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  1. Extracranial giant cell arteritis: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Lensen, K D F; Voskuyl, A E; Comans, E F I; van der Laken, C J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-06-01

    A systematic literature search was performed to summarise current knowledge on extracranial giant cell arteritis (GCA), i.e. large-artery involvement in patients with or without clinically apparent temporal arteritis (cranial GCA). Extracranial GCA is increasingly recognised, both in patients with cranial GCA and with solitary extracranial GCA, due to increased awareness among physicians and development of modern imaging modalities. The literature on the pathogenesis and histopathology of extracranial GCA is scarce. It is considered to be similar to cranial GCA. Patients with solitary extracranial GCA often present with non-specific signs and symptoms, although vascular manifestations, mostly secondary to stenosis, may occur. Due to the non-specific clinical presentation and low sensitivity of temporal artery biopsies, extracranial GCA is usually diagnosed by imaging. 18F-FDG-PET, MRI, CT angiography and ultrasound are used for this purpose. At present, the optimal diagnostic strategy is undetermined. The choice for a particular modality can be guided by the clinical scenario that raises suspicion of extracranial GCA, in addition to local availability and expertise. Extracranial complications in GCA consist of aortic aneurysm or dissection (mainly the ascending aorta), aortic arch syndrome, arm claudication and posterior stroke (although this is technically a cranial complication, it often results from stenosis of the vertebrobasilar arteries). Mortality is generally not increased in patients with GCA. Treatment of patients with solitary extracranial and those with extracranial and cranial GCA has been debated in the recent literature. In general, the same strategy is applied as in patients with temporal arteritis, although criteria regarding who to treat are unclear. Surgical procedures may be indicated, in which case optimal medical treatment prior to surgery is important. PMID:27323671

  2. Giant Cell Tumor of the Skull: Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Ryota; Miwa, Tomoru; Shimizu, Kazuhiko; Mizutani, Katsuhiro; Tomita, Hideyuki; Yamane, Nobuo; Tominaga, Takehiro; Sasaki, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    Background Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are rare in the skull. The present report describes a case with a primary GCT located in the temporal bone and reviews the relevant literature. We also propose a treatment strategy for GCT of the skull. Clinical Presentation A 41-year-old man presented with headache and auditory disturbance. Radiologic images showed a lytic expansive extradural lesion originating primarily from the right temporal bone and expanding into the middle cranial fossa and the infratemporal fossa. A biopsy specimen of the lesion was obtained from the external auditory meatus. Total removal was performed with temporal craniectomy, mandibular condylar process removal, tympanoplasty, and mastoidectomy. Discussion The rate of recurrence of GCTs is related to complete resection and location of the GCT rather than to the degree of invasiveness. Some of the mononuclear cells and stromal cells in GCT express receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-β ligand (RANKL). Because inhibition of RANKL and bisphosphonate therapy might eliminate giant cells, this approach might be useful for recurrent or unresectable GCTs of the skull. Conclusions Preoperative diagnosis by biopsy is important in determining the therapeutic strategy of GCTs. Complete resection is important to reduce the recurrence rate of GCTs in the skull. PMID:26091114

  3. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  4. Peripheral giant cell granuloma.

    PubMed

    Adlakha, V K; Chandna, P; Rehani, U; Rana, V; Malik, P

    2010-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a benign reactive lesion of gingiva. It manifests as a firm, soft, bright nodule or as a sessile or pedunculate mass. This article reports the management of peripheral giant cell granuloma in a 12-year-old boy by surgical excision. PMID:21273719

  5. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  6. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in patients without hard metal exposure: analysis of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khoor, Andras; Roden, Anja C; Colby, Thomas V; Roggli, Victor L; Elrefaei, Mohamed; Alvarez, Francisco; Erasmus, David B; Mallea, Jorge M; Murray, David L; Keller, Cesar A

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia is a rare lung disease and is considered pathognomonic for hard metal lung disease, although some cases with no apparent hard metal (tungsten carbide cobalt) exposure have been reported. We aimed to explore the association between giant cell interstitial pneumonia and hard metal exposure. Surgical pathology files from 2001 to 2004 were searched for explanted lungs with the histopathologic diagnosis of giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and we reviewed the associated clinical histories. Mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and human leukocyte antigen typing data were evaluated. Of the 455 lung transplants, 3 met the histologic criteria for giant cell interstitial pneumonia. Patient 1 was a 36-year-old firefighter, patient 2 was a 58-year-old welder, and patient 3 was a 45-year-old environmental inspector. None reported exposure to hard metal or cobalt dust. Patients 1 and 2 received double lung transplants; patient 3 received a left single-lung transplant. Histologically, giant cell interstitial pneumonia presented as chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, alveolar macrophage accumulation, and multinucleated giant cells of both alveolar macrophage and type 2 cell origin. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed no cobalt or tungsten particles in samples from the explanted lungs. None of the samples had detectable tungsten levels, and only patient 2 had elevated cobalt levels. The lack of appropriate inhalation history and negative analytical findings in the tissue from 2 of the 3 patients suggests that giant cell interstitial pneumonia is not limited to individuals with hard metal exposure, and other environmental factors may elicit the same histologic reaction. PMID:26997453

  7. Giant cell granuloma of the maxilla. Global management, review of literature and case report

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Solo de Zaldívar, Damián; González-García, Raúl; Ruíz-Laza, Luís; Villanueva-Alcojol, Laura; González-Ballester, David; Hernández Vila, Cristina; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell granuloma is a relatively rare benign entity but can be locally aggressive. Histologically characterized by intense proliferation of multinucleated giant cells and fibroblasts. Affects bone supported tissues. Definitive diagnosis is given by biopsy. Clinically manifest as a mass or nodule of reddish color and fleshy, occasionally ulcerated surface. They can range from asymptomatic to destructive lesions that grow quickly. It is a lesion to be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteolytic lesions affecting the maxilla or jaw. Its management passed from conservative treatment with intralesional infiltration of corticosteroids, calcitonin or interferon, to the surgical resection and reconstruction, for example with microvascular free flaps. Key words:Giant cell granuloma, intralesional injection, microvascular free flap, fibula. PMID:24558538

  8. Giant cell tumour of peroneus brevis tendon sheath – a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Goni, Vijay; Gopinathan, Nirmal Raj; Radotra, B D; Viswanathan, Vibhu Krishnan; Logithasan, Rajesh Kumar; S, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue lesion most commonly found in the flexor aspect of hand and wrist. Being rare in foot and ankle, the unusual presentation of this lesion may sometimes mimic other lesions like lipoma, synovial sarcoma, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, synovial cyst and ganglion. Hence it is important to include this lesion in differential diagnoses especially if the lesion is found to be anchored to any of the surrounding tendons. This article describes the unusual occurrence of giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath of peroneus brevis which is rarely described in literature. PMID:22802558

  9. GIANT-CELL RICH ATRIAL MYXOMA: REPORT OF TWO CASES AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Hina; Mamoon, Nadira

    2016-01-01

    The cases of two middle age males are presented who were incidentally diagnosed to have atrial myxoma. Both of them underwent successful surgical interventions. Histologically, both myxomas showed abundant multinucleated giant cells, in addition to typical myxoid stroma with stellate and cord-like structures. PMID:27323595

  10. Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath: study of 64 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Di Grazia, S; Succi, G; Fragetta, F; Perrotta, R E

    2013-01-01

    The giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS) is the most common benign neoplasm in the hand after the ganglion cyst. Several hypotheses were formulated about the etiological factors of these tumors, but still there is not a common opinion on etiology, prognostic factors and recurrence rate. This article presents a review of literature of the last 15 years about GCTTS to assess the demographic, clinical and histological profile. We compared the information obtained from literature with our experience of 64 cases between 2000 and 2012. Our study showed similar results to those reported in literature, except for the recurrence rate: only 3 cases (4.7%) of 64 patients reported recurrence (versus about 15% on average in literature). Among the various possible factors that predispose to recurrence, it is necessary that the surgeon ensures complete excision of the tumor and removal of any residual satellite nodules. Although the marginal excision is the treatment of choice, it is often difficult to perform due to for the location and the strict adherence of the tumor to the tendon or neurovascular bundles. We used in all cases a magnifying loupe to help a careful research of satellite lesions and to respect surrounding structures. PMID:23837951

  11. Giant-cell interstitial pneumonia and hard-metal pneumoconiosis. A clinicopathologic study of four cases and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Ohori, N.P.; Sciurba, F.C.; Owens, G.R.; Hodgson, M.J.; Yousem, S.A.

    1989-07-01

    We report four cases of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia that occurred in association with exposure to hard metals. All patients presented with chronic interstitial lung disease and had open-lung biopsies that revealed marked interstitial fibrosis, cellular interstitial infiltrates, and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells displaying cellular cannibalism. We also review the literature to determine the sensitivity and specificity of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia for hard-metal pneumoconiosis. Although hard-metal pneumoconiosis may take the form of usual interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and giant-cell interstitial pneumonia, the finding of giant-cell interstitial pneumonia is almost pathognomonic of hard-metal disease and should provoke an investigation of occupational exposure. 25 references.

  12. A Review and Report of Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a 4-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Nekouei, Afsaneh; Eshghi, Alireza; Jafarnejadi, Parisa

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is a common benign and reactive gingival epulis in oral cavity. It is often difficult to make a clinical diagnosis; thereby definitive diagnosis depends on histopathologic features. We report a case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy presenting with a five-month history a 20 × 15 × 12 mm pedunculated, lobular soft tissue mass of the left anterior maxilla gingiva which was misdiagnosed and maltreated before his referral. An excisional biopsy of the lesion followed by histopathologic examination of the biopsy specimen revealed distinctive features of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule especially in children are important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:27403351

  13. Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Romero, J

    2003-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), temporal arteritis or Horton's arteritis, is a systemic vasculitis which involves large and medium sized vessels, especially the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries, in persons usually older than 50 years. Permanent visual loss, ischaemic strokes, and thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms are feared complications of GCA. The treatment consists of high dose steroids. Mortality, with a correct treatment, in patients with GCA seems to be similar that of controls. PMID:13679546

  14. GIANT CELL TUMOR IN THE PROXIMAL PHALANX WITH PULMONARY METASTASIS: CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Frederico Carvalho; de Medeiros, Fernando Carvalho; de Campos Carvalho Lopes, Izabella; de Medeiros, Guilherme Carvalho; de Medeiros, Eduardo Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report on a giant cell tumor (GCT) in the proximal phalanx of the third finger of the left hand, with pulmonary metastasis. The patient presented pain in the finger without any previous history of trauma. Clinical examination, radiographic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging were carried out. A histological evaluation was carried out from an incisional biopsy, taking the hypothesis of GCT. The patient underwent amputation of the finger and the diagnosis was confirmed by means of microscopy on the specimen. The patient was followed up because of the risk of lung metastasis, which was shown by radiographic examination and computed tomography on the chest, and thoracotomy was performed. Since then, there has been an improvement in the symptoms that had been reported preoperatively, and no local recurrence or new metastasis has been found. PMID:27027012

  15. Primary Urinary Bladder Angiosarcoma with Osteoclast-Like Multinucleated Giant Cells: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nawar, Nariman A.; Olsen, Jamie; Jelic, Tomislav M.; He, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 68 Final Diagnosis: Urinary bladder angiosarcoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: TURBT Specialty: Diagnostics, Laboratory Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Angiosarcoma is a fatal and aggressive mesenchymal tumor. It occurs in skin, breast, and parenchymal organs. It rarely arises primarily in the urinary bladder. Only 13 cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma have been reported in the English literature. Case Report: The patient was a 68-year-old man who presented to the Emergency Department with inability to void. Computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis showed a urinary bladder mass. Surgical excision of the mass was performed. Pathological examination results were consistent with angiosarcoma. In addition to the unusual location of this tumor, the pathology was different from the previously reported cases in that this case was rich with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Conclusions: The pathological diagnosis of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma is challenging. Histological patterns and immunophenotypes are variable. Here, we review all reported cases of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma, highlight the clinical and morphological features of this malignant neoplasm, and report a unique case of primary urinary bladder angiosarcoma with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. PMID:26947436

  16. [A case report of phylloides tumor of the prostate: review of the literature and analysis of bizarre giant cell origin].

    PubMed

    Mishina, T; Shimada, N; Toki, J; Ikehara, S

    1990-10-01

    A case of phylloides tumor of the prostate in a 58-year-old male is presented. The tumor was composed of columnar cystic folds and pleomorphic stromal elements including bizarre giant cells. Electron microscopic examination, which was performed using specimens embedded in paraffin blocks, revealed that the bizarre giant cells originated from the smooth muscle. The postoperative course was uneventful, with no evidence of local recurrence or metastasis for more than 2 years after operation. PMID:2176059

  17. The Thromboembolic Risk in Giant Cell Arteritis: A Critical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Guida, A.; Tufano, A.; Perna, P.; Moscato, P.; De Donato, M. T.; Finelli, R.; Caputo, D.; Di Minno, M. N. D.

    2014-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis is a systemic vasculitis characterized by granulomatous inflammation of the aorta and its main vessels. Cardiovascular risk, both for arterial and venous thromboembolism, is increased in these patients, but the role of thromboprophylaxis is still debated. It should be suspected in elderly patients suffering from sudden onset severe headaches, jaw claudication, and visual disease. Early diagnosis is necessary because prognosis depends on the timeliness of treatment: this kind of arteritis can be complicated by vision loss and cerebrovascular strokes. Corticosteroids remain the cornerstone of the pharmacological treatment of GCA. Aspirin seems to be effective in cardiovascular prevention, while the use of anticoagulant therapy is controversial. Association with other rheumatological disease, particularly with polymyalgia rheumatica is well known, while possible association with antiphospholipid syndrome is not established. Large future trials may provide information about the optimal therapy. Other approaches with new drugs, such as TNF-alpha blockades, Il-6 and IL-1 blockade agents, need to be tested in larger trials. PMID:24963300

  18. Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Subrahmanyan, Peddasomayajula; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2006-05-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis are the commonest inflammatory rheumatic conditions seen in the elderly. This review focuses on the diagnostic processes and complications of disease and treatment; and the safe management of these conditions with careful consideration of balance between benefits and long-term risks of glucocorticosteroid therapy. PMID:16729627

  19. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in a Dog.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Lorraine A; Dumais, Yvan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma is considered rare in the dog with little known about the clinicopathologic features. There are few reports in the veterinary literature concerning this benign, reactive lesion, formerly known as giant cell epulis. In humans, the four most commonly described reactive epulides are focal fibrous hyperplasia (fibrous epulis), pyogenic granuloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, and peripheral giant cell granuloma. This case report describes the diagnosis and surgical management of a peripheral giant cell granuloma in a dog. PMID:26415387

  20. L4 and L5 Spondylectomy for En Bloc Resection of Giant Cell Tumor and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Dieppa, David R.; Hwang, Lee S.; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Witham, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective We present the case of a two-level lumbar spondylectomy at L4 and L5 for en bloc resection of a giant cell tumor (GCT) and lumbopelvic reconstruction. Methods A 58-year-old woman presented with a 7-month history of progressive intractable back and leg pain secondary to a biopsy-proven Enneking stage III GCT of the L4 and L5 vertebrae. The patient underwent a successful L4–L5 spondylectomy and lumbopelvic reconstruction using a combined posterior and anterior approach over two operative stages. Results Postoperative complications included a deep wound infection and a cerebrospinal fluid leak; however, following surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic treatment, the patient was neurologically intact with minimal pain and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence or instrumentation failure at more than 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion Spondylectomy that achieves en bloc resection is a viable and effective treatment option that can be curative for Enneking stage III GCTs involving the lower lumbar spine. The lumbosacral junction represents a challenging anatomic location for spinal reconstruction after spondylectomy with unique technical considerations. PMID:25364329

  1. Observed Properties of Giant Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa; Colegrove, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Giant Cells has been suggested by both theory and observation for over 45 years. We have tracked the motions of supergranules in SDO/HMI Doppler velocity data and find larger (Giant Cell) flows that persist for months. The flows in these cells are clockwise around centers of divergence in the north and counter-clockwise in the south. Equatorward flows are correlated with prograde flows - giving the transport of angular momentum toward the equator that is needed to maintain the Sun's rapid equatorial rotation. The cells are most pronounced at mid- and high-latitudes where they exhibit the rotation rates representative of those latitudes. These are clearly large, long-lived, cellular features, with the dynamical characteristics expected from the effects of the Sun's rotation, but the shapes of the cells are not well represented in numerical models. While the Giant Cell flow velocities are small (<10 m/s), their long lifetimes should nonetheless substantially impact the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's near surface layers.

  2. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone With Pseudosarcomatous Changes Leading to Premature Denosumab Therapy Interruption: A Case Report With Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Pareja, Andrea; Larousserie, Frédérique; Boudabbous, Sana; Beaulieu, Jean-Yves; Mach, Nicolas; Saiji, Essia; Rougemont, Anne-Laure

    2016-06-01

    Denosumab has shown promising results in the management of giant cell tumor of bone, a primary bone tumor with locally aggressive behaviour. We report a case of premature denosumab interruption due to radiological and clinical tumor expansion of a giant cell tumor of the distal ulna. Although denosumab is known to induce tumor regression, with progressive ossification and loss of the characteristic morphology of giant cell tumor of bone, the ulnar tumor specimen showed a moderately to highly cellular proliferation of short spindle-shaped cells, and no osteoclast-like giant cells. There were no abnormal mitotic figures. We considered the surgical specimen as a giant cell tumor of bone with partial regression after prematurely interrupted denosumab treatment. This case illustrates the diagnostic issues of an initially unfavourable evolution raising concern for malignancy, and the difficulties in histological assessment of a partially treated giant cell tumor of bone, that may mimic osteosarcoma. PMID:26842345

  3. Malignant Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Leg: A Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Danielle M; Bresler, Scott C; Rosenthal, Michael H; Howard, Stephanie Anne Holler

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a rare clinical entity that can arise as a recurrent lesion or can co-exist with a benign TGCT lesion. Malignant TGCT most commonly arises in the lower extremity and tends to be clinically aggressive, with most patients developing recurrent lesions or dying. Much of the literature describes the histopathologic features and classifies this broad group of tumors, with little description of the imaging characteristics of this disease. We present the multimodality appearance of a case of malignant diffuse-type TGCT that recurred 2 months after resection with subsequent rapid clinical progression. PMID:25861547

  4. Malignant tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the leg: a radiologic-pathologic correlation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Richman, Danielle M; Bresler, Scott C; Rosenthal, Michael H; Howard, Stephanie Anne Holler

    2015-01-01

    Malignant tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TGCT) is a rare clinical entity that can arise as a recurrent lesion or can co-exist with a benign TGCT lesion. Malignant TGCT most commonly arises in the lower extremity and tends to be clinically aggressive, with most patients developing recurrent lesions or dying. Much of the literature describes the histopathologic features and classifies this broad group of tumors, with little description of the imaging characteristics of this disease. We present the multimodality appearance of a case of malignant diffuse-type TGCT that recurred 2 months after resection with subsequent rapid clinical progression. PMID:25861547

  5. [Aortitis in giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J; Duhaut, P

    2016-04-01

    Aortitis is a frequent complication of giant cell arteritis. Imaging techniques can reveal the inflammation of the aortic wall. CT-scan can show circumferential aortic wall thickening, or TEP-scan can show aortic FDG-uptake. Aortic aneurysm and dissection is a feared but probably rare complication of the inflammation of the aortic wall during GCA. Screening for aortitis could be proposed for patients with symptoms of aortic involvement, for patients with signs of large vessels involvement (limb claudication, bruit) or for patients with incomplete response to treatment. The best follow-up and treatment are to be determined for the patients with aortitis related to GCA. PMID:26781692

  6. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath originating from the ankle capsule: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, YU; YU, XIU-CHUN; XU, SONG-FENG; WANG, BING

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS), also termed tendosynovial giant cell tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that originates from the tendon sheath or bursa. GCTTS of the foot and ankle is much less frequently reported compared with GCTTS of the hand and knee. However, GCTTS should be considered as a differential diagnosis of soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle. The optimal treatment strategy for GCTTS in the foot and ankle is controversial due to a scarcity of cases. The present study reports the case of a patient that presented with localized intra-articular GCTTS originating from the capsule of the ankle, which is a rare anatomical location for this tumor. Considering the proximity of the tumor to the adjacent non-tumorous structures, a less radical but complete resection of the tumor was performed, followed by a hydrogen peroxide lavage. There was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 12 months, and adjuvant radiotherapy was not administered to the patient. A pre-operative diagnosis for GCTTS in the foot and ankle is mainly based on the findings of clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging, which also facilitates the determination of a surgical strategy. For a localized tumor, an integral resection, as opposed to a radical resection, with a hydrogen peroxide lavage may result in a favorable prognosis. However, the optimal treatment for diffuse GCTTS remains to be identified. PMID:27123136

  7. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells: a rare case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Sah, Shambhu K; Li, Ying; Li, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCPOGC) is an extremely rare non-endocrine pancreatic tumor. To date, some cases have been reported, however, histogenesis and biologic behavior of UCPOGC remain controversial. We report a case of an UCPOGC in a 54-year-old female, who presented with a three-month history of recurrent abdominal pain without any incentive. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a large cystic mass of 10.5 × 9.3 cm in the body and tail of the pancreas compressing the adjacent bowel loop and stomach. The preliminary diagnosis was considered as a malignant tumor of body and tail of the pancreas. The patient had open distal pancreatic mass resection with splenectomy and according to the results of histopathological and immunohistochemical studies, the diagnosis of an UCPOGC was established. PMID:26617927

  8. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  9. Long-term outcome of giant cell tumor of bone involving sacroiliac joint treated with selective arterial embolization and curettage: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Giant cell tumor of the sacrum, especially involving the sacroiliac joint, is rare, but is particularly challenging to treat. The long term outcome of a patient was studied with giant cell tumor involving the sacroiliac joint treated with selective arterial embolization and curretage. Method One patient with giant cell tumor involving the sacroiliac joint was treated with selective arterial embolization and curettage in our hospital in October 2002. The curettage and bone grafting was done after two times of selective arterial embolization;1600 ml of blood were transfused and no complications developed during the operation. Results At the final follow-up of 9 years after the operation, no local recurrence and metastasis developed and she retained normal activity in daily life. Conclusion We think it is an optimal treatment for giant cell tumor involving the sacroiliac joint, with repeated selective arterial embolization and curettage, which has the advantage of less injury, less blood loss and fewer complications. PMID:23497322

  10. Giant cell arteritis presenting as scalp necrosis.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Daniel E; Muñoz, Silvia; Acebes, Xènia; Llatjós, Roger; Jucglà, Anna; Alvarez, Alba

    2011-01-01

    The differential of scalp ulceration in older patients should include several causes, such as herpes zoster, irritant contact dermatitis, ulcerated skin tumors, postirradiation ulcers, microbial infections, pyoderma gangrenosum, and giant cell arteritis. Scalp necrosis associated with giant cell arteritis was first described in the 1940s. The presence of this dermatological sign within giant cell arteritis represents a severity marker of this disease, with a higher mean age at diagnosis, an elevated risk of vision loss and tongue gangrene, as well as overall higher mortality rates, in comparison to patients not presenting this manifestation. Even though scalp necrosis due to giant cell arteritis is exceptional, a high level of suspicion must be held for this clinical finding, in order to initiate prompt and proper treatment and avoid blindness. PMID:21789466

  11. Central giant cell granuloma of the maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Manish; Gupta, Monica; Singh, Sunder; Kaur, Rupinder

    2013-01-01

    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG), formerly called giant cell reparative granuloma, is a non-neoplastic proliferative lesion of an unknown aetiology. It occurs most commonly in the mandible. The case reported here resembled a wide variety of conditions that led to a misdiagnosis both on clinical and radiographic examinations but was histopathologically diagnosed as CGCG. We managed this case by endoscopic excision and curettage via nasal route without producing external scar and avoiding damage to the un-erupted tooth. PMID:23475995

  12. What role for radiobiphosphonates bone scintigraphy in the monitoring of an unusual bone giant cell tumor: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Oueriagli, Salah Nabih; Ghfir, Imad; Guerrouj, Hassna El; Raïs, Nouzha Ben

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of 24 years old female patient, followed since ten years ago for bone giant cell tumor (GCT) of the right knee, which was complicated by pulmonary metastases. Surgical treatment and pulmonary metastasectomies have not allowed definitive cure of this disease with the appearance of metachronous bone lesions after eight years of evolution. The literature review confirms the originality of this observation: the age of the patient, the initial and metastasis locations and the occurrence of lung metastases with unfavorable prognosis. Through this clinical case, the authors highlight the role of radiobiphosphonates bone scintigraphy in detecting synchronous or metachronous bone lesions, and in monitoring of these locations under medical treatment. PMID:27186440

  13. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  14. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor of the pancreas☆

    PubMed Central

    Temesgen, Wudneh M.; Wachtel, Mitchell; Dissanaike, Sharmila

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare, with an incidence of less than 1% of all pancreatic tumors. Osteoclastic giant cell tumor (OGCT) of the pancreas is one of the three types of PGCT, which are now classified as undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. PRESENTATION OF CASE The patient is a 57 year old woman who presented with a 3 week history of epigastric pain and a palpable abdominal mass. Imaging studies revealed an 18 cm × 15 cm soft tissue mass with cystic components which involved the pancreas, stomach and spleen. Exploratory laparotomy with distal pancreatectomy, partial gastrectomy and splenectomy was performed. Histology revealed undifferentiated pancreatic carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells with production of osteoid and glandular elements. DISCUSSION OGCT of the pancreas resembles benign-appearing giant cell tumors of bone, and contain osteoclastic-like multinucleated cells and mononuclear cells. OGCTs display a less aggressive course with slow metastasis and lymph node spread compared to pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Due to the rarity of the cancer, there is a lack of prospective studies on treatment options. Surgical en-bloc resection is currently considered first line treatment. The role of adjuvant therapy with radiotherapy or chemotherapy has not been established. CONCLUSION Pancreatic giant cell tumors are rare pancreatic neoplasms with unique clinical and pathological characteristics. Osteoclastic giant cell tumors are the most favorable sub-type. Surgical en bloc resection is the first line treatment. Long-term follow-up of patients with these tumors is essential to compile a body of literature to help guide treatment. PMID:24631915

  15. Pediatric aggressive giant cell granuloma of nasal cavity

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sung Tae; Kwon, Ki Ryun; Rha, Ki-Sang; Kim, Seon-Hwan; Kim, Yong Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a non-neoplastic osseous proliferative lesion of unknown etiology. Although a benign disease process, GCG can be locally destructive. It is extremely rare to have a pediatric case of GCG occurring in the nasal cavity with intracranial invasion. Presentation of case We report a case of an aggressive and recurrent giant cell granuloma with intracranial invasion in a 10 years old female patient which was completely excised with endoscopic craniofacial resection. Discussion A literature review on pathogenesis, diagnosis and management is also performed. Conclusion The most common treatment for giant cell granuloma is surgery, ranging from simple curettage to resection. However, it must be completely excised in cases of aggressive and extensive lesion because of the high recurrence rate after incomplete removal. PMID:26433924

  16. What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Arteritis Find a Clinical Trial Journal Articles What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis? PDF Version Size: 58 KB November 2014 What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis? Fast ...

  17. Sunspots and Giant-Cell Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron L.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Ed J.

    2000-01-01

    From analysis of Doppler velocity images from SOHO/MDI, Hathaway et al (2000, Solar Phys., in press) have found clear evidence for giant convection cells that fill the solar surface, have diameters 3 - 10 times that typical of supergranules, and have lifetimes approx. greater than 10 days. Analogous to the superposition of the granular convection on the supergranular convection, the approx. 30,000 km diameter supergranules are superposed on these still larger giant cells. Because the giant cells make up the large-scale end of a continuous power spectrum that peaks at the size scale of supergranules, it appears that the giant cells are made by the same mode of convection as the supergranules. This suggests that the giant cells are similar to supergranules, just longer-lived, larger in diameter, and deeper. Here we point out that the range of lengths of large bipolar sunspot groups is similar to the size range of giant cells. This, along with the long lives (weeks) of large sunspots, suggests that large sunspots sit in long-lived, deep downflows at the corners of giant cells, and that the distance from leader to follower sunspots in large bipolar groups is the distance from one giant-cell corner to the next. By this line of reasoning, an unusually large and strong downdraft might pull in both legs of a rising spot-group magnetic flux loop, resulting in the formation of a delta sunspot. This leads us to suggest that a large, strong giant-cell corner downdraft should be present at the birthplaces of large delta sunspots for some time (days to weeks) before the birth. Thus, early detection of such downdrafts by local helioscismology might provide an early warning for the formation of those active regions (large delta sunspot groups) that produce the Sun's most violent flares and coronal mass ejections. This work is supported by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Branch of its Sun-Earth Connection Program.

  18. Expression of CD34 and CD68 in peripheral giant cell granuloma and central giant cell granuloma: An immunohistochemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    VK, Varsha; Hallikeri, Kaveri; Girish, HC; Murgod, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Background: Central and Peripheral giant cell granulomas of jaws are uncommon, benign, reactive disorders that are characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells and mononuclear cells within a stroma. The origin of the multinucleated giant cells is controversial; probably originating from fusion of histiocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Objective: To assess the expression of CD34 and CD68 in central and peripheral giant cell granulomas to understand the origin of these multinucleated giant cells. Materials and Methods: Twenty cases of Central and Peripheral giant cell granulomas were evaluated immunohistochemically for CD34 and CD68 proteins expression. Results: Immunopositivity for CD34 was seen only in cytoplasm of endothelial cells of blood vessels; whereas, consistent cytoplasmic immunopositivity for CD68 was seen in few stromal cells. Statistical significance was seen in mean number of multinucleated giant cells, mean number of nuclei in multinucleated giant cells, CD68 expression and ratio of macrophages to multinucleated giant cells among two lesions. Conclusion: Although the central giant cell granulomas share some clinical and histopathological similarities with peripheral giant cell granulomas, differences in mean number of nuclei in multinucleated giant cells and CD68 immunoreactivity may underlie the distinct clinical behavior. PMID:25948986

  19. Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of both GCA and PMR. Other Organizations Arthritis Foundation Questions to Ask Your Doctor What is the likely cause of my symptoms? Do I need any blood tests or biopsies? I have giant cell arteritis. Am I more likely to have polymyalgia rheumatica? I have polymyalgia ...

