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1

Strategically Reviewing the Research Literature in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewing literature in qualitative research can be challenging in terms of why, when, where, and how we should access third-party sources in our work, especially for novice qualitative researchers. As a pragmatic solution, we suggest qualitative researchers utilize research literature in four functional ways: (a) define the phenomenon in…

Chenail, Ronald J.; Cooper, Robin; Desir, Charlene

2010-01-01

2

Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

Ells, Carolyn

2011-01-01

3

WOMEN'S EXPERIENCES OF ABUSE: A REVIEW OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews qualitative research published within the past 15 years based on women's first person accounts of their abuse experiences. Battered women's accounts of their experiences in abusive relationships aid in understanding why they stay, how they cope, and how others can help. Women's views of the emotional consequences of battering, the process of leaving, and the impact of

Martha R. Sleutel

1998-01-01

4

Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the use of a narrative inductive method of

Kip Jones

2004-01-01

5

Mission Drift in Qualitative Research, or Moving Toward a Systematic Review of Qualitative Studies, Moving Back to a More Systematic Narrative Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper argues that the systematic review of qualitative research is best served by reliance upon qualitative methods themselves. A case is made for strengthening the narrative literature review and using narrative itself as a method of review. A technique is proposed that builds upon recent developments in qualitative systematic review by the…

Jones, Kip

2004-01-01

6

Reviewing Qualitative Research: Proposed Criteria for Fairness and Rigor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legitimate and fair criteria for the publication of qualitative naturalistic research in occupational therapy include credibility and transferability. Such methods as triangulation, negative case analysis, and testing for rival hypotheses are promising criteria for fairness and rigor. (SK)

Gliner, Jeffrey A.

1994-01-01

7

Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe how a researcher may conduct a basic qualitative research. This paper deals specifically with research of learning, older adults, and in a rural area. This paper became the foundation for the research of my dissertation. I discuss the sample and the criteria for the sample. I also describe the sources of…

Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

2005-01-01

8

Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

2007-01-01

9

Qualitative Methods in Health Research: Opportunities and Considerations in Application and Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research sponsored a workshop on September 30 and October 1, 1999, entitled Qualitative Methods in Health Research: Opportunities and Considerations in Application and Review. The workshop was organized by the ...

2005-01-01

10

Worked examples of alternative methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research in systematic reviews  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The inclusion of qualitative studies in systematic reviews poses methodological challenges. This paper presents worked examples of two methods of data synthesis (textual narrative and thematic), used in relation to one review, with the aim of enabling researchers to consider the strength of different approaches. METHODS: A systematic review of lay perspectives of infant size and growth was conducted,

Patricia J Lucas; Janis Baird; Lisa Arai; Catherine Law; Helen M Roberts

2007-01-01

11

Epistemology in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Published Articles, 2008-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the epistemological foundations of qualitative social work research. A template-based review was completed on 100 articles from social work journals. Reviewers examined five things: (1) the purpose or aims of the research, (2) the rationale or justification for the work, (3) the populations studied, (4) the presence of four…

Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

2013-01-01

12

Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control  

PubMed Central

Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

2012-01-01

13

Rigor in Qualitative Social Work Research: A Review of Strategies Used in Published Articles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted to describe strategies used by social work researchers to enhance the rigor of their qualitative work. A template was developed and used to review a random sample of 100 articles drawn from social work journals listed in the "2005 Journal Citation Reports: Science and Social Sciences Edition." Results suggest that the most…

Barusch, Amanda; Gringeri, Christina; George, Molly

2011-01-01

14

Combining qualitative and quantitative research within mixed method research designs: A methodological review  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesIt has been argued that mixed methods research can be useful in nursing and health science because of the complexity of the phenomena studied. However, the integration of qualitative and quantitative approaches continues to be one of much debate and there is a need for a rigorous framework for designing and interpreting mixed methods research. This paper explores the analytical

Ulrika Östlund; Lisa Kidd; Yvonne Wengström; Neneh Rowa-Dewar

2011-01-01

15

Quality in Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of effort has been expended by methodologists over the years, trying to give some guidance to qualitative researchers in improving or judging the quality of qualitative research. You could say that all methodological writing is ultimately directed at such a goal, because the idea of writing about how one can do research is presumably aimed at giving other

Clive Seale

1999-01-01

16

GPs' perspectives on the management of patients with multimorbidity: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Objective To synthesise the existing published literature on the perceptions of general practitioners (GPs) or their equivalent on the clinical management of multimorbidity and determine targets for future research that aims to improve clinical care in multimorbidity. Design Systematic review and metaethnographic synthesis of primary studies that used qualitative methods to explore GPs’ experiences of clinical management of multimorbidity or multiple chronic diseases. Data sources EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, Academic Search Complete, SocIndex, Social Science Full Text and digital theses/online libraries (database inception to September 2012) to identify literature using qualitative methods (focus groups or interviews). Review methods The 7-step metaethnographic approach described by Noblit and Hare, which involves cross-interpretation between studies while preserving the context of the primary data. Results Of 1805 articles identified, 37 were reviewed in detail and 10 were included, using a total of 275 GPs in 7 different countries. Four areas of difficulty specific to the management of multimorbidity emerged from these papers: disorganisation and fragmentation of healthcare; the inadequacy of guidelines and evidence-based medicine; challenges in delivering patient-centred care; and barriers to shared decision-making. A ‘line of argument’ was drawn which described GPs’ sense of isolation in decision-making for multimorbid patients. Conclusions This systematic review shows that the problem areas for GPs in the management of multimorbidity may be classified into four domains. There will be no ‘one size fits all’ intervention for multimorbidity but these domains may be useful targets to guide the development of interventions that will assist and improve the provision of care to multimorbid patients.

Sinnott, Carol; Mc Hugh, Sheena; Browne, John; Bradley, Colin

2013-01-01

17

The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background There is increasing interest in promoting young people’s health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students’ health behaviours, or how students’ backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people’s health? Methods Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62, 329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare’s meta-ethnographic approach. Results Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people’s health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised ‘hotspots’ at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools’ organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of ‘escape’, either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard’s theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular conceptualising more fully the role of young people’s agency and student-led ‘systems’ in constituting school environments and generating health risks. Conclusion Institutional features which may shape student health behaviours such as lack of safety, poor student-staff relationships and lack of student voice are amenable to interventions and should be the subject of future investigation. Future qualitative research should focus on health behaviours which are under-theorised in this context such as physical activity, sexual and mental health.

2013-01-01

18

A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research on the Meaning and Characteristics of Mentoring in Academic Medicine  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Mentorship is perceived to play a significant role in the career development and productivity of academic clinicians, but little is known about the characteristics of mentorship. This knowledge would be useful for those developing mentorship programs. OBJECTIVE To complete a systematic review of the qualitative literature to explore and summarize the development, perceptions and experiences of the mentoring relationship in academic medicine. DATE SOURCES Medline, PsycINFO, ERIC, Scopus and Current Contents databases from the earliest available date to December 2008. REVIEW METHODS We included studies that used qualitative research methodology to explore the meaning and characteristics of mentoring in academic medicine. Two investigators independently assessed articles for relevance and study quality, and extracted data using standardized forms. No restrictions were placed on the language of articles. RESULTS A total of 8,487 citations were identified, 114 full text articles were assessed, and 9 articles were selected for review. All studies were conducted in North America, and most focused on the initiation and cultivation phases of the mentoring relationship. Mentoring was described as a complex relationship based on mutual interests, both professional and personal. Mentees should take an active role in the formation and development of mentoring relationships. Good mentors should be sincere in their dealings with mentees, be able to listen actively and understand mentees' needs, and have a well-established position within the academic community. Some of the mentoring functions aim at the mentees’ academic growth and others at personal growth. Barriers to mentoring and dysfunctional mentoring can be related to personal factors, relational difficulties and structural/institutional barriers. CONCLUSIONS Successful mentoring requires commitment and interpersonal skills of the mentor and mentee, but also a facilitating environment at academic medicine's institutions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-009-1165-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Sambunjak, Dario; Marusic, Ana

2009-01-01

19

Teaching Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explicitly qualitative research has never before been so popular in human geography, and this article hopes to encourage more graduate students and faculty members to undertake the teaching of qualitative geography. The article describes one such course for graduate students, highlighting its challenges and rewards, and focusing on exercises…

Delyser, Dydia

2008-01-01

20

Qualitative research in marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Purpose,– To discuss and,analyse,three themes,in qualitative research in marketing,which,are objects of both frustration and confusion: analysis and interpretation; theory generation; and a quest for scientific pluralism and individual researcher lifestyles. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Underpinning the discussion is that complexity, ambiguity, fuzziness, chaos, change, uncertainty and unpredictability are characteristics of a market economy; that qualitative and subjective interpretation is necessary,to add

E. Gummesson

2005-01-01

21

Writing a qualitative research report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project in nursing or nursing education is probably only complete once the findings have been published. This paper offers a format for writing a qualitative research report for publication. It suggests, at least, the following sections: introduction, aims of the study, review of the literature, sample, data collection methods, data analysis methods, findings, discussion, conclusion, abstract. Each of

Philip Burnard

2004-01-01

22

Socio-Cultural Aspects of Chagas Disease: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, more than 10 million people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes about 20 000 annual deaths. Although Chagas disease is endemic to certain regions of Latin America, migratory flows have enabled its expansion into areas where it was previously unknown. Economic, social and cultural factors play a significant role in its presence and perpetuation. This systematic review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of qualitative research on Chagas disease, both in endemic and non-endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Searches were carried out in ten databases, and the bibliographies of retrieved studies were examined. Data from thirty-three identified studies were extracted, and findings were analyzed and synthesized along key themes. Themes identified for endemic countries included: socio-structural determinants of Chagas disease; health practices; biomedical conceptions of Chagas disease; patient's experience; and institutional strategies adopted. Concerning non-endemic countries, identified issues related to access to health services and health seeking. Conclusions The emergence and perpetuation of Chagas disease depends largely on socio-cultural aspects influencing health. As most interventions do not address the clinical, environmental, social and cultural aspects jointly, an explicitly multidimensional approach, incorporating the experiences of those affected is a potential tool for the development of long-term successful programs. Further research is needed to evaluate this approach.

Ventura-Garcia, Laia; Roura, Maria; Pell, Christopher; Posada, Elisabeth; Gascon, Joaquim; Aldasoro, Edelweis; Munoz, Jose; Pool, Robert

2013-01-01

23

Examining Foundations of Qualitative Research: A Review of Social Work Dissertations, 2008-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the treatment of epistemology and methodological rigor in qualitative social work dissertations. Template-based review was conducted on a random sample of 75 dissertations completed between 2008 and 2010. For each dissertation, we noted the presence or absence of four markers of epistemology: theory, paradigm, reflexivity, and…

Gringeri, Christina; Barusch, Amanda; Cambron, Christopher

2013-01-01

24

Limits to modern contraceptive use among young women in developing countries: a systematic review of qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Improving the reproductive health of young women in developing countries requires access to safe and effective methods of fertility control, but most rely on traditional rather than modern contraceptives such as condoms or oral\\/injectable hormonal methods. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative research to examine the limits to modern contraceptive use identified by young women in developing countries.

Lisa M Williamson; Alison Parkes; Daniel Wight; Mark Petticrew; Graham J Hart

2009-01-01

25

A Content Analysis of LGBTQ Qualitative Research in Counseling: A Ten-Year Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This content analysis examines the qualitative methodology used in counseling research with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) issues published over the last 10 years (1998-2008) in 4 counseling and counseling psychology journals ("Journal of Counseling & Development," "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of LGBT Issues…

Singh, Anneliese A.; Shelton, Kimber

2011-01-01

26

"She's Weird!"--The Social Construction of Bullying in School: A Review of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research provides opportunities to study bullying and peer harassment as social processes, interactions and meaning-making in the everyday context of particular settings. It offers the possibility of developing a deep understanding of the culture and group processes of bullying and the participants' perspectives on peer harassment as…

Thornberg, Robert

2011-01-01

27

Consensual Qualitative Research: An Update  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors reviewed the application of consensual qualitative research (CQR) in 27 studies published since the method's introduction to the field in 1997 by C. E. Hill, B. J. Thompson, and E. N. Williams (1997). After first describing the core components and the philosophical underpinnings of CQR, the authors examined how it has been applied in terms of the consensus

Clara E. Hill; Sarah Knox; Barbara J. Thompson; Elizabeth Nutt Williams; Shirley A. Hess; Nicholas Ladany

2005-01-01

28

Disciplining Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research exists in a time of global uncertainty. Around the world, governments are attempting to regulate scientific inquiry by defining what counts as "good" science. These regulatory activities raise fundamental, philosophical epistemological, political and pedagogical issues for scholarship and freedom of speech in the academy. This…

Denzin, Norman K.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Giardina, Michael D.

2006-01-01

29

Qualitative Research: Emerging Opportunity in Business Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the research methods used in articles published in "The Delta Pi Epsilon Journal" and the "NABTE Review" between 2001 and 2005 to determine the extent to which qualitative research methodologies have been employed by researchers and the extent to which these research methodologies were clearly…

Gaytan, Jorge

2007-01-01

30

Uncovering Treatment Burden as a Key Concept for Stroke Care: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with chronic disease may experience complicated management plans requiring significant personal investment. This has been termed ‘treatment burden’ and has been associated with unfavourable outcomes. The aim of this systematic review is to examine the qualitative literature on treatment burden in stroke from the patient perspective. Methods and Findings The search strategy centred on: stroke, treatment burden, patient experience, and qualitative methods. We searched: Scopus, CINAHL, Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO. We tracked references, footnotes, and citations. Restrictions included: English language, date of publication January 2000 until February 2013. Two reviewers independently carried out the following: paper screening, data extraction, and data analysis. Data were analysed using framework synthesis, as informed by Normalization Process Theory. Sixty-nine papers were included. Treatment burden includes: (1) making sense of stroke management and planning care, (2) interacting with others, (3) enacting management strategies, and (4) reflecting on management. Health care is fragmented, with poor communication between patient and health care providers. Patients report inadequate information provision. Inpatient care is unsatisfactory, with a perceived lack of empathy from professionals and a shortage of stimulating activities on the ward. Discharge services are poorly coordinated, and accessing health and social care in the community is difficult. The study has potential limitations because it was restricted to studies published in English only and data from low-income countries were scarce. Conclusions Stroke management is extremely demanding for patients, and treatment burden is influenced by micro and macro organisation of health services. Knowledge deficits mean patients are ill equipped to organise their care and develop coping strategies, making adherence less likely. There is a need to transform the approach to care provision so that services are configured to prioritise patient needs rather than those of health care systems. Systematic Review Registration International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001123 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Gallacher, Katie; Morrison, Deborah; Jani, Bhautesh; Macdonald, Sara; May, Carl R.; Montori, Victor M.; Erwin, Patricia J.; Batty, G. David; Eton, David T.; Langhorne, Peter; Mair, Frances S.

2013-01-01

31

Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner–Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practitioner–researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two sources of pressure on novice education researchers that may hinder their development as qualitative researchers.

Rebecca D. Cox

2012-01-01

32

Qualitative Research as Methodical Hermeneutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many

David L. Rennie

2012-01-01

33

Dilemmas in qualitative health research  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of qualitative methods in health research proliferates, it becomes increasingly necessary to consider how the value of a piece of qualitative research should be assessed. This article discusses the problem posed by the novelty and diversity of qualitative approaches within health psychology and considers the question of what criteria are appropriate for assessing the validity of a

Lucy Yardley

2000-01-01

34

Why Qualitative Research in Nursing?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of research in nursing education, its purpose and problems, and whether nursing research methodology should continue as is or change. Two case studies of research that used qualitative methodology are presented and discussed. (CT)

Swanson, Janice M.; Chenitz, W. Carole

1982-01-01

35

The aetiology and trajectory of anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background To our knowledge, there has never been a systematic review and synthesis of the qualitative literature on the trajectory and aetiology of nonmedical anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use. Methods We systematically reviewed and synthesized qualitative literature gathered from searches in PsycINFO, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Google Scholar, and reference lists of relevant literature to investigate AAS users’ ages of first use and source(s), history prior to use, and motives/drives for initiating use. We adhered to the recommendations of the UK Economic and Social Research Council’s qualitative research synthesis manual and the PRISMA guidelines. Results A total of 44 studies published between 1980 and 2014 were included in the synthesis. Studies originated from 11 countries: the United States (n =?18), England (n =?8), Australia (n =?4), Sweden (n =?4), both England and Wales (n =?2), and Scotland (n =?2). One study each originated from Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, France, Great Britain, and Norway. The majority of AAS users initiated use before age 30. Sports participation (particularly power sports), negative body image, and psychological disorders such as depression preceded initiation of AAS use for most users. Sources of first AAS were mainly users’ immediate social networks and the illicit market. Enhanced sports performance, appearance, and muscle/strength were the paramount motives for AAS use initiation. Conclusions Our findings elucidate the significance of psychosocial factors in AAS use initiation. The proliferation of AAS on the illicit market and social networks demands better ways of dealing with the global public health problem of AAS use.

2014-01-01

36

Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative manuscripts occupy a multidimensional world and can vary by their "latitude" (where they are with respect to the humanities and sciences), "longitude" (where they are with respect to the length and number of data excerpts), and "altitude" (where they are with respect to the level of theorizing). In this article, I discuss these 3…

LaRossa, Ralph

2012-01-01

37

Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

Cox, Rebecca D.

2012-01-01

38

Qualitative research in finance - pedigree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This paper sets out the reasons for putting together a special issue of the Journal on Qualitative Research in Finance, discussing the pedigree of the approach, and outlining the articles contained therein. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - The approach adopted in this paper involves discussing the use of qualitative research in finance in previous years, focussing in particular on the pedigree

Bruce Burton

39

Feminist Epistemology and Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents and evaluates an approach to teaching practicing social workers in Hong Kong qualitative research from a feminist perspective. Using a problem-based format, graduate social workers in Hong Kong were taught critical appraisal skills while learning to do qualitative interview research in their practices. While the problem-based design supports models of adult learning and is a successful method

Judith Globerman; Cecilia Chan

2000-01-01

40

Using Numbers in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of numerical/quantitative data in qualitative research studies and reports has been controversial. Prominent qualitative researchers such as Howard Becker and Martyn Hammersley have supported the inclusion of what Becker called "quasi-statistics": simple counts of things to make statements such as "some," "usually," and "most" more…

Maxwell, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

41

The Everyday Costs of Poverty in Childhood: A Review of Qualitative Research Exploring the Lives and Experiences of Low-Income Children in the UK  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of 10 years of qualitative research with disadvantaged children in the UK shows that despite some gaps in the knowledge base, there is now a substantive body of evidence exploring children's lives and experiences from their own perspectives. The review reveals that poverty penetrates deep into the heart of childhood, permeating every…

Ridge, Tess

2011-01-01

42

Qualitative research: a brief description.  

PubMed

Qualitative research refers to, a range of methodological approaches which aim to generate an in-depth and interpreted understanding of the social world, by learning about people's social and material circumstances, their experiences, perspectives, and histories. Requires researchers to become intensely involved, often remaining in field for lengthy periods of time. The greatest value of qualitative research is its ability to address questions of relevance to public health knowledge and practice which are difficult to answer satisfactorily using quantitative methods. PMID:24231397

Kemparaj, Umesh; Chavan, Sangeeta

2013-01-01

43

Contributions of Qualitative Research to the Validity of Intervention Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Subcommittee (IQRS) of the Task for on Evidence-based Interventions in School Psychology assumed the responsibility of developing criteria for reviewing qualitative methods used in intervention research. The IQRS, composed primarily of psychologists and anthropologists, was confronted with the…

Nastasi, B.K.; Schensul, S.L.

2005-01-01

44

Methodological and ethical issues in conducting qualitative research with children and young people: A literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is an increasing interest in involving children in research that has been influenced by the recognition of children's rights and by the reconceptualisation of children within the social sciences as active agents rather than as the objects of research.

