan, Katayoon; Arabgol, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the parenting styles in parents with and without adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who had children with ADHD. It was a case-control study with convenience sampling strategy. Participants were recruited from the parents of previously diagnosed children with ADHD referred to Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran/ Iran. Ninety parents with adult ADHD and 120 normal parents were chosen by Conner's Adult ADHD Screening Scale (CAARS) and psychiatrist interview. Using Baumrind Parenting Styles Questionnaire and Arnold Parenting Scale, parenting styles were assessed in both the groups. Results from independent samples t-test indicated that Authoritarian parenting style (F = 0.576, p 0.022) and Over reacting style (F = 7.976, p 0.045) were significantly higher in cases. On the other hand, controls were using Permissive style (F = 0.131, p 0.044) more than cases. The results are consistent with prior studies; these findings can improve the content of parent training for children with ADHD, who have adult ADHD themselves. PMID:26264632

  5. Self-concept in children with attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena; Brodin, Jane

    2007-09-01

    This study focuses on the BASTA project (basic skills, social interaction and training of the working memory), which studied children with attention deficits and hyperactive behaviour attending remedial classes in regular schools. The project is interdisciplinary, with research teams from both social science and medicine. Our study is both qualitative and quantitative with a socio-cultural approach, and focuses on the pupil's social interaction, self-concept and the classroom climate. This article reports on the results of the study on self-concept. Our supposition was that the pupil's self-concept should change when they improved their skills in reading, writing and mathematics, but this was not the case. The results showed the dominating pattern to be that the differences between data from the BASTA project and comparison data from a similar study on academic self-concept, social self-concept, personal self-concept and global self-concept are small to nonexistent. Our results indicate that the children studied report higher degrees of self-concept than were warranted and that entering remedial classes was often linked to previous academic failures, social failures or both. PMID:17762764

  6. Measurement of Stigmatization towards Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Mueller, Anna K.; Lange, Klaus W.; Tucha, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Objectives In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity. Methods A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants. Results Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants. Conclusions The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization. PMID:23284760

  7. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda Lih-Chuan; Braverman, Eric R; Comings, David E; Chen, Thomas JH; Arcuri, Vanessa; Blum, Seth H; Downs, Bernard W; Waite, Roger L; Notaro, Alison; Lubar, Joel; Williams, Lonna; Prihoda, Thomas J; Palomo, Tomas; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    Molecular genetic studies have identified several genes that may mediate susceptibility to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A consensus of the literature suggests that when there is a dysfunction in the “brain reward cascade,” especially in the dopamine system, causing a low or hypo-dopaminergic trait, the brain may require dopamine for individuals to avoid unpleasant feelings. This high-risk genetic trait leads to multiple drug-seeking behaviors, because the drugs activate release of dopamine, which can diminish abnormal cravings. Moreover, this genetic trait is due in part to a form of a gene (DRD2 A1 allele) that prevents the expression of the normal laying down of dopamine receptors in brain reward sites. This gene, and others involved in neurophysiological processing of specific neurotransmitters, have been associated with deficient functions and predispose individuals to have a high risk for addictive, impulsive, and compulsive behavioral propensities. It has been proposed that genetic variants of dopaminergic genes and other “reward genes” are important common determinants of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS), which we hypothesize includes ADHD as a behavioral subtype. We further hypothesize that early diagnosis through genetic polymorphic identification in combination with DNA-based customized nutraceutical administration to young children may attenuate behavioral symptoms associated with ADHD. Moreover, it is concluded that dopamine and serotonin releasers might be useful therapeutic adjuncts for the treatment of other RDS behavioral subtypes, including addictions. PMID:19183781

  8. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, drug companies and the internet.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jessica; Read, John

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of drug-company funding on websites about attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Websites in the top 60 for either Google or Yahoo!Xtra with information about causation and treatment were analysed. Likert scales, based on those used in previous similar studies, were developed to rate aetiological explanations and recommended treatment approaches, on a dimension from psycho-social to biological. Overall, the quality of information on websites was poor with a strong bias towards bio-genetic aetiological explanations of ADHD. Twenty-one of the 57 websites (37%) were funded by drug companies. The drug-company funded (DCF) websites were significantly more likely than non-DCF websites to recommend medication rather than psycho-social treatments. The selective lack of consideration of psycho-social treatments by DCF websites is discussed in relation to the relevant research literature, including the evidence in favour of a multimodal approach. The findings, which are consistent with previous similar studies in relation to websites about adult mental health problems, confirm that the pharmaceutical industry is seeking to influence public opinion via the internet. PMID:21429977

  9. Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Childress, Ann C; Berry, Sally A