  20. Giant-cell granuloma of the sinuses

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, J.T.; Weber, A.L.

    1983-04-01

    Three cases are presented which illustrate giant-cell granulomas in the maxillary, ethmoid, and sphenoid sinuses. The radiographic features are nonspecific, and the lesion can mimic carcinoma. Ossification can be demonstrated, especially with computed tomography, and may indicate a benign lesion.

  1. Nonsurgical options to treat giant-cell tumors of the head and neck: A case report and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rasband-Lindquist, Allison N; Lindquist, Jonathan D; Larsen, Christopher G; Thiessen, Aaron; Girod, Douglas

    2016-07-01

    Central giant-cell granulomas (CGCGs) are relatively uncommon. When they do occur, they typically arise in the mandible and maxilla. Some lesions are more destructive than others, and the destructive subtype has a tendency to recur. Unfortunately, there is no reproducible way to differentiate aggressive from nonaggressive subtypes. Treatment of CGCG has historically been based on surgical curettage or wide local excision. However, surgery has been associated with significant morbidity, disfigurement, and expense, as well as a high recurrence rate. Pharmacologic treatments-either as an alternative or an adjunct to surgery-have been shown to yield acceptable results. These agents include intralesional and/or systemic corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, calcitonin, and interferon alfa. These options are typically less expensive than surgery, and they are associated with few side effects, which makes them potentially more desirable. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with a CGCG who was successfully treated with a combination of an intralesional steroid and an oral steroid over a period of 5 months. As evidenced by this case, medical management can be effective for tumor regression in treating CGCG of the head and neck, and it is ultimately associated with less morbidity and is less costly. To the best of our knowledge, no randomized controlled studies have been published on this topic. Such a study would be welcome, particularly considering the presence of both aggressive and nonaggressive subtypes of CGCG. We also briefly review the literature. PMID:27434482

  2. Aggressive giant cell lesion of the jaws: a review of management options and report of a mandibular lesion treated with denosumab.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, John Edward; Bowe, Conor; Murphy, Colm; Toner, Mary; Kearns, Gerard J

    2015-11-01

    Giant cell lesions (GCLs), previously referred to as giant cell granulomas, are benign tumors of the jaws of unknown etiology. Surgical management of aggressive GCLs is challenging, as these lesions demonstrate a tendency to recur following surgical removal. In addition, surgical treatment can be associated with significant morbidity. In an attempt to reduce both the extent of morbidity and the recurrence rate following surgery, a number of pharmacologic therapies have been advocated on the basis of assumptions about the predominant cell types and receptors, for the management of these lesions. This report describes the use of denosumab, an agent originally used for its anti-resorptive effects, in the management of an aggressive GCL of the mandible in an older patient, who was unsuitable for extensive surgery and in whom treatment with intralesional triamcinolone had proved unsuccessful. Denosumab may be a viable alternative or adjunct to surgery in the management of GCLs of the jaws. PMID:26340897

  3. Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Jan Paul; Becker, Stéphanie JE; Oosterhoff, Thijs CH; Ring, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS) is often thought of as a volar finger mass. We hypothesized that GCTTS are equally common on the dorsal and volar aspects of the hand. In addition, we hypothesized that there are no factors associated with the location (volar versus dorsal) and largest measured dimension of a GCTTS. Methods: A total of 126 patients with a pathological diagnosis of a GCTTS of the hand or finger were reviewed. Basic demographic and GCTTS specific information was obtained. Bivariable analyses were used to assess predicting factors for location (volar or dorsal side) and largest measured diameter of a GCTTS. Results: Seventy-two tumors (57%) were on the volar side of the hand, 47 (37%) were dorsal, 6 (4.8%) were both dorsal and volar, and one was midaxial (0.79%). The most common site of a GCTTS was the index finger (30%). There were no factors significantly associated with the location (volar or dorsal, n=119) of the GCTTS. There were also no factors significantly associated with a larger diameter of a GCTTS. Conclusions: A GCTTS was more frequently seen on the volar aspect of the hand. No significant factors associated with the location or an increased size of a GCTTS were found in this study. PMID:25692164

  4. Asymmetric Cell Division in Polyploid Giant Cancer Cells and Low Eukaryotic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Yijia

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division is critical for generating cell diversity in low eukaryotic organisms. We previously have reported that polyploid giant cancer cells (PGCCs) induced by cobalt chloride demonstrate the ability to use an evolutionarily conserved process for renewal and fast reproduction, which is normally confined to simpler organisms. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which reproduces by asymmetric cell division, has long been a model for asymmetric cell division studies. PGCCs produce daughter cells asymmetrically in a manner similar to yeast, in that both use budding for cell polarization and cytokinesis. Here, we review the results of recent studies and discuss the similarities in the budding process between yeast and PGCCs. PMID:25045675

  5. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sobti, Anshul; Agrawal, Pranshu; Agarwala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution. There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for selected cases. Recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis are essential to develop new treatments for this locally destructive primary bone tumor. PMID:26894211

  6. Identification of a giant cell fibroma.

    PubMed

    Lukes, Sherri M; Kuhnert, Joleen; Mangels, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Fibrous hyperplastic connective tissue lesions are common in the oral cavity and may be similar both clinically and histologically. A giant cell fibroma, a type of fibrous hyperplasia, was discovered during a preventive patient visit in the dental hygiene clinic at a Midwestern university. The patient, a 19-year-old female, presented with a dome-shaped lesion of normal mucosal color on the attached gingiva apical to tooth number 11. She was referred to the dental school for biopsy, which revealed fibrocollagenous connective tissue exhibiting large stellate fibroblasts. She returned after 10 months and was referred to the graduate periodontal department, where the lesion was removed. Several fibrous hyperplastic lesions can be considered in the differential diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. Dental hygienists should be familiar with the different fibrous hyperplasias, noting lesions during the intra- and extra-oral examinations for further evaluation by the dentist. PMID:16197774

  7. Literature review of giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) biology and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    This report reviews the available literature on giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) to compile existing information on this species and identify knowledge gaps that, if addressed, would help to inform conservation efforts for giant gartersnakes.  Giant gartersnakes comprise a species of semi-aquatic snake precinctive to wetlands in the Central Valley of California.  The diversion of surface water and conversion of wetlands to agricultural and other land uses resulted in the loss of more than 90 percent of natural giant gartersnake habitats.  Because of this habitat loss, giant gartersnakes are now listed by the United States and California Endangered Species Acts as Threatened.  Most extant populations occur in the rice-growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, which comprises the northern portion of the giant gartersnake’s former range.  The huge demand for water in California for agriculture, industry, recreation, and other human consumption, combined with periodic severe drought, places remaining giant gartersnake habitats at increased risk of degradation and loss.  This literature review summarizes the available information on giant gartersnake distribution, habitat relations, behavior, demography, and other aspects of its biology relevant to conservation.  This information is then compiled into a graphical conceptual model that indicates the importance of different aspects of giant gartersnake biology for maintaining positive population growth, and identifies those areas for which important information relevant for conservation is lacking.  Directing research efforts toward these aspects of giant gartersnake ecology will likely result in improvements to conserving this unique species while meeting the high demands for water in California.

  8. MRI of giant cell turmor of the tendon sheath in the cervical spine

    SciTech Connect

    Bui-Mansfield, L.T.; Youngberg, R.A.; Coughlin, W.; Choolijian, D.

    1996-01-01

    The authors present a case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) in the cervical spine, not previously described in the radiologic literature. Diagnostic imaging includes plain film radiographs, bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI. Only one case of tenosynoviaI giant cell tumor of the cervical spine has been reported. The radiological features of this tumor are described along with a brief review of GCTTS. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Apical Orbital Aspergillosis Complicating Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Morgan, Michael L; Almarzouqi, Sumayya J; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Andrew G

    2016-06-01

    A 75-year-old woman with new onset headaches and left vision loss, temporal scalp tenderness, and jaw claudication was found to have biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA). Despite treatment and improvement with prednisone, she later developed left orbital apex syndrome, and an orbital biopsy revealed aspergillosis. After antifungal treatment, extraocular motility improved although vision in the left eye remained no light perception. Clinicians should be aware that fungal orbital apex disease may mimic or complicate steroid-treated GCA. PMID:26835662

  10. Giant cell tumours of the small bones of the hands and feet: long-term results of 30 patients and a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, V C; van der Heijden, L; van der Geest, I C M; Campanacci, D A; Gibbons, C L M H; van de Sande, M A J; Dijkstra, P D S

    2013-06-01

    Giant cell tumours (GCTs) of the small bones of the hands and feet are rare. Small case series have been published but there is no consensus about ideal treatment. We performed a systematic review, initially screening 775 titles, and included 12 papers comprising 91 patients with GCT of the small bones of the hands and feet. The rate of recurrence across these publications was found to be 72% (18 of 25) in those treated with isolated curettage, 13% (2 of 15) in those treated with curettage plus adjuvants, 15% (6 of 41) in those treated by resection and 10% (1 of 10) in those treated by amputation. We then retrospectively analysed 30 patients treated for GCT of the small bones of the hands and feet between 1987 and 2010 in five specialised centres. The primary treatment was curettage in six, curettage with adjuvants (phenol or liquid nitrogen with or without polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) in 18 and resection in six. We evaluated the rate of complications and recurrence as well as the factors that influenced their functional outcome. At a mean follow-up of 7.9 years (2 to 26) the rate of recurrence was 50% (n = 3) in those patients treated with isolated curettage, 22% (n = 4) in those treated with curettage plus adjuvants and 17% (n = 1) in those treated with resection (p = 0.404). The only complication was pain in one patient, which resolved after surgical removal of remnants of PMMA. We could not identify any individual factors associated with a higher rate of complications or recurrence. The mean post-operative Musculoskeletal Tumor Society scores were slightly higher after intra-lesional treatment including isolated curettage and curettage plus adjuvants (29 (20 to 30)) compared with resection (25 (15 to 30)) (p = 0.091). Repeated curettage with adjuvants eventually resulted in the cure for all patients and is therefore a reasonable treatment for both primary and recurrent GCT of the small bones of the hands and feet. PMID:23723282

  11. Giant Cell Tumor of Tendon Sheath in Guyon's Canal Causing Ulnar Tunnel Syndrome A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Francisco, Ben S.; Agarwal, Jayant P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath is a rare cause of ulnar tunnel syndrome. We present a case of a 37-year-old woman who presented with decreased sensation and weakness of grip of the right hand. Magnetic resonance imaging indicated the presence of a mass in the hypothenar eminence and showed that the mass was associated with the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon and displacing the ulnar neurovascular bundle. A differential diagnosis included desmoid tumor and sarcoma. Methods: Surgical examination showed a mass that was associated with the flexor carpi ulnaris tendon and flexor retinaculum located in the distal portion of Guyon's canal and intertwined with the ulnar nerve and displacing the ulnar artery. The mass was removed and Guyon's canal was released. Results: Histological examination indicated a diagnosis of giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS). Postoperatively, the patient had fully restored sensory and motor function of the right hand. Conclusions: Although GCTTS is the most common solid, soft-tissue lesion of the hand, it is rarely diagnosed properly preoperatively. Therefore, it is imperative to always include GCTTS in the differential diagnosis of any mass of the hand. PMID:19252681

  12. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: This enormity is a rarity

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Silvia Victor; Mitra, Dipika Kalyan; Pawar, Sudarshana Devendrasing; Vijayakar, Harshad Narayan

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is an infrequent exophytic lesion of the oral cavity, also known as giant cell epulis, osteoclastoma, giant cell reparative granuloma, or giant cell hyperplasia. Lesions vary in appearance from smooth, regularly outlined masses to irregularly shaped, multilobulated protuberances with surface indentations. Ulcerations of the margin are occasionally seen. The lesions are painless, vary in size, and may cover several teeth. It normally presents as a purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in the background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells. This case report describes the unusual appearance of a PGCG extending from left maxillary interdental gingiva to palatal area in 32-year-old female patient. PMID:26392701

  13. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma.

    PubMed

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  14. Intraoperative Squash Cytologic Features of Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Nasit, Jitendra; Vaghsiya, Viren; Hiryur, Srilaxmi; Patel, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is a low grade (WHO Grade I) tumor, usually seen in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex and commonly occurs at a lateral ventricular location. Intraoperative squash cytologic features can help in differentiating SEGA from gemistocytic astrocytoma (GA), giant cell glioblastoma and ependymoma, in proper clinical context and radiological findings, which may alter the surgical management. Here, we present a case of SEGA with squash cytologic findings and a review of cytology findings of SEGA presently available in the literature. Loose cohesive clusters of large polygonal cells containing an eccentric nucleus, evenly distributed granular chromatin, distinct to prominent nucleoli, and moderate to the abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm in a hair-like fibrillar background are the key cytologic features of SEGA. Other important features are moderate anisonucleosis and frequent binucleation and multinucleation. The absence of mitoses, necrosis, and vascular endothelial proliferation are important negative features. Other consistent features are cellular smears, few dispersed cells, few spindly strap-like cells, rare intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion, and perivascular pseudorosettes. PMID:27013816

  15. [Neurological manifestations of giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Grachev, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    The article describes clinical, including neurological manifestations, of giant cell arteritis (GCA) - granulomatous vasculitis of large and medium-sized vessels, predominantly craniofacial, including precerebral and cerebral, arteries. Histopathological features of GCA are illustrated by the schemes of panarteritis and «postarteritis» (proliferative and fibrotic changes in the intima, underlying the development of cerebrovascular disorders). The main clinical manifestations of GCA are described as 3 groups of symptoms: general constitutional symptoms; manifestations of vasculitis of craniofacial, precerebral and cerebral arteries; polymyalgia rheumaticа. The authors present their own version of the taxonomy of visual disturbances in patients with GCA. Diagnostic steps in patients with suggestive signs of GCA are described. Therapeutic regimens of use of glucocorticoids for suggestion/diagnosis of GCA are presented. PMID:26977631

  16. Symplastic/pseudoanaplastic giant cell tumor of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Agaram, Narasimhan; Hwang, Sinchun; Lu, Chao; Wang, Lu; Healey, John; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Objective Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive primary bone tumor. Its malignant counterpart is quite rare. Rarely, a conventional GCTB shows marked nuclear atypia, referred to as symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change, which can mimic sarcomatous transformation. Recently, somatic driver mutations of histone H3.3 exclusively in H3F3A have been described in GCTB. We report a series of 9 cases of GCTB with symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change, along with analysis of H3F3A variants. Materials and methods Nine cases of GCTB with symplastic change were identified. Clinico-radiological features, morphological features, and immunohistochemical stain for Ki-67 stain were reviewed. H3F3A variants were also analyzed using Sanger sequencing. Results Histologically, conventional giant cell tumor areas with scattered foci of markedly atypical cells were seen in all of the cases and all showed rare if any Ki-67 labeling. One patient had received denosumab treatment and another radiation therapy. Radiological features were characteristic of conventional GCTB. Mutation in H3F3A (p.Gly34Trp [G34W]) was found in 6 of the 7 cases. Clinical follow-up ranged from 6 to 208 months. Local recurrences were seen in 4 cases (44 %). Conclusions GCTB with symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change is an uncommon variant of conventional GCTB, which can mimic primary sarcoma or sarcomatous transformation. These tumors possess the same missense mutation in histone H3.3 as conventional GCTB. PMID:27020452

  17. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  18. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P; Padmavathy, L; Srivenkateswaran, K

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  19. Giant Cell Tumor of the Peroneus Brevis Tendon Sheath

    PubMed Central

    Ch, Li; TH, Lui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath is most commonly found in the flexor aspect of hand and wrist and is rare in the foot and ankle. Case report: A 49-year-old lady noticed a right lateral foot mass for 10 years. Magnetic resonance imaging suggested that the mass is originated from the peroneal tendons. The mass was excised and intra-operative findings showed that the tumor came from the peroneus brevis tendon sheath. Histological study confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell tumor. Conclusion: Giant cell tumor, although rare, should be one of the differential diagnoses of tendon sheath tumor of the foot and ankle. PMID:27299104

  20. Giant basal cell carcinoma of the forehead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjcec, Zoran; Lisica-Sikić, Natasa; Kovacić, Marijan

    2012-03-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6 cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carcinomas are rare tumors and are usually result of a long duration and patient neglect. In comparison to the ordinary basal cell carcinoma these tumors have a higher metastatic potential. Surgical resection with negative surgical margin is the best possible treatment option. PMID:22816239

  1. Epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection: multinucleated epithelial giant cells in the epidermis of lesional skin biopsies from patients with acantholytic dermatoses can histologically mimic a herpes virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Philip R.; Paravar, Taraneh; Lee, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can either be epithelial or histiocytic. Epithelial multinucleated giant cells are most often associated with herpes virus infections. Purpose: To review the histologic differential diagnosis of conditions with epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cells—since multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis are not always pathognomonic of a cutaneous herpes virus infection—and to summarize dermatoses in which herpes virus infection has been observed to coexist. Methods: Two individuals with acantholytic dermatoses whose initial lesional skin biopsies showed multinucleated epithelial giant cells suggestive of a herpes virus infection are reported. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on multinucleated giant cell (and epidermis, epithelial, and histiocytic) and herpes virus infection. Relevant papers were reviewed to discover the skin conditions with either multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis or coincident cutaneous herpes virus infection. Results: Initial skin biopsies from patients with either pemphigus vulgaris or transient acantholytic dermatosis mimicked herpes virus infection; however, laboratory studies and repeat biopsies established the correct diagnosis of their acantholytic dermatosis. Hence, epidermal multinucleated giant cells are not always a histopathologic clue to a herpes virus infection. Indeed, epithelial multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed not only in the presence of infection (herpes virus), but also acantholytic dermatoses and tumors (trichoepithelioma and pleomorphic basal cell carcinoma). Histiocytic multinucleated giant cells in the epidermis can be observed in patients with either giant cell lichenoid dermatitis or lichen nitidus of the palms. Conclusions: Epithelial and histiocytic multinucleated giant cell can occur in the epidermis. Keratinocyte-derived multinucleated giant cells are most commonly associated

  2. Giant cell tumor of cervicothoracic region treated by triple corpectomy from posterior only approach: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Rajat; Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Tandon, Vikas; Venkatesh, Raghavendra

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a benign aggressive tumor, which affects axial as well as a peripheral skeleton. It affects epiphysis of long bones and can result in pathological fractures. GCT affects cervical spine rarely and has been known to affect almost all vertebra in the human body. It has a predilection for fixed spine, that is, sacrum though it can affect mobile spine as well. GCT of cervicothoracic region poses a challenge for the surgeon because of the difficulty in approaching this region anteriorly. This situation is further compounded when GCT involves multiple contiguous vertebral bodies in this region and has already spread beyond the confines of its capsule. We report a case of GCT involving three vertebral bodies C7, D1, and D2 at cervicothoracic region who presented to us and was treated with triple corpectomy from the posterior only approach. This is the first ever case report of triple corpectomy and anterior reconstruction by a posterior only approach for GCT at the cervicothoracic junction to the best of author's knowledge. PMID:26692702

  3. Treatment for giant cell tumor of the spine metastasizing to the lung: A report of two cases and a literature review

    PubMed Central

    MUHEREMU, AIKEREMUJIANG; HUANG, ZHEN; NIU, XIAOHUI

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumors of the bone (GCTB) account for 5% of all primary skeletal tumors. Although the tumors are normally benign, recurrence and metastasis of GCTB does occur. The most usual sites of a primary GCTB lesion are the distal femur and proximal tibia, and ~3% of these metastasize to the lung. Primary GCTB lesions in the spine are rare, and there have been few cases reporting the pulmonary metastasis of GCTB in the spine. The present study reports two cases of thoracic and sacral spinal GCTB lesions with pulmonary metastasis. One of the patients was a 45-year-old male who presented to hospital with gradually worsening pain in the left buttock during the last two years and was diagnosed with GCTB of the sacrum. The other patient was a 30-year-old female who complained of persistent back pain for a year and was also diagnosed with GCTB of the sacrum. Arterial embolization was performed prior to surgery and computer navigation was used during the surgery, resulting in the two patients achieving en bloc resection of their respective tumors, with satisfactory rehabilitation to follow. PMID:25663906

  4. Recurrent Giant Cell Tumor of Skull Combined with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are benign but locally invasive and frequently recur. Giant cell tumors of the skull are extremely rare. A patient underwent a surgery to remove a tumor, but the tumor recurred. Additionally, the patient developed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent total tumor resection and trapping for the aneurysms, followed by radiotherapy. We report this rare case and suggest some possibilities for treating tumor growth combined with aneurysm development. PMID:27195256

  5. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma: A report of 10 cases

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Patil, Chetan; Balki, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma initially described by O’Brien in 1975 is a disorder of uncertain etiopathogenesis presenting with annular erythematous plaques predominantly on the sun-exposed areas. Hisptopathologically, it is characterized by elastin degenration, multinucleate giant cells, and elastophagocytosis. The authors came across 10 such cases, which were managed with hydroxychloroquine resulting in complete resolution in 4–6 months. PMID:26904442

  6. Aggressive Metaplastic Carcinoma of the Breast with Osteoclastic Giant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khong, Kathleen; Zhang, Yanhong; Tomic, Mary; Lindfors, Karen; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon type of malignancy that is aggressive but can mimic other benign breast neoplastic processes on imaging. We present a case of a young female patient who presented with a rapidly progressing metaplastic carcinoma with osteoclastic giant cells subtype. There have been only very rare published reports of this pathologic subtype of metaplastic carcinoma containing osteoclastic giant cells. PMID:26629304

  7. Genetic Alterations in Gliosarcoma and Giant Cell Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Eun; Ohta, Takashi; Nonoguchi, Naosuke; Satomi, Kaishi; Capper, David; Pierscianek, Daniela; Sure, Ulrich; Vital, Anne; Paulus, Werner; Mittelbronn, Michel; Antonelli, Manila; Kleihues, Paul; Giangaspero, Felice; Ohgaki, Hiroko

    2016-07-01

    The majority of glioblastomas develop rapidly with a short clinical history (primary glioblastoma IDH wild-type), whereas secondary glioblastomas progress from diffuse astrocytoma or anaplastic astrocytoma. IDH mutations are the genetic hallmark of secondary glioblastomas. Gliosarcomas and giant cell glioblastomas are rare histological glioblastoma variants, which usually develop rapidly. We determined the genetic patterns of 36 gliosarcomas and 19 giant cell glioblastomas. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were absent in all 36 gliosarcomas and in 18 of 19 giant cell glioblastomas analyzed, indicating that they are histological variants of primary glioblastoma. Furthermore, LOH 10q (88%) and TERT promoter mutations (83%) were frequent in gliosarcomas. Copy number profiling using the 450k methylome array in 5 gliosarcomas revealed CDKN2A homozygous deletion (3 cases), trisomy chromosome 7 (2 cases), and monosomy chromosome 10 (2 cases). Giant cell glioblastomas had LOH 10q in 50% and LOH 19q in 42% of cases. ATRX loss was detected immunohistochemically in 19% of giant cell glioblastomas, but absent in 17 gliosarcomas. These and previous results suggest that gliosarcomas are a variant of, and genetically similar to, primary glioblastomas, except for a lack of EGFR amplification, while giant cell glioblastoma occupies a hybrid position between primary and secondary glioblastomas. PMID:26443480

  8. Giant cell tumor of the spine.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Toshifumi; Liljenqvist, Ulf; Halm, Henry; Hillmann, Axel; Gosheger, Georg; Winkelmann, Winfried

    2002-08-01

    Six patients with giant cell tumor of the spine had surgery between 1981 and 1995. Three lesions were located in the scrum, two lesions were in the thoracic spine, and one lesion was in the lumbar spine. Preoperatively, all patients had local pain and neurologic symptoms. Two patients had cement implanted after curettage or intralesional excision of the sacral tumor; one patient had a local relapse. After the second curettage and cement implantation, the tumor was controlled. One patient with a sacral lesion had marginal excision and spondylodesis; no relapse developed. Two patients with thoracic lesions had planned marginal excision and spondylodesis; the margins finally became intralesional, but no relapse developed. One patient with a lumbar lesion had incomplete removal of the tumor and received postoperative irradiation. At the final followup (median, 69 months), five of six patients were disease-free and one patient died of disease progression. Two of the five surviving patients had pain after standing or neurologic problems. Although some contamination occurred, planning a marginal excision of the lesion seems beneficial for vertebral lesions above the sacrum. Total sacrectomy of a sacral lesion seems to be too invasive when cement implantation can control the lesion. PMID:12151896

  9. New developments in giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Frohman, Larry; Wong, Aaron B C; Matheos, Kaliopy; Leon-Alvarado, Luis G; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a medium-to-large vessel vasculitis with potentially sight- and life- threatening complications. Our understanding of the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of GCA has advanced rapidly in recent times. The validity of using the American College of Rheumatology guidelines for diagnosis of GCA in a clinical setting has been robustly challenged. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, an important marker of inflammation, is lowered by the use of statins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Conversely, it may be falsely elevated with a low hematocrit. Despite the emergence of new diagnostic modalities, temporal artery biopsy remains the gold standard. Evidence suggests that shorter biopsy lengths and biopsies done weeks to months after initiation of steroid therapy are still useful. New imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography have shown that vascular inflammation in GCA is more widespread than originally thought. GCA, Takayasu arteritis, and polymyalgia rheumatica are no longer thought to exist as distinct entities and are more likely parts of a spectrum of disease. A range of immunosuppressive drugs have been used in conjunction with corticosteroids to treat GCA. In particular, interleukin-6 inhibitors are showing promise as a therapy. PMID:26774550

  10. Giant Cell Tumors of the Axial Skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Balke, Maurice; Henrichs, Marcel P.; Gosheger, Georg; Ahrens, Helmut; Streitbuerger, Arne; Koehler, Michael; Bullmann, Viola; Hardes, Jendrik

    2012-01-01

    Background. We report on 19 cases of giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) affecting the spine or sacrum and evaluate the outcome of different treatment modalities. Methods. Nineteen patients with GCT of the spine (n = 6) or sacrum (n = 13) have been included in this study. The mean followup was 51.6 months. Ten sacral GCT were treated by intralesional procedures of which 4 also received embolization, and 3 with irradiation only. All spinal GCT were surgically treated. Results. Two (15.4%) patients with sacral and 4 (66.7%) with spinal tumors had a local recurrence, two of the letter developed pulmonary metastases. One local recurrence of the spine was successfully treated by serial arterial embolization, a procedure previously described only for sacral tumors. At last followup, 9 patients had no evidence of disease, 8 had stable disease, 1 had progressive disease, 1 died due to disease. Six patients had neurological deficits. Conclusions. GCT of the axial skeleton have a high local recurrence rate. Neurological deficits are common. En-bloc spondylectomy combined with embolization is the treatment of choice. In case of inoperability, serial arterial embolization seems to be an alternative not only for sacral but also for spinal tumors. PMID:22448122

  11. A cell line with multinucleated giant cell formation established from a human giant cell tumor of tendon sheath--preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, M; Hatori, M; Smith, R A; Kokubun, S

    2001-01-01

    We first established a cell line with unique giant cell formation properties from a human giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS) arising in the right ankle of a 7-year-old girl. The specimen for cell culture taken from the tumor was heterotransplanted into the back of a BALB/c (nu/nu) nude mouse. An in-vitro cell line was established from a tumor that grew after this heterotransplantation. Only mononuclear cells were observed in the primary culture, and these remained constant in growth. Multinucleated giant cells appeared at passage 3 and were constantly observed thereafter. The fusion of mononuclear cells into giant cells was verified by light and phase-contrast microscopy. This cell line was confirmed to be derived from a human by karyotype analysis and DNA fingerprinting. The cell-doubling time was 150 h. This cell line should be useful for studies of the mechanism of multinucleation in giant cell tumors. PMID:11845350

  12. A Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodent, Denis

    2015-04-01

    The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets' aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno.