Susan Kirk

2007-01-01

45

Parental Influences on the Diets of 2- to 5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents have a major influence on young children's diets, food choices and habit formation. However, research concerning parental influence on children's diets is limited. Qualitative research informs quantitative research with a narrative of "what works" and is a valuable tool to inform intervention design and practice. This…

Peters, Jacqueline; Parletta, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

2014-01-01

46

Learning Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I explore through a narrative how I came to do a research project in East New York. I show how first contact was established, how local contacts were made, and how trust between my research participants and me was created. I then explore how the research topic evolved through informal conversations, open-ended interviews, and…

Gerhart, Lael

2009-01-01

47

What Facilitates or Impedes Family Communication Following Genetic Testing for Cancer Risk? A Systematic Review and Meta-Synthesis of Primary Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To systematically review and meta-synthesise primary qualitative research findings regarding family communication following\\u000a genetic testing of cancer risk, in order to inform development of effective interventions. Systematic searches of CINAHL,\\u000a Embase, Medline, British Nursing Index and PsycINFO databases were undertaken and relevant studies identified using strict\\u000a criteria. The selected primary qualitative studies were appraised for quality and relevance by three

Kim Chivers Seymour; Julia Addington-Hall; Anneke M. Lucassen; Claire L. Foster

2010-01-01

48

Lay Understanding of Familial Risk of Common Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE Although the family history is increasingly used for genetic risk assess- ment of common chronic diseases in primary care, evidence suggests that lay understanding about inheritance may confl ict with medical models. This study systematically reviewed and synthesized the qualitative literature exploring under- standing about familial risk held by persons with a family history of cancer, coro- nary artery

Fiona M. Walter; Jon Emery; Dejana Braithwaite; Theresa M. Marteau

49

Qualitative research as methodical hermeneutics.  

PubMed

The proportion of publications of qualitative research in mainstream psychology journals is small. Thus, in terms of this important criterion, despite its recent rapid growth, qualitative research is marginalized in psychology. The author suggests that contributing to this situation is the lack of a coherent and unifying methodology of qualitative research methods that elucidates their credibility. He groups the many qualitative research methods into 3 main kinds, then applies to them 4 propositions offered as such a methodology: (1) Qualitative research is hermeneutical, entailing application of the method of the hermeneutic circle to text about experience and/or action. (2) Implicit in the use of the hermeneutic circle method is the activity of educing and articulating the meaning of text, an activity that modifies and interacts with C. S. Peirce's (1965, 1966) logical operations of abduction, theorematic deduction, and induction. (3) The cycling of these 4 moments enables demonstration, achieved rhetorically, of the validity of the understandings resulting from the exegesis of the text under study. (4) This demonstrative rhetoric is enhanced when researchers disclose reflexively those aspects of their perspectives they judge to have most relevant bearing on their understandings. The author compares abduction as formulated here with other recent uptakes of it. As an installment on the generality of the methodology, he explores its fit with the descriptive phenomenological psychological method, conversation analysis, and thematic analysis. PMID:22823104

Rennie, David L

2012-09-01

50

Abductive reasoning and qualitative research.  

PubMed

Abduction, deduction and induction describe forms of reasoning. Deduction and induction are discussed in the nursing literature. However, abduction has been largely neglected by nurse scholars. In this paper it is proposed that abduction may play a part in qualitative data analysis - specifically, in the identification of themes, codes, and categories. Abduction is not, in research, restricted to or associated with any particular methodology. Nevertheless, situating abduction in qualitative research facilitates the identification of three interlinked issues. First, it is suggested that abductively derived claims require support from deductive and inductively sourced evidence if they are to 'hold' and, yet, in qualitative research this is clearly problematic. Second, difficulties in choosing between alternative plausible hypotheses (i.e. concerning theme, code, and category description) are explored through an examination of the 'generality problem'. Third, the role of background and auxiliary theories in adjudicating between hypothesis options is discussed. It is argued that if qualitative researchers utilize abductive inference in the manner suggested, then the peculiarly fallible nature of abduction must be acknowledged and, in consequence, the action guiding potential of qualitative research findings is compromised. PMID:22950728

Lipscomb, Martin

2012-10-01

51

Critical Issues in the Funding of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research has moved from the margins to the mainstream in many domains of scholarship. Yet, biases against how qualitative methods can best address important research questions still persist. The present article provides reflections regarding my experiences of proposing and reviewing both qualitative and quantitative research grants for…

Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn

2012-01-01

52

Workshop on Scientific Foundations of Qualitative Research  

NSF Publications Database

... 310kb) General Guidance for Developing Qualitative Research Projects (PDF, 174kb) Recommendations ... Strengthening Qualitative Research in the Social Sciences (PDF, 174kb) Appendix 1: List of Workshop ...

53

Facilitating Coherence across Qualitative Research Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bringing the various elements of qualitative research papers into coherent textual patterns presents challenges for authors and editors alike. Although individual sections such as presentation of the problem, review of the literature, methodology, results, and discussion may each be constructed in a sound logical and structural sense, the…

Chenail, Ronald J.; Duffy, Maureen; St. George, Sally; Wulff, Dan

2011-01-01

54

Reconsidering Constructivism in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines constructivism, a paradigm in qualitative research that has been propagated by Egon Guba, Yvonna Lincoln, and Norman Denzin. A distinction is made between whether the basic presuppositions of constructivism are credible compared to those of a competing paradigm and whether constructivism's beliefs are internally consistent.…

Lee, Cheu-Jey George

2012-01-01

55

Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Counseling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research approaches offer rehabilitation scholars and practitioners avenues into understanding the lives and experiences of people with disabilities and those people and systems with whom they interact. The methods used often parallel those used in counseling and appear to be well matched with the field of rehabilitation counseling.…

Hanley-Maxwell, Cheryl; Al Hano, Ibrahim; Skivington, Michael

2007-01-01

56

Using qualitative research methods in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESEARCHERS INVESTIGATING ISSUES related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods\\u000a to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose\\u000a of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins by describing how qualitative\\u000a research is defined, key characteristics of qualitative research,

Wilhelmina C. Savenye; Rhonda S. Robinson

2005-01-01

57

Facilitating Rigorous Qualitative Research in Rehabilitation Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research methods have much to contribute to theoretical and applied knowledge in rehabilitation psychology. However, as a discipline, rehabilitation psychology has been behind the curve in employing qualitative methods. Objectives: This article is a summary of the state of qualitative research in rehabilitation and an introduction to various methodological dimensions to consider in implementing qualitative rehabilitation psychology research. Types

Kathleen Chwalisz; Sheetal R. Shah; Kayla M. Hand

2008-01-01

58

What do we know about the experience of age related macular degeneration? A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.  

PubMed

Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of registerable blindness with a high medical and societal cost burden. Much of the research examining experiences of living with AMD has been conducted independently with small sample sizes and has failed to impact on practice. Meta-synthesis of qualitative research can improve the understanding of the experience of living with AMD by drawing together findings of qualitative studies. This article presents a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies investigating the experience of AMD (literature searched up to April 2012; published studies identified range from 1996 to 2009). The review highlights themes relating to: functional limitations, adaptation and independence; feelings about the future with vision impairment; interaction with the health service; social engagement; disclosure; and the emotional impacts of living with AMD. Attention to the experience of living with AMD can help us to better understand the needs of patients. This meta-synthesis aimed to bring together the findings of qualitative research studies and highlights important areas for consideration when caring for patients with AMD. Our findings suggest that a holistic approach to service provision and support for AMD is needed which takes into account individuals' needs and experiences when coping with and adjusting to living with AMD. This support should aim to reduce stigma, increase social engagement, and develop the psychological resources of patients with AMD. PMID:22709445

Bennion, Amy E; Shaw, Rachel L; Gibson, Jonathan M

2012-09-01

59

Qualitative Research: An Essential Part of Statistical Cognition Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our research in statistical cognition uses both qualitative and quantitative methods. A mixed method approach makes our research more comprehensive, and provides us with new directions, unexpected insights, and alternative explanations for previously established concepts. In this paper, we review four statistical cognition studies that used mixed…

Kalinowski, Pav; Lai, Jerry; Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff

2010-01-01

60

Qualitative Approaches to Classroom Research with English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter provides an overview of recent qualitative research in classrooms examining English language learners (ELLs).\\u000a I first present common features of qualitative research and review debates regarding research paradigms in the social sciences\\u000a and humanities. I also discuss the role of triangulation and capturing participants’ insider or emic perspectives in qualitative research and highlight various data collection methods and

Patricia A. Duff

61

Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

2009-01-01

62

Qualitative research articles: guidelines, suggestions and needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article giving some methodological suggestions to make

Alberto Crescentini; Giuditta Mainardi

2009-01-01

63

Using Qualitative Research Methods in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers investigating issues related to computing in higher education are increasingly using qualitative research methods to conduct their investigations. However, they may have little training or experience in qualitative research. The purpose of this paper is to introduce researchers to the appropriate use of qualitative methods. It begins…

Savenye, Wilhelmina C.; Robinson, Rhonda S.

2005-01-01

64

Qualitative research: standards, challenges, and guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

I investigated the nature of clinical knowledge in medicine, exposed some of the shortcomings of quantitative research methods, and briefly introduced qualitative methods as an approach for improved understanding. Here, I shall discuss how scientific quality can be maintained when qualitative research methods are applied. I present some overall standards, describe specific challenges met when the medical researcher uses qualitative

Kirsti Malterud

2001-01-01

65

Qualitative Research--Another Way of Knowing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research is based on the direct observation of human activity and interaction in an ongoing, naturalistic fashion. Qualitative researchers are concerned with the internal life of schools; what is really occurring in classrooms, corridors, cafeterias, and playgrounds. Qualitative researchers look at what people ordinarily take for…

Rogers, Vincent R.

66

Mapping the possibilities of qualitative research in music education: a primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing numbers of music education researchers have begun to use qualitative methods to examine research topics using interviews, observations, documents, and archival data. In this article, I review qualitative research methodology and its origins and methods, discuss topics that have been studied by music education researchers using qualitative research methods, and show possible ways that qualitative research methods might be

Kathryn Roulston

2006-01-01

67

Trends in Qualitative Research in Language Teaching since 2000  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews developments in qualitative research in language teaching since the year 2000, focusing on its contributions to the field and identifying issues that emerge. Its aims are to identify those areas in language teaching where qualitative research has the greatest potential and indicate what needs to be done to further improve the…

Richards, Keith

2009-01-01

68

Conducting Qualitative Research in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theory underlying qualitative research design and a specific formative evaluation study that includes qualitative methods are discussed. The focus is the data analyses methods and procedures employed in the evaluation study, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the inquiry. Qualitative research focuses on the idiographic and operates on…

Sears, James T.; And Others

69

Appraising the quality of qualitative research.  

PubMed

In the process of undertaking a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies of free-standing midwife-led units, the authors of this paper encountered a number of methodologically and epistemologically unresolved issues. One of these related to the assessment of the quality of qualitative research. In an iterative approach to scoping this issue, we identified eight existing checklists and summary frameworks. Some of these publications were opinion based, and some involved a synthesis of pre-existing frameworks. None of them provide a clear map of the criteria used in all their reviewed papers, and of the commonalities and differences between them. We critically review these frameworks and conclude that, although they are epistemologically and theoretically dense, they are excessively detailed for most uses. In order to reach a workable solution to the problem of the quality assessment of qualitative research, the findings from these frameworks and checklists were mapped together. Using a technique we have termed a 'redundancy approach' to eliminate non-essential criteria, we developed our own summary framework. The final synthesis was achieved through reflexive debate and discussion. Aspects of this discussion are detailed here. The synthesis is clearly rooted in a subjectivist epistemology, which views knowledge as constructed and hermeneutic in intent, encompassing individual, cultural and structural representations of reality. PMID:16243416

Walsh, Denis; Downe, Soo

2006-06-01

70

Qualitative Research Practice in Adult Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 20 papers is aimed at researchers, research students, and research supervisors interested in qualitative research into facilitated adult learning in the workplace, formal education programs, professional development, and community settings. "Introduction" (Willis) provides a summary of the papers. "Qualitative Inquiry: Meaning…

Willis, Peter, Ed.; Neville, Bernie, Ed.

71

RESEARCH REVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

The report reviews aquatic research programs conducted or managed by the Environmental Research Laboratory, Gulf Breeze, Florida, for the office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1978 and 1979. The research program examines the impact of pestici...

72

Publishing Qualitative Research in Counseling Journals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the essential elements to be included when developing a qualitative study and preparing the findings for publication. Using the sections typically found in a qualitative article, the author describes content relevant to each section, with additional suggestions for publishing qualitative research.

Hunt, Brandon

2011-01-01

73

Validity and Qualitative Research: An Oxymoron?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the importance of validity has long been accepted among quantitative researchers, this concept has been an issue\\u000a of contention among qualitative researchers. Thus, the first purpose of the present paper is to introduce the Qualitative Legitimation Model, which attempts to integrate many of the types of validity identified by qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this\\u000a article is to

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Nancy L. Leech

2007-01-01

74

Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Organizations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper first identifies the differing assumptions and perspectives of management practitioners, qualitative researchers, and quantitative researchers. Special attention is given to the question of 'research for what', and 'what should the output of re...

T. R. V. Davis F. Luthans

1981-01-01

75

Qualitative Research in Early Childhood Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of a set of studies and essays that represent the best work being done in the area of qualitative research in early childhood settings (children from birth to about age 8). Research in this area involves studies of young children in educational contexts, day care, and preschool settings. The Introduction, "Qualitative Research

Hatch, J. Amos, Ed.

76

Qualitative Research: Instructional Strategies and Curricular Considerations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of inquiry and its relative novelty in the nursing profession pose unique considerations related to teaching qualitative research. These considerations and teaching methods are explored as they relate to theoretical underpinnings of qualitative research, phases of the research process, evaluation of proposals and dissertations, academic…

Mariano, Carla

1990-01-01

77

Qualitative methods in environmental health research.  

PubMed Central

Public health researchers increasingly turn to qualitative methods either on their own or in combination with quantitative methods. Qualitative methods are especially important to community environmental health research, as they provide a way to produce community narratives that give voice to individuals and characterize the community in a full and complex fashion. This article first traces the legacy of qualitative research in environmental health, then uses a case study of the author's experiences studying the Woburn, Massachusetts, childhood leukemia cluster to provide personal and scholarly insights on qualitative approaches. That material then informs a discussion of important components of qualitative methods in environmental health research, including flexible study design, access, trust, empathy, and personal shifts in the researcher's worldview, bias, and the nature of the researcher's roles. A concluding discussion addresses issues in funding policy and research practices.

Brown, Phil

2003-01-01

78

Thinking about the Nature and Scope of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Writing and Reviewing Manuscripts in the Multidimensional World of Qualitative Research" (LaRossa, 2012), the author expressed the hope that, by sketching a cognitive map of the writing and reviewing process, authors and reviewers for the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") would be better able to communicate with each other about the…

LaRossa, Ralph

2012-01-01

79

The Effectiveness of Programs for Children of Divorce: A Review of the Qualitative Research Done during the 1980's.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current status of school based programs for children of divorce conducted during the 1980s which have evaluated the effectiveness of programs targeted to assist children in adjusting to divorce are examined. Eleven qualitative studies were identified which had been published since 1980 and involved children 0-18 years of age. Information on…

Crowe, Kevin

80

Qualitative Research and Its Role in Play Therapy Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role and value of qualitative research for play therapy is the focus of this article. The premise is that qualitative research is a natural extension of the therapeutic process and thus can make a contribution to play therapy in the development of models and theories that will lead to future research and development. Qualitative research is placed within the

Hilda R. Glazer; David S. Stein

2010-01-01

81

A Guide to Conducting Consensual Qualitative Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the components of a new methodology--consensual qualitative research (CQR)--which uses words to describe phenomena and which recognizes the importance of context. Locates CQR within the qualitative research tradition and details ways to develop a focused topic area, choose a team, attend to group dynamics, and other important issues.…

Hill, Clara E.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Williams, Elizabeth Nutt

1997-01-01

82

Qualitative research in finance – pedigree and renaissance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper sets out the reasons for putting together a special issue of the Journal on Qualitative Research in Finance, discussing the pedigree of the approach, and outlining the articles contained therein. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach adopted in this paper involves discussing the use of qualitative research in finance in previous years, focussing in particular on the pedigree

Bruce Burton

2007-01-01

83

Getting Specific about Qualitative Research Generalizability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The question of generalizability or the usefulness of qualitative research results beyond the confines of the primary site, sample, and study has been hotly debated by qualitative researchers for decades. When examining this question of generalization the first surprising finding is there appears to be no general consensus about the definition,…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2010-01-01

84

Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: Conceptual Foundations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Beginning with calls for methodological diversity in counseling psychology, this article addresses the history and current state of qualitative research in counseling psychology. It identifies the historical and disciplinary origins as well as basic assumptions and underpinnings of qualitative research in general, as well as within counseling…

Morrow, Susan L.

2007-01-01

85

Ten Standard Responses to Qualitative Research Interviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research evokes rather stereotyped responses from the mainstream of social science. The following 10 standardized responses to the stimulus "qualitative research interview" (QRI) are discussed: (1) it is not scientific, only common sense; (2) it is not objective, but subjective; (3) it is not trustworthy, but biased; (4) it is not…

Kvale, Steinar

86

The Landscape of Qualitative Research. Third Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, the first volume of the paperback versions of the "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Third Edition," takes a look at the field from a broadly theoretical perspective, and is composed of the Handbook's Parts I ("Locating the Field"), II ("Major Paradigms and Perspectives"), and VI ("The Future of Qualitative Research"). "The…

Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna, Ed.

2007-01-01

87

Qualitative Case Study Research in Business Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to using qualitative case study research in business education explains methodological steps and decisions, illustrated with examples from business research. It addresses data analysis and interpretation, including discussion of software tools. (Contains 25 references.) (SK)

O'Connor, Bridget N.

2002-01-01

88

Research Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

Serig, Dan

2011-01-01

89

Research Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

Serig, Dan, Ed.

2010-01-01

90

[Framework analysis method in qualitative research].  

PubMed

In recent years a number of qualitative research methods have gained popularity within the health care arena. Despite this popularity, different qualitative analysis methods pose many challenges to most researchers. The present paper responds to the needs expressed by recent Chinese medicine researches. The present paper is mainly focused on the concepts, nature, application of framework analysis, especially on how to use it, in such a way to assist the newcomer of Chinese medicine researchers to engage with the methodology. PMID:24941857

Liao, Xing; Liu, Jian-ping; Robison, Nicola; Xie, Ya-ming

2014-05-01

91

Contributions of Qualitative Research to Research on Teacher Qualifications  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of teachers' qualifications on their teaching practice has been subject to debate. Literature reviews do not settle these debates, partly because the literature is uneven and partly because reviews capture only narrow slices of literature. In particular, many reviews eliminate qualitative studies. Yet without examining qualitative

Kennedy, Mary M.

2008-01-01

92

Research Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has made its 2002 Research Review available at this site. The document can be downloaded as a whole or in segments by its nine subject areas. An interesting look at "low-wind-speed turbines" discusses the importance of several turbine components in designing an efficient, low-cost source of power. Vehicle emissions and hydrogen fuel cell applications are among several other areas covered. The Research Review is written in a very non-technical manner, so it is ideal for anyone wanting to learn about renewable energy and clean technologies.

2003-01-01

93

Causality in qualitative and quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are flooded with a wave of writings on causality in the social sciences during the last decades. The same holds for the\\u000a relationship between quantitative and qualitative research in the social sciences. An enormous amount of texts appears on\\u000a (causality in) qualitative research, mostly in a controversy with quantitative research. These writings induced us to develop\\u000a the thesis of

Jacques Tacq

2011-01-01

94

The application of qualitative research methods to the study of sexually transmitted infections  

PubMed Central

Qualitative methods have gained support in health sciences research and have a role to play in STI studies. This article reviews the main techniques used by qualitative researchers, with illustrations taken from the field of STIs.