    2012-02-12

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder in children and adolescents, consisting of developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. The majority of children with ADHD will continue to experience significant ADHD symptoms as teens. ADHD in adolescents can result in significant functional impairment and poorer quality of life. Children and adolescents with ADHD are at higher risk of developing other psychiatric illnesses such as mood, conduct and substance abuse disorders. Stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidates) and nonstimulants (atomoxetine, guanfacine extended-release (XR) and clonidine XR) have been found to be effective and are approved by the US FDA for the treatment of ADHD in adolescents in the US. Of the agents approved in the US, only guanfacine XR and clonidine XR are not approved in any other countries. There is growing evidence that treatment of ADHD with stimulants reduces the risk of development of other psychiatric co-morbidities, including substance abuse disorders. To date, all FDA-approved stimulants and nonstimulants that have been adequately studied have been demonstrated to be safe and effective in treating ADHD in both children and adolescents. Therefore, clinical decisions used in selecting pharmacotherapy to treat ADHD in children aged 6-12 years can be applied in the adolescent population. PMID:22316347

  10. Dexmethylphenidate extended-release capsules for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    McGough, James J; Pataki, Caroly S; Suddath, Robert

    2005-07-01

    Medications for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) currently represent the ninth largest segment of the CNS market by sales, with 2.4 billion USD spent annually on this condition and 40% annual growth. Stimulant medications remain the most effective ADHD therapies and provide robust improvement in ADHD symptoms in both youth and adults. Current prescribing practices favor extended release preparations due to increased convenience, compliance and tolerability with once-daily dosing. Dexmethylphenidate extended release is a long-acting preparation of the ADHD medication Focalin (dexmethylphenidate immediate release) and was approved for marketing by the US Food and Drug administration in June 2005. Dexmethylphenidate consists of the single dextro-isomer form of d,l-methylphenidate commonly marketed as Ritalin. Dexmethylphenidate extended release utilizes spheroidal oral drug absorption system technology to achieve a 50% immediate medication delivery and 50% delayed release of dexmethylphenidate approximately 4 h after ingestion. Placebo-controlled, clinical trials in children and adults with ADHD have demonstrated efficacy for behavioral and academic ratings, with an analog classroom study showing medication effects up to 12 h after dosing. Dexmethylphenidate extended release was generally well tolerated with a side-effect profile similar to other stimulants. The most common reported side effects include diminished appetite and insomnia. Given its duration of effect, favorable tolerability and flexibility in dosing, dexmethylphenidate extended release is likely to gain considerable use as an ADHD treatment. PMID:16026226

  11. Dexmethylphenidate extended release: in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Dean M; Keating, Gillian M

    2006-01-01

    Dexmethylphenidate extended release (XR) is an orally administered, bimodal release, capsule formulation of the active d-enantiomer of methylphenidate (MPH), which inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake to increase their concentration in the extraneuronal space. A single dose of dexmethylphenidate XR mimics the pharmacokinetic profile of two doses of dexmethylphenidate immediate-release formulation administered 4 hours apart, albeit with less fluctuation in plasma concentration. Once-daily dexmethylphenidate XR was more effective than placebo in reducing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptom scores in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD in four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of up to 7 weeks' duration. In crossover trials in children (aged 6-12 years), dexmethylphenidate XR 20 mg/day reduced mean ADHD symptom scores 1 hour after administration (by 43% in one trial) and was significantly better than placebo for up to 12 hours. Dexmethylphenidate XR 5-30 mg/day reduced mean ADHD symptom scores by 49%, while scores declined by 16% with placebo in a 7-week trial in children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years). Dexmethylphenidate XR 20, 30 or 40 mg/day reduced ADHD symptom scores by 36-46% versus a 21% reduction with placebo in a 5-week trial in adults (aged 18-60 years). Dexmethylphenidate XR was generally well tolerated in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, with an adverse-event profile typical of MPH. PMID:16620143

  12. Medication for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Criminality

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenstein, Paul; Halldner, Linda; Zetterqvist, Johan; Sjölander, Arvid; Serlachius, Eva; Fazel, Seena; Långström, Niklas; Larsson, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disorder that is associated with criminal behavior. Pharmacological treatment is available for ADHD and may reduce the risk of criminality Methods We gathered information on all individuals with a diagnosis of ADHD (N=25,656), their pharmacological treatment, and subsequent criminal convictions in Sweden during 2006 to 2009 using Swedish national registers. We used stratified Cox regression analyses to compare the rate of criminality while on ADHD medication, compared with the rate for the same individual while off medication. Results Compared to non-medication periods, the criminality rate while on medication was significantly decreased by 32% (stratified Cox Regression hazard ratio: 0.68; 95 % confidence interval: 0.63-0.73) for men and 41% (hazard ratio: 0.59; 95 % confidence interval: 0.50-0.70) for women. The rate reduction remained between 17-46% in sensitivity analyses among males, including different exposures (e.g., type of treatment – stimulant and non-stimulant) and outcomes (e.g., type of crime - less severe, violent, and substance-related conviction). Conclusions We found statistically significant associations between ADHD medication and criminality in within-individual comparisons, with lower rates of criminality observed during periods on treatment. These findings raise the possibility that medication treatment reduces the risk of criminality among patients with ADHD. PMID:23171097