  13. Giant cell tumor of bone involving the temporomandibular joint and temporal bone.

    PubMed

    Akyigit, Abdulvahap; Karlidag, Turgut; Sakallioglu, Öner; Polat, Cahit; Keles, Erol

    2014-07-01

    Giant cell tumor is a primary bone tumor that usually originates from the epiphysis of the long bones and is rarely seen in the cranial region. Most frequently, the tumor develops in the sphenoid and temporal bones in the middle cranial fossa. Giant cell tumor generally shows diversity with respect to benignity, local invasiveness, and histology. Although surgical excision with negative surgical margin may lead to cure, adjuvant radiotherapy is still debated. The patient was admitted with a humming in the left ear and hearing loss. After radiologic examination, a mass with temporomandibular joint involvement as well as temporal and sphenoid bone localization was detected. The patient was diagnosed with giant cell tumor after a biopsy specimen was taken from the mass extending to the middle ear and destroying the temporomandibular joint. The current study reviewed the patient's clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment in light of the literature. PMID:25006918

  14. Giant Cell Tumor of the Uterus: A Report of 3 Cases With a Spectrum of Morphologic Features.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jennifer A; Sanada, Sakiko; Selig, Martin K; Hariri, Lida P; Nielsen, Gunnlaugur P; Oliva, Esther

    2015-07-01

    Giant cell tumors, a well-recognized neoplasm of bone, can rarely be found in the uterus. Such tumors are characterized by a dual population of mononuclear and osteoclast-like giant cells that lack epithelial and specific mesenchymal differentiation. In this study, the clinicopathologic features of 3 giant cell tumors of the uterus were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry for CD68, CD163, h-caldesmon, desmin, SMA, AE1/AE3, CD10, ER, PR, cyclin D1, CD1a, CD34, CD30, S100, myogenin/myoglobin, and Ki-67 was performed in all tumors, along with ultrastructural analysis in one. The patients were 47, 57, and 59 yr and the tumors measured 2.5, 7.5, and 16.0 cm. One neoplasm was confined to the endometrium, whereas the other 2 were myometrial. All 3 tumors showed a nodular growth comprised of mononuclear and osteoclast-like giant cells. The endometrial-confined tumor consisted of histologically benign mononuclear cells, whereas the others exhibited marked atypia. Mitotic activity was up to 5/10 HPF in the benign tumor and up to 22/10 HPF in the malignant. No cytologic atypia or mitoses were observed in the giant cells. CD68 and CD10 were strongly and diffusely expressed in both components of 3 and 2 neoplasms, respectively. Cyclin D1 was focal in the mononuclear cells and focal to diffuse in the giant cells. CD163 was diffuse in the mononuclear cells, but absent to focal in the giant cells. Ultrastructural analysis lacked diagnostic features of epithelial or specific mesenchymal differentiation. Both malignant tumors demonstrated an aggressive behavior. In summary, although rare, giant cell tumor of the uterus should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign or malignant tumors containing osteoclast-like giant cells. PMID:25851705

  15. Giant-cell arteritis without cranial manifestations

    PubMed Central

    de Boysson, Hubert; Lambert, Marc; Liozon, Eric; Boutemy, Jonathan; Maigné, Gwénola; Ollivier, Yann; Ly, Kim; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is challenging in the absence of cardinal cranial symptoms/signs. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and disease course of GCA patients without cranial symptoms, and to compare them to those of patients with typical cranial presentation. In this retrospective multicenter study, we enrolled patients with GCA who satisfied at least 3 of the 5 American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA, or 2 criteria associated with contributory vascular biopsy other than temporal artery biopsy or with demonstration of large-vessel involvement; underwent iconographic evaluation of large arterial vessels (aortic CT scan or a positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan or cardiac echography combined with a large-vessel Doppler) at diagnosis. We divided the cohort into 2 groups, distinguishing between patients without cranial symptoms/signs (i.e., headaches, clinical temporal artery anomaly, jaw claudication, ophthalmologic symptoms) and those with cranial symptoms/signs. In the entire cohort of 143 patients, all of whom underwent vascular biopsy and vascular imaging, we detected 31 (22%) patients with no cranial symptoms/signs. In the latter, diagnosis was biopsy proven in an arterial sample in 23 cases (74% of patients, on a temporal site in 20 cases and on an extratemporal site in 3). One-third of these 31 patients displayed extracranial symptoms/signs whereas the remaining two-thirds presented only with constitutional symptoms and/or inflammatory laboratory test results. Compared to the 112 patients with cardinal cranial clinical symptoms/signs, patients without cranial manifestations displayed lower levels of inflammatory laboratory parameters (C-reactive level: 68 [9–250] mg/L vs 120 [3–120] mg/L; P < 0.01), highest rate of aorta and aortic branch involvement identified (19/31 (61%) vs 42/112 (38%); P = 0.02) and also

  16. Malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts in a mare

    PubMed Central

    Marryatt, Paige A.

    2003-01-01

    Two subcutaneous masses were removed from the elbow of a mare. Histologically they were composed of islands of polygonal to plump spindlelioid cells with large nuclei, coarsely stippled chromatin, and eosinophilic cytoplasm. Findings were diagnostic for a malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts, a rare tumor with a fair prognosis. PMID:14524631

  17. Giant Cell Myocarditis: Not Always a Presentation of Cardiogenic Shock.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Rose; Cole, William J; Rosenzweig, Barry P; Axel, Leon; Bangalore, Sripal; Lala, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis is a rare and often fatal disease. The most obvious presentation often described in the literature is one of rapid hemodynamic deterioration due to cardiogenic shock necessitating urgent consideration of mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man whose initial presentation was consistent with myopericarditis but who went on to develop a rapid decline in left ventricular systolic function without overt hemodynamic compromise or dramatic symptomatology. Giant cell myocarditis was confirmed via endomyocardial biopsy. Combined immunosuppression with corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitor resulted in resolution of symptoms and sustained recovery of left ventricular function one year later. Our case highlights that giant cell myocarditis does not always present with cardiogenic shock and should be considered in the evaluation of new onset cardiomyopathy of uncertain etiology as a timely diagnosis has distinct clinical implications on management and prognosis. PMID:26257963

  18. Giant Cell Myocarditis: Not Always a Presentation of Cardiogenic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Tompkins, Rose; Cole, William J.; Rosenzweig, Barry P.; Axel, Leon; Bangalore, Sripal; Lala, Anuradha

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell myocarditis is a rare and often fatal disease. The most obvious presentation often described in the literature is one of rapid hemodynamic deterioration due to cardiogenic shock necessitating urgent consideration of mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation. We present the case of a 60-year-old man whose initial presentation was consistent with myopericarditis but who went on to develop a rapid decline in left ventricular systolic function without overt hemodynamic compromise or dramatic symptomatology. Giant cell myocarditis was confirmed via endomyocardial biopsy. Combined immunosuppression with corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitor resulted in resolution of symptoms and sustained recovery of left ventricular function one year later. Our case highlights that giant cell myocarditis does not always present with cardiogenic shock and should be considered in the evaluation of new onset cardiomyopathy of uncertain etiology as a timely diagnosis has distinct clinical implications on management and prognosis. PMID:26257963

  19. Giant Cell Tumor within the Proximal Tibia after ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Takashi; MacCormick, Lauren; Ellermann, Jutta; Clohisy, Denis; Marette, Shelly

    2016-01-01

    26-year-old female with prior anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction developed an enlarging lytic bone lesion around the tibial screw with sequential imaging over the course of one year demonstrating progression of this finding, which was confirmed histologically to be a giant cell tumor of bone. The lesion originated around the postoperative bed, making the diagnosis challenging during the early course of the presentation. The case demonstrates giant cell tumor which originated in the metaphysis and subsequently grew to involve the epiphysis; therefore, early course of the disease not involving the epiphysis should not exclude this diagnosis. PMID:26981302

  20. [Visual hallucinations and giant cell arteritis: the Charles Bonnet syndrome].

    PubMed

    Bloch, J; Morell-Dubois, S; Koch, E; Launay, D; Maillard-Lefebvre, H; Buchdahl, A-L; Hachulla, E; Rouland, J-F; Hatron, P-Y; Lambert, M

    2011-12-01

    In patients with visual hallucinations, diagnostic strategy is unclearly codified. In patients known to have giant cell arteritis, the main diagnostic assumption is disease relapse. Indeed, this should lead to rapid corticosteroid therapy. However, the Charles Bonnet syndrome, that is a poorly known etiology of visual hallucinations usually observed in elderly people, should be part of the differential diagnosis. We report a 87-year-old woman, with a 2-year history of giant cell arteritis who was admitted with an acute onset of visual hallucinations and who met all the criteria for Charles Bonnet syndrome. PMID:21269738

  1. Giant cell glioblastoma in the frontal cortex of a dog.

    PubMed

    Uchida, K; Kuroki, K; Priosoeryanto, B P; Kato, K; Yano, Y; Murakami, T; Yamaguchi, R; Tateyama, S

    1995-03-01

    A dark gray mass 3 cm in diameter replacing the right frontal cortex was found in the brain of a 5-year-old male Doberman Pinscher dog at necropsy. Microscopic studies revealed that the mass consisted of a proliferation of pleomorphic tumor cells: large bizarre or plump eosinophilic cells, multinucleated giant cells, and small lymphocytic cells. These neoplastic cells at the margin of the necrotic area had a psuedopalisade arrangement and tended to proliferate around blood vessels. Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells reacted intensely with the antibody for vimentin and moderately with those for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. This canine tumor is placed in the category of glioblastoma or undifferentiated astrocytoma, which is analogous to human giant cell glioblastoma. PMID:7771064

  2. Reparative giant cell granuloma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Duarte Ruiz, Blanca; Riba García, Francisco de Asís; Navarro Cuéllar, Carlos; Bucci, Tommaso; Cuesta Gil, Matías; Navarro Vila, Carlos

    2007-08-01

    Reparative giant cell granulomas are benign, infrequent tumors, of non-odontogenic origin, that develop at central or peripheral level. Peripherally located lesions are frequently denominated "giant cell epulis", and never correspond to true neoplasia, but rather to inflammatory reactions secondary to another lesion (hemorrhage, etc.). It should be taken into account, that in general, head and neck tumors of infancy usually demonstrate an atypical biological behaviour. Furthermore, the anatomicopathologic diagnosis is often compromised in this type of lesion. We present the case of a 6-year-old boy, who, three weeks after suffering a slight facial trauma, developed a painless, exophytic swelling of approximately 4 cm, with bleeding on palpation, in the ipsilateral hemimaxilla. The lesion demonstrated rapid, progressive and continuous growth. The facial CT and incisional biopsy confirmed the suspected diagnosis of reparative giant cell granuloma. The patient was surgically treated, carrying out a left marginal maxillectomy associated with the extirpation of the soft-tissue lesion. The resultant defect was reconstructed with a Bichat fat-pad providing the patient with optimal esthetic and functional results. The definitive anatomicopathologic report of the surgical piece is compatible with reparative giant cell granuloma. PMID:17664921

  3. Cell-free preparation of functional and triggerable giant proteoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Hansen, Gregory P R; Venancio-Marques, Anna; Baigl, Damien

    2013-11-25

    Heat, we leak: We express a membrane protein outside well-defined giant liposomes obtained by gravity-transferred sucrose-in-oil droplets into a cell-free, reconstituted expression system. We show that the presence of the liposome is necessary during expression for efficient protein insertion into the membrane and that temperature can trigger the resulting membrane function. PMID:24115581

  4. RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF MORTALITY IN GIANT PACIFIC OCTOPUS (ENTEROCTOPUS DOFLEINI).

    PubMed

    Seeley, Kathryn E; Clayton, Leigh A; Hadfield, Catherine A; Muth, Dillon; Mankowski, Joseph L; Kelly, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    The giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) is a popular exhibit species in public display aquaria, but information on health and disease is limited. This retrospective review evaluates time in collection and describes antemortem clinical signs and pathology of giant Pacific octopuses in an aquarium setting. Between March 2004 and December 2013, there were 19 mortalities: eight males, 10 females, and one individual whose sex was not recorded. Average time spent in collection for all octopuses was 375 ± 173 days (males 351 ± 148 days, females 410 ± 196 days). Ten (52.6%) of the octopuses were sexually mature at the time of death, six (31.6%) were not sexually mature, and reproductive status could not be determined in three octopuses (15.8%). Minimal changes were noted on gross necropsy but branchitis was histologically evident in 14 octopuses, often in conjunction with amoeboid or flagellate parasites. Senescence, parasitism, and husbandry were all important contributors to mortality and should be considered when caring for captive octopuses. PMID:27010286

  5. [Clinico-pathological study on giant cell fibroma of oral mucosa].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z; Levy, B

    1995-11-01

    The biopsy specimens of the Department of Oral Pathology, Dental School, UMBC, between 1985-1988 were reviewed in 1990 and. 124 cases of giant cell fibroma (GCF) of oral mucosa were found. GCF may develop at any age, but the highest incidence is middle adult life. GCF is slightly common in female than in male (1: 0.85). GCF occurs frequently in gingiva, tongue and cheek and is mistaken commonly for irritation fibroma, neurofibroma, papilloma and pyogenic granuloma, because there are no specific clinic features of it. The fusiform cells, star cells and multinucleated giant cells in the lesion are common histologic features of GCF. Local removal is usually successful. PMID:8762534

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, N M; Morgan, M L; Almarzouqi, S J; Lee, A G

    2016-05-01

    PurposeGiant cell arteritis (GCA) is a systemic vasculitis that affects medium-to-large-caliber arteries. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential as involvement of the ophthalmic artery or its branches may cause blindness. Radiographic findings may be variable and non-specific leading to delay in diagnosis. We conducted a review of the literature on neuroimaging findings in GCA and present a retrospective case series from tertiary-care ophthalmic referral centers of three patients with significant neuroimaging findings in biopsy-proven GCA.MethodsRetrospective case series of biopsy-proven GCA cases with neuroimaging findings at the Department of Ophthalmology, Blanton Eye Institute, Houston Methodist Hospital between 2010-2015 were included in this study. Literature search was conducted using Google Scholar and Medline search engines between the years 1970 and 2015.ResultsWe report findings of optic nerve enhancement, optic nerve sheath enhancement, and the first description in the English-language ophthalmic literature, to our knowledge, of chiasmal enhancement in biopsy-proven GCA. We describe four main categories of neuroimaging findings that may be seen in GCA from our series and from past cases in the literature.DiscussionIt is essential that clinicians be aware of the possible radiographic findings in GCA. Appropriate and prompt treatment should not be delayed based upon these findings. PMID:26915748

  7. A giant frontal cavernous malformation with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arvind; Mittal, Radhey Shyam

    2016-01-01

    Cavernous malformations (CMs) are vascular anomalies with dilated spaces called caverns. These spaces are lined by endothelial cells and collage and devoid of smooth muscle or intervening neural tissue, and filled with blood at various stages of stasis, thrombosis, organization, and calcification. Most CMs are relatively small in size but when they are large enough they can produce sing of mass effect and may simulate neoplastic, vascular, inflammatory pathology. Giant CM (size >6 cm) are very rare lesions and very few cases are reported in world literature. We are reporting such a rare case of a 16 year male. Our case is also unique in the sense that it is the largest reported CM in Indian population. PMID:27114662

  8. Management of Giant Splenic Artery Aneurysm: Comprehensive Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, Sami; Otan, Emrah

    2015-07-01

    To provide an overview of the medical literature on giant splenic artery aneurysm (SAA).The PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Google databases were searched using keywords to identify articles related to SAA. Keywords used were splenic artery aneurysm, giant splenic artery aneuryms, huge splenic artery aneurysm, splenic artery aneurysm rupture, and visceral artery aneurysm. SAAs with a diameter ≥5 cm are considered as giant and included in this study. The language of the publication was not a limitation criterion, and publications dated before January 15, 2015 were considered.The literature review included 69 papers (62 fulltext, 6 abstract, 1 nonavailable) on giant SAA. A sum of 78 patients (50 males, 28 females) involved in the study with an age range of 27-87 years (mean ± SD: 55.8 ± 14.0 years). Age range for male was 30-87 (mean ± SD: 57.5 ± 12.0 years) and for female was 27-84 (mean ± SD: 52.7 ± 16.6 years). Most frequent predisposing factors were acute or chronic pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, hypertension, and cirrhosis. Aneurysm dimensions were obtained for 77 patients with a range of 50-300 mm (mean ± SD: 97.1 ± 46.0 mm). Aneurysm dimension range for females was 50-210 mm (mean ± SD: 97.5 ± 40.2 mm) and for males was 50-300 mm (mean ± SD: 96.9 ± 48.9 mm). Intraperitoneal/retroperitoneal rupture was present in 15, among which with a lesion dimension range of 50-180 mm (mean ± SD; 100 ± 49.3 mm) which was range of 50-300 mm (mean ± SD: 96.3 ± 45.2 mm) in cases without rupture. Mortality for rupture patients was 33.3%. Other frequent complications were gastrosplenic fistula (n = 3), colosplenic fistula (n = 1), pancreatic fistula (n = 1), splenic arteriovenous fistula (n = 3), and portosplenic fistula (n = 1). Eight of the patients died in early postoperative period while 67 survived. Survival status of the remaining 3 patients is

  9. Recurrent giant cell fibroblastoma: Malignancy predisposition in Kabuki syndrome revisited.

    PubMed

    Karagianni, Paraskevi; Lambropoulos, Vassilios; Stergidou, Dorothea; Fryssira, Helena; Chatziioannidis, Ilias; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2016-05-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by distinctive facial phenotype, mental retardation, and internal organ malformations. Mutations of the epigenetic genes KMT2D and KDM6A cause dysregulation of certain developmental genes and account for the multiple congenital anomalies of the syndrome. Eight cases of malignancies have been reported in young patients with Kabuki syndrome although a causative association to the syndrome has not been established. We report a case of a 12-year-old girl with Kabuki syndrome who developed a tumor on the right side of her neck. A relapsing tumor 19 months after initial excision, proved to be giant cell fibroblastoma. Τhis is the first report of giant cell fibroblastoma -a rare tumor of childhood- in a patient with Kabuki syndrome. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26898171

  10. Rare giant cell tumor involvement of the olecranon bone

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen; Gong, Yubao; Liu, Jianguo; Qi, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a relatively common benign bone lesion and is usually located in long bones, but involvement of the olecranon is extremely rare. Here, we present a case of solitary GCT of bone in the olecranon that was confirmed by preoperative needle biopsy and postoperative histological examination. The treatment included intralesional curettage, allogeneic bone grafting, and plating. At 26 months follow-up, the patient had no local recurrence. PMID:25197303

  11. Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath: Experience With 65 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Erin L.; Yoder, Eric M.; Kasdan, Morton L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: No consensus exists on the etiology, prognostic factors, or recurrence rate of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath. This article presents a series of 65 cases supplemented by a literature review that examines the epidemiology, presentation, gross and microscopic characteristics, and recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. Methods: The authors completed a retrospective review of one surgeon's practice from 1976 to 2001, evaluating 65 cases of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. The authors conducted a literature search and compared the case series with historical data. Results: The tumor most commonly presented as a firm, nontender mass in the dominant hand. Our cases showed a slight female predominance of 54%, compared with the literature average of 64%. A pseudocapsule was present in 51% of cases. Overall recurrence rate was 10%. No association was noted between recurrence and pseudocapsule presence, rheumatoid arthritis, or osteoarthritis. Satellite lesions at the first excision were noted in 80% of recurrent cases; however, satellite lesions were not a risk factor for recurrence per se. Conclusions: Our study shows similar findings to the literature, with the notable addition of satellite lesions in recurrent tumors. Marginal excision is the treatment of choice, but may be complicated when the tumor is attached to vital structures. Therefore, an appropriate balance between resection of tumor and maintenance of function must be achieved due to the possibility of recurrence. PMID:23185646

  12. Pathogenic mechanisms in giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Weyand, Cornelia M; Goronzy, Jörg J

    2002-01-01

    T lymphocytes, encountering stimulatory signals in the adventitia of medium-size arteries, emerge as the key players in inflammation-associated injury pathways. In GCA, all injury mechanisms have been related to effector macrophages. Regulated by IFN-gamma-producing T cells, macrophages commit to distinct avenues of differentiation and acquire a spectrum of potentially harmful capabilities (Figure 1). Macrophages in the adventitia focus on production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Macrophages in the media specialize in oxidative damage with lipid peroxidation attacking smooth muscle cells and matrix components. These macrophages also supply reactive oxygen intermediates that, in combination with nitrogen intermediates, cause protein nitration of endothelial cells. Production of oxygen radicals is complemented by the production of metalloproteinases, likely essential in the breakdown of elastic membranes. With the fragmentation of the internal elastic lamina, the intimal layer becomes accessible to migratory myofibroblasts that, driven by PDGF, form a hyperplastic intimal layer and cause occlusion of the vessel lumen. Expansion of the hyperplastic intima is accompanied by intense neoangiogenesis, supported by angiogenesis factors that again derive from specialized macrophages. Similarities in injury pathways between GCA and another arterial disease, atherosclerosis, are beginning to be recognized. Specifically, activated T cells and macrophages are increasingly appreciated as key players in the process of instability and rupture of atherosclerotic plaque. A specialized subset of CD4 T cells, CD4+ CD28- T cells, are suspected to participate in tissue injury in the plaque. These T cells are equipped with cytolytic capabilities and release large amounts of IFN-gamma. Comparative studies between patients with GCA and those with acute coronary syndromes should enhance our ability to define the principles of arterial wall inflammation, the specifics of injury in that

  13. Giant cell hepatitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, A; McMahon, R F

    1996-01-01

    Giant hepatocytes are commonly found in several neonatal and infantile liver diseases, but are rarely found in adult liver disease. A 42 year old white woman presented with a five month history of paraesthesia and numbness of both the upper and lower limbs and with vague abdominal pain. Abnormal liver function was noted on routine screening. Ultrasound scan of the abdomen showed gallstones; barium enema, ERCP and computed tomography scan were all normal. IgG antibodies to double stranded DNA were present at a titre of 40 units. Anti-cardiolipin antibodies, anti-mitochondrial antibodies and rheumatoid factor were not detected. Serology for hepatitis A, B, C, and paramyxoviruses was negative, as was the Paul Bunnell test. A clinical diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with an axonal sensory polyneuropathy was made, the latter confirmed on biopsy of the sural nerve. Giant cells were noted on liver biopsy. The patient was treated with corticosteroids; liver function had improved after two years of follow up. When extensive giant cell transformation is noted on liver biopsy, particularly when neuropathy is also a feature, the possibility of an association with SLE should be considered. Images PMID:8655694

  14. Systemic therapy for selected skull base sarcomas: Chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour and solitary fibrous tumour/hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Colia, Vittoria; Provenzano, Salvatore; Hindi, Nadia; Casali, Paolo G; Stacchiotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    This review highlights the data currently available on the activity of systemic therapy in chondrosarcoma, chordoma, giant cell tumour of the bone (GCTB) and solitary fibrous tumour, i.e., four rare sarcomas amongst mesenchymal malignancy arising from the skull base. PMID:27330421

  15. Unusual Presentation of Giant Cell Tumor in Skeletally Immature Patient in Diaphysis of Ulna

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Maulik T; Nayak, Maunil R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor is a locally aggressive benign tumor. Giant cell tumor of bone is characteristically found in skeletally mature patient at the end of long bones in the epiphyseal region or epiphysio-metaphyseal region. Giant cell tumor is very rare in skeletally immature patient. But we are presenting a very rare case of giant cell tumor in skeletally immature patient in diaphyseal region which is very uncommon location for giant cell tumor. From this case we concluded that irrespective of the location and skeletal maturity, a giant cell tumor should be diagnosed based on its histology because classical clinical-radiological features are not always present. Index case strengthens this view. PMID:27299037

  16. Secondary malignant giant-cell tumor of bone. Clinicopathological assessment of nineteen patients

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, M.G.; Sim, F.H.; Unni, K.K.; Witrak, G.A.; Frassica, F.J.; Schray, M.F.; Beabout, J.W.; Dahlin, D.C.

    1986-09-01

    Twenty-six patients who had a malignant giant-cell tumor of bone--a sarcoma either juxtaposed to a zone of typical benign giant-cell tumor or occurring at the site of a previously documented benign giant-cell tumor--have been seen at the Mayo Clinic. Of the twenty-six tumors, nineteen were secondary to a previous attempt at local control of a benign giant-cell tumor. All but one of these nineteen patients with a secondary tumor had received therapeutic irradiation four to thirty-nine years earlier. The nature and duration of the symptoms and the sites of predilection of the malignant giant-cell tumors were the same as for benign giant-cell tumor. Fibrosarcoma occurred three times as frequently as osteosarcoma. The best results of treatment of the secondary sarcoma were obtained with early ablation.

  17. Giant osteomas of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses: Clinical characteristics and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, KE-JIA; WANG, SHEN-QING; LIN, LIN

    2013-01-01

    Giant osteomas of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses ary very rare, with only a few dozen cases reported in the literature. Given their rarity, the clinical characteristics and treatment of this disease remain controversial. In this study, the clinical presentation and surgical methods used to treat three patients with giant osteomas of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses are described, combined with a review of the literature from 1975 to 2011. In total, 45 patients with giant osteomas arising from the ethmoid and frontal sinuses (including the present cases) have been reported in 41 articles. Headache and ocular signs are the most common symptoms. This disease often leads to intracranial or intraorbital complications. The main treatment for giant osteoma is surgery via an external approach. The outcome of surgery for giant osteoma is good, with rare recurrence, no malignant transformation and few persistent symptoms. PMID:23759920

  18. Supervoltage radiotherapy in the treatment of difficult giant cell tumors of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, R.S.; Harwood, A.R.; Goodman, S.B.; Fornasier, V.L.

    1983-04-01

    Fifteen patients with giant cell tumor were treated by supervoltage radiotherapy. Each patient had been referred for therapy because adequate surgery would have been difficult or disfiguring. No patient who received appropriate therapy experienced a recurrence, and there were no cases of malignant transformation of a giant cell tumor after a mean follow-up period of 12 years. Radiotherapy is not recommended for primary treatment of giant cell tumor but may be indicated in exceptional circumstances.

  19. Two Cases of Sarcoma Arising in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Treated with Denosumab

    PubMed Central

    Broehm, Cory Julian; Garbrecht, Erika L.; Wood, Jeff; Bocklage, Therese

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a generally benign, but often locally aggressive, neoplasm of bone, with a propensity for recurrence. Sarcomatous transformation is rare and typically occurs with a history of recurrences and radiation treatment. Denosumab, an inhibitor of the RANK ligand involved in bone resorption in GCT, is increasingly used in treatment of recurrent or unresectable giant cell tumor of bone. We report two cases of sarcomatous transformation of GCT to osteosarcoma in patients receiving denosumab. One was a 59-year-old male with a 12-year history of GCT and multiple recurrences taking denosumab for 2.5 years. The second case was in a 56-year-old male with a seven-year history of GCT taking denosumab for six months. Review of the literature shows one case report of malignant transformation of GCT in a patient being treated with denosumab. As the use of denosumab for treatment of GCT will likely increase, larger, controlled studies are needed to ascertain whether denosumab may play a role in malignant transformation of giant cell tumor of bone. PMID:26798348

  20. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma of the breast: a case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong Sup; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Seol, Hyesil; Seo, Ju-Hee; Lee, Jun Ah; Kim, Dong Ho; Lim, Jung Sub

    2014-03-01

    A girl (age, 12 years 11 months) consulted the pediatric endocrinology clinic because of a rapidly growing right breast mass over 13 cm observed during the preceding 3 months. A surgical excision was performed, and the mass was diagnosed as a giant juvenile fibroadenoma. Giant juvenile fibroadenomas are rare, usually occurring between 10 and 18 years of age, and characterized by massive and rapid enlargement of an encapsulated mass. The etiology is believed to be an end-organ hypersensitivity to normal levels of estrogen. We report a case of giant juvenile fibroadenoma and present a review of the diagnostic workup and management of a large breast tumor during adolescence. PMID:24926464

  1. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Complicated by Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsunemine, Hiroko; Umeda, Ryosuke; Nohda, Yasuhiro; Sakane, Emiko; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Itoh, Kiminari; Izumi, Mayuko; Tsuji, Goh; Kodaka, Taiichi; Itoh, Tomoo; Takahashi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), a type of systemic arteritis, is rare in Japan. We herein report a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) complicated by GCA that manifested during chemotherapy for AML. A 77-year-old woman with severe back pain was diagnosed with AML. She achieved complete remission with the resolution of her back pain following induction chemotherapy. However, she developed a headache and fever after consolidation chemotherapy. A diagnosis of GCA was made based on a biopsy of the temporal artery and arterial imaging. GCA should therefore be included in the differential diagnosis in AML patients complicated with a headache and fever of unknown origin. PMID:26831026

  2. Peripheral giant cell granuloma: a potentially aggressive lesion in children.

    PubMed

    Flaitz, C M

    2000-01-01

    A slowly enlarging gingival mass with a reddish-purple surface is observed in a school-age boy. The lesion was first noted 3 months ago during a routine oral examination but recently it has increased in size and interferes with eating. A periapical radiograph demonstrated focal loss of the alveolar crestal bone in the mandibular incisor region. The diagnosis of peripheral giant cell granuloma, a benign reactive gingival lesion, is confirmed by histopathologic examination. Early detection and excision of this hyperplastic nodule is important to minimize potential dentoalveolar complications. PMID:10846736

  3. Giant cell arteritis: a closer look at its ophthalmological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Pinto Ferreira, Nuno G; Menezes Falcão, Luiz; Alves, Antonio T; Campos, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis with ocular involvement is an ocular emergency. Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AAION) is the most common ophthalmological manifestation associated with this disease. Visual loss is usually permanent with rare cases showing visual recovery. Visual improvement, if it occurs, is generally limited, and the visual field defects are persistent and severe. The main goal of AAION treatment is the preservation of vision in the fellow eye. In patients with neurophthalmological manifestations, high-dose corticosteroids should be initiated immediately and aggressively, and maintained thereafter. We present a case of AAION and severe vision loss where significant visual recovery was seen after treatment. PMID:26416775

  4. Glucocorticoids for Management of Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Matteson, Eric L; Buttgereit, Frank; Dejaco, Christian; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and giant cell arteritis (GCA) is based on typical clinical, histologic, and laboratory features. Ultrasonographic imaging in PMR with assessment especially of subdeltoid bursitis can aid in diagnosis and in following response to treatment. In GCA, diagnosis and disease activity are supported with ultrasonographic, MRI, or [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose PET evaluation of large vessels. Glucocorticoids are the primary therapy for PMR and GCA. Methotrexate may be used in patients at high risk for glucocorticoid adverse effects and patients with frequent relapse or needing protracted therapy. Other therapeutic approaches including interleukin 6 antagonists are under evaluation. PMID:26611552