Power, R

2002-01-01

95

Teaching Qualitative Research: Lessons from Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research has become increasingly perceived as well suited to the advancement of counseling psychology, yet opportunities for formal training in qualitative inquiry remain inconsistently available within and across graduate programs. For the potential contribution of this approach to counseling psychology to be realized, graduate…

Poulin, Karen L.

2007-01-01

96

Talking and Thinking about Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled "Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research," which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their…

Ellis, Carolyn; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel

2008-01-01

97

Critical Qualitative Research Reader. Critical Qualitative Research. Volume 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume of transformed research utilizes an activist approach to examine the notion that nothing is apolitical. Research projects themselves are critically examined for power orientations, even as they are used to address curricular problems and educational or societal issues. Philosophical perspectives that have facilitated an understanding…

Steinberg, Shirley R., Ed.; Cannella, Gaile S., Ed.

2012-01-01

98

Values in Qualitative and Quantitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors identify the philosophical underpinnings and value-ladenness of major research paradigms. They argue that useful and meaningful research findings for counseling can be generated from both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, provided that the researcher has an appreciation of the importance of philosophical coherence in…

Duffy, Maureen; Chenail, Ronald J.

2008-01-01

99

Writing usable qualitative health research findings.  

PubMed

Scholars in diverse health-related disciplines and specialty fields of practice routinely promote qualitative research as an essential component of intervention and implementation programs of research and of a comprehensive evidence base for practice. Remarkably little attention, however, has been paid to the most important element of qualitative studies--the findings in reports of those studies--and specifically to enhancing the accessibility and utilization value of these findings for diverse audiences of users. The findings in reports of qualitative health research are too often difficult to understand and even to find owing to the way they are presented. A basic strategy for enhancing the presentation of these findings is to translate them into thematic statements, which can then in turn be translated into the language of intervention and implementation. Writers of qualitative health research reports might consider these strategies better to showcase the significance and actionability of findings to a wider audience. PMID:22745362

Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer

2012-10-01

100

Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries.

Huston, P.; Rowan, M.

1998-01-01

101

"Answers," Assemblages, and Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although educational researchers predominately study complex, multidimensional problems, research findings and proposed arguments can sometimes be characterized as definite, simplified, and prone to particular types of answers or expected outcomes. The authors seek to problematize these definite and simplified notions of answers by looking at some…

Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Barko, Tim

2012-01-01

102

Learning the Concept of Researcher as Instrument in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe the process whereby a student with a background in economics was guided to understand the central role in qualitative research of the researcher as instrument. The instructor designed a three-part mock research project designed to provide experiential knowledge of the enterprise of qualitative research. Students, as neophyte…

Xu, Mengxuan Annie; Storr, Gail Blair

2012-01-01

103

Crafting Qualitative Research Articles on Marriages and Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper aims to assist those who do qualitative research in the field of marriage and family to reduce the number of rejections received in response to article submissions. Recurring shortcomings identified by reviewers and suggestions made to authors about revising papers are organized using headings traditionally used in a research

Matthews, Sarah H.

2005-01-01

104

Developing Qualitative Research Questions: A Reflective Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reflective and interrogative processes required for developing effective qualitative research questions can give shape and direction to a study in ways that are often underestimated. Good research questions do not necessarily produce good research, but poorly conceived or constructed questions will likely create problems that affect all…

Agee, Jane

2009-01-01

105

Secondhand Smoke Exposure Levels in Outdoor Hospitality Venues: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review of the Research Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective This paper considers the evidence on whether outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) is present in high enough levels of hospitality venues to potentially pose health risks, particularly among employees of such establishments. Data Sources Search strings in PubMed and Web of Science included combinations of environmental tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, or passive smoke AND outdoor, yielding 217 and 5,199 results, respectively through June, 2012. Study Selection Sixteen studies were selected based on abstract review that either entirely or partly measured outdoor SHS exposures (particulate matter (PM) or other SHS indicators). Data Extraction The methods used to measure SHS indicators, particularly PM, were assessed for inclusion of extraneous variables that may affect such measurements or the corroboration of ambient levels with known standards. Data Synthesis The magnitude of SHS exposure (PM2.5) is dependent on the number of smokers present, proximity to the measuring device, outdoor enclosures, and wind. Under specific conditions, peak outdoor PM2.5 levels can be comparable to those recorded in indoor smoky environments. Using data from both observational and experimental studies, annual excess PM2.5 exposure of full-time waitstaff at outdoor smoking environments could average 4.0 to 12.2 ?g/m3 under variable smoking conditions. Conclusions Although highly transitory, outdoor SHS exposures could occasionally exceed annual ambient air quality exposure guidelines. However, such exposures are likely to be higher for occupationally exposed individuals compared to patrons due to repeated and cumulative outdoor SHS exposures. Personal monitoring studies of waitstaff are warranted to corroborate these modeled estimates.

LICHT, ANDREA S; HYLAND, ANDREW; TRAVERS, MARK J; CHAPMAN, SIMON

2013-01-01

106

Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

2012-01-01

107

Qualitative research. Introducing focus groups.  

PubMed Central

This paper introduces focus group methodology, gives advice on group composition, running the groups, and analysing the results. Focus groups have advantages for researchers in the field of health and medicine: they do not discriminate against people who cannot read or write and they can encourage participation from people reluctant to be interviewed on their own or who feel they have nothing to say. Images p301-a

Kitzinger, J.

1995-01-01

108

Evaluating meta-ethnography: a synthesis of qualitative research on lay experiences of diabetes and diabetes care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in how qualitative health research might be used more widely to inform health policy and medical practice is growing. Synthesising findings from individual qualitative studies may be one method but application of conventional systematic review methodology to qualitative research presents significant philosophical and practical challenges. The aim here was to examine the feasibility of synthesising qualitative research using qualitative

Rona Campbell; Pandora Pound; Catherine Pope; Nicky Britten; Roisin Pill; Myfanwy Morgan; Jenny Donovan

2003-01-01

109

The Ethics of Qualitative Nursing Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical issues in qualitative nursing research include the following: what to study, which participants, what methods, how to achieve informed consent, when to terminate interviews and when to probe, when treatment should supersede research, and what and how to document in case studies. (SK)

Robley, Lois R.

1995-01-01

110

Culturally Competent Qualitative Research with Latino Immigrants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides recommendations for conducting culturally competent qualitative research with Latino immigrants, a historically exploited group that represents more than half of all U.S. immigrants and is continuously growing. Limited research exists on Latino immigrants despite their large presence in the United States. The authors draw…

Ojeda, Lizette; Flores, Lisa Y.; Meza, Rocio Rosales; Morales, Alejandro

2011-01-01

111

Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the evidence base for the study of mental health problems develops, there is a need for increasingly rigorous and systematic research methodologies. Complex questions require complex methodological approaches. Recognising this, the MRC guidelines for developing and testing complex interventions place qualitative methods as integral to each stage of intervention development and implementation. However, mental health research has lagged behind

Sarah Peters

2010-01-01

112

Interrogating Racism in Qualitative Research Methodology. Counterpoints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book explores the link between critical race theory and qualitative research methodology, interrogating how race connects and conflicts with other areas of difference and is never entirely absent from the research process. After an introduction, "Critical Race Theory in Education: Theory, Praxis, and Recommendations" (Sylvia R. Lazos Vargas),…

Lopez, Gerardo R., Ed.; Parker, Laurence, Ed.

113

Finding qualitative research: an evaluation of search strategies  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research makes an important contribution to our understanding of health and healthcare. However, qualitative evidence can be difficult to search for and identify, and the effectiveness of different types of search strategies is unknown. Methods Three search strategies for qualitative research in the example area of support for breast-feeding were evaluated using six electronic bibliographic databases. The strategies were based on using thesaurus terms, free-text terms and broad-based terms. These strategies were combined with recognised search terms for support for breast-feeding previously used in a Cochrane review. For each strategy, we evaluated the recall (potentially relevant records found) and precision (actually relevant records found). Results A total yield of 7420 potentially relevant records was retrieved by the three strategies combined. Of these, 262 were judged relevant. Using one strategy alone would miss relevant records. The broad-based strategy had the highest recall and the thesaurus strategy the highest precision. Precision was generally poor: 96% of records initially identified as potentially relevant were deemed irrelevant. Searching for qualitative research involves trade-offs between recall and precision. Conclusions These findings confirm that strategies that attempt to maximise the number of potentially relevant records found are likely to result in a large number of false positives. The findings also suggest that a range of search terms is required to optimise searching for qualitative evidence. This underlines the problems of current methods for indexing qualitative research in bibliographic databases and indicates where improvements need to be made.

Shaw, Rachel L; Booth, Andrew; Sutton, Alex J; Miller, Tina; Smith, Jonathan A; Young, Bridget; Jones, David R; Dixon-Woods, Mary

2004-01-01

114

Dialectical Inquiry: A Structured Qualitative Research Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents Dialectical Inquiry (DI) as a structured qualitative research method for studying participant models of organizational processes. The method is applied to rich secondary anecdotal data on technology transfer, gathered by subject-matter experts in a large firm. DI assumes that the imposition of a dialectical structure will…

Berniker, Eli; McNabb, David E.

2006-01-01

115

Empirical Phenomenology An Approach for Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the philosophical foundation and practical application of empirical phenomenology in social research. This approach builds upon the phenomenology of philosopher Edmund Husserl and sociologist Alfred Schütz, but considers how their more theoretical insights can be used in an empirical approach. It aims at being practically useful for anyone doing qualitative studies and interested in safeguarding the subjective

Patrik Aspers

116

Triangulation in qualitative research: evaluation of completeness and confirmation purposes.  

PubMed

The term triangulation has been applied to research strategies intended to serve two distinct purposes, confirmation and completeness. Many researchers who claim to have used a triangulated approach fail to provide evidence to show that their approach contributed to either confirmation or completeness of the data set. This paper reviews these distinct purposes and describes how triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods was built into a study to achieve them. Analysis of data related to a single construct illustrates how data generated by qualitative and quantitative methods can provide both convergent validity and a broader understanding of one's subject matter. PMID:8225358

Breitmayer, B J; Ayres, L; Knafl, K A

1993-01-01

117

Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a qualitative review of the trait perspective in leadership research, followed by a meta-analysis. The authors used the five-factor model as an organizing framework and meta-analyzed 222 correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism .24, Extraversion .31, Openness to Experience .24, Agreeableness .08, and Conscientiousness .28. Results indicated that the relations of Neuroticism,

Timothy A. Judge; Joyce E. Bono; Remus Ilies; Megan W. Gerhardt

2002-01-01

118

[Reflexivity: a critical issue in qualitative research].  

PubMed

Reflexivity is an English term that Spanish speaking people have to assign a technical meaning. Reflexivity expresses the conscience of researchers conscience and refers to their connection with the study's situation. It is a process by which researchers step back to critically exam the effect they have on the study and the impact of their interactions with participants. The reflexive process is embedded in all research levels and is present in all the research phases, from the research question to fieldwork, from data analysis to writing the final report. Nevertheless, the question is not so much to engage in reflective activities but to be a reflexive researcher. Reflexivity is a human ability that is present during social interactions. For this reason it is present in qualitative research. A self inquirer can be addressed as it is constructed by the relationships and interactions that are established with study participants. Reflexivity has an educational character that continues after the study is completed. PMID:21531602

de la Cuesta-Benjumea, Carmen

2011-01-01

119

Qualitative Research and Its Place in Psychological Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

In discussing the place of diverse qualitative research within psychological science, the authors highlight the potential permeability of the quantitative–qualitative boundary and identify different ways of increasing communication between researchers specializing in different methods. Explicating diversity within qualitative research is facilitated, initially, through documenting the range of qualitative data collection and analytic methods available. The authors then consider the notion

Anna Madill; Brendan Gough

2008-01-01

120

Qualitative Methods in Occupational Therapy Research: An Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an overview of qualitative methods, an analysis of the relationship between qualitative and quantitative approaches in social and cultural research, and a brief discussion of the issues of reliability, validity, and researcher objectivity in qualitative research. Discusses the application of qualitative methods to occupational therapy,…

Merrill, Susan Cook

1985-01-01

121

[Reflexivity as the ethos of qualitative research].  

PubMed

This paper seeks to promote reflection on ethics in anthropological and qualitative research and emphasize the comprehensive, relational and reflective character of this process, as well as the advantages and problems that arise from different logic and often conflicting interests between researchers and their interlocutors. The text is divided into four parts and addresses the ethical: (a) significance of these approaches; (b) behavior of the researcher in the field; (c) analysis of the empirical material; and (d) considerations in the preparation of results of anthropological and qualitative studies, using some classic examples from the international literature. The paper concludes by reflecting on the distinction between the requirements of the Ethics Committee and the Ethics of research itself. It must be clear that the comprehensive sense of ethics which includes the responsibility of the researcher cannot be condensed in the instruments required for the judgment of projects because the following elements are involved in the development of research, namely the social significance of the work, the institutional relations with fund providers, how to treat staff and research students in academic work and commitments with the scientific community. PMID:24820593

Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito

2014-04-01

122

Qualitative methods in research on teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research studies the meaning of actions that occur, both in face-to-face interactions and in the wider society surrounding the immediate scene of action. To conduct interpretive research on teaching, intense and long-term participant observation in an educational setting is required, followed by deliberate and long-term reflection on what was observed. Questions regarding the observer's point of view, previously learned formal theories, cultural conditioning, and personal values must be considered. Attitudes toward teaching and learning as well as measures of effectiveness are also worth examining. This paper argues that such detailed scrutiny of everyday teaching routines is a route to improving educational practice, as performed by university researchers as well as practicing teachers.

Erickson, Frederick

2006-05-19

123

Impact of dementia on marriage: A qualitative systematic review.  

PubMed

This qualitative review explored the impact of dementia on marriage. The method was informed by systematic review and qualitative research methodologies. A comprehensive search of major databases was undertaken. The search identified 115 studies on the topic; 23 met the inclusion criteria and 19 were appraised as being of good methodological quality. Two major themes and five sub-themes emerged from the analysis of included studies, transition and loss. The theme of transition encompassed the three sub-themes of relationship, roles and intimacy and reflected the changes in the marriage and marital relationship that accompanied dementia. The theme of loss encompassed the two sub-themes of loss of a partner and loss of a marriage, which reflected the many losses that accompanied dementia. However, transition and loss were inter-related, because each change was accompanied by loss and each loss produced another change in the marriage. PMID:24339060

Evans, David; Lee, Emmanuel

2014-05-01

124

Conducting Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide for School Counselors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the concept of school counselor as researcher. Qualitative research is defined, explained, and differentiated from quantitative research. School counselor questions that lend themselves to qualitative research are explored. The article also discusses the steps of qualitative research in depth, including developing questions,…

Farber, Nancy K.

2006-01-01

125

Qualitative research in organ transplantation: recent contributions to clinical care and policy.  

PubMed

Qualitative studies remain relatively uncommon in the transplant literature but are an important approach contributing unique strengths in some areas of research. With the increased focus on patient-centered research and decision-making, it is timely to review qualitative research in the context of transplantation. While quantitative research addresses questions about the effectiveness of interventions or associations between risk factors and outcomes, qualitative research has an equal and complementary role in providing understanding about people's behaviors, attitudes, and values. Qualitative research has provided insights into some of the important but elusive questions in transplantation, including the sources of barriers to organ donation and inequities in access to transplantation, nonadherence to immunosuppressive regimens, and complex psychosocial outcomes. This review highlights recent contributions of qualitative research to transplantation practice and policy, and identifies key principles to guide qualitative research appraisal. PMID:23648238

Tong, A; Chapman, J R; Israni, A; Gordon, E J; Craig, J C

2013-06-01

126

An Online Forum As a Qualitative Research Method: Practical Issues  

PubMed Central

Background Despite positive aspects of online forums as a qualitative research method, very little is known about practical issues involved in using online forums for data collection, especially for a qualitative research project. Objectives The purpose of this paper is to describe the practical issues that the researchers encountered in implementing an online forum as a qualitative component of a larger study on cancer pain experience. Method Throughout the study process, the research staff recorded issues ranged from minor technical problems to serious ethical dilemmas as they arose and wrote memos about them. The memos and written records of discussions were reviewed and analyzed using the content analysis suggested by Weber. Results Two practical issues related to credibility were identified: a high response and retention rate and automatic transcripts. An issue related to dependability was the participants’ easy forgetfulness. The issues related to confirmability were difficulties in theoretical saturation and unstandardized computer and Internet jargon. A security issue related to hacking attempts was noted as well. Discussion The analysis of these issues suggests several implications for future researchers who want to use online forums as a qualitative data collection method.

Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

2008-01-01

127

Nuance, Complexity, and Context: Qualitative Methods in Genetic Counseling Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of its potential for capturing complexity and process and its focus on communicating the meaning in human action, qualitative research is rapidly gaining acceptance in a wide variety of disciplines. Various qualitative approaches to research support its potential usefulness in genetic counseling research. Formulation of research questions and selection of appropriate qualitative methods are the first step. Interviewing, narrative

Diane Beeson

1997-01-01

128

Stitching the Pieces Together to Reveal the Generalized Patterns: Systematic Research Reviews, Secondary Reanalyses, Case-to-case Comparisons, and Metasyntheses of Qualitative Research Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literacy, language, and science education research is much like quilting, in which small pieces of fabric are stitched together\\u000a into repeated units (blocks) to produce a functional bedcovering or artistic wallhanging of a predetermined size and shape.\\u000a The repeated units—blocks—are normally prescribed and uniform squares of fixed dimensions. Each block contains a whole or\\u000a partial design that is a fractional

Gretchen B. Rossman; Larry D. Yore

129

How qualitative research can contribute to research in the intensive care unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative research design can provide unique contributions to research in the intensive care unit. Qualitative research includes the entire process of research: the methodology (conceptualization of the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, designing the protocol), methods (conducting the research using qualitative methods within the chosen qualitative strategy, analysis of the data, verification of the findings), and writing

Tasnim Sinuff; Deborah J. Cook; Mita Giacomini

2007-01-01

130

Assumptions underlying quantitative and qualitative research: Implications for institutional research  

Microsoft Academic Search

For institutional researchers, the choice to use a quantitative or qualitative approach to research is dictated by time, money, resources, and staff. Frequently, the choice to use one or the other approach is made at the method level. Choices made at this level generally have rigor, but ignore the underlying philosophical assumptions structuring beliefs about methodology, knowledge, and reality. When

Russel S. Hathaway

1995-01-01

131

Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research. Conclusions Health researchers combining qualitative research and trials viewed this practice as strengthening evaluative research. Teams viewing the qualitative research as essential to the trial, and resourcing it in practice, may have a better chance of delivering its added value to the trial.

2014-01-01

132

Teaching qualitative research through participatory coursework and mentorship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many doctoral programs in nursing now offer at least one course in qualitative research. Yet it remains a challenge to adequately prepare new qualitative researchers due to lack of faculty expertise and mentorship, student unfamiliarity with qualitative research when entering the doctoral program, and uncertainty as to appropriate teaching methods. The authors describe how they addressed these issues historically and

Ann Kuckelman Cobb; Nancy Hoffart

1999-01-01

133

How Is Qualitative Research Taught at the Masters' Level?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how qualitative research is taught in foundation MSW courses using a content analysis of syllabi and a survey. The Council on Social Work Education required qualitative research content in 1994 and several authors advocate for greater inclusion of it. Yet no research about what qualitative content is included on syllabi is…

Drisko, James W.

2008-01-01

134

Qualitative Research and Its Place in Psychological Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In discussing the place of diverse qualitative research within psychological science, the authors highlight the potential permeability of the quantitative-qualitative boundary and identify different ways of increasing communication between researchers specializing in different methods. Explicating diversity within qualitative research is…

Madill, Anna; Gough, Brendan

2008-01-01

135

Use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research.  