  13. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in African American youth.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Rahn K; Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Akpudo, Hilary; Avenido, Jaymie U; Bailey, Theresa; Lyons, Jessica; Whitehead, Amelia A

    2010-10-01

    This article examines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in African American youth. Tackling the myths and misinformation surrounding ADHD in the African American community can be one of the most difficult issues in mental illness circles. There is a lot of conflicting information about how African Americans are diagnosed, examined, and treated. This article clarifies some of the misconceptions and offers some comprehensibility to the issue of ADHD in African American youth. The incidence of ADHD is probably similar in African Americans and Caucasians. However, fewer African Americans are diagnosed with and treated for ADHD. That reality flies in the face of some perceptions in many African American communities. Reasons for this disparity have not been fully clarified and are most likely complex and numerous. Some barriers to treatment are driven by the beliefs of patients and their families, while others are the result of limitations in the health care system. Patient-driven obstacles to care include inadequate knowledge of symptoms, treatment, and consequences of untreated ADHD and fear of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis. System-driven limitations include a lack of culturally competent health care providers, stereotyping or biases, and failure of clinicians to evaluate the child in multiple settings before diagnosis. PMID:20697849

  14. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  15. Novel treatments for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas J; Biederman, Joseph; Wilens, Timothy E; Faraone, Stephen V

    2002-01-01

    Optimal medications for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) would be effective, well tolerated, and long acting and not cause mood swings or worsen comorbid conditions. Current medications work on brain dopamine and/or norepinephrine systems, which are thought to be involved in ADHD. The medication class with the most evidence of efficacy in ADHD is stimulants, but they may be abused, are effective for only 4 to 12 hours, and may cause mood swings or increase tic severity. In recent years, alternative treatments have been explored. Tricyclic antidepressants have efficacy comparable to that of stimulants but may cause constipation, dry mouth, tremors, blood pressure changes, and potentially serious side effects including cardiac conduction and repolarization delays. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors may improve ADHD symptoms but are associated with severe dietary restrictions. Serotonin reuptake inhibitors have little or no effect in ADHD but may improve comorbid depression. Bupropion, although less effective than stimulants, may improve both ADHD symptoms and comorbid depression. Antihypertensive agents may improve impulsivity, hyperactivity, and comorbid tics but cause sedation or rebound hypertension. Atomoxetine, which is being developed for ADHD, reduces symptoms of ADHD without exacerbating comorbid conditions and is associated with only minor side effects, including subtle changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Before prescribing a treatment, physicians should consider the appropriateness and effectiveness of any medication for children with ADHD, who may be less tolerant of side effects and less able to monitor and express concerns about their well-being than adults. PMID:12562057

  16. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and neurocognitive correlates after childhood stroke.

    PubMed

    Max, Jeffrey E; Mathews, Katherine; Manes, Facundo F; Robertson, Brigitte A M; Fox, Peter T; Lancaster, Jack L; Lansing, Amy E; Schatz, Amy; Collings, Nicole

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the frequency and neurocognitive correlates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and traits of this disorder (ADHD/Traits) after childhood stroke and orthopedic diagnosis in medical controls. Twenty-nine children with focal stroke lesions and individually matched children with clubfoot or scoliosis were studied with standardized psychiatric, intellectual, academic, adaptive, executive, and motivation function assessments. Lifetime ADHD/Traits were significantly more common in stroke participants with no prestroke ADHD than in orthopedic controls (16/28 vs. 7/29; Fisher's Exact p < .02). Lifetime ADHD/Traits in the orthopedic controls occurred exclusively in males with clubfoot (7/13; 54%). Participants with current ADHD/Traits functioned significantly worse (p < .005) than participants without current ADHD/Traits on all outcome measures. Within the stroke group, current ADHD/Traits was associated with significantly lower verbal IQ and arithmetic achievement (p < .04), more nonperseverative errors (p < .005), and lower motivation (p < .004). A principal components analysis of selected outcome variables significantly associated with current ADHD/Traits revealed "impaired neurocognition" and "inattention-apathy" factors. The latter factor was a more consistent predictor of current ADHD/Traits in regression analyses. These findings suggest that inattention and apathy are core features of ADHD/Traits after childhood stroke. This association may provide clues towards the understanding of mechanisms underlying the syndrome. PMID:14632240

  17. Overview of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay; Yeh, Chia Jung; Verma, Nidhi; Das, Ajay Kumar

    2015-09-30

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder, which can be seen as a disorder of life time, developing in preschool years and manifesting symptoms (full and/or partial) throughout the adulthood; therefore, it is not surprising that there are no simple solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder. This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan. If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD. By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD. PMID:26973960