  5. The Clinical Approach Toward Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijden, Lizz; Dijkstra, P.D. Sander; van de Sande, Michiel A.J.; Kroep, Judith R.; Nout, Remi A.; van Rijswijk, Carla S.P.; Bovée, Judith V.M.G.; Hogendoorn, Pancras C.W.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an overview of imaging, histopathology, genetics, and multidisciplinary treatment of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), an intermediate, locally aggressive but rarely metastasizing tumor. Overexpression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) by mononuclear neoplastic stromal cells promotes recruitment of numerous reactive multinucleated giant cells. Conventional radiographs show a typical eccentric lytic lesion, mostly located in the meta-epiphyseal area of long bones. GCTB may also arise in the axial skeleton and very occasionally in the small bones of hands and feet. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to evaluate the extent of GCTB within bone and surrounding soft tissues to plan a surgical approach. Curettage with local adjuvants is the preferred treatment. Recurrence rates after curettage with phenol and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA; 8%–27%) or cryosurgery and PMMA (0%–20%) are comparable. Resection is indicated when joint salvage is not feasible (e.g., intra-articular fracture with soft tissue component). Denosumab (RANKL inhibitor) blocks and bisphosphonates inhibit GCTB-derived osteoclast resorption. With bisphosphonates, stabilization of local and metastatic disease has been reported, although level of evidence was low. Denosumab has been studied to a larger extent and seems to be effective in facilitating intralesional surgery after therapy. Denosumab was recently registered for unresectable disease. Moderate-dose radiotherapy (40–55 Gy) is restricted to rare cases in which surgery would lead to unacceptable morbidity and RANKL inhibitors are contraindicated or unavailable. PMID:24718514

  6. Denosumab-treated Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Exhibits Morphologic Overlap With Malignant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, John; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Bredella, Miriam A; Choy, Edwin; Hornicek, Francis J; Nielsen, G Petur; Deshpande, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign neoplasm characterized by an abundance of osteoclastic giant cells that are induced by the neoplastic mononuclear cells; the latter express high levels of receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). Denosumab, a RANKL inhibitor, which is clinically used to treat GCT, leads to a marked alteration in the histologic appearance of the tumor with giant cell depletion and new bone deposition, leading to substantial histologic overlap with other primary tumors of bone. Most significantly, denosumab-treated GCT (tGCT) with abundant bone deposition may mimic de novo osteosarcoma, or GCT that has undergone malignant transformation. To histologically characterize tGCT, we identified 9 cases of GCT biopsied or resected after denosumab treatment. tGCT cases included 16 specimens from 9 patients including 6 female and 3 male individuals aged 16 to 47 (median 32) years. Duration of treatment varied from 2 to 55 months. We compared these tumors with malignant neoplasms arising in GCTs (n=9). The histology of tGCT was variable but appeared to relate to the length of therapy. All tGCTs showed marked giant cell depletion. Early lesions were highly cellular, and the combination of cellularity, atypia, and haphazard bone deposition caused the lesion to resemble high-grade osteosarcoma. Unlike de novo high-grade osteosarcoma or malignancies arising in GCT, however, tGCT showed less severe atypia, reduced mitotic activity, and lack of infiltrative growth pattern. Tumor in patients on prolonged therapy showed decreased cellularity and abundant new bone, deposited as broad, rounded cords or long, curvilinear arrays. The latter morphology was reminiscent of low-grade central osteosarcoma, but, unlike low-grade central osteosarcoma, tGCT was negative for MDM2 and again lacked an infiltrative growth pattern. Overall, tGCT may have a wide range of morphologic appearances. Because the treated tumors bear little

  7. Clinical Management of a Peri-Implant Giant Cell Granuloma

    PubMed Central

    Pacifici, A.; Carbone, D.; Marini, R.; Sfasciotti, G. L.; Pacifici, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Implant therapy plays an important role in contemporary dentistry with high rates of long-term success. However, in recent years, the incidence of peri-implantitis and implant failures has significantly increased. The peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) rarely occurs in peri-implant tissues and it is clinically comparable to the lesions associated with natural teeth. Therefore, the study of possible diseases associated with dental implants plays an important role in order to be able to diagnose and treat these conditions. Materials and Methods. This report described a 60-year-old Caucasian male who presented a reddish-purple pedunculated mass, of about 2 cm in diameter, associated with a dental implant and the adjacent natural tooth. Results. An excisional biopsy was performed and the dental implant was not removed. Histological examination provided the diagnosis of PGCG. After 19-month follow-up, there were no signs of recurrence of peri-implantitis around the implant. Conclusion. The correct diagnosis and appropriate surgical treatment of peri-implant giant cell granuloma are very important for a proper management of the lesion in order to preserve the implant prosthetic rehabilitation and prevent recurrences. PMID:26788379

  8. Multinuclear giant cell formation is enhanced by down-regulation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer cell line, AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Kim, Rockki; Ryu, Jae-Hyun; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Song, Ki-Joon; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Kee, Sun-Ho . E-mail: keesh@korea.ac.kr

    2005-08-01

    AGS cells, which were derived from malignant gastric adenocarcinoma tissue, lack E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion but have a high level of nuclear {beta}-catenin, which suggests altered Wnt signal. In addition, approximately 5% of AGS cells form multinuclear giant cells in the routine culture conditions, while taxol treatment causes most AGS cells to become giant cells. The observation of reduced nuclear {beta}-catenin levels in giant cells induced by taxol treatment prompted us to investigate the relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. After overnight serum starvation, the shape of AGS cells became flattened, and this morphological change was accompanied by decrease in Myc expression and an increase in the giant cell population. Lithium chloride treatment, which inhibits GSK3{beta} activity, reversed these serum starvation effects, which suggests an inverse relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Wnt signaling caused by the over-expression of ICAT, E-cadherin, and Axin enhanced giant cell formation. Therefore, down-regulation of Wnt signaling may be related to giant cell formation, which is considered to be a survival mechanism against induced cell death.

  9. Histological Regression of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Following RANK Ligand Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Martin F; Cavuoti, Dominick; Landay, Michael; Arriaga, Yull E

    2014-01-01

    Lung metastases are a rare complication of giant cell tumors of bone. We herein describe an interesting case of histological regression and size reduction of lung metastases originating from a primary giant cell tumor of bone in response to the RANK ligand inhibitor denosumab. PMID:26425630

  10. Histological Regression of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone Following RANK Ligand Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Martin F.; Cavuoti, Dominick; Landay, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lung metastases are a rare complication of giant cell tumors of bone. We herein describe an interesting case of histological regression and size reduction of lung metastases originating from a primary giant cell tumor of bone in response to the RANK ligand inhibitor denosumab. PMID:26425630

  11. Giant cell tumour of the sacrum: a suggested algorithm for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Grimer, R. J.; Carter, S. R.; Stirling, A. J.; Spilsbury, J.; Spooner, D.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the outcome of our management of patients with giant cell tumour of the sacrum and draw lessons from this. A retrospective review of medical records and scans for all patients treated at our unit over the past 20 years with a giant cell tumour of the sacrum. Of the 517 patients treated at our unit for giant cell tumour over the past 20 years, only 9 (1.7%) had a giant cell tumour in the sacrum. Six were female, three male with a mean age of 34 (range 15–52). All, but two tumours involved the entire sacrum and there was only one purely distal to S3. The mean size was 10 cm and the most common symptom was back or buttock pain. Five had abnormal neurology at diagnosis, but only one presented with cauda equina syndrome. The first four patients were treated by curettage alone, but two patients had intraoperative cardiac arrests and although both survived all subsequent curettages were preceded by embolisation of the feeding vessels. Of the seven patients who had curettage, three developed local recurrence, but all were controlled with a combination of further embolisation, surgery or radiotherapy. One patient elected for treatment with radiotherapy and another had excision of the tumour distal to S3. All the patients are alive and only two patients have worse neurology than at presentation, one being impotent and one with stress incontinence. Three patients required spinopelvic fusion for sacral collapse. All patients are mobile and active at a follow-up between 2 and 21 years. Giant cell tumour of the sacrum can be controlled with conservative surgery rather than subtotal sacrectomy. The excision of small distal tumours is the preferred option, but for larger and more extensive tumours conservative management may well avoid morbidity whilst still controlling the tumour. Embolisation and curettage are the preferred first option with radiotherapy as a possible adjunct. Spinopelvic fusion may be needed when the sacrum collapses. PMID:20076978

  12. Spin-dependent deprotonation induced giant magnetocurrent in electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haiping; Shen, Yan; Duan, Jiashun; Lu, Kai; Hu, Bin

    2016-04-21

    A giant magnetocurrent (>100%) is observed in the electrochemical system based on tertiary amines at room temperature. This giant magnetocurrent is ascribed to spin-dependent deprotonation during the oxidation of tertiary amines. This presents a new approach of using spin-dependent deprotonation to generate giant magnetocurrent in electrochemical reactions. PMID:27009519

  13. The Hypermetabolic Giant: 18F-FDG avid Giant Cell Tumor identified on PET-CT

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Wendi; Quintana, Megan; Smith, Scott; Willis, Monte; Renner, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    An 87 year-old white female presented with a two-year history of intermittent discomfort in her left foot. PET-CT identified intense18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake corresponding to the lesion. Histology of a fine needle aspiration and open biopsy were consistent with a benign giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bone. GCT of bone is an uncommon primary tumor typically presenting as a benign solitary lesion that arises in the end of the long bones. While GCT can occur throughout the axial and appendicular skeleton, it is exceedingly uncommon in the bone of the foot. While 18F-FDG has been established in detecting several malignant bone tumors, benign disease processes may also be identified. The degree of 18F-FDG activity in a benign GCT may be of an intensity that can be mistakenly interpreted as a malignant lesion. Therefore, GCT of the bone can be included in the differential diagnosis of an intensely 18F-FDG-avid neoplasm located within the tarsal bones. PMID:25426232

  14. Gynecomastia in type-1 neurofibromatosis with features of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with giant cells. Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Damiani, S; Eusebi, V

    2001-05-01

    We describe the histological finding in two cases of gynecomastia in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. The histological and immunohistochemical features of the two cases were reviewed and compared with those of five cases of gynecomastia in men without clinical evidence of neurofibromatosis. In both patients bearing von Recklinghausen's disease, the breast stroma showed features consistent with pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH). It was characterised by anastomosing empty spaces lined by spindle and multinucleated giant cells which were positive with CD34 and anti-vimentin antisera and negative with anti-FVIII and CD31 antisera. In two of five of the control cases without neurofibromatosis, the mammary stroma showed focal areas with features of PASH, but no multinucleated giant cells were present in any case. PASH with giant cells should be recognised as a feature of gynecomastia in von Recklinghausen's disease. The presence of multinucleated giant cells is very unusual and, although more cases have to be studied, these cells seem to be a feature of PASH occurring in patients with von Recklinghausen's disease. PMID:11407482

  15. Giant Cell Tumor (Osteoclastoma) of the Petrous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Spallone, Aldo; Flores, Gerardo Lopez; Zaldivar, Luis Ochoa; Estupinan, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    A case of a basal middle fossa giant cell tumor occurring in a 46-year-old man is described. The lesion appeared at the computed tomography (CT) scan examination as an hypodense mass with a peripheral “ring-like” enhancement, and no evident erosion of the skull base. The tumor, which infiltrated the basal temporal parenchyma, was removed via a temporal transzygomatic craniotomy, and extensive drilling of the petrous bone. Despite the occurrence, of significant postoperative complications, the patient ultimately showed a good clinical outcome, with no signs of recurrence at the 1-year follow-up CT scanning. The clinical and diageostic aspects and the management policy, of this rare lesion are discussed. Imagesp156-aFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:17171132

  16. Case Study: Giant Cell Arteritis with Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Daniel Chomlak, R.; Ghazanfari, Farshad; Datta, Mineesh

    2016-01-01

    In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%–4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temporal artery biopsy that the initial scans were shown to have bilateral narrowing of the vertebral arteries. While rare, vertebral artery involvement is an important complication to consider in the setting of GCA due to the high rate of associated mortality, despite immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27279753

  17. Giant cell myocarditis in a patient with a spondyloarthropathy after a drug hypersensitivity reaction.

    PubMed

    Mitoff, Peter R; Mesana, Thierry G; Mielniczuk, Lisa M; Grenon, Jackie; Veinot, John P; Cooper, Leslie T; Davies, Ross A

    2013-09-01

    A young woman thought to have seronegative rheumatoid arthritis developed Stevens-Johnson syndrome after treatment with sulfasalazine; this resolved with prednisone. Later she was found to be HLA-B27-positive in keeping with a spondyloarthropathy. Soon afterward, she developed clinical myopericarditis and cardiogenic shock that responded initially to methylprednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin, but recurred. An endomyocardial biopsy demonstrated active myocarditis with a mixed cell composition including rare giant cells, but not enough to classify it as giant cell myocarditis. Heart failure symptoms returned and she eventually required a heart transplant; the explanted heart showed giant cell myocarditis. PMID:23474137

  18. A Comparative Study of Cathepsin D Expression in Peripheral and Central Giant Cell Granuloma of the Jaws by Immunohistochemistry Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zargaran, Massoumeh; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Afsharmoghadam, Noushin; Nasr Isfahani, Mohsen; Hashemi, Atefeh

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Peripheral and central giant cell granuloma are two common benign lesions of the oral cavity. In spite of histopathological similarities, they have different clinical behaviors. Cathepsin D is a lysosomal enzyme which has different functions on the basis of protein and applied peptide cleavage. Purpose This research aimed to evaluate and compare the expression level of Cathepsin D in these two lesions to find the reasons for the differences in clinical and biologic characteristics. Materials and Method The expression of Cathepsin D was investigated by using the immunohistochemistry method in 20 samples of peripheral giant cell granuloma and 20 samples of central giant cell granuloma. The percentage of stained giant cells (labeling index), the intensity of staining of giant cells, and staining-intensity-distribution in both groups were calculated and compared. Results The labeling indices of Cathepsin D in peripheral giant cell granuloma and central giant cell granuloma were 95.9±4.03 and 95.6±2.34, respectively. There was no significant difference in the percentages of stained giant cells between the two groups (p= 0.586). The intensity of staining of giant cells in central giant cell granuloma was stronger than that of peripheral giant cell granuloma (p> 0.001). Staining- intensity- distribution of giant cells in central giant cell granuloma was significantly greater than that of the peripheral type of lesion (p= 0.001). Conclusion The higher expression level of Cathepsin D in central giant cell granuloma compared to peripheral type of lesion can explain more aggressive behavior of central giant cell granuloma. PMID:27284554

  19. Multinucleate Giant Cells in FNAC of Benign Breast Lesions: Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    R, Kalyani; Murthy V, Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Background: Multinucleate giant cells are described in breast aspirates. However, due to its rarity very few cases have been described cytologically. Hence recognition and correct interpretation of their presence is difficult, yet crucial for accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: The prospective study of FNAC (fine needle aspirate cytology) of breast lumps was conducted for a period of six months. Direct smears were prepared from the material aspirated. In case of fluid aspirates, centrifuge done and cell sediment was used for making smears. Smears were alcohol fixed and stained with PAP/H&E or air dried smears were stained with Leishman stain. Further smears were subjected to immunocytochemistry using vimentin and CD34 markers to know the origin of multinucleate giant cells. Results: We have reported 11 cases of breast lesions, which showed multinucleate giant cells on FNAC. Out of the 11 cases, Cytologically six cases showed granuloma debris with relative proportion of epithelioid histiocytes, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleate giant cells. Two cases were diagnosed as acute suppurative granulomatous mastitis. Two cases of fibroadenoma and one case of fat necrosis showed multinucleate giant cells. Immunocytochemistry showed vimentin positivity in both stromal and histiocytic type of multinucleate giant cells and in isolated histiocytes. CD34 was focally positive in histiocytic type of giant cells. Conclusion: An effort is made to distinguish between the stromal and histiocytic type giant cells in non-neoplastic breast lesions. Further molecular studies have to be done to know the exact histogenesis and role of these multinucleate giant cells in benign lesions. PMID:25653953

  20. Giant Splenic Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yagmur, Yusuf; Akbulut, Sami; Gumus, Serdar; Demircan, Firat

    2015-07-01

    Splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are the third most frequent intra-abdominal aneurysm, following abdominal aorta and iliac artery aneurysms. SAAs are classified according to their involvement of arterial wall layers: true aneurysms involve all 3 layers (intima, media, and adventitia), and pseudoaneurysms involve only one or two. Herein we present a new case of giant pseudo SAA. A 65-year-old female patient with a pancreatic mass and iron deficiency was referred to our clinic for further investigation. Abdominal ultrasonography, contrast-enhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging showed a lesion resembling a subcapsular hemangioma in the spleen, and aneurysmatic dilation of the splenic artery with a diameter of >5 cm. The large size of the aneurysm and the clinical findings were indications for surgical treatment. The patient underwent en bloc resection of the spleen, distal pancreas, and aneurysmatic segment of the splenic artery. The patient remains complication-free 2 months after the operation. Spontaneous rupture is the most important life-threatening complications of giant SAAs. Therefore, all symptomatic patients with SAA should be treated, as well as asymptomatic patients with lesions ≥2 cm, who are pregnant or fertile, have portal hypertension, or are candidates for liver transplantation. Despite advances in endovascular techniques, conventional abdominal surgery remains the gold standard for treatment. PMID:26595501

  1. Mandibular central giant cell granuloma associated with sclerosing osteomyelitis of Garrè (periostitis ossificans). Case report.

    PubMed

    Toller, M O; Karaca, I

    1993-04-01

    Garrè's sclerosing osteomyelitis or periostitis ossificans with a radiographic 'onion skin' appearance is a separate clinical entity. The new bone formation underneath the periosteum is a response of periosteum to stimulation by low grade infection. This may occur in a variety of other developmental, metabolic, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of bone. A case of mandibular giant cell granuloma of a central type associated with Garrè's sclerosing osteomyelitis is presented and the literature is reviewed. PMID:8494507

  2. A case of thoracic giant cell tumor of bone and discussion of radiological features and current management practices.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Deirdre; Mc Erlean, Sarah; Byrne, Danielle; Mahon, Peter Mac; Mc Caffrey, John

    2016-09-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a rare condition with distinct radiological features that aid diagnosis. We present the case of an adult female patient, with locally invasive GCTB and review important radiological and management principles. Specific radiological features include locally aggressive, lytic radiolucent lesions, which can demonstrate cortical thinning and expansile remodeling of bone and typically involve the epiphysis and metaphysis. Management is primarily surgical, and denosumab has a role in the advanced setting. PMID:27594954

  3. Giant vulvar lipoma in an adolescent girl: a case study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Jóźwik, Maciej; Kołodziejczak, Małgorzata; Klonowska-Dziatkiewicz, Ewa; Jóźwik, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    A rare case of a giant vulvar lipoma that developed in an adolescent is presented. A review of the world literature of 15 cases that occurred prior to adulthood confirmed that they tend to occur on the right side of the vulva. PMID:24629715

  4. Establishment and cryopreservation of a giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang-Jian; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Xiong, Tie-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, He-Min

    2015-06-01

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an endangered species and is a symbol for wildlife conservation. Although efforts have been made to protect this rare and endangered species through breeding and conservative biology, the long-term preservation of giant panda genome resources (gametes, tissues, organs, genomic libraries, etc.) is still a practical option. In this study, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line was successfully established via primary explants culture and cryopreservation techniques. The population doubling time of giant panda skeletal cells was approximately 33.8 h, and this population maintained a high cell viability before and after cryopreservation (95.6% and 90.7%, respectively). The two skeletal muscle-specific genes SMYD1 and MYF6 were expressed and detected by RT-PCR in the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line. Karyotyping analysis revealed that the frequencies of giant panda skeletal muscle cells showing a chromosome number of 2n=42 ranged from 90.6∼94.2%. Thus, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line provides a vital resource and material platform for further studies and is likely to be useful for the protection of this rare and endangered species. PMID:26035009

  5. Giant cell tumor of the humeral head treated by denosumab: Implication to shoulder surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ka Hei; Lam, Albert Ying Lee; Ho, Kenneth Wai Yip; Shek, Tony Wai Hung

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor is a benign bone tumor that is commonly encountered. The optimal treatment of a giant cell tumor which causes extensive bony destruction is controversial. Recent studies on the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand antagonist denosumab may offer a new treatment option for these patients. We presented a patient with giant cell tumor of the humeral head. He was initially treated with denosumab and subsequently with the operation. The shoulder joint was successfully salvaged. But there are potential difficulties that surgeons may face in patients treated with denosumab. PMID:26622131

  6. Tenosynovial giant cell tumor presenting as a parotid gland mass: Expanding the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions in salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Qasem, Shadi; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T

    2014-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT) are rare benign soft tissue tumors affecting mostly young adults. The most common affected sites include the knee, ankle, elbow, shoulder, and fingers. The temporomandibular joint is occasionally affected. Herein, we report a case of a 31-year-old Caucasian male who presented clinically with a parotid gland mass. The initial clinical and radiological work-up failed to reveal any involvement of the adjacent temporomandibular joint. Fine-needle aspiration revealed a cellular tumor composed of mononuclear and multinucleated giant cells with fibrosis and hemosiderin deposition. This was subsequently found to be a TGCT arising from the temporomandibular joint. Giant cell-rich lesions are uncommon in salivary glands. Herein, we describe the cytomorphology and clinico-radiographic features of this tumor with emphasis on the differential diagnosis of giant cell-rich lesions presenting in salivary glands. Despite its rare occurrence, this entity should be considered when giant cells are prominent in specimens acquired from this location. PMID:25745294

  7. A giant phyllodes tumor causing ulceration and severe breast disfigurement: case report and review of giant phyllodes

    PubMed Central

    Sbeih, Mohammed A.; Engdahl, Ryan; Landa, Marina; Ojutiku, Oreoluwa; Morrison, Norman; Depaz, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors that account for <1% of the breast tumors in women. These tumors are often benign unilateral lesions of the female breast (70%). Less common are malignant phyllodes, which have the potential for hematogenous spread. Phyllodes tumors can be seen in all age groups, and the median age of presentation is 45 years. Surgery is the main form of treatment. Wide excisions with margins of 1cm are suggested. While smaller and moderate size phyllodes may typically be seen, gigantic ones are very rare. These may be seen in neglected tumors. By definition, a giant phyllodes tumor is one larger than 10 cm in diameter. We report a gigantic phyllodes tumor that grew over 7 years period causing significant ulceration and disfigurement and review features of these tumors and management. PMID:26703928

  8. A giant phyllodes tumor causing ulceration and severe breast disfigurement: case report and review of giant phyllodes.

    PubMed

    Sbeih, Mohammed A; Engdahl, Ryan; Landa, Marina; Ojutiku, Oreoluwa; Morrison, Norman; Depaz, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors that account for <1% of the breast tumors in women. These tumors are often benign unilateral lesions of the female breast (70%). Less common are malignant phyllodes, which have the potential for hematogenous spread. Phyllodes tumors can be seen in all age groups, and the median age of presentation is 45 years. Surgery is the main form of treatment. Wide excisions with margins of 1cm are suggested. While smaller and moderate size phyllodes may typically be seen, gigantic ones are very rare. These may be seen in neglected tumors. By definition, a giant phyllodes tumor is one larger than 10 cm in diameter. We report a gigantic phyllodes tumor that grew over 7 years period causing significant ulceration and disfigurement and review features of these tumors and management. PMID:26703928

  9. T cells stimulate catabolic gene expression by the stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Robert W.; Ghert, Michelle; Singh, Gurmit

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two T cell lines stimulate PTHrP, RANKL, MMP13 gene expression in GCT cell cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD40 expressed by stromal cells; CD40L detected in whole tumor but not cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of CD40L treatment on GCT cells increased PTHrP and MMP13 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTHrP treatment increased MMP13 expression, while inhibition decreased expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells may stimulate GCT stromal cells and promote the osteolysis of the tumor. -- Abstract: The factors that promote the localized bone resorption by giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) are not fully understood. We investigated whether T cells could contribute to bone resorption by stimulating expression of genes for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and the receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Two cell lines, Jurkat clone E6-1 and D1.1, were co-cultured with isolated GCT stromal cells. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated a significant increase of all three genes following 48 h incubation, and PTHrP and MMP-13 gene expression was also increased at 24 h. Further, we examined the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a protein expressed by activated T cells, and its receptor, CD40, in GCT. Immunohistochemistry results revealed expression of the CD40 receptor in both the stromal cells and giant cells of the tumor. RNA collected from whole GCT tissues showed expression of CD40LG, which was absent in cultured stromal cells, and suggests that CD40L is expressed within GCT. Stimulation of GCT stromal cells with CD40L significantly increased expression of the PTHrP and MMP-13 genes. Moreover, we show that inhibition of PTHrP with neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased MMP13 expression by the stromal cells compared to IgG-matched controls, whereas stimulation with PTHrP (1-34) increased MMP-13 gene expression. These

  10. Induction of giant cells by the synthetic food colorants viz. lemon yellow and orange red.

    PubMed

    Prajitha, V; Thoppil, John E

    2016-05-01

    Cytotoxicity and giant cell formation induced by lemon yellow and orange red synthetic food colorants were evaluated in the present study. The aqueous solutions of both the dye solutions were tested for cytotoxicity using Allium cepa assay. Frequency of giant cells were determined after treating the root tips with different concentrations of both food colorant solutions viz., 0.005, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1 % for varying time durations (1/2, 1, 2, 3 h). These colorants may cause giant cell formation primarily by interfering with the normal course of mitosis. Giant cells showing multiple aberrations viz. bridged and binucleate condition, cellular fragmentation, nuclear lesion, double and multiple nuclear lesions, double nuclear peaks and cellular breakage, elongated nucleus, nuclear budding, hyperchromasia, micronucleus, nuclear erosion, pulverized nucleus etc. were induced in root tips treated with both of the colorants. The synthetic food colorant treated cells showed inhibition of cell division and induction of giant cells. A dose dependant decrease in the mitotic index [88.20 % (c(-ve), 3h) to 81.54 % (Lx4, 3h) and 88.20 % (c(-ve), 3h) to 73.17 % (Ox4, 3h)] was observed. All mitotic phases show significant induction of giant cells when treated with both food colorants. Interphase stage shows higher percentage of giant cells, whereas in cytokinesis it was negligible. The orange red food colorant is observed to be more toxic because it recorded higher percentage of giant cell induction when compared with lemon yellow [27.93 % (Lx4, 3h) and 28.07 % (Ox4, 3h)]. PMID:25366067

  11. Preserved Visual Acuity in Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Secondary to Giant Cell (temporal) Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen A.; Murad-Kejbou, Sally J.; Foroozan, Rod; Yedavally, Sunita; Kaufman, David I.; Eggenberger, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the prevalence and clinical profile of patients with biopsy-proven arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy presenting with preserved visual acuity of 20/40 or better and those with an initial poor visual acuity of 20/50 or worse through a retrospective chart review RESULTS Nine of 37 patients with arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy presented with a preserved visual acuity of 20/40 or better in the affected eye. All patients with preserved visual acuity had initial visual field defects that spared the central field. All 37 patients immediately received high-dose corticosteroid therapy. Visual acuity worsened by > 2 lines in one of nine patients (11%) with preserved visual acuity, with a corresponding progression of visual field constriction. CONCLUSION Although preserved visual acuity of 20/40 or better has traditionally been associated with the nonarteritic form of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, giant cell arteritis should still be strongly considered, especially if they have giant cell arteritis systemic symptoms. PMID:26958148

  12. Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Annals of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Heart Attacks, Strokes, and Peripheral Artery Disease in Patients With Giant-Cell Arteritis The full report is titled “Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Early and Late ...

  13. Fluid-fluid levels in giant cell tumors of bone: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, P A; Murphey, M; Greenway, G; Resnick, D; Sartoris, D J; Harms, S

    1987-04-01

    Fluid-fluid levels have been described in association with aneurysmal bone cysts, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, and a chondroblastoma. We report two cases of giant cell tumors of bone with fluid-fluid levels identified by computed tomography and, in one case, by magnetic resonance imaging. This finding has not previously been associated with giant cell tumors. The radiographic features of the fluid-fluid levels cannot be distinguished from those reported in other osseous neoplasms. PMID:3581850

  14. Giant cell tumor of the flexor tendon of the wrist: US and MRI evaluation. Case report

    PubMed Central

    Bassetti, E.; Candreva, R.; Santucci, E.