PubMed

Aim To debate the definition and use of theoretical and conceptual frameworks in qualitative research. Background There is a paucity of literature to help the novice researcher to understand what theoretical and conceptual frameworks are and how they should be used. This paper acknowledges the interchangeable usage of these terms and researchers' confusion about the differences between the two. It discusses how researchers have used theoretical and conceptual frameworks and the notion of conceptual models. Detail is given about how one researcher incorporated a conceptual framework throughout a research project, the purpose for doing so and how this led to a resultant conceptual model. Review methods Concepts from Abbott ( 1988 ) and Witz ( 1992 ) were used to provide a framework for research involving two case study sites. The framework was used to determine research questions and give direction to interviews and discussions to focus the research. Discussion Some research methods do not overtly use a theoretical framework or conceptual framework in their design, but this is implicit and underpins the method design, for example in grounded theory. Other qualitative methods use one or the other to frame the design of a research project or to explain the outcomes. An example is given of how a conceptual framework was used throughout a research project. Conclusion Theoretical and conceptual frameworks are terms that are regularly used in research but rarely explained. Textbooks should discuss what they are and how they can be used, so novice researchers understand how they can help with research design. Implications for practice/research Theoretical and conceptual frameworks need to be more clearly understood by researchers and correct terminology used to ensure clarity for novice researchers. PMID:25059086

Green, Helen Elise

2014-07-01

136

Language and Meaning: Data Collection in Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is inquiry aimed at describing and clarifying human experience as it appears in people's lives. Researchers using qualitative methods gather data that serve as evidence for their distilled descriptions. Qualitative data are gathered primarily in the form of spoken or written language rather than in the form of numbers. Possible data sources are interviews with participants, observations, documents,

Donald E. Polkinghorne

2005-01-01

137

Discovery of Substantive Theory: A Basic Strategy Underlying Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors contend that qualitative research should be scrutinized for its usefulness in the discovery of substantive theory. They try to present generic elements of the process of generating substantive theory from qualitative data, and consider how the researcher collects and analyzes qualitative data, max imizes the theory's credibility, puts trust in his theory, and conveys the theory to others.

Barney G. Glaser; Anselm L. Strauss

1965-01-01

138

Positioning qualitative market research: reflections from theory and practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses a number of important issues pertaining to the domain of qualitative market research. Attempts to define what qualitative research is about and discuss some of the difficulties involved in coming up with a clear definition of the qualitative paradigm. Suggests a number of issues relating to theory and practice that warrant the existence of a new journal devoted specifically

Ko de Ruyter; Norbert Scholl

1998-01-01

139

Can We Integrate Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Science Education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance ofintegrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in scienceeducation. It is argued that the Kuhnian incommensurability thesis (a majorsource of inspiration for qualitative researchers) represents an obstacle forthis integration. A major thesis of the paper is that qualitative researchershave interpreted the increased popularity of their paradigm (researchprogramme) as a revolutionary

Mansoor Niaz

1997-01-01

140

Standards for Qualitative (and Quantitative) Research: A Prolegomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of qualitative methods in educational research has led to considerable controversy about standards for the design and conduct of research. This controversy has been playing itself out over the last several decades largely in terms of the quantitative-qualitative debate. In this paper we argue that framing the issue of standards in terms of quantitative-qualitative debate is misguided. We

Kenneth Howe; Margaret Eisenhart

1990-01-01

141

Instructor's Corner: Tips for Publishing and Reviewing Qualitative Studies in Applied Disciplines  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Instructor's Corner" describes a step forward on the journey to write, review, and publish high-quality qualitative research manuscripts. This article examines two existing perspectives on generating high-quality qualitative manuscripts and then compares and contrasts the different elements of each. First, an overview of Rocco's (2010) eight…

Storberg-Walker, Julia

2012-01-01

142

Assessment of Cognitive Insight: A Qualitative Review  

PubMed Central

The concept of cognitive insight was introduced in 2004 to describe the capacity of patients with psychosis to distance themselves from their psychotic experiences, reflect on them, and respond to corrective feedback. The Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) was developed to evaluate these aspects of cognitive flexibility and to complement scales that describe the lack of awareness of mental illness and its characteristics. The BCIS has generated a moderate research literature, which is the subject of the current review. Several independent groups have demonstrated that the BCIS is reliable, demonstrates convergent and construct validity, and distinguishes patients with psychosis from healthy controls and patients without psychosis. While the majority of the studies have focused on the relationship of the BCIS to delusions, several have examined its relationship to negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, and functional outcome. Cognitive insight has predicted positive gains in psychotherapy of psychosis, and improvement in cognitive insight has been correlated with improvement in delusional beliefs. Finally, preliminary findings relate neurocognition, metacognition, and social cognition, as well as reduced hippocampal volume to cognitive insight. A heuristic framework is presented to guide future research.

Riggs, Sally E.; Grant, Paul M.; Perivoliotis, Dimitri; Beck, Aaron T.

2012-01-01

143

Adapting qualitative research strategies to technology savvy adolescents.  

PubMed

Aim To adapt research strategies involving adolescents in a grounded theory qualitative research study by conducting email rather than face-to-face interviews. Background Adolescent culture relies heavily on text-based communication and teens prefer interactions mediated through technology. Traditional qualitative research strategies need to be rethought when working with adolescents. Adapting interviewing strategies to electronic environments is timely and relevant for researching adolescents. Data sources Twenty three adolescents (aged 16-21) were interviewed by email. A letter of invitation was distributed. Potential participants emailed the researcher to convey interest in participating. If the inclusion criteria were met, email interviews were initiated. Participants controlled the interviews through their rate of response to interview questions. Review methods A grounded theory methodology was employed. Initial contact with participants reiterated confidentiality and the ability to withdraw from the study at any time. Interviews began with the collection of demographic information and a broad opening based on a semi-structured interview guide. All data were permissible, including text, photos, music, videos or outside media, for example YouTube. The participant was allowed to give direction to the interview after initial questions were posed. Email interviews continued until saturation was reached in the data. Discussion Participants were enthusiastic about email interviewing. Attrition did not occur. Email interviewing gave participants more control over the research, decreased power differentials between the adolescent and researcher, allowed the study to be adapted to cultural, linguistic and developmental needs, and maintained confidentiality. Conclusion As participants said that email communication was slow and they preferred instant messaging, replication in faster-paced media is recommended. Repetition in face-to-face settings is warranted to evaluate how technology may have influenced the findings. Implications for practice/research Adolescents' use of the internet and their preference for textbased communication makes a compelling support for modifying traditional face-to-face qualitative investigations to reflect these changing contextual conditions. PMID:24877910

Mason, Deanna Marie; Ide, Bette

2014-05-30

144

Qualitative Research in Distance Education: An Analysis of Journal Literature 2005-2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review study examines the current research literature in distance education for the years 2005 to 2012. The author found 382 research articles published during that time in four prominent peer-reviewed research journals. The articles were classified and coded as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods. Further analysis found another…

Hauser, Laura

2013-01-01

145

Qualitative Health Research and the IRB: Answering the “So What?” with Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used to foster change in health policy and practice. Research ethics committees often\\u000a misunderstand qualitative inquiry, assuming its design can be judged by criteria of quantitative science. Traditional health\\u000a research uses scientific realist standards as a means-to-an-end, answering the question “So what?” to support the advancement\\u000a of practice and policy. In contrast, qualitative inquiry often draws

Mary Ellen Macdonald; Franco A. Carnevale

2008-01-01

146

Staff experiences within the implementation of computer-based nursing records in residential aged care facilities: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background Since the introduction of electronic nursing documentation systems, its implementation in recent years has increased rapidly in Germany. The objectives of such systems are to save time, to improve information handling and to improve quality. To integrate IT in the daily working processes, the employee is the pivotal element. Therefore it is important to understand nurses’ experience with IT implementation. At present the literature shows a lack of understanding exploring staff experiences within the implementation process. Methods A systematic review and meta-ethnographic synthesis of primary studies using qualitative methods was conducted in PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane. It adheres to the principles of the PRISMA statement. The studies were original, peer-reviewed articles from 2000 to 2013, focusing on computer-based nursing documentation in Residential Aged Care Facilities. Results The use of IT requires a different form of information processing. Some experience this new form of information processing as a benefit while others do not. The latter find it more difficult to enter data and this result in poor clinical documentation. Improvement in the quality of residents’ records leads to an overall improvement in the quality of care. However, if the quality of those records is poor, some residents do not receive the necessary care. Furthermore, the length of time necessary to complete the documentation is a prominent theme within that process. Those who are more efficient with the electronic documentation demonstrate improved time management. For those who are less efficient with electronic documentation the information processing is perceived as time consuming. Normally, it is possible to experience benefits when using IT, but this depends on either promoting or hindering factors, e.g. ease of use and ability to use it, equipment availability and technical functionality, as well as attitude. Conclusions In summary, the findings showed that members of staff experience IT as a benefit when it simplifies their daily working routines and as a burden when it complicates their working processes. Whether IT complicates or simplifies their routines depends on influencing factors. The line between benefit and burden is semipermeable. The experiences differ according to duties and responsibilities.

2014-01-01

147

Validity in Qualitative Research: Application of Safeguards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct of validity has received considerable attention in qualitative methods literature (Denzin, 1989; Erickson, 1986; Geertz, 1973; Goetz & LeCompte, 1984; Howe & Eisenhart, 1990; Maxwell, 1992; Smith & Glass, 1987). Much of the attention has been focused upon the issue of whether qualitative results and interpretations accurately reflect…

Daytner, Katrina M.

2006-01-01

148

Incorporating Qualitative Evidence in Systematic Reviews: Strategies and Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of mixed methods systematic reviews relies on the quality of primary-level studies. The synthesis of qualitative evidence and the recent development of synthesizing mixed methods studies hold promise, but also pose challenges to evidence synthesis.

Caracelli, Valerie J.; Cooksy, Leslie J.

2013-01-01

149

An Exemplar for Teaching and Learning Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we outline a course wherein the instructors teach students how to conduct rigorous qualitative research. We discuss the four major distinct, but overlapping, phases of the course: conceptual/theoretical, technical, applied, and emergent scholar. Students write several qualitative reports, called qualitative notebooks, which…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Slate, John R.; Stark, Marcella; Sharma, Bipin; Frels, Rebecca; Harris, Kristin; Combs, Julie P.

2012-01-01

150

[The narrative in qualitative research in health].  

PubMed

The marked interest of the human and social sciences in health in narrative studies has led to many forms of incorporation of these contributions in qualitative research in health. It is important to reflect on the contexts and characteristics of this incorporation. To accomplish this, we highlight the core theoretical issues involved and also situate this incorporation in the broader context of the scientific production in the human and social sciences in health. We also stress the contribution of the narrative studies for reflection upon the relations between social structure and action or between specific contexts of social interaction and broader societal contexts. This contribution can be identified in relations established through narrative between interpretation, experience and action throughout the health-disease-care process. It is argued that narratives not only organize interpretations, but can also represent a specific form of social agency. In this sense, the narrative interpretations and narrative performances can be seen as core elements in the social construction of experiences and trajectories of illness and care. PMID:24820589

Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

2014-04-01

151

Interviewing objects: including educational technologies as qualitative research participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues the importance of including significant technologies?in?use as key qualitative research participants when studying today’s digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in ‘interviewing’ technologies?in?use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete examples from our own qualitative research projects. Our discussion is informed by Actor?Network Theory and hermeneutic phenomenology, as

Catherine A. Adams; Terrie Lynn Thompson

2011-01-01

152

The Value of Open Source Software Tools in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an era of global networks, researchers using qualitative methods must consider the impact of any software they use on the sharing of data and findings. In this essay, I identify researchers' main areas of concern regarding the use of qualitative software packages for research. I then examine how open source software tools, wherein the publisher…

Greenberg, Gary

2011-01-01

153

Quality and Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines concepts of the trustworthiness, or credibility, of qualitative research. Following a "researcher-as-instrument," or self-reflective, statement, the paradigmatic underpinnings of various criteria for judging the quality of qualitative research are explored, setting the stage for a discussion of more transcendent standards…

Morrow, Susan L.

2005-01-01

154

Qualitative Research Literature: A Bibliographic Essay.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents selected literature that exemplifies (in theory and in practice) four methodological frameworks that have found wide application in qualitative studies: symbolic interactionism, phenomenological description, constructivist hermeneutics, and critical studies. (Author/LRW)

Horn, Jim

1998-01-01

155

Turning Points in Qualitative Research: Tying Knots in a Handkerchief. Crossroads in Qualitative Inquiry Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapters of this volume traces the changes in the discipline of qualitative inquiry over the last five decades. The collection serves as a textbook for training scholars in the history and trajectory of qualitative research. The chapters of part 1, The Revolution of Representation: Feminist and Race/Ethnic Studies Discourses, are: (1) Situated…

Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.; Denzin, Norman K., Ed.

156

Preparing a Qualitative Research-Based Dissertation: Lessons Learned  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, a newly minted Ph.D. shares seven lessons learned during the process of preparing a dissertation based on qualitative research methods. While most of the lessons may be applicable to any kind of research, the writer focuses on the special challenges of employing a qualitative methodology. The lessons are: (1) Read, read, read; (2)…

Bowen, Glenn A.

2005-01-01

157

Can Qualitative Researchers Answer Policymakers' What-Works Question?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article asks whether constructivist qualitative researchers have anything to offer policymakers who expect researchers to tell them what works. The first part of the article addresses philosophical objections to characterizing the social world in cause/effect terms. Specifically, it considers whether it is legitimate for qualitative

Donmoyer, Robert

2012-01-01

158

Conducting qualitative research in the British Armed Forces: theoretical, analytical and ethical implications.  

PubMed

The aim of qualitative research is to produce empirical evidence with data collected through means such as interviews and observation. Qualitative research encourages diversity in the way of thinking and the methods used. Good studies produce a richness of data to provide new knowledge or address extant problems. However, qualitative research resulting in peer review publications within the Defence Medical Services (DMS) is a rarity. This article aims to help redress this balance by offering direction regarding qualitative research in the DMS with a focus on choosing a theoretical framework, analysing the data and ethical approval. Qualitative researchers need an understanding of the paradigms and theories that underpin methodological frameworks, and this article includes an overview of common theories in phenomenology, ethnography and grounded theory, and their application within the military. It explains qualitative coding: the process used to analyse data and shape the analytical framework. A popular four phase approach with examples from an operational nursing research study is presented. Finally, it tackles the issue of ethical approval for qualitative studies and offers direction regarding the research proposal and participant consent. The few qualitative research studies undertaken in the DMS have offered innovative insights into defence healthcare providing information to inform and change educational programmes and clinical practice. This article provides an extra resource for clinicians to encourage studies that will improve the operational capability of the British Armed Forces. It is anticipated that these guidelines are transferable to research in other Armed Forces and the military Veterans population. PMID:24464464

Finnegan, Alan

2014-06-01

159

The job satisfaction-job performance relationship: a qualitative and quantitative review.  

PubMed

A qualitative and quantitative review of the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is provided. The qualitative review is organized around 7 models that characterize past research on the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance. Although some models have received more support than have others, research has not provided conclusive confirmation or disconfirmation of any model, partly because of a lack of assimilation and integration in the literature. Research devoted to testing these models waned following 2 meta-analyses of the job satisfaction-job performance relationship. Because of limitations in these prior analyses and the misinterpretation of their findings, a new meta-analysis was conducted on 312 samples with a combined N of 54,417. The mean true correlation between overall job satisfaction and job performance was estimated to be .30. In light of these results and the qualitative review, an agenda for future research on the satisfaction-performance relationship is provided. PMID:11393302

Judge, T A; Thoresen, C J; Bono, J E; Patton, G K

2001-05-01

160

The Use of Triangulation Methods in Qualitative Educational Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Triangulation involves the careful reviewing of data collected through different methods in order to achieve a more accurate and valid estimate of qualitative results for a particular construct. This paper describes how we used three qualitative methods of data collection to study attitudes of students toward graphing, hands-on activities, and cooperative grouping techniques using the triangulation method.

Allen, Deedee; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria

2006-01-01

161

Do Marriage Problems Affect Fathering More than Mothering? A Quantitative and Qualitative Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The important question of whether marital problems disrupt fathering more than mothering is addressed in (a) a quantitative review of evidence on marital conflict and parenting in intact families, and (b) a qualitative review of research on mother and father involvement with their children following divorce. We conclude that (a) there is limited evidence that, relative to mothering, fathering is

Mary Jo Coiro; Robert E. Emery

1998-01-01

162

Using Qualitative Methods in Teaching Undergraduate Students Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An applied clinical research course helped nursing students acquire an understanding of research and its relationship to clinical practice. The course contrasted qualitative and quantitative methods, addressed ethical issues, and involved students in interviewing older adults about health behavior. (SK)

Bull, Margaret J.

1992-01-01

163

Qualitative Methods and a Phenomenological Perspective in Library Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A phenomenological approach to library research utilizing qualitative research methods is contrasted to a positivist-behaviorist approach utilizing quantitative methods. Psychological understanding of a situation attained by means of accurate description,...

J. P. Natoli

1976-01-01

164

Research Methodologies in Science Education: The Qualitative-Quantitative Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the pros and cons of the qualitative and quantitative research methods and discusses the role of assessment objectives on choosing the research methodologies. Presents an example study. Includes 13 references. (Author/YDS)

Libarkin, Julie C.; Kurdziel, Josepha P.

2002-01-01

165

Emergent Issues in Qualitative Research and Teacher Professional Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses issues of qualitative research stimulated by Eileen Waldschmidt's work on bilingual teachers and creative drama including issues of the researcher's stance, primacy of voice, and thickness of data. (SR)

Norris, Joe

1999-01-01

166

Composition of fingermark residue: a qualitative and quantitative review.  

PubMed

This article describes the composition of fingermark residue as being a complex system with numerous compounds coming from different sources and evolving over time from the initial composition (corresponding to the composition right after deposition) to the aged composition (corresponding to the evolution of the initial composition over time). This complex system will additionally vary due to effects of numerous influence factors grouped in five different classes: the donor characteristics, the deposition conditions, the substrate nature, the environmental conditions and the applied enhancement techniques. The initial and aged compositions as well as the influence factors are thus considered in this article to provide a qualitative and quantitative review of all compounds identified in fingermark residue up to now. The analytical techniques used to obtain these data are also enumerated. This review highlights the fact that despite the numerous analytical processes that have already been proposed and tested to elucidate fingermark composition, advanced knowledge is still missing. Thus, there is a real need to conduct future research on the composition of fingermark residue, focusing particularly on quantitative measurements, aging kinetics and effects of influence factors. The results of future research are particularly important for advances in fingermark enhancement and dating technique developments. PMID:22727572

Girod, Aline; Ramotowski, Robert; Weyermann, Céline

2012-11-30

167

Grounded Theory Methods and Qualitative Family Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…

LaRossa, Ralph

2005-01-01

168

Language differences in qualitative research: is meaning lost in translation?  

PubMed Central

This article discusses challenges of language differences in qualitative research, when participants and the main researcher have the same non-English native language and the non-English data lead to an English publication. Challenges of translation are discussed from the perspective that interpretation of meaning is the core of qualitative research. As translation is also an interpretive act, meaning may get lost in the translation process. Recommendations are suggested, aiming to contribute to the best possible representation and understanding of the interpreted experiences of the participants and thereby to the validity of qualitative research.

