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Sample records for reverts niemann-pick disease-associated

  1. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    Niemann-Pick disease is a group of diseases passed down through families (inherited) in which fatty substances called lipids ... Niemann-Pick disease types A and B occur when cells in the body do not have an enzyme called ...

  2. Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... for these forms of Niemann-Pick are available. Genetic defects have been identified in the DNA of many patients with type C. It may be possible to diagnose people who carry the abnormal gene. A few centers offer tests to diagnose a baby still in the womb.

  3. Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Elleder, M

    1989-09-01

    Results of the investigation carried out during this decade brought unambigous evidence of biochemical heterogeneity inside the complex of Niemann-Pick disease according to which two entirely different metabolic disorders can be recognized. 1. Niemann-Pick sphingomyelinosis, a clear-cut enzymopathy, the pivotal lesion of which is the deficiency of lysosomal spingomyelinase leading to widespread lysosomal deposition of sphingomyelin liquid crystals. Two main allelic variants are known. The first one, neuronopathic (former type A) known as infantile with rapid course, may also manifest considerably prolonged course or an atypical course with predominantly visceral symptomatology. Patients with the second, visceral, variant (former type B), display mainly slow clinical course and often reach adulthood. With rare exceptions the neuronopathic variant can be biochemically recognized from the visceral one by much lower values of the in vivo sphingomyelin degradation test in the former. 2. The rest of the complex comprising types C-D differs substantially from the sphingomyelinase deficiency group by the remarkable heterogeneity in the lysosomal stored lipid pattern given by differences among the affected cell populations. Sphingomyelin storage could be proved histochemically solely in the histiocytic population together with cholesterol, neutral glycosphingolipids and lysobisphosphatidic acid, whereas the brain neurons displayed only neutral glycosphingolipid storage. There is an increasing evidence of the crucial biochemical lesion in this group being an altered intracellular traffic of exogenously derived cholesterol caused probably by its deficient translocation from lysosomes to other intracellular membrane sites. This leads to decreased cholesterol esterification rate which is the basis of the newly developed diagnostic test. Inconstant depression of sphingomyelinase activity is considered to be a secondary phenomenon. The so-called lactosylceramidosis is a rare

  4. Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Jayesh J; Sheth, Frenny J; Oza, Nrupesh

    2008-06-01

    A 4-year-old Afghan girl born to consanguineous parents presented with progressive neurological regression and hepatomegaly noticed after one year of age. The child had hypotonia, repeated unexplained falls and facial dyskinesia. Bone marrow examination revealed presence of storage cells suggestive of Gauchers or Niemann Pick. Confirmatory study by lysosomal enzyme from leucocytes was normal for beta-Glucosidase and sphingomyelinase specific for Gauchers and Niemann Pick type A or B respectively. Further study was carried out on cultured skin fibroblasts in lipid deficient medium using filipin stain which showed presence of dark punctate granules confirming the diagnosis of Neimann-Pick type C, a rare autosomal recessive disorder. PMID:18599941

  5. Teaching Children with Niemann-Pick Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartin, Barbara C.; Murdick, Nikki L.; Cooley, Jennifer; Barnett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease (NPD) is a group of rare inherited disorders that are both systemic and degenerative. Knowledge of the disease, its characteristics, and its progression are essential for the teacher and related service personnel to provide an appropriate educational experience for the student. For the teacher who has a student with NPC in…

  6. Structure of human Niemann-Pick C1 protein.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaochun; Wang, Jiawei; Coutavas, Elias; Shi, Hang; Hao, Qi; Blobel, Günter

    2016-07-19

    Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) is a late-endosomal membrane protein involved in trafficking of LDL-derived cholesterol, Niemann-Pick disease type C, and Ebola virus infection. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs), five of which are thought to represent a "sterol-sensing domain" (SSD). Although present also in other key regulatory proteins of cholesterol biosynthesis, uptake, and signaling, the structure and mechanism of action of the SSD are unknown. Here we report a crystal structure of a large fragment of human NPC1 at 3.6 Å resolution, which reveals internal twofold pseudosymmetry along TM 2-13 and two structurally homologous domains that protrude 60 Å into the endosomal lumen. Strikingly, NPC1's SSD forms a cavity that is accessible from both the luminal bilayer leaflet and the endosomal lumen; computational modeling suggests that this cavity is large enough to accommodate one cholesterol molecule. We propose a model for NPC1 function in cholesterol sensing and transport. PMID:27307437

  7. Types A and B Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Schuchman, Edward H; Wasserstein, Melissa P

    2016-06-01

    Two distinct metabolic abnormalities are included under the eponym Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). The first is due to the deficient activity of the enzyme acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). Patients with ASM deficiency are classified as having types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Type A NPD patients exhibit hepatosplenomegaly, frequent pulmonary infections, and profound central nervous system involvement in infancy. They rarely survive beyond two years of age. Type B patients also have hepatosplenomegaly and progressive alterations of their lungs, but there are usually no central nervous system signs. The age of onset and rate of disease progression varies greatly among type B patients, and they frequently live into adulthood. Recently, patients with phenotypes intermediate between types A and B NPD also have been identified. These individuals represent the expected continuum caused by inheriting different mutations in the ASM gene (SMPD1). Patients in the second category are designated as having type C NPD. Impaired intracellular trafficking of cholesterol causes type C NPD, and two distinct gene defects have been found. In this chapter only types A and B NPD will be discussed. PMID:27491215

  8. [Niemann-Pick type C disease: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Ohno, Kousaku

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder which is caused in 95% by a mutation in the NPC1 gene on chromosome 18 or by NPC2 mutation, encoding for 2 different lysosomal lipid transport proteins. The impaired protein function leads to systemic intralysosomal accumulation of free cholesterol and shingolipids particularly in the CNS. In Japan, currently 34 living NPC patients are known as of December 2015. Considering the prevalence of the disease in the Western countries, the real number of NPC patients is most likely to be five-folds higher. For NPC, treatment methods are established and an approved disease-specific medications are available. It is important that patients early in their disease are referred to expert centers, in order to ensure timely initiation of treatment and to delay the progression of neurological symptoms as a goal. PMID:27149732

  9. Pulmonary Involvement in Niemann-Pick Disease: A State-of-the-Art Review.

    PubMed

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Pereira Freitas, Heloisa Maria; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Hochhegger, Bruno; Escuissato, Dante; Araujo Neto, Cesar Augusto; da Silva, Thiago Krieger Bento; Marchiori, Edson

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease with three subtypes. Types A and B result from a deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase activity, associated with the accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages (so-called Niemann-Pick cells) in various tissues, especially the liver and spleen. Type A is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infancy. Type B Niemann-Pick disease is a less severe form with milder neurological involvement, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, hyperlipidemia, and pulmonary involvement; most patients live into adulthood. Type C Niemann-Pick disease is a complex lipid storage disorder caused by defects in cholesterol trafficking, resulting in a clinical presentation dominated by neurological involvement. Pulmonary involvement occurs in all three types of Niemann-Pick disease, but most frequently in type B. Respiratory manifestations range from a lack of symptoms to respiratory failure. Progression of respiratory disease is slow, but inexorable, due to the accumulation of Niemann-Pick cells in the alveolar septa, bronchial walls, and pleura, potentially leading to a progressively worsening restrictive pattern on pulmonary function testing. Bronchoalveolar lavage has important diagnostic value because it shows the presence of characteristic Niemann-Pick cells. Radiographic findings consist of a reticular or reticulonodular pattern and, eventually, honeycombing, involving mainly the lower lung zones. The most common changes identified by high-resolution computed tomography are ground-glass opacities, mild smooth interlobular septal thickening, and intralobular lines. The aim of this review is to describe the main clinical, imaging, and pathological aspects of Niemann-Pick disease, with a focus on pulmonary involvement. PMID:27164983

  10. Niemann-Pick Disease Type B in a 21 Year Old Male.

    PubMed

    Haque, M A; Miah, M Z

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-pick disease is a group of autosomal recessive disorder of lipid storage with progressive accumulation of sphingomyelin and other lipids in the lysosomes of various tissues. We are reporting a 21 year old male who had hepatosplenomegaly, cherry red macula and normal cognitive function. Bone marrow biopsy showed plenty of foam cells and sphingomyelinase level was low, thus conforming our diagnosis. Survival into adulthood and absence of gross neurological involvement suggests Niemann-Pick disease type B. PMID:27277377

  11. Oxidative Stress in Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Rao; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Bianconi, Simona; Pavan, William J.; Porter, Forbes D.

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick Disease, type C (NPC) is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder due to impaired intracellular cholesterol and lipid transport. Increased oxidative stress has been reported in human NPC1 mutant fibroblasts and in tissues from Npc1 mutant mice. However, oxidative stress in NPC patients has not been established. In this study, we demonstrated increased oxidative stress in NPC patients. Evaluation of serum from 37 NPC patients, compared to control values, showed significant decreases (p<0.01) in both the fraction of reduced coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Both findings are consistent with increased oxidative stress in NPC. Supplementation with CoQ10 was not effective in correcting the decreased fraction of reduced CoQ10. Increased oxidative stress may be a contributing factor to the pathology of NPC, and demonstration of increased oxidative stress in NPC patients provides both a rationale and the biomarkers necessary to test the efficacy of antioxidant therapy in NPC. PMID:20667755

  12. A rare cause of fatal pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: Niemann-Pick disease type C2 and a novel mutation.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Ayhan; Eminoğlu, Fatma T; Kendirli, Tanıl; Ödek, Çağlar; Ceylaner, Serdar; Kansu, Aydan; İnce, Elif; Deda, Gülhis

    2015-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal autosomal recessive lipid storage disease associated with impaired trafficking of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids in lysosomes and late endosomes. This disease is commonly characterized by hepatosplenomegaly and severe progressive neurological dysfunction. There are two defective genes that cause this illness. One of these genes is NPC1 gene which is the cause of illness in 95% of the patients. The other gene is the rare type NPC2 which is the cause of illness in 5% of the patients. Patients with NPC2 usually present with respiratory distress in early infancy, which is rather unusual with NPC1. This article discusses about a patient who died at an early age from pulmonary involvement and who subsequently was found to have a novel homozygous mutation of NPC2 gene. PMID:26024245

  13. Hepatic Primary and Secondary Cholesterol Deposition and Damage in Niemann-Pick Disease.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Marta; Fajardo, Alba; Alcalá-Vida, Rafael; Fernández-Vidal, Andrea; Tebar, Francesc; Enrich, Carlos; Cardellach, Francesc; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Pol, Albert

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC gene that result in systemic accumulation of intracellular cholesterol. Although neurodegeneration defines the disease's severity, in most patients it is preceded by hepatic complications such as cholestatic jaundice or hepatomegaly. To analyze the contribution of the hepatic disease in Niemann-Pick C disease progression and to evaluate the degree of primary and secondary hepatic damage, we generated a transgenic mouse with liver-selective expression of NPC1 from embryonic stages. Hepatic NPC1 re-expression did not ameliorate the onset and progression of neurodegeneration of the NPC1-null animal. However, the mice showed reduced hepatomegalia and dramatic, although not complete, reduction of hepatic cholesterol and serum bile salts, bilirubin, and transaminase levels. Therefore, hepatic primary and secondary cholesterol deposition and damage occur simultaneously during Niemann-Pick C disease progression. PMID:26784526

  14. Niemann-Pick type C disease: molecular mechanisms and potential therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Anton I.; Maxfield, Frederick R.

    2010-01-01

    Cholesterol is an important lipid of mammalian cells. Its unique physicochemical properties modulate membrane behavior and it serves as the precursor for steroid hormones, oxysterols and vitamin D. Cholesterol is effluxed from the late endosomes/lysosomes via the concerted action of at least two distinct proteins: Niemann-Pick C1 and Niemann-Pick C2. Mutations in these two proteins manifest as Niemann-Pick type C disease – a very rare, usually fatal, autosomal, recessive, neurovisceral, lysosomal storage disorder. In this review we discuss the possible mechanisms of action for NPC1 and NPC2 in mediating cholesterol efflux, as well as the different therapeutic approaches being pursued for the treatment of this lipid storage disorder. PMID:20807315

  15. Niemann-Pick C disease gene mutations and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Zech, Michael; Nübling, Georg; Castrop, Florian; Jochim, Angela; Schulte, Eva C; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Marquardt, Thorsten; Vanier, Marie T; Latour, Philippe; Klünemann, Hans; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Haslinger, Bernhard; Lorenzl, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95%) or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563), FTLD (n = 133) and PSP (n = 94), and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1%) and seven control subjects (0.8%), but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted. PMID:24386122

  16. Niemann-Pick C Disease Gene Mutations and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Zech, Michael; Nübling, Georg; Castrop, Florian; Jochim, Angela; Schulte, Eva C.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Lichtner, Peter; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Marquardt, Thorsten; Vanier, Marie T.; Latour, Philippe; Klünemann, Hans; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Perneczky, Robert; Meitinger, Thomas; Oexle, Konrad; Haslinger, Bernhard; Lorenzl, Stefan; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a rare autosomal-recessively inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by mutations in NPC1 (95%) or NPC2. Given the highly variable phenotype, diagnosis is challenging and particularly late-onset forms with predominantly neuropsychiatric presentations are likely underdiagnosed. Pathophysiologically, genetic alterations compromising the endosomal/lysosomal system are linked with age-related neurodegenerative disorders. We sought to examine a possible association of rare sequence variants in NPC1 and NPC2 with Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and to genetically determine the proportion of potentially misdiagnosed NPC patients in these neurodegenerative conditions. By means of high-resolution melting, we screened the coding regions of NPC1 and NPC2 for rare genetic variation in a homogenous German sample of patients clinically diagnosed with PD (n = 563), FTLD (n = 133) and PSP (n = 94), and 846 population-based controls. The frequencies of rare sequence variants in NPC1/2 did not differ significantly between patients and controls. Disease-associated NPC1/2 mutations were found in six PD patients (1.1%) and seven control subjects (0.8%), but not in FTLD or PSP. All rare variation was detected in the heterozygous state and no compound heterozygotes were observed. Our data do not support the hypothesis that rare NPC1/2 variants confer susceptibility for PD, FTLD, or PSP in the German population. Misdiagnosed NPC patients were not present in our samples. However, further assessment of NPC disease genes in age-related neurodegeneration is warranted. PMID:24386122

  17. Successful treatment of cataplexy in patients with early-infantile Niemann-Pick disease type C: use of tricyclic antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Cak, Halime Tuna; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Düzgün, Gökçen; Yüce, Aysel; Topçu, Meral

    2014-11-01

    Cataplexy is a brief episode of bilateral loss of muscle tone with intact consciousness, triggered by a variety of strong emotions such as anger, laugh, humor or surprise and it is considered to represent the physiologic atonia of rapid eye movement sleep. On the other hand, Niemann-Pick type C is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease, characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Cataplexy is a relatively specific and common neurologic sign seen in almost 50% of all patients with Niemann-Pick type C. The aim of this report is to demonstrate the successful treatment of cataplexy with the use of a tricyclic antidepressant imipiramine, in two patients between the ages 6-9, with mild to moderate mental retardation, molecularly diagnosed as Niemann-Pick type C 1 and currently under miglustat treatment and to discuss the possible mechanisms of drug action in the light of cataplexy and Niemann-Pick type C pathophysiology. PMID:25139345

  18. Clinical evaluation of chitotriosidase enzyme activity in Gaucher and Niemann Pick A/B diseases: A retrospective study from India.

    PubMed

    Kadali, Srilatha; Kolusu, Anusha; Sunkara, Satish; Gummadi, Maheshwar Reddy; Undamatla, Jayanthi

    2016-06-01

    Plasma chitotriosidase originates from activated macrophages and is reported to be elevated in many Lysosomal Storage Disorders. Measurement of this enzyme activity has been an available tool for monitoring therapy of Gaucher disease. The degree of elevation of chitotriosidase is useful for differential diagnosis of Gaucher disease and Niemann Pick A/B. However the potential utility of this chitotriosidase assay depends on the frequency of deficient chitotriosidase activity in a particular population. We therefore aim to study the clinical utility of this assay Gaucher and Niemann Pick A/B diseases in the backdrop of chitotriosidase deficiency in our population. The study comprises 173 patients with clinical suspicion of either Gaucher disease (n=108) or Niemann Pick A/B (n=65) and 92 healthy controls. The plasma samples of controls, Gaucher disease, and Niemann Pick A/B showed chitotriosidase deficiency of 12%, 25% and 27% respectively. The degree of elevation of chitotriosidase in Gaucher disease and Niemann Pick A/B patients is 40-326 (11,325.7±6395.4nmol/h/ml) and 7-22 folds (1192.5±463.0nmol/h/ml) respectively. In view of these findings of distinguishable fold elevation of chitotriosidase in Gaucher disease or Niemann Pick A/B, it can be a potential surrogate differential diagnostic marker for these groups of diseases, except in the patients in whom this enzyme is deficient. PMID:26975750

  19. Type a niemann-pick disease. Description of three cases with delayed myelination.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, A; Sibilio, M; Caranci, F; Bartiromo, F; Taurisano, R; Balivo, F; Melis, D; Parenti, G; Cirillo, S; Elefante, R; Brunetti, A

    2008-06-01

    We describe three patients with type A Niemann-Pick disease (NPD-A). NPD-A is an autosomal recessive neuronal storage disease classified among the sphingolipidoses, characterized by accumulation of sphingomyelin in various tissues and in the brain. Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) of our three patients showed a marked delay of myelination with frontal atrophy. Few descriptions of this MRI pattern of delayed myelination have been published to date. PMID:24256898

  20. Niemann-Pick disease type C or Gaucher’s disease type 3? A clinical conundrum

    PubMed Central

    Pandi, Suresh; Chandran, Vijay; Deshpande, Anirudda; Kurien, Annamma

    2014-01-01

    We describe a patient who presented with a neurovisceral syndrome characterised by ataxia, bulbar dysfunction, supranuclear gaze palsy, splenomegaly and foamy histiocytes in the bone marrow. This presentation was suggestive of a lysosomal storage disorder such as Niemann-Pick disease type C or Gaucher's disease type 3. We review the presentation of these disorders, with a focus on the neurological features. In addition, we briefly discuss the disease-modifying therapeutic options which have recently become available. PMID:24811560

  1. Exosome Secretion Ameliorates Lysosomal Storage of Cholesterol in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Katrin; Goebel, Cornelia; Runz, Heiko; Möbius, Wiebke; Weiss, Sievert; Feussner, Ivo; Simons, Mikael; Schneider, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 disease is an autosomal-recessive lysosomal storage disorder. Loss of function of the npc1 gene leads to abnormal accumulation of free cholesterol and sphingolipids within the late endosomal and lysosomal compartments resulting in progressive neurodegeneration and dysmyelination. Here, we show that oligodendroglial cells secrete cholesterol by exosomes when challenged with cholesterol or U18666A, which induces late endosomal cholesterol accumulation. Up-regulation of exosomal cholesterol release was also observed after siRNA-mediated knockdown of NPC1 and in fibroblasts derived from NPC1 patients and could be reversed by expression of wild-type NPC1. We provide evidence that exosomal cholesterol secretion depends on the presence of flotillin. Our findings indicate that exosomal release of cholesterol may serve as a cellular mechanism to partially bypass the traffic block that results in the toxic lysosomal cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C1 disease. Furthermore, we suggest that secretion of cholesterol by exosomes contributes to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:20554533

  2. Amelioration of Muscular Dystrophy by Transgenic Expression of Niemann-Pick C1

    PubMed Central

    Steen, Michelle S.; Adams, Marvin E.; Tesch, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and other types of muscular dystrophies are caused by the loss or alteration of different members of the dystrophin protein complex. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which dystrophin-associated protein abnormalities contribute to the onset of muscular dystrophy may identify new therapeutic approaches to these human disorders. By examining gene expression alterations in mouse skeletal muscle lacking α-dystrobrevin (Dtna−/−), we identified a highly significant reduction of the cholesterol trafficking protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). Mutations in NPC1 cause a progressive neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder. Transgenic expression of NPC1 in skeletal muscle ameliorates muscular dystrophy in the Dtna−/− mouse (which has a relatively mild dystrophic phenotype) and in the mdx mouse, a model for DMD. These results identify a new compensatory gene for muscular dystrophy and reveal a potential new therapeutic target for DMD. PMID:18946078

  3. Niemann-Pick disease treatment: a systematic review of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415

  4. Sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease) in a juvenile raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Vapniarsky, N; Wenger, D A; Scheenstra, D; Mete, A

    2013-01-01

    A wild caught juvenile male raccoon with neurological disease was humanely destroyed due to poor prognosis. Necropsy examination revealed hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and multicentric lymphadenomegaly with diffuse hepatic pallor and pulmonary consolidation with pinpoint pale subpleural foci. Microscopically, there was marked pale cytoplasmic swelling of the central and peripheral neurons as well as the glial cells in the brain, accompanied by multiorgan infiltration by abundant foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural investigation revealed accumulation of concentrically arranged lamellar material within lysosomes of the affected neurons, macrophages and endothelial cells. Biochemical enzymatic analysis detected sphingomyelinase deficiency and lysosomal storage disease consistent with sphingomyelin lipidosis (Niemann-Pick disease [NPD]) was diagnosed. This is the first report of NPD in a raccoon. PMID:23582974

  5. Niemann-Pick disease treatment: a systematic review of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Villamandos García, Diana; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Nogales Gadea, Gisela; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to analyse all the published clinical trials assessing treatments for Niemann-Pick (NP) disease. At present there are only trials investigating the treatment of NP disease type C. Furthermore, there is no uniformity among studies in treatment outcomes or in data analysis and presentation of results. Miglustat is able to delay neurodegeneration, with greater benefits in patients with a late onset of the disease and β-cyclodextrin-hydroxypropyl (HBP-CD) can attenuate clinical symptoms. As for cholesterol-lowering drugs, the combination of lovastatin, cholestyramine and nicotinic acid is the most effective one for lowering cholesterolemia. Further research is much needed, and ongoing trials using enzyme replacement therapy might hopefully show promising results in the foreseeable future. PMID:26807415

  6. Two Siblings with Adolescent/Adult Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yun; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jeong, Young Jin; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung; Cheon, Sang-Myung; Kim, Jae Woo

    2016-07-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NP-C), is caused by NPC1 or NPC2 gene mutations. Progressive neurological, psychiatric, and visceral symptoms are characteristic. Here, we present cases of a brother (Case 1) and sister (Case 2) in their mid-20s with gait disturbance and psychosis. For the Case 1, neurological examination revealed dystonia, ataxia, vertical supranuclear-gaze palsy (VSGP), and global cognitive impairment. Case 2 showed milder, but similar symptoms, with cortical atrophy. Abdominal computed tomography showed hepatosplenomegaly in both cases. NPC1 gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygote for exon 9 (c.1552C>T [R518W]) and exon 18 (c.2780C>T [A927V]). Filipin-staining tests were also positive. When a young patient with ataxia or dystonia shows VSGP, NP-C should be considered. PMID:27366019

  7. Investigation of N-aryl-3-alkylidenepyrrolinones as potential Niemann-Pick type C disease therapeutics1

    PubMed Central

    Cosner, Casey C.; Markiewicz, John T.; Bourbon, Pauline; Mariani, Christopher J.; Wiest, Olaf; Rujoi, Madalina; Rosenbaum, Anton; Huang, Amy; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Helquist, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A five-step synthesis of an array of N-aryl-3-alkylidenepyrrolinones, which are potential Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease therapeutics, is described. The synthetic route allows for the production of analogues, including photoaffinity and biotinylated derivatives. Compound 1a increased esterification by acyl-coenzyme A:cholesteryl acyltransferase in NPC1 mutant cells. It also decreased LDL uptake and increased cholesterol efflux in both NPC1-deficient and normal cells. PMID:19772346

  8. Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Marques, André R A; Gabriel, Tanit L; Aten, Jan; van Roomen, Cindy P A A; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Claessen, Nike; Alfonso, Pilar; Irún, Pilar; Giraldo, Pilar; Aerts, Johannes M F G; van Eijk, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Impaired function of NPC1 or NPC2 lysosomal proteins leads to the intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, the primary defect underlying Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. In addition, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) accumulate in lysosomes as well. Intralysosomal lipid accumulation triggers the activation of a set of genes, including potential biomarkers. Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model. We speculated that Gpnmb could serve as a marker for visceral lipid accumulation in NPC disease. We report that Gpnmb expression is increased at protein level in macrophages in the viscera of Npc1nih/nih mice. Interestingly, soluble Gpnmb was also found to be increased in murine and NPC patient plasma. Exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to the NPC-phenotype-inducing drug U18666A also upregulated Gpnmb expression. Inhibition of GSL synthesis with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin prevented U18666A-induced Gpnmb induction and secretion. In summary, we show that Gpnmb is upregulated in NPC mice and patients, most likely due to GSL accumulation. PMID:26771826

  9. Electrophysiological characterization of adult-onset Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Iodice, Rosa; Dubbioso, Raffaele; Topa, Antonietta; Ruggiero, Lucia; Pisciotta, Chiara; Esposito, Marcello; Tozza, Stefano; Santoro, Lucio; Manganelli, Fiore

    2015-01-15

    In infantile and juvenile Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease electrophysiological studies have shown central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system abnormalities. However, an extensive electrophysiological evaluation of CNS and PNS in adult form of NPC is still lacking. The aim of the study is to assess in adult-onset NPC disease the involvement of CNS and PNS by a multimodal electrophysiological approach. Three patients affected by adult form of NPC disease underwent electrophysiological evaluation including nerve conduction study (NCS), magnetic motor (MEPs), visual (VEPs), somatosensory (SSEPs) and brainstem auditory (BAEPs) evoked potentials. NCS, MEPs, VEPs and upper limb SSEPs were normal. Lower limb SSEPs were abnormal in all patients and abnormalities were consistent with a length-dependent process affecting the central somatosensory pathway. BAEPs were abnormal in all patients with both peripheral and central impairment of auditory pathway. Our electrophysiological findings suggest that auditory and lower limb somatosensory pathways are constantly affected in adult-onset form of NPC disease. The involvement of PNS, pyramidal, visual and upper limb somatosensory pathways might occur later during the course of disease. PMID:25537619

  10. Niemann-Pick C disease and mobilization of lysosomal cholesterol by cyclodextrin

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Jean E.; Karten, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disease in which endocytosed cholesterol becomes sequestered in late endosomes/lysosomes (LEs/Ls) because of mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. Mutations in either of these genes can lead to impaired functions of the NPC1 or NPC2 proteins and progressive neurodegeneration as well as liver and lung disease. NPC1 is a polytopic protein of the LE/L limiting membrane, whereas NPC2 is a soluble protein in the LE/L lumen. These two proteins act in tandem and promote the export of cholesterol from LEs/Ls. Consequently, a defect in either NPC1 or NPC2 causes cholesterol accumulation in LEs/Ls. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms leading to NPC disease, particularly in the CNS. Recent exciting data on the mechanism by which the cholesterol-sequestering agent cyclodextrin can bypass the functions of NPC1 and NPC2 in the LEs/Ls, and mobilize cholesterol from LEs/Ls, will be highlighted. Moreover, the possible use of cyclodextrin as a valuable therapeutic agent for treatment of NPC patients will be considered. PMID:24664998

  11. Glucosylceramidase mass and subcellular localization are modulated by cholesterol in Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Salvioli, Rosa; Scarpa, Susanna; Ciaffoni, Fiorella; Tatti, Massimo; Ramoni, Carlo; Vanier, Marie T; Vaccaro, Anna Maria

    2004-04-23

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is characterized by the accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment. The mechanism by which the concentration of sphingolipids such as glucosylceramide is increased in this disease is poorly understood. We have found that, in NPC fibroblasts, the cholesterol storage affects the stability of glucosylceramidase (GCase), decreasing its mass and activity; a reduction of cholesterol raises the level of GCase to nearly normal values. GCase is activated and stabilized by saposin C (Sap C) and anionic phospholipids. Here we show by immunofluorescence microscopy that in normal fibroblasts, GCase, Sap C, and lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), the most abundant anionic phospholipid in the endolysosomal system, reside in the same intracellular vesicular structures. In contrast, the colocalization of GCase, Sap C, and LBPA is markedly impaired in NPC fibroblasts but can be re-established by cholesterol depletion. These data show for the first time that the level of cholesterol modulates the interaction of GCase with its protein and lipid activators, namely Sap C and LBPA, regulating the GCase activity and stability. PMID:14757764

  12. Sterol-modulated glycolipid sorting occurs in niemann-pick C1 late endosomes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, M; Dwyer, N K; Neufeld, E B; Love, D C; Cooney, A; Comly, M; Patel, S; Watari, H; Strauss, J F; Pentchev, P G; Hanover, J A; Blanchette-Mackie, E J

    2001-02-01

    The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein and endocytosed low density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol were shown to enrich separate subsets of vesicles containing lysosomal associated membrane protein 2. Localization of Rab7 in the NPC1-containing vesicles and enrichment of lysosomal hydrolases in the cholesterol-containing vesicles confirmed that these organelles were late endosomes and lysosomes, respectively. Lysobisphosphatidic acid, a lipid marker of the late endosomal pathway, was found in the cholesterol-enriched lysosomes. Recruitment of NPC1 to Rab7 compartments was stimulated by cellular uptake of cholesterol. The NPC1 compartment was shown to be enriched in glycolipids, and internalization of GalNAcbeta1-4[NeuAcalpha2-3]Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-1'-ceramide (G(M2)) into endocytic vesicles depends on the presence of NPC1 protein. The glycolipid profiles of the NPC1 compartment could be modulated by LDL uptake and accumulation of lysosomal cholesterol. Expression in cells of biologically active NPC1 protein fused to green fluorescent protein revealed rapidly moving and flexible tubular extensions emanating from the NPC1-containing vesicles. We conclude that the NPC1 compartment is a dynamic, sterol-modulated sorting organelle involved in the trafficking of plasma membrane-derived glycolipids as well as plasma membrane and endocytosed LDL cholesterol. PMID:11032830

  13. Diagnostic workup and management of patients with suspected Niemann-Pick type C disease

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Apostolos; Gissen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. It is characterized by lysosomal storage of a broad range of lipids as a result of abnormal intracellular lipid trafficking. Typically patients develop neurodegeneration; however, the speed of disease progression is variable. The exact functions of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins have not been determined and therefore the molecular pathophysiology of NP-C is still not clearly understood. Due to the disease’s rarity and clinical heterogeneity, delays from symptom onset to diagnosis and treatment initiation are common. Current therapeutic approaches focus on multidisciplinary symptom control and deceleration (rather than reversal) of disease progression. Thus identification of cases at early stages of disease is particularly important. Recent advances in genetic and biochemical testing have resulted in the generation of relatively non-invasive, quick and cost-effective laboratory assays that are highly sensitive and specific and have the capacity to enhance the clinicians’ ability to reach a diagnosis earlier. Miglustat is a compound recently licensed in many countries for the treatment of NP-C that has been shown to decelerate neurological regression, whereas many other promising drugs are currently being trialled in preclinical models or human studies. This review summarizes key clinical, genetic and biochemical features of NP-C, suggests a simple diagnostic investigation strategy and gives an overview of available therapeutic options as well as potential novel treatments currently under development. PMID:27134677

  14. A case of variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C accompanying savant syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamatani, Mio; Jingami, Naoto; Uemura, Kengo; Nakasone, Naoe; Kinoshita, Hisanori; Yamakado, Hodaka; Ninomiya, Haruaki; Takahashi, Ryosuke

    2016-06-22

    A 40-year-old man was referred to our hospital because of vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent sudden loss of muscle tonus and ataxia for several years. He had a history of prolonged neonatal jaundice. He was given a diagnosis of autism in his childhood, followed by a diagnosis of schizophrenia in his teenage. He also developed a savant skill of calendar calculating. (123)I-IMP-SPECT showed decreased cerebral blood flow in the left frontotemporal lobe as often seen in savant syndrome. Although genetic analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 revealed no pathogenic mutation, filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts from his biopsied skin revealed a certain amount of intracellular cholesterol storage pattern, indicating a variant biochemical phenotype of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). The diagnosis of adulthood onset NPC is difficult and challenging, especially for neurologists, because the symptoms and signs are not as clear as those in the classical childhood onset NPC and this subtype is not yet widely known. However, the diagnosis can be made by a combination of filipin staining of fibroblast and/or gene analysis. As a disease-specific therapy for NPC has been approved in Japan, the diagnosis of NPC is of significance. PMID:27181747

  15. Necroptosis in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1: a potential therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Cougnoux, A; Cluzeau, C; Mitra, S; Li, R; Williams, I; Burkert, K; Xu, X; Wassif, C A; Zheng, W; Porter, F D

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a neurodegenerative, lysosomal storage disorder due to mutation of the NPC1 gene. The NPC1 phenotype is characterized by progressive neuronal dysfunction, including cerebellar ataxia and dementia. There is histological evidence of neuroinflammation and progressive neuronal loss, with cerebellar Purkinje cells particularly vulnerable to loss of NPC1 function. Necroptosis was evaluated as a mechanism of neuronal loss. Receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1) and RIP3 are key components of the necrosomal complex that regulates necroptotic cell death. We report increased expression of RIP1 and RIP3 in NPC1 fibroblasts, NPC1 iPS cell-derived neuronal precursors, and in cerebellar tissue from both NPC1 mice and patients. Our data suggest a positive correlation between NPC1 neurological disease severity and assembly of the necrosome complex. Furthermore, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of RIP1 decreases cell death both in vitro and in vivo. Treatment of Npc1-mutant mice with necrostatin-1, an allosteric inhibitor of RIP1, significantly delayed cerebellar Purkinje cell loss, progression of neurological symptoms, and death. Collectively, our data identified necroptosis as a key component of the molecular network that contributes to neuronal loss in NPC1 and establish that inhibition of necroptosis is a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:26986514

  16. Ebola Viral Glycoprotein Bound to Its Endosomal Receptor Niemann-Pick C1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Shi, Yi; Song, Jian; Qi, Jianxun; Lu, Guangwen; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George F

    2016-01-14

    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg, cause fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates. Understanding how these viruses enter host cells could help to develop effective therapeutics. An endosomal protein, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), has been identified as a necessary entry receptor for this process, and priming of the viral glycoprotein (GP) to a fusion-competent state is a prerequisite for NPC1 binding. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the primed GP (GPcl) of Ebola virus bound to domain C of NPC1 (NPC1-C) at a resolution of 2.3 Å. NPC1-C utilizes two protruding loops to engage a hydrophobic cavity on head of GPcl. Upon enzymatic cleavage and NPC1-C binding, conformational change in the GPcl further affects the state of the internal fusion loop, triggering membrane fusion. Our data therefore provide structural insights into filovirus entry in the late endosome and the molecular basis for design of therapeutic inhibitors of viral entry. PMID:26771495

  17. Genetic and pharmacological evidence implicates cathepsins in Niemann-Pick C cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chan; Puthanveetil, Prasanth; Ory, Daniel S; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC) disease, an autosomal recessive lipid trafficking disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene, is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration resulting in cognitive impairment, ataxia and early death. Little is known about the cellular pathways leading to neuron loss. Here, we studied the effects of diminishing expression of cystatin B, an endogenous inhibitor of cathepsins B, H and L, on the development of NPC neuropathology. We show that decreased expression of cystatin B in patient fibroblasts enhances cathepsin activity. Deletion of the encoding Cstb gene in Npc1-deficient mice resulted in striking deleterious effects, particularly within the cerebellum where diffuse loss of Purkinje cells was observed in young mice. This severe pathology occurred through cell autonomous mechanisms that triggered Purkinje cell death. Moreover, our analyses demonstrated the mislocalization of lysosomal cathepsins within the cytosol of Npc1-deficient Purkinje cells. We provide evidence that this may be a consequence of damage to lysosomal membranes by reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to the leakage of lysosomal contents that culminates in apoptotic cell death. Consistent with this notion, toxicity from ROS was attenuated in an NPC cell model by cystatin B over-expression or pharmacological inhibition of cathepsin B. The observation that Npc1 and Cstb deletion genetically interact to potently enhance the degenerative phenotype of the NPC cerebellum provides strong support for the notion that lysosomal membrane permeabilization contributes to cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease. PMID:26908626

  18. Diagnostic workup and management of patients with suspected Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Papandreou, Apostolos; Gissen, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a neurovisceral disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. It is characterized by lysosomal storage of a broad range of lipids as a result of abnormal intracellular lipid trafficking. Typically patients develop neurodegeneration; however, the speed of disease progression is variable. The exact functions of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins have not been determined and therefore the molecular pathophysiology of NP-C is still not clearly understood. Due to the disease's rarity and clinical heterogeneity, delays from symptom onset to diagnosis and treatment initiation are common. Current therapeutic approaches focus on multidisciplinary symptom control and deceleration (rather than reversal) of disease progression. Thus identification of cases at early stages of disease is particularly important. Recent advances in genetic and biochemical testing have resulted in the generation of relatively non-invasive, quick and cost-effective laboratory assays that are highly sensitive and specific and have the capacity to enhance the clinicians' ability to reach a diagnosis earlier. Miglustat is a compound recently licensed in many countries for the treatment of NP-C that has been shown to decelerate neurological regression, whereas many other promising drugs are currently being trialled in preclinical models or human studies. This review summarizes key clinical, genetic and biochemical features of NP-C, suggests a simple diagnostic investigation strategy and gives an overview of available therapeutic options as well as potential novel treatments currently under development. PMID:27134677

  19. Alveolar lipoproteinosis in an acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mouse model of Niemann-Pick disease.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Machiko; Dhami, Rajwinder; Schuchman, Edward H