    2011-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a benign proliferative lesion of synovial origin that may affect the joints, bursae and tendon sheaths. We report the case of a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath arising from the carpal tunnel of the wrist in a 47-year-old woman. The patient underwent ultrasound (US) examination and subsequently magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:23396659

  15. Culture of mature trophoblastic giant cells from bovine placentomes.

    PubMed

    Landim, L P; Miglino, M A; Pfarrer, C; Ambrosio, C E; Garcia, J M

    2007-04-01

    The mostly binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC) found in bovine placentomes, in addition to synthesizing and releasing hormones play an important role in fetal development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Placentomes from early gestation were collected, and for isolation of mature TGC, three cellular disaggregation methods, mechanical (MECH), enzymatic by trypsin (TRYP) or collagenase (COLL) were compared to each other. Further on, the cell survival in culture medium (DMEM) supplemented with either 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 10% serum replacement (SR) on culture plates free of any substrate was evaluated over a period of 90 days by trypan blue exclusion. The cells were further characterized by HOECHST 33342 nuclear staining, and immunocytochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against vimentin and cytokeratin. A mean total rate of TGC survival of 82.56% was recorded. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates after enzymatic disaggregation with COLL (86.23%) than following MECH (80.38%) or TRYP (80.91%) treatment. Supplementation of DMEM with FCS resulted in significantly higher cellular survival rates (87.13%) when compared to the addition of SR (77.73%). Analysis of the influence of both, disaggregation method and medium supplementation on TGC survival revealed statistically significant differences between the following groups: MECH-SR (71.09%) was significantly lower than all other groups; TRYP-SR (78.03%) was significantly different from all other groups; TRYP-FCS (83.43%) and COLL-SR (84.08%) were significantly lower than MECH-FCS (89.98%) which together with COLL-FCS (88.25%) showed the highest cellular survival rate. In summary, our results show that TGC isolated from early gestation placentomes may be viable for more than 90 days of culture. However, whether these TGC produce placental lactogen throughout this period has yet to be determined. PMID:16716544

  16. The Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Giant Cell Arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Abel, Anne S; Yashkin, Arseniy P; Sloan, Frank A; Lee, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is protective against giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to estimate the incidence of GCA diagnosis in the Medicare population. Methods Medicare 5% claims files from 1991-2011 were used to identify beneficiaries diagnosed with DM, but not GCA, within a three-year ascertainment period. Propensity score matching was used to define a control group of non-diabetics with comparable demographic covariates. Competing-risk regression was then used to assess the impact of DM diagnosis on GCA diagnosis. To allow for a three-year ascertainment period, the analysis sample was limited to beneficiaries over 68 years old at baseline. Results A total of 151,041 beneficiaries diagnosed with DM were matched to an equal number of controls. Mean study follow-up was 67.75 months. GCA was diagnosed among 1,116 beneficiaries with DM (0.73%) versus 465 (0.30%) controls. The risk of receiving a GCA diagnosis among patients with DM was increased by 100% (sub hazard ratio (SHR): 2.00; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78 2.25). The annual incidence of GCA diagnosis among U.S. Medicare beneficiaries over 68 was 93 in 100,000. Conclusion A DM diagnosis is not protective against a GCA diagnosis in the Medicare population. Our data suggests that a DM diagnosis increases the risk of GCA diagnosis within 5.7 years for Medicare beneficiaries over 68. PMID:25602744

  17. [Human papillomavirus, neonatal giant cell hepatitis and biliary duct atresia].

    PubMed

    Drut, R; Gómez, M A; Drut, R M; Cueto, R E; Lojo, M

    1998-01-01

    We previously recognized the presence of HPV-DNA in cases of idiopathic neonatal giant cell hepatitis (INGCH) and extrahepatic biliary duct atresia (EBDA) in archivated tissue using the PCR technique. In order to investigate a possible vertical transmission we looked for the presence of HPV-DNA in cervical swabs in the mothers along with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded hepatic tissue from 3 infants with INGCH and 4 patients with EBDA by nested-PCR. Cervical smears showed koilocytosis consistent with HPV infection in 2 cases. Delivery was vaginal except for one that was by cesarean section. All infants were males. Amplification of HPV-DNA was demonstrated in all cases, the types being concordant in infants and mothers. Although this is a small group, the findings appear in line with previous data. The presence of the same type of HPV-DNA in the infants' livers and their mothers' cervical swabs is another argument supporting the possibility of vertical transmission of the virus. PMID:9607071

  18. Differentiating giant cell tumor of bone from patellofemoral syndrome: a case study

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Jason; Carr, Shannon Clutton; De Carvalho, Diana; Wunder, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Balancing the assessment of musculoskeletal dysfunctions with a high level of suspicion for non-mechanical origins can be a challenge for the clinician examining a sports injury. Without timely diagnosis, non-mechanical complaints could result in surgery or loss of limb. This case describes the discovery of a Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCTB) following the re-evaluation of an athlete who had undergone five years of conservative management for patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Knee injuries account for 32.6% of sports injuries with PFPS being the most common and most likely diagnosis for anterior knee pain. GCTB is a benign aggressive bone tumor with a predilection for the juxta-articular region of the knee, comprising up to 23% of all benign bone tumors, and commonly occurs in the second to fourth decades. This case report illustrates the difficulty in accurately diagnosing healthy athletes, reviews common differentials for knee complaints and explores helpful diagnostic procedures. PMID:27069267

  19. Central Giant Cell Granuloma of the Mandible Requiring Multiple Treatment Modalities: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Jerkins, David; Malotky, Maximilian; Miremadi, Reza; Dole, Mukund

    2016-08-01

    Central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) is a relatively rare non-neoplastic, intraosseous lesion that exhibits a wide spectrum of clinical behavior, and its management can be particularly challenging even for experienced clinicians. The etiopathogenesis of this disease process remains unclear, although factors such as trauma, inflammatory foci, and a genetic predisposition have been implicated. Although multiple treatment modalities have been used with varying degrees of success, there is no accepted algorithm for therapeutic intervention and little is known about the reasons for success or failure of a given treatment. This article reviews the epidemiology, presentation, classification, and currently used therapies for CGCG while describing the clinical course and successful therapeutic outcome of a young female patient with an aggressive CGCG of the mandible. PMID:27000410

  20. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma with a syncytial-type multinucleated giant tumor cell component: implications for differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Sean R; Kum, Jennifer B; Goheen, Michael P; Cheng, Liang; Grignon, David J; Idrees, Muhammad T

    2014-04-01

    A component of syncytial-type multinucleated tumor giant cells is uncommon in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and the histogenesis, incidence, and clinical implications of this finding are not well understood. We retrieved 13 such tumors from our pathology archives in patients with a median age of 60years, comprising 1.5% of clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Stage was typically pT4 or pT3 (each 38%). Microscopically, all tumors included a component of low-grade clear cell renal cell carcinoma with usual features. Syncytial-type giant tumor cells possessed voluminous cytoplasm, usually granular and eosinophilic, and numerous nuclei similar to those of the mononuclear tumor cells. Transition between areas of mononuclear and multinucleated cells was sometimes abrupt. Other findings included necrosis (77%), hyaline globules (46%), emperipolesis (46%), and intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations (23%). Immunohistochemical staining typically revealed both mononuclear and multinucleated cells to be positive for carbonic anhydrase IX, CD10, epithelial membrane antigen, vimentin, and cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and negative for β human chorionic gonadotropin, TFE3, cathepsin K, cytokeratin 7, cytokeratin 20, HMB45, CD68, smooth muscle actin, and S100. Most patients with available information (7/9) were alive with metastatic disease at the most recent follow-up. Syncytial-type giant cells are an uncommon finding associated with aggressive clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Despite the unusual appearance of this tumor component, its immunoprofile supports an epithelial lineage and argues against trophoblastic, osteoclast-like, or histiocytic differentiation. Reactivity for typical clear cell renal cell carcinoma antigens facilitates discrimination from giant cells of epithelioid angiomyolipoma or other tumors, particularly in a biopsy specimen or a metastatic tumor. PMID:24499686

  1. Giant cell glioblastoma in the cerebrum of a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    PubMed

    Giri, D K; Aloisio, F; Alosio, F; Ajithdoss, D K; Ambrus, A; Lidbury, J A; Hein, H E; Porter, B F

    2011-05-01

    A 6-year-old, neutered female Pembroke Welsh corgi was presented with a 1-month history of ataxia and panting. The clinical signs progressed until the dog became anorexic, obtunded and exhibited circling to the left. At necropsy examination, a mass was detected in the left forebrain, impinging on the cribriform plate. Microscopically, the mass was composed of sheets of round to pleomorphic neoplastic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclear atypia, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were common. Numerous bizarre, multinucleated giant cells containing 60 or more nuclei and giant mononuclear cells were present. The matrix contained abundant reticulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the neoplastic cells uniformly to express vimentin, and a small number of neoplastic cells expressed glial fibrillary acid protein. A diagnosis of giant cell glioblastoma was made. Although well recognized in man, this tumour has been documented rarely in the veterinary literature. PMID:21146179

  2. A hidden giant: Wallenberg syndrome and aortal wall thickening as an atypical presentation of a giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Stengl, Katharina Luisa; Buchert, Ralph; Bauknecht, Hans; Sobesky, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old woman with a brainstem stroke presenting as Wallenberg syndrome. By transoesophageal echocardiography and combined 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission and CT (18F-FDG PET/CT), the diagnosis of large artery vasculitis owing to giant cell arteritis was confirmed. In the absence of classical clinical signs, the examination of the large extracranial vessels by ultrasound and 18F-FDG PET/CT played the key role in detecting a widespread vasculitis. PMID:23456154

  3. Treatment of a giant congenital melanocytic nevus in the adult: review of the current management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Su, Jeannie J; Chang, Daniel K; Mailey, Brian; Gosman, Amanda

    2015-05-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMNs) create cosmetic disfigurements and pose risk for malignant transformation. Adult GCMN cases are uncommon because most families opt for surgical treatment during childhood. We review the current literature on GCMN and present an interesting case of an adult with a GCMN encompassing the entire back with painful nodules exhibiting gross involvement of his back musculature, without pathologic evidence of malignancy. Surgical management was deferred in childhood because of parental desires to allow the patient to make his own decision, and treatment in adulthood was pursued on the basis of the significant impairment of the patient's quality of life and self-esteem due to the massive size and deforming nature of the nevus. The treatment strategy used for this young adult male patient involved a massive en bloc excision of the GCMN with partial resection of the latissimus dorsi, followed by a 5-week staged reconstructive process using dermal regenerative matrices and split-thickness skin grafting. Because of the shift in GCMN management from early surgical management to more conservative management, we may see an increase in adult cases of GCMN. Thus, it is critical to better understand the controversy surrounding early versus delayed management of GCMN. PMID:25664413

  4. [Denosumab may be a supplement to the surgical treatment of giant cell tumours of bone].

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Anna Lynge; Hansen, Rehne Lessmann; Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg

    2016-09-01

    Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive bone tumour causing bone destruction. GCTB requires surgical treatment, and severe cases have a high risk of functional morbidity. GCTB consists of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK)-positive osteoclast-like giant cells. The formation and activity of these cells are mediated by the interaction with RANK ligand (RANKL) released from neoplastic stromal cells. Denosumab is a human monoclonal antibody which inhibits RANKL and impairs the growth of the GCTB. Several studies have described the ability of denosumab to downgrade the extent of surgical treatment and improve the functional outcome. PMID:27593237

  5. Biological characteristics of a novel giant cell tumor cell line derived from spine.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Yan; Xu, Leqin; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Su; Yang, Cheng; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone(GCTB) is a special bone tumor for it consists of various cell types, and its biological characteristics is different from common benign or malignant neoplasm. In the present study, we report the biological features of a primary Asian GCTB cell line named GCTB28. We analyzed extensive properties of the GCTB28 cells including morphological observations, growth, cell cycle, karyotype, proliferation, proteins expression, surface biomarker verification, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We found that the stromal cells of GCTB were endowed with self-renewal capacity and played dominant roles in GCTB development. Moreover, we confirmed that GCTB cells can be CD33(-)CD14(-) phenotype which was not in accord with previous study. This study provides an in vitro model system to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and molecular characteristics of GCTB and also provides a useful tool for researching the therapeutic targeting of GCTB. PMID:26801673

  6. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  7. Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of parotid gland: A rare extraskeletal presentation with diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ritika; Zaheer, Sufian; Mandal, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor (OC-GCT) has been rarely described in extraskeletal sites. The diagnosis primarily hinges on the detection of giant cells. However, these giant cells are also seen in many giant cell lesions, thus creating diagnostic confusion and dilemma. Here, we describe a rare case of a 24-year-old male with primary extraskeletal, OC-GCT presenting as a swelling in the right parotid region and highlight its cytological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics with diagnostic challenges. PMID:27601838

  8. Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of parotid gland: A rare extraskeletal presentation with diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ritika; Zaheer, Sufian; Mandal, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    Primary osteoclast-like giant cell tumor (OC-GCT) has been rarely described in extraskeletal sites. The diagnosis primarily hinges on the detection of giant cells. However, these giant cells are also seen in many giant cell lesions, thus creating diagnostic confusion and dilemma. Here, we describe a rare case of a 24-year-old male with primary extraskeletal, OC-GCT presenting as a swelling in the right parotid region and highlight its cytological, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics with diagnostic challenges. PMID:27601838

  9. Biophysical characterisation of electrofused giant HEK293-cells as a novel electrophysiological expression system

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmermann, D.; Terpitz, U.; Zhou, A.; Reuss, R.; Mueller, K.; Sukhorukov, V.L.; Gessner, P.; Nagel, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Bamberg, E. . E-mail: ernst.bamberg@mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de

    2006-09-22

    Giant HEK293 cells of 30-65 {mu}m in diameter were produced by three-dimensional multi-cell electrofusion in 75 mOsm sorbitol media. These strong hypotonic conditions facilitated fusion because of the spherical shape and smooth membrane surface of the swollen cells. A regulatory volume decrease (RVD), as observed at higher osmolalities, did not occur at 75 mOsm. In contrast to field-treated, but unfused cells, the increase in volume induced by hypotonic shock was only partly reversible in the case of fused giant cells after their transfer into isotonic medium. The large size of the electrofused cells allowed the study of their electrophysiological properties by application of both whole-cell and giant excised patch-clamp techniques. Recordings on giant cells yielded a value of 1.1 {+-} 0.1 {mu}F/cm{sup 2} for the area-specific membrane capacitance. This value was consistent with that of the parental cells. The area-specific conductivity of giant cells (diameter > 50 {mu}m) was found to be between 12.8 and 16.1 {mu}S/cm{sup 2}, which is in the range of that of the parental cells. Measurements with patch-pipettes containing fluorescein showed uniform dye uptake in the whole-cell configuration, but not in the cell-attached configuration. The diffusion-controlled uniform uptake of the dye into the cell interior excludes internal compartmentalisation. The finding of a homogeneous fusion was also supported by expression of the yellow fluorescent protein YFP (as part of the fusion-protein ChR2-YFP) in giant cells since no plasma-membrane bound YFP-mediated fluorescence was detected in the interior of the electrofused cells. Functional expression and the electrophysiological characterisation of the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2) yielded similar results as for parental cells. Most importantly, the giant cells exhibited a comparable expression density of the channel protein in the plasma membrane as observed in parental cells. This demonstrates that

  10. Giant submental lipoma: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Carlos R; Schneider, S; Mitra, A; Spears, J; Mitra, A

    2007-01-01

    Lipomas may be located in all parts of the body and may be confused clinically with other soft tissue masses. They infrequently occur in the head and neck. A large neck mass (greater than 10 cm) with a rapid growth rate should raise concerns about a possible malignancy. Failure to distinguish a liposarcoma from a lipoma may represent a medicolegal pitfall. Surgical excision of a lipoma is often used as the definitive treatment modality, and alternative treatments described for lipomas range from liposuction to steroid injections. In the present study, a 60-year-old man who presented with a rapidly enlarging submental mass is described. A 15 cm × 12 cm mass was successfully removed. The surgery produced excellent cosmetic results and no functional impairment. An integrated review of the literature regarding etiology, epidemiology, diagnostic and treatment modalities of submental lipomas follows. PMID:19554181

  11. Giant malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast: A rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    LIU, MIN; YANG, SHUO; LIU, BIN; GUO, LIANG; BAO, XUEYING; LIU, BAILONG; DONG, LIHUA

    2016-01-01

    Malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast (MPTB) is rarely encountered in clinical practice. Preoperative diagnosis is challenging due to nonspecific radiological and histological features, and the prognostic factors and optimal treatment remain controversial. The current report describes the case of a middle-aged female with giant MPTB who underwent multidisciplinary intervention, including surgery, postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. To date, the disease-free survival (DFS) of the patient has reached 18 months. Furthermore, a related literature review summarize the clinicopathological characteristics and treatment progress regarding MPTB is presented, along with an analysis of the indications for therapeutic strategy in the current case. In the future, multi-center clinical trials must be initiated to identify the criteria for diagnosis and optimal treatment consensus for MPTB. In conclusion, the present case highlights that multidisciplinary management may contribute to DFS following the treatment of giant MPTB. PMID:27347111

  12. Pyogenic Granuloma/Peripheral Giant-Cell Granuloma Associated with Implants.

    PubMed

    Jané-Salas, Enric; Albuquerque, Rui; Font-Muñoz, Aura; González-Navarro, Beatríz; Estrugo Devesa, Albert; López-López, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pyogenic granuloma (PG) and peripheral giant-cell granuloma (PGCG) are two of the most common inflammatory lesions associated with implants; however, there is no established pathway for treatment of these conditions. This paper aims to illustrate the successful treatment of PG and PGCG and also report a systematic review of the literature regarding the various treatments proposed. Methods. To collect relevant information about previous treatments for PG and PGCG involving implants we carried out electronic searches of publications with the key words "granuloma", "oral", and "implants" from the last 15 years on the databases Pubmed, National Library of Medicine's Medline, Scielo, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Results. From the electronic search 16 case reports were found showing excision and curettage as the main successful treatment. As no clinical trials or observational studies were identified the authors agreed to present results from a review perspective. Conclusion. This is the largest analysis of PG and PGCG associated with implants published to date. Our review would suggest that PGCG associated with implants appears to have a more aggressive nature; however the level of evidence is very limited. Further cohort studies with representative sample sizes and standard outcome measures are necessary for better understanding of these conditions. PMID:26697068

  13. Pyogenic Granuloma/Peripheral Giant-Cell Granuloma Associated with Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jané-Salas, Enric; Albuquerque, Rui; Font-Muñoz, Aura; González-Navarro, Beatríz; Estrugo Devesa, Albert; López-López, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Pyogenic granuloma (PG) and peripheral giant-cell granuloma (PGCG) are two of the most common inflammatory lesions associated with implants; however, there is no established pathway for treatment of these conditions. This paper aims to illustrate the successful treatment of PG and PGCG and also report a systematic review of the literature regarding the various treatments proposed. Methods. To collect relevant information about previous treatments for PG and PGCG involving implants we carried out electronic searches of publications with the key words “granuloma”, “oral”, and “implants” from the last 15 years on the databases Pubmed, National Library of Medicine's Medline, Scielo, Scopus, and Cochrane Library. Results. From the electronic search 16 case reports were found showing excision and curettage as the main successful treatment. As no clinical trials or observational studies were identified the authors agreed to present results from a review perspective. Conclusion. This is the largest analysis of PG and PGCG associated with implants published to date. Our review would suggest that PGCG associated with implants appears to have a more aggressive nature; however the level of evidence is very limited. Further cohort studies with representative sample sizes and standard outcome measures are necessary for better understanding of these conditions. PMID:26697068

  14. Treatment with Doxycycline of Generalized Annular Elastolytic Giant Cell Granuloma Associated with Borrelia burgdorferi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tas, B; Caglar, A; Ozdemir, B

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This is a case of generalized annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) associated with borrelia infection and genes of p-30, p-31, p-39. A possible cross-mediated reaction from the T-cell type which might have induced the AEGCG is discussed from the concept of “heat-shock proteins (HSPs) and molecular mimicry”. PMID:26624605

  15. Everolimus Treatment for an Early Infantile Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Takayama, Rumiko; Minagawa, Kimio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are benign tumors often observed with tuberous sclerosis complex. These tumors are rarely diagnosed during fetal life or early infancy. Until recently, the only available treatment has been surgical resection. Current clinical research has demonstrated that everolimus can induce these tumors' regression. We report a 19-month-old boy with tuberous sclerosis complex. At 2 months of age, he presented with congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytoma that was complicated by refractory epilepsy and severe mental retardation. Treatment with everolimus was started when he was 10 months old. Three months after initiating everolimus, the tumor was significantly reduced in size, and the reduction was subsequently maintained. His seizures decreased and he showed cognitive and developmental improvement. No severe adverse events have been observed to date. Everolimus has promise as an effective alternative to surgery for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas during early infancy. PMID:25143481

  16. The suitability of the ultrasound biomicroscope for establishing texture in giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Roters, S.; Szurman, P.; Engels, B.; Brunner, R.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To establish whether ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) is a helpful tool in locating the arterial segment responsible in patients with segmental attacks in giant cell arteritis
METHODS—The superficial temporal arteries of 19 patients with suspected giant cell arteritis were examined with the UBM before biopsy.
RESULTS—20 specimens provided the histological proof of giant cell arteritis in five patients. Side differences, a dark perivascular halo, and high reflexivity of the intra-arterial space were found.
CONCLUSION—it is assumed that there are two types of arteritic inflammation: (1) the occlusion of intra-arterial space due to intimal fibrosis (UBM: high reflexive "filling"), and (2) inflammation of the perivascular zone with oedematous thickening and infiltration of the media (UBM: dark halo) and its combination. UBM is helpful in obtaining an indication of the side and segment for biopsy.

 PMID:11466252

  17. Giant-cell tumor of bone: treatment options and role of denosumab

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun S; Chawla, Neal S; Chawla, Sant P

    2015-01-01

    Giant-cell tumor of bone is a rare, locally aggressive tumor that typically occurs in the bones of skeletally mature young adults in their second to fourth decades. Traditionally, surgery has been the mainstay of therapy for this disease, but the disease can recur even with optimal procedures. Furthermore, it may occur in locations where a surgical approach would be morbid. The maturation of the understanding of the role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in the pathophysiology of giant-cell tumor of bone has led to the use of denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against RANKL, in this disease. In 2013, the US Food and Drug Administration approved denosumab for use in patients with recurrent/unresectable/metastatic giant-cell tumor of bone or for patients in whom surgery would be morbid. PMID:26203221

  18. Coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multilineage stroma via polyploid giant cells during immortalization and transformation of mullerian epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shiwu; Mercado-Uribe, Imelda; Sood, Anil; Bast, Robert C.; Liu, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells are generally considered to be derived primarily from the host's normal mesenchymal stromal cells or bone marrow. However, the origins of stromal cells have been quite controversial. To determine the role of polyploidy in tumor development, we examined the fate of normal mullerian epithelial cells during the immortalization and transformation process by tracing the expression of SV40 large T antigen. Here we show that immortalized or HRAS-transformed mullerian epithelial cells contain a subpopulation of polyploid giant cells that grow as multicellular spheroids expressing hematopoietic markers in response to treatment with CoCl2. The immortalized or transformed epithelial cells can transdifferentiate into stromal cells when transplanted into nude mice. Immunofluorescent staining revealed expression of stem cell factors OCT4, Nanog, and SOX-2 in spheroid, whereas expression of embryonic stem cell marker SSEA1 was increased in HRAS-transformed cells compared with their immortalized isogenic counterparts. These results suggest that normal mullerian epithelial cells are intrinsically highly plastic, via the formation of polyploid giant cells and activation of embryonic stem-like program, which work together to promote the coevolution of neoplastic epithelial cells and multiple lineage stromal cells. PMID:27382431

  19. Giant Myelolipoma in the Spleen: A Rare Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ying; Ma, Qiang; Lin, Li; Fu, Ping; Shen, Yan; Luo, Qing-Ya; Zhao, Lian-Hua; Mou, Jiang-Hong; Xiao, Hua-Liang

    2016-04-01

    Myelolipomas are benign tumors, consisting of hematopoietic cells and mature adipose tissue, which mainly occur within the adrenal gland. Extra-adrenal myelolipomas are rare, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report a case of intrasplenic myelolipoma in a 42-year-old man with more than 1 month of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scanning revealed a giant, heterogeneous, well-demarcated mass in the spleen. Splenectomy was performed, and an intrasplenic giant mass was completely excised. The diagnosis of myelolipoma was made based on morphological examination. To the best of our knowledge, this is the third reported case of myelolipoma in the human spleen. PMID:26590175

  20. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia of the Mediastinum (Castleman's Disease): Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Muhammad A.K.; Ferrante, John W.; Gielchinsky, Isaac; Norman, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Giant lymph node hyperplasia is a rare, benign disease involving lymph nodes in various locations, predominantly in the mediastinum. There are two variants: plasma cell (earlier and/or acute) and hyaline-vascular, more chronic with an intermediate transitional type. The usual presentation is a solitary well-circumscribed asymptomatic mass lesion, often attaining large size, with infrequent associated hematologic manifestations. A case of giant lymph node hyperplasia involving the paravertebral superior mediastinum is reported. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice in a 65-year-old man, and at thoractomy, an encapsulated mass was excised from the posterior superior mediastinum. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day. Three years later, he is well and employed as a carpenter. Images PMID:15226878

  1. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A Neoplasm or a Reactive Condition?

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Anwar Ul; Moatasim, Ambreen

    2008-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign but locally aggressive bone tumor of young adults. It typically presents as a large lytic mass at the end of the epiphysis of long bones. Grossly it is comprised of cystic and hemorrhagic areas with little or no periosteal reaction. Microscopically areas of frank hemorrhage, numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindly stromal cells are present. Telomeric fusions, increased telomerase activity and karyotypic aberrations have been advanced as a proof of its neoplastic nature. However such findings are not universal and can be seen in rapidly proliferating normal cells as well as in several osseous lesions of developmental and/or reactive nature, and the true neoplastic nature of GCTB remains controversial. The ancillary studies have generally not reached to the point where these alone can be taken as sole diagnostic and discriminatory criteria. While giant cells and stromal cells have been extensively studied, little attention has been paid to the overwhelming hemorrhagic component. If examined carefully intact and partially degenerated red blood cells are almost invariably seen in many giant cells as well as in the stroma. While hemorrhage in many patients may be resolved without leaving any trace over time, in some it gives rise to giant cell formation, and in others it may lead to proliferation of fibroblasts and histiocytes. At times one sees xanthomatous cells due to intracytoplasmic cholesterol deposits and sharp cholesterol clefts. Individual genetic makeup, local tissue factors as well as the amount of hemorrhage may play a key role in the final effects and outcome. Malignancy usually does not occur in GCTB and when discover, it usually represents primary bone sarcomas missed at original diagnosis. Embolization therapy to curtail hemorrhage and insertion of cement substance to support matrix are helpful in reducing recurrences. Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) shares many features with GCTB. There had been unique

  2. Bortezomib Inhibits Giant Cell Tumor of Bone through Induction of Cell Apoptosis and Inhibition of Osteoclast Recruitment, Giant Cell Formation, and Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Xu, Leqin; Luo, Jian; Jin, Rongrong; Yue, Zhiying; Sun, Peng; Yang, Zhengfeng; Yang, Xinghai; Wan, Wei; Zhang, Jishen; Li, Shichang; Liu, Mingyao; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-05-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a rare and highly osteolytic bone tumor that usually leads to an extensive bone lesion. The purpose of this study was to discover novel therapeutic targets and identify potential agents for treating GCTB. After screening the serum cytokine profiles in 52 GCTB patients and 10 normal individuals using the ELISA assay, we found that NF-κB signaling-related cytokines, including TNFα, MCP-1, IL1α, and IL17A, were significantly increased in GCTB patients. The results were confirmed by IHC that the expression and activity of p65 were significantly increased in GCTB patients. Moreover, all of the NF-κB inhibitors tested suppressed GCTB cell growth, and bortezomib (Velcade), a well-known proteasome inhibitor, was the most potent inhibitor in blocking GCTB cells growth. Our results showed that bortezomib not only induced GCTB neoplastic stromal cell (NSC) apoptosis, but also suppressed GCTB NSC-induced giant cell differentiation, formation, and resorption. Moreover, bortezomib specifically suppressed GCTB NSC-induced preosteoclast recruitment. Furthermore, bortezomib ameliorated GCTB cell-induced bone destruction in vivo As a result, bortezomib suppressed NF-κB-regulated gene expression in GCTB NSC apoptosis, monocyte migration, angiogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis. Particularly, the inhibitory effects of bortezomib were much better than zoledronic acid, a drug currently used in treating GCTB, in our in vitro experimental paradigms. Together, our results demonstrated that NF-κB signaling pathway is highly activated in GCTB, and bortezomib could suppress GCTB and osteolysis in vivo and in vitro, indicating that bortezomib is a potential agent in the treatment of GCTB. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(5); 854-65. ©2016 AACR. PMID:26861247

  3. Extra-Articular Diffuse Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Savvidou, Olga D.; Mavrogenis, Andreas F.; Sakellariou, Vasilios I.; Chloros, George D.; Sarlikiotis, Thomas; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J.