Abma, Tineke; Jonsson, Hans; Deeg, Dorly

2010-01-01

169

Qualitative Research in Question: A Narrative of Disciplinary Power with/in the IRB  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article narrates the author's experience of obtaining institutional review board (IRB) approval for her dissertation study. Although her research topic was particularly sensitive, this case is illustrative of the increasing level of difficulty qualitative researchers are facing in conducting not only risky research but also work that is not…

Johnson, Tara Star

2008-01-01

170

Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in evidence-based patient information  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews have, in the past, focused on quantitative studies and clinical effectiveness, while excluding qualitative evidence. Qualitative research can inform evidence?based practice independently of other research methodologies but methods for the synthesis of such data are currently evolving. Synthesising quantitative and qualitative research in a single review is an important methodological challenge. Aims This paper describes the review methods developed and the difficulties encountered during the process of updating a systematic review of evidence to inform guidelines for the content of patient information related to cervical screening. Methods Systematic searches of 12 electronic databases (January 1996 to July 2004) were conducted. Studies that evaluated the content of information provided to women about cervical screening or that addressed women's information needs were assessed for inclusion. A data extraction form and quality assessment criteria were developed from published resources. A non?quantitative synthesis was conducted and a tabular evidence profile for each important outcome (eg “explain what the test involves”) was prepared. The overall quality of evidence for each outcome was then assessed using an approach published by the GRADE working group, which was adapted to suit the review questions and modified to include qualitative research evidence. Quantitative and qualitative studies were considered separately for every outcome. Results 32 papers were included in the systematic review following data extraction and assessment of methodological quality. The review questions were best answered by evidence from a range of data sources. The inclusion of qualitative research, which was often highly relevant and specific to many components of the screening information materials, enabled the production of a set of recommendations that will directly affect policy within the NHS Cervical Screening Programme. Conclusions A practical example is provided of how quantitative and qualitative data sources might successfully be brought together and considered in one review.

Goldsmith, Megan R; Bankhead, Clare R; Austoker, Joan

2007-01-01

171

Virtual Instruction: A Qualitative Research Laboratory Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Online graduate programs in psychology are becoming common; however, a concern has been whether instructors in the programs provide adequate research mentoring. One issue surrounding research mentoring is the absence of research laboratories in the virtual university. Students attending online universities often do research without peer or lab…

Stadtlander, Lee M.; Giles, Martha J.

2010-01-01

172

Conducting Qualitative Research on Desertification in Western Lesvos, Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main aim of this article is to present some critical methodological strategies employed in a qualitative research study on local socioeconomic development and desertification in western Lesvos, Greece. Through in-depth qualitative interviews with local producers in western Lesvos, Greece, an effort was made to identify and analyze the links…

Iosifides, Theodoros; Politidis, Theodoros

2005-01-01

173

Qualitative Analysis on Stage: Making the Research Process More Public  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions regarding standards for assessing qualitative research have not sufficiently addressed questions concerning the privatization of this type of analysis. In response to this dilemma, the authors of this article address some of the strategies that they have employed in working with doctoral students and offer suggestions for assessing and publicly disclosing the methodological rigor and analytical defensibility of qualitative

Vincent A. Anfara; Kathleen M. Brown; Terri L. Mangione

2002-01-01

174

Aesthetic Forms of Data Representation in Qualitative Family Therapy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we provide a rationale for using alternative, aesthetic methods of qualitative representation (e.g., creative writing, art, music, performance, poetry) in qualitative family therapy research. We also provide illustrative examples of methods that bring findings to life, and involve the audience in reflecting on their meaning. One…

Piercy, Fred P.; Benson, Kristen

2005-01-01

175

An Uneasy Alliance: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the difficulties encountered in trying to combine qualitative and quantitative research methods in a study of the relationship between moral reasoning and teenage drug use. Four problems that arose in the attempt to reduce qualitative data to a quantitative format are described. These problems are: (1) making analytic sense of singular responses; (2) a mistaken logical inference

David R. Buchanan

1992-01-01

176

A Content Analysis of Qualitative Research in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education from 1998 to 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous reviews of research have documented the increasing use of qualitative inquiry in physical education. In this research note, the authors present a content analysis of qualitative research articles published between 1998 and 2008 in the Journal of Teaching in Physical Education (JTPE). A total of 110 empirical articles were published that…

Hemphill, Michael A.; Richards, K. Andrew R.; Templin, Thomas J.; Blankenship, Bonnie Tjeerdsma

2012-01-01

177

The Possible Restorative Justice Functions of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author of this essay contends that there is a need to expand the use of qualitative research methods to include healing and human restoration for the researcher as well as for the researched. This will require moving away from obsessions with positivistic conceptions of scientific research and exploring and using other possible functions of…

Stanfield, John H., II

2006-01-01

178

Combining quantitative and qualitative methodologies in logistics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of logistics research is primarily populated by quantitative research viewed through a positivist lens. Increasingly, there are calls for logistics research to more frequently employ qualitative methodologies. The trend in management research generally is increasingly to use methods and approaches which provide a middle ground between the contrasting positivist and phenomenological paradigms and perspectives. Methodological triangulation, using quantitative

John Mangan; Chandra Lalwani; Bernard Gardner

2004-01-01

179

The Research Audit Trial - Enhancing Trustworthiness in Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positivist and interpretivist researchers have different views on how their research outcomes may be evaluated. The issues of validity, reliability and generalisability, used in evaluating positivist studies, are regarded of relatively little significance by many qualitative researchers for judging the merits of their interpretive investigations. In confirming the research, those three canons need at least to be re-conceptualised in order

Marian Carcary

2009-01-01

180

Visual Evidence in Qualitative Research: The Role of Videorecording  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Videorecording allows the researcher to record and replay the pictures and sound of an event. As such, it can be a valuable research tool. Nevertheless, it is not just a simple measuring instrument. As a qualitative research data gathering tool, videorecordings should be authenticated. Researchers should indicate clearly the role of this tool in…

Penn-Edwards, Sorrel

2004-01-01

181

Qualitative Methods in Research on Teaching. Occasional Paper No. 81.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic issues concerning interpretive research, and theories and methods of using interpretive research to study teaching are discussed. The concept of interpretive research may also be known as ethnographic, qualitative, participant observational, case study, symbolic interactionist, phenomenological, or constructivist. Interpretive research

Erickson, Frederick

182

Qualitative research design and approaches in radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Radiography, as with other health care professions, aims towards establishing full professional recognition. A recognized research back- ground is considered an essential component of this. Usually, emphasis is placed on quantitative research which focuses on the deductive component of the scientific 'confirmatory' method. However, this situation changed after the emergence of a post-positivist philosophy of medical research, which suggests

Curtise K. C. Ng; Peter Whitea

2005-01-01

183

Structured Qualitative Research: Organizing "Mountains of Words" for Data Analysis, both Qualitative and Quantitative  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research creates mountains of words. U.S. federal funding supports mostly structured qualitative research, which is designed to test hypotheses using semi-quantitative coding and analysis. The authors have 30 years of experience in designing and completing major qualitative research projects, mainly funded by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse [NIDA]. This article reports on strategies for planning, organizing, collecting, managing, storing, retrieving, analyzing, and writing about qualitative data so as to most efficiently manage the mountains of words collected in large-scale ethnographic projects. Multiple benefits accrue from this approach. Several different staff members can contribute to the data collection, even when working from remote locations. Field expenditures are linked to units of work so productivity is measured, many staff in various locations have access to use and analyze the data, quantitative data can be derived from data that is primarily qualitative, and improved efficiencies of resources are developed. The major difficulties involve a need for staff who can program and manage large databases, and who can be skillful analysts of both qualitative and quantitative data.

Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise; Benoit, Ellen

2008-01-01

184

Enhancing the Qualitative-Research Culture in Family Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ralph LaRossa (2012) did a fine job of identifying three issues that authors of qualitative submissions to the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") should take into account because reviewers are likely to attend to them. His intention was to assist communication between authors and reviewers in order to "increase the representation of…

Matthews, Sarah H.

2012-01-01

185

Giving Bad News: A Qualitative Research Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: The manner in which healthcare professionals deliver bad news affects the way it is received, interpreted, understood, and dealt with. Despite the fact that clinicians are responsible for breaking bad news, it has been shown that they lack skills necessary to perform this task. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences to receive bad news about their children cancer and to summarize suggestions for improving delivering bad news by healthcare providers. Materials and Methods: A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 mothers from two pediatric hospitals in Iran. Results: Five major categories emerged from the data analysis, including dumping information, shock and upset, emotional work, burden of delivering bad news to the family members, and a room for multidisciplinary approach. Conclusions: Effective communication of healthcare team with mothers is required during breaking bad news. Using multidisciplinary approaches to prevent harmful reactions and providing appropriate support are recommended.

Aein, Fereshteh; Delaram, Masoumeh

2014-01-01

186

The quest for qualitative methods in media research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creswell, J.W. 1998. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Janesick, V.J. 1998. ‘Stretching’ exercises for qualitative researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Krueger, R.A. 1998. Analyzing and reporting focus group results. Focus Group Kit No. 6. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Krueger, R.A. 1998. Moderating focus groups. Focus Group Kit No. 4. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Krueger, R.A &

Roy A. Atwood

1998-01-01

187

The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research methods is problematic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is abstract, very general and its value is usually taken for\\u000a granted. In contrast, this article attempts to show that the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is\\u000a unclear, poor and therefore of limited value and that its popularity risks leading to unfortunate consequences. Various arguments\\u000a are presented for this conclusion. For example,

Carl Martin Allwood

2012-01-01

188

Qualitative research: Observational methods in health care settings.  

PubMed Central

Clinicians used to observing individual patients, and epidemiologists trained to observe the course of disease, may be forgiven for misunderstanding the term observational method as used in qualitative research. In contrast to the clinician or epidemiologist, the qualitative researcher systematically watches people and events to find out about behaviours and interactions in natural settings. Observation, in this sense, epitomises the idea of the researcher as the research instrument. It involves "going into the field"--describing and analysing what has been seen. In health care settings this method has been insightful and illuminating, but it is not without pitfalls for the unprepared researcher. Images p183-a

Mays, N.; Pope, C.

1995-01-01

189

Qualitative Inquiry as Gegenwerk: Connections Between Art and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, the authors apply the findings of research into transitional processes in the arts to a consideration of qualitative research. They identify and describe four types of transitional practice: the transferential, the transformational, the transpositional, and the transgressional. Transitional practices in both art and research are found to be dialectical, involving presencing and absencing, doing and undoing, and

Derek Pigrum

2005-01-01

190

Rethinking Texts: Narrative and the Construction of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines how a theory of narrative can be used to deconstruct qualitative research texts. Although research texts are a distinct genre in comparison with works of fiction, the basic components of literary activity are similar. Researchers structure and emphasize data and participants in various ways to tell a logical story. Narrative…

Holley, Karri A.; Colyar, Julia

2009-01-01

191

Quantitative and qualitative research: conflicting paradigms or perfect partners?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will examine the use of quantitative and qualitative methods as complementary research methods. It asks the fundamental question whether these two approaches can be used jointly in a principled manner. The pressure in educational research has been towards using the two methods alongside each other. In applied research the use of the two approaches in the same project

Chris Jones

192

Why We Need Qualitative Research in Suicidology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the differentiation between "explanations" and "understanding" from philosophy of science as the point of departure, a critical look at the current mainstream suicidological research was launched. An almost exclusive use of quantitative methodology focusing on "explanations" is demonstrated. This bias in scope and methodology has to a large…

Hjelmeland, Heidi; Knizek, Birthe Loa

2010-01-01

193

Entrepreneurial marketing: a conceptualisation from qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes a conceptualisation of “entrepreneurial marketing” based on the practices of successful entrepreneurs. The methodology took account of specific issues in researching entrepreneurs such as lack of common understanding of management terms, and the influence of ego on participants’ responses. Depth interviews used critical incident technique to elicit accounts from entrepreneurs of their marketing practices. Focus groups supplemented individual interviews

David Stokes

2000-01-01

194

How qualitative research can contribute to research in the intensive care unit.  

PubMed

A qualitative research design can provide unique contributions to research in the intensive care unit. Qualitative research includes the entire process of research: the methodology (conceptualization of the research question, choosing the appropriate qualitative strategy, designing the protocol), methods (conducting the research using qualitative methods within the chosen qualitative strategy, analysis of the data, verification of the findings), and writing the narrative. The researcher is the instrument and the data are the participants' words and experiences that are collected and coded to present experiences, discover themes, or build theories. A number of strategies are available to conduct qualitative research and include grounded theory, phenomenology, case study, and ethnography. Qualitative methods can be used to understand complex phenomena that do not lend themselves to quantitative methods of formal hypothesis testing. Qualitative research may be used to gain insights about organizational and cultural issues within the intensive care unit and to improve our understanding of social interaction and processes of health care delivery. In this article, we outline the rationale for, and approaches to, using qualitative research to inform critical care issues. We provide an overview of qualitative methods available and how they can be used alone or in concert with quantitative methods. To illustrate how our understanding of social phenomena such as patient safety and behavior change has been enhanced we use recent qualitative studies in acute care medicine. PMID:17548020

Sinuff, Tasnim; Cook, Deborah J; Giacomini, Mita

2007-06-01

195

Establishing Student Competency in Qualitative Research: Can Undergraduate Nursing Students Perform Qualitative Data Analysis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To learn the skills of qualitative analysis, 28 nursing students selected research questions, interviewed each other, and conducted data analysis. Students' analyses had 89% agreement with the instructor's on the topic of lab-to-clinic skill transfer, 96% agreement on the influence of experience, and 61% on nervousness during clinical supervision.…

Reising, Deanna L.

2003-01-01

196

Opening up the black box: an introduction to qualitative research methods in anaesthesia.  

PubMed

Qualitative research methods are a group of techniques designed to allow the researcher to understand phenomena in their natural setting. A wide range is used, including focus groups, interviews, observation, and discourse analysis techniques, which may be used within research approaches such as grounded theory or ethnography. Qualitative studies in the anaesthetic setting have been used to define excellence in anaesthesia, explore the reasons behind drug errors, investigate the acquisition of expertise and examine incentives for hand-hygiene in the operating theatre. Understanding how and why people act the way they do is essential for the advancement of anaesthetic practice, and rigorous, well-designed qualitative research can generate useful data and important insights. Meticulous social scientific methods, transparency, reproducibility and reflexivity are markers of quality in qualitative research. Tools such as the consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research checklist and the critical appraisal skills programme are available to help authors, reviewers and readers unfamiliar with qualitative research assess its merits. PMID:24548356

Shelton, C L; Smith, A F; Mort, M

2014-03-01

197

Qualitative Teacher Research and the Complexity of Classroom Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses how the underlying assumptions and practices of teacher research position it as a distinct form of educational inquiry, and identifies qualitative methodology as a central influence on the work. A discussion of some of the common conceptualizations and processes of PK-12 teacher research, the complex yet continually changing…

Klehr, Mary

2012-01-01

198

Ethics committees in nursing homes: A qualitative research study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of U.S. hospitals now have a committee to address the ethical issues raised by modern medicine and health care. Ethics committees (EC) are now being established in the unique setting of the nursing home. Although much has been written about Institutional Ethics Committees (IEC), few studies have engaged in qualitative research in multiple institutions and little research

Mary Ann Thompson; J. Milburn Thompson

1990-01-01

199

Journalistic Observation as a Qualitative Research Method for Sociology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison is made between the tools of observation and research used by journalists to study society and the media, and the qualitative and clinical research tools used in the social and psychological sciences. The first part of the paper, a journalistic approach to sociology, traces the notion of the sociologist as a super-reporter using…

Burd, Gene

200

Focus groups: A new tool for qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focus groups have received little attention from sociologists, although they are a commonly used qualitative technique in market research. The data collected in focus group sessions typically consist of tape-recorded group discussions among four to ten participants who share their thoughts and experiences on a set of topics selected by the researcher. We present a brief description of dimensions along

David L. Morgan; Margaret T. Spanish

1984-01-01

201

What Good Is Polarizing Research into Qualitative and Quantitative?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In education research, a polar distinction is frequently made to describe and produce different kinds of research: "quantitative" versus "qualitative." In this article, the authors argue against that polarization and the associated polarization of the "subjective" and the "objective," and they question the attribution of generalizability to only…

Ercikan, Kadriye; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2006-01-01

202

Diverse ways to foreground methodological insights about qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texts and articles that put epistemological theories and methodologies to work in the context of qualitative research can stimulate scholarship in various ways such as through methodological innovations, transferability of theories and methods, interdisciplinarity, and transformative reflections across traditions and frameworks. Such methodological practices are particularly of use for educational researchers concerned with thinking about practices of pedagogy and curriculum

Mirka Koro-Ljungberg; Lisa A. Mazzei; Deborah Ceglowski

2012-01-01

203

Building Confidence in Qualitative Research: Engaging the Demands of Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of qualitative research has been subject to considerable criticism recently, partly driven by the development of an international movement for "evidence-based policy and practice." In the United States, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are posited by some as the best way of producing reliable research knowledge. Also, responses to…

Torrance, Harry

2008-01-01

204

[Changes in the perceptions of qualitative research and investigation].  

PubMed

Qualitative research and investigation has proven to be fundamental in sanitary practice and brings to bear a body of knowledge which can not be provided by other methods; although classically it has been considered a less scientific method of research, this perception which has changed in recent years. PMID:16459875

Calderon, Carlos

2005-12-01

205

Standards for Qualitative (And Quantitative) Research: A Prolegomenon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of qualitative methods in educational research has !ed to considerable controversy about standards for the design and conduct of research. Thzs controversy has been playing itself out over the last several decades largely in terms of the quantitative- qualitatzve debate. In this paper we argue that framzng the issue of standards m terms of quantztative-quahtatzve debate zs mzsguided.

Kenneth Howe; Margaret Eisenhart

1990-01-01

206

Exceptional Children Research Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research reviews are presented for eight areas of exceptionality and for administration. Included are the following reports: 16 on the gifted compiled by Edward C. Frierson; 46 on the mentally retarded reviewed by Howard H. Spicker and Nettie R. Bartel; 20 on the visually impaired presented by William J. Tisdall; 44 on the hearing impaired…

Johnson, G. Orville, Ed.; Blank, Harriett D., Ed.

207

Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.  

PubMed

This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment. PMID:15588012

Storr, Loma

2004-01-01

208

Never the twain shall meet? Quantitative psychological researchers’ perspectives on qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article was to provide a quantitative researchers’ perspective on qualitative research applied to sport and exercise psychology. Specifically, we aimed to identify some of the ‘problems’ that researchers adopting a predominantly quantitative, ‘natural science’ approach to psychological phenomena in psychology have with qualitative approaches. In addition, we also identified, as researchers from a predominantly background, the

Martin S. Hagger; Nikos L. D. Chatzisarantis

2011-01-01

209

Cultural barriers to cancer screening among African American women: a critical review of the qualitative literature.  

PubMed

There have been numerous studies demonstrating the enormous cancer burden for African American women and the impact of structural barriers in the dissemination of cancer control interventions. Few of these studies have dealt with the influence of cultural factors in the success or failure of intervention research. The purpose of this review is to provide a critical appraisal of qualitative studies that inform on social-cultural factors in cancer screening programs for African American women, and to evaluate the extent to which general methodologic criteria have been used in these studies. The article discusses the theoretical underpinnings of social science qualitative methodologies, including ethnography, hermeneutics, ethnomethodology, and symbolic interactionism. Published qualitative studies from 1980 to 1996 on cancer screening among African American women are critically reviewed. Among the themes identified were bruises as contributory to breast cancer development; the low priority women placed on personal preventive screening behaviors in the context of other family health priorities; and the importance of female friends, relatives, and social networks in the flow of cancer information. The importance of qualitative approaches to cancer prevention and control programs and policies is threefold: (a) collection of greater depth of information, (b) identification of processes and relations among behaviors, and (c) framing of variables and hypotheses for quantitative research. Greater emphasis on methodologic rigor will be necessary, however, if qualitative studies of cancer screening are to effectively inform the development of research, programs, and policies. PMID:9426493

Hoffman-Goetz, L; Mills, S L

1997-01-01

210

VCSELs: A Research Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter attempts to briefly review the research history of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). Based on the contents of previous monographs on VCSELs written in English, we motivate the selection of topics in the present book and give an introduction to the individual chapters. Moreover, we mention some other research that is not covered in a dedicated chapter in order to provide the readers with even deeper insights into VCSEL research. Future directions and opportunities are also indicated.