    2003-03-01

    Types A and B Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) are lipid storage disorders caused by the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). In humans, NPD is associated with the dysfunction of numerous organs including the lung. Gene targeting of the ASM gene in transgenic mice produced an animal model with features typical of NPD, including pulmonary inflammation. To assess mechanisms by which ASM perturbed lung function, we studied lung morphology, surfactant content, and metabolism in ASM-deficient mice in vivo. Pulmonary inflammation, with increased cellular infiltrates and the accumulation of alveolar material, was associated with alterations in surfactant content. Saturated phosphatidylcholine (SatPC) content was increased twofold, and sphingomyelin content was increased 5.5-fold in lungs of the ASM knockout (ASMKO) mice. Additional sphingomyelin enhanced the sensitivity of surfactant inhibition by plasma proteins. Clearance of SatPC from the lungs of ASMKO mice was decreased. Catabolism of SatPC by alveolar macrophages from the ASMKO mouse was significantly decreased, likely accounting for decreased pulmonary SatPC in vivo. In summary, ASM is required for normal surfactant catabolism by alveolar macrophages in vivo. Alterations in surfactant composition, including increased sphingomyelin content, contributed to the abnormal surfactant function observed in the ASM-deficient mouse. PMID:12495943

  20. Niemann-Pick C1 Affects the Gene Delivery Efficacy of Degradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite intensive research effort, the rational design of improved nanoparticulate drug carriers remains challenging, in part due to a limited understanding of the determinants of nanoparticle entry and transport in target cells. Recent studies have shown that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), the lysosome membrane protein that mediates trafficking of cholesterol in cells, is involved in the endosomal escape and subsequent infection caused by filoviruses, and that its absence promotes the retention and efficacy of lipid nanoparticles encapsulating siRNA. Here, we report that NPC1 deficiency results in dramatic reduction in internalization and transfection efficiency mediated by degradable cationic gene delivery polymers, poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAEs). PBAEs utilized cholesterol and dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathways, and these were found to be heavily compromised in NPC1-deficient cells. In contrast, the absence of NPC1 had minor effects on DNA uptake mediated by polyethylenimine or Lipofectamine 2000. Strikingly, stable overexpression of human NPC1 in chinese hamster ovary cells was associated with enhanced gene uptake (3-fold) and transfection (10-fold) by PBAEs. These findings reveal a role of NPC1 in the regulation of endocytic mechanisms affecting nanoparticle trafficking. We hypothesize that in-depth understanding sites of entry and endosomal escape may lead to highly efficient nanotechnologies for drug delivery. PMID:25010491

  1. Mitochondrial dysfunction in fibroblasts derived from patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Woś, Marcin; Szczepanowska, Joanna; Pikuła, Sławomir; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna; Zabłocki, Krzysztof; Bandorowicz-Pikuła, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes lead to Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a rare lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. These mutations result in cholesterol and glycosphingolipid accumulation in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Complications in the storage of cholesterol in NPC1 mutant cells are associated with other anomalies, such as altered distribution of intracellular organelles and properties of the plasma membrane. The pathomechanism of NPC disease is largely unknown. Interestingly, other storage diseases such as Gaucher and Farber diseases are accompanied by severe mitochondrial dysfunction. This prompted us to investigate the effect of absence or dysfunction of the NPC1 protein on mitochondrial properties to confirm or deny a putative relationship between NPC1 mutations and mitochondrial function. This study was performed on primary skin fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies of two NPC patients, carrying mutations in the NPC1 gene. We observed altered organization of mitochondria in NPC1 mutant cells, significant enrichment in mitochondrial cholesterol content, increased respiration, altered composition of the respiratory chain complex, and substantial reduction in cellular ATP level. Thus, a primary lysosomal defect in NPC1 mutant fibroblasts is accompanied by deregulation of the organization and function of the mitochondrial network. PMID:26869201

  2. Gpnmb Is a Potential Marker for the Visceral Pathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aten, Jan; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Ottenhoff, Roelof; Claessen, Nike; Alfonso, Pilar; Irún, Pilar; Giraldo, Pilar; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; van Eijk, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Impaired function of NPC1 or NPC2 lysosomal proteins leads to the intracellular accumulation of unesterified cholesterol, the primary defect underlying Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease. In addition, glycosphingolipids (GSLs) accumulate in lysosomes as well. Intralysosomal lipid accumulation triggers the activation of a set of genes, including potential biomarkers. Transcript levels of Gpnmb have been shown to be elevated in various tissues of an NPC mouse model. We speculated that Gpnmb could serve as a marker for visceral lipid accumulation in NPC disease. We report that Gpnmb expression is increased at protein level in macrophages in the viscera of Npc1nih/nih mice. Interestingly, soluble Gpnmb was also found to be increased in murine and NPC patient plasma. Exposure of RAW264.7 macrophages to the NPC-phenotype-inducing drug U18666A also upregulated Gpnmb expression. Inhibition of GSL synthesis with the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor N-butyl-1-deoxynojirimycin prevented U18666A-induced Gpnmb induction and secretion. In summary, we show that Gpnmb is upregulated in NPC mice and patients, most likely due to GSL accumulation. PMID:26771826

  3. Reducing GBA2 Activity Ameliorates Neuropathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy P. A. A.; Herrera Moro, Daniela; Claessen, Nike; Vinueza Veloz, María Fernanda; Zhou, Kuikui; Lin, Zhanmin; Mirzaian, Mina; Boot, Rolf G.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Overkleeft, Herman S.; Yildiz, Yildiz; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) hydrolyses glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in lysosomes. Markedly reduced GBA activity is associated with severe manifestations of Gaucher disease including neurological involvement. Mutations in the GBA gene have recently also been identified as major genetic risk factor for Parkinsonism. Disturbed metabolism of GlcCer may therefore play a role in neuropathology. Besides lysosomal GBA, cells also contain a non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase (GBA2). Given that the two β-glucosidases share substrates, we speculated that over-activity of GBA2 during severe GBA impairment might influence neuropathology. This hypothesis was studied in Niemann-Pick type C (Npc1-/-) mice showing secondary deficiency in GBA in various tissues. Here we report that GBA2 activity is indeed increased in the brain of Npc1-/- mice. We found that GBA2 is particularly abundant in Purkinje cells (PCs), one of the most affected neuronal populations in NPC disease. Inhibiting GBA2 in Npc1-/- mice with a brain-permeable low nanomolar inhibitor significantly improved motor coordination and extended lifespan in the absence of correction in cholesterol and ganglioside abnormalities. This trend was recapitulated, although not to full extent, by introducing a genetic loss of GBA2 in Npc1-/- mice. Our findings point to GBA2 activity as therapeutic target in NPC. PMID:26275242

  4. Transcriptional regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene by liver receptor homolog-1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Sup; Seo, Hyun Jung; Back, Su Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Jeong, Yeon Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

    2015-09-01

    Factors that modulate cholesterol levels have major impacts on cardiovascular disease. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) functions as a sterol transporter mediating intestinal cholesterol absorption and counter-balancing hepatobiliary cholesterol excretion. The liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) had been shown to regulate genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. To study whether human NPC1L1 gene is regulated transcriptionally by LRH-1, we have analyzed evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in HepG2 cells. One ECR was found to be responsive to the LRH-1. Through deletion studies, LRH-1 response element was identified and the binding of LRH-1 was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assays. When SREBP2, one of several transcription factors which had been shown to regulate NPC1L1 gene, was co-expressed with LRH-1, synergistic transcriptional activation resulted. In conclusion, we have identified LRH-1 response elements in NPC1L1 gene and propose that LRH-1 and SREBP may play important roles in regulating NPC1L1 gene. PMID:25739390

  5. Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) Inhibition and Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pirillo, A; Catapano, A L; Norata, G D

    2016-01-01

    Circulating levels of cholesterol are derived from either endogenous production or intestinal absorption of dietary and biliary cholesterol. Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a transmembrane protein that plays a key role in the intestinal absorption of cholesterol by facilitating its uptake through vesicular endocytosis. NPC1L1 is the molecular target of ezetimibe which binds its extracellular loop and inhibits sterol absorption without affecting the absorption of other molecules. Ezetimibe significantly reduces plasma levels of total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as monotherapy or when added to statins, the association with a low dose of statin is of particular interest for patients experiencing statin-related side effects. The recent results of the IMPROVE-IT study, which evaluated the cardiovascular effect of ezetimibe added to simvastatin therapy in subjects who had had an acute coronary syndrome and with LDL-C levels within the recommended range, showed that a further LDL-C lowering reduced the incidence of cardiovascular events. To date, ezetimibe represents the only inhibitor of NPC1L1 available for clinical use, however, novel aminoß- lactam ezetimibe derivatives have been synthesized and their efficacy to inhibit NPC1L1 protein and decrease plasma cholesterol levels is under evaluation. PMID:26923679

  6. Are Niemann-Pick type C proteins key players in cnidarian-dinoflagellate endosymbioses?

    PubMed

    Dani, Vincent; Ganot, Philippe; Priouzeau, Fabrice; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cecile

    2014-09-01

    The symbiotic interaction between cnidarians, such as corals and sea anemones, and the unicellular algae Symbiodinium is regulated by yet poorly understood cellular mechanisms, despite the ecological importance of coral reefs. These mechanisms, including host-symbiont recognition and metabolic exchange, control symbiosis stability under normal conditions, but also lead to symbiosis breakdown (bleaching) during stress. This study describes the repertoire of the sterol-trafficking proteins Niemann-Pick type C (NPC1 and NPC2) in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We found one NPC1 gene in contrast to the two genes (NPC1 and NPC1L1) present in vertebrate genomes. While only one NPC2 gene is present in many metazoans, this gene has been duplicated in cnidarians, and we detected four NPC2 genes in A. viridis. However, only one gene (AvNPC2-d) was upregulated in symbiotic relative to aposymbiotic sea anemones and displayed higher expression in the gastrodermis (symbiont-containing tissue) than in the epidermis. We performed immunolabelling experiments on tentacle cross sections and demonstrated that the AvNPC2-d protein was closely associated with symbiosomes. In addition, AvNPC1 and AvNPC2-d gene expression was strongly downregulated during stress. These data suggest that AvNPC2-d is involved in both the stability and dysfunction of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses. PMID:25066219

  7. Pathological roles of the VEGF/SphK pathway in Niemann-Pick type C neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Lee, Jong Kil; Park, Min Hee; Hong, Yu Ri; Marti, Hugo H; Kim, Hyongbum; Okada, Yohei; Otsu, Makoto; Seo, Eul-Ju; Park, Jae-Hyung; Bae, Jae-Hoon; Okino, Nozomu; He, Xingxuan; Schuchman, Edward H; Bae, Jae-Sung; Jin, Hee Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Sphingosine is a major storage compound in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C), although the pathological role(s) of this accumulation have not been fully characterized. Here we found that sphingosine kinase (SphK) activity is reduced in NP-C patient fibroblasts and NP-C mouse Purkinje neurons (PNs) due to defective vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Sphingosine accumulation due to inactivation of VEGF/SphK pathway led to PNs loss via inhibition of autophagosome-lysosome fusion in NP-C mice. VEGF activates SphK by binding to VEGFR2, resulting in decreased sphingosine storage as well as improved PNs survival and clinical outcomes in NP-C cells and mice. We also show that induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human NP-C neurons are generated and the abnormalities caused by VEGF/SphK inactivity in these cells are corrected by replenishment of VEGF. Overall, these results reveal a pathogenic mechanism in NP-C neurons where defective SphK activity is due to impaired VEGF levels. PMID:25417698

  8. In vivo quantification of brain injury in adult Niemann-Pick Disease Type C.

    PubMed

    Zaaraoui, Wafaa; Crespy, Lydie; Rico, Audrey; Faivre, Anthony; Soulier, Elisabeth; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Cozzone, Patrick J; Pelletier, Jean; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Kaphan, Elsa; Audoin, Bertrand

    2011-06-01

    Development of surrogate markers is necessary to assess the potential efficacy of new therapeutics in Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NP-C). In the present study, magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging, a quantitative MRI imaging technique sensitive to subtle brain microstructural changes, was applied in two patients suffering from adult NP-C. Statistical mapping analysis was performed to compare each patient's MTR maps with those of a group of 34 healthy controls to quantify and localize the extent of brain injury of each patient. Using this method, pathological changes were evidenced in the cerebellum, the thalami and the lenticular nuclei in both patients and also in the fronto-temporal cortices in the patient with the worse functional deficit. In addition, white matter changes were located in the midbrain, the cerebellum and the fronto-temporal lobes in the patient with the higher level of disability and in only one limited periventricular white matter region in the other patient. A 6-month follow-up was performed in the patient with the lower functional deficit and evidenced significant extension of grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) injuries during the following period (14% of increased injury for GM and 53% for WM). This study demonstrates that significant brain injury related to clinical deficit can be assessed in vivo in adult NP-C using MTR imaging. Although preliminary, these findings suggest that MTR imaging may be a relevant candidate for the development of biomarker in NP-C. PMID:21397539

  9. Oxidative Stress: A Pathogenic Mechanism for Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Mary Carmen; Balboa, Elisa; Alvarez, Alejandra R.; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurovisceral atypical lipid storage disorder involving the accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in the late endocytic pathway. The pathogenic mechanism that links the accumulation of intracellular cholesterol with cell death in NPC disease in both the CNS and the liver is currently unknown. Oxidative stress has been observed in the livers and brains of NPC mice and in different NPC cellular models. Moreover, there is evidence of an elevation of oxidative stress markers in the serumof NPC patients. Recent evidence strongly suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in NPC pathogenesis and that mitochondria could be a significant source of oxidative stress in this disease. In this context, the accumulation of vitamin E in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartments in NPC could lead to a potential decrease of its bioavailability and could be another possible cause of oxidative damage. Another possible source of reactive species in NPC is the diminished activity of different antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, because NPC is mainly caused by the accumulation of free cholesterol, oxidized cholesterol derivatives produced by oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22720116

  10. Transcriptional regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 gene by liver receptor homolog-1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eui Sup; Seo, Hyun Jung; BacK, Su Sun; Han, Seung Ho; Jeong, Yeon Ji; Lee, Jin Wook; Choi, Soo Young; Han, Kyuhyung

    2015-01-01

    Factors that modulate cholesterol levels have major impacts on cardiovascular disease. Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) functions as a sterol transporter mediating intestinal cholesterol absorption and counter-balancing hepatobiliary cholesterol excretion. The liver receptor homolog 1 (LRH-1) had been shown to regulate genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport. To study whether human NPC1L1 gene is regulated transcriptionally by LRH-1, we have analyzed evolutionary conserved regions (ECRs) in HepG2 cells. One ECR was found to be responsive to the LRH-1. Through deletion studies, LRH-1 response element was identified and the binding of LRH-1 was demonstrated by EMSA and ChIP assays. When SREBP2, one of several transcription factors which had been shown to regulate NPC1L1 gene, was co-expressed with LRH-1, synergistic transcriptional activation resulted. In conclusion, we have identified LRH-1 response elements in NPC1L1 gene and propose that LRH-1 and SREBP may play important roles in regulating NPC1L1 gene. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(9): 513-518] PMID:25739390

  11. Development of a bile acid-based newborn screen for Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xuntian; Sidhu, Rohini; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Covey, Douglas F; Scherrer, David E; Earley, Brian; Gale, Sarah E; Farhat, Nicole Y; Porter, Forbes D; Dietzen, Dennis J; Orsini, Joseph J; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhang, Xiaokui; Reunert, Janice; Marquardt, Thorsten; Runz, Heiko; Giugliani, Roberto; Schaffer, Jean E; Ory, Daniel S

    2016-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, neurodegenerative, cholesterol storage disorder. With new therapeutics in clinical trials, it is imperative to improve diagnostics and facilitate early intervention. We used metabolomic profiling to identify potential markers and discovered three unknown bile acids that were increased in plasma from NPC but not control subjects. The bile acids most elevated in the NPC subjects were identified as 3β,5α,6β-trihydroxycholanic acid and its glycine conjugate, which were shown to be metabolites of cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, an oxysterol elevated in NPC. A high-throughput mass spectrometry-based method was developed and validated to measure the glycine-conjugated bile acid in dried blood spots. Analysis of dried blood spots from 4992 controls, 134 NPC carriers, and 44 NPC subjects provided 100% sensitivity and specificity in the study samples. Quantification of the bile acid in dried blood spots, therefore, provides the basis for a newborn screen for NPC that is ready for piloting in newborn screening programs. PMID:27147587

  12. Niemann-Pick C1 Is Essential for Ebolavirus Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Andrew S.; Davidson, Cristin; Kuehne, Ana I.; Bakken, Russell; Braigen, Stephen Z.; Gunn, Kathryn E.; Whelan, Sean P.; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.; Twenhafel, Nancy A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent work demonstrated that the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein is an essential entry receptor for filoviruses. While previous studies focused on filovirus entry requirements of NPC1 in vitro, its roles in filovirus replication and pathogenesis in vivo remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the importance of NPC1, and its partner in cholesterol transport, NPC2, by using a mouse model of Ebolavirus (EBOV) disease. We found that, whereas wild-type mice had high viral loads and succumbed to EBOV infection, Npc1−/− mice were entirely free of viral replication and completely protected from EBOV disease. Interestingly, Npc1+/− mice transiently developed high levels of viremia, but were nevertheless substantially protected from EBOV challenge. We also found Npc2−/− mice to be fully susceptible to EBOV infection, while Npc1−/− mice treated to deplete stored lysosomal cholesterol remained completely resistant to EBOV infection. These results provide mechanistic evidence that NPC1 is directly required for EBOV infection in vivo, with little or no role for NPC1/NPC2-dependent cholesterol transport. Finally, we assessed the in vivo antiviral efficacies of three compounds known to inhibit NPC1 function or NPC1-glycoprotein binding in vitro. Two compounds reduced viral titers in vivo and provided a modest, albeit not statistically significant, degree of protection. Taken together, our results show that NPC1 is critical for replication and pathogenesis in animals and is a bona fide target for development of antifilovirus therapeutics. Additionally, our findings with Npc1+/− mice raise the possibility that individuals heterozygous for NPC1 may have a survival advantage in the face of EBOV infection. PMID:26015498

  13. Multiple Surface Regions on the Niemann-Pick C2 Protein Facilitate Intracellular Cholesterol Transport.

    PubMed

    McCauliff, Leslie A; Xu, Zhi; Li, Ran; Kodukula, Sarala; Ko, Dennis C; Scott, Matthew P; Kahn, Peter C; Storch, Judith

    2015-11-01

    The cholesterol storage disorder Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is caused by defects in either of two late endosomal/lysosomal proteins, NPC1 and NPC2. NPC2 is a 16-kDa soluble protein that binds cholesterol in a 1:1 stoichiometry and can transfer cholesterol between membranes by a mechanism that involves protein-membrane interactions. To examine the structural basis of NPC2 function in cholesterol trafficking, a series of point mutations were generated across the surface of the protein. Several NPC2 mutants exhibited deficient sterol transport properties in a set of fluorescence-based assays. Notably, these mutants were also unable to promote egress of accumulated intracellular cholesterol from npc2(-/-) fibroblasts. The mutations mapped to several regions on the protein surface, suggesting that NPC2 can bind to more than one membrane simultaneously. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that WT NPC2 promotes vesicle-vesicle interactions. These interactions were abrogated, however, by mutations causing defective sterol transfer properties. Molecular modeling shows that NPC2 is highly plastic, with several intense positively charged regions across the surface that could interact favorably with negatively charged membrane phospholipids. The point mutations generated in this study caused changes in NPC2 surface charge distribution with minimal conformational changes. The plasticity, coupled with membrane flexibility, probably allows for multiple cholesterol transfer routes. Thus, we hypothesize that, in part, NPC2 rapidly traffics cholesterol between closely appositioned membranes within the multilamellar interior of late endosomal/lysosomal proteins, ultimately effecting cholesterol egress from this compartment. PMID:26296895

  14. Niemann-Pick disease: prenatal diagnoses and studies of sphingomyelinase activities.

    PubMed

    Wenger, D A; Wharton, C; Sattler, M; Clark, C

    1978-01-01

    Five pregnancies were monitored for couples at-risk for having a child with some form of Niemann-Pick disease (NPD). Three of these were for the classic Type A form in which affected children usually have less than 1% of normal sphingomyelinase activity. Two of these pregnancies were terminated after the cultured amniotic-fluid cells were determined to have less than 1% of normal sphingomyelinase activity (0.4 and 0.6 nmole/mg protein/hr versus the control mean of 61.7). In the other pregnancy at risk for Type A NPD near normal activity was measured and it was continued to term. The two other pregnancies were monitored for couples in which severely affected children were found to have partially deficient sphingomyelinase activity (about 20% of normal) in cultured skin fibroblasts. Cultural amniotic-fluid cells from one of these pregnancies also had about 20% of control sphingomyelinase activity, but the woman underwent a spontaneous abortion soon after the cells were received and no studies on the fetus were done. The other sample was taken at the time of abortion for social reasons. In this case the cultured amniotic-fluid cells and cultured fetal skin fibroblasts gave normal sphingomyelinase activity. Enzymatic studies on tissues from the two fetuses predicted to be affected with Type A NPD confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. Studies of sphingomyelinase activity in the brains from these fetuses and from a child who died with Type A NPD indicated significant levels of activity when measured at pH 7.4 in the presence of magnesium. The higher level of the pH 7.4 sphingomyelinase activity in developing brain may indicate some important role in normal brain development. PMID:233699

  15. Niemann-Pick type C2 protein mediating chemical communication in the worker ant.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Tsuchiya, Wataru; Fujii, Takeshi; Fujimoto, Zui; Miyazawa, Mitsuhiro; Ishibashi, Jun; Matsuyama, Shigeru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Yamazaki, Toshimasa

    2014-03-11

    Ants are eusocial insects that are found in most regions of the world. Within its caste, worker ants are responsible for various tasks that are required for colony maintenance. In their chemical communication, α-helical carrier proteins, odorant-binding proteins, and chemosensory proteins, which accumulate in the sensillum lymph in the antennae, play essential roles in transferring hydrophobic semiochemicals to chemosensory receptors. It has been hypothesized that semiochemicals are recognized by α-helical carrier proteins. The number of these proteins, however, is not sufficient to interact with a large number of semiochemicals estimated from chemosensory receptor genes. Here we shed light on this conundrum by identifying a Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein from the antenna of the worker Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus (CjapNPC2). CjapNPC2 accumulated in the sensillum cavity in the basiconic sensillum. The ligand-binding pocket of CjapNPC2 was composed of a flexible β-structure that allowed it to bind to a wide range of potential semiochemicals. Some of the semiochemicals elicited electrophysiolgical responses in the worker antenna. In vertebrates, NPC2 acts as an essential carrier protein for cholesterol from late endosomes and lysosomes to other cellular organelles. However, the ants have evolved an NPC2 with a malleable ligand-binding pocket as a moderately selective carrier protein in the sensillum cavity of the basiconic sensillum. CjapNPC2 might be able to deliver various hydrophobic semiochemicals to chemosensory receptor neurons and plays crucial roles in chemical communication required to perform the worker ant tasks. PMID:24567405

  16. Amiodarone impairs trafficking through late endosomes inducing a Niemann-Pick C-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Elena; Nadai, Matteo; Caretta, Carla Mucignat; Bergonzini, Valeria; Del Vecchio, Claudia; Ha, Huy Riem; Bigler, Laurent; Dal Zoppo, Daniele; Faggin, Elisabetta; Pettenazzo, Andrea; Orlando, Rocco; Salata, Cristiano; Calistri, Arianna; Palù, Giorgio; Baritussio, Aldo

    2011-11-01

    Patients treated with amiodarone accumulate lysobisphosphatidic acid (LBPA), also known as bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate, in airway secretions and develop in different tissues vacuoles and inclusion bodies thought to originate from endosomes. To clarify the origin of these changes, we studied in vitro the effects of amiodarone on endosomal activities like transferrin recycling, Shiga toxin processing, ESCRT-dependent lentivirus budding, fluid phase endocytosis, proteolysis and exosome secretion. Furthermore, since the accumulation of LBPA might point to a broader disturbance in lipid homeostasis, we studied the effect of amiodarone on the distribution of LBPA, unesterified cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glycosphyngolipids. Amiodarone analogues were also studied, including the recently developed derivative dronedarone. We found that amiodarone does not affect early endosomal activities, like transferrin recycling, Shiga toxin processing and lentivirus budding. Amiodarone, instead, interferes with late compartments of the endocytic pathway, blocking the progression of fluid phase endocytosis and causing fusion of organelles, collapse of lumenal structures, accumulation of undegraded substrates and amassing of different types of lipids. Not all late endocytic compartments are affected, since exosome secretion is spared. These changes recall the Niemann-Pick type-C phenotype (NPC), but originate by a different mechanism, since, differently from NPC, they are not alleviated by cholesterol removal. Studies with analogues indicate that basic pKa and high water-solubility at acidic pH are crucial requirements for the interference with late endosomes/lysosomes and that, in this respect, dronedarone is at least as potent as amiodarone. These findings may have relevance in fields unrelated to rhythm control. PMID:21878321

  17. Defective Cytochrome P450-Catalysed Drug Metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Nicoli, Elena-Raluca; Al Eisa, Nada; Cluzeau, Celine V M; Wassif, Christopher A; Gray, James; Burkert, Kathryn R; Smith, David A; Morris, Lauren; Cologna, Stephanie M; Peer, Cody J; Sissung, Tristan M; Uscatu, Constantin-Daniel; Figg, William D; Pavan, William J; Vite, Charles H; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. NPC is characterised by storage of multiple lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, resulting in cellular and organ system dysfunction. The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the range of clinical presentations in NPC are not fully understood. While evaluating potential small molecule therapies in Npc1-/- mice, we observed a consistent pattern of toxicity associated with drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, suggesting a potential drug metabolism defect in NPC1 disease. Investigation of the P450 system in the context of NPC1 dysfunction revealed significant changes in the gene expression of many P450 associated genes across the full lifespan of Npc1-/- mice, decreased activity of cytochrome P450 reductase, and a global decrease of multiple cytochrome P450 catalysed dealkylation reactions. In vivo drug metabolism studies using a prototypic P450 metabolised drug, midazolam, confirmed dysfunction in drug clearance in the Npc1-/- mouse. Expression of the Phase II enzyme uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was also significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice. Interestingly, reduced activity within the P450 system was also observed in heterozygous Npc1+/- mice. The reduced activity of P450 enzymes may be the result of bile acid deficiency/imbalance in Npc1-/- mice, as bile acid treatment significantly rescued P450 enzyme activity in Npc1-/- mice and has the potential to be an adjunctive therapy for NPC disease patients. The dysfunction in the cytochrome P450 system were recapitulated in the NPC1 feline model. Additionally, we present the first evidence that there are alterations in the P450 system in NPC1 patients. PMID:27019000

  18. Niemann-Pick disease type C clinical database: cognitive and coordination deficits are early disease indicators

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is characterized by a broad clinical variability involving neurological, psychiatric and systemic signs. Diverse patterns of disease manifestation and progression considerably delay its diagnosis. Here we introduce the NP-C clinical database (NPC-cdb) to systematically obtain, store and analyze diagnostic and clinical findings in patients with NP-C. We apply NPC-cdb to study NP-C temporal expression in a large German-Swiss patient cohort. Methods Current and past medical history was systematically acquired from 42 patients using tailored questionnaires. Manifestation of 72 distinct neuropsychiatric signs was modeled over the course of disease. The sequence of disease progression was re-constructed by a novel clinical outcome scale (NPC-cdb score). Results The efficiency of current clinical diagnostic standards negatively correlates with duration of disease (p<3.9x10-4), suggesting insufficient sensitivity in patients early in the disease process. Neurological signs considered as typical for NP-C were frequent (e.g., cognitive impairment 86%, ataxia 79%, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy 76%) and their presence co-occurred with accelerated diagnosis. However, less specific neuropsychiatric signs were reported to arise considerably more early in the disease process (e.g., clumsiness -4.9±1.1 y before diagnosis). Most patients showed a steady disease progression that correlated with age at neurological onset. However, a distinct subcohort (n=6) with initially steadily progressing disease later showed a 2.9-fold accelerated progression that was associated with the onset of seizures (p<7x10-4), suggesting seizures as predictive for a poor prognosis. Conclusions Considering early, but less specific neuropsychiatric signs may accelerate the path to diagnosing NP-C in a patient. PMID:23433426

  19. Defective Cytochrome P450-Catalysed Drug Metabolism in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wassif, Christopher A.; Gray, James; Burkert, Kathryn R.; Smith, David A.; Morris, Lauren; Cologna, Stephanie M.; Peer, Cody J.; Sissung, Tristan M.; Uscatu, Constantin-Daniel; Figg, William D.; Pavan, William J.; Vite, Charles H.; Porter, Forbes D.; Platt, Frances M.

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 gene. NPC is characterised by storage of multiple lipids in the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment, resulting in cellular and organ system dysfunction. The underlying molecular mechanisms that lead to the range of clinical presentations in NPC are not fully understood. While evaluating potential small molecule therapies in Npc1-/- mice, we observed a consistent pattern of toxicity associated with drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system, suggesting a potential drug metabolism defect in NPC1 disease. Investigation of the P450 system in the context of NPC1 dysfunction revealed significant changes in the gene expression of many P450 associated genes across the full lifespan of Npc1-/- mice, decreased activity of cytochrome P450 reductase, and a global decrease of multiple cytochrome P450 catalysed dealkylation reactions. In vivo drug metabolism studies using a prototypic P450 metabolised drug, midazolam, confirmed dysfunction in drug clearance in the Npc1-/- mouse. Expression of the Phase II enzyme uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) was also significantly reduced in Npc1-/- mice. Interestingly, reduced activity within the P450 system was also observed in heterozygous Npc1+/- mice. The reduced activity of P450 enzymes may be the result of bile acid deficiency/imbalance in Npc1-/- mice, as bile acid treatment significantly rescued P450 enzyme activity in Npc1-/- mice and has the potential to be an adjunctive therapy for NPC disease patients. The dysfunction in the cytochrome P450 system were recapitulated in the NPC1 feline model. Additionally, we present the first evidence that there are alterations in the P450 system in NPC1 patients. PMID:27019000

  20. Niemann-Pick type C: focus on the adolescent/adult onset form.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Marano, Massimo; Florio, Lucia; De Santis, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is an inherited sphingolipidosis characterized by progressive neurological deterioration and early mortality. The symptomatology and disease progression of NP-C are markedly affected by the age at onset of neurological manifestations, and categorization into early-infantile, late-infantile, juvenile, adolescent/adult neurological onset forms can aid evaluation of disease course and responses to therapy. Here, we review current information on the detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NP-C, with a focus on the adolescent/adult-onset form. A recent analysis indicated that the combined incidence of NP-C related to NPC1 gene mutations (NPC1) and NP-C related to NPC2 gene mutations (NPC2) is approximately 1 case in every 89 000 live births. In particular, late-onset phenotypes might well provide a greater contribution to the overall incidence than has previously been reported. Some neuropathological features in NP-C are held in common with other advanced age-onset diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Visceral symptoms such as splenomegaly are frequently asymptomatic in patients with adolescent/adult-onset NP-C, and are only occasionally detected during routine ultrasound assessments. In contrast, most patients with adolescent/adult-onset exhibit some degree of slowly progressive, non-disease-specific movement disorders (e.g. cerebellar ataxia), and/or more pathognomonic neurological signs such as vertical supranuclear gaze palsy. An increasing number of adolescent/adult-onset cases have been reported following initial recognition of cognitive impairment and/or psychiatric signs. The recent development and implementation of new clinical screening tools (e.g. the NP-C suspicion index) and biomarkers (e.g. plasma oxysterols) should help identify patients who warrant further investigation and possible treatment. PMID:26998855

  1. Diagnostic tests for Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C): A critical review.

    PubMed

    Vanier, Marie T; Gissen, Paul; Bauer, Peter; Coll, Maria J; Burlina, Alberto; Hendriksz, Christian J; Latour, Philippe; Goizet, Cyril; Welford, Richard W D; Marquardt, Thorsten; Kolb, Stefan A

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a neurovisceral lysosomal cholesterol trafficking and lipid storage disorder caused by mutations in one of the two genes, NPC1 or NPC2. Diagnosis has often been a difficult task, due to the wide range in age of onset of NP-C and clinical presentation of the disease, combined with the complexity of the cell biology (filipin) laboratory testing, even in combination with genetic testing. This has led to substantial delays in diagnosis, largely depending on the access to specialist centres and the level of knowledge about NP-C of the physician in the area. In recent years, advances in mass spectrometry has allowed identification of several sensitive plasma biomarkers elevated in NP-C (e.g. cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol, lysosphingomyelin isoforms and bile acid metabolites), which, together with the concomitant progress in molecular genetic technology, have greatly impacted the strategy of laboratory testing. Specificity of the biomarkers is currently under investigation and other pathologies are being found to also result in elevations. Molecular genetic testing also has its limitations, notably with unidentified mutations and the classification of new variants. This review is intended to increase awareness on the currently available approaches to laboratory diagnosis of NP-C, to provide an up to date, comprehensive and critical evaluation of the various techniques (cell biology, biochemical biomarkers and molecular genetics), and to briefly discuss ongoing/future developments. The use of current tests in proper combination enables a rapid and correct diagnosis in a large majority of cases. However, even with recent progress, definitive diagnosis remains challenging in some patients, for whom combined genetic/biochemical/cytochemical markers do not provide a clear answer. Expertise and reference laboratories thus remain essential, and further work is still required to fulfill unmet needs. PMID:27339554

  2. Rapid Diagnosis of 83 Patients with Niemann Pick Type C Disease and Related Cholesterol Transport Disorders by Cholestantriol Screening.

    PubMed

    Reunert, Janine; Fobker, Manfred; Kannenberg, Frank; Du Chesne, Ingrid; Plate, Maria; Wellhausen, Judith; Rust, Stephan; Marquardt, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Niemann Pick type C (NP-C) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder caused by an impairment of intracellular lipid transport. Due to the heterogeneous clinical phenotype and the lack of a reliable blood test, diagnosis and therapy are often delayed for years. In the cell, accumulating cholesterol leads to increased formation of oxysterols that can be used as a powerful screening parameter for NP-C. In a large scale study, we evaluated the oxysterol cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (c-triol) as potential biomarker for a rapid diagnosis of NP-C. Using GC/MS, c-triol has been analyzed in 1902 plasma samples of patients with the suspicion for NP-C. Diagnosis in patients with elevated oxysterols was confirmed by genetic analysis. 71 new NP-C patients (69 NP-C1 and two NP-C2) and 12 Niemann Pick type A/B patients were identified. 24 new mutations in NPC1, one new mutation in NPC2 and three new mutations in the SMPD1 gene were found. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol was elevated in Niemann Pick type C1, type C2, type A/B and in CESD disease. No other study has ever identified so many NP-C patients, proving that c-triol is a rapid and reliable biomarker to detect patients with NP-C disease and related cholesterol transport disorders. It should replace the filipin test as the first-line diagnostic assay. PMID:26981555

  3. Case Report: Genetic analysis and anesthetic management of a child with Niemann-Pick disease Type A

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Priti G.; Coleman, Melissa; Horst, Meagan; Rocourt, Dorothy; Ladda, Roger L.; Janicki, Piotr K.