  18. When Is EEG Indicated in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder?

    PubMed

    Zaimoğlu, Sennur; Türkdoğan, Dilşad; Mazlum, Betül; Bekiroğlu, Nural; Tetik-Kabil, Aylin; Eyilikeder, Seda

    2015-11-01

    The authors investigated the parameters for predicting epileptiform abnormalities in a group of children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The sample consisted of 148 subjects aged between 6 and 13 (8.76 ± 1.26; 25.7% female) years. Subtypes of ADHD and comorbid psychiatric disorders were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised was applied to all patients. Most of the subjects (89.2%) had wakefulness and sleep electroencephalography examinations lasting about one hour. The authors found out that the coexistence of speech sound disorder (odds ratio [OR] 3.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-9.48) and higher Digit Span test performance (OR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.06-1.44) predicted the presence of accompanying epileptiform abnormalities. The prevalence of epileptiform abnormalities was 26.4%, and they were frequently localized in the frontal (41%) and centrotemporal (28.2%) regions. Higher percentage of speech sound disorder co-occurrence (64%) in subjects with rolandic spikes suggests that epileptiform abnormalities associated with ADHD can be determined genetically at least in some cases. Pathophysiology of epileptiform abnormalities in ADHD might have complex genetic and maturational background. PMID:25895916

  19. Electroencephalography signatures of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical utility.

    PubMed

    Alba, Guzmán; Pereda, Ernesto; Mañas, Soledad; Méndez, Leopoldo D; González, Almudena; González, Julián J

    2015-01-01

    The techniques and the most important results on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) to extract different measures are reviewed in this work, which can be clinically useful to study subjects with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First, we discuss briefly and in simple terms the EEG analysis and processing techniques most used in the context of ADHD. We review techniques that both analyze individual EEG channels (univariate measures) and study the statistical interdependence between different EEG channels (multivariate measures), the so-called functional brain connectivity. Among the former ones, we review the classical indices of absolute and relative spectral power and estimations of the complexity of the channels, such as the approximate entropy and the Lempel-Ziv complexity. Among the latter ones, we focus on the magnitude square coherence and on different measures based on the concept of generalized synchronization and its estimation in the state space. Second, from a historical point of view, we present the most important results achieved with these techniques and their clinical utility (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) to diagnose ADHD. Finally, we propose future research lines based on these results. PMID:26543369

  20. Pediatric Integrative Medicine Approaches to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Esparham, Anna; Evans, Randall G.; Wagner, Leigh E.; Drisko, Jeanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neuropsychiatric disorder in children and is increasing in prevalence. There has also been a related increase in prescribing stimulant medication despite some controversy whether ADHD medication makes a lasting difference in school performance or achievement. Families who are apprehensive about side effects and with concerns for efficacy of medication pursue integrative medicine as an alternative or adjunct to pharmacologic and cognitive behavioral treatment approaches. Integrative medicine incorporates evidence-based medicine, both conventional and complementary and alternative therapies, to deliver personalized care to the patient, emphasizing diet, nutrients, gut health, and environmental influences as a means to decrease symptoms associated with chronic disorders. Pediatric integrative medicine practitioners are increasing in number throughout the United States because of improvement in patient health outcomes. However, limited funding and poor research design interfere with generalizable treatment approaches utilizing integrative medicine. The use of research designs originally intended for drugs and procedures are not suitable for many integrative medicine approaches. This article serves to highlight integrative medicine approaches in use today for children with ADHD, including dietary therapies, nutritional supplements, environmental hygiene, and neurofeedback. PMID:27417475

  1. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Asherson, Philip; Buitelaar, Jan; Faraone, Stephen V; Rohde, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for safe and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practising health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help for common mental health problems. PMID:27183901

  2. [Formal genetic findings in attention-deficit/hyperactivity-disorder].

    PubMed

    Smidt, J; Heiser, P; Dempfle, A; Konrad, K; Hemminger, U; Kathöfer, A; Halbach, A; Strub, J; Grabarkiewicz, J; Kiefl, H; Linder, M; Knölker, U; Warnke, A; Remschmidt, H; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Hebebrand, J

    2003-07-01

    Twin, family and adoption studies have led to a solid understanding of the contribution of both genetic and environmental factors to the development of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We review recent studies under consideration of both methodological aspects and relevant findings. Heritability estimates in the range of 0.6 - 0.8 surpass those for most other child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. First degree relatives have elevated rates for ADHD, affective disorders, conduct disorders and substance abuse and dependency. The ADHD subtype of the index patient does not predict the subtype of other family members affected with ADHD; hence non-genetic factors seemingly account for this intrafamilial variability. Because the familial rates for ADHD are not higher in families of female in comparison to male index patients, there is no indication that the genetic loading is higher in affected females. Recently, rater effects have been discussed broadly: Whereas the heritability estimates are uniformly high independent of the informant (mother, father, teacher), the correlations between quantitatively rated symptoms are low between different informants. Knowledge of the formal genetic aspects of ADHD is a prerequisite for understanding the results of recent molecular genetic studies. PMID:12858257