Michalzik, Rainer

211

In Search of a Culture: Navigating the Dimensions of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ralph LaRossa's (2012) article on the multidimensional world of qualitative research provides family scientists with a set of innovative tools to guide writing and reviewing. He proffered an engaging challenge: to view the "Journal of Marriage and Family" ("JMF") as a meeting place of scholars, a thought community (Zerubavel, 1997), even a culture…

Roy, Kevin M.

2012-01-01

212

On Becoming a Pragmatic Researcher: The Importance of Combining Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last 100 years have witnessed a fervent debate in the United States about quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. Unfortunately, this has led to a great divide between quantitative and qualitative researchers, who often view themselves in competition with each other. Clearly, this polarization has promoted purists, i.e., researchers

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

213

Aced Out: Censorship of Qualitative Research in the Age of "Scientifically Based Research"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this manuscript, we examine three layers of censorship related to the publication of qualitative research studies: (a) the global level of federal legislation and the definition of the "gold standard" of educational research, (b) the decline in the number of qualitative studies published in a top-tiered early childhood educational research

Ceglowski, Deborah; Bacigalupa, Chiara; Peck, Emery

2011-01-01

214

Shifting Priorities: Reflections on Teaching Qualitative Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to describe pedagogical approaches to qualitative methodology by an instructor of educational psychology at a large research university. The essay begins with an overview of how my graduate training influenced my orientation to empirical study. Next, I will focus on the obstacles encountered when instructing graduate…

Booker, Keonya C.

2009-01-01

215

Under Construction: How Narrative Elements Shape Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article considers how narrative constructs could be used to strengthen the writing process. The authors outline the narratological devices of plot, point of view, authorial distance, and character, and examine how these concepts can be used when writing with qualitative data. Narratological tools equip the researcher to selectively manage the…

Holley, Karri; Colyar, Julia

2012-01-01

216

Shared Journaling as Peer Support in Teaching Qualitative Research Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching qualitative research methods (QRM), particularly early on in one's academic career, can be challenging. This paper describes shared peer journaling as one way in which to cope with challenges such as complex debates in the field and student resistance to interpretive paradigms. Literature on teaching QRM and the pedagogical value of…

Humble, Aine M.; Sharp, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

217

Teaching Qualitative Research Methods through Service-Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is the result of a voluntary service-learning component in a qualitative research methods course. For this course, the service-learning project was the evaluation of the benefits to volunteers who work a crisis hotline for a local crisis intervention center. The service-learning course model used in this paper most closely resembles the…

Machtmes, Krisanna; Johnson, Earl; Fox, Janet; Burke, Mary S.; Harper, Jeannie; Arcemont, Lisa; Hebert, Lanette; Tarifa, Todd; Brooks, Roy C., Jr.; Reynaud, Andree L.; Deggs, David; Matzke, Brenda; Aguirre, Regina T. P.

2009-01-01

218

Meaning in Method: The Rhetoric of Quantitative and Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current debate about quantitative and qualitative methods focuses on whether there is a necessary connection between method-type and research paradigm that makes the different approaches incompatible. This paper argues that part of the connection is rhetorical. Quantitative methods express the assumptions of a positvisit paradigm which holds that behavior can be explained through objective facts. Design and instrumentation persuade

WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

1987-01-01

219

Computer-Based Instruction in Qualitative Research Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses problems in qualitative-research-practice instruction and describes a computer-based instructional system based on linking domain problems to particular pedagogic mechanisms, and then linking these mechanisms to various implementation decisions. Topics include skill transfer and relational-database management systems. (Author/LRW)

Busby, J. S.; Payne, K.

1998-01-01

220

A Pluralist View of Generalization in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A common way of discussing generalisation is to search for one conception--a monist view. Another approach is to create a dichotomy between quantitative and qualitative research, each having a single definition--a dualist perspective. A pluralist view is argued for here, i.e. the existence of several lines of reasoning, each of which can be…

Larsson, Staffan

2009-01-01

221

Developing and implementing a triangulation protocol for qualitative health research.  

PubMed

In this article, the authors present an empirical example of triangulation in qualitative health research. The Canadian Heart Health Dissemination Project (CHHDP) involves a national examination of capacity building and dissemination undertaken within a series of provincial dissemination projects. The Project's focus is on the context, processes, and impacts of health promotion capacity building and dissemination. The authors collected qualitative data within a parallel-case study design using key informant interviews as well as document analysis. Given the range of qualitative data sets used, it is essential to triangulate the data to address completeness, convergence, and dissonance of key themes. Although one finds no shortage of admonitions in the literature that it must be done, there is little guidance with respect to operationalizing a triangulation process. Consequently, the authors are feeling their way through the process, using this opportunity to develop, implement, and reflect on a triangulation protocol. PMID:16449687

Farmer, Tracy; Robinson, Kerry; Elliott, Susan J; Eyles, John

2006-03-01

222

Qualitative research to improve RCT recruitment: Issues arising in establishing research collaborations  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionStrategies to improve recruitment to RCTs (randomised controlled trials) are limited. The ProtecT (Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment) study successfully developed a complex intervention based on qualitative research methods to increase recruitment rates. The Quartet study (Qualitative Research to Improve Recruitment to RCTs) was established to evaluate whether the ProtecT qualitative methods could be transferred into other RCTs. This

Isabel de Salis; Zelda Tomlin; Merran Toerien; Jenny Donovan

2008-01-01

223

A review and classification of academic research in facilities management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review, evaluate and classify the academic research that has been published in facilities management (FM) and to analyse how FM research and practice are linked. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper is based on literature review and qualitative research. Qualitative data have been gathered from academic papers published in FM-related journals (i.e. Facilities,

Tomi Ventovuori; Tero Lehtonen; Anssi Salonen; Suvi Nenonen

2007-01-01

224

Exploring the Relevance of Qualitative Research Synthesis to Higher Education Research and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes the importance of qualitative research synthesis to the field of higher education. It examines seven key texts that undertake synthesis in this field and compares essential features and elements across studies. The authors indicate strengths of the approaches and highlight ways forward for using qualitative research synthesis…

Major, Claire; Savin-Baden, Maggi

2010-01-01

225

The researcher as instrument: learning to conduct qualitative research through analyzing and interpreting a choral rehearsal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative researchers often describe the ambiguities and complexities of extracting meaning from ambiguous and complex data. Although methodological literature provides useful frameworks and heuristics to guide the process of transforming field data into credible findings, learning to analyze and interpret qualitative data also involves a transformation of the researcher as the primary instrument for making sense of the phenomenon under

Janet R. Barrett

2007-01-01

226

Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research

Murakami, Yusuke

2013-01-01

227

Research that Matters: Qualitative Research in the Service of Social Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article summarizes the keynote address delivered at the 23rd Annual Ethnographic & Qualitative Research Conference. It is routine for qualitative researchers to "locate" themselves, sharing their history in relation to the settings/contexts, issues, vocabularies, identities, and other factors associated with their topic of inquiry. In this…

Biklen, Douglas P.

2011-01-01

228

Qualitative Analysis Techniques for the Review of the Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we provide a framework for analyzing and interpreting sources that inform a literature review or, as it is more aptly called, a research synthesis. Specifically, using Leech and Onwuegbuzie's (2007, 2008) frameworks, we delineate how the following four major source types inform research syntheses: talk, observations,…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.

2012-01-01

229

Qualitative research in African education: notes and comments from Southern and Eastern Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines briefly the limits and possibilities of the qualitative research paradigm in sub?Saharan Africa with a focus on Southern and Eastern Africa. The qualitative research paradigm is relatively new to African researchers and institutions, and there are relatively few Africans able to sustain research institutes committed to the qualitative research paradigm in education. African researchers, unlike their counterparts

Kuzvinetsa P. Dzvimbo

1994-01-01

230

Understanding Qualitative Metasynthesis: Issues and Opportunities in Early Childhood Intervention Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative metasynthesis is an intentional and coherent approach to analyzing data across qualitative studies. It is a process that enables researchers to identify a specific research question and then search for, select, appraise, summarize, and combine qualitative evidence to address the research question. This process uses rigorous qualitative

Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann

2011-01-01

231

Methodology or method? A critical review of qualitative case study reports  

PubMed Central

Despite on-going debate about credibility, and reported limitations in comparison to other approaches, case study is an increasingly popular approach among qualitative researchers. We critically analysed the methodological descriptions of published case studies. Three high-impact qualitative methods journals were searched to locate case studies published in the past 5 years; 34 were selected for analysis. Articles were categorized as health and health services (n=12), social sciences and anthropology (n=7), or methods (n=15) case studies. The articles were reviewed using an adapted version of established criteria to determine whether adequate methodological justification was present, and if study aims, methods, and reported findings were consistent with a qualitative case study approach. Findings were grouped into five themes outlining key methodological issues: case study methodology or method, case of something particular and case selection, contextually bound case study, researcher and case interactions and triangulation, and study design inconsistent with methodology reported. Improved reporting of case studies by qualitative researchers will advance the methodology for the benefit of researchers and practitioners.

Hyett, Nerida; Kenny, Amanda; Dickson-Swift, Virginia

2014-01-01

232

Using Qualitative Research to Bridge Research, Policy, and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too often, researchers get a bad name for engaging in inquiry that is inaccessible to the practitioner and policy communities who could most benefit from it. Although speaking to others in the scholarly community is important, researchers must also be able to translate their results into more accessible language for multiple audiences. This…

Sallee, Margaret W.; Flood, Julee T.

2012-01-01

233

Research Methods Employed in "American Educational Research Journal,""Educational Researcher," and "Review of Educational Research" from 1978 to 1995.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis was conducted of three educational research journals published by the American Educational Research Association to review the quantitative and qualitative techniques used in educational research. All articles appearing in these three journals from 1988 through 1995 (total n=1,715) were considered. Research methods were…

Elmore, Patricia B.; Woehlke, Paula L.

234

[Qualitative research into the scientific production in the field of bioethics].  

PubMed

This article discusses the character and use of qualitative research methods in the field of bioethics. A systematic review of articles published in Latin American countries and selected from the SciELO database was conducted, with special emphasis on articles that employed qualitative research methodology. The set of articles reveals a field of bioethics composed of three distinct vectors. The first refers to the dual characterization of bioethics that can be defined as a social movement or as a discipline; the second differentiates bioethics from other fields of ethics, especially from predominantly deontology-based professional ethics; and the third is related to ethical approaches adopted in the analyses conducted in the research. A relatively insignificant part of these texts result from qualitative research and they can be divided into four categories according to their themes and guidelines: bioethics as a field and/or discourse; training in health; ethics, care, and clinical practice; formulation of health policy. The production shows, on the one hand, a relatively timid approach of social science researchers to the field of bioethics and, on the other hand, little use of qualitative methodologies in research in the field and, in some cases, a certain lack of precision regarding use of the methods. PMID:25014298

Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia; Claro, Lenita Barreto Lorena; Un, Julio Wong

2014-07-01

235

Qualitative research methods: key features and insights gained from use in infection prevention research.  

PubMed

Infection control professionals and hospital epidemiologists are accustomed to using quantitative research. Although quantitative studies are extremely important in the field of infection control and prevention, often they cannot help us explain why certain factors affect the use of infection control practices and identify the underlying mechanisms through which they do so. Qualitative research methods, which use open-ended techniques, such as interviews, to collect data and nonstatistical techniques to analyze it, provide detailed, diverse insights of individuals, useful quotes that bring a realism to applied research, and information about how different health care settings operate. Qualitative research can illuminate the processes underlying statistical correlations, inform the development of interventions, and show how interventions work to produce observed outcomes. This article describes the key features of qualitative research and the advantages that such features add to existing quantitative research approaches in the study of infection control. We address the goal of qualitative research, the nature of the research process, sampling, data collection and analysis, validity, generalizability of findings, and presentation of findings. Health services researchers are increasingly using qualitative methods to address practical problems by uncovering interacting influences in complex health care environments. Qualitative research methods, applied with expertise and rigor, can contribute important insights to infection prevention efforts. PMID:18834752

Forman, Jane; Creswell, John W; Damschroder, Laura; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L

2008-12-01

236

PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation  

PubMed Central

Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity.

Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

2010-01-01

237

PRO development: rigorous qualitative research as the crucial foundation.  

PubMed

Recently published articles have described criteria to assess qualitative research in the health field in general, but very few articles have delineated qualitative methods to be used in the development of Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs). In fact, how PROs are developed with subject input through focus groups and interviews has been given relatively short shrift in the PRO literature when compared to the plethora of quantitative articles on the psychometric properties of PROs. If documented at all, most PRO validation articles give little for the reader to evaluate the content validity of the measures and the credibility and trustworthiness of the methods used to develop them. Increasingly, however, scientists and authorities want to be assured that PRO items and scales have meaning and relevance to subjects. This article was developed by an international, interdisciplinary group of psychologists, psychometricians, regulatory experts, a physician, and a sociologist. It presents rigorous and appropriate qualitative research methods for developing PROs with content validity. The approach described combines an overarching phenomenological theoretical framework with grounded theory data collection and analysis methods to yield PRO items and scales that have content validity. PMID:20512662

Lasch, Kathryn Eilene; Marquis, Patrick; Vigneux, Marc; Abetz, Linda; Arnould, Benoit; Bayliss, Martha; Crawford, Bruce; Rosa, Kathleen

2010-10-01

238

Appraising Qualitative Research in Health Education: Guidelines for Public Health Educators  

PubMed Central

Research studies, including qualitative studies, form the basis for evidence-based practice among health professionals. However, many practicing health educators do not feel fully confident in their ability to critically appraise qualitative research studies. This publication presents an overview of qualitative research approaches, defines key terminology used in qualitative research, and provides guidelines for appraising the strengths and weaknesses of published qualitative research. On reading, health educators will be better equipped to evaluate the quality of the evidence through critical appraisals of qualitative research publications.

Jeanfreau, Scharalda G.; Jack, Leonard

2010-01-01

239

Proposing an Argument for Research Questions that Could Create Permeable Boundaries within Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this conceptual paper, we discuss how carefully developed research questions may support qualitative researchers by providing boundaries for their study designs. These boundaries could indicate a researcher's epistemological and theoretical connections and support his or her research choices. Although these boundaries are permeable and in flux,…

Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka; Hayes, Sharon

2010-01-01

240

Qualitative Research as Cultural and Religious Mirror: What Do Researchers Really Learn?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the interaction between the work and lives of five religious qualitative researchers whose research studies investigate both culture and religion. The ways their personal backgrounds, experiences, and values affect their choice of research topics and their relationships with research participants and with data, are revealed…

Court, Deborah

2008-01-01

241

A qualitative study of migraine involving patient researchers  

PubMed Central

Background Migraine is poorly managed in primary care despite a high level of morbidity. The majority of sufferers use non-prescription medications and are reluctant to seek help but the reasons for this are not understood. Aim The aim of this study was to develop a research partnership between migraine sufferers and healthcare professionals to synthesise tacit and explicit knowledge in the area. Building upon this partnership, a further aim was to explore what it is to suffer with migraine from patients' perspectives in order to inform health service delivery. Design Qualitative interview study involving healthcare professionals and patient researchers. Setting A purposeful sample of eight migraine sufferers who had attended a local intermediate care headache clinic. Method A consensual qualitative approach. Results Migraine had a high and unrecognised impact on quality of life. ‘Handling the beast’ was a central metaphor that resonated with the experience of all sufferers who sought to control their problem in different ways. Three major themes were identified: making sense of their problem; actively doing something about it either through self-help or professional advice; being resigned to it. Conclusion Despite a significant impact on the quality of life of migraine sufferers and their families, their needs remain largely unmet. Useful insights can be obtained when patients and professionals work together in true partnership but the time and effort involved should not be underestimated. Further research is needed to identify why there are major deficiencies in delivering care in this common problem.

Belam, Judith; Harris, Gill; Kernick, David; Kline, Frances; Lindley, Krissy; McWatt, Jayne; Mitchell, Annie; Reinhold, Debbie

2005-01-01

242

Current Use of Qualitative Research Methodology in Couples and Family Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores recent use of qualitative methodology in research relating to marriage and family counseling. The seven research articles described highlight the potential benefits and challenges qualitative methodology can have for the field of marriage and family counseling. (Author/MKA)

Kleist, David M.; Gompertz, Kelli

1997-01-01

243

A Philosophical Analysis of the General Methodology of Qualitative Research: A Critical Rationalist Perspective.  

PubMed

Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison-rather than generalization-is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research. PMID:22592885

Rudnick, Abraham

2012-05-17

244

Conducting Qualitative Research in an International and Distributed Research Team: Challenges and Lessons Learned  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss challenges for planning and executing qualitative research conducted by an international research project team. The study comprised an exploratory examination of strategies of offshoring and onshoring for software development. An important methodological challenge is that the members of the research team live in different countries, rely on different languages and originate from different cultures. These

Rafael Prikladnicki; J. Roberto Evaristo; Daniela Damian; Jorge Luis Nicolas Audy

2008-01-01

245

Management Summary of Qualitative Research Report Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a summary of research findings from a piece of qualitative research conducted between May and July 2010 for the National Literacy Trust to inform the Talk To Your Baby campaign. The objectives of the research were to identify motivating messages to encourage parents to communicate with their children under three, and to understand key ways…

National Literacy Trust, 2010

2010-01-01

246

Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

247

The iPod phenomenon: identifying a market leader's secrets through qualitative marketing research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the potential for learning from customers of a market leader through qualitative marketing research. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper presents findings from a study that applies a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods. An online variation of an existing qualitative research method is proposed. Findings – The results suggest that

Alexander E. Reppel; Isabelle Szmigin; Thorsten Gruber

2006-01-01

248

'Too Ambitious': What Happens when Funders Misunderstand the Strengths of Qualitative Research Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in what makes for a good quantitative or qualitative research design often lead funders to misinformed evaluations of the strengths of exemplary qualitative research. Based on the author's experience with numerous national funders in Canada and overseas, problems getting qualitative research funded is discussed. Specifically, sampling issues will be looked at along a continuum, comparing monocular, homogenous sampling of

Michael Ungar

2006-01-01

249

Why do patients with long-term conditions use unscheduled care? A qualitative literature review  

PubMed Central

Unscheduled care (UC) refers to non-routine face-to-face care, such as accident and emergency care, out-of-hours care, or walk-in centres. Current health service policy aims to reduce its use. Unscheduled care is common in people with long-term conditions such as diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease. By reviewing qualitative research literature, we aimed to understand the breadth of psychosocial and other influences on UC use in people with long-term conditions. Few qualitative papers specifically address UC in patients in these disease groups. Therefore, our literature search also included qualitative research that explored factors potentially relevant to UC use, including attitudes to healthcare use in general. By searching Medline, Embase, Psycinfo and Cinahl from inception to 2011, we identified 42 papers, published since 1984, describing relevant original research and took a meta-ethnographic approach in reviewing them. The review was conducted between Spring 2009 and April 2011, with a further search in December 2011. Most papers reported on asthma (n = 13) or on multiple or unspecified conditions (n = 12). The most common methods reported were interviews (n = 33) and focus groups (n = 13), and analyses were generally descriptive. Theoretical and ethical background was rarely explicit, but the implicit starting point was generally the ‘problem’ of UC, and health-care, use in general, decontextualised from the lives of the patients using it. Patients’ use of UC emerged as understandable, rational responses to pressing clinical need in situations in which patients thought it the only option. This belief reflected the value that they had learned to attach to UC versus routine care through previous experiences. For socially or economically marginalised patients, UC offered access to clinical or social care that was otherwise unavailable to them.