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old child, recently diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A, presented for a laparoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube under general anesthesia. The disease was confirmed and further characterized by genetic testing, which revealed evidence of the presence of two known pathogenic mutations in the SMPD1 gene, and enzyme studies showed a corresponding very low level of enzymatic activity of acidic sphingomyelinase. The anesthetic management involved strategies to manage an anticipated difficult intubation and avoid post-operative ventilation. PMID:26913189

  4. Case Report: Genetic analysis and anesthetic management of a child with Niemann-Pick disease Type A.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Priti G; Coleman, Melissa; Horst, Meagan; Rocourt, Dorothy; Ladda, Roger L; Janicki, Piotr K

    2015-01-01

    A 14-month-old child, recently diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A, presented for a laparoscopic placement of a gastrostomy tube under general anesthesia. The disease was confirmed and further characterized by genetic testing, which revealed evidence of the presence of two known pathogenic mutations in the SMPD1 gene, and enzyme studies showed a corresponding very low level of enzymatic activity of acidic sphingomyelinase. The anesthetic management involved strategies to manage an anticipated difficult intubation and avoid post-operative ventilation. PMID:26913189

  5. Stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors reduces intracellular cholesterol accumulation and rescues mitochondrial abnormalities in human neural cell models of Niemann-Pick C1.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, A; De Nuccio, C; Pepponi, R; Visentin, S; Martire, A; Bernardo, A; Minghetti, L; Popoli, P

    2016-04-01

    Niemann Pick C 1 (NPC1) disease is an incurable, devastating lysosomal-lipid storage disorder characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, progressive neurological impairment and early death. Current treatments are very limited and the research of new therapeutic targets is thus mandatory. We recently showed that the stimulation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) rescues the abnormal phenotype of fibroblasts from NPC1 patients suggesting that A2AR agonists could represent a therapeutic option for this disease. However, since all NPC1 patients develop severe neurological symptoms which can be ascribed to the complex pathology occurring in both neurons and oligodendrocytes, in the present paper we tested the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS21680 in human neuronal and oligodendroglial NPC1 cell lines (i.e. neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and oligodendroglial MO3.13 transiently transfected with NPC1 small interfering RNA). The down-regulation of the NPC1 protein effectively resulted in intracellular cholesterol accumulation and altered mitochondrial membrane potential. Both effects were significantly attenuated by CGS21680 (500 nM). The protective effects of CGS were prevented by the selective A2AR antagonist ZM241385 (500 nM). The involvement of calcium modulation was demonstrated by the ability of Bapta-AM (5-7 μM) in reverting the effect of CGS. The A2A-dependent activity was prevented by the PKA-inhibitor KT5720, thus showing the involvement of the cAMP/PKA signaling. These findings provide a clear in vitro proof of concept that A2AR agonists are promising potential drugs for NPC disease. PMID:26631535

  6. Normalisation of brain spectroscopy findings in Niemann-Pick disease type C patients treated with miglustat.

    PubMed

    Sedel, Frédéric; Chabrol, Brigitte; Audoin, Bertrand; Kaphan, Elsa; Tranchant, Christine; Burzykowski, Tomasz; Tourbah, Ayman; Vanier, Marie T; Galanaud, Damien

    2016-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a fatal progressive neurolipidosis involving neuronal storage of cholesterol and gangliosides. Miglustat, an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid synthesis, has been approved to treat neurological manifestations in adults and children with NP-C. This open-label observational study in adults with confirmed NP-C evaluated the efficacy of miglustat (200 mg t.i.d.) based on composite functional disability (CFD) scores and brain proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS) measurement of choline (Cho)/N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratio in the centrum ovale. Overall, 16 patients were included and received miglustat for a mean period of 30.6 months: 12 continued on miglustat throughout follow up, and 4 discontinued miglustat because of adverse effects (n = 2) or perceived lack of efficacy (n = 2). In the 'continued' subgroup, the mean (SD) annual progression of CFD scores decreased from 0.75 (0.94) before treatment to 0.29 (1.29) during the period between miglustat initiation and last follow-up. In the discontinued subgroup, CFD progression increased from 0.48 (0.44) pre-treatment to 1.49 (1.31) at last follow up (off treatment). Mean (SD) Cho/NAA ratio [normal level 0.48 (0.076)] decreased during miglustat treatment in the continued subgroup: 0.64 (0.12) at baseline (miglustat initiation), 0.59 (0.17) at 12-month follow up, and 0.48 (0.09) at 24-month follow up. Cho/NAA ratio remained relatively stable in the discontinued subgroup: 0.57 (0.15), 0.53 (0.04) and 0.55 (0.09), respectively. In conclusion, H-MRS Cho/NAA ratio might serve as an objective, quantitative neurological marker of brain dysfunction in NP-C, allowing longitudinal analysis of the therapeutic effect of miglustat. PMID:26984608

  7. Niemann-Pick disease type C symptomatology: an expert-based clinical description

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, progressive, irreversible disease leading to disabling neurological manifestations and premature death. The estimated disease incidence is 1:120,000 live births, but this likely represents an underestimate, as the disease may be under-diagnosed due to its highly heterogeneous presentation. NP-C is characterised by visceral, neurological and psychiatric manifestations that are not specific to the disease and that can be found in other conditions. The aim of this review is to provide non-specialists with an expert-based, detailed description of NP-C signs and symptoms, including how they present in patients and how they can be assessed. Early disease detection should rely on seeking a combination of signs and symptoms, rather than isolated findings. Examples of combinations which are strongly suggestive of NP-C include: splenomegaly and vertical supranuclear gaze palsy (VSGP); splenomegaly and clumsiness; splenomegaly and schizophrenia-like psychosis; psychotic symptoms and cognitive decline; and ataxia with dystonia, dysarthria/dysphagia and cognitive decline. VSGP is a hallmark of NP-C and becomes highly specific of the disease when it occurs in combination with other manifestations (e.g. splenomegaly, ataxia). In young infants (<2 years), abnormal saccades may first manifest as slowing and shortening of upward saccades, long before gaze palsy onset. While visceral manifestations tend to predominate during the perinatal and infantile period (2 months–6 years of age), neurological and psychiatric involvement is more prominent during the juvenile/adult period (>6 years of age). Psychosis in NP-C is atypical and variably responsive to treatment. Progressive cognitive decline, which always occurs in patients with NP-C, manifests as memory and executive impairment in juvenile/adult patients. Disease prognosis mainly correlates with the age at onset of the neurological signs, with early-onset forms progressing faster

  8. δ-Tocopherol reduces lipid accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C1 and Wolman cholesterol storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Xu, Miao; Liu, Ke; Swaroop, Manju; Porter, Forbes D; Sidhu, Rohini; Firnkes, Sally; Finkes, Sally; Ory, Daniel S; Marugan, Juan J; Xiao, Jingbo; Southall, Noel; Pavan, William J; Davidson, Cristin; Walkley, Steven U; Remaley, Alan T; Baxa, Ulrich; Sun, Wei; McKew, John C; Austin, Christopher P; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-16

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) and Wolman disease are two members of a family of storage disorders caused by mutations of genes encoding lysosomal proteins. Deficiency in function of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein in NPC disease or lysosomal acid lipase in Wolman disease results in defective cellular cholesterol trafficking. Lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and enlarged lysosomes are shared phenotypic characteristics of both NPC and Wolman cells. Utilizing a phenotypic screen of an approved drug collection, we found that δ-tocopherol effectively reduced lysosomal cholesterol accumulation, decreased lysosomal volume, increased cholesterol efflux, and alleviated pathological phenotypes in both NPC1 and Wolman fibroblasts. Reduction of these abnormalities may be mediated by a δ-tocopherol-induced intracellular Ca(2+) response and subsequent enhancement of lysosomal exocytosis. Consistent with a general mechanism for reduction of lysosomal lipid accumulation, we also found that δ-tocopherol reduces pathological phenotypes in patient fibroblasts from other lysosomal storage diseases, including NPC2, Batten (ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal 2, CLN2), Fabry, Farber, Niemann-Pick disease type A, Sanfilippo type B (mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIB, MPSIIIB), and Tay-Sachs. Our data suggest that regulated exocytosis may represent a potential therapeutic target for reduction of lysosomal storage in this class of diseases. PMID:23035117

  9. Identification and characterization of SMPD1 mutations causing Niemann-Pick types A and B in Spanish Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Pascau, Laura; Gort, Laura; Schuchman, Edward H.; Vilageliu, Lluïsa; Grinberg, Daniel; Chabás, Amparo

    2009-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A/B are both caused by a deficiency of lysosomal acid sphingomyelinase and display autosomal recessive inheritance. These two types of the disease were described according to the presence (type A) or absence (type B) of neurological symptoms. We present a molecular analysis of 19 Spanish NPD A/B patients and two from Maghreb. Eight of the patients had type A and 13 had type B NPD. All mutant SMPD1 alleles were identified, including 17 different mutations, 10 of which were novel. The only frequent mutations in the 21 NPD patients were c.1823_1825delGCC (p.R608del) (38%) and c.1445C>A (p.A482E) (9%). Genotype-phenotype correlations were established for most of the mutations and, in particular, the p.R608del-type B association was confirmed. This mutation accounts for 61.5% of the mutant alleles in the type B subgroup of patients. Expression studies performed on six of the identified mutations confirmed them to be disease-causing due to their low enzyme activity. An allele with a mutation affecting a non-canonical donor splice site produced only aberrant mRNAs corresponding to previously reported non-functional SMPD1 minor transcripts. This study is the first exhaustive mutational analysis of Spanish Niemann-Pick A/B disease patients. PMID:19405096

  10. Correction of Apolipoprotein A-I-mediated Lipid Efflux and High Density Lipoprotein Particle Formation in Human Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Fibroblasts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impaired cell cholesterol trafficking in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease results in the first known instance of impaired regulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a lipid transporter mediating the rate-limiting step in high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, as a cause of lo...

  11. Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) Protein in Intestinal and Hepatic Cholesterol Transport

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Lin; Betters, Jenna L.; Yu, Liqing

    2014-01-01

    Increased blood cholesterol is an independent risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol homeostasis in the body is controlled mainly by endogenous synthesis, intestinal absorption, and hepatic excretion. Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) is a polytopic transmembrane protein localized at the apical membrane of enterocytes and the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes. It functions as a sterol transporter to mediate intestinal cholesterol absorption and counterbalances hepatobiliary cholesterol excretion. NPC1L1 is the molecular target of ezetimibe, a potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor that is widely used in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recent findings suggest that NPC1L1 deficiency or ezetimibe treatment also prevents diet-induced hepatic steatosis and obesity in addition to reducing blood cholesterol. Future studies should focus on molecular mechanisms underlying NPC1L1-dependent cholesterol transport and elucidation of how a cholesterol transporter modulates the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. PMID:20809793

  12. Histochemical and biochemical observations of the spleen in atypical Niemann-Pick disease and in idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Safanda, J; Fakan, F

    1981-01-01

    In a case of adolescent Niemann-Pick disease (NP) and in a case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), the histologic picture of the spleen showed appreciable similarity in localization of sparing cells and in a number of histochemical tests. The sphingomyelin, which was the main organ phospholipid in both conditions, contained substantially elevated content of C24 fatty acids. Detailed analysis of spleen lipids showed great relative increase of lysobisphosphatidic acid and of cholesterol which was in NP mainly in free form but in ITP surprisingly mainly esterified, mostly to oleic and palmitic acid. Possible molecular mechanism of sphingomyelin storage was enzymologically followed in model conditions using separated lipid fractions from NP's spleen. The activity of sphingomyelinase (Cl. perfringens exotoxin) was in comparison to phospholipase C relatively specifically inhibited by lysobisphosphatidic acid. PMID:6168156

  13. Identification of novel bile acids as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Niemann-Pick C disease.

    PubMed

    Mazzacuva, Francesca; Mills, Philippa; Mills, Kevin; Camuzeaux, Stephane; Gissen, Paul; Nicoli, Elena-Raluca; Wassif, Christopher; Te Vruchte, Danielle; Porter, Forbes D; Maekawa, Masamitsu; Mano, Nariyasu; Iida, Takashi; Platt, Frances; Clayton, Peter T

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a rapid UPLC-MS/MS method to quantitate novel bile acids in biological fluids and the evaluation of their diagnostic potential in Niemann-Pick C (NPC). Two new compounds, NPCBA1 (3β-hydroxy,7β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholenoic acid) and NPCBA2 (probably 3β,5α,6β-trihydroxycholanoyl-glycine), were observed to accumulate preferentially in NPC patients: median plasma concentrations of NPCBA1 and NPCBA2 were 40- and 10-fold higher in patients than in controls. However, NPCBA1 concentrations were normal in some patients because they carried a common mutation inactivating the GlcNAc transferase required for the synthesis of this bile acid. NPCBA2, not containing a GlcNAc moiety, is thus a better NPC biomarker. PMID:27139891

  14. Intestinal and hepatic Niemann-Pick C1L1 proteins: future therapeutic targets for cholesterol gallstones disease?

    PubMed

    Castro-Torres, Ibrahim Guillermo; De la O-Arciniega, Minarda; Bravo-Duarte, Gustavo Adolfo; Gallegos-Estudillo, Janeth; Domínguez-Ortíz, Miguel Ángel; Martínez-Vázquez, Mariano

    2014-04-01

    The formation of cholesterol gallstones is a very complex and polygenic disorder that involves an alteration of the secretion of bile lipids, cholesterol crystallization, important immunological reactions in the gallbladder tissue, formation of biliary sludge composed of mucin, and inadequate gallbladder motility. The search for a therapeutic target is oriented towards decreasing bile secretion and intestinal absorption of cholesterol, in which Niemann-Pick C1L1 (NPC1L1) proteins play an important role. In basic and clinical studies, regulating the expression of these proteins can reduce intestinal, liver, plasma and bile cholesterol levels, a therapeutic effect that would be useful not only for treating the disease, but to prevent it, given the large quantity of risk factors. We discuss these effects in this review and propose NPC1L1 proteins as future therapeutic targets of cholesterol gallstones disease. PMID:24525336

  15. Circadian profiling in two mouse models of lysosomal storage disorders; Niemann Pick type-C and Sandhoff disease

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Katie; Livieratos, Achilleas; Dumbill, Richard; Hughes, Steven; Ang, Gauri; Smith, David A.; Morris, Lauren; Brown, Laurence A.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Platt, Frances M.; Davies, Kay E.; Oliver, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption is frequently associated with neurodegenerative disease, yet it is unclear how the specific pathology in these disorders leads to abnormal rest/activity profiles. To investigate whether the pathological features of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) influence the core molecular clock or the circadian behavioural abnormalities reported in some patients, we examined mouse models of Niemann-Pick Type-C (Npc1 mutant, Npc1nih) and Sandhoff (Hexb knockout, Hexb−/−) disease using wheel-running activity measurement, neuropathology and clock gene expression analysis. Both mutants exhibited regular, entrained rest/activity patterns under light:dark (LD) conditions despite the onset of their respective neurodegenerative phenotypes. A slightly shortened free-running period and changes in Per1 gene expression were observed in Hexb−/− mice under constant dark conditions (DD); however, no overt neuropathology was detected in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Conversely, despite extensive cholesterol accumulation in the SCN of Npc1nih mutants, no circadian disruption was observed under constant conditions. Our results indicate the accumulation of specific metabolites in LSDs may differentially contribute to circadian deregulation at the molecular and behavioural level. PMID:26467605

  16. Thiadiazole Carbamates: Potent Inhibitors of Lysosomal Acid Lipase and Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Disease Therapeuticsa

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Anton I.; Cosner, Casey C.; Mariani, Christopher J.; Maxfield, Frederick R.; Wiest, Olaf; Helquist, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized at the cellular level by abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and other lipids in lysosomal storage organelles. Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) has been recently identified as a potential therapeutic target for NPC. LAL can be specifically inhibited by a variety of 3,4-disubstituted thiadiazole carbamates. An efficient synthesis of the C(3) oxygenated/C(4) aminated analogues has been developed that furnishes the products in high yields and high degrees of purity. Common intermediates can also be used for the synthesis of the C(3) carbon substituted derivatives. Herein we tested various thiadiazole carbamates, amides, esters, and ketones for inhibition of LAL. In addition, we tested a diverse selection of commercially available non-thiadiazole carbamates. Our studies show that, among the compounds examined herein, only thiadiazole carbamates are effective inhibitors of LAL. We present a mechanism for LAL inhibition by these compounds whereby LAL transiently carbamoylates the enzyme similarly to previously described inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by rivastigmine and other carbamates as well as acylation of various lipases by orlistat. PMID:20557099

  17. Characterisation of two deletions involving NPC1 and flanking genes in Niemann-Pick type C disease patients.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pascau, Laura; Toma, Claudio; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Cozar, Mónica; Cormand, Bru; Lykopoulou, Lilia; Coll, Maria Josep; Grinberg, Daniel; Vilageliu, Lluïsa

    2012-12-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive lysosomal disorder characterised by the accumulation of a complex pattern of lipids in the lysosomal-late endosomal system. More than 300 disease-causing mutations have been identified so far in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes, including indel, missense, nonsense and splicing mutations. Only one genomic deletion, of more than 23 kb, has been previously reported. We describe two larger structural variants, encompassing NPC1 and flanking genes, as a cause of the disease. QMPSF, SNP inheritance and CytoScan® HD Array were used to confirm and further characterise the presence of hemizygous deletions in two patients. One of the patients (NPC-57) bore a previously described missense mutation (p.T1066N) and an inherited deletion that included NPC1, C18orf8 and part of ANKRD29 gene. The second patient (NPC-G1) had a 1-bp deletion (c.852delT; p.F284Lfs*26) and a deletion encompassing the promoter region and exons 1-10 of NPC1 and the adjacent ANKRD29 and LAMA3. This study characterised two novel chromosomal microdeletions at 18q11-q12 that cause NPC disease and provide insight into missing NPC1 mutant alleles. PMID:23142039

  18. Ryanodine receptor antagonists adapt NPC1 proteostasis to ameliorate lipid storage in Niemann-Pick type C disease fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ting; Chung, Chan; Shen, Dongbiao; Xu, Haoxing; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2012-07-15

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is a lysosomal storage disorder most often caused by loss-of-function mutations in the NPC1 gene. The encoded multipass transmembrane protein is required for cholesterol efflux from late endosomes and lysosomes. Numerous missense mutations in the NPC1 gene cause disease, including the prevalent I1061T mutation that leads to protein misfolding and degradation. Here, we sought to modulate the cellular proteostasis machinery to achieve functional recovery in primary patient fibroblasts. We demonstrate that targeting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium levels using ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonists increased steady-state levels of the NPC1 I1061T protein. These compounds also promoted trafficking of mutant NPC1 to late endosomes and lysosomes and rescued the aberrant storage of cholesterol and sphingolipids that is characteristic of disease. Similar rescue was obtained using three distinct RyR antagonists in cells with missense alleles, but not with null alleles, or by over-expressing calnexin, a calcium-dependent ER chaperone. Our work highlights the utility of proteostasis regulators to remodel the protein-folding environment in the ER to recover function in the setting of disease-causing missense alleles. PMID:22505584

  19. cAMP-mediated regulation of cholesterol accumulation in cystic fibrosis and Niemann-Pick type C cells

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Mary E.; Corey, Deborah A.; White, Nicole M.; Kelley, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify a mechanism regulating cholesterol accumulation in cystic fibrosis (CF) cells. Both CFTR activation and expression are regulated by the cAMP pathway, and it is hypothesized that a feedback response involving this pathway may be involved in the phenotype of cholesterol accumulation. To examine the role of the cAMP pathway in cholesterol accumulation, we treated two CF model cell lines with the Rp diastereomer of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphorothioate (Rp-cAMPS) and visualized by filipin staining. Rp-cAMPS treatment eliminated cholesterol accumulation in CF cells, whereas 8-bromo-cAMP treatment led to cholesterol accumulation in wild-type cells. To confirm these findings in an independent model system, we also examined the role of cAMP in modulating cholesterol accumulation in Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) fibroblasts. Expression of the protein related to NPC, NPC1, is also directly regulated by cAMP; therefore, it is postulated that NPC cells exhibit the same cAMP-mediated control of cholesterol accumulation. Cholesterol accumulation in NPC cells also was reduced by the presence of Rp-cAMPS. Expression of β-arrestin-2 (βarr2), a marker of cellular response to cAMP signaling, was significantly elevated in CF model cells, Cftr−/− MNE, primary tissue obtained by nasal scrapes from CF subjects, and in NPC fibroblasts compared with respective controls. PMID:18790990

  20. Niemann-Pick C1 expression is not regulated by the amount of cholesterol flowing through cells in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Garver, William S; Xie, Chonglun; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D; Dietschy, John M

    2005-08-01

    The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein functions to regulate the transport of cholesterol from late endosomes/lysosomes to other cellular compartments after lipoprotein uptake through the coated-pit pathway. The present study examines the relative expression of NPC1 mRNA and NPC1 protein in different tissues of the mouse in relation to the uptake of total cholesterol carried in chylomicron remnants (CMr-TC), low density lipoproteins (LDL-TC), cholesteryl ester carried in high density lipoproteins (HDL-CE), and cholesterol synthesis. Results from this study demonstrate that the highest relative expression of NPC1 is in the liver, which is also the tissue with the highest uptake of CMr-TC, LDL-TC, HDL-CE, and cholesterol synthesis. However, there was no similar relation in the remaining tissues. To examine the relative expression of NPC1 in relation to the amount of cholesterol that flowed through the coated-pit pathway, mice were fed a diet supplemented with increasing amounts of cholesterol or cholestyramine. The results from this study demonstrated that there was no relation between the relative expression of NPC1 and the amount of cholesterol that flowed through the coated-pit pathway. We conclude that the relative expression of NPC1 is not regulated by the flow of cholesterol through cells in the mouse and is therefore constitutive. PMID:15930512

  1. Cholesterol accumulation in Niemann Pick type C (NPC) model cells causes a shift in APP localization to lipid rafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kosicek, Marko; Malnar, Martina; Goate, Alison; Hecimovic, Silva

    2010-03-12

    It has been suggested that cholesterol may modulate amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) formation, a causative factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD), by regulating distribution of the three key proteins in the pathogenesis of AD ({beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP), {beta}-secretase (BACE1) and/or presenilin 1 (PS1)) within lipid rafts. In this work we tested whether cholesterol accumulation upon NPC1 dysfunction, which causes Niemann Pick type C disease (NPC), causes increased partitioning of APP into lipid rafts leading to increased CTF/A{beta} formation in these cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains. To test this we used CHO NPC1{sup -/-} cells (NPC cells) and parental CHOwt cells. By sucrose density gradient centrifugation we observed a shift in fl-APP/CTF compartmentalization into lipid raft fractions upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC vs. wt cells. Furthermore, {gamma}-secretase inhibitor treatment significantly increased fl-APP/CTF distribution in raft fractions in NPC vs. wt cells, suggesting that upon cholesterol accumulation in NPC1-null cells increased formation of APP-CTF and its increased processing towards A{beta} occurs in lipid rafts. Our results support that cholesterol overload, such as in NPC disease, leads to increased partitioning of APP/CTF into lipid rafts resulting in increased amyloidogenic processing of APP in these cholesterol-rich membranes. This work adds to the mechanism of the cholesterol-effect on APP processing and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and supports the role of lipid rafts in these processes.

  2. Combination brain and systemic injections of AAV provide maximal functional and survival benefits in the Niemann-Pick mouse

    PubMed Central

    Passini, Marco A.; Bu, Jie; Fidler, Jonathan A.; Ziegler, Robin J.; Foley, Joseph W.; Dodge, James C.; Yang, Wendy W.; Clarke, Jennifer; Taksir, Tatyana V.; Griffiths, Denise A.; Zhao, Michael A.; O'Riordan, Catherine R.; Schuchman, Edward H.; Shihabuddin, Lamya S.; Cheng, Seng H.

    2007-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) is caused by the loss of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity, which results in widespread accumulation of undegraded lipids in cells of the viscera and CNS. In this study, we tested the effect of combination brain and systemic injections of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors encoding human ASM (hASM) in a mouse model of NPD. Animals treated by combination therapy exhibited high levels of hASM in the viscera and brain, which resulted in near-complete correction of storage throughout the body. This global reversal of pathology translated to normal weight gain and superior recovery of motor and cognitive functions compared to animals treated by either brain or systemic injection alone. Furthermore, animals in the combination group did not generate antibodies to hASM, demonstrating the first application of systemic-mediated tolerization to improve the efficacy of brain injections. All of the animals treated by combination therapy survived in good health to an investigator-selected 54 weeks, whereas the median lifespans of the systemic-alone, brain-alone, or untreated ASM knockout groups were 47, 48, and 34 weeks, respectively. These data demonstrate that combination therapy is a promising therapeutic modality for treating NPD and suggest a potential strategy for treating disease indications that cause both visceral and CNS pathologies. PMID:17517638

  3. Orlistat limits cholesterol intestinal absorption by Niemann-pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) inhibition.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Qosa, Hisham; Primeaux, Brian; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2015-09-01

    The known mechanism by which orlistat decreases the absorption of dietary cholesterol is by inhibition of intestinal lipases. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of orlistat to limit cholesterol absorption by inhibition of the cholesterol transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) as another mechanism of action. In situ rat intestinal perfusion studies were conducted to study the effect of orlistat on jejunal cholesterol absorption. Inhibition kinetic parameters were calculated from in vitro inhibition studies using Caco2 and NPC1L1 transfected cell lines. The in situ studies demonstrated that intestinal perfusion of orlistat (100µM) was able to reduce cholesterol absorption by three-fold when compared to control (i.e. in the absence of orlistat, P<0.01). In vitro studies using Caco2 cells demonstrated orlistat to reduce the cellular uptake of cholesterol by 30%. Additionally, orlistat reduced the cellular uptake of cholesterol in dose dependent manner in NPC1L1 transfected cell line with an IC50=1.2µM. Lineweaver-Burk plot indicated a noncompetitive inhibition of NPC1L1 by orlistat. Beside the already established mechanism by which orlistat reduces the absorption of cholesterol, we demonstrated for the first time that orlistat limits cholesterol absorption by the inhibition of NPC1L1 transport protein. PMID:26048312

  4. Changes in Caries Risk and Activity of a 9-Year-Old Patient with Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis; De Rossi, Andiara; Freitas, Aldevina Campos; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This case report describes the changes in caries risk and activity and dental treatment of a 9-year-old patient who presented with signs and symptoms of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Treatment. The preventive dental treatment included instructions to caregivers for oral hygiene and diet. A calcium hydroxide pulpotomy and restorative dental treatments were performed in a dental office with desensitization techniques and behavioral management. The patient was attended every 3 months for the control of dental plaque biofilm, for topical fluoride application, and for observing the pulpotomized tooth. Results. The bacterial plaque biofilm was being adequately controlled by the caregiver. After 2 years, the clinical and radiographic examination of the pulpotomized tooth showed the absence of internal root resorption and bone rarefaction, and clinical examination showed tooth sensitivity, dental pain, and gingival swelling. Conclusion. The pulpotomy prevented clinical and radiographic success. Dentists must be aware of and be able to identify systemic and local aspects associated with caries risk of children with NPC disease. Furthermore, dentists must employ stringent preventive measures and provide instructions to caregivers to reduce caries risk. PMID:25685563

  5. Intracisternal Cyclodextrin Prevents Cerebellar Dysfunction and Purkinje Cell Death in Feline Niemann-Pick type C1 disease

    PubMed Central

    Vite, C. H.; Bagel, J. H.; Swain, G. P.; Prociuk, M.; Sikora, T. U.; Stein, V. M.; O’Donnell, P.; Ruane, T.; Ward, S.; Crooks, A.; Li, S.; Mauldin, E.; Stellar, S.; De Meulder, M.; Kao, M. L.; Ory, D. S.; Davidson, C.; Vanier, M. T.; Walkley, S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene, leading to an increase in unesterified cholesterol and several sphingolipids, and resulting in hepatic disease and progressive neurological disease. Whereas subcutaneous administration of the pharmaceutical excipient 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) ameliorated hepatic disease, doses sufficient to reduce neurological disease resulted in pulmonary toxicity. In contrast, direct administration of HPβCD into the cisterna magna of presymptomatic cats with NPC disease prevented the onset of cerebellar dysfunction for greater than a year and resulted in a reduction in Purkinje cell loss and near normal concentrations of cholesterol and sphingolipids. Moreover, administration of intracisternal HPβCD to NPC cats with ongoing cerebellar dysfunction slowed disease progression, increased survival time, and decreased the accumulation of brain gangliosides. An increase in hearing threshold was identified as a potential adverse effect. Together, these studies in the feline animal model have provided critical data on efficacy and safety of drug administration directly into the CNS that will be important for advancing HPβCD into clinical trials. PMID:25717099

  6. Niemann-Pick C1 protein regulates cholesterol transport to the trans-Golgi network and plasma membrane caveolae.

    PubMed

    Garver, William S; Krishnan, Kumar; Gallagos, Jayme R; Michikawa, Makoto; Francis, Gordon A; Heidenreich, Randall A

    2002-04-01

    The Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) protein regulates cholesterol transport from late endosomes-lysosomes to other intracellular compartments. In this article, cholesterol transport to caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 containing compartments, such as the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and plasma membrane caveolae, was examined in normal (NPC+/+), NPC heterozygous (NPC+/-), and NPC homozygous (NPC-/-) human fibroblasts. The expression and distribution of NPC1 in each cell type were similar, and characterized by a finely dispersed, granular staining pattern. The expression of caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 was increased in NPC+/- and NPC-/- fibroblasts, although the distribution in each cell type was similar and characterized by predominant staining of the TGN and plasma membrane. The TGN in NPC+/+ fibroblasts was relatively cholesterol-enriched, whereas the TGN in NPC+/- and NPC-/- fibroblasts was partially or completely cholesterol-deficient, respectively. Consistent with studies demonstrating the transport of cholesterol from the TGN to plasma membrane caveolae, the concentration of cholesterol in plasma membrane caveolae isolated from NPC+/- and NPC-/- fibroblasts was significantly decreased, even though the total concentration of plasma membrane cholesterol in each cell type was similar. These studies demonstrate that NPC1 regulates cholesterol transport to caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 containing compartments such as the TGN and plasma membrane caveolae. PMID:11907140

  7. Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Mexican Patients with Juvenile Presentation of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piña-Aguilar, Raul E.; Vera-Loaiza, Aurea; Chacón-Camacho, Oscar F.; Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Nuñez-Orozco, Lilia; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a rare lysosomal disease with a protean presentation, ranging from a fatal neonatal course with visceromegaly to an adult presentation with only neurological or psychiatric symptomatology. In this report we describe the genetic and clinical characteristics of 3 Mexican patients from different families with juvenile presentation of NPC. Clinical examination, imaging of central nervous and gastrointestinal system, and EEG were performed. Genetic studies include sequencing and deletion/duplication analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes. All patients presented with cognitive impairment, ataxia, and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy; one case had gelastic cataplexy. Also they developed epilepsy and cortical atrophy and two patients had thinning of corpus callosum. The 3 patients were compound heterozygotes for NPC1 sequence variants, including 5 missense and 1 nonsense mutations: p.P1007A and p.F1087L in Case 1; p.Q921P and p.G992R in Case 2; and p.R348∗ and p.V1165M in case 3. Mexican patients with juvenile NPC presented with a variable clinical phenotype and compound heterozygosity. This suggests a relative high frequency of mutation carriers as it is reported for European population. Consequently, clinicians should consider NPC as a diagnosis possibility in any adolescent or young adult patient with juvenile dementia and/or ataxia, even in absence of gelastic cataplexy and supranuclear vertical gaze palsy. PMID:25349751

  8. Circadian profiling in two mouse models of lysosomal storage disorders; Niemann Pick type-C and Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Katie; Livieratos, Achilleas; Dumbill, Richard; Hughes, Steven; Ang, Gauri; Smith, David A; Morris, Lauren; Brown, Laurence A; Peirson, Stuart N; Platt, Frances M; Davies, Kay E; Oliver, Peter L

    2016-01-15

    Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption is frequently associated with neurodegenerative disease, yet it is unclear how the specific pathology in these disorders leads to abnormal rest/activity profiles. To investigate whether the pathological features of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs) influence the core molecular clock or the circadian behavioural abnormalities reported in some patients, we examined mouse models of Niemann-Pick Type-C (Npc1 mutant, Npc1(nih)) and Sandhoff (Hexb knockout, Hexb(-/-)) disease using wheel-running activity measurement, neuropathology and clock gene expression analysis. Both mutants exhibited regular, entrained rest/activity patterns under light:dark (LD) conditions despite the onset of their respective neurodegenerative phenotypes. A slightly shortened free-running period and changes in Per1 gene expression were observed in Hexb(-/-) mice under constant dark conditions (DD); however, no overt neuropathology was detected in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Conversely, despite extensive cholesterol accumulation in the SCN of Npc1(nih) mutants, no circadian disruption was observed under constant conditions. Our results indicate the accumulation of specific metabolites in LSDs may differentially contribute to circadian deregulation at the molecular and behavioural level. PMID:26467605

  9. Altered localization and functionality of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) in niemann- pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Dardis, A; Zampieri, S; Canterini, S; Newell, K L; Stuani, C; Murrell, J R; Ghetti, B; Fiorenza, M T; Bembi, B; Buratti, E

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the occurrence of visceral and neurological symptoms. At present, the molecular mechanisms causing neurodegeneration in this disease are unknown. Here we report the altered expression and/or mislocalization of the TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in both NPC mouse and in a human neuronal model of the disease. We also report the neuropathologic study of a NPC patient's brain, showing that while TDP-43 is below immunohistochemical detection in nuclei of cerebellar Purkinje cells, it has a predominant localization in the cytoplasm of these cells. From a functional point of view, the TDP-43 mislocalization, that occurs in a human experimental neuronal model system, is associated with specific alterations in TDP-43 controlled genes. Most interestingly, treatment with N-Acetyl-cysteine (NAC) or beta-cyclodextrin (CD) can partially restore TDP-43 nuclear localization. Taken together, the results of these studies extend the role of TDP-43 beyond the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/frontotemporal dementia (FTD)/Alzheimer disease (AD) spectrum. These findings may open novel research/therapeutic avenues for a better understanding of both NPC disease and the TDP-43 proteinopathy disease mechanism. PMID:27193329

  10. Infrared spectroscopic imaging of the biochemical modifications induced in the cerebellum of the Niemann-Pick type C mouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidder, Linda H.; Colarusso, Pina; Stewart, Sarah A.; Levin, Ira W.; Appel, Nathan M.; Lester, David S.; Pentchev, Peter G.; Lewis, E. N.

    1999-01-01

    WE have applied Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopic imaging to the investigation of the neuropathologic effects of a genetic lipid storage disease, Niemann-Pick type C (NPC). Tissue sections both from the cerebella of a strain of BALB/c mice that demonstrated morphology and pathology of the human disease and from control animals were used. These samples were analyzed by standard histopathological procedures as well as this new IR imaging approach. The IR absorbance images exhibit contrast based on biochemical variations and allow for the identification of the cellular layers within the tissue samples. Furthermore, these images provide a qualitative description of the localized biochemical differences existing between the diseased and control tissue in the absence of histological staining. Statistical analyses of the IR spectra extracted from individual cell layers of the imaging data sets provide concise quantitative descriptions of these biochemical changes. The results indicate that lipid is depleted specifically in the white matter of the NPC mouse in comparison to the control samples. Minor differences were noted for the granular layers, but no significant differences were observed in the molecular layers of the cerebellar tissue. These changes are consistent with significant demyelination within the cerebellum of the NPC mouse.

  11. [Activity of glial cells in the olfactory bulb of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 mice].

    PubMed

    Yan, Xin; Qiao, Liang; Yang, En-Hui; Lin, Jun-Tang

    2016-04-25

    To study the pathological mechanisms of Niemann-Pick disease type C1, we observed the changes of activation of glial cells in the olfactory bulb of Npc1 mutant (Npc1(-/-)) mice. The genomic DNA was extracted from mouse tails for genotyping by PCR. Immunofluorescent histochemistry was performed to examine the activation of microglia and astrocytes in the olfactory bulb of Npc1(-/-) mice on postnatal day 30. NeuN, phosphorylated neurofilament (NF), Doublecortin (DCX), CD68 and GFAP were detected by Western blot. The results showed that Npc1 gene mutation strongly increased the activation of astrocytes and microglia in olfactory bulb associated with increased protein levels of CD68 and GFAP. Furthermore, the expression of phosphorylated NF was also significantly increased in the olfactory bulb of Npc1(-/-) mice compared with that in Npc1(+/+) mice. However, DCX expression was significantly reduced. The above results suggest that there are some early changes in the olfactory bulb of Npc1(-/-) mice. PMID:27108900

  12. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; DuRoss, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G; Heiser, Laura M; Korolchuk, Viktor I; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1(-/-)) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1(-/-) cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:27572704

  13. Clinical, electrophysiological, and serum biochemical measures of progressive neurological and hepatic dysfunction in feline Niemann-Pick type C disease

    PubMed Central

    Vite, Charles H; Ding, Wenge; Bryan, Caroline; O’Donnell, Patricia; Cullen, Karyn; Aleman, David; Haskins, Mark E.; van Winkle, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NP-C) disease is a neurovisceral lysosomal storage disease characterized by neurological dysfunction, hepatosplenomegaly, and early death. Natural history studies are very difficult to perform due to the low incidence and high heterogeneity of disease in the human population. Sixteen cats with a spontaneously occurring missense mutation in NPC1 were evaluated over time to define the progression of neurological and hepatic disease. Affected cats had remarkably regular onsets of specific signs of cerebellar and vestibular system dysfunction with progressive severity of dysfunction quantified by post-rotatory nystagmus and brain stem auditory evoked response measures. NP-C disease cats also showed increasing serum activity of alanine aminotransferase, asparate aminotransferase, and cholesterol with advancing age. Affected cats lived to a mean age of 20.5 +/- 4.8 weeks. Central nervous system and hepatic lesions were similar to those described in human patients. These data are the first to document progressive hepatic disease in the feline model and demonstrate the importance of liver disease as part of the NP-C disease phenotype. Both neurological and hepatic measures of disease onset and severity can be used as a baseline with which to assess the efficacy of experimental therapies of NP-C disease in the feline model. PMID:18614965

  14. Pharmacological reversion of sphingomyelin-induced dendritic spine anomalies in a Niemann Pick disease type A mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo, Ana I; Camoletto, Paola G; Morando, Laura; Sassoe-Pognetto, Marco; Giustetto, Maurizio; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Schuchman, Edward H; Ledesma, Maria D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of lipids in synapses and the aberrant molecular mechanisms causing the cognitive deficits that characterize most lipidosis is necessary to develop therapies for these diseases. Here we describe sphingomyelin (SM) as a key modulator of the dendritic spine actin cytoskeleton. We show that increased SM levels in neurons of acid sphingomyelinase knock out mice (ASMko), which mimic Niemann Pick disease type A (NPA), result in reduced spine number and size and low levels of filamentous actin. Mechanistically, SM accumulation decreases the levels of metabotropic glutamate receptors type I (mGluR1/5) at the synaptic membrane impairing membrane attachment and activity of RhoA and its effectors ROCK and ProfilinIIa. Pharmacological enhancement of the neutral sphingomyelinase rescues the aberrant molecular and morphological phenotypes in vitro and in vivo and improves motor and memory deficits in ASMko mice. Altogether, these data demonstrate the influence of SM and its catabolic enzymes in dendritic spine physiology and contribute to our understanding of the cognitive deficits of NPA patients, opening new perspectives for therapeutic interventions. Subject Categories Genetics, Gene Therapy & Genetic Disease; Neuroscience PMID:24448491

  15. Reduction of VLDL Secretion Decreases Cholesterol Excretion in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 Hepatic Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephanie M.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Davis, Matthew A.; Wilson, Martha D.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Lee, Richard G.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Graham, Mark J.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2014-01-01

    An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg) mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT) littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE. PMID:24404162

  16. Structural Insights into the Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1)-Mediated Cholesterol Transfer and Ebola Infection.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xin; Qian, Hongwu; Zhou, Xinhui; Wu, Jianping; Wan, Tao; Cao, Pingping; Huang, Weiyun; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Xudong; Wang, Peiyi; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F; Zhou, Qiang; Yan, Nieng

    2016-06-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is associated with mutations in NPC1 and NPC2, whose gene products are key players in the endosomal/lysosomal egress of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol. NPC1 is also the intracellular receptor for Ebola virus (EBOV). Here, we present a 4.4 Å structure of full-length human NPC1 and a low-resolution reconstruction of NPC1 in complex with the cleaved glycoprotein (GPcl) of EBOV, both determined by single-particle electron cryomicroscopy. NPC1 contains 13 transmembrane segments (TMs) and three distinct lumenal domains A (also designated NTD), C, and I. TMs 2-13 exhibit a typical resistance-nodulation-cell division fold, among which TMs 3-7 constitute the sterol-sensing domain conserved in several proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism and signaling. A trimeric EBOV-GPcl binds to one NPC1 monomer through the domain C. Our structural and biochemical characterizations provide an important framework for mechanistic understanding of NPC1-mediated intracellular cholesterol trafficking and Ebola virus infection. PMID:27238017

  17. Changes in caries risk and activity of a 9-year-old patient with niemann-pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis; De Rossi, Andiara; Freitas, Aldevina Campos; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; da Silva, Raquel Assed; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This case report describes the changes in caries risk and activity and dental treatment of a 9-year-old patient who presented with signs and symptoms of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). Treatment. The preventive dental treatment included instructions to caregivers for oral hygiene and diet. A calcium hydroxide pulpotomy and restorative dental treatments were performed in a dental office with desensitization techniques and behavioral management. The patient was attended every 3 months for the control of dental plaque biofilm, for topical fluoride application, and for observing the pulpotomized tooth. Results. The bacterial plaque biofilm was being adequately controlled by the caregiver. After 2 years, the clinical and radiographic examination of the pulpotomized tooth showed the absence of internal root resorption and bone rarefaction, and clinical examination showed tooth sensitivity, dental pain, and gingival swelling. Conclusion. The pulpotomy prevented clinical and radiographic success. Dentists must be aware of and be able to identify systemic and local aspects associated with caries risk of children with NPC disease. Furthermore, dentists must employ stringent preventive measures and provide instructions to caregivers to reduce caries risk. PMID:25685563

  18. Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 gene expression is down-regulated by LXR activators in the intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, Caroline; Touche, Veronique; Tailleux, Anne; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Fievet, Catherine; Clavey, Veronique; Staels, Bart . E-mail: Bart.Staels@pasteur-lille.fr; Lestavel, Sophie

    2006-02-24

    Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) is a protein critical for intestinal cholesterol absorption. The nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) and liver X receptors (LXR{alpha} and LXR{beta}) are major regulators of cholesterol homeostasis and their activation results in a reduced absorption of intestinal cholesterol. The goal of this study was to define the role of PPAR{alpha} and LXR nuclear receptors in the regulation of NPC1L1 gene expression. We show that LXR activators down-regulate NPC1L1 mRNA levels in the human enterocyte cell line Caco-2/TC7, whereas PPAR{alpha} ligands have no effect. Furthermore, NPC1L1 mRNA levels are decreased in vivo, in duodenum of mice treated with the LXR agonist T0901317. In conclusion, the present study identifies NPC1L1 as a novel LXR target gene further supporting a crucial role of LXR in intestinal cholesterol homeostasis.