  3. Multisensory Spatial Attention Deficits Are Predictive of Phonological Decoding Skills in Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facoetti, Andrea; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Ruffino, Milena; Lorusso, Maria Luisa; Cattaneo, Carmen; Galli, Raffaella; Molteni, Massimo; Zorzi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Although the dominant approach posits that developmental dyslexia arises from deficits in systems that are exclusively linguistic in nature (i.e., phonological deficit theory), dyslexics show a variety of lower level deficits in sensory and attentional processing. Although their link to the reading disorder remains contentious, recent empirical…

  4. Neuropsychological Functioning in Children with Tourette Syndrome with and without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Scahill, Lawrence; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning in children with Tourette syndrome (TS) has been characterized by subtle deficits in response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and fine-motor coordination. The association of these deficits with the tics of the TS versus co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been well…

  5. Neuroanatomical deficits correlate with executive dysfunction in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    He, Ning; Li, Fei; Li, Yuanyuan; Guo, Lanting; Chen, Lizhou; Huang, Xiaoqi; Lui, Su; Gong, Qiyong

    2015-07-23

    Previous structural imaging studies have revealed gray matter volume abnormalities to reflect the etiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), however, which are confounded by age, medication and comorbidity and also ignore the core feature of brain structure in the executive impairments of ADHD. In the present study, we explored gray matter volume abnormalities in male children and adolescents with ADHD who were drug-naive and without comorbidities, and tried to connect structural data and behavioral executive dysfunction to provide more information regarding the brain-behavior relationships in ADHD. Seventy-two male subjects (37 patients and 35 controls) underwent three-dimensional high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and executive function assessments, including the Stroop Color-Word Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Voxel-based morphometry with diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra was used to identify gray matter volume differences between the ADHD and controls. Correlation analyses were performed to identify neuroanatomical deficits that were associated with executive dysfunctions. Significantly reduced gray matter volumes were identified in the right orbitofrontal cortex, right primary motor/premotor cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex and left posterior midcingulate cortex of ADHD patients compared with controls (P<0.05, corrected for family-wise errors). In patients group, the gray matter volumes of the right orbitofrontal cortex and left posterior midcingulate cortex were positively correlated with the completed categories on the WCST, and the gray matter volume of the left posterior midcingulate cortex was negatively correlated with the total and non-perseverative errors on the WCST (P<0.05). The present findings show gray matter volume reductions in motor regions as well as the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortex; this evidence supports theories that suggest frontal

  6. The diet factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Millichap, J Gordon; Yee, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely. Diets to reduce symptoms associated with ADHD include sugar-restricted, additive/preservative-free, oligoantigenic/elimination, and fatty acid supplements. Omega-3 supplement is the latest dietary treatment with positive reports of efficacy, and interest in the additive-free diet of the 1970s is occasionally revived. A provocative report draws attention to the ADHD-associated "Western-style" diet, high in fat and refined sugars, and the ADHD-free "healthy" diet, containing fiber, folate, and omega-3 fatty acids. The literature on diets and ADHD, listed by PubMed, is reviewed with emphasis on recent controlled studies. Recommendations for the use of diets are based on current opinion of published reports and our practice experience. Indications for dietary therapy include medication failure, parental or patient preference, iron deficiency, and, when appropriate, change from an ADHD-linked Western diet to an ADHD-free healthy diet. Foods associated with ADHD to be avoided and those not linked with ADHD and preferred are listed. In practice, additive-free and oligoantigenic/elimination diets are time-consuming and disruptive to the household; they are indicated only in selected patients. Iron and zinc are supplemented in patients with known deficiencies; they may also enhance the effectiveness of stimulant therapy. In patients failing to respond or with parents opposed to medication, omega-3

  7. Individual differences in attentional deficits and dopaminergic protein levels following exposure to proton radiation.

    PubMed

    Davis, Catherine M; DeCicco-Skinner, Kathleen L; Roma, Peter G; Hienz, Robert D

    2014-03-01

    To assess the possible neurobehavioral performance risks to astronauts from living in a space radiation environment during long-duration exploration missions, the effects of head-only proton irradiation (150 MeV/n) at low levels (25-50 cGy, approximating an astronaut's exposure during a 2-year planetary mission) were examined in adult male Long-Evans rats performing an analog of the human psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). The rodent version of PVT or rPVT tracks performance variables analogous to the human PVT, including selective attention/inattention, inhibitory control ("impulsivity") and psychomotor speed. Exposure to head-only proton radiation (25, 50, 100 or 200 cGy) disrupted rPVT performance (i.e., decreased accuracy, increased premature responding, elevated lapses in attention and slowed reaction times) over the 250 day testing period. However, the performance decrements only occurred in a subgroup of animals at each exposure level, that is, the severity of the rPVT performance deficit was unrelated to proton exposure level. Analysis of brain tissue from irradiated and control rats indicated that only rats with rPVT performance deficits displayed changes in the levels of the dopamine transporter and, to a lesser extent, the D₂ receptor. Additional animals trained to perform a line discrimination task measuring basic and reversal learning showed no behavioral effects over the same exposure levels, suggesting a specificity of the proton exposure effects to attentional deficits and supporting the rPVT as a sensitive neurobehavioral assay. PMID:24611657