    2016-01-01

    Two rare cases of extra-articular diffuse variant giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath are presented, at the elbow of a 68-year-old female and the foot of a 56-year-old male. Both patients presented with a palpable masses and marginal excision was performed; histological sections confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular giant cell tumor. No adjuvant therapy was administered. At the latest follow-up, minimum 24 months after excision both patients were disease-free. PMID:27517076

  4. Giant Cell Fibroma in a Paediatric Patient: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Veera Kishore Kumar; Kumar, Naveen; Battepati, Prashant; Samyuktha, Lalitha; Nanga, Swapna Priya

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell fibroma is a form of fibrous tumour affecting the oral mucosa. Its occurrence is relatively rare in paediatric patients. Clinically it is presented as a painless, sessile, or pedunculated growth which is usually confused with other fibrous lesions like irritation fibromas. Here we are presenting a case where a seven-year-old male patient reported with a painless nodular growth in relation to lingual surface of 41 and 42. Considering the size and location of the lesion, excisional biopsy was performed and sent for histopathological analysis which confirmed the lesion as giant cell fibroma. PMID:26693359

  5. OCULOECTODERMAL SYNDROME: A NEW CASE WITH GIANT CELL GRANULOMAS AND NON-OSSIFYING FIBROMAS.

    PubMed

    Mermer, S; Kayhan, G; Karacelebi, E; Percin, F E

    2016-01-01

    Oculoectodermal syndrome (OES) is a very rare disorder with an unknown etiology and characterized by aplasia cutis congenita, epibulbar dermoid and hyperpigmentation areas on the skin. To the best of our knowledge, two cases of OES have been reported to date with recurrent giant cell granuloma in the jaw and one of them also had a non-ossified fibroma in the long bones. Herein, we report the second case with aplasia cutis congenita, epibulbar dermoid, hyperpigmentation along Blaschko lines and also giant cell granuloma in the jaw and non-ossified fibromas in the bones. PMID:27192894

  6. Extra-Articular Diffuse Giant Cell Tumor of the Tendon Sheath: A Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Savvidou, Olga D; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Sakellariou, Vasilios I; Chloros, George D; Sarlikiotis, Thomas; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2016-06-01

    Two rare cases of extra-articular diffuse variant giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath are presented, at the elbow of a 68-year-old female and the foot of a 56-year-old male. Both patients presented with a palpable masses and marginal excision was performed; histological sections confirmed the diagnosis of extra-articular giant cell tumor. No adjuvant therapy was administered. At the latest follow-up, minimum 24 months after excision both patients were disease-free. PMID:27517076

  7. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma: a systematic review with diagnostic and treatment recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Pulcrano, Marisa; Feldman, Elizabeth D.; Patel, Ketan M.; Nahabedian, Maurice Y.; Weissler, Jason M.; Rodriguez, Eduardo D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lack of clear guidelines regarding evaluation and management of giant juvenile fibroadenomas. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of giant juvenile fibroadenomas and to evaluate the most common diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed and MEDLINE databases was conducted in February 2014 to identify articles related to giant juvenile fibroadenomas. Pooled outcomes are reported. Results Fifty-two articles (153 patients) met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 16.7 years old, with a mean lesion size of 11.2 cm. Most patients (86%) presented with a single breast mass. Imaging modalities included ultrasound in 72.5% and mammography in 26.1% of cases. Tissue diagnosis was obtained using a core needle biopsy in 18.3% of cases, fine-needle aspiration (FNA) in 25.5%, and excisional biopsy in 11.1% of patients. Surgical treatment was implemented in 98.7% of patients (mean time to treatment of 9.5 months, range, 3 days to 7 years). Surgical intervention included excision in all cases, of which four were mastectomies. Breast reconstruction was completed in 17.6% of cases. There were no postoperative complications. Conclusions Diagnosis and treatment of giant juvenile fibroadenoma is heterogeneous. There is a paucity of data to support observation and non-operative treatment. The most common diagnostic modalities include core needle or excisional biopsy. The mainstay of treatment is complete excision with an emphasis on preserving the developing breast parenchyma and nipple areolar complex. Breast reconstruction is uncommon, but may be necessary in certain cases. PMID:26312217

  8. Characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow of giant panda.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuliang; Liu, Yang; Yie, Shangmian; Lan, Jingchao; Pi, Jinkui; Zhang, Zhihe; Huang, He; Cai, Zhigang; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Kailai; Wang, Hairui; Hou, Rong

    2013-09-01

    In present study, we report on bone marrow (BM) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are isolated from giant pandas. Cells were collected from the BM of two stillborn giant pandas. The cells were cultured and expanded in 10% fetal bovine serum medium. Cell morphology was observed under an inverted microscopy, and the proliferation potential of the cells was evaluated by counting cell numbers for eight consecutive days. Differentiation potentials of the cells were determined by using a variety of differentiation protocols for osteocytes, adipocytes, neuron cells, and cardiomyocytes. Meanwhile, the specific gene expressions for MSCs or differentiated cells were analyzed by RT-PCR. The isolated cells exhibited a fibroblast-like morphology; expressed mesenchymal specific markers such as cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), guanine nucleotide-binding protein-like 3 (GNL3), and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR); and could be differentiated into osteocytes and adipocytes that were characterized by Alizarin Red and Oil Red O staining. Under appropriate induction conditions, these cells were also able to differentiate into neuroglial-like or myocardial-like cells that expressed specific myocardial markers such as GATA transcription factors 4 (GATA-4), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and myosin heavy chain 7B (MYH7B), or neural specific markers such as Nestin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). This study demonstrated stem cells recovery and growth from giant pandas. The findings suggest that cells isolated from the BM of giant pandas have a high proliferative capacity and multiple differentiation potential in vitro which might aid conservation efforts. PMID:23557186

  9. Heterogeneous Vesicles in Mucous Epithelial Cells of Posterior Esophagus of Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias Davidianus)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H.; Zhong, S.; Ge, T.; Peng, S.; Yu, P.; Zhou, Z.; Guo, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Chinese giant salamander belongs to an old lineage of salamanders and endangered species. Many studies of breeding and disease regarding this amphibian had been implemented. However, the studies on the ultrastructure of this amphibian are rare. In this work, we provide a histological and ultra-structural investigation on posterior esophagus of Chinese giant salamander. The sections of amphibian esophagus were stained by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Moreover, the esophageal epithelium was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that esophageal epithelium was a single layer epithelium, which consisted of mucous cells and columnar cells. The esophageal glands were present in submucosa. The columnar cells were ciliated. According to the diverging ultrastructure of mucous vesicles, three types of mucous cells could be identified in the esophageal mucosa: i) electron-lucent vesicles mucous cell (ELV-MC); ii) electron-dense vesicles mucous cell (EDV-MC); and iii) mixed vesicles mucous cell (MV-MC). PMID:26428885

  10. Phosphoinositides: Tiny Lipids With Giant Impact on Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoinositides (PIs) make up only a small fraction of cellular phospholipids, yet they control almost all aspects of a cell's life and death. These lipids gained tremendous research interest as plasma membrane signaling molecules when discovered in the 1970s and 1980s. Research in the last 15 years has added a wide range of biological processes regulated by PIs, turning these lipids into one of the most universal signaling entities in eukaryotic cells. PIs control organelle biology by regulating vesicular trafficking, but they also modulate lipid distribution and metabolism via their close relationship with lipid transfer proteins. PIs regulate ion channels, pumps, and transporters and control both endocytic and exocytic processes. The nuclear phosphoinositides have grown from being an epiphenomenon to a research area of its own. As expected from such pleiotropic regulators, derangements of phosphoinositide metabolism are responsible for a number of human diseases ranging from rare genetic disorders to the most common ones such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Moreover, it is increasingly evident that a number of infectious agents hijack the PI regulatory systems of host cells for their intracellular movements, replication, and assembly. As a result, PI converting enzymes began to be noticed by pharmaceutical companies as potential therapeutic targets. This review is an attempt to give an overview of this enormous research field focusing on major developments in diverse areas of basic science linked to cellular physiology and disease. PMID:23899561

  11. Giant aneurysmal bone cyst of the mandible: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Gaurav; Singh, Neeraj; Gupta, Amit; Sajjan, Anand K.

    2013-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts are rare benign lesions of bone tissue. They are composed of vascular spaces blood-filled and surrounded by fibrous tissue septa. They are considered as pseudo cysts because of lack of epithelial lining. Here, we describe a giant case of ABC in 12-year-old female child having a massive swelling over the right side of the mandible treated with segmental resection and reconstruction with a reconstruction plate. Case is also discussed with the review of literature. PMID:24163565

  12. Giant appendiceal mucocele: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ghumman, S; Muguti, G I

    2006-01-01

    Appendiceal mucocele is a rare condition characterised by cystic dilatation of the lumen of the appendix. Whenever possible it is essential to identify the disease pre-operatively by full clinical assessment and thorough investigations including abdominal CT scan and colonoscopy or barium enema. Accurate diagnosis helps to plan for a careful resection to remove the mass without spillage of the cyst contents, which can lead to the most dreaded complication of pseudomyxoma peritonei. In this paper we report on a rare case of giant mucocele of the appendix and review the relevant literature. PMID:18254458

  13. Giant bronchogenic cyst with pericardial defect: a case report & literature review in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, Toshiko; Iwata, Takekazu; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Congenital pericardial defects are a rare anomaly, found during autopsy and cardiothoracic surgery. We describe a case of a 69-year-old female, with a right-sided congenital pericardial defect associated with a giant bronchogenic cyst (BC) found during surgery. The cyst was resected and the patient developed arrhythmia following surgery. A review of the literature in Japan was performed, focusing on congenital anomalies associated with pericardial defects and its pathogenesis. We paid particular attention to complications following thoracic surgery in patients with pericardial defects and indications of pericardial reconstruction in such patients. PMID:27621900

  14. Giant saccular distal azygos artery aneurysm: Report of a case and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Baldawa, Sachin; Katikar, Dattaprasanna; Marda, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    An azygos anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare variant of normal embryogenesis in which confluence of two A1 segments results in a single A2 segment with the absence of anterior communicating artery. The occurrence of an aneurysm at the bifurcation of azygos ACA is rare with few cases reported in the literature. We report a case of a 40-year-old lady who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage following rupture of a giant, saccular distal azygos ACA aneurysm. Bifrontal craniotomy and clipping of an aneurysm was performed. The clinical significance of azygos ACA and surgical strategies in clipping these aneurysms are discussed with a review of literature. PMID:27057234

  15. Giant cell tumor of the pancreas arising in the ovarian-like stroma of a mucinous cystadenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bergman, S; Medeiros, L J; Radr, T; Mangham, D C; Lewandrowski, K B

    1995-08-01

    We describe a malignant mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas with ovarian-like stroma within which an osteoclast-like giant cell rich tumor arose. This rare tumor had a unique immunohistochemical profile with the giant cells staining for vimentin, leukocyte common antigen, and the monocyte/macrophage marker CD68, whereas the mucinous epithelium stained for epithelial membrane antigen and cytokeratin. The immunohistochemical findings are consistent with two lines of differentiation, one epithelial and the other suggesting mesenchymal differentiation of the giant cell tumor with an immunophenotype similar to giant cell tumor of bone. The coexistence of these two rare tumors suggests that they are histogenetically related. The findings of a giant cell tumor arising in the ovarian stroma indicates that the stroma of mucinous tumors is not always an innocuous component of the tumor. PMID:7594774

  16. Multiciliated cells: a review

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Eric R.; Wallingford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule based cellular projections that serve a wide variety of essential functions in animal cells. Defects in cilia structure or function have recently emerged as etiological mechanisms underpinning diverse human diseases. While many eukaryotic cells possess only one or two cilia, some cells, including those of many unicellular organisms, exhibit extensive multiciliation. In vertebrates, multiciliated cells (MCCs) are a specialized population of post-mitotic cells decorated with dozens of motile cilia that beat in a polarized and synchronized fashion to drive directed fluid flow across an epithelium. Dysfunction of human MCCs is associated with diseases of the brain, airway and reproductive tracts. Despite their importance, MCCs are relatively poorly studied and we are only beginning to understand the mechanisms underlying their development and function. Here, we briefly review the general phylogeny and physiology of multiciliation and detail our current understanding of the developmental and cellular events underlying the formation, maturation, and function of MCCs in vertebrates. PMID:25291643

  17. Giant colonic diverticulum: Clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment: Systematic review of 166 cases

    PubMed Central

    Nigri, Giuseppe; Petrucciani, Niccolò; Giannini, Giulia; Aurello, Paolo; Magistri, Paolo; Gasparrini, Marcello; Ramacciato, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of giant colonic diverticulum (GCD, by means of a complete and updated literature review). GCD is a rare manifestation of diverticular disease of the colon. Less than 200 studies on GCD were published in the literature, predominantly case reports or small patient series. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using the Embase and PubMed databases to identify all the GCD studies. The following MESH search headings were used: “giant colonic diverticulum”; “giant sigmoid diverticulum”. The “related articles” function was used to broaden the search, and all of the abstracts, studies, and citations were reviewed by two authors. The following outcomes were of interest: the disease and patient characteristics, study design, indications for surgery, type of operation, and post-operative outcomes. Additionally, a subgroup analysis of cases treated in the last 5 years was performed to show the current trends in the treatment of GCD. A GCD case in an elderly patient treated in our department by a sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis and a diverting ileostomy is presented as a typical example of the disease. RESULTS: In total, 166 GCD cases in 138 studies were identified in the literature. The most common clinical presentation was abdominal pain, which occurred in 69% of the cases. Among the physical signs, an abdominal mass was detected in 48% of the cases, whereas 20% of the patients presented with fever and 14% with abdominal tenderness. Diagnosis is based predominantly on abdominal computed tomography. The most frequent treatment was colic resection with en-bloc resection of the diverticulum, performed in 57.2% of cases, whereas Hartmann’s procedure was followed in 11.4% of the cases and a diverticulectomy in 10.2%. An analysis of sixteen cases reported in the last 5 years showed that the majority of patients were treated with sigmoidectomy and en-bloc resection of

  18. Giant cell granuloma of the temporal bone in a mixed martial arts fighter.

    PubMed

    Maerki, Jennifer; Riddle, Nicole D; Newman, Jason; Husson, Michael A; Lee, John Y K

    2012-10-01

    Background and Importance Giant cell granuloma (GCG) is a rare, benign, non-neoplastic lesion of the head and neck. More common in the jaw bones, there have been few reports of the lesion arising in the temporal bone. Initially referred to as a "giant cell reparative granuloma," due to the previously accepted notion of its nature in attempting to repair areas of injury, the term "giant cell granuloma" is now more frequently used as this lesion has been found in patients without a history of trauma. In addition, several cases with a destructive nature, in contrast to a reparative one, have been observed. Clinical Presentation We report a case of GCG presenting as a head and neck tumor with dural attachments and extension into the middle cranial fossa in a mixed martial arts fighter. Conclusion Giant cell granulomas are typically treated surgically and have a good prognosis; however, care must be taken when they present in unusual locations. This case supports the theory of trauma and inflammation as risk factors for GCG. PMID:23946929

  19. [Giant cell tumor of the C2 colonized by an aneurismal bone cyst. Report of case].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Boujan, F; Beaujeux, R; Boyer, P; Froelich, S

    2012-12-01

    Giant cell tumor is colonized by aneurismal bone cyst in only 15% of cases and cervical localisation accounts for less than 1% of giant cell tumors. We are reporting a rare case of a C2 hypervascularized giant cell tumor colonized by an aneurismal bone cyst treated with an effective preoperative Onyx embolization followed by a full tumor resection. The patient experienced a moderate cervical spine injury 2 months prior admission followed by a progressive stiff neck and cervicalgia. CT and MRI identified a lytic lesion of the body and lateral masses of the C2 with encasement of both vertebral arteries. The angiography showed a hypervascularization of the lesion from the vertebral and external carotid arteries as well as a thrombosis of the V3 segment of the right vertebral artery at the C1 level. A posterior occipito-C3/C4 fixation and a tumor biopsy were performed. Histopathological examination concluded to a giant cell tumor colonized by an aneurismal bone cyst. Three weeks later, the patient developed a right upper extremity deficit. The MRI showed an increased C1-C2 stenosis and an increase of the hypervascularization. Three sessions of embolization by the onyx were performed. During surgery a near total tumor devascularisation was observed and a complete resection of the tumor was achieved through an anterolateral approach. Reconstruction consisted of a cementoplasty of the C2 body and odontoïd process with an anterior C3-prosthesis plate. The postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:22695034

  20. Involvement and prognosis value of CD8(+) T cells in giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Maxime; Ly, Kim Heang; Tournier, Benjamin; Janikashvili, Nona; Trad, Malika; Ciudad, Marion; Gautheron, Alexandrine; Devilliers, Hervé; Quipourt, Valérie; Maurier, François; Meaux-Ruault, Nadine; Magy-Bertrand, Nadine; Manckoundia, Patrick; Ornetti, Paul; Maillefert, Jean-Francis; Besancenot, Jean-François; Ferrand, Christophe; Mesturoux, Laura; Labrousse, François; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Saas, Philippe; Martin, Laurent; Audia, Sylvain; Bonnotte, Bernard

    2016-08-01

    CD8(+) T cells participate in the pathogenesis of some vasculitides. However, little is known about their role in Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA). This study was conducted to investigate CD8(+) T cell involvement in the pathogenesis of GCA. Analyses were performed at diagnosis and after 3 months of glucocorticoid treatment in 34 GCA patients and 26 age-matched healthy volunteers. Percentages of CD8(+) T-cell subsets, spectratype analysis of the TCR Vβ families of CD8(+) T cells, levels of cytokines and chemokines and immunohistochemistry of temporal artery biopsies (TAB) were assessed. Among total CD8(+) T cells, percentages of circulating cytotoxic CD8 T lymphocytes (CTL, CD3(+)CD8(+)perforin(+)granzymeB(+)), Tc17 (CD3(+)CD8(+)IL-17(+)), CD63(+)CD8(+) T cells and levels of soluble granzymes A and B were higher in patients than in controls, whereas the percentage of Tc1 cells (CD3(+)CD8(+)IFN-γ(+)) was similar. Moreover, CD8(+) T cells displayed a restricted TCR repertoire in GCA patients. Percentages of circulating CTL, Tc17 and soluble levels of granzymes A and B decreased after treatment. CXCR3 expression on CD8(+) T cells and its serum ligands (CXCL9, -10, -11) were higher in patients. Analyses of TAB revealed high expression of CXCL9 and -10 associated with infiltration by CXCR3(+)CD8(+) T cells expressing granzyme B and TiA1. The intensity of the CD8 T-cell infiltrate in TAB was predictive of the severity of the disease. This study demonstrates the implication and the prognostic value of CD8(+) T-cells in GCA and suggests that CD8(+) T-cells are recruited within the vascular wall through an interaction between CXCR3 and its ligands. PMID:27236507

  1. Giant Onychomatricoma of the Great Toenail: Case Report and Review Focusing on Less Common Variants

    PubMed Central

    Prevezas, Christos; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Belyayeva, Helena; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Konstantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare benign fibroepithelial filamentous tumor originating from the nail matrix. It typically presents with the clinical tetrad of xanthonychia, pachyonychia, proximal splinter hemorrhages and increased transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. The giant variant can easily confuse the clinician due to its extensive nail dystrophy that can mask the characteristic features of this tumor. Benign (fibrokeratoma, ungual fibroma, onycholytic matricoma) and malignant entities (Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, onycholytic carcinoma) are mimics of the disease. Nail surgery can facilitate the diagnosis, which should always be confirmed by histology, as rare variants do exist. PMID:27386467

  2. Giant Onychomatricoma of the Great Toenail: Case Report and Review Focusing on Less Common Variants.

    PubMed

    Prevezas, Christos; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Belyayeva, Helena; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Konstantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare benign fibroepithelial filamentous tumor originating from the nail matrix. It typically presents with the clinical tetrad of xanthonychia, pachyonychia, proximal splinter hemorrhages and increased transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. The giant variant can easily confuse the clinician due to its extensive nail dystrophy that can mask the characteristic features of this tumor. Benign (fibrokeratoma, ungual fibroma, onycholytic matricoma) and malignant entities (Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, onycholytic carcinoma) are mimics of the disease. Nail surgery can facilitate the diagnosis, which should always be confirmed by histology, as rare variants do exist. PMID:27386467

  3. A serially transplantable human giant cell glioblastoma that maintains a near-haploid stem line.

    PubMed

    Bigner, S H; Mark, J; Schold, S C; Eng, L F; Bigner, D D

    1985-10-01

    We have karyotyped a human giant cell glioblastoma removed from an 11-year-old girl and have established from it a subcutaneously transplantable line in athymic nude mice. The original tumor contained near-haploid cells with 25 or 26 chromosomes, including two copies of #1, (7 or 7p+) and #18. There were also hyperdiploid (49-52) cells that were tetraploid for these same three chromosome types; doubled versions of the hyperdiploid population were also seen. The stemline of the mouse-grown tumor was 26,X, +1, +7p+, +18 in the first passage and has remained consistently near-haploid through ten serial in vivo passages. Growth stabilization has occurred with an average latency of less than 3 months. This transplantable line is available for evaluating chemotherapeutic responsiveness of human giant cell glioblastoma and for studying near-haploidy in solid human tumors. PMID:3840409

  4. Treating giant cell tumours with curettage, electrocautery, burring, phenol irrigation, and cementation.

    PubMed

    Moon, Myung-Sang; Kim, Sung-SooS S; Moon, Jeong-Lim; Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Hanlim

    2013-08-01

    PURPOSE. To report on 23 patients with giant cell tumour (GCT) of the femur or tibia treated with curettage, electrocautery, burring, phenol irrigation, and cementation. METHODS. Records of these 14 men and 9 women aged 22 to 38 (mean, 31) years were reviewed. The most common site involved was the distal femur (n=13), followed by proximal tibia (n=8), proximal femur (n=1), and distal tibia (n=1). The lesions were classified as grade I (n=3), grade II (n=18), and grade III (n=2). Based on histology, the tumour stage was classified as grade I (n=5) and grade II (n=18). Two of these patients had recurrences, which were initially treated with simple curettage and bone grafting of the distal femur and distal tibia. RESULTS. The mean follow-up period was 5.7 (range, 2.5-10.1) years. 14 of the 23 patients were followed up for over 10 years. No patient developed any local recurrence, remote metastasis, or complication related to surgery or adjuvant therapy. CONCLUSION. Combined treatment entailing curettage, electrocautery, burring, phenol irrigation, and cementation was effective in treating GCT of bone. PMID:24014786

  5. Complete response of giant desmoplastic small round cell tumor treated with chemoradiotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, SHUO; ZHANG, YONG; YU, YONG-HUA; LI, JIA

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare tumor that mainly affects adolescents, and typically involves the abdominal and pelvic peritoneum. The present study reports one case of giant DSRCT, treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy, and reviews the available medical literature. A 38-year-old man presented with a 3-month history of pain in the left lower abdomen and nausea, associated with decreased appetite and weight loss. Computed tomography (CT) showed a 12.3×7.9 cm confluent solid mass in the lower abdomen and pelvic cavity. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy and the final pathological diagnosis was DSRCT. Following laparotomy, the patient was treated with external beam radiotherapy to the whole abdomen and pelvis to a dose of 40 Gy plus a 20 Gy boost to the residual disease. The results indicated that synchronous chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, adriamycin and cisplatin combined with radiotherapy significantly improved locoregional control of DSRCT and a complete response, as measured by CT assessment 2 months subsequent to radiotherapy. In conclusion, DSRCT is a rare malignancy requiring multidisciplinary treatment, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The results of the present study confirm that radiotherapy has a significant role in the treatment of advanced abdominal DSRCT and may contribute to durable remission. PMID:26893693

  6. CD10 and CD138 can be expressed in giant cell tumor of bone: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Abbadi, Mousa A.; Al-Yousef, Mohammed J.; Yousef, Mohammad M.; Sheikh, Salwa S.; Almasri, Nidal M.; Amr, Samir S.

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a primary bone neoplasm which is characterized by the presence of mononuclear cells (MCs) and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). Up to our knowledge, CD10 immunoreactivity in GCTB has not yet been studied, and only one study touched on CD138 immunoreactivity in GCTB. The objective of this study is to investigate the immunoreactivity of CD10 and CD138 in GCTB. We offer a discussion of our findings in the context of the differential diagnosis, particularly in small biopsy material. We retrieved and reviewed 15 well-documented cases of GCTB from January 2008 to December 2014. Well-controlled standard immunohistochemical satins were performed on these cases for CD10 and CD138 and few other selected antibodies. Immunoreactivity for CD10 was membranous and was found in 14 (93%) cases. This immunoreactivity was found only in the MCs, whereas the MNGC were all negative. CD138 showed variable positivity in 11 (73%) while 4 (37%) were completely negative. Similar to CD10, staining for CD138 was only seen in the MC; however, the immunoreactivity was predominantly concentrated in the peri-vascular areas. Most of GCTB cases can show variable immunoreactivity for CD10 and CD138. The aforementioned immune-expression raise the possibility of a role in the pathogenesis of GCTB. Paying attention to this immunoreactivity is recommended when considering the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis, especially in small biopsy specimens. PMID:27390668

  7. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  8. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Hilary M A; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A B

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers

  9. Preoperative management of giant retroperitoneal schwannoma: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, WEI; DANG, CHENGXUE; ZHU, KUN; LI, KANG

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas rarely occur in the retroperitoneum, and are normally not aggressive. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and the surgeon may confront blood vessels, nerves or organs damage, since the intra-operative findings are various. The diagnosis and treatment of malignant schwannomas in the retroperitoneum are even more challenging. In addition, the prognosis of malignant schwannomas is extremely poor. The present study reports the case of a 52-year-old woman who presented with a 6-month history of an abdominal mass in the left lower quadrant. The local doctor determined a preliminary diagnosis of abdominal giant tumor and referred the patient to the First Affiliated Hospital, Medical School of Xi'an Jiaotong University, (Xi'an, China). Following discussion, the patient underwent a surgical resection. Low-grade malignant schwannoma was diagnosed following histological examination. No evidence of recurrence or any other complication was observed at the 18-month follow-up examination. The present study reports a case of giant retroperitoneal schwannoma (RS), and includes a literature review in order to provide an overview of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of RS and discuss preoperative management strategies for the disease. PMID:27313735

  10. Laser Capture Microdissection and Real-Time PCR for Measuring mRNA in Giant Cells Induced by Meloidogyne javanica.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Magill, C; Starr, J L

    2005-09-01

    The techniques of laser capture microdissection and quantitative RT-PCR were investigated as methods for measuring mRNA in giant cells induced by Meloidogyne javanica. Laser capture microdissection allowed precise sampling of giant cells at 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation. The expression of three genes (a water channel protein gene Rb7, a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (LHA4), and a hexose kinase (HXK1) was measured based on mRNA extracted from tissue samples and quantitated using reversetranscription real-time PCR. These genes were chosen arbitrarily to represent different aspects of primary metabolism. The amount of HXK1 mRNA in giant cells was not different from that in root meristem or cortical cells when compared on the basis of number of molecules per unit tissue volume, and was similar at all sample times. Amount of mRNA for LHA4 and Rb7 was much greater in giant cells than in cortical cells, but only Rb7 was also greater in giant cells than in root meristem cells. Numbers of mRNA molecules of LHA4 increased linearly in giant cells from 1 to 3 weeks after inoculation, whereas the amount of Rb7 mRNA was similar at 1 and 2 weeks after inoculation but increased at 3 weeks after inoculation. The amount of mRNA for these two genes was similar at all sample times in cortical and root-tip cells. Apparent up regulation of some genes in giant cells may be due primarily to the increased number of copies of the gene in giant cells, whereas for other genes up regulation may also involve increased transcription of the increased number of copies of the gene. PMID:19262878

  11. Jejunal intussusception caused by metastasis of a giant cell carcinoma of the lung.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yuki; Homma, Shigenori; Yoshida, Tadashi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital reporting of nausea, vomiting and anorexia. One month before admission, she had been diagnosed with lung cancer with intestinal metastasis. A CT scan confirmed intussusception due to intestinal metastasis and she underwent emergency laparoscopic surgery followed by resection of the primary lung cancer. Histopathological findings of the intestinal specimen suggested the metastasis was from a giant cell carcinoma of the lung, which had extensive necrosis. She was still alive without recurrence 11 months after the first surgery. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung is a rare type of non-small cell carcinoma and intestinal metastasis is one of the unique features. This type of tumour has such aggressive characteristics that oncological prognosis is reported to be extremely poor. In our case, however, complete surgical resection of both primary and metastatic tumours might result in a better outcome than has been reported. PMID:27485876

  12. Jejunal intussusception caused by metastasis of a giant cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yuki; Homma, Shigenori; Yoshida, Tadashi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital reporting of nausea, vomiting and anorexia. One month before admission, she had been diagnosed with lung cancer with intestinal metastasis. A CT scan confirmed intussusception due to intestinal metastasis and she underwent emergency laparoscopic surgery followed by resection of the primary lung cancer. Histopathological findings of the intestinal specimen suggested the metastasis was from a giant cell carcinoma of the lung, which had extensive necrosis. She was still alive without recurrence 11 months after the first surgery. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung is a rare type of non-small cell carcinoma and intestinal metastasis is one of the unique features. This type of tumour has such aggressive characteristics that oncological prognosis is reported to be extremely poor. In our case, however, complete surgical resection of both primary and metastatic tumours might result in a better outcome than has been reported. PMID:27485876

  13. Omental leiomyosarcoma with unusual giant cells in a Beagle dog - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun; Toyoshima, Megumi; Okamura, Yasuhiko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2016-06-01

    A 10-year-old castrated male Beagle dog was presented with a 2-month history of intermittent vomiting and abdominal pain. The dog was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Iwate University for further evaluation, and a splenic tumour was suspected on the basis of ultrasonography and computed tomography. Surgery identified a large, solid, light-pink mass on the greater omentum with blood-coloured ascites in the abdominal cavity, and resection was performed. Microscopically, the mass comprised spindle-shaped tumour cells and scattered osteoclast-like giant cells. Most spindle-shaped cells were positive for vimentin, desmin, and smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), whereas osteoclast-like giant cells were positive only for vimentin. On the basis of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma was made. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of leiomyosarcoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells developing from the greater omentum in a dog. PMID:27342093

  14. Giant Cardiac Hydatid Cyst in Children: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fiengo, Leslie; Bucci, Federico; Giannotti, Domenico; Patrizi, Gregorio; Redler, Adriano; Kucukaksu, Denis Suha

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac echinococcus is a rare affliction of the heart caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. Primary echinococcosis of the heart represents 0.5–2% of all hydatid disease cases in endemic regions. It evolves slowly, explaining its rarity in children. We report the case of a 11-year-old child affected by a giant cardiac cyst of the left ventricle (LV). The patient underwent cardiac surgery and medical treatment. A retrospective review of the current literature was realized. We found 18 cases: the mean age was 11-years old. Nine cysts were localized in the LV, four in the interventricular septum, three in the right ventricle, and two in the right atrium. All underwent surgery except six patients. Routine echocardiographic screening may be useful in endemic regions where infestation is common. Cardiac echinococcus should be diagnosed in the early and uncomplicated stages and be removed surgically even in asymptomatic patients. PMID:25249763