  19. Imatinib therapy blocks cerebellar apoptosis and improves neurological symptoms in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alejandra R; Klein, Andrés; Castro, Juan; Cancino, Gonzalo I; Amigo, Julio; Mosqueira, Matías; Vargas, Lina M; Yévenes, L Fernanda; Bronfman, Francisca C; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2008-10-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is a fatal autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the endosomal-lysosomal system. Patients with NPC disease have markedly progressive neuronal loss, mainly of cerebellar Purkinje neurons. There is strong evidence indicating that cholesterol accumulation and trafficking defects activate apoptosis in NPC brains. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relevance of apoptosis and particularly the proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 system in cerebellar neuron degeneration in NPC disease. We used the NPC1 mouse model to evaluate c-Abl/p73 expression and activation in the cerebellum and the effect of therapy with the c-Abl-specific inhibitor imatinib. The proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 system and the p73 target genes are expressed in the cerebellums of NPC mice. Furthermore, inhibition of c-Abl with imatinib preserved Purkinje neurons and reduced general cell apoptosis in the cerebellum, improved neurological symptoms, and increased the survival of NPC mice. Moreover, this prosurvival effect correlated with reduced mRNA levels of p73 proapoptotic target genes. Our results suggest that the c-Abl/p73 pathway is involved in NPC neurodegeneration and show that treatment with c-Abl inhibitors is useful in delaying progressive neurodegeneration, supporting the use of imatinib for clinical treatment of patients with NPC disease. PMID:18591368

  20. PEG-lipid micelles enable cholesterol efflux in Niemann-Pick Type C1 disease-based lysosomal storage disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Anna; Patel, Siddharth; Ward, Carl; Lorenz, Anna; Ortiz, Mauren; DuRoss, Allison; Wieghardt, Fabian; Esch, Amanda; Otten, Elsje G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Korolchuk, Viktor I.; Sun, Conroy; Sarkar, Sovan; Sahay, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    2-Hydroxy-propyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), a cholesterol scavenger, is currently undergoing Phase 2b/3 clinical trial for treatment of Niemann Pick Type C-1 (NPC1), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that stems from abnormal cholesterol accumulation in the endo/lysosomes. Unfortunately, the extremely high doses of HPβCD required to prevent progressive neurodegeneration exacerbates ototoxicity, pulmonary toxicity and autophagy-based cellular defects. We present unexpected evidence that a poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-lipid conjugate enables cholesterol clearance from endo/lysosomes of Npc1 mutant (Npc1−/−) cells. Herein, we show that distearyl-phosphatidylethanolamine-PEG (DSPE-PEG), which forms 12-nm micelles above the critical micelle concentration, accumulates heavily inside cholesterol-rich late endosomes in Npc1−/− cells. This potentially results in cholesterol solubilization and leakage from lysosomes. High-throughput screening revealed that DSPE-PEG, in combination with HPβCD, acts synergistically to efflux cholesterol without significantly aggravating autophagy defects. These well-known excipients can be used as admixtures to treat NPC1 disorder. Increasing PEG chain lengths from 350 Da-30 kDa in DSPE-PEG micelles, or increasing DSPE-PEG content in an array of liposomes packaged with HPβCD, improved cholesterol egress, while Pluronic block copolymers capable of micelle formation showed slight effects at high concentrations. We postulate that PEG-lipid based nanocarriers can serve as bioactive drug delivery systems for effective treatment of lysosomal storage disorders. PMID:27572704

  1. In vitro evaluation of 2-hydroxyalkylated β-cyclodextrins as potential therapeutic agents for Niemann-Pick Type C disease.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yuki; Tokumaru, Hiroko; Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Tomoko; Taguchi, Makiko; Motoyama, Keiichi; Higashi, Taishi; Arima, Hidetoshi; Matsuo, Muneaki; Higaki, Katsumi; Ohno, Kousaku; Irie, Tetsumi

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the attenuating potential of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) against Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease, as well as the physical and chemical properties, particularly the cholesterol-solubilizing ability, in an NPC disease model in vitro. As parameters of NPC abnormalities, intracellular free and esterified cholesterol levels and lysosome volume were measured in Npc1 null Chinese hamster ovary cells. HPBCD showed dose-dependent effects against dysfunctional intracellular cholesterol trafficking, such as the accumulation and shortage of free and esterified cholesterols, respectively, in Npc1 null cells. However, the effectiveness was gradually offset by exposure to ≥8mM HPBCD. The same effect was also observed for increasing lysosome volume in Npc1 null cells. The degree of substitution of the hydroxypropyl group had little influence on the attenuating effects of HPBCD against the NPC abnormalities, at least in the range between 2.8 and 7.4. Next, we compared the effects of other hydroxyalkylated β-cyclodextrin derivatives with different cholesterol-solubilizing abilities, such as 2-hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (HEBCD) and 2-hydroxybutyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBBCD). The cholesterol solubilizing potential, attenuating effects against NPC abnormalities and cytotoxicity induction were HBBCD≫HPBCD>HEBCD, HBBCD=HPBCD>HEBCD and HBBCD≫HPBCD=HEBCD, respectively. HPBCD may be superior in terms of safety and efficacy in Npc1 null cells compared with HEBCD and HBBCD. The results of this study will provide a rationale for the optimization of HPBCD therapy for NPC disease. PMID:27184436

  2. Structural Basis of Sterol Binding by NPC2, a Lysosomal Protein Deficient in Niemann-Pick Type C2 Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Xu,S.; Benoff, B.; Liou, H.; Lobel, P.; Stock, A.

    2007-01-01

    NPC2 is a small lysosomal glycoprotein that binds cholesterol with submicromolar affinity. Deficiency in NPC2 is the cause of Niemann-Pick type C2 disease, a fatal neurovisceral disorder characterized by accumulation of cholesterol in lysosomes. Here we report the crystal structure of bovine NPC2 bound to cholesterol-3-O-sulfate, an analog that binds with greater apparent affinity than cholesterol. Structures of both apo-bound and sterol-bound NPC2 were observed within the same crystal lattice, with an asymmetric unit containing one molecule of apoNPC2 and two molecules of sterol-bound NPC2. As predicted from a previously determined structure of apoNPC2, the sterol binds in a deep hydrophobic pocket sandwiched between the two {beta}-sheets of NPC2, with only the sulfate substituent of the ligand exposed to solvent. In the two available structures of apoNPC2, the incipient ligand-binding pocket, which ranges from a loosely packed hydrophobic core to a small tunnel, is too small to accommodate cholesterol. In the presence of sterol, the pocket expands, facilitated by a slight separation of the {beta}-strands and substantial reorientation of some side chains, resulting in a perfect molding of the pocket around the hydrocarbon portion of cholesterol. A notable feature is the repositioning of two aromatic residues at the tunnel entrance that are essential for NPC2 function. The NPC2 structures provide evidence of a malleable binding site, consistent with the previously documented broad range of sterol ligand specificity.

  3. Collaborative development of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C1 disease.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Elizabeth A; Kao, Mark L; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Yanjanin, Nicole; Shankar, Roopa Kanakatti; Janssen, Marjo; Brewster, Marcus; Scott, Ilona; Xu, Xin; Cradock, Jim; Terse, Pramod; Dehdashti, Seameen J; Marugan, Juan; Zheng, Wei; Portilla, Lili; Hubbs, Alan; Pavan, William J; Heiss, John; Vite, Charles H; Walkley, Steven U; Ory, Daniel S; Silber, Steven A; Porter, Forbes D; Austin, Christopher P; McKew, John C

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the Therapeutics for Rare and Neglected Diseases (TRND) program within the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), which was created to stimulate drug discovery and development for rare and neglected tropical diseases through a collaborative model between the NIH, academic scientists, nonprofit organizations, and pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. This paper describes one of the first TRND programs, the development of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) for the treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1). NPC is a neurodegenerative, autosomal recessive rare disease caused by a mutation in either the NPC1 (about 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene (about 5% of cases). These mutations affect the intracellular trafficking of cholesterol and other lipids, which leads to a progressive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in the CNS and visceral organs. Affected individuals typically exhibit ataxia, swallowing problems, seizures, and progressive impairment of motor and intellectual function in early childhood, and usually die in adolescence. There is no disease modifying therapy currently approved for NPC1 in the US. A collaborative drug development program has been established between TRND, public and private partners that has completed the pre-clinical development of HP-β-CD through IND filing for the current Phase I clinical trial that is underway. Here we discuss how this collaborative effort helped to overcome scientific, clinical and financial challenges facing the development of new drug treatments for rare and neglected diseases, and how it will incentivize the commercialization of HP-β-CD for the benefit of the NPC patient community. PMID:24283970

  4. Miglustat improves purkinje cell survival and alters microglial phenotype in feline Niemann-Pick disease type C.

    PubMed

    Stein, Veronika M; Crooks, Alexandra; Ding, Wenge; Prociuk, Maria; O'Donnell, Patricia; Bryan, Caroline; Sikora, Tracey; Dingemanse, Jasper; Vanier, Marie T; Walkley, Steven U; Vite, Charles H

    2012-05-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC disease) is an incurable cellular lipid-trafficking disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Treatment with miglustat, a small imino sugar that reversibly inhibits glucosylceramide synthase, which is necessary for glycosphingolipid synthesis, has been shown to benefit patients with NPC disease. The mechanism(s) and extent of brain cellular changes underlying this benefit are not understood. To investigate the basis of the efficacy of miglustat, cats with disease homologous to the juvenile-onset form of human NPC disease received daily miglustat orally beginning at 3 weeks of age. The plasma half-life of miglustat was 6.6 ± 1.1 hours, with a tmax, Cmax, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of 1.7 ± 0.6 hours, 20.3 ± 4.6 μg/mL, and 104.1 ± 16.6 μg hours/mL, respectively. Miglustat delayed the onset of neurological signs and increased the lifespan of treated cats and was associated with decreased GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the cerebellum and improved Purkinje cell survival. Ex vivo examination of microglia from the brains of treated cats revealed normalization of CD1c and class II major histocompatibility complex expression, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that prolonged Purkinje cell survival, reduced glycosphingolipid accumulation, and/or the modulation of microglial immunophenotype and function contribute to miglustat-induced neurological improvement in treated cats. PMID:22487861

  5. Miglustat Improves Purkinje Cell Survival and Alters Microglial Phenotype in Feline Niemann-Pick Disease Type C

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Veronika M.; Crooks, Alexandra; Ding, Wenge; Prociuk, Maria; O’Donnell, Patricia; Bryan, Caroline; Sikora, Tracey; Dingemanse, Jasper; Vanier, Marie T.; Walkley, Steven U.; Vite, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC disease) is an incurable cellular lipid trafficking disorder characterized by neurodegeneration and intralysosomal accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids. Treatment with miglustat, a small imino sugar that reversibly inhibits glucosylceramide synthase, which is necessary for glycosphingolipid synthesis, has been shown to benefit patients with NPC disease. The mechanism(s) and extent of brain cellular changes underlying this benefit are not understood. To investigate the basis of the efficacy of miglustat, cats with disease homologous to the juvenile-onset form of human NPC disease received daily miglustat orally beginning at 3 weeks of age. The plasma half-life of miglustat was 6.6 ± 1.1 hours, with a tmax, Cmax, and area under the plasma concentration-time curve of 1.7 ± 0.6 hours, 20.3 ± 4.6 μg/ml, and 104.1 ± 16.6 μg hours/ml, respectively. Miglustat delayed the onset of neurological signs and increased the lifespan of treated cats, and was associated with decreased GM2 ganglioside accumulation in the cerebellum and improved Purkinje cell survival. Ex vivo examination of microglia from the brains of treated cats revealed normalization of CD1c and class II major histocompatibility complex expression, as well as generation of reactive oxygen species. Together, these results suggest that prolonged Purkinje cell survival, reduced glycosphingolipid accumulation, and/or the modulation of microglial immunophenotype and function contribute to miglustat-induced neurological improvement in treated cats. PMID:22487861

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Calbindin D Concentration as a Biomarker of Cerebellar Disease Progression in Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bagel, Jessica; Sampson, Maureen; Farhat, Nicole; Ding, Wenge; Swain, Gary; Prociuk, Maria; O’Donnell, Patricia; Drobatz, Kenneth; Gurda, Brittney; Wassif, Christopher; Remaley, Alan; Porter, Forbes; Vite, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) 1 disease is a rare, inherited, neurodegenerative disease. Clear evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) in animal models resulted in the initiation of a phase I/IIa clinical trial in 2013 and a phase IIb/III trial in 2015. With clinical trials ongoing, validation of a biomarker to track disease progression and serve as a supporting outcome measure of therapeutic efficacy has become compulsory. In this study, we evaluated calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K (calbindin) concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a biomarker of NPC1 disease. In the naturally occurring feline model, CSF calbindin was significantly elevated at 3 weeks of age, prior to the onset of cerebellar dysfunction, and steadily increased to >10-fold over normal at end-stage disease. Biweekly intrathecal administration of HPβCD initiated prior to the onset of neurologic dysfunction completely normalized CSF calbindin in NPC1 cats at all time points analyzed when followed up to 78 weeks of age. Initiation of HPβCD after the onset of clinical signs (16 weeks of age) resulted in a delayed reduction of calbindin levels in the CSF. Evaluation of CSF from patients with NPC1 revealed that calbindin concentrations were significantly elevated compared with CSF samples collected from unaffected patients. Off-label treatment of patients with NPC1 with miglustat, an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, significantly decreased CSF calbindin compared with pretreatment concentrations. These data suggest that the CSF calbindin concentration is a sensitive biomarker of NPC1 disease that could be instrumental as an outcome measure of therapeutic efficacy in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:27307499

  7. Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cells Activation by Regulating Free Cholesterol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lin, Yun-Lian; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wang, Yuan-Hsi; Liao, Chia-Yu; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Liang, Yu-Chih; Liao, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In chronic liver diseases, regardless of their etiology, the development of fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main profibrogenic cells that promote the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, and so it is important to identify the molecules that regulate HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by directly binding with free cholesterol. However, the roles of NPC2 in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis have not been explored in detail. Since a high-cholesterol diet exacerbates liver fibrosis progression in both rodents and humans, we propose that the expression of NPC2 affects free cholesterol metabolism and regulates HSCs activation. In this study, we found that NPC2 is decreased in both thioacetamide- and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis tissues. In addition, NPC2 is expressed in quiescent HSCs, but its activation status is down-regulated. Knockdown of NPC2 in HSC-T6 cells resulted in marked increases in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen type 1 α1 (Col1a1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, and Smad2 phosphorylation. In contrast, NPC2 overexpression decreased TGF-β1-induced HSCs activation. We further demonstrated that NPC2 deficiency significantly increased the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs, increasing Col1a1 and α-SMA expression and activating Smad2, and leading to sensitization of HSCs to TGF-β1 activation. In contrast, overexpression of NPC2 decreased U18666A-induced free cholesterol accumulation and inhibited the subsequent HSCs activation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated that NPC2 plays an important role in HSCs activation by regulating the accumulation of free cholesterol. NPC2 overexpression may thus represent a new treatment strategy for liver fibrosis. PMID:27420058

  8. Plasma Lysosphingomyelin Demonstrates Great Potential as a Diagnostic Biomarker for Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in a Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Welford, Richard W. D.; Garzotti, Marco; Marques Lourenço, Charles; Mengel, Eugen; Marquardt, Thorsten; Reunert, Janine; Amraoui, Yasmina; Kolb, Stefan A.; Morand, Olivier; Groenen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a devastating, neurovisceral lysosomal storage disorder which is characterised by variable manifestation of visceral signs, progressive neuropsychiatric deterioration and premature death, caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 genes. Due to the complexity of diagnosis and the availability of an approved therapy in the EU, improved detection of NP-C may have a huge impact on future disease management. At the cellular level dysfunction or deficiency of either the NPC1 or NPC2 protein leads to a complex intracellular endosomal/lysosomal trafficking defect, and organ specific patterns of sphingolipid accumulation. Lysosphingolipids have been shown to be excellent biomarkers of sphingolipidosis in several enzyme deficient lysosomal storage disorders. Additionally, in a recent study the lysosphingolipids, lysosphingomyelin (SPC) and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph), appeared to be elevated in the plasma of three adult NP-C patients. In order to investigate the clinical utility of SPC and GlcSph as diagnostic markers, an in-depth fit for purpose biomarker assay validation for measurement of these biomarkers in plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed. Plasma SPC and GlcSph are stable and can be measured accurately, precisely and reproducibly. In a retrospective analysis of 57 NP-C patients and 70 control subjects, median plasma SPC and GlcSph were significantly elevated in NP-C by 2.8-fold and 1.4-fold respectively. For miglustat-naïve NP-C patients, aged 2–50 years, the area under the ROC curve was 0.999 for SPC and 0.776 for GlcSph. Plasma GlcSph did not correlate with SPC levels in NP-C patients. The data indicate excellent potential for the use of lysosphingomyelin in NP-C diagnosis, where it could be used to identify NP-C patients for confirmatory genetic testing. PMID:25479233

  9. Cerebrospinal Fluid Calbindin D Concentration as a Biomarker of Cerebellar Disease Progression in Niemann-Pick Type C1 Disease.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Allison; Bagel, Jessica; Sampson, Maureen; Farhat, Nicole; Ding, Wenge; Swain, Gary; Prociuk, Maria; O'Donnell, Patricia; Drobatz, Kenneth; Gurda, Brittney; Wassif, Christopher; Remaley, Alan; Porter, Forbes; Vite, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) 1 disease is a rare, inherited, neurodegenerative disease. Clear evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) in animal models resulted in the initiation of a phase I/IIa clinical trial in 2013 and a phase IIb/III trial in 2015. With clinical trials ongoing, validation of a biomarker to track disease progression and serve as a supporting outcome measure of therapeutic efficacy has become compulsory. In this study, we evaluated calcium-binding protein calbindin D-28K (calbindin) concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as a biomarker of NPC1 disease. In the naturally occurring feline model, CSF calbindin was significantly elevated at 3 weeks of age, prior to the onset of cerebellar dysfunction, and steadily increased to >10-fold over normal at end-stage disease. Biweekly intrathecal administration of HPβCD initiated prior to the onset of neurologic dysfunction completely normalized CSF calbindin in NPC1 cats at all time points analyzed when followed up to 78 weeks of age. Initiation of HPβCD after the onset of clinical signs (16 weeks of age) resulted in a delayed reduction of calbindin levels in the CSF. Evaluation of CSF from patients with NPC1 revealed that calbindin concentrations were significantly elevated compared with CSF samples collected from unaffected patients. Off-label treatment of patients with NPC1 with miglustat, an inhibitor of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, significantly decreased CSF calbindin compared with pretreatment concentrations. These data suggest that the CSF calbindin concentration is a sensitive biomarker of NPC1 disease that could be instrumental as an outcome measure of therapeutic efficacy in ongoing clinical trials. PMID:27307499

  10. Developmental delay in motor skill acquisition in Niemann-Pick C1 mice reveals abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Caporali, Paola; Bruno, Francesco; Palladino, Giampiero; Dragotto, Jessica; Petrosini, Laura; Mangia, Franco; Erickson, Robert P; Canterini, Sonia; Fiorenza, Maria Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease is a lysosomal storage disorder caused by defective intracellular trafficking of exogenous cholesterol. Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration is the main sign of cerebellar dysfunction in both NPC1 patients and animal models. It has been recently shown that a significant decrease in Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression reduces the proliferative potential of granule neuron precursors in the developing cerebellum of Npc1 (-/-) mice. Pursuing the hypothesis that this developmental defect translates into functional impairments, we have assayed Npc1-deficient pups belonging to the milder mutant mouse strain Npc1 (nmf164) for sensorimotor development from postnatal day (PN) 3 to PN21. Npc1 (nmf164) / Npc1 (nmf164) pups displayed a 2.5-day delay in the acquisition of complex motor abilities compared to wild-type (wt) littermates, in agreement with the significant disorganization of cerebellar cortex cytoarchitecture observed between PN11 and PN15. Compared to wt, Npc1 (nmf164) homozygous mice exhibited a poorer morphological differentiation of Bergmann glia (BG), as indicated by thicker radial shafts and less elaborate reticular pattern of lateral processes. Also BG functional development was defective, as indicated by the significant reduction in GLAST and Glutamine synthetase expression. A reduced VGluT2 and GAD65 expression also indicated an overall derangement of the glutamatergic/GABAergic stimulation that PCs receive by climbing/parallel fibers and basket/stellate cells, respectively. Lastly, Npc1-deficiency also affected oligodendrocyte differentiation as indicated by the strong reduction of myelin basic protein. Two sequential 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin administrations at PN4 and PN7 counteract these defects, partially preventing functional impairment of BG and fully restoring the normal patterns of glutamatergic/GABAergic stimulation to PCs.These findings indicate that in Npc1 (nmf164) homozygous mice the derangement of synaptic

  11. Cognitive deficit and development of motor impairment in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C disease.

    PubMed

    Võikar, Vootele; Rauvala, Heikki; Ikonen, Elina

    2002-04-15

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a fatal, autosomal recessive lipidosis characterized by a unique error in cellular trafficking of cholesterol. In the disease, unesterified cholesterol as well as sphingolipids accumulate in the late endosomes/lysosomes due to mutations in either of two recently isolated genes, NPC1 or NPC2. A metabolic and neurological disorder reminiscent of human NPC disease has been described in Balb/C mice, and it was recently shown that the mutation in the NPC mice resides in the orthologous murine Npc1 gene. Here we have followed the growth rate and applied behavioural methods in order to establish the onset and development of the major symptoms in the NPC mouse model. Wild type and NPC mice were studied during 28-59 days of age. Both male and female NPC mice displayed retarded growth at the age between 25 and 35 days. At the age of 35-45 days the weight was similar to controls and thereafter very rapidly decreased. The battery of coordination tests (vertical screen, beam balancing, coat hanger and rotating rod) established motor impairment of the NPC mice already at the age of 28-42 days, well before the onset of visually detectable ataxia. Decreased exploratory activity and lack of habituation was revealed in the NPC mice by open field test. The diseased mice were unable to learn and remember the location of the hidden escape platform in spatial water maze task suggesting cognitive impairment. In several tests the male NPC mice were more affected than the females. The present study represents the first behavioural analysis of the NPC mice. The battery of behavioural tests employed here should be valuable in the assessment of effective approaches to treat NPC, for which no preventive or curative measures have so far been established. PMID:11853852

  12. Dysregulation of testicular cholesterol metabolism following spontaneous mutation of the niemann-pick c1 gene in mice.

    PubMed

    Akpovi, Casimir D; Murphy, Bruce D; Erickson, Robert P; Pelletier, R-Marc

    2014-08-01

    The Niemann-Pick-type C1 (Npc1) protein mobilizes LDL-derived cholesterol from lysosomes. Npc1 deficiency disease is a panethnic autosomal recessive disorder of intracellular cholesterol trafficking, leading to accumulation of cholesterol in endosomes/lysosomes. This report assesses the effects of a spontaneous inactivating mutation of the Npc1 gene on spermatogenesis and cholesterol homeostasis in mice. We quantified 1) free and esterified cholesterol levels by enzymatic analysis, 2) cholesterol enzymes and transporter protein expression by Western blotting, and 3) the number of Apostain-labeled apoptotic germ cells and apoptosis levels by ELISA in seminiferous tubule-enriched fractions. In wild-type (WT) mice, esterified cholesterol was elevated when Npc1 expression was low during puberty, while in adulthood, the levels were low (P < 0.05) when Npc1 expression was high (P < 0.01). In Npc1-/- mice, free and esterified cholesterol were significantly elevated. The abundance of cholesterol regulatory proteins, HMGR ACAT1, ACAT2, SR-BI, and ABCA1 was significantly higher in Npc1-/- than in WT mice. The level of apoptosis determined by ELISA and the number of Apostain-labeled cells/tubule were higher in Npc1-/- than in WT mice. Circulating testosterone levels in the Npc1-/- males were threefold lower than those observed in the WT. Deleting the Npc1 gene is accompanied by an increase in germ cell apoptosis and compensatory imbalances in the expression of cholesterol enzymatic and transporter factors and is associated with esterified cholesterol accumulation in seminiferous tubules. PMID:25009206

  13. Inhibition of Ebola Virus Infection: Identification of Niemann-Pick C1 as the Target by Optimization of a Chemical Probe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A high-throughput screen identified adamantane dipeptide 1 as an inhibitor of Ebola virus (EboV) infection. Hit-to-lead optimization to determine the structure–activity relationship (SAR) identified the more potent EboV inhibitor 2 and a photoaffinity labeling agent 3. These antiviral compounds were employed to identify the target as Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a host protein that binds the EboV glycoprotein and is essential for infection. These studies establish NPC1 as a promising target for antiviral therapy. PMID:23526644

  14. Visualization of cholesterol deposits in lysosomes of Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts using recombinant perfringolysin O

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is caused by defects in cholesterol efflux from lysosomes due to mutations of genes coding for NPC1 and NPC2 proteins. As a result, massive accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes is observed. At the level of the organism these cholesterol metabolism disorders are manifested by progressive neurodegeneration and hepatosplenomegaly. Until now filipin staining of cholesterol deposits in cells has been widely used for NPC diagnostics. In this report we present an alternative method for cholesterol visualization and estimation using a cholesterol-binding bacterial toxin, perfringolysin O. Methods To detect cholesterol deposits, a recombinant probe, perfringolysin O fused with glutathione S-transferase (GST-PFO) was prepared. GST-PFO followed by labeled antibodies or streptavidin was applied for immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy to analyze cholesterol distribution in cells derived from NPC patients. The identity of GST-PFO–positive structures was revealed by a quantitative analysis of their colocalization with several organelle markers. Cellular ELISA using GST-PFO was developed to estimate the level of unesterified cholesterol in NPC cells. Results GST-PFO recognized cholesterol with high sensitivity and selectivity, as demonstrated by a protein/lipid overlay assay and surface plasmon resonance analysis. When applied to stain NPC cells, GST-PFO decorated abundant deposits of cholesterol in intracellular vesicles that colocalized with filipin-positive structures. These cholesterol deposits were resistant to 0.05%-0.2% Triton X-100 used for cells permeabilization in the staining procedure. GST-PFO-stained organelles were identified as late endosomes/lysosomes based on their colocalization with LAMP-1 and lysobisphosphatidic acid. On the other hand, GST-PFO did not colocalize with markers of the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes or with actin filaments. Only

  15. A new fluorimetric enzyme assay for the diagnosis of Niemann-Pick A/B, with specificity of natural sphingomyelinase substrate.

    PubMed

    van Diggelen, O P; Voznyi, Ya V; Keulemans, J L M; Schoonderwoerd, K; Ledvinova, J; Mengel, E; Zschiesche, M; Santer, R; Harzer, K

    2005-01-01

    6-Hexadecanoylamino-4-methylumbelliferylphosphorylcholine (HMUPC) was shown to be a specific substrate for the determination of acid (lysosomal) sphingomyelinase (ASM; gene SMPD1). Fibroblasts (n = 27) and leukocytes (n = 8) from both the A and B types of Niemann-Pick disease showed < 6% and < 10% of mean normal ASM activity, respectively. Niemann-Pick A or B patients bearing the Q292K mutation had apparently normal ASM activity with our new artificial substrate. These patients with false-normal sphingomyelinase activity, however, could readily be detected by determining the extent of inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of the artificial substrate HMU-PC by an unlabelled natural substrate, in particular lysosphingomyelin. This approach is generally applicable. Our novel assay for ASM combines the ease of a rapid and robust enzyme assay using a fluorogenic substrate with the specificity of an ASM assay using a natural substrate. Such assays are obviously more convenient to the diagnostic laboratory, since radiolabelled substrates are not required. PMID:16151905

  16. Chronic administration of an HDAC inhibitor treats both neurological and systemic Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Suhail; Getz, Michelle; Haldar, Kasturi

    2016-02-17

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are approved for treating rare cancers and are of interest as potential therapies for neurodegenerative disorders. We evaluated a triple combination formulation (TCF) comprising the pan-HDACi vorinostat, the caging agent 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) for treating a mouse model (the Npc1(nmf164) mouse) of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a difficult-to-treat cerebellar disorder. Vorinostat alone showed activity in cultured primary cells derived from Npc1(nmf164) mice but did not improve animal survival. However, low-dose, once-weekly intraperitoneal injections of the TCF containing vorinostat increased histone acetylation in the mouse brain, preserved neurites and Purkinje cells, delayed symptoms of neurodegeneration, and extended mouse life span from 4 to almost 9 months. We demonstrate that the TCF boosted the ability of HDACi to cross the blood-brain barrier and was not toxic even when used long term. Further, the TCF enabled dose reduction, which has been a major challenge in HDACi therapy. TCF simultaneously treats neurodegenerative and systemic symptoms of Niemann-Pick type C disease in a mouse model. PMID:26888431

  17. Niemann-Pick Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver and spleen, swollen lymph nodes, and profound brain damage by six months of age. Children with this type rarely live beyond 18 months. Type B usually occurs in the pre-teen years, with symptoms that include ataxia ... The brain is generally not affected. Other symptoms include enlarged ...

  18. Very low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in four sibs of a family with non-neuropathic Niemann-Pick disease and sea-blue histiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Viana, M B; Giugliani, R; Leite, V H; Barth, M L; Lekhwani, C; Slade, C M; Fensom, A

    1990-01-01

    Very low serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol ranging from 8.6 to 13.9 mg/dl were detected in four out of 12 sibs of a Brazilian kindred with the non-neuropathic form of Niemann-Pick disease. Hepatosplenomegaly, interstitial infiltration of the lungs, absence of neurological signs, sea-blue histiocytes in the bone marrow and liver, and high values for serum acid phosphatase (18 to 32 U/l) were common to all affected children. Leucocyte acid sphingomyelinase activity ranged from 3.6 to 6.5% of mean control values, and fibroblast activity from 9 to 13% of mean controls. The parents had low-normal levels. The relationship between these findings is unclear and deserves further investigation. Images PMID:2120445

  19. Extensive macrophage accumulation in young and old Niemann-Pick C1 model mice involves the alternative, M2, activation pathway and inhibition of macrophage apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Gail; Muralidhar, Akshay; Le, Ellen; Borbon, Ivan A; Erickson, Robert P

    2016-03-10

    We have studied the pathophysiology of lung disease which occurs in two mouse models of Niemann-Pick C1 disease. We utilized Npc1(-/-) mice transgenic for normal gene expression in glia or neurons and glia at ages several fold the usual and a mouse model of the juvenile form of NPC1, a point mutation, at one age to confirm some findings. Lung weights, as per cent of body weight, increase much more than liver and spleen weights. Although pulmonary function parameters only vary for hysteresis between young and older Npc1(-/-) mice, they are markedly different than those found in normal control mice. Cholesterol accumulation continued in the older mice but sphingosine-1-phosphate was not increased. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) showed a massive increase (26×) in the number of macrophages. Histologic examination from the older, transgenic Npc1(-/-) mice showed small foci of alveolar proteinosis and evidence of hemorrhage, as well as dense macrophage accumulation. A large subset of macrophages was immunopositive for Fizz1 or arginase-1, markers of the alternative activation pathway, while no Fizz1 or arginase-1 positive macrophages were found in wild-type mice. The percentage of marker positive macrophages was relatively stable at 5-10% at various ages and within the 2 transgenic models. Phosphohistone H3 and Ki67 showed low levels of proliferation of these macrophages. Apoptosis was prominent within lung capillary endothelial cells, but limited within macrophages. Thus, activation of the alternative pathway is involved in Niemann-Pick C1 associated pulmonary macrophage accumulation, with low proliferation of these cells balanced by low levels of apoptosis. PMID:26707209

  20. Pulmonary Abnormalities in Animal Models Due to Niemann-Pick Type C1 (NPC1) or C2 (NPC2) Disease

    PubMed Central

    Roszell, Blair R.; Tao, Jian-Qin; Yu, Kevin J.; Gao, Ling; Huang, Shaohui; Ning, Yue; Feinstein, Sheldon I.; Vite, Charles H.; Bates, Sandra R.

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is due to loss of NPC1 or NPC2 protein function that is required for unesterified cholesterol transport from the endosomal/lysosomal compartment. Though lung involvement is a recognized characteristic of Niemann-Pick type C disease, the pathological features are not well understood. We investigated components of the surfactant system in both NPC1 mutant mice and felines and in NPC2 mutant mice near the end of their expected life span. Histological analysis of the NPC mutant mice demonstrated thickened septae and foamy macrophages/leukocytes. At the level of electron microscopy, NPC1-mutant type II cells had uncharacteristically larger lamellar bodies (LB, mean area 2-fold larger), while NPC2-mutant cells had predominantly smaller lamellar bodies (mean area 50% of normal) than wild type. Bronchoalveolar lavage from NPC1 and NPC2 mutant mice had an approx. 4-fold and 2.5-fold enrichment in phospholipid, respectively, and an approx. 9-fold and 35-fold enrichment in cholesterol, consistent with alveolar lipidosis. Phospholipid and cholesterol also were elevated in type II cell LBs and lung tissue while phospholipid degradation was reduced. Enrichment of surfactant protein-A in the lung and surfactant of the mutant mice was found. Immunocytochemical results showed that cholesterol accumulated in the LBs of the type II cells isolated from the affected mice. Alveolar macrophages from the NPC1 and NPC2 mutant mice were enlarged compared to those from wild type mice and were enriched in phospholipid and cholesterol. Pulmonary features of NPC1 mutant felines reflected the disease described in NPC1 mutant mice. Thus, with the exception of lamellar body size, the lung phenotype seen in the NPC1 and NPC2 mutant mice were similar. The lack of NPC1 and NPC2 proteins resulted in a disruption of the type II cell surfactant system contributing to pulmonary abnormalities. PMID:23843985

  1. Longitudinal changes in cerebellar and subcortical volumes in adult-onset Niemann-Pick disease type C patients treated with miglustat.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Walterfang, Mark; Abel, Larry; Desmond, Patricia; Fahey, Michael; Velakoulis, Dennis

    2015-09-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurovisceral disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment available to date is miglustat, an iminosugar inhibiting the accumulation of lipid by-products in neurons. This study explored how changes in cerebellar grey and white matter volumes, and in subcortical volumes, related to patient treatment status and disability and ataxia ratings. Nine adult-onset NPC patients and 17 matched controls underwent T1-weighted MRI. One patient was not receiving miglustat, and pre-treatment data were available for a further patient. Semi-automated cerebellar and subcortical segmentation was undertaken, and the rates of change in putamen, hippocampal, thalamic and caudal volumes, and grey and white matter cerebellar volumes, were compared to rates of change in Iturriaga disability score, Brief Ataxia Rating Scale (BARS), and horizontal saccadic gain. Untreated NPC patients appeared to lose cerebellar grey and white matter, bilateral thalamic volume, and right caudate volume faster than treated patients. Cerebellar grey matter volume loss and volume loss in the left thalamus were significantly correlated with Iturriaga disability scale changes. Change in both cerebellar grey and white matter was correlated with decrease in horizontal saccadic gain, but not with change in BARS. This is the first study to examine longitudinal treatment effects of miglustat on cerebellar and subcortical volumes in patients with adult-onset NPC, and is evidence that miglustat may have a protective effect on cerebellar and subcortical structure and function. PMID:26092521

  2. Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Children: A Guide to Early Diagnosis for the General Pediatrician

    PubMed Central

    Alobaidy, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease (NP-C) is a lysosomal storage disease in which impaired intracellular lipid transport leads to accumulation of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids in various neurovisceral tissues. It is an autosomal recessive disorder, caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 genes. The clinical spectrum is grouped by the age of onset and onset of neurological manifestation: pre/perinatal; early infantile; late infantile; and juvenile periods. The NP-C Suspicion Index (SI) screening tool was developed to identify suspected patients with this disease. It is especially good at recognizing the disease in patients older than four years of age. Biochemical tests involving genetic markers and Filipin staining of skin fibroblast are being employed to assist diagnosis. Therapy is mostly supportive and since 2009, the first specific therapy approved for use was Miglustat (Zavesca) aimed at stabilizing the rate of progression of neurological manifestation. The prognosis correlates with age at onset of neurological signs; patients with early onset form progress faster. The NP-C disease has heterogeneous neurovisceral manifestations. A SI is a screening tool that helps in diagnostic process. Filipin staining test is a specific biomarker diagnostic test. Miglustat is the first disease-specific therapy. PMID:25784942

  3. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems. PMID:26788393

  4. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of pluronic-based β-cyclodextrin polyrotaxanes for mobilization of accumulated cholesterol from Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christopher J; McCauliff, Leslie A; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Zhang, Zhaorui; Paul, Lake N; Kulkarni, Aditya; Zick, Klaus; Wirth, Mary; Storch, Judith; Thompson, David H

    2013-05-14

    Several lines of evidence suggest that β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivatives initiate the efflux of accumulated, unesterified cholesterol from the late endosomal/lysosomal compartment in Niemann Pick C (NPC) disease models. Unfortunately, repeated injections or continuous infusions of current β-CD therapies are required to sustain suppression of symptoms and prolong life. In an effort to make CD treatment a more viable option by boosting efficacy and improving pharmacokinetics, a library of Pluronic surfactant-based β-CD polyrotaxanes has been developed using biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-polypropylene glycol (PPG)-PEG triblock copolymers. These compounds carry multiple copies of β-CD as shown by (1)H NMR, 2D nuclear Overhouser effect spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography/multiangle light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation analysis, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, and diffusion-ordered spectroscopy. Analyses of free β-cyclodextrin contamination in the compounds were made by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. Dethreading kinetics were studied by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography, UV/vis, and (1)H NMR analysis. Filipin staining studies using npc2(-/-) fibroblasts show significant reversal of cholesterol accumulation after treatment with polyrotaxane compounds. The rate and efficacy of reversal is similar to that achieved by equivalent amounts of monomeric β-CD alone. PMID:23560535

  5. Niemann-Pick disease: A frequent missense mutation in the acid sphingomyelinase gene of Ashkenazi Jewish type A and B patients

    SciTech Connect

    Levran, O.; Desnick, R.J.; Schuchan, E.H. )

    1991-05-01

    Although the A and B subtypes of Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) both result from the deficient activity of acid sphingomyelinase and the lysosomal accumulation of sphingomyelin, they have remarkably distinct phenotypes. Type A disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of infancy, whereas type B disease has no neurologic manifestations and is characterized primarily by reticuloendothelial involvement and survival into adulthood. Both disorders are more frequent among individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry than in the general population. The recent isolation and characterization of cDNA and genomic sequences encoding ASM has facilitated investigation of the molecular lesions causing the NPD subtypes. Total RNA was reverse-transcribed, and the ASm cDNA from an Ashkenazi Jewish type A patient was specifically amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Molecular analysis of the PCR products revealed a G{r arrow} T transversion of nucleotide 1,487, which occurred at a CpG dinucleotide and predicted an Arg{r arrow} Leu substitution and that both parents and several other relatives were heterozygous. These findings identify a frequent missense mutation among NPD patients of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry that results in neuronopathic type A disease when homoallelic and can result in the nonneuronopathic type B phenotype when heteroallelic. The identification of this ASM mutation in Ashkenazi Jewish patients should facilitate the prevention of NPD in this population by carrier detection with molecular diagnostic techniques.