Langer, Susanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Hunter, Cheryl; Guthrie, Elspeth A.; Salmon, Peter

2013-01-01

250

How QOF is shaping primary care review consultations: a longitudinal qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term conditions (LTCs) are increasingly important determinants of quality of life and healthcare costs in populations worldwide. The Chronic Care Model and the NHS and Social Care Long Term Conditions Model highlight the use of consultations where patients are invited to attend a consultation with a primary care clinician (practice nurse or GP) to complete a review of the management of the LTC. We report a qualitative study in which we focus on the ways in which QOF (Quality and Outcomes Framework) shapes routine review consultations, and highlight the tensions exposed between patient-centred consulting and QOF-informed LTC management. Methods A longitudinal qualitative study. We audio-recorded consultations of primary care practitioners with patients with LTCs. We then interviewed both patients and practitioners using tape-assisted recall. Patient participants were followed for three months during which the research team made weekly contact and invited them to complete weekly logs about their health service use. A second interview at three months was conducted with patients. Analysis of the data sets used an integrative framework approach. Results Practitioners view consultations as a means of ‘surveillance’ of patients. Patients present themselves, often passively, to the practitioner for scrutiny, but leave the consultation with unmet biomedical, informational and emotional needs. Patients perceived review consultations as insignificant and irrelevant to the daily management of their LTC and future healthcare needs. Two deviant cases, where the requirements of the ‘review’ were subsumed to meet the patient’s needs, focused on cancer and bereavement. Conclusions Routine review consultations in primary care focus on the biomedical agenda set by QOF where the practitioner is the expert, and the patient agenda unheard. Review consultations shape patients’ expectations of future care and socialize patients into becoming passive subjects of ‘surveillance’. Patient needs outside the narrow protocol of the review are made invisible by the process of review except in extreme cases such as anticipating death and bereavement. We suggest how these constraints might be overcome.

2013-01-01

251

An Approach to the Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods in Software Engineering Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two distinct research methods coexist in SE: quantitative methods, which seek to measure and analyze causal relationships between variables in a framework with free values, and qualitative methods, which examine the proc- ess of creating meanings from which new or improved theorems are generated. Applying these two methods separately to SE research, it becomes clear that the results obtained are

María Lázaro; Esperanza Marcos

2006-01-01

252

Marrow Bone Thinking: A Plea for Strengthened Qualitative Research in Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses the nature of research in the context of distance education and suggests that qualitative research be included as a research methodology for distance education research. Noting that qualitative research represents a shift toward more perceptual, context-embedded interpretive inquiry, the paper argues that it is well suited to…

Burge, Elizabeth J.

253

Part I: An introduction to conducting qualitative research in children with cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, pediatric nurse researchers have acknowledged the need to study children's cancer illness experiences within the qualitative research framework. Support for more qualitative research is based on the belief that it will afford researchers the opportunity to get closer to understanding children's perspectives of their cancer experience. A priori theories or generalizations by the researcher are not

Roberta Woodgate

2000-01-01

254

Qualitative and Quantitative Nutrient Requirements of Fishes: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Qualitative and quantitative protein, amino acid, lipid, fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, and mineral requirements are summarized for salmonids and warmwater fish species. Special emphasis is placed upon amino acid, vitamin, and mineral requirements of ...

M. R. Millikin

1982-01-01

255

Substance Abuse Treatment for Women who are Under Correctional Supervision in the Community: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Findings  

PubMed Central

This systematic review was conducted to more fully analyze qualitative research findings relating to community-based court-supervised substance abuse treatment for women and to make recommendations regarding treatment enhancement. Five reports of qualitative research met the inclusion criteria. Findings from these reports were extracted and analyzed using constant comparative methods. Women who are referred to court-sanctioned substance abuse treatment programs may initially be reluctant to participate. Once engaged, however, they advocate for a full complement of well-financed comprehensive services. To optimize treatment effectiveness, women recommend gender-specific programs in which ambivalence is diminished, hope is instilled, and care is individualized.

Johnson, E. Diane

2011-01-01

256

Change readiness research. A qualitative study of variations in participation.  

PubMed

The Change readiness research method (CRR) has become a well- known method in Denmark to identify issues needed to be discussed on a hospital ward before implementation of a new IT-system and to start a dialogue. A precondition for a constructive dialogue, however, is a high degree of participation. The latest experiences of the CRR method were gained from its use in eight wards in the Danish Gepka project during 2003-4 (The Gepka project was established by The Danish Ministry of the Interior and Health, The National Board of Health, the County Council Society and H:S. Its purpose is to validate the "Basic Structure for The Electronic Health Record" (B-EHR) using prototypes. http://medinfo.dk/epj/proj/gepka/). In the Gepka project the participation varied from 33.3% to 78.9%. The objective of this study is to set out themes by which this variation can be studied. A qualitative explorative research design has been applied, where four instructions from the "Instruction for use" (Instructions for using the CRR method. Can be downloaded the Internet: (http://www.epjobservatoriet.dk/publikationer/forandringsparathed.pdf)) have been studied as themes. The methods used have been telephone interviews and direct observations. The results showed that the seven wards (one was excluded) followed the "Instructions for use" to different degrees. It was found that one instruction, in particular, seems to be especially important to follow to motivate the employees on a ward to participate in the CRR; the management of the ward must be engaged/actively involved in the project, as they are key figures when it comes to motivating the other ward employees. The aim of this study is not to prove a causal relationship between the degree to which the "Instructions for use" are followed and the degree of participation--it is to suggest a qualitative relationship between the two. Neither does this study try to generalize the results, as further research on more wards would be needed to do so. This study does, however, set out themes that can be a useful tool in future CRR projects in order to maximize the degree of participation. In a modified way, these themes can probably be used as a tool in other studies of human-machine interactions. PMID:17108598

Høstgaard, Anna Marie

2006-01-01

257

State of Qualitative Research in Engineering Education: Meta-Analysis of JEE Articles, 2005-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent calls for expanding the scope and rigor of engineer- ing education research, use of qualitative methods to answer research questions that can not be answered through quantitative methods is taking on increasing significance. Well-designed qualitative studies often build on epistemological consistency across theoretical perspectives, research questions, and research methods. We examine recent articles published in the Journal of

MIRKA KORO-LJUNGBERG

258

Men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation: a systematic review of qualitative studies 2000-2013.  

PubMed

This paper aims to report on a systematic review of qualitative studies on men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. Nine databases were systematically searched to identify qualitative papers published between 2000 and 2013. Papers were selected by pre-defined inclusion criteria and subsequently critically appraised. Key themes were extracted and synthesised. Fifteen papers were selected and represented. Four central themes were identified in the analytical process: 'changed life perspective', 'the masculinity factor', 'a desire to get back to normal' and 'the meaning of work'. Six peripheral themes were identified: 'the meaning of context', 'music', 'physical training', 'religion', 'humour' and 'the unmentionable'. The themes were synthesised into an integrative model representing men's reflections on participating in cancer rehabilitation. We conclude that existing qualitative literature offers insight into men's reflections on cancer rehabilitation and highlights the interrelationship between men's reflections on their changed life perspective, masculinity, orientation towards a normal life and getting back to work. Further research-based knowledge is needed to explore (1) the underlying causes and patterns of the men's needs, preferences and choices in rehabilitation; and (2) the health professional perspective on male cancer rehabilitation. PMID:24118299

Handberg, C; Nielsen, C V; Lomborg, K

2014-03-01

259

Visual images for skin cancer prevention: a systematic review of qualitative studies.  

PubMed

Visual images play an important role in educating the public about skin cancer prevention. The objectives of this systematic review were to: 1) determine how visual images are evaluated in skin cancer and tanning qualitative research studies (including theoretical and methodological approaches) and 2) summarize and discuss the image-related findings of the studies with respect to cancer education and public health. Seven databases were searched (PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) using multiple search terms, including MeSH terms, resulting in 5330 citations. Studies were included if they were in English, peer-reviewed, qualitative in design or methodology, dealt with skin cancer or UV exposure, used visual images, and had a focus on the public or patients (i.e., not medical professionals). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria: seven content analyses and one focus group study. Content analysis studies in this review suggest the mass media portray Caucasian men and women as unprotected from the sun and with tanned skin, and thus, may inform behaviors related to skin cancer risk. The focus group study suggests visible minorities may benefit from the incorporation of images of melanoma on ethnic skin in cancer education materials. None of the studies used visual communication theory to explicitly guide the research, nor were standardized tools used for image assessment. The lack of guiding theory and standardized assessment instruments can introduce bias in how images are selected and used in research on skin cancer education. PMID:22481615

McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

2012-06-01

260

Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research (COREQ): a 32-item checklist for interviews and focus groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Qualitative research explores complex phenomena encountered by clinicians, health care providers, policy makers and consumers. Although partial checklists are available, no consolidated reporting framework exists for any type of qualitative design. Objective. To develop a checklist for explicit and comprehensive reporting of qualitative studies (indepth interviews and focus groups). Methods. We performed a comprehensive search in Cochrane and Campbell

ALLISON TONG; PETER SAINSBURY; JONATHAN CRAIG

2007-01-01

261

Living with breast cancer-related lymphedema: a synthesis of qualitative research.  

PubMed

Purpose/Objectives: To describe the experience of female patients living with breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) to gain a comprehensive understanding of this experience. The review is designed as a qualitative meta-synthesis.Data Sources: Electronic searches were conducted in MEDLINE®, CINAHL®, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Social Sciences Citation Index. Articles were included where researchers used qualitative research methods and when a comprehensive description of methods and the study's findings were provided.Data Synthesis: From 2,185 references, 13 articles were included. A total of 94 author and participant aggregations were extracted, qualitatively assessed, and assigned to one of 14 categories. Four themes relating to the experience of living with BCRL were identified: experience of everyday life, energy sapping, personal empowerment, and contribution of others.Conclusions: Requirements of living with BCRL may only be influenced to a limited extent by the women themselves. They struggle with their situation, appearance, and the concomitant uncertainties. They feel strengthened where they succeed in developing a helpful view of their situation and where support structures are available to them.Implications for Nursing: Professionals can employ this meta-synthesis by contextualizing it as part of a process of critical reflection on their own endeavors to meet the requirements of women living with BCRL. PMID:24969257

Burckhardt, Marion; Belzner, Marion; Berg, Almuth; Fleischer, Steffen

2014-07-01

262

A Grounded Theory of Inductive Qualitative Research Education: Results of a Meta-Data-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on the first stage of a meta-study conducted by the authors on primary research published during the last thirty years that focused on discovering the experiences of students learning qualitative research. The authors carried out a meta-analysis of the findings of students' experiences learning qualitative research included in…

Cooper, Robin; Chenail, Ronald J.; Fleming, Stephanie

2012-01-01

263

Qualitative Research in Education: The Origins, Debates, and Politics of Creating Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview and discussion of qualitative research in education by analyzing the roles of researchers, the history of the field, its use in policymaking, and its future influence on educational reform. The article begins by describing the unique position that qualitative educational researchers have in higher education, as…

Cooley, Aaron

2013-01-01

264

Qualitative approach to the research into the parameters of human security in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a qualitative methodological model applied in the human security research in local communities as a part of a wider community-based participatory research (CBPR). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper synthesizes methodological experience from four empirical researches where a qualitative model of studying the security indicators in the local communities of Serbia has

Sladjana Djuric

2009-01-01

265

A Scoping Review of Qualitative Studies about Children Experiencing Parental Separation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores a scoping review of qualitative studies about children's experiences and feelings during times of parental separation. The purpose of the review was to explore children's feelings and attitudes about their parents' separation and how their voices are heard during times of parental separation. The scoping review examined 44…

Birnbaum, Rachel; Saini, Michael

2013-01-01

266

Heath Beliefs of UK South Asians Related to Lifestyle Diseases: A Review of Qualitative Literature  

PubMed Central

Objective. To review available qualitative evidence in the literature for health beliefs and perceptions specific to UK South Asian adults. Exploring available insight into the social and cultural constructs underlying perceptions related to health behaviours and lifestyle-related disease. Methods. A search of central databases and ethnic minority research groups was augmented by hand-searching of reference lists. For included studies, quality was assessed using a predetermined checklist followed by metaethnography to synthesise the findings, using both reciprocal translation and line-of-argument synthesis to look at factors impacting uptake of health behaviours. Results. A total of 10 papers varying in design and of good quality were included in the review. Cultural and social norms strongly influenced physical activity incidence and motivation as well as the ability to engage in healthy eating practices. Conclusions. These qualitative studies provide insight into approaches to health among UK South Asians in view of their social and cultural norms. Acknowledgement of their approach to lifestyle behaviours may assist acceptability of interventions and delivery of lifestyle advice by health professionals.

Lucas, Anna; Murray, Esther

2013-01-01

267

Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature  

PubMed Central

Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour.

Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

2013-01-01

268

Review of Qualitative Approaches for the Construction Industry: Designing a Risk Management Toolbox  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper presents the framework and protocol design for a construction industry risk management toolbox. The construction industry needs a comprehensive, systematic approach to assess and control occupational risks. These risks span several professional health and safety disciplines, emphasized by multiple international occupational research agenda projects including: falls, electrocution, noise, silica, welding fumes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Yet, the International Social Security Association says, "whereas progress has been made in safety and health, the construction industry is still a high risk sector." Methods Small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ about 80% of the world's construction workers. In recent years a strategy for qualitative occupational risk management, known as Control Banding (CB) has gained international attention as a simplified approach for reducing work-related risks. CB groups hazards into stratified risk 'bands', identifying commensurate controls to reduce the level of risk and promote worker health and safety. We review these qualitative solutions-based approaches and identify strengths and weaknesses toward designing a simplified CB 'toolbox' approach for use by SMEs in construction trades. Results This toolbox design proposal includes international input on multidisciplinary approaches for performing a qualitative risk assessment determining a risk 'band' for a given project. Risk bands are used to identify the appropriate level of training to oversee construction work, leading to commensurate and appropriate control methods to perform the work safely. Conclusion The Construction Toolbox presents a review-generated format to harness multiple solutions-based national programs and publications for controlling construction-related risks with simplified approaches across the occupational safety, health and hygiene professions.

Spee, Ton; Gillen, Matt; Lentz, Thomas J.; Garrod, Andrew; Evans, Paul; Swuste, Paul

2011-01-01

269

Literature Search Strategies for Conducting Knowledge-building and Theory-generating Qualitative Systematic Reviews: Discussion Paper  

PubMed Central

Aim This paper is a report of literature search strategies for the purpose of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Background Qualitative systematic reviews lie on a continuum from knowledge-building and theory-generating to aggregating and summarizing. Different types of literature searches are needed to optimally support these dissimilar reviews. Data Sources Articles published between 1989 - Autumn 2011. These documents were identified using a hermeneutic approach and multiple literature search strategies. Discussion Redundancy is not the sole measure of validity when conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews. When conducting these types of reviews, literature searches should be consistent with the goal of fully explicating concepts and the interrelationships among them. To accomplish this objective, a berry picking approach is recommended along with strategies for overcoming barriers to finding qualitative research reports. Implications To enhance integrity of knowledge-building and theory-generating systematic reviews, reviewers are urged to make literature search processes as transparent as possible, despite their complexity. This includes fully explaining and rationalizing what databases were used and how they were searched. It also means describing how literature tracking was conducted and grey literature was searched. In the end, the decision to cease searching also needs to be fully explained and rationalized. Conclusion Predetermined linear search strategies are unlikely to generate search results that are adequate for purposes of conducting knowledge-building and theory-generating qualitative systematic reviews. Instead, it is recommended that iterative search strategies take shape as reviews evolve.

Johnson, E. Diane

2012-01-01

270

Frameworks for evaluating health research capacity strengthening: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Health research capacity strengthening (RCS) projects are often complex and hard to evaluate. In order to inform health RCS evaluation efforts, we aimed to describe and compare key characteristics of existing health RCS evaluation frameworks: their process of development, purpose, target users, structure, content and coverage of important evaluation issues. A secondary objective was to explore what use had been made of the ESSENCE framework, which attempts to address one such issue: harmonising the evaluation requirements of different funders. Methods We identified and analysed health RCS evaluation frameworks published by seven funding agencies between 2004 and 2012, using a mixed methods approach involving structured qualitative analyses of documents, a stakeholder survey and consultations with key contacts in health RCS funding agencies. Results The frameworks were intended for use predominantly by the organisations themselves, and most were oriented primarily towards funders’ internal organisational performance requirements. The frameworks made limited reference to theories that specifically concern RCS. Generic devices, such as logical frameworks, were typically used to document activities, outputs and outcomes, but with little emphasis on exploring underlying assumptions or contextual constraints. Usage of the ESSENCE framework appeared limited. Conclusions We believe that there is scope for improving frameworks through the incorporation of more accessible information about how to do evaluation in practice; greater involvement of stakeholders, following evaluation capacity building principles; greater emphasis on explaining underlying rationales of frameworks; and structuring frameworks so that they separate generic and project-specific aspects of health RCS evaluation. The third and fourth of these improvements might assist harmonisation.

2013-01-01

271

The Basic Research Review Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a checklist to help clinical nurses critique research in order to use findings in practice. Categories include purpose of study, statement of problem, literature review, methodology, results and conclusions, and overall concerns (objectivity, ethics, readability). (SK)

Rasmussen, Lynn; O'Conner, Mary; Shinkle, Susann; Thomas, Melissa K.

2000-01-01

272

ETV Programmes: Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research on educational television (ETV), focusing on teacher and student attitudes; impact on children and teachers and in-service education in media; and utilization. Also reviews a few studies on the impact and utilization of educational radio broadcasts. Draws broad conclusions about the use, design, and learning process of ETV. (PEN)

Chaudhary, Sohanvir; Panda, Santosh

1997-01-01

273

Conducting qualitative research in the context of pre-existing peer and collegial relationships.  

PubMed

Aim To highlight issues and challenges faced in recruitment and interviewing during a study that sought to explore the transition of nurses into academic life and the associated ethical implications. Background This paper explores the challenges faced in conducting research where the potential participants are peers and workplace colleagues. There are advantages when conducting research with those among whom a pre-existing relationship is shared. However, difficulties can also arise. Review methods A methodological review was undertaken. Key database searches included CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar using the keywords as search terms. Studies were included if they described in detail issues surrounding qualitative interviewing of peers and colleagues. Discussion Management of the issues involved is discussed, with emphasis on boundaries, trust and rapport, the use of self-disclosure and maintaining confidentiality. Conclusion Research involving peers and colleagues has received relatively little consideration in the literature. There are difficulties associated with interviewing participants with whom the researcher has a pre-existing and ongoing relationship in the same organisation. To ensure ethical conduct, strategies can be used to mitigate negative situations such as issues surrounding dual roles, practising reflexivity, trust and rapport, self-disclosure and confidentiality. Implications for research/practice It is imperative that dual roles are declared and acknowledged. Researchers need to be mindful of the difficulties that may occur and prioritise participants' confidentiality and privacy. PMID:24877908

McDermid, Fiona; Peters, Kath; Jackson, Debra; Daly, John

2014-05-30

274

Research productivity in Syria: Quantitative and qualitative analysis of current status  

PubMed Central

Context: Scientific research output measured by the number and quality of publications reflects the research productivity of a certain community. Aims: To examine the quantity and quality of research produced by Syrian institutions with particular emphasis on the clinical and biomedical research. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational analysis of research originating from Syrian institutions indexed by Medline and Science Citation Index (SciVerse) Scopus bibliographic databases. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive review of the literature indexed by Medline and SciVerse was conducted including data from Jan 01, 1980 till February 2011 searching for authors affiliated with Syrian institutions. Clinical and biomedical research data were further analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results: The total of manuscripts indexed by SciVerse originating from Syrian institutions during the last 3 decades is 3540. A total of 458 publications cover clinical and biomedical subject areas. The quality of these 458 publications was evaluated by the citation frequency and impact factor of publishing journals with h-index of 24. Conclusions: Although the spectrum of research originating from Syrian institutions is broad, the overall number of publications particularly in clinical and biomedical subjects is minuscule and of limited quality. The presented data indicate the need to promote research capabilities and to bridge the gap in research productivity by Syrian institutions.