  15. Transfer of newly synthesized proteins from Schwann cells to the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Lasek, R J; Gainer, H; Przybylski, R J

    1974-04-01

    The squid giant axon is presented as a model for the study of macromolecular interaction between cells in the nervous system. When the isolated giant axon was incubated in sea water containing [(3)H]leucine for 0.5-5 hr, newly synthesized proteins appeared in the sheath and axoplasm as demonstrated by: (i) radioautography, (ii) separation of the sheath and axoplasm by extrusion, and (iii) perfusion of electrically excitable axons. The absence of ribosomal RNA in the axoplasm [Lasek, R. J. et al. (1973) Nature 244, 162-165] coupled with other evidence indicates that the labeled proteins that are found in the axoplasm originate in the Schwann cells surrounding the axon. Approximately 50% of the newly synthesized Schwann cell proteins are transferred to the giant axon. These transferred proteins are soluble for the most part and range in molecular size from 12,000 to greater than 200,000 daltons. It is suggested that proteins transferred from the Schwann cell to the axon have a regulatory role in neuronal function. PMID:4524631

  16. A review of gigaxonin mutations in giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) and cancer.

    PubMed

    Kang, James J; Liu, Isabelle Y; Wang, Marilene B; Srivatsan, Eri S

    2016-07-01

    Gigaxonin, the product of GAN gene localized to chromosome 16, is associated with the early onset neuronal degeneration disease giant axonal neuropathy (GAN). Gigaxonin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor protein involved in intermediate filament processing in neural cells, and vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. Mutations of the gene cause pre-neural filaments to accumulate and form giant axons resulting in the inhibition of neural cell signaling. Analysis of the catalog of somatic mutations in cancer, driver DB and IDGC data portal databases containing 21,000 tumor genomic sequences has identified GAN patient mutations in cancer cell lines and primary tumors. The database search has also shown the presence of identical missense and nonsense gigaxonin mutations in GAN and colon cancer. These mutations frequently occur in the domains associated with protein homodimerization and substrate interaction such as Broad-Complex, Tramtrack and Bric a brac (BTB), BTB associated C-terminal KELCH (BACK), and KELCH repeats. Analysis of the International HapMap Project database containing 1200 normal genomic sequences has identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs2608555, in exon 8 of the gigaxonin sequence. While this SNP is present in >40 % of Caucasian population, it is present in less than 10 % of Japanese and Chinese populations. Although the role of gigaxonin polymorphism is not yet known, CFTR and MDR1 gene studies have shown that silent mutations play a role in the instability and aberrant splicing and folding of mRNAs. We believe that molecular and functional investigation of gigaxonin mutations including the exon 8 polymorphism could lead to an improved understanding of the relationship between GAN and cancer. PMID:27023907

  17. Diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumour: Current treatment concepts and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Staals, Eric L; Ferrari, Stefano; Donati, Davide M; Palmerini, Emanuela

    2016-08-01

    At present, the optimal treatment strategy in patients with diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumour (D-TGCT) is unclear. The purpose of this review was to describe current treatment options, and to highlight recent developments in the knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of D-TGCT as well as related therapeutic implications. Epidemiology, clinical features, and the pathogenesis of D-TGCT and the most widely used treatment modalities are described. D-TGCT is a benign clonal neoplastic proliferation arising from the synovium. Patients are often symptomatic and require multiple surgical procedures during their lifetime. Currently, surgery is the main treatment for patients with D-TGCT, with relapse rates ranging from 14% to 55%. Radiosynovectomy and external beam radiotherapy have been used in combination with surgical excision or as single modalities. The finding that D-TGCT cells overexpress colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), resulting in recruitment of CSF1 receptor (CSF1R)-bearing macrophages that are polyclonal and make up the bulk of the tumour, has led to clinical trials with CSF1R inhibitors. These inhibitors include small molecules such as imatinib, nilotinib, PLX3397, and the monoclonal antibody RG7155. In conclusion, D-TGCT impairs patients' quality of life significantly. The evidence that the pathogenetic loop of D-TGCT can be inhibited could potentially change the therapeutic armamentarium for this condition. Clinical trials of agents that target D-TGCT are currently ongoing. In the meantime, international registries should be activated in order to provide useful information on this relatively rare tumour. PMID:27267143

  18. Anti-oxidative therapy with oral dapsone improved HCV antibody positive annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma.

    PubMed

    Igawa, K; Maruyama, R; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K

    1997-05-01

    A 72-year-old fisherman who was positive for the HCV antibody developed an annular, erythematous, infiltrated lesions on sun-exposed areas. The lesions were diagnosed as annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma both clinically and histologically. Topical corticosteroid and cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen for several months failed to improve the lesions. We then started dapsone, a known anti-oxidant, at 50 mg/day. A month later, the margins of the erythematous lesions faded, and the infiltration gradually decreased. No recurrence has been observed for one year after the start of the therapy. Anti-oxidative therapy appears to be effective for annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma and could be an alternate therapy for refractory granulomatous disease. PMID:9198323

  19. CEMENTLESS ENDOPROSTHESIS IN THE TREATMENT OF GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE TIBIA: EIGHTEEN YEARS OF EVOLUTION

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Glauco Pauka; Sonehara, Helio Ayabe; Neto, Mario Armani

    2015-01-01

    This is a case report on a giant cell tumor of the juxta-articular proximal tibia with a pathological fracture. A female patient presented pain and increased local volume after falling from her own height. She underwent clinical examination, radiographic examination and puncture biopsy. A diagnosis of giant cell tumor was made. The patient was then treated with tumor resection and use of an unconventional partial endoprosthesis of the tibia with preservation of the joint surface of the tibial plateau. The patient evolved with improvement of symptoms and maintenance of joint function of the operated limb, absence of recurrence and complications, without any need for reoperation over 18 years of follow-up. PMID:27026973

  20. Idiopathic neonatal giant cell hepatitis presenting with acute hepatic failure on postnatal day one.

    PubMed

    Correa, Kimberley K; Nanjundiah, Prathiba; Wirtschafter, David D; Alshak, Najeeb S

    2002-01-01

    We report a term male infant presenting on postnatal day 1 with fulminant hepatic failure. Described congenital infection, metabolic disorders, and cardiovascular etiologies of acute neonatal liver failure were assessed and eliminated. A liver biopsy on postnatal day 10 showed neonatal giant cell hepatitis (NGCH) with an unusual degree of fibrosis for this early postnatal age. NGCH is a clinical diagnosis of cholestatic disorders of unknown etiology in the newborn, and, to our knowledge, has not been previously associated with immediate neonatal hepatic failure. The giant cell transformation is a common response to a variety of insults and only rarely occurs beyond the neonatal period. Most cases present with cholestatic jaundice and varying degrees of coagulopathy, and, many, as in this case, show progressive resolution. PMID:11948391

  1. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia: an unusual finding in a case of preoperative death.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Shantilal M; Bendale, Kiran; Khan, Wasif Ali Zafarali; Sanklecha, Vandana

    2013-06-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is an exceedingly rare, debatable, perplexing, occupational lung disease, which most commonly affects individuals exposed to hard metal dust. We report a case of GIP in a 60-year-old man, scheduled for coronary artery bypass graft surgery and died during induction of general anesthesia despite all efforts to resuscitate him. Patient's relatives lodged complaint with the police alleging the negligence by the attending physicians. Despite inaccessible data pertaining to the occupation, clinical history, and radiographic findings, the diagnosis was GIP due to the presence of intra-alveolar, bizarre, "cannibalistic" multinucleated giant cells-the histologic sine qua non of GIP. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of GIP in the world literature that was diagnosed on histopathologic examination of lung tissue obtained at medicolegal autopsy. PMID:23629398

  2. Giant oral tumor in a child with malnutrition and sickle cell trait: Anesthetic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Preet Mohinder; Borle, Anuradha; Trikha, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric oral tumors have always been challenging for the even most skilled anesthesiologists. The conventional method of awake intubation is not realistic in this age group. The management is to chart out a plan to intubate the child post induction. We describe successful management of a case of giant of ossifying fibroma in a child with sickle cell trait where non-conventional innovate approach helped us to secure the airway pre-operatively and avoid possible medical complications. PMID:24106366

  3. Imaging Manifestations of a Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in Tuberous Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Joseph R.; Reidman, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis is a rare genetic disorder resulting in benign tumor growth in various organs including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, and lung as well as systemic manifestations including seizures, cognitive impairment, and dermatologic abnormalities. This report shows the radiological findings and differentiation between a subependymal nodule and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in a patient with tuberous sclerosis presenting with new onset seizures. PMID:26942030

  4. Selective infarction of the anterior genu fornices associated with giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Murr, Najib; Thaisetthawatkul, Pariwat; Helvey, Jason; Fayad, Pierre

    2012-05-01

    We report a middle-aged woman presenting with acute confusion and anterograde amnesia. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an acute infarction of the anterior genu fornices. Evaluation of an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate led to the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). Cerebral infarction is a known complication of GCA; this is the first report of such an association with selective fornix infarction. PMID:20884244

  5. Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of Chondroid Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor of the Hand

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Aiad, Hayam; Youssef Asaad, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of tendon sheath is a localized form of tenosynovial GCT, which preferentially affects the joints of hands and feet. Chondroid metaplasia is a rare phenomenon in tenosynovial GCT either in localized or diffuse types. The current case investigates the cytological and histopathological features of chondroid GCT of tendon sheath in a 22-year-old female presenting with wrist swelling. PMID:26266013

  6. Primary giant cell malignant fibrous histiocytoma-associated with renal calculus

    PubMed Central

    Altunkol, Adem; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Gulum, Mehmet; Yagmur, Ismail; Bitiren, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) are the most commonly seen soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It is rarely seen in some visceral organs. Kidneys are the parenchymal organs in which MFHs are most frequently seen. More than 50 cases of primary renal MFH have been reported. Among these cases, only 1 was reported as primary giant cell subtype in association with urolithiasis. This case report is the second such case with the these characteristics. PMID:24678364

  7. Arthroscopic Resection of a Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor in the Wrist

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Han, Youngshin; Lee, Malrey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The treatment for giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath is surgical therapy, but surgical recurrence rates were reported to be as high as 50% in some cases. Therefore, complete radical excision of the lesion is the treatment of choice. If the tumor originates from the joint, it is important to perform capsulotomy. Here, the authors report the first case of successful treatment of a localized intra-articular giant cell tumor in the wrist by arthroscopic resection. A 28-year-old right-handed woman visited the clinic because of left wrist ulnar-side pain, which had been aggravated during the previous 15 days. Vague ulnar-side wrist pain had begun 2 years ago. When the authors examined the patient, the wrist showed mild swelling on the volo-ulnar aspect and the distal radioulnar joint, as well as volar joint line tenderness. She showed a positive result on the ulnocarpal stress test and displayed limited range of motion. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intra-articular mass with synovitis in the ulnocarpal joint. Wrist arthroscopy was performed using standard portals under regional anesthesia. The arthroscopic findings revealed a large, well-encapsulated, yellow lobulated soft-tissue mass that was attached to the volar side of the ulnocarpal ligament and connected to the extra-articular side. The mass was completely excised piece by piece with a grasping forceps. Histopathologic examination revealed that the lesion was an intra-articular localized form of a tenosynovial giant cell tumor. At 24-month follow-up, the patient was completely asymptomatic and had full range of motion in her left wrist, and no recurrence was found in magnetic resonance imaging follow-up evaluations. The authors suggest that the arthroscopic excision of intra-articular giant cell tumors, as in this case, may be an alternative method to open excisions, with many advantages. PMID:26496348

  8. Multiple giant cell lesions in a patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Henk; Schreuder, Willem Hans; Jongmans, Marjolijn; van Bommel-Slee, Danielle; Witsenburg, Bart; de Lange, Jan

    2016-08-01

    A patient with Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) and multiple giant cell lesions (MGCL) in mandibles and maxillae is described. A mutation p.Thr468Met in the PTPN11-gene was found. This is the second reported NSML patient with MGCL. Our case adds to the assumption that, despite a different molecular pathogenesis and effect on the RAS/MEK pathway, NSML shares the development of MGCL, with other RASopathies. PMID:27238887

  9. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone in Skeletally Immature Patients - A Clinical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vipin; Sharma, Seema; Mistry, Kewal A; Awasthi, Bhanu; Verma, Lucky; Singh, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumors of skeleton are very rare in pediatric and adolescent population. Here we report two cases-one a fifteen year old child with swelling distal humerus and another a case of a thirteen year old child with pain and swelling proximal tibia. Case Report: A fifteen year old child presented to department of orthopedics of our institute with complaint of difficulty in moving upper limb and swelling distal humerus. Another patient who was a 13 years old male had painful ambulation and swelling in upper tibia. MRI followed by core needle biopsy was done in both the patients confirming the mass to be giant cell tumor which is quite rare in this age group. First patient was managed by wide excision and total elbow replacement and second one by curettage, cementation and augmentation with plate-screw construct. Conclusion: Giant cell tumour of skeleton is highly uncommon in pediatric age group. It should be considered as one of the differential diagnosis of epiphyseo metaphyseal lesions in pediatric population in spite of its rarity. PMID:27299101

  10. Giant Cell Tumor of the Patella Tendon Sheath Presenting as a Painful Locked Knee

    PubMed Central

    Panagopoulos, Andreas; Tsoumpos, Pantelis; Tatani, Irini; Iliopoulos, Ilias; Papachristou, Dionysios

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 26 Final Diagnosis: Giant cell tumor of the patella tendon seath Symptoms: Efusion • locking knee • pain Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Arthroscopy and open resection of the tumor Specialty: Orthopedics and Traumatology Objective: Rare disease Background: The giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath (GCT-TS) is a benign proliferative synovial tumor manifesting as an intra-articular solitary nodule. When it involves the infrapatellar fat pad it can present acutely as a painful locked knee. Case Report: A 26-year-old white male presented with a 2-week history of painful locking in his right knee. Clinical examination revealed lack of extension by approximately 20°. To help establish the diagnosis, an MRI scan of the right knee was performed, showing a large (5×4×2 cm), oval, well-circumscribed mass with a low-intensity homogenous signal. The size of the mass prohibited the removal by arthroscopy and we therefore proceeded with an open arthrotomy. Histological examination showed a tendosynovial giant cell tumor of the patella tendon sheath. At the latest follow-up, 2 years postoperatively, there was no local tumor recurrence. Conclusions: These rare tumorous lesions should be included in the differential diagnosis of painful locking knee, especially in the absence of definite traumatic history. PMID:26302970

  11. MRI sequence and characteristic features in 'giant cell tumor' of clivus.

    PubMed

    Mahale, Ajit; K V N, Dhananjaya; Pai, Muralidhar; Poornima, Vinaya; Sahu, Kausalya Kumari

    2013-06-01

    Giant cell tumours of the clivus are rare. These tumours present in the second and third decades of life and they are slightly more frequent in women than in men. We are presenting a case of a 20 years young patient who came with the complaints of headache, retro-orbital pain and recurrent transient bleeding from the nose since two and half months. MRI of the brain with contrast was done and its features were suggestive of a Giant cell tumour of the clivus. A transnasal endoscopic biopsy was done under general anaesthesia and the histopathology report suggested that the features were of a giant cell tumour. Excision of the mass was done by Transnasal endoscopy. Post operatively, the patient did not recover from the lateral rectus palsy which was there on the right side. The patient was discharged with an advice of a follow up and radiotherapy. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be effective as adjuvant treatments. Even though a recurrence usually occurs within 4 years of the initial treatment, these patients will need to be carefully followed for the remainder of their lives. PMID:23905141

  12. A Fraction of CD133+ CNE2 Cells Is Made of Giant Cancer Cells with Morphological Evidence of Asymmetric Mitosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qingping; Zhang, Qianbing; Wang, Shuang; Xie, Siming; Fang, Weiyi; Liu, Zhen; Liu, Jinsong; Yao, Kaitai

    2015-01-01

    CD133 has been suggested as a broad-spectrum marker for cancer stem cells(CSCs). The present study investigated the expression of CD133 in biopsy tissues of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), NPC cell lines and the immortalized cell line NP69 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. CD133+ cancer cells were isolated using magnetic-activated cell sorting technology. The study demonstrated that CD133+ cells are rare in NPC tissues and cell lines and that their self-renewal and proliferation abilities are stronger than those of CD133- cells and suggested that CD133+ NPC cells have characteristics of cancer stem cells. We further observed CD133+ cancer cells using a light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Generally, CD133+ cells are small, regular and round with small microvilli. On the other hand, CD133- cells are more polymorphic and larger with long micromicrovilli. Additionally, in some fields, several giant cancer cells (GCCs) in the CD133+ cell group were identified under the light microscope. Most of them were polynuclear cells. Under the scanning electron microscope, we found indefinite regular small bodies on the surface of or surrounding the giant cancer cells, some of which appeared to be creeping out the parental cells. This phenomenon was not observed in the CD133- cell groups. Through comparison with descriptions of apoptotic bodies in the literature and from the results of the acridine orange test, we propose that some of the small bodies are daughter cells of the GCCs. This phenomenon is a mode of division of cancer cells called neosis, or budding, which is a form of reproduction for simple organisms. Budding is satisfied with the rapid speed of tumor development. GCCs could be isolated by CD133 beads because the daughter cells have stem-cell characteristics and express stem-cell markers. PMID:26535065

  13. A Retrospective Study of Chinese Patients With Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Ma, Sha; Zheng, Wenjie; Tian, Xinping; Zeng, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A retrospective study was performed on 70 giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients in Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH). The aim of this study was to describe the clinical features of these Chinese GCA patients and explore the possible associated factors for severe ischemic manifestations. Medical charts of all patients were reviewed, and the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were analyzed. The mean age at disease onset was 65.2 years old, and the ratio of male to female was 1:1. Fever and headache were most prominent symptoms at onset, which occurred in 51.4% and 30.0% of patients, respectively. Common manifestations at diagnosis were constitutional symptoms (85.7%), headache (68.8%), visual impairment (38.6%), jaw claudication (30%), scalp tenderness (30%), and concurrent polymyalgia rheumatic (27.1%). No significant difference in clinical manifestations between genders was observed. Comparisons between patients with and without severe ischemic manifestations including jaw claudication, permanent visual loss, or cerebrovascular accident had shown that fever and asthenia were significantly less frequent in patients with severe ischemic manifestations (P = 0.006 and 0.023, respectively), and the mean value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was significantly lower in patients with severe ischemic manifestations than patients without (P = 0.001). History of smoking was more frequent in patients with severe ischemic manifestations (P = 0.038). This is the largest group of GCA patients from China so far. When compared our data with patients reported in the literature, this series of GCA patients were younger and without female predominance. The clinical manifestations of patients in this report were similar to other studies except for a higher prevalence of constitutional symptoms. The results of this study indicated that lower systemic inflammatory response and the history of smoking might be associated with severe ischemic

  14. Surgical Outcomes in Patients with High Spinal Instability Neoplasm Score Secondary to Spinal Giant Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Benjamin D.; Sankey, Eric W.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Lo, Sheng-Fu L.; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Witham, Timothy F.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective review. Objective To describe the surgical outcomes in patients with high preoperative Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) secondary to spinal giant cell tumors (GCT) and evaluate the impact of en bloc versus intralesional resection and preoperative embolization on postoperative outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 14 patients with GCTs of the spine who underwent surgical treatment prior to the use of denosumab. A univariate analysis was performed comparing the patient demographics, perioperative characteristics, and surgical outcomes between patients who underwent en bloc marginal (n = 6) compared with those who had intralesional (n = 8) resection. Results Six patients underwent en bloc resections and eight underwent intralesional resection. Preoperative embolization was performed in eight patients. All patients were alive at last follow-up, with a mean follow-up length of 43 months. Patients who underwent en bloc resection had longer average operative times (p = 0.0251), higher rates of early (p = 0.0182) and late (p = 0.0389) complications, and a higher rate of surgical revision (p = 0.0120). There was a 25% (2/8 patients) local recurrence rate for intralesional resection and a 0% (0/6 patients) local recurrence rate for en bloc resection (p = 0.0929). Conclusions Surgical excision of spinal GCTs causing significant instability, assessed by SINS, is associated with high intraoperative blood loss despite embolization and independent of resection method. En bloc resection requires a longer operative duration and is associated with a higher risk of complications when compared with intralesional resection. However, the increased morbidity associated with en bloc resection may be justified as it may minimize the risk of local recurrence. PMID:26835198

  15. Giant cell tumor of bone arising in long bones possibly originates from the metaphyseal region

    PubMed Central

    FUTAMURA, NAOHISA; URAKAWA, HIROSHI; TSUKUSHI, SATOSHI; ARAI, EISUKE; KOZAWA, EIJI; ISHIGURO, NAOKI; NISHIDA, YOSHIHIRO

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a primary benign bone tumor with a locally aggressive character. Definitive descriptions of the site of origin for this type of tumor are not available. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the site of origin of GCTB of long bones with regards to epiphyseal lines by means of radiographic examination. For that purpose, plain X-ray scans of 71 GCTBs arising in long bones were retrospectively reviewed. The tumor locations were the distal femur in 31 cases, proximal femur in 11 cases, proximal tibia in 13 cases, distal radius in 6 cases, proximal humerus in 5 cases and proximal fibula in 5 cases. The vertical center (VC) of the tumor was determined with X-ray anteroposterior view, and the correlation between the VC and the epiphyseal line, and between the distance from the epiphyseal line to the VC and tumor area or volume were analyzed using a regression model equation based on scatter plot diagrams. The VC of the tumor was located in the metaphyseal region in 57 cases, in the epiphyseal line in 11 cases and in the epiphyseal region in 3 cases. In cases of GCTB located in the distal femur or proximal tibia, significant correlations between the distance from the VC to the epiphyseal line and tumor area or volume were identified. The site of origin of GCTB was estimated to be located in the metaphyseal region. GCTB often occurs in mature patients, which renders it challenging to estimate the true site of origin of this lesion, since the metaphyseal line has disappeared in mature patients. The results of the present study suggest that GCTB possibly originates in the metaphyseal region. PMID:27073530

  16. Giant Lysosomes as a Chemotherapy Resistance Mechanism in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Federico; Trombetta, Elena; Cetrangolo, Paola; Maggioni, Marco; Razini, Paola; De Santis, Francesca; Torrente, Yvan; Prati, Daniele; Torresani, Erminio; Porretti, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Despite continuous improvements in therapeutic protocols, cancer-related mortality is still one of the main problems facing public health. The main cause of treatment failure is multi-drug resistance (MDR: simultaneous insensitivity to different anti-cancer agents), the underlying molecular and biological mechanisms of which include the activity of ATP binding cassette (ABC) proteins and drug compartmentalisation in cell organelles. We investigated the expression of the main ABC proteins and the role of cytoplasmic vacuoles in the MDR of six hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, and confirmed the accumulation of the yellow anti-cancer drug sunitinib in giant (four lines) and small cytoplasmic vacuoles of lysosomal origin (two lines). ABC expression analyses showed that the main ABC protein harboured by all of the cell lines was PGP, whose expression was not limited to the cell membrane but was also found on lysosomes. MTT assays showed that the cell lines with giant lysosomes were more resistant to sorafenib treatment than those with small lysosomes (p<0.01), and that verapamil incubation can revert this resistance, especially if it is administered after drug pre-incubation. The findings of this study demonstrate the involvement of PGP-positive lysosomes in drug sequestration and MDR in HCC cell lines. The possibility of modulating this mechanism using PGP inhibitors could lead to the development of new targeted strategies to enhance HCC treatment. PMID:25493932

  17. Foreign body giant cells selectively covering haptics of intraocular lens implants: indicators of poor toleration?

    PubMed

    Wolter, J R

    1983-10-01

    A Sputnik lens implant removed after five years because of bullous keratopathy exhibits a dense covering of its Supramid anterior staves with large foreign body giant cells, while its Prolene loops and Polymethylmethacrylate optics have attracted only few of these cell units. The glass-membrane-like component of the reactive membrane also shows significant differences on the different parts of this implant. The use of observation of the components of reactive membranes on lens implants as indicators of toleration in the eye is suggested. PMID:6364004

  18. The transition to endoreduplication in trophoblast giant cells is regulated by the mSNA zinc finger transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, H; Scott, I C; Cross, J C

    1998-07-01

    Terminal cell differentiation is usually associated with cell cycle exit. In some lineages, however, cells undergo continued rounds of DNA synthesis without intervening mitoses (endoreduplication) resulting in polyploid nuclei. This is striking in rodent trophoblast giant cells which contain up to 1000N of DNA. In Drosophila, the Escargot gene has been implicated in regulating the transition from mitotic cell cycles to endocycles during development. We found that a murine homologue, mSna, was expressed in mouse trophoblast and was downregulated during giant cell differentiation. The mSNA zinc finger protein bound to E-box DNA elements and, in transfected C3H10T1/2 fibroblasts, acted as a transcriptional repressor. The maximal repressive effect was dependent on both the zinc finger DNA-binding domain and the N-terminal, seven-amino-acid SNAG domain. Misexpression experiments in Rcho-1 trophoblast cells revealed that mSna regulates the transition from replicating precursor cells to committed giant cells: overexpression blocked, whereas antisense RNA-mediated underexpression promoted trophoblast giant cell differentiation. Overexpression of mSna in precursor cells had no effect on cell cycle kinetics, but did increase cyclin A and B levels, implying actions during G2. These effects were dependent on both the zinc finger and SNAG domains. Together, these data suggest that mSNA has an ESCARGOT-like function to repress the transcription of genes that promote the transition from mitotic to endoreduplicative cell cycles in rodent trophoblast. PMID:9676199

  19. A giant cell surface protein in Synechococcus WH8102 inhibits feeding by a dinoflagellate predator.

    PubMed

    Strom, Suzanne L; Brahamsha, Bianca; Fredrickson, Kerri A; Apple, Jude K; Rodríguez, Andres Gutiérrez

    2012-03-01

    Diverse strains of the marine planktonic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. show consistent differences in their susceptibility to predation. We used mutants of Sargasso Sea strain WH8102 (clade III) to test the hypothesis that cell surface proteins play a role in defence against predation by protists. Predation rates by the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina on mutants lacking the giant SwmB protein were always higher (by 1.6 to 3.9×) than those on wild-type WH8102 cells, and equalled predation rates on a clade I strain (CC9311). In contrast, absence of the SwmA protein, which comprises the S-layer (surface layer of the cell envelope that is external to the outer membrane), had no effect on predation by O. marina. Reductions in predation rate were not due to dissolved substances in Synechococcus cultures, and could not be accounted for by variations in cell hydrophobicity. We hypothesize that SwmB defends Synechococcus WH8102 by interfering with attachment of dinoflagellate prey capture organelles or cell surface receptors. Giant proteins are predicted in the genomes of multiple Synechococcus isolates, suggesting that this defence strategy may be more general. Strategies for resisting predation will contribute to the differential competitive success of different Synechococcus groups, and to the diversity of natural picophytoplankton assemblages. PMID:22103339

  20. Identification of a novel RNA giant nuclear body in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Xiaoxian; Gan, Yichao; Zheng, Weiwei; Kim, Byung-Wook; Xu, Xiaohua; Lu, Xiaoya; Dong, Qi; Zheng, Shu; Huang, Wendong; Xu, Rongzhen

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive synthesis of oncogenic mRNAs is essential for maintaining the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells. However, little is known about how these mRNAs are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Here, we report the identification of a RNA giant nuclear body (RNA-GNB) that is abundant in cancer cells but rare in normal cells. The RNA-GNB contains a RNA core surrounded by a protein shell. We identify 782 proteins from cancer-associated RNA-GNBs, 40% of which are involved in the nuclear mRNA trafficking. RNA-GNB is required for cell proliferation, and its abundance is positively associated with tumor burden and outcome of therapies. Our findings suggest that the RNA-GNB is a novel nuclear RNA trafficking organelle that may contribute to the nuclear mRNA exporting and proliferation of cancer cells. PMID:26678034

  1. Rapidly growing giant cell tumor of bone in a skeletally immature girl.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Gensuke; Ueno, Teruko; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Motoi, Noriko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in skeletally immature patients is rare, and little is known regarding how fast GCTB can grow. We report a case of a 10-year-old skeletally immature girl with pathologically proven GCTB with obvious growth plate invasion that showed surprisingly rapid growth over only 14 days. A radiograph of the left knee revealed well-circumscribed, geographic bone destruction at the distal metaphysis of the femur with a focal cortical defect, suggesting a pathologic fracture. No abnormal mineralization or periosteal reaction was seen. A CT without contrast and an MRI demonstrated a homogeneous lesion with cortical disruption posteriorly and laterally with a slight soft tissue extension. Biopsy showed numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindle-shaped mononuclear cells without any sign of malignancy, suggesting GCTB. However, rapid lesion enlargement and destruction of the surrounding cortex were noted 14 days after biopsy. Considering the amount of bone destruction, traditional treatment of curettage and bone cement would not suffice to sustain structural strength. In addition, considering the patient's age, the tumor location, and the aggressive course, a malignant tumor, especially a giant cell-rich osteosarcoma, could not be excluded. Therefore, en bloc resection, including the growth plate and prosthetic replacement, were performed. Confirmation of GCTB was made from a pathologic evaluation, and a breach to the growth plate was identified. Since very little inflammatory reaction, degenerative change, or aneurysmal, bone, cyst-like change was found, the growth plate invasion was confirmed as due to GCTB extension, not due to the preoperative biopsy. PMID:26585568