  6. Presymptomatic Alterations in Amino Acid Metabolism and DNA Methylation in the Cerebellum of a Murine Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Barry E; Hundert, Amos S; Goguen, Donna; Weaver, Ian C G; Karten, Barbara

    2016-06-01

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is caused in most cases by mutations in NPC1, which encodes the late endosomal NPC1 protein. Loss of NPC1 disrupts cholesterol trafficking from late endosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, causing cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes/lysosomes. Neurons are particularly vulnerable to this cholesterol trafficking defect, but the pathogenic mechanisms through which NPC1 deficiency causes neuronal dysfunction remain largely unknown. Herein, we have investigated amino acid metabolism in cerebella of NPC1-deficient mice at different stages of NPC disease. Imbalances in amino acid metabolism were evident from increased branched chain amino acid and asparagine levels and altered expression of key enzymes of glutamine/glutamate metabolism in presymptomatic and early symptomatic NPC1-deficient cerebellum. Increased levels of several amino acid intermediates of one-carbon metabolism indicated disturbances in folate and methylation pathways. Alterations in DNA methylation were apparent in decreased expression of DNA methyltransferase 3a and methyl-5'-cytosine-phosphodiester-guanine-domain binding proteins, reduced 5-methylcytosine immunoreactivity in the molecular and Purkinje cell layers, demethylation of genome-wide repetitive LINE-1 elements, and hypermethylation in specific promoter regions of single-copy genes in NPC1-deficient cerebellum at early stages of the disease. Alterations in amino acid metabolism and epigenetic changes in the cerebellum at presymptomatic stages of NPC disease represent previously unrecognized mechanisms of NPC pathogenesis. PMID:27083515

  7. Synthesis of 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin/Pluronic-Based Polyrotaxanes via Heterogeneous Reaction as Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Mondjinou, Yawo A.; McCauliff, Leslie A.; Kulkarni, Aditya; Paul, Lake; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wu, Zhen; Wirth, Mary; Storch, Judith; Thompson, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Five polyrotaxanes were synthesized by threading 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) onto a variety of α,ω-ditriethylenediamino-N-carbamoyl-poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic) triblock copolymers using a two-pot strategy under heterogeneous, nonaqueous conditions. The threaded HP-β-CD units were retained on the pseudopolyrotaxane precursors by end-capping the branched diamine termini with sodium 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate. Inclusion of the Pluronic copolymers within the HP-β-CD cavities was more favorable in nonpolar solvents, such as diethyl ether and n-hexane, both of which gave better coverage ratios than polar solvents. 1H NMR and MALDI-TOF were used to estimate the average molecular weights of the purified polyrotaxane products. A globular morphology of aggregated polyrotaxanes was observed by tapping-mode AFM imaging of dried samples. Treatment of Niemann-Pick C (NPC) type 2-deficient fibroblasts with the polyrotaxane derivatives produced substantial reductions in sterol accumulation, as seen by diminished filipin staining in these cells, suggesting that Pluronic-based polyrotaxanes may be promising vehicles for delivery of HP-β-CD to cells with abnormal cholesterol accumulation. PMID:24180231

  8. In Vivo Assessment of Neurodegeneration in Niemann-Pick Type C Mice by Quantitative T2 Mapping and Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Totenhagen, John W.; Lope-Piedrafita, Silvia; Borbon, Ivan A.; Yoshimaru, Eriko S.; Erickson, Robert P.; Trouard, Theodore P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively and non-invasively assess neurological disease progression in a mouse model of Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease by measuring white matter status with MRI techniques of T2 mapping and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Materials and Methods Quantitative T2 and DTI experiments were performed in-vivo in NPC disease model and control mice at three time points to quantify differences and changes in white matter with measurements of T2 relaxation and DTI parameters. Histological staining for myelin content was also performed at two time points to compare with the MRI findings. Results The results of the T2 and DTI measurements show significant differences in white matter areas of the brain in the NPC disease model compared to control mice at several time points, and were seen to change over time in both groups. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that quantitative MRI measurements may be suitable in-vivo biomarkers of disease status for future studies of NPC disease models. The changes in white matter measurements between time points in both control and NPC disease groups suggest that white matter structures continue to change and develop over time in the NPC model and can be tracked with MRI techniques. PMID:22045516

  9. Synthesis of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin/pluronic-based polyrotaxanes via heterogeneous reaction as potential Niemann-Pick type C therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Mondjinou, Yawo A; McCauliff, Leslie A; Kulkarni, Aditya; Paul, Lake; Hyun, Seok-Hee; Zhang, Zhaorui; Wu, Zhen; Wirth, Mary; Storch, Judith; Thompson, David H

    2013-12-01

    Five polyrotaxanes were synthesized by threading 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) onto a variety of α,ω-ditriethylenediamino-N-carbamoyl-poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly(propylene oxide)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic) triblock copolymers using a two-pot strategy under heterogeneous, nonaqueous conditions. The threaded HP-β-CD units were retained on the pseudopolyrotaxane precursors by end-capping the branched diamine termini with sodium 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonate. Inclusion of the Pluronic copolymers within the HP-β-CD cavities was more favorable in nonpolar solvents, such as diethyl ether and n-hexane, both of which gave better coverage ratios than polar solvents. (1)H NMR and MALDI-TOF were used to estimate the average molecular weights of the purified polyrotaxane products. A globular morphology of aggregated polyrotaxanes was observed by tapping-mode AFM imaging of dried samples. Treatment of Niemann-Pick C (NPC) type 2-deficient fibroblasts with the polyrotaxane derivatives produced substantial reductions in sterol accumulation, as seen by diminished filipin staining in these cells, suggesting that Pluronic-based polyrotaxanes may be promising vehicles for delivery of HP-β-CD to cells with abnormal cholesterol accumulation. PMID:24180231

  10. Identification of the Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 cholesterol absorption receptor as a new hepatitis C virus entry factor

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Bruno; Barretto, Naina; Martin, Danyelle N.; Hiraga, Nobuhiko; Imamura, Michio; Hussain, Snawar; Marsh, Katherine A.; Yu, Xuemei; Chayama, Kazuaki; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Uprichard, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver disease worldwide. With ~170 million individuals infected and current interferon-based treatment having toxic side-effects and marginal efficacy, more effective antivirals are critically needed1. Although HCV protease inhibitors were just FDA approved, analogous to HIV therapy, optimal HCV therapy likely will require a combination of antivirals targeting multiple aspects of the viral lifecycle. Viral entry represents a promising multi-faceted target for antiviral intervention; however, to date FDA-approved inhibitors of HCV cell entry are unavailable. Here we show that the cellular Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) cholesterol uptake receptor is an HCV entry factor amendable to therapeutic intervention. Specifically, NPC1L1 expression is necessary for HCV infection as silencing or antibody-mediated blocking of NPC1L1 impairs cell-cultured-derived HCV (HCVcc) infection initiation. In addition, the clinically-available FDA-approved NPC1L1 antagonist ezetimibe2,3 potently blocks HCV uptake in vitro via a virion cholesterol-dependent step prior to virion-cell membrane fusion. Importantly, ezetimibe inhibits infection of all major HCV genotypes in vitro, and in vivo delays the establishment of HCV genotype 1b infection in mice with human liver grafts. Thus, we have not only identified NPC1L1 as an HCV cell entry factor, but also discovered a new antiviral target and potential therapeutic agent. PMID:22231557

  11. Cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol: high levels in Niemann-Pick type C, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, and lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pajares, Sonia; Arias, Angela; García-Villoria, Judit; Macías-Vidal, Judit; Ros, Emilio; de las Heras, Javier; Girós, Marisa; Coll, Maria J; Ribes, Antonia

    2015-10-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by lysosomal/endosomal accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and glycolipids. Recent studies have shown that plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol (CT) and 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC patients. We aimed to know the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarkers for the diagnosis of NPC compared with other diseases that can potentially lead to oxysterol alterations. We studied 107 controls and 122 patients including 16 with NPC, 3 with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency, 8 with other lysosomal diseases, 5 with galactosemia, 11 with cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), 3 with Smith-Lemli-Opitz, 14 with peroxisomal biogenesis disorders, 19 with unspecific hepatic diseases, 13 with familial hypercholesterolemia, and 30 with neurological involvement and no evidence of an inherited metabolic disease. CT and 7-KC were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS as mono-dimethylglycine derivatives. Levels of 7-KC were high in most of the studied diseases, whereas those of CT were only high in NPC, LAL, and CTX patients. Consequently, although CT is a sensitive biomarker of NPC disease, including those cases with doubtful filipin staining, it is not specific. 7-KC is a very unspecific biomarker. PMID:26239048

  12. Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Presenting as a Developmental Coordination Disorder with Bullying by Peers in a School-Age Child

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Ryo; Tanaka, Atsushi; Matsui, Toshiharu; Gunji, Tetsuki; Tohyama, Jun; Nairita, Aya; Nanba, Eiji; Ohno, Kousaku

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder, often with onset after normal early childhood development. Juvenile onset NPC patients slowly develop cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment and often experience difficulties at school. However, these problems may be overlooked due to the unpublicized nature of NPC, given that it is a rare metabolic disorder. In this report, we present an 11-year-old male NPC patient, who suffered from clumsiness and difficulties in attention and academic and social skills. His symptoms were initially considered to be due to developmental coordination disorder (DCD) coexisting with bullying by peers. DCD is a type of neurodevelopmental disorder defined according to DSM-IV and is characterized by clumsiness that interferes with academic achievement and social integration not due to other general medical conditions. However, a detailed investigation of the patient suggested that the problems could be attributed to the onset of NPC. Clinicians should keep neurodegenerative disorders as differential diagnosis of children with multiple school problems. PMID:26788393

  13. Heat Shock Protein Beta-1 Modifies Anterior to Posterior Purkinje Cell Vulnerability in a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Dell’Orco, James M.; Qin, Zhaohui S.; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Shakkottai, Vikram G.; Lieberman, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Selective neuronal vulnerability is characteristic of most degenerative disorders of the CNS, yet mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly characterized. Many forms of cerebellar degeneration exhibit an anterior-to-posterior gradient of Purkinje cell loss including Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurological deficits that often begin in childhood. Here, we sought to identify candidate genes underlying vulnerability of Purkinje cells in anterior cerebellar lobules using data freely available in the Allen Brain Atlas. This approach led to the identification of 16 candidate neuroprotective or susceptibility genes. We demonstrate that one candidate gene, heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), promoted neuronal survival in cellular models of NPC disease through a mechanism that involved inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, we show that over-expression of wild type HSPB1 or a phosphomimetic mutant in NPC mice slowed the progression of motor impairment and diminished cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. We confirmed the modulatory effect of Hspb1 on Purkinje cell degeneration in vivo, as knockdown by Hspb1 shRNA significantly enhanced neuron loss. These results suggest that strategies to promote HSPB1 activity may slow the rate of cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease and highlight the use of bioinformatics tools to uncover pathways leading to neuronal protection in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27152617

  14. Genetic dissection of a cell-autonomous neurodegenerative disorder: lessons learned from mouse models of Niemann-Pick disease type C

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Manuel E.; Scott, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding neurodegenerative disease progression and its treatment requires the systematic characterization and manipulation of relevant cell types and molecular pathways. The neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disorder Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is highly amenable to genetic approaches that allow exploration of the disease biology at the organismal, cellular and molecular level. Although NPC is a rare disease, genetic analysis of the associated neuropathology promises to provide insight into the logic of disease neural circuitry, selective neuron vulnerability and neural-glial interactions. The ability to control the disorder cell-autonomously and in naturally occurring spontaneous animal models that recapitulate many aspects of the human disease allows for an unparalleled dissection of the disease neurobiology in vivo. Here, we review progress in mouse-model-based studies of NPC disease, specifically focusing on the subtype that is caused by a deficiency in NPC1, a sterol-binding late endosomal membrane protein involved in lipid trafficking. We also discuss recent findings and future directions in NPC disease research that are pertinent to understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in general. PMID:23907005

  15. Heat Shock Protein Beta-1 Modifies Anterior to Posterior Purkinje Cell Vulnerability in a Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chan; Elrick, Matthew J; Dell'Orco, James M; Qin, Zhaohui S; Kalyana-Sundaram, Shanker; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Shakkottai, Vikram G; Lieberman, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Selective neuronal vulnerability is characteristic of most degenerative disorders of the CNS, yet mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly characterized. Many forms of cerebellar degeneration exhibit an anterior-to-posterior gradient of Purkinje cell loss including Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC) disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive neurological deficits that often begin in childhood. Here, we sought to identify candidate genes underlying vulnerability of Purkinje cells in anterior cerebellar lobules using data freely available in the Allen Brain Atlas. This approach led to the identification of 16 candidate neuroprotective or susceptibility genes. We demonstrate that one candidate gene, heat shock protein beta-1 (HSPB1), promoted neuronal survival in cellular models of NPC disease through a mechanism that involved inhibition of apoptosis. Additionally, we show that over-expression of wild type HSPB1 or a phosphomimetic mutant in NPC mice slowed the progression of motor impairment and diminished cerebellar Purkinje cell loss. We confirmed the modulatory effect of Hspb1 on Purkinje cell degeneration in vivo, as knockdown by Hspb1 shRNA significantly enhanced neuron loss. These results suggest that strategies to promote HSPB1 activity may slow the rate of cerebellar degeneration in NPC disease and highlight the use of bioinformatics tools to uncover pathways leading to neuronal protection in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27152617

  16. Expression of Penaeus monodon ortholog of Niemann-Pick type C-2 in the spermatic tract, and its role in sperm cholesterol removal.

    PubMed

    Chotwiwatthanakun, Charoonroj; Sangatit, Jutharat; Santimanawong, Wanida; Surinlert, Piyaporn; Prommoon, Juthatip; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Vanichviriyakit, Rapeepun

    2016-03-01

    Protein and lipid composition of sperm plasma membrane are modified as these gametes continue to mature during their transit along the spermatic tract. Our previous study revealed that during its journey through the spermatic duct of the black tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon, sperm cholesterol content decreases through the action of lipid-binding proteins within the luminal environment. In this study, the full cDNA sequence of epididymal secretory protein E1 (HE1), or Niemann-Pick C2 (NPC2), was cloned from P. monodon (termed Pmnpc2), and its conserved cholesterol/lipid-binding domain was characterized. The putative tertiary structure of PmNPC2 showed high similarity with the structure of Bos taurus NPC2. Pmnpc2 is expressed in many tissues, including the spermatic tract (i.e., testis, vas deferens, terminal ampoule) and the female thelycum. In situ hybridization revealed the presence of Pmnpc2 transcripts in the vas deferens, terminal ampoule, and thelycum epithelia, suggesting that PmNPC2 could be secreted into the lumen of the spermatic duct. A recombinant hexahistidine-tagged PmNPC2 (rPmNPC2-6His) was able to bind cholesterol and sperm lipid extracts, while co-incubation of sperm from the vas deferens with rPmNPC2-6His resulted in the depletion of cholesterol from these gametes. Together, these results suggest that PmNPC2 participates in sperm cholesterol efflux during the sperm maturation process in P. monodon. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 259-270, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26822874

  17. Molecular basis of multiple sulfatase deficiency, mucolipidosis II/III and Niemann-Pick C1 disease - Lysosomal storage disorders caused by defects of non-lysosomal proteins.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Thomas; Schlotawa, Lars; Frese, Marc-André; Radhakrishnan, Karthikeyan; von Figura, Kurt; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2009-04-01

    Multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), mucolipidosis (ML) II/III and Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease are rare but fatal lysosomal storage disorders caused by the genetic defect of non-lysosomal proteins. The NPC1 protein mainly localizes to late endosomes and is essential for cholesterol redistribution from endocytosed LDL to cellular membranes. NPC1 deficiency leads to lysosomal accumulation of a broad range of lipids. The precise functional mechanism of this membrane protein, however, remains puzzling. ML II, also termed I cell disease, and the less severe ML III result from deficiencies of the Golgi enzyme N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphotransferase leading to a global defect of lysosome biogenesis. In patient cells, newly synthesized lysosomal proteins are not equipped with the critical lysosomal trafficking marker mannose 6-phosphate, thus escaping from lysosomal sorting at the trans Golgi network. MSD affects the entire sulfatase family, at least seven members of which are lysosomal enzymes that are specifically involved in the degradation of sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sulfolipids or other sulfated molecules. The combined deficiencies of all sulfatases result from a defective post-translational modification by the ER-localized formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE), which oxidizes a specific cysteine residue to formylglycine, the catalytic residue enabling a unique mechanism of sulfate ester hydrolysis. This review gives an update on the molecular bases of these enigmatic diseases, which have been challenging researchers since many decades and so far led to a number of surprising findings that give deeper insight into both the cell biology and the pathobiochemistry underlying these complex disorders. In case of MSD, considerable progress has been made in recent years towards an understanding of disease-causing FGE mutations. First approaches to link molecular parameters with clinical manifestation have been described and even therapeutical options have been

  18. Genetic screening for Niemann-Pick disease type C in adults with neurological and psychiatric symptoms: findings from the ZOOM study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Peter; Balding, David J; Klünemann, Hans H; Linden, David E J; Ory, Daniel S; Pineda, Mercè; Priller, Josef; Sedel, Frederic; Muller, Audrey; Chadha-Boreham, Harbajan; Welford, Richard W D; Strasser, Daniel S; Patterson, Marc C

    2013-11-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal-recessive, progressive neurological disease caused by mutations in either the NPC1 gene (in 95% of cases) or the NPC2 gene. This observational, multicentre genetic screening study evaluated the frequency and phenotypes of NP-C in consecutive adult patients with neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnostic testing for NP-C involved NPC1 and NPC2 exonic gene sequencing and gene dosage analysis. When available, results of filipin staining, plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol assays and measurements of relevant sphingolipids were also collected. NPC1 and NPC2 gene sequencing was completed in 250/256 patients from 30 psychiatric and neurological reference centres across the EU and USA [median (range) age 38 (18-90) years]. Three patients had a confirmed diagnosis of NP-C; two based on gene sequencing alone (two known causal disease alleles) and one based on gene sequencing and positive filipin staining. A further 12 patients displayed either single mutant NP-C alleles (8 with NPC1 mutations and 3 with NPC2 mutations) or a known causal disease mutation and an unclassified NPC1 allele variant (1 patient). Notably, high plasma cholestane-3β,5α,6β-triol levels were observed for all NP-C cases (n = 3). Overall, the frequency of NP-C patients in this study [1.2% (95% CI; 0.3%, 3.5%)] suggests that there may be an underdiagnosed pool of NP-C patients among adults who share common neurological and psychiatric symptoms. PMID:23773996

  19. Normalization of Cholesterol Homeostasis by 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in Neurons and Glia from Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1)-deficient Mice*

    PubMed Central

    Peake, Kyle B.; Vance, Jean E.

    2012-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is an inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 or NPC2 gene that result in an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol in late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/L) and impaired export of cholesterol from LE/L to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent studies demonstrate that administration of cyclodextrin (CD) to Npc1−/− mice eliminates cholesterol sequestration in LE/L of many tissues, including the brain, delays neurodegeneration, and increases lifespan of the mice. We have now investigated cholesterol homeostasis in NPC1-deficient cells of the brain in response to CD. Primary cultures of neurons and glial cells from Npc1−/− mice were incubated for 24 h with 0.1 to 10 mm CD after which survival and cholesterol homeostasis were monitored. Although 10 mm CD was profoundly neurotoxic, and altered astrocyte morphology, 0.1 and 1 mm CD were not toxic but effectively mobilized stored cholesterol from the LE/L as indicated by filipin staining. However, 0.1 and 1 mm CD altered cholesterol homeostasis in opposite directions. The data suggest that 0.1 mm CD releases cholesterol trapped in LE/L of neurons and astrocytes and increases cholesterol availability at the ER, whereas 1 mm CD primarily extracts cholesterol from the plasma membrane and reduces ER cholesterol. These studies in Npc1−/− neurons and astrocytes establish a dose of CD (0.1 mm) that would likely be beneficial in NPC disease. The findings are timely because treatment of NPC disease patients with CD is currently being initiated. PMID:22277650

  20. Epidemiological, clinical and biochemical characterization of the p.(Ala359Asp) SMPD1 variant causing Niemann-Pick disease type B.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Mariana; Martínez, Pablo; Moraga, Carol; He, Xingxuan; Moraga, Mauricio; Hunter, Bessie; Nuernberg, Peter; Gutiérrez, Rodrigo A; González, Mauricio; Schuchman, Edward H; Santos, José Luis; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Mabe, Paulina; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPDB) is a rare, inherited lysosomal storage disorder that occurs due to variants in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene and the resultant deficiency of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activity. While numerous variants causing NPDB have been described, only a small number have been studied in any detail. Herein, we describe the frequency of the p.(Ala359Asp) variant in the healthy Chilean population, and determine the haplotype background of homozygous patients to establish if this variant originated from a common founder. Genomic DNA samples from 1691 healthy individuals were analyzed for the p.(Ala359Asp) variant. The frequency of p.(Ala359Asp) was found to be 1/105.7, predicting a disease incidence of 1/44 960 in Chile, higher than the incidence estimated by the number of confirmed NPDB cases. We also describe the clinical characteristics of 13 patients homozygous for p.(Ala359Asp) and all of them had moderate to severe NPDB disease. In addition, a conserved haplotype and shared 280 Kb region around the SMPD1 gene was observed in the patients analyzed, indicating that the variant originated from a common ancestor. The haplotype frequency and mitochondrial DNA analysis suggest an Amerindian origin for the variant. To assess the effect of the p.(Ala359Asp) variant, we transfected cells with the ASM-p.(Ala359Asp) cDNA and the activity was only 4.2% compared with the wild-type cDNA, definitively demonstrating the causative effect of the variant on ASM function. Information on common variants such as p.(Ala359Asp) is essential to guide the successful implementation for future therapies and benefit to patients. PMID:25920558

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of Niemann-Pick C1: evidence for the role of heat shock proteins and identification of lysine residues that accept ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Naoe; Nakamura, Yuko S; Higaki, Katsumi; Oumi, Nao; Ohno, Kousaku; Ninomiya, Haruaki

    2014-07-11

    Most cases with Niemann-Pick disease type C carry mutations in NPC1. Some of the mutations, including the most frequent I1061T, give rise to unstable proteins selected for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The purpose of the current study was to shed mechanistic insights into the degradation process. A proteasome inhibitor MG132 prolonged the life span of the wild-type NPC1 expressed in COS cells. The expressed protein associated with multiple chaperones including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70, heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), and calnexin. Accordingly, expression of an E3 ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) enhanced MG132-induced accumulation of ubiquitylated NPC1. Co-expression and RNAi knockdown experiments in HEK cells indicated that Hsp70/Hsp90 stabilized NPC1, whereas Hsc70 destabilized it. In human fibroblasts carrying the I1061T mutation, adenovirus-mediated expression of Hsp70 or treatment with an HSP-inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) increased the level of the mutant protein. In GGA-treated cells, the rescued protein was localized in the late endosome and ameliorated cholesterol accumulation. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed three lysine residues at amino acids 318, 792, and 1180 as potential ubiquitin-conjugation sites. Substitutions of the three residues with alanine yielded a mutant protein with a steady-state level more than three times higher than that of the wild-type. Introduction of the same substitutions to the I1061T mutant resulted in an increase in its protein level and functional restoration. These findings indicated the role of HSPs in quality control of NPC1 and revealed the role of three lysine residues as ubiquitin-conjugation sites. PMID:24891511

  2. An Approach to Improve Intestinal Absorption of Poorly Absorbed Water-Insoluble Components via Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, Yuto; Sato, Yuki; Yamaki, Yoshiaki; Imai, Mei; Noto, Kazuma; Sumi, Masato; Takekuma, Yoh; Iseki, Ken; Sugawara, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption contributes to the maintenance of tight control of cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol is present as mixed micelles formed by bile salts and phospholipids in the intestinal lumen. Recently, Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) transporter was identified as being critical for cholesterol absorption. However, the uptake mechanism of an enveloped substrate of NPC1L1 in whole lipid emulsion particles remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the uptake mechanism of a substrate of NPC1L1 in lipid emulsion particles. We also investigated whether these particles containing cholesterol can improve the intestinal absorption of other lipophilic components via NPC1L1. The uptake of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-4,4-difluoro-5-(4-phenyl-1,3-butadienyl)-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-propionic acid saccinimidyl ester (BODIPY), a fluorescently labeled phospholipid, in lipid emulsion particles containing cholesterol (1 µM) was significantly increased compared to that without cholesterol in Caco-2 cells. On the other hand, its increased uptake was significantly inhibited by ezetimibe, a selective inhibitor of NPC1L1. These results suggested that not only cholesterol but also some components in lipid emulsion particles are taken up into enterocytes via NPC1L1. We also examined an approach to improve intestinal absorption of a poorly absorbed water-insoluble component, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), by this mechanism. The uptake of CoQ10 in lipid emulsion particles containing cholesterol was significantly increased compared to that without cholesterol. Its increased uptake was significantly inhibited by ezetimibe. Though it is still not clear whether CoQ10 is a substrate of NPC1L1, there is a potential for improvement of the absorption of poorly absorbed components by lipid emulsion particles containing cholesterol. PMID:26934923

  3. Characterization of a Spontaneous Novel Mutation in the NPC2 Gene in a Cat Affected by Niemann Pick Type C Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zampieri, Stefania; Bianchi, Ezio; Cantile, Carlo; Saleri, Roberta; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPC) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids within the lysosomes due to mutation in NPC1 or NPC2 genes. A feline model of NPC carrying a mutation in NPC1 gene has been previously described. We have identified two kittens affected by NPC disease due to a mutation in NPC2 gene. They manifested with tremors at the age of 3 months, which progressed to dystonia and severe ataxia. At 6 months of age cat 2 was unable to stand without assistance and had bilaterally reduced menace response. It died at the age of 10 months. Post-mortem histological analysis of the brain showed the presence of neurons with cytoplasmic swelling and vacuoles, gliosis of the substantia nigra and degeneration of the white matter. Spheroids with accumulation of ubiquitinated aggregates were prominent in the cerebellar cortex. Purkinje cells were markedly reduced in number and they showed prominent intracytoplasmic storage. Scattered perivascular aggregates of lymphocytes and microglial cells proliferation were present in the thalamus and midbrain. Proliferation of Bergmann glia was also observed. In the liver, hepatocytes were swollen because of accumulation of small vacuoles and foamy Kupffer cells were also detected. Foamy macrophages were observed within the pulmonary interstitium and alveoli as well. At 9 months cat 1 was unable to walk, developed seizures and it was euthanized at 21 months. Filipin staining of cultured fibroblasts showed massive storage of unesterified cholesterol. Molecular analysis of NPC1 and NPC2 genes showed the presence of a homozygous intronic mutation (c.82+5G>A) in the NPC2 gene. The subsequent analysis of the mRNA showed that the mutation causes the retention of 105 bp in the mature mRNA, which leads to the in frame insertion of 35 amino acids between residues 28 and 29 of NPC2 protein (p.G28_S29ins35). PMID:25396745

  4. Defective activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase in Niemann-Pick type C and type D fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Byers, D M; Rastogi, S R; Cook, H W; Palmer, F B; Spence, M W

    1989-01-01

    The activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT; EC 2.3.1.26) was measured in fibroblast homogenates from Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) and Type D (NPD) patients to determine whether these cells exhibit similar defects in the regulation of cholesterol esterification. ACAT activity in normal cells cultured in the absence of serum lipoproteins responded rapidly (within 6 h) to the addition of serum and reached peak levels at 12-24 h, whereas little stimulation of activity in NPC cells was observed. In contrast, ACAT activity in NPD fibroblasts (cell lines from four different patients) began to increase between 6 and 12 h after serum addition, reaching levels up to 50% of normal values at 24 h. ACAT activity in NPC and NPD cell extracts could not be stimulated by preincubation with normal cell homogenates, nor was complementation between NPC and NPD homogenates observed. Addition of 25-hydroxycholesterol to fibroblasts cultured in delipidated serum increased ACAT activity for all three cell types, although stimulation in NPD cells was less than that observed in NPC cells. ACAT activity of deoxycholate-solubilized homogenates reconstituted into phosphatidylcholine vesicles was independent of the presence of serum lipoproteins during culture and dependent on cholesterol present in the vesicles for all cell types. However, ACAT activities of mutant fibroblasts in vesicles plus cholesterol were significantly (about 40%) lower than control levels. These results suggest that the metabolic lesions in NPC and NPD cells are biochemically distinct and that both may involve factors in addition to the availability of cholesterol substrate for the ACAT enzyme. PMID:2590161

  5. Npc1 deficiency in the C57BL/6J genetic background enhances Niemann-Pick disease type C spleen pathology.

    PubMed

    Parra, Julio; Klein, Andrés D; Castro, Juan; Morales, María Gabriela; Mosqueira, Matías; Valencia, Ilse; Cortés, Victor; Rigotti, Attilio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2011-09-30

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease is an autosomal recessive neurovisceral lipid storage disorder. The affected genes are NPC1 and NPC2. Mutations in either gene lead to intracellular cholesterol accumulation. There are three forms of the disease, which are categorized based on the onset and severity of the disease: the infantile form, in which the liver and spleen are severely affected, the juvenile form, in which the liver and brain are affected, and the adult form, which affects the brain. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in the Npc1 gene originated in the BALB/c inbred strain mimics the juvenile form of the disease. To study the influence of genetic background on the expression of NPC disease in mice, we transferred the Npc1 mutation from the BALB/c to C57BL/6J inbred background. We found that C57BL/6J-Npc1(-/-) mice present with a much more aggressive form of the disease, including a shorter lifespan than BALB/c-Npc1(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, there was no difference in the amount of cholesterol in the brains of Npc1(-/-) mice of either mouse strain. However, Npc1(-/-) mice with the C57BL/6J genetic background showed striking spleen damage with a marked buildup of cholesterol and phospholipids at an early age, which correlated with large foamy cell clusters. In addition, C57BL/6J Npc1(-/-) mice presented red cell abnormalities and abundant ghost erythrocytes that correlated with a lower hemoglobin concentration. We also found abnormalities in white cells, such as cytoplasmic granulation and neutrophil hypersegmentation that included lymphopenia and atypias. In conclusion, Npc1 deficiency in the C57BL6/J background is associated with spleen, erythrocyte, and immune system abnormalities that lead to a reduced lifespan. PMID:21910975

  6. Impact of a high-cholesterol diet on expression levels of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 and intestinal transporters in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Atsushi; Araki, Yasuha; Ueda, Yukiko; Nakazaki, Sayaka; Iwaki, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1), ATP-binding cassette (ABC)G5, and ABCG8 are all involved in intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is unclear whether a high-cholesterol (HC) diet affects the expression of these transporters in rats and mice as well as humans. We examined the effects of an HC diet on their expression in small intestine and the differences between rats and mice in the responsive of this expression to an HC diet. In addition to these transporters, alterations in six representative drug and nutrient transporters (multidrug resistance-associated protein, breast cancer resistance protein, peptide transporter, sodium-glucose linked transporter, glucose transporter, and L-type amino acid transporter) and transcriptional factors such as hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)4α, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)2, and liver X receptor (LXR)α were determined. In rats and mice fed an HC diet for 7 days, the mRNA and protein levels of NPC1L1 in the small intestine were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. The mRNA levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8, six representative transporters, and transcriptional factors such as HNF4α, SREBP2, and LXR were examined. Significant decreases in the expression levels of NPC1L1 were observed in mice, but not rats, fed the HC diet. The mRNA levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8 were significantly increased in HC rats but not in mice. Only minor changes in the mRNA levels of the other transporters were seen in HC rats and mice. Decreased mRNA levels of HNF4α and SREBP2 in mice could be involved in the reduction in NPC1L1 expression observed upon the introduction of an HC diet. These results indicate that the effects of an HC diet on the expression levels of NPC1L1, ABCG5, and ABCG8 differ between mice and rats. PMID:25716431

  7. Impact of the loss of caveolin-1 on lung mass and cholesterol metabolism in mice with and without the lysosomal cholesterol transporter, Niemann-Pick type C1

    PubMed Central

    Mundy, Dorothy I.; Lopez, Adam M.; Posey, Kenneth S.; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Ramirez, Charina M.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Turley, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a major structural protein in caveolae in the plasma membranes of many cell types, particularly endothelial cells and adipocytes. Loss of Cav-1 function has been implicated in multiple diseases affecting the cardiopulmonary and central nervous systems, as well as in specific aspects of sterol and lipid metabolism in the liver and intestine. Lungs contain an exceptionally high level of Cav-1. Parameters of cholesterol metabolism in the lung were measured, initially in Cav-1-deficient mice (Cav-1−/−), and subsequently in Cav-1−/− mice that also lacked the lysosomal cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 (Npc1) was also absent (Cav-1−/−:Npc1−/−). In 50-day-old Cav-1−/− mice fed a low- or high-cholesterol chow diet, the total cholesterol concentration (mg/g) in the lungs was marginally lower than in the Cav-1+/+ controls, but due to an expansion in their lung mass exceeding 30%, whole-lung cholesterol content (mg/organ) was moderately elevated. Lung mass (g) in the Cav-1−/−:Npc1−/− mice (0.356 ± 0.022) markedly exceeded that in their Cav-1+/+:Npc1+/+ controls (0.137 ± 0.009), as well as in their Cav-1−/−:Npc1+/+ (0.191 ± 0.013) and Cav-1+/+:Npc1−/− (0.213 ± 0.022) littermates. The corresponding lung total cholesterol content (mg/organ) in mice of these genotypes was 6.74 ± 0.17, 0.71 ± 0.05, 0.96 ± 0.05 and 3.12 ± 0.43, respectively, with the extra cholesterol in the Cav-1−/−:Npc1−/− and Cav-1+/+:Npc1−/− mice being nearly all unesterified (UC). The exacerbation of the Npc1 lung phenotype and increase in the UC level in the Cav-1−/−:Npc1−/− mice imply a regulatory role of Cav-1 in pulmonary cholesterol metabolism when lysosomal sterol transport is disrupted. PMID:24747682

  8. Analysis of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) genetic polymorphisms and haplotypes in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Lou, Xiao-Ya; Qin, Chong-Zhen; Bao, Mei-Hua; Hu, Dong-Li; Chen, Feng; Sun, Hong; Chen, Yao; Guo, Dong; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Yu; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2015-09-01

    Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1i) protein is the key transporter responsible for dietary cholesterol absorption. Recent studies indicated that several functional polymorphisms of NPC1L1 were associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) and response to ezetimibe therapy. The aim of the present study was to analyze the allele frequency and haplotype distribution of NPC1L1 polymorphisms in Chinese Hans and to compare them with those of other ethnic populations reported before. Blood samples were collected from 424 unrelated Chinese Hans (246 males and 178 females). Ten NPC1L1 polymorphisms (-762T > C, -133A > G, -18C > A, 1721C > T, 1735C > G, 1764T > C, 1767G > A, 27677T > C, 25342A > C and 28650A > G) were genotyped by direct sequencing or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Among the variants, the minor allele frequency of -762T > C and 1735C > G were 35.0% and 37.0%, respectively. Furthermore, these two polymorphisms were highly linked with a D' value of 0.80. The observed frequencies of two major haplotypes were 59.1% for T-762/C1735 and 30.1% for C-762/G1735, respectively. The frequencies of the rest variants were extremely low (1.8% for - 133G, 1.5% for -18A, 0.9% for 1721T and only 0.2% for 27677C allele, respectively) or even not detected (1764T > C, 1767G > A, 25342A > C and 28650A > G) in our study population. Comparison with other ethnic populations revealed a remarkable genetic variability in the incidences of NPC1L1 polymorphisms. The frequencies of NPC1L1 polymorphisms in Chinese Hans are comparable to Japanese population but totally different from Caucasians, African-Americans and Hispanic individuals. This is the first study to report the ethnic difference in the frequencies of NPC1L1 functional polymorphisms in detail. -762T > C and 1735C > G are two prevalent NPC1L1 variants which need further studies to explore their clinical impact on CHD prevalence and response to ezetimibe therapy in Chinese Hans

  9. Deficiency of a Niemann-Pick, Type C1-related Protein in Toxoplasma Is Associated with Multiple Lipidoses and Increased Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lige, Bao; Romano, Julia D.; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Ehrenman, Karen; Levitskaya, Jelena; Sampels, Vera; Haughey, Norman J.; Coppens, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    Several proteins that play key roles in cholesterol synthesis, regulation, trafficking and signaling are united by sharing the phylogenetically conserved ‘sterol-sensing domain’ (SSD). The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma possesses at least one gene coding for a protein containing the canonical SSD. We investigated the role of this protein to provide information on lipid regulatory mechanisms in the parasite. The protein sequence predicts an uncharacterized Niemann-Pick, type C1-related protein (NPC1) with significant identity to human NPC1, and it contains many residues implicated in human NPC disease. We named this NPC1-related protein, TgNCR1. Mammalian NPC1 localizes to endo-lysosomes and promotes the movement of sterols and sphingolipids across the membranes of these organelles. Miscoding patient mutations in NPC1 cause overloading of these lipids in endo-lysosomes. TgNCR1, however, lacks endosomal targeting signals, and localizes to flattened vesicles beneath the plasma membrane of Toxoplasma. When expressed in mammalian NPC1 mutant cells and properly addressed to endo-lysosomes, TgNCR1 restores cholesterol and GM1 clearance from these organelles. To clarify the role of TgNCR1 in the parasite, we genetically disrupted NCR1; mutant parasites were viable. Quantitative lipidomic analyses on the ΔNCR1 strain reveal normal cholesterol levels but an overaccumulation of several species of cholesteryl esters, sphingomyelins and ceramides. ΔNCR1 parasites are also characterized by abundant storage lipid bodies and long membranous tubules derived from their parasitophorous vacuoles. Interestingly, these mutants can generate multiple daughters per single mother cell at high frequencies, allowing fast replication in vitro, and they are slightly more virulent in mice than the parental strain. These data suggest that the ΔNCR1 strain has lost the ability to control the intracellular levels of several lipids, which subsequently results in the stimulation of lipid

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, In Vitro Evaluation, and Preclinical Profiling of beta-Cyclodextrin Polyrotaxane Families for Use As Potential Niemann-Pick Type C Therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Christopher J.