  8. Attentional Control and Subjective Executive Function in Treatment-Naive Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  9. Attentional control and subjective executive function in treatment-naive adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Grane, Venke Arntsberg; Endestad, Tor; Pinto, Arnfrid Farbu; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated performance-derived measures of executive control, and their relationship with self- and informant reported executive functions in everyday life, in treatment-naive adults with newly diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; n = 36) and in healthy controls (n = 35). Sustained attentional control and response inhibition were examined with the Test of Variables of Attention (T.O.V.A.). Delayed responses, increased reaction time variability, and higher omission error rate to Go signals in ADHD patients relative to controls indicated fluctuating levels of attention in the patients. Furthermore, an increment in NoGo commission errors when Go stimuli increased relative to NoGo stimuli suggests reduced inhibition of task-irrelevant stimuli in conditions demanding frequent responding. The ADHD group reported significantly more cognitive and behavioral executive problems than the control group on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). There were overall not strong associations between task performance and ratings of everyday executive function. However, for the ADHD group, T.O.V.A. omission errors predicted self-reported difficulties on the Organization of Materials scale, and commission errors predicted informant reported difficulties on the same scale. Although ADHD patients endorsed more symptoms of depression and anxiety on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) than controls, ASEBA scores were not significantly associated with T.O.V.A. performance scores. Altogether, the results indicate multifaceted alteration of attentional control in adult ADHD, and accompanying subjective difficulties with several aspects of executive function in everyday living. The relationships between the two sets of data were modest, indicating that the measures represent non-redundant features of adult ADHD. PMID:25545156

  10. A Review of the Research on Interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Works Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, Nola; Hattie, John; Carroll, Annemaree

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a meta-analysis of 74 studies in which there had been an intervention that aimed to improve the behavioral, cognitive, or social functioning of people with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or attention deficit disorder. Overall, there were larger effects of the various interventions on behavioral than on educational outcomes.…

  11. Attention Deficits in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): Rethinking the Pathways to the Endstate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, P. J.; Watson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder associated with a range of neurocognitive manifestations, including neuropsychological attention deficits most notably in dual tasking/divided attention. These dual-task deficits have so far been interpreted as evidence of a vulnerable "cognitive module" in TSC. Here, we suggest…

  12. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  13. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients' social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  14. Analysis of the Anterior-Posterior Gradient Hypothesis as Applied to Attention Deficit Disorder Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matazow, Gail S.; Hynd, George W.

    This study examined whether children (ages 6-16) diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADD/H) could be differentiated from those diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder without hyperactivity (ADD/WO), on an anterior-posterior gradient paradigm. It was predicted that ADD/H children (N=23) would have more deficits…

  15. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013 met our inclusion criteria. Attention and social skills measures were categorized according to both modality and type of processing required. Results: Children with ADHD exhibited deficits in multiple components of attention and social skills that were not related to language-learning disorders and weaknesses in general intellectual abilities. The overall percentage effect for attention and social skills in students with ADHD was calculated (effect size = 0. 79, confidence interval = 0.57 - 1.08). This meta-analysis study showed that treatment programs reduced attention deficit and social skills in ADHD children and adolescents. Conclusions: The evidence of attention and social skills deficits in children with ADHD supports recent studies in ADHD deficits. Further research is required to explain in detail the nature, severity, and specificity of the deficits in individuals with ADHD. PMID:26576168

  16. Attributional Responses to Students with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder Who Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jamie G.; Benton, Stephen L.

    2005-01-01

    Preservice teachers' responses to students with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder who reportedly failed a classroom test were investigated. Undergraduate students (n=49), during their semester of student teaching, rated six vignettes that varied by student gender, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis, and medication…

  17. Attention Deficit Disorders: An Educators Guide. CH.A.D.D. Fact 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children & Adults with Attention Deficit Disorders, Plantation, FL.