  2. An unusual case of desmoplastic melanoma containing an osteoclast-like giant cell-rich nodule.

    PubMed

    Houang, Michelle; Castillo, Christine; La Marca, Sophie; Combemale, Patrick; Wang, Qing; Paindavoine, Sandrine; Pissaloux, Daniel; de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud

    2015-04-01

    The authors describe a case of a 5 cm mixed desmoplastic melanoma occurring on the cheek of an 88-year-old white woman. The epidermis showed the features of lentigo maligna. Within the dermis, there was a mixed desmoplastic melanoma with 2 components. The first component consisted of infiltrative malignant spindled cells with prominent stromal fibrosis and had the typical appearance of desmoplastic melanoma. The second component was within the deep half of the tumor and consisted of a densely cellular nodule composed of spindled melanocytes admixed with many osteoclast-like giant cells. There was a peripheral neurotropism and tumor invaded bone. The Breslow thickness was 14 mm. On followup, a sacral metastasis was discovered, which had a similar morphology to the deep cellular nodule. Immunohistochemistry of spindled cells both inside and outside the nodule showed S100 positivity with the absence of other melanocytic markers (HMB-45, Melan-A). Smooth muscle actin and p63 were focally positive. The osteoclast-like giant cells expressed CD68 and MiTF. Array comparative genomic hybridization of the typical desmoplastic melanoma region had a flat profile, whereas the cellular osteoclast-like giant cell–rich region displayed important cytogenetic anomalies, some of which have been previously described in melanomas. The main array comparative genomic hybridization findings were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization using specific probes. The differences in morphology and molecular cytogenetics between the 2 areas suggest that these might represent the progression or emergence of a more aggressive clone within the tumor. Subsequent metastatic spread to the bone may be a result of accumulated cytogenetic abnormalities. PMID:24999544

  3. Treatment of giant congenital cysts of the midline in adults: Report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lauretti, Liverana; Mattogno, Pier Paolo; Bianchi, Federico; Pallini, Roberto; Fernandez, Eduardo; Doglietto, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Background: Giant cysts of the midline, not associated to a tumor, are exceptional finding in the brain of adults. Here we present two cases of symptomatic giant cerebral cysts of the midline occurred in an elderly and in a young adult patients both treated with mini-invasive unilateral neuroendoscopic procedure. In the recent literature (since 1999) similar cases have not been reported. Beside the clinical report, review of literature and major anatomical features of the region are described. Case Description: These two adults (82 and 41 years old respectively) had a slow progressive development of headache, gait disturbances, memory impairment and urinary incontinence. Magnetic resonance imaging showed giant cyst of the midline and hydrocephalus. Surgery with the endoscopic procedure, through a right frontal burr hole, was followed by clinical and radiological improvement. Conclusion: Giant cerebral cysts of the midline in adults can be successfully treated through a neuroendoscopic monolateral approach that comprehends multiple openings, diffuse coagulation of the capsule, and careful releasing of capsule-ependyma adherences. Knowledge of major anatomical and developmental details of the septal region is necessary to avoid complication in a mini-invasive surgical procedure. PMID:26421217

  4. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N.; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. PMID:26927123

  5. Giant Magnetoresistance Sensors: A Review on Structures and Non-Destructive Eddy Current Testing Applications.

    PubMed

    Rifai, Damhuji; Abdalla, Ahmed N; Ali, Kharudin; Razali, Ramdan

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive eddy current testing (ECT) is widely used to examine structural defects in ferromagnetic pipe in the oil and gas industry. Implementation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors as magnetic field sensors to detect the changes of magnetic field continuity have increased the sensitivity of eddy current techniques in detecting the material defect profile. However, not many researchers have described in detail the structure and issues of GMR sensors and their application in eddy current techniques for nondestructive testing. This paper will describe the implementation of GMR sensors in non-destructive testing eddy current testing. The first part of this paper will describe the structure and principles of GMR sensors. The second part outlines the principles and types of eddy current testing probe that have been studied and developed by previous researchers. The influence of various parameters on the GMR measurement and a factor affecting in eddy current testing will be described in detail in the third part of this paper. Finally, this paper will discuss the limitations of coil probe and compensation techniques that researchers have applied in eddy current testing probes. A comprehensive review of previous studies on the application of GMR sensors in non-destructive eddy current testing also be given at the end of this paper. PMID:26927123

  6. The epidemiological and clinical features of primary giant cell tumor around the knee: A report from the multicenter retrospective study in china

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fengsong; Hu, Yongcheng; Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Huilin; Yu, Xiuchun; Wang, Zhen; Ye, Zhaoming; Wu, Sujia; Guo, Shibing; Zhang, Guochuan; Wang, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the demographic characteristics of giant cell tumor around the knee in China. Methods Between March 2000 and June 2014, patients with primary giant cell tumor around the knee were recruited from 6 institutions located in different regions of China, and were reviewed retrospectively the clinical features according to gender and age. Results 334 qualified patients were included in this study. The sex ratio was 1.14:1 (178/156), with mean ages of 36.9 years in men and 33.1 years in women, constituting a significant difference (P=0.007). The prevalence of pathological fracture was 32.9% overall (28.7% in men and 37.8% in women). The prevalence of simple fracture was significantly higher in women (26.3%) than in men (15.2%), P=0.042. Tumor location and staging did not differ significantly according to sex (P>0.05). However, comparing with >40 years old, those patients aged ≤40 were more likely to have a right knee tumor (56.7% vs. 44.7%, P=0.042), less likely to have Enneking stage 3 disease (18.6% vs. 35.0%, P=0.005), and less likely to have both soft-tissue extension and a mass (18.6% vs. 34.0%, P=0.009). Conclusions Giant cell tumor around the knee was more common in men than in women, although female patients were younger on average. Further, cases among patients ≤40 years old were observed to be milder than cases among older patients. The results suggest that efficient treatment and preservation of function should both be valued for young patients with giant cell tumor around the knee. PMID:26998425

  7. The plant cell inhibitor KRP6 is involved in multinucleation and cytokinesis disruption in giant-feeding cells induced by root-knot nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Paulo; Engler, Janice de Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The plant cell cycle inhibitor gene KRP6 has been investigated in roots infected by plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Unexpectedly, KRP6 overexpressing lines revealed a distinct role for this specific KRP as an activator of the mitotic cell cycle. This function was confirmed in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cultures ectopically expressing KRP6. A blockage in the mitotic exit was observed in cell suspensions and in giant cells resulted in the appearance of multi-nucleated cells. KRP6 expression during nematode infection and the similarity in phenotypes among KRP6 overexpressing cell cultures and giant-cell morphology strongly suggest that KRP6 is involved in multinucleation and acytokinesis occurring in giant-cells. Once again nematodes have been shown to manipulate the plant cell cycle machinery in order to promote gall establishment. PMID:25915833

  8. Incidence of central giant cell granuloma of the jaws with clinical and histological confirmation: an archival study in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V; Saxena, S; Aggarwal, P; Sharma, P; Reddy, M

    2012-10-01

    To record the demographics, and correlate histological findings in central giant cell granulomas (CGCGs) of the jaws with their clinical behaviour, 30 paraffin-embedded samples of CGCG were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Subharti Dental College, Meerut, India. The diagnosis in each case was made on the basis of clinical, radiographic, and histological findings. Data about age, sex, anatomical site, presentation, radiological features, and laboratory investigations were analysed. Histomorphometric analyses were made in each case with respect to the number of giant cells, mean number of nuclei and giant cells, fractional surface area occupied by giant cells, index of relative size, and mitotic activity. The peak incidence of CGCG was during the second decade of life with a slight female predilection, and the mandible was the most common site. Of the 30 samples considered, 20 tumours were classified clinically as non-aggressive, and 10 as aggressive, based on their clinical behaviour. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant changes between the two groups with respect to the number of giant cells, the fractional surface area, and the mitotic activity. The data obtained showed clinical and histomorphometric features that may be reliable indicators for the differentiation between aggressive and non-aggressive CGCG. These data should be taken into consideration to improve planning of individual treatment and follow-up. PMID:22196146

  9. Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Fibula Managed by En Block Resection and Reconstruction with Ipsilateral Proximal Fibula.

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Sambprasad; Punit, Abhinanadan S; Nair, Rohit V

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumour is the commonest benign bone tumour arising at the epiphyseometaphyseal regions of long bones. Around the knee is commonest site followed by distal radius. A giant cell tumour of the distal fibula is extremely rare. We report here a case of giant cell tumour of distal fibula. There are very few similar cases reported worldwide and it is the purpose of this report to describe the management of such a case. Case Report: A 17 year old girl presented with swelling of ankle and pain while walking for six months. Radiographs were suggestive of a giant cell tumour, computerised tomography revealed cortical break, en block resection was done with ipsilateral proximal fibula used in reconstruction of ankle mortise. Conclusion: Giant cell tumour of long bones are common but those involving the distal fibula are exceedingly rare. The management of such tumours with high recurrence rates can be easily accomplished by en block resection and reconstruction of the ankle mortise with proximal fibula ensuring good range of motion of the joint post operatively.

  10. Multiple metastases from histologically benign intraarticular diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naofumi; Yoshida, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Eisuke; Yamaguchi, Takehiko; Kawai, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor (D-TGCT) is a relatively rare mesenchymal tumor. It is a locally aggressive but virtually nonmetastasizing neoplasm and thus regarded as benign. Only a few D-TGCTs with benign histology have been reported to metastasize. We report an extremely rare case of benign D-TGCT in which multiple metastases developed 9 years after surgery for the primary tumor. The present case suggests that conventional D-TGCT has the potential to form distant metastases, albeit exceptionally rarely, and that this probable implantation phenomenon can be managed conservatively. PMID:25130396

  11. Forehead necrosis, one of the many facades of giant cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Vanessa Elizabeth; Young-Zvandasara, Tafadzwa; Vusirikala, Bharati

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is known to be a potentially blinding condition. Swift diagnosis can aid in preventing permanent visual loss and, more importantly, protect the contralateral eye. Classical symptoms include jaw claudication, myalgia and new-onset headache. We present two cases of GCA with scalp necrosis, a rare feature associated with this condition. In the first case, forehead necrosis preceded the visual symptoms by 2 days. In the second case it was noted a few weeks after the patient presented with profound unilateral loss of vision. Scalp necrosis is an important sign that should prompt those approached by these patients to consider GCA. PMID:25953578

  12. Orthopedic and orthodontic treatment in central giant cell granuloma treated with calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Romero, Martín; Romance, Ana; Garcia-Recuero, José Ismael; Fernández, Álvaro

    2011-09-01

    Central giant cell granuloma of the jaw is a benign lesion of unknown etiology that occurs with very low frequency. It mainly occurs in children and young adults and is more common in the mandible. The most common treatment is surgical removal; however, alternative therapies (intralesional injections of corticosteroids, interferon alpha, and calcitonin) have been used in order to avoid undesirable damage to the jaws and teeth. The lesion may cause root resorption, tooth germ displacement, and other dental problems, as well as malocclusion that must be treated orthodontically. The orthodontic, orthopedic, and calcitonin-based treatments of one of these cases is presented. PMID:20815718

  13. A solitary pleural metastasis of benign giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Mitsui, Ai; Doi, Masatomo; Hoshikawa, Masahiro; Hayashi, Akinobu; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) usually appears as a benign tumor. We describe an extremely rare case of a metastatic pleural tumor arising from a benign GCTB. The patient had undergone radial resection of a GCTB in his left wrist. After 6 years, he was sent to us for diagnosis of a large mass detected upon routine radiographic screening. We resected the tumor, which was found to be a solitary pleural metastasis of GCTB and had evidently spread arterially. To our knowledge, this is the first report of its kind. PMID:27516881

  14. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Tandra, Varun Sharma; Kotha, Krishna Mohan Reddy; Satyanarayana, Moorthy Gadisetti Venkata; Vadlamani, Kali Varaprasad; Yerravalli, Vyjayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge. PMID:26106496

  15. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour of Distal Radius and Sacrum with Pulmonary Metastases.

    PubMed

    Tandra, Varun Sharma; Kotha, Krishna Mohan Reddy; Satyanarayana, Moorthy Gadisetti Venkata; Vadlamani, Kali Varaprasad; Yerravalli, Vyjayanthi

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) is an uncommon primary bone tumour, and its multicentric presentation is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 45-year-old female who presented to us with GCT of left distal radius. On the skeletal survey, osteolytic lesion was noted in her right sacral ala. Biopsy confirmed both lesions as GCT. Pulmonary metastasis was also present. Resection-reconstruction arthroplasty for distal radius and thorough curettage and bone grafting of the sacral lesion were done. Multicentric GCT involving distal radius and sacrum with primary sacral involvement is not reported so far to our knowledge. PMID:26106496

  16. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia with giant cells in the female breast. No association with neurofibromatosis?

    PubMed

    Zámecník, M; Dubac, V

    2011-04-01

    A simultaneous finding of pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) and stromal multinucleated giant cells (MGC) in mammary tissue was previously observed in patients with type-1 neurofibromatosis, indicating that it can represent a morphologic marker for this syndrome. Here, we present PASH with MGC occurring in the left breast of a 39-years-old woman who does not have neurofibromatosis. This case, along with two additional ones reported previously, indicates that PASH with MGC in the female breast may not be associated with neurofibromatosis. PMID:21598761

  17. Long segmental hyperplasia of interstitial cells of Cajal with giant diverticulum formation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Liyan; Qiu, Tian; Song, Ying; Shan, Ling; Liu, Xiuyun; Guo, Lei; Ying, Jianming; Zou, Shuangmei; Shi, Susheng; Polydorides, Alexandros D; Zhao, Xinming; Lu, Ning; Lin, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) usually form a well-circumscribed mass. In contrast, diffuse interstitial cell of Cajal (ICC) hyperplasia along the Auerbach plexus without a discrete mass may occur in patients with germline mutations in the NF1, c-KIT or PDGFRA genes. However, sporadic, diffuse ICC hyperplasia without c-KIT or PDGFRA mutations has not been reported. We describe herein one such case, forming a giant diverticulum. A 63-year-old woman with no features of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) presented with increasing abdominal pain for more than 30 years. A large, diverticulum-like mass in the ileum was resected. Microscopically, a diffuse proliferation of bland spindle cells was seen extending for 12 cm, replacing the muscularis propria and lined by intact mucosa. The spindle cells were CD117+/CD34+/DOG1+/SMA+/Desmin-/S100-. Mutation analyses did not reveal any mutations in c-KIT or PDGFRA. The lesion had two silent mutations in the NF1 gene. It is rare of the diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia showing diffuse longitudinal microscopic growth completely replacing the muscularis propria, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes, but without solid components and no c-KIT or PDGFRA gene mutations. This peculiar form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia may be related to intestinal dysmotility in this ileal segment and giant diverticulum formation. PMID:24294389

  18. A giant protein associated with the anterior pole of a trypanosomatid cell body skeleton.

    PubMed

    Baqui, M M; Takata, C S; Milder, R V; Pudles, J

    1996-07-01

    A megadalton protein was found to be a cytoskeleton component of the promastigote forms of the flagellate Phytomonas serpens. This protein migrated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as a doublet of polypeptides with a molecular mass similar to muscle beta-connectin (titin) 2500-3000 kDa. A polyclonal antibody raised against this protein reacts, by immunoblot analysis, with Phytomonas serpens and two others Phytomonas species. In addition, the Phytomonas serpens protein was immunoprecipitated after being metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine. This antibody did not cross-react with the cytoskeletal proteins of Trypanosoma cruzi, Crithidia luciliae thermophila, Crithidia fasciculata and Leptomonas samueli or with beta-connectin (titin). Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy analysis revealed a punctate fluorescence staining at the anterior region of the parasite's body skeleton. Moreover, immunogold electron microscopy of cytoskeletal preparations and of thin sections of whole cells indicates that the giant protein appears to cap the anterior end of the cell body microtubules at the level of the junctional complex. We suggest that this giant protein may serve as a linker between the cell body skeleton and the flagellum membrane. PMID:8832208

  19. Complete transthoracic resection of giant posterior mediastinal goiter: case report and review of surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honglin; Ren, Dian; Liu, Yi; Li, Xin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Gang; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic goiters generally occupy anterior mediastinum, rarely involving the posterior mediastinal space. Reported herein is a 54-year-old female with a giant posterior mediastinal mass that was successfully resected via right posterolateral thoracotomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant posterior mediastinal goiter. This patient has done well postoperatively, with no evidence of local recurrence at 12-month follow-up. Related surgical strategies in past publications are summarized. PMID:27217766

  20. Peptidergic modulation of the membrane potential of the Schwann cell of the squid giant nerve fibre.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, P D; Reale, V; Villegas, J

    1986-01-01

    The effects of a range of neuropeptides were investigated on the membrane potential of the Schwann cells of the giant nerve fibre of the tropical squid. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) produced a dose-dependent, long-lasting hyperpolarization of the Schwann-cell membrane potential. Among peptides structurally related to VIP, similar effects were produced by peptide histidine isoleucine (PHI) but not by secretin and glucagon. Substance P and somatostatin also hyperpolarized the Schwann-cell membrane potential but via receptor systems distinct from those activated by VIP. Methionine enkephalin ([Met]-enkephalin) blocked the actions of all the above peptides as well as the effects of DL-octopamine and carbachol. The actions of [Met]-enkephalin upon the VIP responses were antagonized by naloxone. VIP produces its effects on the Schwann-cell membrane potential via a receptor system that is independent from those described previously which mediate the effects of carbachol and DL-octopamine. However, VIP can potentiate the effects of the latter systems. The actions of VIP on the Schwann cell are unlikely to be mediated via changes in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels and are insensitive to changes in the level of extracellular calcium in the superfusate. The actions of VIP are, however, potentiated in the presence of low concentrations of lithium ions suggesting that the VIP receptor may mediate its effects by inducing the hydrolysis of polyphosphatidylinositols in the Schwann-cell membrane. Evidence is presented for the existence of an endogenous VIP-like component in the normal hyperpolarizing action of giant-axon activity on the membrane potential of the Schwann cell. PMID:2435897

  1. Binucleate trophoblast giant cells in the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) placenta.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A F; Klisch, K; Miglino, M A; Pereira, F T V; Bevilacqua, E

    2006-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast giant cells (BNC) of the water buffalo, Bubalus bubalis, placenta were studied, with emphasis on the synthesis of BNC-specific proteins. Placentomal tissues of 27 water buffalos (2-10 months of pregnancy) were processed for light and electron microscopy. The frequency of BNCs was 20% of the trophoblastic cells in 2-3-month placentas and increased to 27% in the later stages. Ultrastructurally, binucleate cells displayed a prominent granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, typical of cells involved with protein synthesis and exportation. The buffalo BNCs contained periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules and reacted with antisera against bovine placental lactogen, prolactin-related protein-I, and pregnancy-associated glycoproteins. Lectin histochemistry with Dolichos biflorus agglutinin, Vicia villosa agglutinin, and Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin showed specific staining of BNCs. Different stages of BNC migration and fusion with uterine epithelial cells were observed. Trinucleate feto-maternal hybrid cells were the typical outcome of cell fusions. These cells underwent degeneration, with typical morphological features of apoptosis. The results revealed a strong homology between water buffalo and cattle BNCs concerning cell morphology, protein expression, glycosylation pattern, and characteristics of cell migration and fusion. PMID:16240388

  2. CTCFL (BORIS) mRNA Expression in a Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Galván, Graciela; Reyes-Romero, Miguel; Bologna-Molina, Ronell; Almeda-Ojeda, Oscar Eduardo; Lemus-Rojero, Obed

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a relatively common benign reactive lesion of the oral cavity which can occur at any age. CTCFL/BORIS (CTCF like/Brother of the Regulator of Imprinted Sites) and CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) are paralogous genes with an important role in the regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and nuclear chromatin insulators regulation. BORIS expression promotes cell immortalization and growth while CTCF has tumor suppressor activity; the expression pattern may reflect the reverse transcription silencing of BORIS. The aim of this work was to describe a histopathological and molecular approach of an 8-year-old pediatric male patient with PGCG diagnosis. It was observed that the PGCG under study expressed CTCF as well as BORIS mRNAs alongside with the housekeeping gene GAPDH, which may be related to possible genetic and epigenetic changes in normal cells of oral cavity. PMID:25114808

  3. Including MIR of a primary bone leiomyosarcoma that radiologically mimics a giant cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Sirikulchayanonta, Vorachai; Jaovisidh, Suphaneewan

    2008-02-01

    The authors present a case of a 42-year-old female who developed a leiomyosarcoma of the right proximal tibia that appeared radiologically similar to a giant cell tumor Histology revealed spindle cells running in whorl-like fashion with focal atypia and low mitotic figures. The immuno-stains revealed positive reactivity for alpha-smooth muscle (SMA), muscle actin and cytokeratin (AE1/AE3). The authors rendered a diagnosis of low-grade leiomyosarcoma of bone. The lesion was considered a primary lesion since the patient did not have other leiomyomatous tumors. The MRI showed hypo- to iso- signal intensity on T1-weighted imaging and heterogeneous intensity on T2-weighted imaging. This was likely due to admixed fibrotic tissue in the lesion. The tumor cells were not positive for Ebstein-Barr virus by in-situ hybridization as seen in leiomyomatous tumors in immunodeficiency patients. PMID:18389991

  4. Endopolyploidy in irradiated p53-deficient tumour cell lines: Persistence of cell division activity in giant cells expressing Aurora B- kinase

    PubMed Central

    Erenpreisa, Jekaterina; Ivanov, Andrei; Wheatley, Sally P; Kosmacek, Elizabeth A; Ianzini, Fiorenza; Anisimov, Alim P; Mackey, Michael; Davis, Paul J; Plakhins, Grigorijs; Illidge, Timothy M

    2008-01-01

    Recent findings including computerized live imaging suggest that polyploidy cells transiently emerging after severe genotoxic stress (and named ‘endopolyploid cells’) may have a role in tumour regrowth after anti-cancer treatment. Until now, mostly the factors enabling metaphase were studied in them. Here we investigate the mitotic activities and the role of Aurora B, in view of potential de-polyploidisation of these cells, because Aurora B- kinase is responsible for coordination and completion of mitosis. We observed that endopolyploid giant cells are formed in irradiated p53 tumours in several ways: (1) by division/fusion of daughter cells creating early multi-nucleated cells; (2) by asynchronous division/fusion of sub-nuclei of these multinucleated cells; (3) by a series of polyploidising mitoses reverting replicative interphase from aborted metaphase and forming giant cells with a single nucleus; (4) by micronucleation of arrested metaphases enclosing genome fragments; or (5) by incomplete division in the multipolar mitoses forming late multi-nucleated giant cells. We also observed that these activities are able to release para-diploid cells, although they do so infrequently. Although after a substantial delay, apoptosis typically occurs in these cells, we also found that roughly 2% of endopolyploid cells evade apoptosis and senescence arrest and continue mitotic activities. In this article we describe that catalytically active aurora B-kinase is expressed in the nuclei of many interphase endopolyploid cells, as well as being present at the centromeres, mitotic spindle and cleavage furrow during their mitotic efforts. The totally micronucleated giant cells (containing subgenomic fragments in multiple micronuclei) represented the only minor fraction, which failed to undergo mitosis and Aurora B was absent from it. These observations suggest that most endopolyploid tumour cells are not reproductively inert and that aurora B may contribute to the establishment

  5. Quantification and Correlation of Angiogenesis with Macrophages by Histomorphometric Method in Central and Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma: An Immunohistochemical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Krishanappa, Savita Jangal; Prakash, Smitha Gowdra; Channabasaviah, Girish Hemdal; Murgod, Sanjay; Pujari, Ravikumar; Kamat, Mamata Sharad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Angiogenesis is a fundamental process that affects physiologic reactions and pathological processes such as tumour development and metastasis. It is the process of formation of new microvessel from the preexisting vessels. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate angiogenesis, macrophage index and correlate the impact of macrophages on angiogenesis in the central and peripheral giant cell granulomas by evaluating immunohistochemically microvessel density, microvessel perimeter and macrophage index. Materials and Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was carried on 20 cases of central and peripheral giant cell granulomas each for CD34 and CD68 proteins expression. Inferential statistical analysis was performed using Independent student t-test to assess the microvessel density, microvessel perimeter and macrophage index on continuous scale between Group I and Group II. Level of significance was determined at 5%. Further bivariate analysis using Pearson correlation test was carried out to see the relationship between microvessel density and macrophage index in each group. Results Microvessel density, micro vessel perimeter and macrophage index was higher in central giant cell granuloma compared to that of peripheral giant cell granuloma. Correlation between microvessel density and macrophage index among these two lesions was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Angiogenesis as well as the number of macrophages appeared to increase in Central Giant Cell Granuloma in present study. These findings suggest that macrophages may up regulate the angiogenesis in these giant cell granulomas and angiogenesis do have a role in clinical behaviour. However, we could not establish a positive correlation between microvessel density and macrophage index as the values were statistically insignificant. This insignificance may be presumed due to fewer samples taken for study. PMID:27134990

  6. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W.; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro. PMID:26375397

  7. Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Stimulates the Proliferation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Jie; Liu, Yu-Liang; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Ge, Wei; Wang, Yong-Yong; Dyce, Paul W; Hou, Rong; Shen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    It has been widely known that the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most endangered species in the world. An optimized platform for maintaining the proliferation of giant panda mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is very necessary for current giant panda protection strategies. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a member of the FGF family, is widely considered as a growth factor and differentiation inducer within the stem cell research field. However, the role of bFGF on promoting the proliferation of MSCs derived from giant panda bone marrow (BM) has not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of bFGF on the proliferation of BM-MSCs derived from giant panda. MSCs were cultured for cell proliferation analysis at 24, 48 and 72 hrs following the addition of bFGF. With increasing concentrations of bFGF, cell numbers gradually increased. This was further demonstrated by performing 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell proliferation assay, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine (BrdU) labeling and cell cycle testing. Furthermore, the percentage of MSCs that were OCT4 positive increased slightly following treatment with 5 ng/ml bFGF. Moreover, we demonstrated that the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway may play an important role in the proliferation of panda MSCs stimulated by bFGF. In conclusion, this study suggests that giant panda BM-MSCs have a high proliferative capacity with the addition of 5 ng/ml bFGF in vitro. PMID:26375397

  8. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in a 15-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Kakugawa, Tomoyuki; Mukae, Hiroshi; Nagata, Towako; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kaida, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Suematsu, Takashi; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Kohno, Shigeru

    2002-11-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP) is a very uncommon respiratory disease. We report a juvenile patient with GIP aged 15 years. Although he has a negative past history of direct exposure to hard metals, we could not exclude possible exposure in very small amounts through his parents. Microscopic examination of lung biopsy specimen obtained by video-assisted thoracoscopy revealed marked cellular interstitial infiltrates and prominent intraalveolar macrophages as well as giant cells showing cellular cannibalism. Analysis of the biopsied lung tissue for cobalt and tungsten was negative. Clinical symptoms, laboratory, and radiological findings improved markedly after treatment with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, only eleven cases of GIP have been reported in Japan. Although possible exposure to hard metals was identified in 9 of the 11 reported cases, there is no clear dose-dependent relationship with onset and prognosis. The average age at onset was 46.2+/-15.0 years. Our patient is the youngest case of GIP reported in the world. PMID:12487179

  9. Ocular pneumoplethysmography can help in the diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis.

    PubMed

    Bosley, T M; Savino, P J; Sergott, R C; Eagle, R C; Sandy, R; Gee, W

    1989-03-01

    We compared the results of ocular pneumoplethysmography in nine patients who had a temporal artery biopsy (TAB) diagnostic of giant-cell arteritis with results of ocular pneumoplethysmography in nine patients with normal TAB results and 112 patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy or central retinal artery occlusion assumed to be nonarteritic. The mean +/- SD ocular pulse amplitude with ocular pneumoplethysmography was 3.9 +/- 1.8 mm in the group with abnormal TAB results and 10.6 +/- 4.0 mm in the group with normal TAB results. Every patient with abnormal TAB results had an average calculated ocular blood flow less than 0.60 mL/min, while only one patient with normal TAB results fell in this range. The average calculated ocular blood flow had a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 93.4% in the diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis, with a diagnostic accuracy of 93.9%. These results rival the diagnostic accuracy of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and TAB results. PMID:2923561

  10. Central Giant Cell Granuloma of Posterior Maxilla: First Expression of Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Deepanshu; Bansal, Vishal; Dubey, Prajesh; Pandey, Sanjay; Agrawal, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    A case of 19-year-old male patient reported with the chief complaint of slowly growing diffuse painless swelling over the right part of the face from last 6 months. Intraoral examination revealed a swelling on right side of palate in relation to molar region with buccal cortical plate expansion. Radiographic examination (orthopantograph and 3DCT) showed large multilocular radiolucency in right maxilla with generalized loss of lamina dura. Incisional biopsy was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination which showed multinucleated giant cells containing 15–30 nuclei. Based on clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings provisional diagnosis of central giant cell granuloma was made. Blood tests after histopathology demonstrated elevated serum calcium level and alkaline phosphatase level. Immunoassay of parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was found to be highly elevated. Radiographic examination of long bones like humerus and femur, mandible, and skull was also done which showed osteoclastic lesions. Considering the clinical, radiographic, histopathological, and blood investigation findings, final diagnosis of brown tumour of maxilla was made. The patient underwent partial parathyroidectomy under general anaesthesia to control primary hyperparathyroidism. Surgical removal of the bony lesion was done by curettage. The patient has been followed up for 1 year with no postoperative complications and the lesion healed uneventfully. PMID:25692050