    Niemann-Pick Disease Type C (NPC) is a rare, autosomal recessive genetic disorder featuring a loss of proteins responsible for unesterified cholesterol (UC) trafficking through the late endosomes/lysosomes (LE/LY) of every cell of the body. Disruption of this pathway leads to abnormal accumulation and storage of UC and other lipids. A broad range of visceral and neurological symptoms result from this accumulation exhibiting a variable age of onset and a disease progression that is ultimately fatal. The disease has an incidence of approximately 1 in 120,000 live births and has no known effective treatment. beta-Cyclodextrin (beta-CD) are natural small molecules macrocycles composed of glucose units with a hydrophobic inner cavity and hydrophilic outer rims. beta-CD derivatives have recently been shown to be effective therapeutics for NPC in cellular and animal models. In the mouse model of the disease, beta-CD therapy increases overall lifetime by as much as 50% and slows the progression of neurodegeneration. The progress has led to the initiation of a National Institutes of Health phase I clinical trial. A main drawback of beta-CD administration is the poor pharmacokinetic profile characterized by rapid renal clearance of the drug through the urine. Libraries of beta-CD derivative carrying high molecular weight polyrotaxane (PR) systems have been designed to prevent glomerular filtration of the injected beta-CD dose. An initial family of unmodified beta-CD PRs was synthesized, characterized, and their therapeutic efficacy was tested in NPC fibroblasts. This was followed by screening of PRs consisting of mixed beta-CD derivative threading featuring charged sulfobutylether beta-CD. Finally, we sought to define PR structure-property effects on in vivo pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, toxicity, immunogenicity, and protein hard corona composition. This was accomplished using a family of gadolinium carrying PRs composed of triblock Pluronic co-polymers of varying

  11. Niemann-Pick disease type C1(NPC1) is involved in resistance against imatinib in the imatinib-resistant Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI.

    PubMed

    Naren, Duolan; Wu, Jiahui; Gong, Yuping; Yan, Tianyou; Wang, Ke; Xu, Wenming; Yang, Xi; Shi, Fangfang; Shi, Rui

    2016-03-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1) is involved in cholesterol trafficking and may normally function as a transmembrane efflux pump. Previous studies showed that its dysfunction can lead to cholesterol and daunorubicin accumulation in the cytoplasmic endosomal/lysosomal system, lead to Niemann-Pick disease and resistance to anticancer drugs. In the present study, NPC1 was shown by microarray analysis to be more highly expressed in the Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line SUP-B15/RI, an imatinib-resistant variant of SUP-B15/S cells without bcr-abl gene mutation established in our lab. Further investigation revealed a defect in the functional capacity of the NPC1 protein demonstrated by filipin staining accompanied by a lower intracellular imatinib mesylate(IM) concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography in SUP-B15/RI compared with SUP-B15/S cells. Furthermore, U18666A, an inhibitor of NPC1 function, was used to block cholesterol trafficking to imitate the NPC1 defect in SUP-B15/S cells, leading to higher NPC1 expression, stronger filipin fluorescence, lower intracellular IM concentrations and greater resistance against IM. Samples from non-mutated relapsed Ph+ ALL patients also showed higher NPC1 expression compared with IM-sensitive patients. Our experiment may reveal a new mechanism of IM resistance in Ph+ ALL. PMID:26818574

  12. Comprehensive Evaluation of Plasma 7-Ketocholesterol and Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-Triol in an Italian Cohort of Patients Affected by Niemann-Pick Disease due to NPC1 and SMPD1 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Romanello, Milena; Zampieri, Stefania; Bortolotti, Nadia; Deroma, Laura; Sechi, Annalisa; Fiumara, Agata; Parini, Rossella; Borroni, Barbara; Brancati, Francesco; Bruni, Amalia; Russo, Cinzia V; Bordugo, Andrea; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Niemann-Pick C disease (NPCD) is a rare autosomal recessive neurovisceral disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol and 7-ketocholesterol have been proposed as biomarkers for the screening of NPCD. In this work, we assessed oxysterols levels in a cohort of Italian patients affected by NPCD and analyzed the obtained results in the context of the clinical, biochemical and molecular data. In addition, a group of patients affected by Niemann-Pick B disease (NPBD) were also analyzed. NPC patients presented levels of both oxysterols way above the cut off value, except for 5 siblings presenting the variant biochemical phenotype who displayed levels of 3β,5α,6β-triol below or just above the cut-off value; 2 of them presented also normal levels of 7-KC. Both oxysterols were extremely high in a patient presenting the neonatal systemic lethal phenotype. All NPB patients showed increased oxysterols levels. In conclusion, the reported LC-MS/MS assay provides a robust non-invasive screening tool for NPCD. However, false negative results can be obtained in patients expressing the variant biochemical phenotype. These data strengthen the concept that the results should always be interpreted in the context of the patients' clinical picture and filipin staining and/or genetic studies might still be undertaken in patients with normal levels of oxysterols if symptoms are highly suggestive of NPCD. Both oxysterols are significantly elevated in NPB patients; thus a differential diagnosis should always be performed in patients presenting isolated hepatosplenomegaly, a common clinical sign of both NPCD and NPBD. PMID:26790753

  13. Reduction in cholesterol absorption in Caco-2 cells through the down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 by the putative probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 from fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hong-Sup; Ju, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Han-Nah; Park, Hyun-Joon; Ji, Yosep; Lee, Ji-Eun; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Do, Myoung-Sool; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2013-02-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia is a major risk factor related to atherosclerosis, and it may be influenced by our diet. This study addresses the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from Maasai fermented milk) and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 (from Korean kimchi) on the control of cholesterol absorption through down-regulation of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) expression. Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with the live, heat-killed (HK) bacteria, bacterial cell wall extracts and metabolites; mRNA level and protein expression were measured. Caco-2 cells showed lower NPC1L1 expression in the presence of the live test strains than the control, elucidating down-regulation of cholesterol uptake, and were compared well with the positive control, L. rhamnosus GG. This effect was also observed with HK bacteria and cell wall fractions but not with their metabolites. The potential of some Lactobacillus strains associated with traditional fermented foods to suppress cholesterol uptake and promote its efflux in enterocytes has been suggested from these data. PMID:22816655

  14. Rescue of an in vitro neuron phenotype identified in Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons by modulating the WNT pathway and calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Efthymiou, Anastasia G; Steiner, Joe; Pavan, William J; Wincovitch, Stephen; Larson, Denise M; Porter, Forbes D; Rao, Mahendra S; Malik, Nasir

    2015-03-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a familial disorder that has devastating consequences on postnatal development with multisystem effects, including neurodegeneration. There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment option for NPC1; however, several potentially therapeutic compounds have been identified in assays using yeast, rodent models, and NPC1 human fibroblasts. Although these discoveries were made in fibroblasts from NPC1 subjects and were in some instances validated in animal models of the disease, testing these drugs on a cell type more relevant for NPC1 neurological disease would greatly facilitate both study of the disease and identification of more relevant therapeutic compounds. Toward this goal, we have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a subject homozygous for the most frequent NPC1 mutation (p.I1061T) and subsequently created a stable line of neural stem cells (NSCs). These NSCs were then used to create neurons as an appropriate disease model. NPC1 neurons display a premature cell death phenotype, and gene expression analysis of these cells suggests dysfunction of important signaling pathways, including calcium and WNT. The clear readout from these cells makes them ideal candidates for high-throughput screening and will be a valuable tool to better understand the development of NPC1 in neural cells, as well as to develop better therapeutic options for NPC1. PMID:25637190

  15. Rescue of an In Vitro Neuron Phenotype Identified in Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C1 Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons by Modulating the WNT Pathway and Calcium Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Efthymiou, Anastasia G.; Steiner, Joe; Pavan, William J.; Wincovitch, Stephen; Larson, Denise M.; Porter, Forbes D.; Rao, Mahendra S.

    2015-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) is a familial disorder that has devastating consequences on postnatal development with multisystem effects, including neurodegeneration. There is no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment option for NPC1; however, several potentially therapeutic compounds have been identified in assays using yeast, rodent models, and NPC1 human fibroblasts. Although these discoveries were made in fibroblasts from NPC1 subjects and were in some instances validated in animal models of the disease, testing these drugs on a cell type more relevant for NPC1 neurological disease would greatly facilitate both study of the disease and identification of more relevant therapeutic compounds. Toward this goal, we have generated an induced pluripotent stem cell line from a subject homozygous for the most frequent NPC1 mutation (p.I1061T) and subsequently created a stable line of neural stem cells (NSCs). These NSCs were then used to create neurons as an appropriate disease model. NPC1 neurons display a premature cell death phenotype, and gene expression analysis of these cells suggests dysfunction of important signaling pathways, including calcium and WNT. The clear readout from these cells makes them ideal candidates for high-throughput screening and will be a valuable tool to better understand the development of NPC1 in neural cells, as well as to develop better therapeutic options for NPC1. PMID:25637190

  16. Concurrent increase of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide in the spleen from non-neurologic Niemann-Pick type C patients but also patients possibly affected with other lipid trafficking disorders.

    PubMed

    Harzer, Klaus; Massenkeil, Gero; Fröhlich, Eckhart

    2003-02-27

    Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC) is a neurovisceral (or, extremely rarely, only visceral) lipidosis caused by mutations in the NPC1 gene or, in a few patients, the HE1 gene, which encode sterol regulating proteins. NPC is characterised by a complex lipid anomaly including a disturbed cellular trafficking of cholesterol but also multi-lipid storage in visceral organs and brain. Lipids were studied using conventional methods in enlarged spleens that had been removed from five patients for different therapeutic and diagnostic reasons and found to have microscopic signs of lysosomal storage disease not suspected clinically. The spleen lipid findings with a concurrent accumulation of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide (Acc-CSG) allowed us to suggest NPC diagnoses for these patients, who were free of neurologic symptoms. From two patients no material for confirmatory studies was available, but in two other patients NPC diagnoses could be confirmed with the filipin cytochemical cholesterol assay and NPC1 gene analysis, respectively. However, these tests and also HE1 gene analysis were negative in a third patient. Since the Acc-CSG lipid pattern seems to indicate a multi-lipid trafficking defect rather than being highly specific for NPC, this patient, if not affected with very atypical NPC, may be a candidate for a different lipid trafficking disorder. The Acc-CSG pattern was considered to be similar to the lipid pattern known for the lipid rafts, these functional cell structures being probably disorganised and accumulated in late endosomes and lysosomes of NPC cells. PMID:12606053

  17. Urinary excretion and metabolism of miglustat and valproate in patients with Niemann-Pick type C1 disease: One- and two-dimensional solution-state (1)H NMR studies.

    PubMed

    Probert, Fay; Ruiz-Rodado, Victor; Zhang, Xiaoyu; te Vruchte, Danielle; Claridge, Tim D W; Edgar, Mark; Tocchio, Anna Zonato; Lachmann, Robin H; Platt, Frances M; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C1 (NP-C1) disease is a neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease for which the only approved therapy is miglustat (MGS). In this study we explored the applications and value of both one- and two-dimensional high-resolution NMR analysis strategies to the detection and quantification of MGS and its potential metabolites in urine samples collected from NP-C1 disease patients (n=47), and also applied these techniques to the analysis of the anticonvulsant drug valproate and one of its major metabolites in ca. 30% of these samples (i.e. from those who were also receiving this agent for the control of epileptic seizures). A combination of high-resolution 1D and 2D TOCSY/NOESY techniques confirmed the identity of MGS in the urinary (1)H NMR profiles of NP-C1 patients treated with this agent (n=25), and its quantification was readily achievable via electronic integration of selected 1D resonance intensities. However, this analysis provided little or no evidence for its metabolism in vivo, observations consistent with those acquired in corresponding experiments performed involving an in vitro microsomal system. Contrastingly, the major valproate metabolite 1-O-valproyl-β-glucuronide was readily detectable and quantifiable in 14/47 of the urine samples investigated, despite some resonance overlap problems (identification of this agent was confirmed by experiments involving equilibration of these samples with β-glucuronidase, a process liberating free valproate). In order to facilitate and validate the detection of MGS in urine specimens, full assignments of the (1)H NMR spectra of MGS in both buffered aqueous (pH 7.10) and deuterated methanol solvent systems were also made. The pharmacological and bioanalytical significance of data acquired are discussed, with special reference to the advantages offered by high-resolution NMR analysis. PMID:26397207

  18. The clathrin adaptor proteins ARH, Dab2, and numb play distinct roles in Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 versus low density lipoprotein receptor-mediated cholesterol uptake.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Pei-Shan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Song, Bao-Liang

    2014-11-28

    The uptake of circulating low density lipoproteins (LDL) is mediated by LDL receptor (LDLR) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. At the early stage of this process, adaptor proteins ARH and Dab2 specifically bind the endocytic signal motif in LDLR and recruit clathrin/AP2 to initiate internalization. On the other hand, intestinal cholesterol is absorbed by Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) through clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Another adaptor protein, Numb recognizes the endocytic motif in NPC1L1 C terminus and couples NPC1L1 to endocytic machinery. The ARH, Dab2, and Numb proteins contain a homogeneous phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain that directly binds endocytic motifs. Because ARH, Dab2, and Numb are all PTB domain family members, the emerging mystery is whether these adaptors act complementally in LDLR and NPC1L1 endocytosis. Here, we found that ARH and Dab2 did not bind NPC1L1 and were not required for NPC1L1 internalization. Similarly, Numb lacked the ability to interact with the LDLR C terminus and was dispensable for LDL uptake. Only the Numb isoforms with shorter PTB domain could facilitate NPC1L1 endocytosis. Besides the reported function in intestinal cholesterol absorption, Numb also mediated cholesterol reabsorption from bile in liver. We further identified a Numb variant with G595D substitution in humans of low blood LDL-cholesterol. The G595D substitution impaired NPC1L1 internalization and cholesterol reabsorption, due to attenuating affinity of Numb to clathrin/AP2. These results demonstrate that Numb specifically regulates NPC1L1-mediated cholesterol absorption both in human intestine and liver, distinct from ARH and Dab2, which selectively participate in LDLR-mediated LDL uptake. PMID:25331956

  19. National Niemann-Pick Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grants Jointly Sponsored by the NNPDF and CCNNPDF Fellowships Jointly Funded by the NNPDF and CCNNPDF Clinical ... and Reports Current Grants Peter G. Pentchev Research Fellowship (NPD Type C) Edward H. Schuchman Research Fellowship ( ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Niemann-Pick disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... is responsible for the conversion of a fat (lipid) called sphingomyelin into another type of lipid called ceramide. Mutations in SMPD1 lead to a ... these genes are involved in the movement of lipids within cells. Mutations in these genes lead to ...

  1. National Niemann-Pick Disease Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Web Sites and Memorials Fundraising Support Getting Media Coverage Organizations Addressing Lysosome Storage Diseases Request More Information ... NNPDF Newsletters Press Releases NNPDF Webinars Getting Media Coverage Video & Print Resources External Links NNPDF e-Mail ...

  2. Chemical synthesis of the 3-sulfooxy-7-N-acetylglucosaminyl-24-amidated conjugates of 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid, and related compounds: unusual, major metabolites of bile acid in a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C1.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takashi; Kakiyama, Genta; Hibiya, Yohei; Miyata, Shohei; Inoue, Takehiko; Ohno, Kohsaku; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-01-01

    The chemical synthesis of 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid, triply conjugated by sulfuric acid at C-3, by N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) at C-7, and by glycine or taurine at C-24, is described. These are unusual, major metabolites of bile acid found to be excreted in the urine of a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C1. Analogous double-conjugates of 3beta-hydroxy-7-oxo-5-cholen-24-oic acid were also prepared. The principal reactions involved were: (1) beta-d-N-acetylglucosaminidation at C-7 of methyl 3beta-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy (TBDMSi)-7beta-hydroxy-5-cholen-24-oate with 2-acetamido-1alpha-chloro-1,2-dideoxy-3,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-d-glucopyranose in the presence of CdCO(3) in boiling toluene; (2) sulfation at C-3 of the resulting 3beta-TBDMSi-7beta-GlcNAc with sulfur trioxide-trimethylamine complex in pyridine; and (3) direct amidation at C-24 of the 3beta-sulfooxy-7beta-GlcNAc conjugate with glycine methyl ester hydrochloride (or taurine) using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride as a coupling agent in DMF. The structures of the multi-conjugated bile acids were characterized by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization probe under the positive and negative ionization modes. PMID:16197972

  3. Wilson's Disease Association International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connect with Wilson Disease Association Send Email Physician Contacts List of Physicians and Institutions in Your Area View Contacts Support Contacts Individuals who can offer Support and Information View ...

  4. [Treatable neurometabolic diseases. Association with schizophrenia spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Olivier; Herrera, Paula; Kuster, Alice

    2015-09-01

    Schizophrenia spectrum disorders are presented on 1% of subjects over general population. Organic pathologies prevalence in schizophrenia spectrum patients is not well determined, and it is probably underestimated. In the present update review, we are going to highlight seven treatable neurometabolic diseases (NMD) associated to sub-clinic neurological symptoms. It is not infrequent to witness the absence of any clinical neurological signs going along with the NMD. Psychiatric symptoms may be the only clinical alarm that can guide physicians to an acute diagnosis. This is why it is a challenging pathology, defying our clinical accuracy as psychiatrist or any other practitioners confronted to this population. Hereby we are going to expose a literature review and comprehensive tables in order to present in a glance the essential clinical features of disorders of homocysteine metabolism, urea cycle disorders, Niemann-Pick disease type C, acute porphyria, cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis. These conditions are sensible to major improvement strongly correlated to the accuracy of diagnosis. Literature analysis led us to propose a comprehensive list of atypical psychiatric symptoms including highly predominant visual hallucinations, compared to auditory ones, as well as confusion, catatonia or progressive cognitive decline. We highlight the importance of considering antipsychotic treatment resistance as a crucial sign leading to suspect an organic factor beneath the psychiatric features. PMID:26248708

  5. Two Siblings with Adolescent/Adult Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Niemann–Pick disease, type C (NP-C), is caused by NPC1 or NPC2 gene mutations. Progressive neurological, psychiatric, and visceral symptoms are characteristic. Here, we present cases of a brother (Case 1) and sister (Case 2) in their mid-20s with gait disturbance and psychosis. For the Case 1, neurological examination revealed dystonia, ataxia, vertical supranuclear-gaze palsy (VSGP), and global cognitive impairment. Case 2 showed milder, but similar symptoms, with cortical atrophy. Abdominal computed tomography showed hepatosplenomegaly in both cases. NPC1 gene sequencing revealed compound heterozygote for exon 9 (c.1552C>T [R518W]) and exon 18 (c.2780C>T [A927V]). Filipin-staining tests were also positive. When a young patient with ataxia or dystonia shows VSGP, NP-C should be considered. PMID:27366019

  6. Miglustat Reverts the Impairment of Synaptic Plasticity in a Mouse Model of NPC Disease

    PubMed Central

    D'Arcangelo, G.; Grossi, D.; Racaniello, M.; Cardinale, A.; Zaratti, A.; Rufini, S.; Cutarelli, A.; Tancredi, V.; Merlo, D.; Frank, C.

    2016-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C disease is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, characterized by abnormal sequestration of unesterified cholesterol within the late endolysosomal compartment of cells and accumulation of gangliosides and other sphingolipids. Progressive neurological deterioration and insurgence of symptoms like ataxia, seizure, and cognitive decline until severe dementia are pathognomonic features of the disease. Here, we studied synaptic plasticity phenomena and evaluated ERKs activation in the hippocampus of BALB/c NPC1−/− mice, a well described animal model of the disease. Our results demonstrated an impairment of both induction and maintenance of long term synaptic potentiation in NPC1−/− mouse slices, associated with the lack of ERKs phosphorylation. We then investigated the effects of Miglustat, a recent approved drug for the treatment of NPCD. We found that in vivo Miglustat administration in NPC1−/− mice was able to rescue synaptic plasticity deficits, to restore ERKs activation and to counteract hyperexcitability. Overall, these data indicate that Miglustat may be effective for treating the neurological deficits associated with NPCD, such as seizures and dementia. PMID:26885401

  7. Extinction Partially Reverts Structural Changes Associated with Remote Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetere, Gisella; Restivo, Leonardo; Novembre, Giovanni; Aceti, Massimiliano; Lumaca, Massimo; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2011-01-01

    Structural synaptic changes occur in medial prefrontal cortex circuits during remote memory formation. Whether extinction reverts or further reshapes these circuits is, however, unknown. Here we show that the number and the size of spines were enhanced in anterior cingulate (aCC) and infralimbic (ILC) cortices 36 d following contextual fear…

  8. E-SMARRT: Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    This factsheet describes the Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) program developed by Advanced Technology Institute (ATI). E-SMARRT is a balanced portfolio of projects to address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry.

  9. [Interstitial lung diseases associated with smoking].

    PubMed

    Nová, Markéta; Hornychová, Helena; Matěj, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    There are many different interstitial lung diseases associated with smoking. This short review describes officially recognized disorders (desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and pulmonary Langerhans´cells histiocytosis) and entities with uncertain relationship to smoking, which have recently been published in the literature. Histopathological pictures and differential diagnosis of smoking-related diseases of the lungs are discussed. PMID:27223588

  10. Contact-Inhibited Revertant Cell Lines Isolated from Simian Virus 40-Transformed Cells III. Concanavalin A-Selected Revertant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Culp, Lloyd A.; Black, Paul H.

    1972-01-01

    Contact-inhibited variants have been isolated by treatment of simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed Balb/c 3T3 cells (SVT2) with the plant lectin concanavalin A. These con A revertant cells exhibit the following properties: (i) they resemble 3T3 cells morphologically and grow to saturation densities which are similar to that of 3T3 cells; (ii) they synthesize the SV40-specific T antigen and yield infectious virus after fusion with permissive monkey cells; (iii) they contain a high sialic acid content similar to that of 3T3 cells and not to that of SVT2 cells; sialic acid composition was found to be independent of serum concentration; (iv) they contain more chromosomes with the average number in the tetraploid range than the SVT2 cells from which they were derived; and (v) SVT2 and revertant cells, confluent or subconfluent, produce more collagen than Balb/3T3 cells. The relationship of surface membrane properties to contact inhibition of growth and the mechanisms for generating revertant cells are discussed. Images PMID:4336561

  11. Biomedical Information Extraction: Mining Disease Associated Genes from Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Disease associated gene discovery is a critical step to realize the future of personalized medicine. However empirical and clinical validation of disease associated genes are time consuming and expensive. In silico discovery of disease associated genes from literature is therefore becoming the first essential step for biomarker discovery to…

  12. [Basedow disease associated with Evans syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Kida, Masaya; Watanabe, Hideki; Matsunaga, Takuya; Niitsu, Yoshiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2005-10-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted to a hospital complaining of dizziness and general fatigue in October, 2004. Because of heart failure and severe anemia, she was referred to our hospital. Based on a positive direct Coombs test and an elevated level of platelet-associated IgG (PAIgG), the patient was diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) associated with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), i.e., Evans syndrome. Basedow disease was also diagnosed due to hyperthyroidism with an elevation of anti-thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies. Both the Evans syndrome and Basedow disease were considerably ameliorated with plasma exchange, corticosteroid and thiamazole therapy. Although Basedow disease is known to be associated with hematological disorders such as AIHA or ITP, the combination of Basedow disease and Evans syndrome is rare. We report here a case of Basedow disease associated with Evans syndrome. PMID:16440774

  13. A vortex venturi for reverting antimisting fuel properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Tevelde, J.

    1983-01-01

    The level of degradation of antimisting fuel polymers such as FM-9 which must be accomplished in order to use antimisting fuel in existing engines may require the use of cavitation. The hydrodynamic shear produced by the collapse of vapor bubbles is capable of producing more splitting of polymeric molecules than mechanically-induced shear. A program has been carried out to investigate the possibility of using a cavitating venturi with rotating flow as a fuel reverter. This investigation included the effects of a swirl-inducing twisted tape upstream of the throat, inlet pressure, recovery pressure ratio and a pintle for varying throat area. A correlation of the data was produced, system concepts for using the vortex venturi were investigated and problem areas were delineated.

  14. Valvular disease associated with systemic illness.

    PubMed

    Roldan, C A

    1998-08-01

    clinical and prognostic implications of valvular disease associated with the connective tissue diseases, incomplete data are available about pathogenesis, relation to clinical features of the primary disease, evolution, and effect of steroid or cytotoxic therapy. Echocardiography, especially TEE, has the potential to redefine the prevalence rates and to characterize better the valve abnormalities associated with these conditions. Finally, future large cross-sectional and longitudinal studies using clinical and echocardiographic data may help to define better the presence, evolution, and therapy of the valvular disease associated with the connective tissue diseases. PMID:9742329

  15. Renal disease associated with colic in horses.

    PubMed

    Seanor, J W; Byars, T D; Boutcher, J K

    1984-05-01

    Renal dysfunction secondary to GI disorders may be relatively common in horses. Persistent dehydration of 8-10% of body weight can lead to prerenal azotemia, which may result in renal ischemia and renal disease if uncorrected. Dehydrated azotemic horses with a urine specific gravity less than 1.018 may have renal disease. Urine specific gravity readings greater than 1.025 usually indicate normal kidney function. A urine Na level less than 20 mEq/L and a urine/plasma creatinine ratio greater than or equal to 20:1 indicate prerenal problems. Use of nephrotoxic drugs should be avoided in septicemic or dehydrated horses. Salmonellosis and proximal enteritis often lead to renal complications. Renal disease associated with DIC warrants a poor prognosis. Treatment of acute renal failure is aimed at eliminating the underlying cause and correcting metabolic abnormalities. Use of IV fluids, dopamine, prostaglandin inhibitors, fresh and electrolyte-spiked water ad libitum, water-soluble vitamins and high-P diets is beneficial. Success of therapy should be judged by laboratory results rather than clinical impressions. PMID:6738502

  16. HLA and Disease Associations in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Stephen; Choi, Hee-Back

    2011-01-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans has been known to reside on chromosome 6 and encodes cell-surface antigen-presenting proteins and many other proteins related to immune system function. The HLA is highly polymorphic and the most genetically variable coding loci in humans. In addition to a critical role in transplantation medicine, HLA and disease associations have been widely studied across the populations world-wide and are found to be important in prediction of disease susceptibility, resistance and of evolutionary maintenance of genetic diversity. Because recently developed molecular based HLA typing has several advantages like improved specimen stability and increased resolution of HLA types, the association between HLA alleles and a given disease could be more accurately quantified. Here, in this review, we have collected HLA association data on some autoimmune diseases, infectious diseases, cancers, drug responsiveness and other diseases with unknown etiology in Koreans and attempt to summarize some remarkable HLA alleles related with specific diseases. PMID:22346771

  17. Schizophrenia Gene Expression Profile Reverted to Normal Levels by Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Prieto, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the widespread use of antipsychotics, little is known of the molecular bases behind the action of antipsychotic drugs. A genome-wide study is needed to characterize the genes that affect the clinical response and their adverse effects. Methods: Here we show the analysis of the blood transcriptome of 22 schizophrenia patients before and after medication with atypical antipsychotics by next-generation sequencing. Results: We found that 17 genes, among the 21 495 genes analyzed, have significantly-altered expression after medication (p-value adjusted [Padj] <0.05). Six genes (ADAMTS2, CD177, CNTNAP3, ENTPD2, RFX2, and UNC45B) out of the 17 are among the 200 genes that we characterized with differential expression in a previous study between antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and controls (Sainz et al., 2013). This number of schizophrenia-altered expression genes is significantly higher than expected by chance (Chi-test, Padj 1.19E-50), suggesting that at least part of the antipsychotic beneficial effects is exerted by modulating the expression of these genes. Interestingly, all six of these genes were overexpressed in patients and reverted to control levels of expression after treatment. We also found a significant enrichment of genes related to obesity and diabetes, known adverse affects of antipsychotics. Conclusions: These results may facilitate understanding of unknown molecular mechanisms behind schizophrenia symptoms and the molecular mechanisms of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:25522406

  18. Glucocorticoid receptor antagonism reverts docetaxel resistance in human prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kroon, Jan; Puhr, Martin; Buijs, Jeroen T; van der Horst, Geertje; Hemmer, Daniëlle M; Marijt, Koen A; Hwang, Ming S; Masood, Motasim; Grimm, Stefan; Storm, Gert; Metselaar, Josbert M; Meijer, Onno C; Culig, Zoran; van der Pluijm, Gabri

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to docetaxel is a major clinical problem in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Although glucocorticoids (GCs) are frequently used in combination with docetaxel, it is unclear to what extent GCs and their receptor, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), contribute to the chemotherapy resistance. In this study, we aim to elucidate the role of the GR in docetaxel-resistant PCa in order to improve the current PCa therapies. GR expression was analyzed in a tissue microarray of primary PCa specimens from chemonaive and docetaxel-treated patients, and in cultured PCa cell lines with an acquired docetaxel resistance (PC3-DR, DU145-DR, and 22Rv1-DR). We found a robust overexpression of the GR in primary PCa from docetaxel-treated patients and enhanced GR levels in cultured docetaxel-resistant human PCa cells, indicating a key role of the GR in docetaxel resistance. The capability of the GR antagonists (RU-486 and cyproterone acetate) to revert docetaxel resistance was investigated and revealed significant resensitization of docetaxel-resistant PCa cells for docetaxel treatment in a dose- and time-dependent manner, in which a complete restoration of docetaxel sensitivity was achieved in both androgen receptor (AR)-negative and AR-positive cell lines. Mechanistically, we demonstrated down-regulation of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 upon GR antagonism, thereby defining potential treatment targets. In conclusion, we describe the involvement of the GR in the acquisition of docetaxel resistance in human PCa. Therapeutic targeting of the GR effectively resensitizes docetaxel-resistant PCa cells. These findings warrant further investigation of the clinical utility of the GR antagonists in the management of patients with advanced and docetaxel-resistant PCa. PMID:26483423

  19. The Implicitome: A Resource for Rationalizing Gene-Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    van der Horst, Eelke; Kaliyaperumal, Rajaram; Mina, Eleni; Tatum, Zuotian; Laros, Jeroen F. J.; van Mulligen, Erik M.; Schuemie, Martijn; Aten, Emmelien; Li, Tong Shu; Bruskiewich, Richard; Good, Benjamin M.; Su, Andrew I.; Kors, Jan A.; den Dunnen, Johan; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; Roos, Marco; ‘t Hoen, Peter A.C.; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A.

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimental methods such as medical sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify increasingly large numbers of potential relations between genetic variants and diseases. Both biological complexity (millions of potential gene-disease associations) and the accelerating rate of data production necessitate computational approaches to prioritize and rationalize potential gene-disease relations. Here, we use concept profile technology to expose from the biomedical literature both explicitly stated gene-disease relations (the explicitome) and a much larger set of implied gene-disease associations (the implicitome). Implicit relations are largely unknown to, or are even unintended by the original authors, but they vastly extend the reach of existing biomedical knowledge for identification and interpretation of gene-disease associations. The implicitome can be used in conjunction with experimental data resources to rationalize both known and novel associations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the implicitome by rationalizing known and novel gene-disease associations, including those from GWAS. To facilitate the re-use of implicit gene-disease associations, we publish our data in compliance with FAIR Data Publishing recommendations [https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup] using nanopublications. An online tool (http://knowledge.bio) is available to explore established and potential gene-disease associations in the context of other biomedical relations. PMID:26919047

  20. The Implicitome: A Resource for Rationalizing Gene-Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Hettne, Kristina M; Thompson, Mark; van Haagen, Herman H H B M; van der Horst, Eelke; Kaliyaperumal, Rajaram; Mina, Eleni; Tatum, Zuotian; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Mulligen, Erik M; Schuemie, Martijn; Aten, Emmelien; Li, Tong Shu; Bruskiewich, Richard; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I; Kors, Jan A; den Dunnen, Johan; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B; Roos, Marco; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Mons, Barend; Schultes, Erik A

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput experimental methods such as medical sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify increasingly large numbers of potential relations between genetic variants and diseases. Both biological complexity (millions of potential gene-disease associations) and the accelerating rate of data production necessitate computational approaches to prioritize and rationalize potential gene-disease relations. Here, we use concept profile technology to expose from the biomedical literature both explicitly stated gene-disease relations (the explicitome) and a much larger set of implied gene-disease associations (the implicitome). Implicit relations are largely unknown to, or are even unintended by the original authors, but they vastly extend the reach of existing biomedical knowledge for identification and interpretation of gene-disease associations. The implicitome can be used in conjunction with experimental data resources to rationalize both known and novel associations. We demonstrate the usefulness of the implicitome by rationalizing known and novel gene-disease associations, including those from GWAS. To facilitate the re-use of implicit gene-disease associations, we publish our data in compliance with FAIR Data Publishing recommendations [https://www.force11.org/group/fairgroup] using nanopublications. An online tool (http://knowledge.bio) is available to explore established and potential gene-disease associations in the context of other biomedical relations. PMID:26919047

  1. Minority human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants in antiretroviral-naive persons with reverse transcriptase codon 215 revertant mutations.