    This fact sheet on attention deficit disorders (ADD) provides basic information on: ADD as a neurobiological disability, cause, prevalence and prognosis, identifying criteria, the teacher's challenge, school-based assessment, the two-tiered assessment protocol suggested by the Professional Group on Attention Deficits and Related Disorders,…

  18. Deficits in attentional processing of fearful facial expressions in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Shuping; Luo, Yuejia

    2016-01-01

    Impaired attentional processing of negative facial expressions is prominent in schizophrenia and has been shown to be associated with patients’ social dysfunctions. However, little is known about when and which specific attention deficits influence social functions. Given the dynamic feature of attention, it is necessary to investigate the attention deficits in negative emotional processing unfolding in time. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate the temporal dynamics of attention deficits in emotion perception and their potential relationship with emotional/social impairments in neuroleptic naive schizophrenic patients. Two specific attention deficits were identified and were found to be associated with emotional/social impairments. More specifically, the deficit in orienting attention (evidenced with the reduced P1 amplitude) was correlated with expressive deficits, while the deficit in executive control of attention (evidenced with the reduced P3 amplitude) was correlated with avolition/asociality. Together, these findings may provide novel insights into the core pathophysiological processes and offer objective biomarkers for specific emotional/social impairments in schizophrenia. It is also hoped that this study helps to bridge the gap between basic cognitive deficits and relative high-level social dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients. PMID:27586404

  19. Assessment of Working Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messina, Lucinete de Freitas; Tiedemann, Klaus Bruno; de Andrade, Enio Roberto; Primi, Ricardo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This research investigated the cognitive abilities and the working memory in children and youngsters with three different types of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): (a) mainly with attention-deficit, (b) hyperactive and impulsive, and (c) combined. Method: A computerized test called Infant Cognitive Abilities Test, which…

  20. Subtypes versus Severity Differences in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in the Northern Finnish Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubke, Gitta H.; Muthen, Bengt; Moilanen, Irma K.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.; Swanson, James M.; Yang, May H.; Taanila, Anja; Hurtig, Tuula; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smalley, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    A study aims to analyze whether behaviors of attention-deficit, hyperactivity among adolescents in Northern Finland reflect distinct subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The results conclude that the majority of the Cohort falls into low-scoring groups of unaffecteds while a high-scoring minority group reflects an ADHD…

  1. Effects of Noninformational Color on the Reading Test Performance of Students with and without Attentional Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Grskovic, Janice A.; Javorsky, James; Hall, Arlene M.

    2000-01-01

    A study involving 25 students (grades 3-5) with and without attentional deficits assessed generality to a standardized reading test when noninformational color was added to one of two alternate forms. Students with attentional deficits read as accurately as their classmates with color added and read worse in the black-white condition. (Contains…

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Youth Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Blake

    2014-01-01

    A 1997 study by Lomas and Garside suggests a 62% prevalence rate of ADHD [Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder] amongst homeless, which prompts a need for further elucidation of this relationship. This study sought to examine the relationship between Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the homeless youth population aged 18-24. The…

  3. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  4. School-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPaul, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a relatively common childhood behavior disorder that typically is treated with psychotropic medication (e.g., methylphenidate), behavioral strategies, or their combination. This article provides an overview of the school-related difficulties associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.…

  5. A Meta-Analysis of Behavioral Parent Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pei-chin; Niew, Wern-ing; Yang, Hao-jan; Chen, Vincent Chin-hung; Lin, Keh-chung

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of behavioral parent training on child and parental outcomes for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Meta-analytic procedures were used to estimate the effect of behavioral parent training on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Variables moderating the intervention…

  6. Malondialdehyde levels in adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mahmut; Selek, Salih; Gergerlioglu, H. Serdar; Savas, Haluk A.; Yilmaz, H. Ramazan; Yuce, Murat; Ekici, Giyasettin

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biochemical basis of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (A-ADHD), we compared lipid peroxidation status in the plasma of A-ADHD patients, and that of control subjects without A-ADHD by quantifying the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), an end product of fatty acid oxidation. We aimed to examine the association between MDA and A-ADHD. Method The study comprised 20 A-ADHD patients from Gaziantep University Sahinbey Research Hospital Psychiatry Clinic, diagnosed by 2 psychiatrists (H.A.S. and S.S.) according to the Turkish version of the adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale, and 21 healthy volunteers. Malondialdehyde levels were measured in plasma samples of both study groups. Results The mean (standard deviation [SD]) MDA levels in patients (2.44 [0.84] nmol/mL) were significantly higher than those of control subjects (0.36 [0.20] nmol/mL) (t = 11.013, df = 39, p < 0.01). MDA levels were correlated with overall number of criteria met (n = 20, p = 0.01, Ro = 0.56) and total hyperactivity/impulsivity score (n = 20, p = 0.02, Ro = 0.51). Conclusion The fact that MDA levels were increased in A-ADHD could be an indication of increased oxidative stress in this disease. We suggest that such changes may have a pathological role in A-ADHD. This is the first study evaluating the MDA levels in A-ADHD, and our findings may provide a scientific guide for the further clinical enzymologic and biochemical studies on this disorder. PMID:18043768