    PubMed

    Mitsuya, Yumi; Varghese, Vici; Wang, Chunlin; Liu, Tommy F; Holmes, Susan P; Jayakumar, Prerana; Gharizadeh, Baback; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Klein, Daniel; Fessel, W Jeffrey; Shafer, Robert W

    2008-11-01

    T215 revertant mutations such as T215C/D/E/S that evolve from the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor mutations T215Y/F have been found in about 3% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected persons. We used a newly developed sequencing method-ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS; 454 Life Sciences)--to determine the frequency with which T215Y/F or other RT inhibitor resistance mutations could be detected as minority variants in samples from untreated persons that contain T215 revertants ("revertant" samples) compared with samples from untreated persons that lack such revertants ("control" samples). Among the 22 revertant and 29 control samples, UDPS detected a mean of 3.8 and 4.8 additional RT amino acid mutations, respectively. In 6 of 22 (27%) revertant samples and in 4 of 29 control samples (14%; P = 0.4), UDPS detected one or more RT inhibitor resistance mutations. T215Y or T215F was not detected in any of the revertant or control samples; however, 4 of 22 revertant samples had one or more T215 revertants that were detected by UDPS but not by direct PCR sequencing. The failure to detect viruses with T215Y/F in the 22 revertant samples in this study may result from the overwhelming replacement of transmitted T215Y variants by the more fit T215 revertants or from the primary transmission of a T215 revertant in a subset of persons with T215 revertants. PMID:18715933

  2. Revertant mosaicism in a human skin fragility disorder results from slipped mispairing and mitotic recombination

    PubMed Central

    Kiritsi, Dimitra; He, Yinghong; Pasmooij, Anna M.G.; Onder, Meltem; Happle, Rudolf; Jonkman, Marcel F.; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Has, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous gene repair, also called revertant mosaicism, has been documented in several genetic disorders involving organs that undergo self-regeneration, including the skin. Genetic reversion may occur through different mechanisms, and in a single individual, the mutation can be repaired in various ways. Here we describe a disseminated pattern of revertant mosaicism observed in 6 patients with Kindler syndrome (KS), a genodermatosis caused by loss of kindlin-1 (encoded by FERMT1) and clinically characterized by patchy skin pigmentation and atrophy. All patients presented duplication mutations (c.456dupA and c.676dupC) in FERMT1, and slipped mispairing in direct nucleotide repeats was identified as the reversion mechanism in all investigated revertant skin spots. The sequence around the mutations demonstrated high propensity to mutations, favoring both microinsertions and microdeletions. Additionally, in some revertant patches, mitotic recombination generated areas with homozygous normal keratinocytes. Restoration of kindlin-1 expression led to clinically and structurally normal skin. Since loss of kindlin-1 severely impairs keratinocyte proliferation, we predict that revertant cells have a selective advantage that allows their clonal expansion and, consequently, the improvement of the skin condition. PMID:22466645

  3. Minority Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Variants in Antiretroviral-Naive Persons with Reverse Transcriptase Codon 215 Revertant Mutations▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuya, Yumi; Varghese, Vici; Wang, Chunlin; Liu, Tommy F.; Holmes, Susan P.; Jayakumar, Prerana; Gharizadeh, Baback; Ronaghi, Mostafa; Klein, Daniel; Fessel, W. Jeffrey; Shafer, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    T215 revertant mutations such as T215C/D/E/S that evolve from the nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor mutations T215Y/F have been found in about 3% of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates from newly diagnosed HIV-1-infected persons. We used a newly developed sequencing method—ultradeep pyrosequencing (UDPS; 454 Life Sciences)—to determine the frequency with which T215Y/F or other RT inhibitor resistance mutations could be detected as minority variants in samples from untreated persons that contain T215 revertants (“revertant” samples) compared with samples from untreated persons that lack such revertants (“control” samples). Among the 22 revertant and 29 control samples, UDPS detected a mean of 3.8 and 4.8 additional RT amino acid mutations, respectively. In 6 of 22 (27%) revertant samples and in 4 of 29 control samples (14%; P = 0.4), UDPS detected one or more RT inhibitor resistance mutations. T215Y or T215F was not detected in any of the revertant or control samples; however, 4 of 22 revertant samples had one or more T215 revertants that were detected by UDPS but not by direct PCR sequencing. The failure to detect viruses with T215Y/F in the 22 revertant samples in this study may result from the overwhelming replacement of transmitted T215Y variants by the more fit T215 revertants or from the primary transmission of a T215 revertant in a subset of persons with T215 revertants. PMID:18715933

  4. Granuloma annulare: Pathogenesis, disease associations and triggers, and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Piette, Evan W; Rosenbach, Misha

    2016-09-01

    Granuloma annulare (GA) represents a cutaneous reaction pattern of unknown cause with a variety of previously described potential disease associations and triggers. This review attempts to synthesize the available data regarding potential etiopathogenesis, reviews the available data on potential GA disease associations and work-up indicated for patients with GA, and discusses potential inciting triggers. In the final part, this article describes the available treatments options and supporting data, and provides a framework for approaching management of patients with GA. The previous accompanying article provided a comprehensive overview of the available information known about the clinical variants, epidemiology, genetics, and histology of GA. PMID:27543210

  5. National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exceptional Parent, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Reviewed are the history and organization, purpose and programs, and public services of the National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association, an organization geared toward eradicating Tay-Sachs disease (a hereditary disorder affecting primarily Jewish infants which generally leads to deterioration and death by the child's fifth year). (SBH)

  6. The National Tay Sachs and Allied Diseases Association.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Paula

    1986-01-01

    The National Tay-Sachs and Allied Diseases Association is involved in education, research, and prevention of Tay-Sachs, an inherited metabolic disorder which destroys the central nervous system, and over 30 related disorders. The group features a parent peer group network and a support group for carrier couples. (CL)

  7. Influence of reverted austenite on the texture and magnetic properties of 350 maraging steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Hamilton F. G.; Silva, Jean J.; Silva, Manoel R.; Gomes da Silva, Marcelo J.

    2015-11-01

    The aging temperature to improve magnetic properties in Maraging-350 steel (Mar-350) is limited by the onset of austenite reversion. The traditional process of cooling after aging is to remove the piece from the oven and then to air cool it. The purpose of this research was to characterize the reverted austenite and to investigate the effect of cooling below the martensite start temperature (Ms) on the magnetic properties. The Mar350 samples aged at temperatures above 550 °C, and subsequently cooled in liquid nitrogen presented less austenite than samples cooled in air, resulting in higher magnetization saturation and a lower coercive force. A combination of optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were used to characterize the presence of reverted austenite. The crystallographic texture of both martensite and reverted austenite were analyzed. The texture of the reverted austenite coincides with the texture of the parent austenite indicating that a phenomenon of texture memory is present.

  8. Ibuprofen reverts antifungal resistance on Candida albicans showing overexpression of CDR genes.

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Elisabete; Costa-de-Oliveira, Sofia; Dias, Ana Silva; Guerra, José; Rodrigues, Acácio Gonçalves; Pina-Vaz, Cidália

    2009-06-01

    Several mechanisms may be associated with Candida albicans resistance to azoles. Ibuprofen was described as being able to revert resistance related to efflux activity in Candida. The aim of this study was to uncover the molecular base of antifungal resistance in C. albicans clinical strains that could be reverted by ibuprofen. Sixty-two clinical isolates and five control strains of C. albicans were studied: the azole susceptibility phenotype was determined according to the Clinical Laboratory for Standards Institute, M27-A2 protocol and minimal inhibitory concentration values were recalculated with ibuprofen (100 microg mL(-1)); synergistic studies between fluconazole and FK506, a Cdr1p inhibitor, were performed using an agar disk diffusion assay and were compared with ibuprofen results. Gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, with and without ibuprofen, regarding CDR1, CDR2, MDR1, encoding for efflux pumps, and ERG11, encoding for azole target protein. A correlation between susceptibility phenotype and resistance gene expression profiles was determined. Ibuprofen and FK506 showed a clear synergistic effect when combined with fluconazole. Resistant isolates reverting to susceptible after incubation with ibuprofen showed CDR1 and CDR2 overexpression especially of the latter. Conversely, strains that did not revert displayed a remarkable increase in ERG11 expression along with CDR genes. Ibuprofen did not alter resistance gene expression significantly (P>0.05), probably acting as a Cdrp blocker. PMID:19416368

  9. Massive Idiosyncratic Exon Skipping Corrects the Nonsense Mutation in Dystrophic Mouse Muscle and Produces Functional Revertant Fibers by Clonal Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Q.L.; Morris, G.E.; Wilton, S.D.; Ly, T.; Artem'yeva, O.V.; Strong, P.; Partridge, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Conventionally, nonsense mutations within a gene preclude synthesis of a full-length functional protein. Obviation of such a blockage is seen in the mdx mouse, where despite a nonsense mutation in exon 23 of the dystrophin gene, occasional so-called revertant muscle fibers are seen to contain near-normal levels of its protein product. Here, we show that reversion of dystrophin expression in mdx mice muscle involves unprecedented massive loss of up to 30 exons. We detected several alternatively processed transcripts that could account for some of the revertant dystrophins and could not detect genomic deletion from the region commonly skipped in revertant dystrophin. This, together with exon skipping in two noncontiguous regions, favors aberrant splicing as the mechanism for the restoration of dystrophin, but is hard to reconcile with the clonal idiosyncrasy of revertant dystrophins. Revertant dystrophins retain functional domains and mediate plasmalemmal assembly of the dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex. Physiological function of revertant fibers is demonstrated by the clonal growth of revertant clusters with age, suggesting that revertant dystrophin could be used as a guide to the construction of dystrophin expression vectors for individual gene therapy. The dystrophin gene in the mdx mouse provides a favored system for study of exon skipping associated with nonsense mutations. PMID:10704448

  10. Epigenetic modulation of intestinal cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) gene expression by DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Pooja; Soni, Vinay; Kumar, Anoop; Anbazhagan, Arivarasu N; Dudeja, Amish; Saksena, Seema; Gill, Ravinder K; Dudeja, Pradeep K; Alrefai, Waddah A

    2014-08-15

    Intestinal NPC1L1 transporter is essential for cholesterol absorption and the maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis in the body. NPC1L1 is differentially expressed along the gastrointestinal tract with very low levels in the colon as compared with the small intestine. This study was undertaken to examine whether DNA methylation was responsible for segment-specific expression of NPC1L1. Treatment of mice with 5-azacytidine (i.p.) resulted in a significant dose-dependent increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the colon. The lack of expression of NPC1L1 in the normal colon was associated with high levels of methylation in the area flanking the 3-kb fragment upstream of the initiation site of the mouse NPC1L1 gene in mouse colon as analyzed by EpiTYPER® MassARRAY®. The high level of methylation in the colon was observed in specific CpG dinucleotides and was significantly decreased in response to 5-azacytidine. Similar to mouse NPC1L1, 5-azacytidine treatment also increased the level of human NPC1L1 mRNA expression in the intestinal HuTu-80 cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Silencing the expression of DNA methyltransferase DNMT1, -2, -3A, and -3B alone by siRNA did not affect NPC1L1 expression in HuTu-80 cells. However, the simultaneous attenuation of DNMT1 and -3B expression caused a significant increase in NPC1L1 mRNA expression as compared with control. Also, in vitro methylation of the human NPC1L1 promoter significantly decreased NPC1L1 promoter activity in human intestinal Caco2 cells. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that DNA methylation in the promoter region of the NPC1L1 gene appears to be a major mechanism underlying differential expression of NPC1L1 along the length of the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:24904062

  11. Translation of disease associated gene signatures across tissues.

    PubMed

    Kasim, Adetayo; Shkedy, Ziv; Lin, Dan; Van Sanden, Suzy; Abrahantes, Josè Cortiñas; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Bijnens, Luc; Yekutieli, Dani; Camilleri, Michael; Aerssens, Jeroen; Talloen, Willem

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been shown that disease associated gene signatures can be identified by profiling tissue other than the disease related tissue. In this paper, we investigate gene signatures for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) using gene expression profiling of both disease related tissue (colon) and surrogate tissue (rectum). Gene specific joint ANOVA models were used to investigate differentially expressed genes between the IBS patients and the healthy controls taken into account both intra and inter tissue dependencies among expression levels of the same gene. Classification algorithms in combination with feature selection methods were used to investigate the predictive power of gene expression levels from the surrogate and the target tissues. We conclude based on the analyses that expression profiles of the colon and the rectum tissue could result in better predictive accuracy if the disease associated genes are known. PMID:26333264

  12. Characterization of Disease-Associated Mutations in Human Transmembrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, János; Szakács, Gergely; Tusnády, Gábor E.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane protein coding genes are commonly associated with human diseases. We characterized disease causing mutations and natural polymorphisms in transmembrane proteins by mapping missense genetic variations from the UniProt database on the transmembrane protein topology listed in the Human Transmembrane Proteome database. We found characteristic differences in the spectrum of amino acid changes within transmembrane regions: in the case of disease associated mutations the non-polar to non-polar and non-polar to charged amino acid changes are equally frequent. In contrast, in the case of natural polymorphisms non-polar to charged amino acid changes are rare while non-polar to non-polar changes are common. The majority of disease associated mutations result in glycine to arginine and leucine to proline substitutions. Mutations to positively charged amino acids are more common in the center of the lipid bilayer, where they cause more severe structural and functional anomalies. Our analysis contributes to the better understanding of the effect of disease associated mutations in transmembrane proteins, which can help prioritize genetic variations in personal genomic investigations. PMID:26986070

  13. Report of six kidney disease-associated Castleman's disease cases.

    PubMed

    Sui, Yanxia; Zhao, Dongli

    2015-12-01

    Castleman's disease (CD) is an uncommon, benign, non-neoplastic, lymphoproliferative disease of uncertain etiology. Here, we report 6 cases of kidney disease-associated CD in China. All patients exhibited multicentric CD (MCD) with involvement of the mediastinum, neck, bilateral axillary, and bilateral inguinal regions. Clinical manifestations included fever, fatigue, edema, and swollen lymph nodes. Laboratory examinations of all 6 patients found proteinuria or renal insufficiency. Two of the patients were diagnosed with hyaline vascular type MCD, and 4 patients were diagnosed with plasma cell type CD. The case 1 and case 4 patients had mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, case 3 had type I membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, case 2 and case 5 had interstitial nephritis, and case 6 had AA type amyloidosis nephropathy. Three patients were treated with prednisone plus cyclophosphamide, 1 patient received COP therapy (cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone), and 2 patients received COP therapy supplemented by small doses of radiation therapy delivered to local lymph nodes. In all cases, the clinical manifestations of MCD, including fever, fatigue, edema, swollen lymph nodes, and proteinuria, were alleviated or abolished by treatment. One patient responded to treatment with complete MCD remission, and another 4 patients survived. However, 1 patient died due to renal failure. In conclusion, common diagnosis and treatment techniques are suitable for kidney disease-associated CD. However, treatment efficacy might be difficult to predict, and some cases may have poor prognosis with this treatment strategy. Therefore, additional studies investigating kidney disease-associated CD and treatment outcomes in larger patient populations are needed. PMID:26445003

  14. Inferring drug-disease associations based on known protein complexes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inferring drug-disease associations is critical in unveiling disease mechanisms, as well as discovering novel functions of available drugs, or drug repositioning. Previous work is primarily based on drug-gene-disease relationship, which throws away many important information since genes execute their functions through interacting others. To overcome this issue, we propose a novel methodology that discover the drug-disease association based on protein complexes. Firstly, the integrated heterogeneous network consisting of drugs, protein complexes, and disease are constructed, where we assign weights to the drug-disease association by using probability. Then, from the tripartite network, we get the indirect weighted relationships between drugs and diseases. The larger the weight, the higher the reliability of the correlation. We apply our method to mental disorders and hypertension, and validate the result by using comparative toxicogenomics database. Our ranked results can be directly reinforced by existing biomedical literature, suggesting that our proposed method obtains higher specificity and sensitivity. The proposed method offers new insight into drug-disease discovery. Our method is publicly available at http://1.complexdrug.sinaapp.com/Drug_Complex_Disease/Data_Download.html. PMID:26044949

  15. Sedimentary bed evolution as a mean-reverting random walk: Implications for tracer statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Raleigh L.; Purohit, Prashant K.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2014-09-01

    Sediment tracers are increasingly employed to estimate bed load transport and landscape evolution rates. Tracer trajectories are dominated by periods of immobility ("waiting times") as they are buried and reexcavated in the stochastically evolving river bed. Here we model bed evolution as a random walk with mean-reverting tendency (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) originating from the restoring effect of erosion and deposition. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model contains two parameters, a and b, related to the particle feed rate and range of bed elevation fluctuations, respectively. Observations of bed evolution in flume experiments agree with model predictions; in particular, the model reproduces the asymptotic t-1 tail in the tracer waiting time exceedance probability distribution. This waiting time distribution is similar to that inferred for tracers in natural gravel streams and avalanching rice piles, indicating applicability of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck mean-reverting model to many disordered transport systems with tracer burial and excavation.

  16. Pathway for isoleucine formation form pyruvate by leucine biosynthetic enzymes in leucine-accumulating isoleucine revertants of Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Kisumi, M; Komatsubara, S; Chibata, I

    1977-07-01

    Leaky revertants isolated from isoleucine auxotrophs of Serratia marcescens mutant resistant to alpha-aminobutyric acid were previously reported to accumulate leucine in the medium, due to the absence of both feedback inhibition and repression of leucine biosynthesis. Growth of the revertant was accelerated by pyruvate, D(-)-citramalate, citraconate, and alpha-ketobutyrate, but not by threonine. Extracts of the revertant exhibited high activities of pyruvate-dependent coenzyme A liberation from acetyl-coenzyme A, hydration of citraconate, and conversion of citraconate to alpha-ketobutyrate, but showed no threonine-deaminating activity. In the leucine-accumulating revertants the above three activities were not affected by leucine, but in the wild strain and other revertants accumulating no leucine all or one of these activities was controlled by leucine. A leucine auxotroph isolated from the leucine-accumulating revertant showed isoleucine auxotrophy as well. From these data, it is concluded that, in leucine-accumulating revertants, of S. marcescent, isoleucine, is synthesized from alpha-ketobutyrate via citramalate formed from pyruvate annd acetyl-coenzyme A by leucine biosynthetic enzymes, as a result of desensitization of alpha-isopropylmalate synthetase to feedback inhibition. PMID:142769

  17. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, a Tool to Revert Maladaptive Plasticity in Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Russo, Margherita; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Calabro, Rocco S.; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulatory effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been extensively studied in chronic pain. A hypothetic mechanism of action would be to prevent or revert the ongoing maladaptive plasticity within the pain matrix. In this review, the authors discuss the mechanisms underlying the development of maladaptive plasticity in patients with chronic pain and the putative mechanisms of NIBS in modulating synaptic plasticity in neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:27512368

  18. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation, a Tool to Revert Maladaptive Plasticity in Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Naro, Antonino; Milardi, Demetrio; Russo, Margherita; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Cacciola, Alberto; Marino, Silvia; Calabro, Rocco S; Quartarone, Angelo

    2016-01-01

    Neuromodulatory effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) have been extensively studied in chronic pain. A hypothetic mechanism of action would be to prevent or revert the ongoing maladaptive plasticity within the pain matrix. In this review, the authors discuss the mechanisms underlying the development of maladaptive plasticity in patients with chronic pain and the putative mechanisms of NIBS in modulating synaptic plasticity in neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:27512368

  19. Disease associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents: peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    2013-09-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as a final rule its proposal to amend its adjudication regulations by clarifying and expanding the terminology regarding presumptive service connection for acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy associated with exposure to certain herbicide agents. This amendment implements a decision by the Secretary of Veterans Affairs based on findings from the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Institute of Medicine report, Veterans and Agent Orange: Update 2010. It also amends VA's regulation governing retroactive awards for certain diseases associated with herbicide exposure as required by court orders in the class action litigation of Nehmer v. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. PMID:24040683

  20. Isolation and characterization of revertants from four different classes of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase-deficient hepa-1 mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Van Gurp, J R; Hankinson, O

    1984-01-01

    Revertants were selected from aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH)-deficient recessive mutants belonging to three complementation groups and from a dominant mutant of the Hepa-1 cell line. The recessive mutants had low spontaneous reversion frequencies (less than 4 X 10(-7] that were increased by mutagenesis. The majority of these revertants also had reacquired only partial AHH activity. Revertants of group A mutants were identical to the wild type with respect to both in vivo and in vitro enzyme stability and the Km for the substrate, benzo [alpha]pyrene, and therefore failed to provide evidence that gene A is the AHH structural gene. Group B and group C mutants are defective in the functioning of the Ah receptor required for AHH induction. Revertants of these groups were normal with respect to in vivo temperature sensitivity for AHH induction and for the 50% effective dose for the inducer, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and thus provided no evidence that the B and C genes code for components of the receptor. Two rare group C revertants possessed AHH activity in the absence of induction. The phenotype of one of these was shown to be recessive to the wild type. Spontaneous revertants of the dominant mutant occurred at a frequency 300-fold greater than those of the recessive mutants, and this frequency was not increased by mutagenesis. These revertants all displayed complete restoration of AHH activity to wild type levels. These observations and the results from cell hybridization studies suggest that the dominant revertants arose by a high frequency event leading to functional elimination of the dominant mutation. PMID:6493230

  1. Patient-specific naturally gene-reverted induced pluripotent stem cells in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Tolar, Jakub; McGrath, John A; Xia, Lily; Riddle, Megan J; Lees, Chris J; Eide, Cindy; Keene, Douglas R; Liu, Lu; Osborn, Mark J; Lund, Troy C; Blazar, Bruce R; Wagner, John E

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous reversion of disease-causing mutations has been observed in some genetic disorders. In our clinical observations of severe generalized recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a currently incurable blistering genodermatosis caused by loss-of-function mutations in COL7A1 that results in a deficit of type VII collagen (C7), we have observed patches of healthy-appearing skin on some individuals. When biopsied, this skin revealed somatic mosaicism resulting in the self-correction of C7 deficiency. We believe this source of cells could represent an opportunity for translational 'natural' gene therapy. We show that revertant RDEB keratinocytes expressing functional C7 can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and that self-corrected RDEB iPSCs can be induced to differentiate into either epidermal or hematopoietic cell populations. Our results give proof-of-principle that an inexhaustible supply of functional patient-specific revertant cells can be obtained--potentially relevant to local wound therapy and systemic hematopoietic cell transplantation. This technology may also avoid some of the major limitations of other cell therapy strategies, e.g., immune rejection and insertional mutagenesis, which are associated with viral- and nonviral-mediated gene therapy. We believe this approach should be the starting point for autologous cellular therapies using 'natural' gene therapy in RDEB and other diseases. PMID:24317394

  2. Sleep reverts changes in human gray and white matter caused by wake-dependent training.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giulio; Cecchetti, Luca; Siclari, Francesca; Buchmann, Andreas; Yu, Xiaoqian; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bellesi, Michele; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Kecskemeti, Steven R; Riedner, Brady A; Alexander, Andrew L; Benca, Ruth M; Ghilardi, M Felice; Pietrini, Pietro; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio

    2016-04-01

    Learning leads to rapid microstructural changes in gray (GM) and white (WM) matter. Do these changes continue to accumulate if task training continues, and can they be reverted by sleep? We addressed these questions by combining structural and diffusion weighted MRI and high-density EEG in 16 subjects studied during the physiological sleep/wake cycle, after 12h and 24h of intense practice in two different tasks, and after post-training sleep. Compared to baseline wake, 12h of training led to a decline in cortical mean diffusivity. The decrease became even more significant after 24h of task practice combined with sleep deprivation. Prolonged practice also resulted in decreased ventricular volume and increased GM and WM subcortical volumes. All changes reverted after recovery sleep. Moreover, these structural alterations predicted cognitive performance at the individual level, suggesting that sleep's ability to counteract performance deficits is linked to its effects on the brain microstructure. The cellular mechanisms that account for the structural effects of sleep are unknown, but they may be linked to its role in promoting the production of cerebrospinal fluid and the decrease in synapse size and strength, as well as to its recently discovered ability to enhance the extracellular space and the clearance of brain metabolites. PMID:26812659

  3. Splicing of Retrotransposon Insertions from Transcripts of the Drosophila Melanogaster Vermilion Gene in a Revertant

    PubMed Central

    Pret, A. M.; Searles, L. L.

    1991-01-01

    A mutation of the Drosophila melanogaster vermilion (v) gene known as v(1) is caused by the insertion of a 412 retrotransposon into the 5' untranslated region of the first exon. Mutants carrying this insertion accumulate a low level of mRNA from which most of the transposon sequences have been eliminated by splicing at cryptic sites within transposon sequences. Here, we demonstrate that a revertant of the v(1) allele called v(+37) is caused by the insertion of a second retrotransposon, the B104/roo element, into a site near one end of the 412 element. The revertant strain accumulates a higher level of mRNA from which most of both transposons have been removed by splicing at new donor sites introduced by the B104/roo insertion and the same acceptor site within 412. Mutations at suppressor of sable [su(s)], which increase the accumulation of v(1) transcripts, slightly elevate the level of v(+37) RNA. In addition, we show that the first v intron downstream of the 412 insertion is not efficiently removed in the v(1) mutant, and suppressor and reversion mutations increase the proportion of transcripts that are properly spliced at that downstream intron. Thus, it appears that both the suppressor and reversion mutations exert an effect at the level of pre-mRNA splicing. PMID:1664404

  4. Inductive matrix completion for predicting gene–disease associations

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Nagarajan; Dhillon, Inderjit S.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Most existing methods for predicting causal disease genes rely on specific type of evidence, and are therefore limited in terms of applicability. More often than not, the type of evidence available for diseases varies—for example, we may know linked genes, keywords associated with the disease obtained by mining text, or co-occurrence of disease symptoms in patients. Similarly, the type of evidence available for genes varies—for example, specific microarray probes convey information only for certain sets of genes. In this article, we apply a novel matrix-completion method called Inductive Matrix Completion to the problem of predicting gene-disease associations; it combines multiple types of evidence (features) for diseases and genes to learn latent factors that explain the observed gene–disease associations. We construct features from different biological sources such as microarray expression data and disease-related textual data. A crucial advantage of the method is that it is inductive; it can be applied to diseases not seen at training time, unlike traditional matrix-completion approaches and network-based inference methods that are transductive. Results: Comparison with state-of-the-art methods on diseases from the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database shows that the proposed approach is substantially better—it has close to one-in-four chance of recovering a true association in the top 100 predictions, compared to the recently proposed Catapult method (second best) that has <15% chance. We demonstrate that the inductive method is particularly effective for a query disease with no previously known gene associations, and for predicting novel genes, i.e. genes that are previously not linked to diseases. Thus the method is capable of predicting novel genes even for well-characterized diseases. We also validate the novelty of predictions by evaluating the method on recently reported OMIM associations and on associations recently

  5. Molecular and classical genetic analyses of his-3 mutants of Neurospora crassa. I. Tests for allelic complementation and specific revertibility.

    PubMed

    Overton, L K; Dubins, J S; de Serres, F J

    1989-10-01

    A collection of 81 his-3 mutants of Neurospora crassa was analyzed in assays for allelic complementation and specific revertibility. In these studies, the linearity of the complementation map of the his-3 cistron (Webber, 1965) was confirmed and mutants were classified as complementing with non-polarized or polarized complementation patterns, or non-complementing. In the assays for spontaneous or induced revertibility, 89% (71/80) of the mutants reverted either spontaneously or after treatment with the chemical mutagens N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methanesulfonate, 2-methoxy-6-chloro-9-(3-[ethyl-2-chloroethyl]aminopropylamino) acridine dihydrochloride, nitrous acid or hydroxylamine. The frequency of revertible mutants among the non-polarized complementing mutants was 96% (45/47), and 79% (15/19) for the polarized complementing and 79% (11/14) for the non-complementing mutants. The results of these classical genetic assays for allelic complementation and specific revertibility suggest a correlation between complementation pattern and presumptive genetic alterations at the molecular level among his-3 mutants similar to that found with ad-3B mutants induced by nitrous acid (Malling and de Serres, 1967), ethyl methanesulfonate (Malling and de Serres, 1968), or ultraviolet (Kilbey et al., 1971). PMID:2529437

  6. Interferon-induced revertants of ras-transformed cells: resistance to transformation by specific oncogenes and retransformation by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Samid, D; Flessate, D M; Friedman, R M

    1987-01-01

    Prolonged alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) treatment of NIH 3T3 cells transformed by a long terminal repeat-activated Ha-ras proto-oncogene resulted in revertants that maintained a nontransformed phenotype long after IFN treatment had been discontinued. Cloned persistent revertants (PRs) produced large amounts of the ras-encoded p21 and were refractile to transformation by EJras DNA and by transforming retroviruses which carried the v-Ha-ras, v-Ki-ras, v-abl, or v-fes oncogene. Transient treatment either in vitro or in vivo with cytidine analogs that alter gene expression by inhibiting DNA methylation resulted in transformation of PR, but not of NIH 3T3, cells. The PR retransformants reverted again with IFN, suggesting that DNA methylation is involved in IFN-induced persistent reversion. Images PMID:2439904

  7. Genetical and Biochemical Characterization of QA-3 Mutants and Revertants in the QA Gene Cluster of NEUROSPORA CRASSA

    PubMed Central

    Case, Mary E.; Pueyo, Carmen; Barea, J. Lopez; Giles, Norman H.

    1978-01-01

    The qa-3 gene, one of the four genes in the qa gene cluster, encodes quinate (shikimate) dehydrogenase (quinate: NAD oxidoreductase, ER 1.1.1.24), the first enzyme in the inducible quinic acid catabolic pathway in Neurospora crassa. Genetic analyses have localized 26 qa-3 mutants at 11 sites on the qa-3 genetic map on the basis of prototroph frequencies. Certain mutants, e.g., 336–3–10 and 336–3–3, are located at opposite ends of the qa-3 gene. Data from four-point crosses (qa-1S mutant 124 x five different qa-3 mutants in triple mutants qa-3, qa-4, qa-2) indicate the following orientation of the qa-3 gene within the qa cluster: qa-1, qa-3 mutant 336–3–10 ("left" end) qa-3 mutant 336–3–3 ("right" end), qa-4, qa-2. Ultraviolet-induced revertants have been obtained from 14 of the qa-3 mutants. The revertable mutants fall into two major classes: those that revert by changes either at the same site or at a second site within the qa-3 gene, and those that revert by unlinked suppressor mutations. The intragenic revertants can be further distinguished by quantative and/or qualitative differences in their quinate dehydrogenase activities. Some revertants with activities either equivalent to or less than wild type produce a thermostable enzyme, and others an enzyme which is thermolabile in vitro at 35°. A concentration of quinic acid or shikimic acid as low as 50 µm protects the enzyme markedly from heat inactivation. The genetic organization and the orientation of the qa-3 gene are discussed with respect to its direction of transcription and to the possible localization of a promoter (initiator) region(s) within the qa gene cluster. PMID:151647

  8. Biomarkers in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Bonella, Francesco; Costabel, Ulrich

    2014-04-01

    This article reviews major biomarkers in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) with respect to their diagnostic and prognostic value in connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD). In some CTD such as systemic sclerosis (SSc), the incidence of ILD is up to two-third of patients, and currently ILD represents the leading cause of death in SSc. Because of the extremely variable incidence and outcome of ILD in CTD, progress in the discovery and validation of biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, patients' subtyping, response to treatment, or as surrogate endpoints in clinical trials is extremely important. In contrast to idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, autoantibodies play a crucial role as biomarkers in CTD-ILD because their presence is strictly linked to the pathogenesis and tissue damage. Patterns of autoantibodies, for instance, anticitrullinated peptide antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis or aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS) in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, have been found to correlate with the presence and occasionally with the course of ILD in CTD. Besides autoantibodies, an increase in serum or BALF of a biomarker of pulmonary origin may be able to predict or reflect the development of fibrosis, the impairment of lung function, and ideally also the prognosis. Promising biomarkers are lung epithelium-derived proteins such as KL-6 (Krebs von den Lungen-6), SP-D (surfactant protein-D), SP-A (surfactant protein-A), YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like protein 1 [CHI3L1] or cytokines such as CCL18 [chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 18]). In the future, genetic/epigenetic markers, such as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, single nucleotide polymorphisms, and micro-RNA, may help to identify subtypes of patients with different needs of management and treatment strategies. PMID:24668534

  9. Human CLPP reverts the longevity phenotype of a fungal ClpP deletion strain

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Fabian; Weil, Andrea; Hamann, Andrea; Osiewacz, Heinz D.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial maintenance crucially depends on the quality control of proteins by various chaperones, proteases and repair enzymes. While most of the involved components have been studied in some detail, little is known on the biological role of the CLPXP protease complex located in the mitochondrial matrix. Here we show that deletion of PaClpP, encoding the CLP protease proteolytic subunit CLPP, leads to an unexpected healthy phenotype and increased lifespan of the fungal ageing model organism Podospora anserina. This phenotype can be reverted by expression of human ClpP in the fungal deletion background, demonstrating functional conservation of human and fungal CLPP. Our results show that the biological role of eukaryotic CLP proteases can be studied in an experimentally accessible model organism. PMID:23360988

  10. A highly sensitive mean-reverting process in finance and the Euler-Maruyama approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuke; Mao, Xuerong; Chen, Kan

    2008-12-01

    Empirical studies show that the most successful continuous-time models of the short-term rate in capturing the dynamics are those that allow the volatility of interest changes to be highly sensitive to the level of the rate. However, from the mathematics, the high sensitivity to the level implies that the coefficients do not satisfy the linear growth condition, so we can not examine its properties by traditional techniques. This paper overcomes the mathematical difficulties due to the nonlinear growth and examines its analytical properties and the convergence of numerical solutions in probability. The convergence result can be used to justify the method within Monte Carlo simulations that compute the expected payoff of financial productsE For illustration, we apply our results compute the value of a bond with interest rate given by the highly sensitive mean-reverting process as well as the value of a single barrier call option with the asset price governed by this process.

  11. Higher risk of progression to dementia in mild cognitive impairment cases who revert to normal

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Cha, Ruth H.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Christianson, Teresa J.H.; Geda, Yonas E.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Rocca, Walter A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate rates of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia and of reversion from MCI to being cognitively normal (CN) in a population-based cohort. Methods: Participants (n = 534, aged 70 years and older) enrolled in the prospective Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were evaluated at baseline and every 15 months to identify incident MCI or dementia. Results: Over a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 153 of 534 participants (28.7%) with prevalent or incident MCI progressed to dementia (71.3 per 1,000 person-years). The cumulative incidence of dementia was 5.4% at 1 year, 16.1% at 2, 23.4% at 3, 31.1% at 4, and 42.5% at 5 years. The risk of dementia was elevated in MCI cases (hazard ratio [HR] 23.2, p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. Thirty-eight percent (n = 201) of MCI participants reverted to CN (175.0/1,000 person-years), but 65% subsequently developed MCI or dementia; the HR was 6.6 (p < 0.001) compared with CN subjects. The risk of reversion was reduced in subjects with an APOE ε4 allele (HR 0.53, p < 0.001), higher Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (HR 0.56, p < 0.001), and poorer cognitive function (HR 0.56, p < 0.001). The risk was also reduced in subjects with amnestic MCI (HR 0.70, p = 0.02) and multidomain MCI (HR 0.61, p = 0.003). Conclusions: MCI cases, including those who revert to CN, have a high risk of progressing to dementia. This suggests that diagnosis of MCI at any time has prognostic value. PMID:24353333

  12. Lithium chloride induces mesenchymal‑to‑epithelial reverting transition in primary colon cancer cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Costabile, Valeria; Duraturo, Francesca; Delrio, Paolo; Rega, Daniela; Pace, Ugo; Liccardo, Raffaella; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Genesio, Rita; Nitsch, Lucio; Izzo, Paola; De Rosa, Marina

    2015-05-01

    Epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers stem cell‑like phenotype and more motile properties to carcinoma cells. During EMT, the expression of E‑cadherin decreases, resulting in loss of cell‑cell adhesion and increased migration. Expression of Twist1 and other pleiotropic transcription factors, such as Snail, is known to activate EMT. We established primary colon cancer cell cultures from samples of operated patients and validated cultures by cytogenetic and molecular biology approaches. Western blot assay, quantitative real‑time PCR and immunofluorescence were performed to investigate the expression of E‑cadherin, vimentin, β‑catenin, cytokeratin‑20 and ‑18, Twist1, Snail, CD44, cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX2), Sox2, Oct4 and Nanog. Moreover, cell differentiation was induced by incubation with LiCl‑containing medium for 10 days. We observed that these primary colorectal cancer (CRC) cells lost expression of the E‑cadherin epithelial marker, which was instead expressed in cancer and normal colon mucosa of the same patient, while overexpressed vimentin (mesenchymal marker), Twist1, Snail (EMT markers) and COX2. Cytokeratin‑18 was expressed both in tissues and cell cultures. Expression of stem cell markers, such as CD44, Oct4 and Nanog, were also observed. Following differentiation with the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor LiCl, the cells began to express E‑cadherin and, at once, Twist1 and Snail expression was strongly downregulated, suggesting a MET‑reverting process. In conclusion, we established primary colon mesenchymal cancer cell cultures expressing mesenchymal and epithelial biomarkers together with high level of EMT transcription factors. We propose that they could represent a good model for studying EMT and its reverting mechanism, the mesenchymal‑to‑epithelial transition (MET). Our observation indicates that LiCl, a GSK3β inhibitor, induces MET in vitro, suggesting that LiCl and GSK3β could represent

  13. RAPID DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF REVERTANTS OF THE HISD3052 ALLELE OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM TA98 USING THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND DIRECT SEQUENCING: APPLICATION TO 1-NITROPYRENE-INDUCED REVERTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to speed the processing of revertants of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 for DNA sequence analysis. riefly, a crude DNA extract from a single colony was prepared and used in an asymmetric PCR to amplify a 228-bp fragment containing the...

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease associations with HLA Class II genes

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, R.; Yang, H.; Targan, S.

    1994-09-01

    A PCR-SSOP assay has been used to analyze HLA-Class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in 378 Caucasians from a population in Southern California. The data has been analyzed separately for the Ashkenasi Jews and non-Jewish patients (n=286) and controls (n=92). Two common clinical forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been studied: ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn`s disease (CD). In CD, we observed a susceptible effect with the rare DR1 allele - DRB*0103 [O.R.=4.56; 95% CI (0.96, 42.97); p=0.03]; a trend for an increase in DRB1*0103 was also observed in UC patients. A susceptible effect with DRB1*1502 [O.R.=5.20; 95% CI (1.10, 48.99); p=0.02] was observed in non-Jewish UC patients. This susceptible effect was restricted to UC ANCA-positive (antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) patients. In addition, a significant association with DRB1*1101-DQB1*0301 [O.R.=9.46; 95% CI (1.30, 413.87); p=0.01] was seen with UC among non-Jewish patients: this haplotype was increased with CD among non-Jewish patients. Two protective haplotypes were detected among CD non-Jewish patients: DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 [O.R.=0.34; 95% CI (0.09, 1.09); p=0.04], and DRB*0404-DQB1*0302 [O.R.=<0.08; 95% CI (0.0, 0.84); p=0.01]. When the same data were analyzed at the serology level, we observed a positive association in UC with DR2 [O.R.6.77; 95% CI (2.47, 22.95); p=2 x 10{sup -4}], and a positive association in CD with DR1 [O.R.=2.63; 95% CI (1.14, 6.62); p=0.01] consistent with previous reports. Thus, some IBD disease associations appear to be common to both UC and CD, while some are unique to one disease.

  15. Frameshift deletions of exons 3-7 and revertant fibers in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: mechanisms of dystrophin production.