  7. Progress and promise of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Froehlich, Tanya E; McGough, James J; Stein, Mark A

    2010-02-01

    One strategy for understanding variability in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication response, and therefore redressing the current trial-and-error approach to ADHD medication management, is to identify genetic moderators of treatment. This article summarizes ADHD pharmacogenetic investigative efforts to date, which have primarily focused on short-term response to methylphenidate and largely been limited by modest sample sizes. The most well studied genes include the dopamine transporter and dopamine D(4) receptor, with additional genes that have been significantly associated with stimulant medication response including the adrenergic alpha(2A)-receptor, catechol-O-methyltransferase, D(5) receptor, noradrenaline (norepinephrine) transporter protein 1 and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 kDa. Unfortunately, results of current ADHD pharmacogenetic studies have not been entirely consistent, possibly due to differences in study design, medication dosing regimens and outcome measures. Future directions for ADHD pharmacogenetics investigations may include examination of drug-metabolizing enzymes and a wider range of stimulant and non-stimulant medications. In addition, researchers are increasingly interested in going beyond the individual candidate gene approach to investigate gene-gene interactions or pathways, effect modification by additional environmental exposures and whole genome approaches. Advancements in ADHD pharmacogenetics will be facilitated by multi-site collaborations to obtain larger sample sizes using standardized protocols. Although ADHD pharmacogenetic efforts are still in a relatively early stage, their potential clinical applications may include the development of treatment efficacy and adverse effect prediction algorithms that incorporate the interplay of genetic and environmental factors, as well as the development of novel ADHD treatments. PMID:20088618

  8. Enterovirus Encephalitis Increases the Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chou, I-Ching; Lin, Che-Chen; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enterovirus (EV) infection is a major public health issue throughout the world with potential neurological complications. This study evaluated the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and EV encephalitis in children. Data of reimbursement claims from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in a population-based case–control design. The study comprised 2646 children with ADHD who were matched according to sex, age, urbanization level of residence, parental occupation, and baseline year, to people without ADHD at a ratio of 1:10. The index date of the ADHD group was the ADHD date of diagnosis. Histories of EV infections before the index dates were collected and recategorized according to the severity of infection. Compared with children without EV infection, the children with mild EV infection had a 1.16-fold increased risk of ADHD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07–1.26), and the children with severe EV infection had a greater risk of ADHD (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.05–7.57). The results also revealed a significant correlation between ADHD and the severity of EV infection (P for trend = 0.0001). Patients with EV encephalitis have an increased risk of developing ADHD. Although most EV encephalitis in children has a favorable prognosis, it may be associated with significant long-term neurological sequelae, even in children considered fully recovered at discharge. Neuropsychological testing should be recommended for survivors of childhood EV encephalitis. The causative factors between EV encephalitis and the increased risk of ADHD require further investigation. PMID:25906098

  9. What is attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

    PubMed

    Furman, Lydia

    2005-12-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is described as the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. We raise the concern that ADHD is not a disease per se but rather a group of symptoms representing a final common behavioral pathway for a gamut of emotional, psychological, and/or learning problems. Increasing numbers of children, especially boys, are diagnosed with ADHD and treated with stimulant medications according to a simplified approach. Methodical review of the literature, however, raised concerning issues. "Core" ADHD symptoms of inattentiveness, hyperactivity and impulsivity are not unique to ADHD. Rates of "comorbid" psychiatric and learning problems, including depression and anxiety, range from 12 to 60%, with significant symptom overlap with ADHD, difficulties in diagnosis, and evidence-based treatment methods that do not include stimulant medications. No neuropsychologic test result is pathognomic for ADHD, and structural and functional neuroimaging studies have not identified a unique etiology for ADHD. No genetic marker has been consistently identified, and heritability studies are confounded by familial environmental factors. The validity of the Conners' Rating Scale-Revised has been seriously questioned, and parent and teacher "ratings" of school children are frequently discrepant, suggesting that use of subjective informant data via scale or interview does not form an objective basis for diagnosis of ADHD. Empiric diagnostic trials of stimulant medication that produce a behavioral response have been shown not to distinguish between children with and without "ADHD." In summary, the working dogma that ADHD is a disease or neurobehavioral condition does not at this time hold up to scrutiny of evidence. Thorough evaluation of symptomatic children should be individualized, and include assessment of educational, psychologic, psychiatric, and family needs. PMID:16417850

  10. Attention Problems and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Discordant and Concordant Monozygotic Twins: Evidence of Environmental Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehn, Hanne; Derks, Eske M.; Hudziak, James J.; Heutink, Peter; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study familial and nonfamilial environmental influences on attention problems and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in monozygotic twins discordant and concordant-high and low for these traits. Method: Ninety-five twin pairs from The Netherlands Twin Register were selected. Longitudinal survey data were collected at 1,…