    PubMed Central

    Winnard, A V; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W; Florence, J; Burghes, A H

    1995-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients with mutations that disrupt the translational reading frame produce little or no dystrophin. Two exceptions are the deletion of exons 3-7 and the occurrence of rare dystrophin-positive fibers (revertant fibers) in muscle of DMD patients. Antibodies directed against the amino-terminus and the 5' end of exon 8 did not detect dystrophin in muscle from patients who have a deletion of exons 3-7. However, in all cases, dystrophin was detected with an antibody directed against the 3' end of exon 8. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these cases is initiation at a new start codon in exon 8. We also studied two patients who have revertant fibers: one had an inherited duplication of exons 5-7, which, on immunostaining, showed two types of revertant fibers; and the second patient had a 2-bp nonsense mutation in exon 51, which creates a cryptic splice site. An in-frame mRNA that uses this splice site in exon 51 was detected. Immunostaining demonstrated the presence of the 3' end of exon 51, which is in agreement with the use of this mRNA in revertant fibers. The most likely method of dystrophin production in these fibers is a second mutation that restores the reading frame. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7825572

  16. Reorganization of mitochondrial genomes of cytoplasmic revertants in cms-S inbred line WF9 in maize

    SciTech Connect

    Escote-Carlson, L.J.; Gabay-Laughnan, S.; Laughnan, J.R.

    1987-12-01

    Cytoplasmic reversion to fertility in cms-S maize has been previously correlated with changes in mitochondrial genome organization, specifically with loss of the autonomously replicating linear plasmid-like DNAs, S1 and S2, and with accompanying alterations in the high molecular weight mtDNA (main genome) that specifically involved S1 and S2 sequences. These studies, however, dealt with cytoplasmic revertants occurring in the cms-VG M825 inbred line and in the cms-VG M825/Oh07 F/sub 1/ hybrid. This paper deals principally with patterns of mitochondrial DNA reorganization accompanying cytoplasmic reversion to fertility in the WF9 inbred line nuclear background. Here the free S1 and S2 plasmid-like DNAs are retained in the revertants. Mitochondrial DNA analysis by Southern hybridization using cloned fragments of S1 and S2 shows altered organization around S-homologous regions in the main mitochondrial genome of revertants as compared with that of the male-sterile parental controls, but the pattern of main genome changes involving these regions differs from that of the cytoplasmic revertants that occurred in M825 and M825/Oh07 backgrounds. 28 refs., 7 figs.

  17. An Unusual Genomic Position Effect on Drosophila White Gene Expression: Pairing Dependence, Interactions with Zeste, and Molecular Analysis of Revertants

    PubMed Central

    Hazelrigg, T.; Petersen, S.

    1992-01-01

    The white gene in the A(R)4-24 P[white,rosy] insertion on chromosome 2 has a novel expression pattern, in which it is repressed in the dorsal half of the eye. X-ray mutagenesis led to the isolation of six revertants mapping to chromosome 2, which are wild type in a zeste(+) background, and three extreme derivatives, in which white gene expression is repressed in ventral regions of the eye as well. By Southern blot analyses the breakpoints of five of the revertants and one of the extreme derivatives were mapped in the flanking DNA bordering each side of the A(R)4-24 insertion. The revertants show some dorsal repression of white in the presence of z(1), and by this criterion each is only a partial revertant. The extreme derivatives act not only in cis, but also in trans to repress expression of A(R)4-24 and its various derivatives. We provide evidence that these trans effects are proximity-dependent effects, possibly mediated by pairing of gene copies, as they do not extend to copies of the white gene located elsewhere in the genome. We show that one extreme derivative, E1, is a small deletion spanning the insertion site at the 5' end of the white gene, and propose that the distance between a negative regulatory element in the 5' flanking DNA and the white promoter influences the degree of the repression. PMID:1732157

  18. Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Final Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, Thornton C

    2014-03-31

    Energy-Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT) is a balanced portfolio of R&D tasks that address energy-saving opportunities in the metalcasting industry. E-SMARRT was created to: • Improve important capabilities of castings • Reduce carbon footprint of the foundry industry • Develop new job opportunities in manufacturing • Significantly reduce metalcasting process energy consumption and includes R&D in the areas of: • Improvements in Melting Efficiency • Innovative Casting Processes for Yield Improvement/Revert Reduction • Instrumentation and Control Improvement • Material properties for Casting or Tooling Design Improvement The energy savings and process improvements developed under E-SMARRT have been made possible through the unique collaborative structure of the E-SMARRT partnership. The E-SMARRT team consisted of DOE’s Office of Industrial Technology, the three leading metalcasting technical associations in the U.S: the American Foundry Society; the North American Die Casting Association; and the Steel Founders’ Society of America; and SCRA Applied R&D, doing business as the Advanced Technology Institute (ATI), a recognized leader in distributed technology management. This team provided collaborative leadership to a complex industry composed of approximately 2,000 companies, 80% of which employ less than 100 people, and only 4% of which employ more than 250 people. Without collaboration, these new processes and technologies that enable energy efficiencies and environment-friendly improvements would have been slow to develop and had trouble obtaining a broad application. The E-SMARRT R&D tasks featured low-threshold energy efficiency improvements that are attractive to the domestic industry because they do not require major capital investment. The results of this portfolio of projects are significantly reducing metalcasting process energy consumption while improving the important capabilities of metalcastings. Through June

  19. Zibibbo nero characterization, a red-wine grape revertant of muscat of Alexandria.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzis, Gabriella; Squadrito, Margherita; Brancadoro, Lucio; Scienza, Attilio

    2015-03-01

    Muscat of Alexandria is known in Italy as Zibibbo. Zibibbo nero, red-wine grapes, is a sport mutation of Zibibbo variety. A biochemical and molecular characterization of berry colour (VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 genes, Vitis vinifera MYeloBlastosis) and aroma Muscat (VvDXS gene, 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase) traits in both Zibibbo cultivars was performed, as well as ampelographic and genetic identification analyses. Molecular investigations were performed also for two putative Zibibbo parents (Moscato Bianco and Triboto), in order to prove the white-to-red shift of the red-skinned mutant. Ampelographic and genetic analysis demonstrated the high similarity between Zibibbo and Zibibbo nero, as well as a comparable aroma profile, characterized mainly by high content of linalool, geranic acid and geraniol (about 70 %). The Zibibbo nero anthocyanin profile was characterized by a high proportion in cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (about 69.23 %). The molecular characterization of VvMybA1 and VvMybA2 locus detected non-functional alleles for white-skinned samples, while also the functional alleles were observed for red-skinned samples. About the VvDXS locus, the aromatic varieties showed the typical pattern of Muscat variety, while Triboto (Zibibbo parent) showed the non-Muscat-like flavour pattern. The colour locus structure of Zibibbo and its putative parents suggested that Zibibbo nero is a berry colour revertant of Zibibbo. PMID:25380987

  20. Activation of vanadium nitrogenase expression in Azotobacter vinelandii DJ54 revertant in the presence of molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Lei, S; Pulakat, L; Gavini, N

    2000-09-29

    Azotobacter vinelandii carries three different and genetically distinct nitrogenase systems on its chromosome. Expression of all three nitrogenases is repressed by high concentrations of fixed nitrogen. Expression of individual nitrogenase systems is under the control of specific metal availability. We have isolated a novel type of A. vinelandii DJ54 revertant, designated A. vinelandii BG54, which carries a defined deletion in the nifH gene and is capable of diazotrophic growth in the presence of molybdenum. Inactivation of nifDK has no effect on growth of this mutant strain in nitrogen-free medium suggesting that products of the nif system are not involved in supporting diazotrophic growth of A. vinelandii BG54. Similar to the wild type, A. vinelandii BG54 is also sensitive to 1 mM tungsten. Tn5-B21 mutagenesis to inactivate the genes specific to individual systems revealed that the structural genes for vnf nitrogenase are required for diazotrophic growth of A. vinelandii BG54. Analysis of promoter activity of different nif systems revealed that the vnf promoter is activated in A. vinelandii BG54 in the presence of molybdenum. Based on these data we conclude that A. vinelandii BG54 strain utilizes vnf nitrogenase proteins to support its diazotrophic growth. PMID:11018539

  1. Dimethyl sulphoxide modifies growth and senescence and induces the non-revertible petite phenotype in yeast.

    PubMed

    Kakolyri, Maria; Margaritou, Aikaterini; Tiligada, Ekaterini

    2016-03-01

    Dimethyl sulphoxide is extensively used in chemical, pharmaceutical and biomedical applications, but its specific biological actions remain largely elusive. The aim of this study was to comprehensively explore the effects of dimethyl sulphoxide on eukaryotic growth and senescence by using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a reliable model organism. Rather than focusing on single cells or on either the replicative or the chronological lifespan approach, well-established microbiological procedures were integrated to monitor a combination of physiological parameters. Cell proliferation, survival, reproductive competence and morphology were recorded at various time points during incubation of asynchronous yeast populations with increasing concentrations of dimethyl sulphoxide. The findings demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the compound on yeast proliferation, survival and reproduction. In parallel, dimethyl sulphoxide induced the acquisition of the non-revertible petite phenotype and promoted morphological alterations that characterize senescence, driving the yeast populations towards the reproductive incompetent state. These findings point to the need for the investigation of the complex cellular and/or molecular mechanisms underlying the actions of dimethyl sulphoxide in eukaryotic cells and for the evaluation of their exploitation potential. PMID:26833420

  2. Induction of sister chromatid exchanges and bacterial revertants by organic extracts of airborne particles. [Humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lockard, J.M.; Viau, C.J.; Lee-Stephens, C.; Caldwell, J.C.; Wojciechowski, J.P.; Enoch, H.G.; Sabharwal, P.S.

    1981-01-01

    The genotoxicities of organic extracts of airborne particles have been studied extensively in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome (Ames) test, but in few other bioassays. In these studies, we tested benzene-acetone extracts of particulate pollutants collected in Lexington, Kentucky, for capacity to induce increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lumphocytes and V79 cells, as well as in the Ames assay. Extracts induced linear dose-related increases in SCE in human lumphocytes and in bacterial revertants.However, variable responses were observed in SCE assays in V79 cells with and without activation by rat liver S9 or feeder layers of irradiated Syrian hamster fetal cells. We conclude that the SCE assay in human lumphocytes may be a useful indicator of the potential risks to humans of airborne particulate pollutants, as it utilizes human cells recently taken from the host, is rapid and economical, and requires small quantities of test materials. However, thorough studies of the quantitative relationships between SCE induction and mutagenicity in human cells are needed.

  3. Short-term Intervention to Revert Premalignant Lesions as Strategy to Prevent Gastrointestinal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    “Prevention might be better than treatment in cancer treatment” is brief conclusion drawn from war on cancer through National Cancer Act of 1971 by U.S. President Richard Nixon. However, the clinical practice of chemoprevention is still in its infancy in spite of a wealth of data showing its effectiveness in experimental animals as well as in vitro mechanism research. Recent advances in either high throughput analysis including cancer genomes and tailored medicine or molecular targeted therapeutics, preventive strategies also should be changes as previous preventive strategies including phytoceuticals, life-style modification, and some empirical agents. Furthermore, molecular targeted therapeutics achieved high goal of effectiveness under the concept of therapeutic or preventive “synthetic lethality”, of which extended application can be included within the scope of chemoprevention. Here, we will summarize several recent advances in chemopreventive strategy objected to justify optimism that chemoprevention will be an effective approach for the control of human cancer. siTRP (short-term intervention to revert premalignancy) strategy will be introduced for cancers in gastroenterology. PMID:25337558

  4. Revertant mutants modify, but do not rescue, the gating defect of the cystic fibrosis mutant G551D-CFTR

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhe; Pissarra, Luísa S; Farinha, Carlos M; Liu, Jia; Cai, Zhiwei; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Amaral, Margarida D; Sheppard, David N

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by dysfunction of the epithelial anion channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). One strategy to restore function to CF mutants is to suppress defects in CFTR processing and function using revertant mutations. Here, we investigate the effects of the revertant mutations G550E and 4RK (the simultaneous disruption of four arginine-framed tripeptides (AFTs): R29K, R516K, R555K and R766K) on the CF mutant G551D, which impairs severely channel gating without altering protein processing and which affects a residue in the same α-helix as G550 and R555. Both G550E and 4RK augmented strongly CFTR-mediated iodide efflux from BHK cells expressing G551D-CFTR. To learn how revertant mutations influence G551D-CFTR function, we studied protein processing and single-channel behaviour. Neither G550E nor 4RK altered the expression and maturation of G551D-CFTR protein. By contrast, both revertants had marked effects on G551D-CFTR channel gating, increasing strongly opening frequency, while 4RK also diminished noticeably the duration of channel openings. Because G551D-CFTR channel gating is ATP independent, we investigated whether revertant mutations restore ATP dependence to G551D-CFTR. Like wild-type CFTR, the activity of 4RK-G551D-CFTR varied with ATP concentration, suggesting that 4RK confers some ATP dependence on the G551D-CFTR channel. Thus, the revertant mutations G550E and 4RK alter the gating pattern and ATP dependence of G551D-CFTR without restoring single-channel activity to wild-type levels. Based on their impact on the CF mutants F508del and G551D, we conclude that G550E and 4RK have direct effects on CFTR structure, but that their action on CFTR processing and channel function is CF mutation specific. PMID:24591578

  5. Interacting genes that affect microtubule function in Drosophila melanogaster: Two classes of mutation revert the failure to complement between hay sup nc2 and mutations in tubulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, C.L.; Fuller, M.T. )

    1990-05-01

    The recessive male sterile mutation hay{sup nc2} of Drosophila melanogaster fails to complement certain {beta}{sub 2}-tubulin and {alpha}-tubulin mutations, suggesting that the haywire product plays a role in microtubule function, perhaps as a structural component of microtubules. The genetic interaction appears to require the presence of the aberrant product encoded by hay{sup nc2}, which may act as a structural poison. Based on this observation, the authors have isolated ten new mutations with EMS that revert the failure to complement between hay{sup nc2} and B2t{sup n}. The revertants tested behaved as intragenic mutations of hay in recombination tests, and feel into two phenotypic classes, suggesting two functional domains of the hay gene product. Some revertants were hemizygous viable and less severe than hay{sup nc2} in their recessive phenotype. These mutations might revert the poison by restoring the aberrant product encoded by the hay{sup nc2} allele to more wild-type function. Most of the revertants were recessive lethal mutations, indicating that the hay gene product is essential for viability. These more extreme mutations could revert the poison by destroying the ability of the aberrant haywire{sup nc2} product to interact structurally with microtubules. Flies heterozygous for the original hay{sup nc2} allele and an extreme revertant show defects in both the structure and the function of the male meiotic spindle.

  6. Baicalein reverts L-valine-induced persistent sodium current up-modulation in primary cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Caioli, Silvia; Candelotti, Elena; Pedersen, Jens Z; Saba, Luana; Antonini, Alessia; Incerpi, Sandra; Zona, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    L-valine is a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) largely used as dietary integrator by athletes and involved in some inherited rare diseases such as maple syrup urine disease. This pathology is caused by an altered BCAA metabolism with the accumulation of toxic keto acids in tissues and body fluids with consequent severe neurological symptoms. In animal models of BCAA accumulation, increased oxidative stress levels and lipid peroxidation have been reported. The aim of this study was to analyze both whether high BCAA concentrations in neurons induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and whether, by performing electrophysiological recordings, the neuronal functional properties are modified. Our results demonstrate that in primary cortical cultures, a high dose of valine increases ROS production and provokes neuronal hyperexcitability because the action potential frequencies and the persistent sodium current amplitudes increase significantly compared to non-treated neurons. Since Baicalein, a flavone obtained from the Scutellaria root, has been shown to act as a strong antioxidant with neuroprotective effects, we evaluated its possible antioxidant activity in primary cortical neurons chronically exposed to L-valine. The preincubation of cortical neurons with Baicalein prevents the ROS production and is able to revert both the neuronal hyperexcitability and the increase of the persistent sodium current, indicating a direct correlation between the ROS production and the altered physiological parameters. In conclusion, our data show that the electrophysiological alterations of cortical neurons elicited by high valine concentration are due to the increase in ROS production, suggesting much caution in the intake of BCAA dietary integrators. PMID:26721313

  7. Analysis of Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 revertants: The use of oligodeoxyribonucleotide colony hybridization, PCR, and direct sequencing in mutational analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kupchella, E.; Cebula, T.A. )

    1991-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the DNA sequences of Salmonella typhimurium hisD3052 revertants is presented. DNA colony hybridization was used to analyze revertants previously studied by Isono and Yourno. Synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes (18-mers) were able to distinguish sequences that differed by a single base pair. Mutant his sequences not identified by probing analysis were amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and directly sequenced. The combined use of DNA-colony hybridization and direct sequencing offers a precise and rapid means for the molecular characterization of hisD3052 revertants.

  8. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HCT) for Inborn Errors of Metabolism

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-11-06

    Hurler's Syndrome; Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome; Sly Syndrome; Alpha Mannosidosis; Fucosidosis; Aspartylglucosaminuria; Sphingolipidoses; Krabbe Disease; Wolman's Disease; Niemann-Pick Disease Type B; Niemann-Pick Disease, Type C

  9. User`s guide to REVERT. A CDC 7600 program for converting Spent Fuel Test - Climax data to engineering units, with corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Hage, G.

    1984-10-01

    A CDC 7600 computer program, REVERT, can revise Spent Fuel Test - Climax data files using one of several algorithms, depending on the type of data. The algorithms use coefficients from a separate file organized by data type identifiers. REVERT can also make that file of coefficients, using data from tapes made by Hewlett-Packard equipment employed for data acquisition on the spent Fuel Test - Climax at NTS. 12 references.

  10. Prediction of MicroRNA-Disease Associations Based on Social Network Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Zou, Quan; Li, Jinjin; Hong, Qingqi; Lin, Ziyu; Wu, Yun; Shi, Hua; Ju, Ying

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs constitute an important class of noncoding, single-stranded, ~22 nucleotide long RNA molecules encoded by endogenous genes. They play an important role in regulating gene transcription and the regulation of normal development. MicroRNAs can be associated with disease; however, only a few microRNA-disease associations have been confirmed by traditional experimental approaches. We introduce two methods to predict microRNA-disease association. The first method, KATZ, focuses on integrating the social network analysis method with machine learning and is based on networks derived from known microRNA-disease associations, disease-disease associations, and microRNA-microRNA associations. The other method, CATAPULT, is a supervised machine learning method. We applied the two methods to 242 known microRNA-disease associations and evaluated their performance using leave-one-out cross-validation and 3-fold cross-validation. Experiments proved that our methods outperformed the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26273645

  11. Once a Batesian mimic, not always a Batesian mimic: mimic reverts back to ancestral phenotype when the model is absent

    PubMed Central

    Prudic, Kathleen L; Oliver, Jeffrey C

    2008-01-01

    Batesian mimics gain protection from predation through the evolution of physical similarities to a model species that possesses anti-predator defences. This protection should not be effective in the absence of the model since the predator does not identify the mimic as potentially dangerous and both the model and the mimic are highly conspicuous. Thus, Batesian mimics should probably encounter strong predation pressure outside the geographical range of the model species. There are several documented examples of Batesian mimics occurring in locations without their models, but the evolutionary responses remain largely unidentified. A mimetic species has four alternative evolutionary responses to the loss of model presence. If predation is weak, it could maintain its mimetic signal. If predation is intense, it is widely presumed the mimic will go extinct. However, the mimic could also evolve a new colour pattern to mimic another model species or it could revert back to its ancestral, less conspicuous phenotype. We used molecular phylogenetic approaches to reconstruct and test the evolution of mimicry in the North American admiral butterflies (Limenitis: Nymphalidae). We confirmed that the more cryptic white-banded form is the ancestral phenotype of North American admiral butterflies. However, one species, Limenitis arthemis, evolved the black pipevine swallowtail mimetic form but later reverted to the white-banded more cryptic ancestral form. This character reversion is strongly correlated with the geographical absence of the model species and its host plant, but not the host plant distribution of L. arthemis. Our results support the prediction that a Batesian mimic does not persist in locations without its model, but it does not go extinct either. The mimic can revert back to its ancestral, less conspicuous form and persist. PMID:18285285

  12. The Term Structure of Interest Rates Under Heath-Jarrow-Morton Models with Fast Mean-Reverting Stochastic Volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Hyeon; Lee, Min-Ku; Kim, Jeong-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    This paper is a study of the term structure of interest rates based on the Heath-Jarrow-Morton (HJM) models with Hull-White volatility function. Under fast mean-reverting stochastic volatility, we obtain an analytic formula for an approximate bond price with estimated error using a Markovian transform method combined with a singular perturbation method. The stochastic volatility correction effect against time-to-maturity is revealed so that it can capture more of the complexities of the interest rate term structure.

  13. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, A S M Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases. PMID:27073839

  14. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, A. S. M. Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K.

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases. PMID:27073839

  15. The Lifestyle Carbon Dividend: Assessment of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of Grasslands and Pasturelands Reverted to Native Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S.; Jain, A. K.; Shu, S.

    2015-12-01

    What is the potential of a global transition to a vegan lifestyle to sequester carbon and mitigate climate change? To answer this question, we use an Earth System Model (ESM), the Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). ISAM is a fully coupled biogeochemistry (carbon and nitrogen cycles) and biogeophysics (hydrology and thermal energy) ESM, which calculates carbon sources and sinks due to land cover and land use change activities, such as reforestation and afforestation. We calculate the carbon sequestration potential of grasslands and pasturelands that can be reverted to native forests as 265 GtC on 1.96E+7 km2 of land area, just 41% of the total area of such lands on Earth. The grasslands and pasturelands are assumed to revert back to native forests which existed prior to any human intervention and these include tropical, temperate and boreal forests. The results are validated with above ground regrowth measurements. Since this carbon sequestration potential is greater than the 240 GtC of that has been added to the atmosphere since the industrial era began, it shows that such global lifestyle transitions have tremendous potential to mitigate and even reverse climate change.

  16. Insight into Neutral and Disease-Associated Human Genetic Variants through Interpretable Predictors

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bastiaan A.; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; de Ridder, Dick; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of methods that predict human nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be neutral or disease-associated have been developed over the last decade. These methods are used for pinpointing disease-associated variants in the many variants obtained with next-generation sequencing technologies. The high performances of current sequence-based predictors indicate that sequence data contains valuable information about a variant being neutral or disease-associated. However, most predictors do not readily disclose this information, and so it remains unclear what sequence properties are most important. Here, we show how we can obtain insight into sequence characteristics of variants and their surroundings by interpreting predictors. We used an extensive range of features derived from the variant itself, its surrounding sequence, sequence conservation, and sequence annotation, and employed linear support vector machine classifiers to enable extracting feature importance from trained predictors. Our approach is useful for providing additional information about what features are most important for the predictions made. Furthermore, for large sets of known variants, it can provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for variants being disease-associated. PMID:25826299

  17. Insight into neutral and disease-associated human genetic variants through interpretable predictors.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Bastiaan A; Reinders, Marcel J T; de Ridder, Dick; de Beer, Tjaart A P

    2015-01-01

    A variety of methods that predict human nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to be neutral or disease-associated have been developed over the last decade. These methods are used for pinpointing disease-associated variants in the many variants obtained with next-generation sequencing technologies. The high performances of current sequence-based predictors indicate that sequence data contains valuable information about a variant being neutral or disease-associated. However, most predictors do not readily disclose this information, and so it remains unclear what sequence properties are most important. Here, we show how we can obtain insight into sequence characteristics of variants and their surroundings by interpreting predictors. We used an extensive range of features derived from the variant itself, its surrounding sequence, sequence conservation, and sequence annotation, and employed linear support vector machine classifiers to enable extracting feature importance from trained predictors. Our approach is useful for providing additional information about what features are most important for the predictions made. Furthermore, for large sets of known variants, it can provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for variants being disease-associated. PMID:25826299

  18. WBSMDA: Within and Between Score for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing; Yan, Chenggang Clarence; Zhang, Xu; You, Zhu-Hong; Deng, Lixi; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yongdong; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidences have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are functionally associated with the development and progression of various complex human diseases. However, the roles of miRNAs in multiple biological processes or various diseases and their underlying molecular mechanisms still have not been fully understood yet. Predicting potential miRNA-disease associations by integrating various heterogeneous biological datasets is of great significance to the biomedical research. Computational methods could obtain potential miRNA-disease associations in a short time, which significantly reduce the experimental time and cost. Considering the limitations in previous computational methods, we developed the model of Within and Between Score for MiRNA-Disease Association prediction (WBSMDA) to predict potential miRNAs associated with various complex diseases. WBSMDA could be applied to the diseases without any known related miRNAs. The AUC of 0.8031 based on Leave-one-out cross validation has demonstrated its reliable performance. WBSMDA was further applied to Colon Neoplasms, Prostate Neoplasms, and Lymphoma for the identification of their potential related miRNAs. As a result, 90%, 84%, and 80% of predicted miRNA-disease pairs in the top 50 prediction list for these three diseases have been confirmed by recent experimental literatures, respectively. It is anticipated that WBSMDA would be a useful resource for potential miRNA-disease association identification. PMID:26880032

  19. NTSMDA: prediction of miRNA-disease associations by integrating network topological similarity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dongdong; Li, Ao; Feng, Huanqing; Wang, Minghui

    2016-06-21

    Recently, accumulating studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in exploring the pathogenesis of various human diseases at the molecular level and may result in the design of specific tools for diagnosis, treatment evaluation and prevention. Experimental identification of disease-related miRNAs is time-consuming and labour-intensive. Hence, there is a stressing need to propose efficient computational methods to detect more potential miRNA-disease associations. Currently, several computational approaches for identifying disease-related miRNAs on the miRNA-disease network have gained much attention by means of integrating miRNA functional similarities and disease semantic similarities. However, these methods rarely consider the network topological similarity of the miRNA-disease association network. Here, in this paper we develop an improved computational method named NTSMDA that is based on known miRNA-disease network topological similarity to exploit more potential disease-related miRNAs. We achieve an AUC of 89.4% by using the leave-one-out cross-validation experiment, demonstrating the excellent predictive performance of NTSMDA. Furthermore, predicted highly ranked miRNA-disease associations of breast neoplasms, lung neoplasms and prostatic neoplasms are manually confirmed by different related databases and literature, providing evidence for the good performance and potential value of the NTSMDA method in inferring miRNA-disease associations. The R code and readme file of NTSMDA can be downloaded from . PMID:27153230

  20. Detection of the disease associated form of the prion protein in biological samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases that occur in a variety of mammals. In these diseases, a chromosomally encoded protein (PrP**c) undergoes a conformational change to the disease associated form (PrP**d), and PrP**d is capable inducing ...

  1. Integration of Multiple Genomic and Phenotype Data to Infer Novel miRNA-Disease Associations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hongbo; Zhang, Guangde; Zhou, Meng; Cheng, Liang; Yang, Haixiu; Wang, Jing; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the development and progression of human diseases. The identification of disease-associated miRNAs will be helpful for understanding the molecular mechanisms of diseases at the post-transcriptional level. Based on different types of genomic data sources, computational methods for miRNA-disease association prediction have been proposed. However, individual source of genomic data tends to be incomplete and noisy; therefore, the integration of various types of genomic data for inferring reliable miRNA-disease associations is urgently needed. In this study, we present a computational framework, CHNmiRD, for identifying miRNA-disease associations by integrating multiple genomic and phenotype data, including protein-protein interaction data, gene ontology data, experimentally verified miRNA-target relationships, disease phenotype information and known miRNA-disease connections. The performance of CHNmiRD was evaluated by experimentally verified miRNA-disease associations, which achieved an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.834 for 5-fold cross-validation. In particular, CHNmiRD displayed excellent performance for diseases without any known related miRNAs. The results of case studies for three human diseases (glioblastoma, myocardial infarction and type 1 diabetes) showed that all of the top 10 ranked miRNAs having no known associations with these three diseases in existing miRNA-disease databases were directly or indirectly confirmed by our latest literature mining. All these results demonstrated the reliability and efficiency of CHNmiRD, and it is anticipated that CHNmiRD will serve as a powerful bioinformatics method for mining novel disease-related miRNAs and providing a new perspective into molecular mechanisms underlying human diseases at the post-transcriptional level. CHNmiRD is freely available at http://www.bio-bigdata.com/CHNmiRD. PMID:26849207

  2. The Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 (NPC1L1) inhibitor ezetimibe improves metabolic disease via decreased liver X receptor (LXR) activity in liver of obese male mice.

    PubMed

    Sugizaki, Taichi; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Horai, Yasushi; Kaneko-Iwasaki, Nao; Arita, Eri; Miyazaki, Teruo; Morimoto, Kohkichi; Honda, Akira; Irie, Junichiro; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Dyslipidemic patients with diabetes mellitus, including metabolic syndrome, are at increased risk of coronary heart disease. It has been reported that ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, improves metabolic diseases in mice and humans. However, the underlying mechanism has been unclear. Here we explored the effects of ezetimibe on lipid and glucose homeostasis. Male KK-A(y) mice were fed a high-fat diet, which is the mouse model of metabolic syndrome, with or without ezetimibe for 14 weeks. Ezetimibe improved dyslipidemia, steatosis, and insulin resistance. Ezetimibe decreased hepatic oxysterols, which are endogenous agonists of liver X receptor (LXR), to decrease hepatic lipogenic gene expressions, especially in stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), leading to a remarkable reduction of hepatic oleate content that would contribute to the improvement of steatosis by reducing triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Simultaneously, hepatic β-oxidation, NADPH oxidase and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were reduced, and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokines were also decreased. Consistent with these changes, ezetimibe diminished c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and improved insulin signaling in the liver. In vitro study using primary hepatocytes obtained from male SD rats, treated with oleate and LXR agonist, showed excess lipid accumulation, increased oxidative stress and impaired insulin signaling. Therefore, in obese subjects, ezetimibe reduces hepatic LXR activity by reducing hepatic oxysterols to lower hepatic oleate content. This improves steatosis and reduces oxidative stress, and this reduction improves insulin signaling in the liver. These results provide insight into pathogenesis and strategies for treatment of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24773344

  3. Plasma Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Lard Functionalized with Mushroom Extracts Is Independent of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 Protein and ABC Sterol Transporter Gene Expression in Hypercholesterolemic Mice.

    PubMed

    Caz, Víctor; Gil-Ramírez, Alicia; Santamaría, Mónica; Tabernero, María; Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Martín-Hernández, Roberto; Marín, Francisco R; Reglero, Guillermo; Largo, Carlota

    2016-03-01

    Interest in food matrices supplemented with mushrooms as hypocholesterolemic functional foods is increasing. This study was to (i) investigate the hypocholesterolemic activity of lard functionalized with mushroom extracts (LF) including fungal β-glucans, water-soluble polysaccharides, or ergosterol and (ii) examine the LF influence on transcriptional mechanisms involved in cholesterol metabolism. mRNA levels of 17 cholesterol-related genes were evaluated in jejunum, cecum, and liver of high cholesterol-fed mice. The four tested LFs decreased plasma cholesterol by 22-42%, HDLc by 18-40%, and LDLc by 27-51%, and two of them increased mRNA levels of jejunal Npc1l1 and Abcg5 and hepatic Npc1l1. mRNA levels of other cholesterol-related genes were unchanged. These findings suggest that LF may have potential as a dietary supplement for counteracting diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and could be a source for the development of novel cholesterol-lowering functional foods. However, the cholesterol-lowering effect was unrelated to transcriptional changes, suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms could be involved. PMID:26900983

  4. Analysis of HeLa cell hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase mutants and revertants by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis: evidence for silent gene activation.

    PubMed Central

    Milman, G; Lee, E; Ghangas, G S; McLaughlin, J R; George, M

    1976-01-01

    The spot corresponding to hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT; IMP:pyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase, EC 2.4.2.8) has been identified in two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels of HeLa cell extracts. This spot is absent in gels of 24 HPRT dificient mutants. A missense mutant displays a new HPRT spot at the same molecular weight but different isoelectric focusing position. Five independently isolated revertants of the missense mutant display spots corresponding to both the wild-type and mutant proteins indicating that they synthesize HPRT from two separate genes. If the missense protein is synthesized from a mutated form of the initially active HPRT gene, then wild-type HPRT protein in the revertants must be snythesized from a newly activated but prevously silent wild-type gene. The newly activated gene in the revertants of the missense mutation appears unstable producing a high frequency of spontaneous HPRT mutants. Images PMID:63948

  5. The Mitochondrial Genome Organization of a Maize Fertile Cmst Revertant Line Is Generated through Recombination between Two Sets of Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Fauron, CMR.; Havlik, M.; Brettell, RIS.

    1990-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) organization from a fertile revertant line (V3) derived from the maize cytoplasmic male sterile type T (cmsT) callus tissue culture has been determined. We report that the sequence complexity can be mapped on to a circular ``master chromosome'' of 705 kb which includes a duplication of 165 kb of DNA when compared to its male sterile progenitor. Associated with this event is also a 0.423-kb deletion, which removed the cmsT-associated urf13 gene. As found for the maize normal type (N) and cmsT mitochondrial genomes, the V3 master chromosome also exists as a multipartite structure generated by recombination through repeated sequences. PMID:2307363

  6. Mutation and expression of the XPA gene in revertants and hybrids of a xeroderma pigmentosum cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Cleaver, J.E.; McDowell, M.; Karentz, D.; Jones, C.; Wood, R.

    1994-07-01

    A series of ultraviolet (UV)-resistant cell lines have been generated from a UV-sensitive XP group A cell line homozygous for a stop codon (TGA) in the chromosome 9 XPA gene. Three lines generated by chemical mutagenesis acquired the ability to excise (6-4) photoproducts but not cyclobutane dimers from the whole genome; two lines generated by a fusion procedure with hamster cells acquired the ability to excise both (6-4) photoproducts and cyclobutane dimers from the whole genome. A central region of the hamster XPA gene was cloned and sequenced. With the use of species-specific primers in the polymerase chain reaction, the authors found that the hybrid cell lines do not contain a hamster XPA gene. Sequence analysis showed that all of the UV-resistant cell lines contain reversions of the human stop codon, resulting in missense mutations (glycine or leucine for arginine) or wild-type sequences. The concentration of XPA protein in revertant cell lines was about one-half that in normal cells, which would be expected from heterozygous cells; there was no evidence that the mutant proteins were less stable than the wild-type proteins. These results are consistent with the idea that the XPA protein initiates repair by binding to damaged sites with various affinities, depending on the photoproduct and the transcriptional state of the region. A concentration of XPA protein near 50% is needed before repair can proceed into nontranscribed regions of the genome. The revertant cell lines represent a class of missense mutations in the XPA gene that may have altered specificity and that can be used to understand some of the regulatory differences in repair of photoproducts in various regions of the genome.

  7. Using VAAST to Identify Disease-Associated Variants in Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Brett; Kronenberg, Zev; Hu, Hao; Moore, Barry; Flygare, Steven; Reese, Martin G.; Jorde, Lynn B.; Yandell, Mark; Huff, Chad

    2014-01-01

    The VAAST pipeline is specifically designed to identify disease-associated alleles in next-generation sequencing data. In the protocols presented in this paper, we outline the best practices for variant prioritization using VAAST. Examples and test data are provided for case-control, small pedigree, and large pedigree analyses. These protocols will teach users the fundamentals of VAAST, VAAST 2.0, and pVAAST analyses. PMID:24763993

  8. [Combined physiobalneotherapy of vibration disease associated with dyscirculatory encephalopathy in the miners].

    PubMed

    Borzunova, Iu M; Fedorov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The present study included 161 patients with vibration disease associated with dyscirculatory encephalopathy. It was designed to estimate the degree of cognitive dysfunction and the efficacy of its treatment by physiobalneotherapeutic techniiques including low-frequency pulsed currents in combination with general artificial sodium chloride and iodine bromide baths. In addition, the influence of combined therapy on the clinical course of the disease, results of neuropsychological tests, and cerebral hemodynamics was evaluated. PMID:23210356

  9. Crohn's disease associated with Sweet's syndrome and Sjögren's syndrome treated with infliximab.

    PubMed

    Foster, Erina N; Nguyen, Khanh K; Sheikh, Rafiq A; Prindiville, Thomas P

    2005-06-01

    The association of Crohn's disease (CD) and Sweet's syndrome is rare and the presence of Sjögren's syndrome in Crohn's disease is even rarer, with only three reports found in the literature. We describe two cases of Crohn's disease associated with Sweet's syndrome, one of which is the first case of CD and Sweet's concomitantly associated with Sjogren's syndrome. Both cases responded rapidly to Infliximab therapy with complete resolution of the skin lesions. PMID:16050146

  10. Integrative analysis reveals disease-associated genes and biomarkers for prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is one of the most common complex diseases with high leading cause of death in men. Identifications of prostate cancer associated genes and biomarkers are thus essential as they can gain insights into the mechanisms underlying disease progression and advancing for early diagnosis and developing effective therapies. Methods In this study, we presented an integrative analysis of gene expression profiling and protein interaction network at a systematic level to reveal candidate disease-associated genes and biomarkers for prostate cancer progression. At first, we reconstructed the human prostate cancer protein-protein interaction network (HPC-PPIN) and the network was then integrated with the prostate cancer gene expression data to identify modules related to different phases in prostate cancer. At last, the candidate module biomarkers were validated by its predictive ability of prostate cancer progression. Results Different phases-specific modules were identified for prostate cancer. Among these modules, transcription Androgen Receptor (AR) nuclear signaling and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway were shown to be the pathway targets for prostate cancer progression. The identified candidate disease-associated genes showed better predictive ability of prostate cancer progression than those of published biomarkers. In context of functional enrichment analysis, interestingly candidate disease-associated genes were enriched in the nucleus and different functions were encoded for potential transcription factors, for examples key players as AR, Myc, ESR1 and hidden player as Sp1 which was considered as a potential novel biomarker for prostate cancer. Conclusions The successful results on prostate cancer samples demonstrated that the integrative analysis is powerful and useful approach to detect candidate disease-associate genes and modules which can be used as the potential biomarkers for prostate cancer progression. The