Diab, Maria M.; Taftaf, Rokana M. O.; Arabi, Mohammad

2011-01-01

275

The Impact of Social Media on Medical Professionalism: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Challenges and Opportunities  

PubMed Central

Background The rising impact of social media on the private and working lives of health care professionals has made researchers and health care institutions study and rethink the concept and content of medical professionalism in the digital age. In the last decade, several specific policies, original research studies, and comments have been published on the responsible use of social media by health care professionals. However, there is no systematic literature review that analyzes the full spectrum of (1) social media–related challenges imposed on medical professionalism and (2) social media–related opportunities to both undermine and improve medical professionalism. Objective The aim of this systematic qualitative review is to present this full spectrum of social media–related challenges and opportunities. Methods We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed (restricted to English and German literature published between 2002 and 2011) for papers that address social media–related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. To operationalize “medical professionalism”, we refer to the 10 commitments presented in the physicians’ charter “Medical professionalism in the new millennium” published by the ABIM Foundation. We applied qualitative text analysis to categorize the spectrum of social media–related challenges and opportunities for medical professionalism. Results The literature review retrieved 108 references, consisting of 46 original research studies and 62 commentaries, editorials, or opinion papers. All references together mentioned a spectrum of 23 broad and 12 further-specified, narrow categories for social media–related opportunities (n=10) and challenges (n=13) for medical professionalism, grouped under the 10 commitments of the physicians’ charter. Conclusions The accommodation of the traditional core values of medicine to the characteristics of social media presents opportunities as well as challenges for medical professionalism. As a profession that is entitled to self-regulation, health care professionals should proactively approach these challenges and seize the opportunities. There should be room to foster interprofessional and intergenerational dialogue (and eventually guidelines and policies) on both challenges and opportunities of social media in modern health care. This review builds a unique source of information that can inform further research and policy development in this regard.

Gholami-Kordkheili, Fatemeh; Wild, Verina

2013-01-01

276

Researchers' views on return of incidental genomic research results: qualitative and quantitative findings  

PubMed Central

Purpose Comprehensive genomic analysis including exome and genome sequencing is increasingly being utilized in research studies, leading to the generation of incidental genetic findings. It is unclear how researchers plan to deal with incidental genetic findings. Methods We conducted a survey of the practices and attitudes of 234 members of the US genetic research community and performed qualitative semistructured interviews with 28 genomic researchers to understand their views and experiences with incidental genetic research findings. Results We found that 12% of the researchers had returned incidental genetic findings, and an additional 28% planned to do so. A large majority of researchers (95%) believe that incidental findings for highly penetrant disorders with immediate medical implications should be offered to research participants. However, there was no consensus on returning incidental results for other conditions varying in penetrance and medical actionability. Researchers raised concerns that the return of incidental findings would impose significant burdens on research and could potentially have deleterious effects on research participants if not performed well. Researchers identified assistance needed to enable effective, accurate return of incidental findings. Conclusion The majority of the researchers believe that research participants should have the option to receive at least some incidental genetic research results.

Klitzman, Robert; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Fyer, Abby; Martinez, Josue; Buquez, Brigitte; Wynn, Julia; Waldman, Cameron R.; Phelan, Jo; Parens, Erik; Chung, Wendy K.

2013-01-01

277

Sailing between Scylla and Charybdis: Incorporating Qualitative Approaches into Child Psychotherapy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Starting from the acknowledged gap between research and practice in child psychotherapy, this paper offers an historical perspective on the relation between these two activities, and suggests that qualitative approaches to research may offer new ways of bringing them together. After introducing the fundamental concepts of qualitative analysis,…

Midgley, Nicholas

2004-01-01

278

The Use of NUDIST, a Computerized Analytical Tool, to Support Qualitative Information Systems Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the use of software tools to support qualitative information systems research, and provides a practical example of how one tool, NUDIST, was used in a recent empirical study. Argues that greatest benefit can be gained from software tools when their use is based on sound theory of qualitative research. The analysis for the study was built on the concept

Anne Rouse; Martin Dick

1994-01-01

279

Constituting the Field: An Essay on Harry Torrance's "Qualitative Research Methods in Education"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article critically explores Harry Torrance's four-volume edited collection "Qualitative Research Methods in Education." The author argues that this text is an important intervention in the constitution of a meta-discourse on qualitative research today. Torrance pays particular attention to the field of education, providing much needed…

Dimitriadis, Greg

2011-01-01

280

Two (Very) Different Worlds: The Cultures of Policymaking and Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article brackets assumptions embedded in the framing of this special issue on "problematizing methodological simplicity in qualitative research" in a effort to understand why policymakers put pressure on all types of researchers, including those who use qualitative methods, to provide relatively simple, even somewhat mechanistic portrayals of…

Donmoyer, Robert

2012-01-01

281

Writing Interview Protocols and Conducting Interviews: Tips for Students New to the Field of Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students new to doing qualitative research in the ethnographic and oral traditions, often have difficulty creating successful interview protocols. This article offers practical suggestions for students new to qualitative research for both writing interview protocol that elicit useful data and for conducting the interview. This piece was originally…

Jacob, Stacy A.; Furgerson, S. Paige

2012-01-01

282

Building Connections: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Qualitative Research Students' Learning Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a phenomenological study in which the authors explored students' experiences learning qualitative research in a variety of academic fields. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants from various academic fields who had completed at least one post-secondary-school-level qualitative research course…

Cooper, Robin; Fleischer, Anne; Cotton, Fatima A.

2012-01-01

283

Applying qualitative and quantitative research: a social impact assessment of a fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, human geographers are being encouraged to combine qualitative and quantitative research approaches. The combination involves more than simply juxtaposing approaches; instead, some of the barriers between them need to be removed. This, however, is often easier said than done. Here we address the issue of combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches through a concrete example: a social impact assessment

Matt Bradshaw; Les Wood; Sandra Williamson

2001-01-01

284

Focus Groups: A Qualitative Method Complementing Quantitative Research for Studying Culturally Diverse Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Focus groups are becoming an important method for conduct- ing qualitative research in health care. This strategy enables information to be gathered on the perceptions, beliefs, and values of a group's participants and is particularly well suited to addressing cultural characteristics that impact on a population's health status. As nations become more culturally diverse, qualitative research will likely play

JOSELUIS CALDERON; RICHARD S. BAKER; KENNETH E. WOLF

2000-01-01

285

Othering Research, Researching the Other: De\\/Colonizing Approaches to Qualitative Inquiry  

Microsoft Academic Search

De\\/colonizing epistemologies challenge the imperialistic understanding and practice of research. In this chapter, the author\\u000a demonstrates the influence of de\\/colonizing epistemologies on qualitative inquiry grounded in transnational feminism. The\\u000a author focuses on the approaches taken in designing, implementing, and analyzing an ethnographic case study which explores\\u000a the experiences of two female Indian graduate students in higher education within their first

Kakali Bhattacharya

286

Pharmacological Treatments in Gambling Disorder: A Qualitative Review  

PubMed Central

Gambling disorder (GD) is a psychiatric condition associated with both social and family costs; DSM-5 currently includes GD among addictive disorders. Despite the high burden of this condition, to date there are no treatment guidelines approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Purpose of this paper is to offer a qualitative overview about the different pharmacologic agents used for the treatment of GD. Our analysis, conducted on a final selection of 75 scientific papers, demonstrates that a variety of pharmaceutical classes have been utilised, with different results. Published data, although limited by brief duration of the studies and small number of enrolled subjects, shows mixed evidence for serotonergic antidepressants, opioid antagonists, and mood stabilizers. Other compounds, such as glutamatergic agents and psychostimulants, deserve further studies.

Lupi, Matteo; Martinotti, Giovanni; Acciavatti, Tiziano; Brunetti, Marcella; Cinosi, Eduardo; Di Iorio, Giuseppe; Di Nicola, Marco; Di Giannantonio, Massimo

2014-01-01

287

The Journal Project and the I in Qualitative Research: Three Theoretical Lenses on Subjectivity and Self  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the beginnings of qualitative research in the late 19th century to today, researchers have struggled to make sense of the notion of self or subjectivity; in other words, the I in the research. We ask ourselves: Who is the researcher? How is their notion of self present during research? How is research a site for contested notions of self? Who…

Davidson, Judith

2012-01-01

288

Data analysis in health-relateD qualitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally, coding was done manually, by use of coloured pens to categorise data, and consequently cutting and sorting the data. With the advent of software technology, computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (CAQDAS), such as NUDIST, NVivo and Atlas-ti, the process has been greatly simplified from the traditional tedious one. The software enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of the analysis process

289

Occluded Humanistic Qualitative Research: Implications for Positive Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reply is given to the charge made by the originators of the current positive psychology movement that humanistic psychology has not provided an adequate empirical base for its positive psychology. It is observed that although it is more about ontology, or the nature of being, than a scientific field as such, there is an extensive body of empirical qualitative

David L. Rennie

2012-01-01

290

How do health service managers respond to qualitative research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1992 a qualitative evaluation of a government health service-run community health worker (CHW) project in South Africa found that project workers were doing good work despite serious structural shortcomings related to lack of community participation and inadequate integration of the project in the health district system. Recommendations were made to develop the project in order to enhance community involvement,

Hester Van der Walt; Catherine Mathews

1995-01-01

291

Why Underage College Students Drink in Excess: Qualitative Research Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Excessive alcohol consumption by underage students is a serious and persistent problem facing most U.S. colleges and universities. Purpose: This qualitative study explores why underage students engage in high-risk drinking and examines motivational cues that may serve as behavioral deterrents. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with…

Dodd, Virginia; Glassman, Tavis; Arthur, Ashley; Webb, Monica; Miller, Maureen

2010-01-01

292

The Social Costs of Child Poverty: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative Evidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a systematic review of qualitative studies of children living in material disadvantage, which compares and confirms experiences across a pool of studies that meet predetermined quality criteria. The review found that, according to children's narratives, the costs of poverty are not only material but also profoundly social. The…

Attree, Pamela

2006-01-01

293

Quantitative Analysis of Qualitative Information from Interviews: A Systematic Literature Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: A systematic literature review was conducted on mixed methods area. Objectives: The overall aim was to explore how qualitative information from interviews has been analyzed using quantitative methods. Methods: A contemporary review was undertaken and based on a predefined protocol. The references were identified using inclusion and…

Fakis, Apostolos; Hilliam, Rachel; Stoneley, Helen; Townend, Michael

2014-01-01

294

Challenges of Interdisciplinary Research: Reconciling Qualitative and Quantitative Methods for Understanding Human-Landscape Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While interdisciplinary research is increasingly practiced as a way to transcend the limitations of individual disciplines, our concepts, and methods are primarily rooted in the disciplines that shape the way we think about the world and how we conduct research. While natural and social scientists may share a general understanding of how science is conducted, disciplinary differences in methodologies quickly emerge during interdisciplinary research efforts. This paper briefly introduces and reviews different philosophical underpinnings of quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches and introduces the idea that a pragmatic, realistic approach may allow natural and social scientists to work together productively. While realism assumes that there is a reality that exists independently of our perceptions, the work of scientists is to explore the mechanisms by which actions cause meaningful outcomes and the conditions under which the mechanisms can act. Our task as interdisciplinary researchers is to use the insights of our disciplines in the context of the problem to co-produce an explanation for the variables of interest. Research on qualities necessary for successful interdisciplinary researchers is also discussed along with recent efforts by funding agencies and academia to increase capacities for interdisciplinary research.

Lach, Denise

2014-01-01

295

Taking the “Q” Out of Research: Teaching Research Methodology Courses Without the Divide Between Quantitative and Qualitative Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence that the debate between quantitative and qualitative is divisive and, hence, counterproductive for advancing the social and behavioral science field. We advocate that all graduate students learn to utilize and to appreciate both quantitative and qualitative research methodologies. As such, students will develop into pragmatist researchers who are able to utilize

Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie; Nancy L. Leech

2005-01-01

296

Qualitative review of intensive care unit quality indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to (1) conduct a systematic review of the literature to identify interventions that improve patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU); (2) evaluate potential measures of quality based on the impact, feasibility, variability, and the strength of evidence to support each measure and to categorize these measures as outcome, process, access, or

Sean M. Berenholtz; Todd Dorman; Koni Ngo; Peter J. Pronovost

2002-01-01

297

Learning effects of thematic peer-review: a qualitative analysis of reflective journals on spiritual care.  

PubMed

This study describes the learning effects of thematic peer-review discussion groups (Hendriksen, 2000. Begeleid intervisie model, Collegiale advisering en probleemoplossing, Nelissen, Baarn.) on developing nursing students' competence in providing spiritual care. It also discusses the factors that might influence the learning process. The method of peer-review is a form of reflective learning based on the theory of experiential learning (Kolb, 1984. Experiential learning, Experience as the source of learning development. Englewoods Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hill). It was part of an educational programme on spiritual care in nursing for third-year undergraduate nursing students from two nursing schools in the Netherlands. Reflective journals (n=203) kept by students throughout the peer-review process were analysed qualitatively The analysis shows that students reflect on spirituality in the context of personal experiences in nursing practice. In addition, they discuss the nursing process and organizational aspects of spiritual care. The results show that the first two phases in the experiential learning cycle appear prominently; these are 'inclusion of actual experience' and 'reflecting on this experience'. The phases of 'abstraction of experience' and 'experimenting with new behaviour' are less evident. We will discuss possible explanations for these findings according to factors related to education, the students and the tutors and make recommendations for follow-up research. PMID:19027200

van Leeuwen, René; Tiesinga, Lucas J; Jochemsen, Henk; Post, Doeke

2009-05-01

298

Procedure versus process: ethical paradigms and the conduct of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background Research is fundamental to improving the quality of health care. The need for regulation of research is clear. However, the bureaucratic complexity of research governance has raised concerns that the regulatory mechanisms intended to protect participants now threaten to undermine or stifle the research enterprise, especially as this relates to sensitive topics and hard to reach groups. Discussion Much criticism of research governance has focused on long delays in obtaining ethical approvals, restrictions imposed on study conduct, and the inappropriateness of evaluating qualitative studies within the methodological and risk assessment frameworks applied to biomedical and clinical research. Less attention has been given to the different epistemologies underlying biomedical and qualitative investigation. The bioethical framework underpinning current regulatory structures is fundamentally at odds with the practice of emergent, negotiated micro-ethics required in qualitative research. The complex and shifting nature of real world settings delivers unanticipated ethical issues and (occasionally) genuine dilemmas which go beyond easy or formulaic ‘procedural’ resolution. This is not to say that qualitative studies are ‘unethical’ but that their ethical nature can only be safeguarded through the practice of ‘micro-ethics’ based on the judgement and integrity of researchers in the field. Summary This paper considers the implications of contrasting ethical paradigms for the conduct of qualitative research and the value of ‘empirical ethics’ as a means of liberating qualitative (and other) research from an outmoded and unduly restrictive research governance framework based on abstract prinicipalism, divorced from real world contexts and values.

2012-01-01

299

Protocol for a qualitative study of knowledge translation in a participatory research project  

PubMed Central

Introduction In this article, we present a methodological design for qualitative investigation of knowledge translation (KT) between participants in a participatory research project. In spite of a vast expansion of conceptual models and frameworks for conducting KT between research and practice, few models emphasise how KTs come about. Better understanding of the actions and activities involved in a KT process is important for promoting diffusion of knowledge and improving patient care. The purpose of this article is to describe a methodological design for investigating how KTs come about in participatory research. Methods and analysis The article presents an ethnographic study which investigates meetings between participants in a participatory research project. The participants are researchers and primary healthcare clinicians. Data are collected through observation, interviews and document studies. The material is analysed using the analytical concepts of knowledge objects, knowledge forms and knowledge positions. These concepts represent an analytical framework enabling us to observe knowledge and how it is translated between participants. The main expected outcome of our study is to develop a typology of KT practices relevant to participatory research. Ethics and dissemination The project has been evaluated and approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Informed consent was obtained for all participants. The findings from this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and national and international conference presentations.

Lillehagen, Ida; V?llestad, Nina; Heggen, Kristin; Engebretsen, Eivind

2013-01-01

300

Causal Explanation, Qualitative Research, and Scientific Inquiry in Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

A National Research Council report, Scientific Research in Education, has elicited considerable criticism from the education research community, but this criticism has not focused on a key assumption of the report—its Humean, regularity conception of causality. It is argued that this conception, which also underlies other arguments for “scientifically-based research,” is narrow and philosophically outdated, and leads to a misrepresentation

Joseph A. Maxwell

2004-01-01

301

Qualitative Research on College Students: Philosophical and Methodological Comparisons with the Quantitative Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and contrasts philosophical and methodological assumptions, goals, and data collection methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches to research on college student behavior. Provides brief illustrations of two qualitative studies of college students using interview methods, ethnomethodology, and conversation analysis. (Author/NB)

Patton, Michael J.

1991-01-01

302

Qualitative Research in Career Development: Content Analysis from 1990 to 2009  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A content analysis of 11 journals that published career, vocational, and work-related articles from 1990 to 2009 was conducted. Of 3,279 articles analyzed, 55.9% used quantitative methods and 35.5% were theoretical/conceptual articles. Only 6.3% used qualitative research methods. Among the qualitative empirical studies, standards of academic rigor…

Stead, Graham B.; Perry, Justin C.; Munka, Linda M.; Bonnett, Heather R.; Shiban, Abbey P.; Care, Esther

2012-01-01

303

Qualitative Methods Can Enrich Quantitative Research on Occupational Stress: An Example from One Occupational Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The chapter examines the ways in which qualitative and quantitative methods support each other in research on occupational stress. Qualitative methods include eliciting from workers unconstrained descriptions of work experiences, careful first-hand observations of the workplace, and participant-observers describing "from the inside" a particular…

Schonfeld, Irvin Sam; Farrell, Edwin

2010-01-01

304

Exploring Culture from a Distance: The Utility of Telephone Interviews in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative studies that utilize telephone interviews, as a primary data collection mode, often are not discussed in the qualitative research literature. Data excerpts from a study that sought to understand the culture of for-profit universities are used to illustrate the types of data that can be garnered through telephone interviews. In…

Lechuga, Vicente M.

2012-01-01

305

Exploring Performativity and Resistance in Qualitative Research Interviews: A Play in Four Acts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This play describes how the authors become aware of the complexities of resistance and performativity in the qualitative interview process. It also illustrates how this awareness and subsequent acquisition of knowledge changed and informed the way they viewed qualitative research interviewing. More specifically, performativity is put into work in…

Beaunae, Cathrine; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

2011-01-01

306

"Every Word Is True": Stories of Our Experiences in a Qualitative Research Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a sparse body of literature about students' and instructors' experiences in graduate qualitative courses. In this study, 11 doctoral students and one instructor employed a narrative framework to uncover our perceived truths about our experiences as we interacted, studied, pondered, and journeyed through a qualitative research methods…

Richards, Janet C.

2011-01-01

307

Focus groups as a qualitative method for crosscultural research in social gerontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus group approach for collecting qualitative data can be usefully applied in social gerontological studies, both in a single setting and cross-culturally. The experiences of the research terms participating in the Comparative Study of Asian Elderly in employing focus groups are described, and their advantages and disadvantages as a general method for gathering basic qualitative data are discussed. While

John Knodel

1995-01-01

308

The mix of qualitative and quantitative research in major marketing journals, 1993-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this article is to determine the mix of qualitative and quantitative research published in major marketing journals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This study involved a content analysis of 1,195 articles published between 1993 and 2002 in three prominent marketing journals. Findings – It was found that 24.80 per cent of articles employed qualitative methods in some form,

Dallas Hanson; Martin Grimmer

2007-01-01

309

Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background The Framework Method is becoming an increasingly popular approach to the management and analysis of qualitative data in health research. However, there is confusion about its potential application and limitations. Discussion The article discusses when it is appropriate to adopt the Framework Method and explains the procedure for using it in multi-disciplinary health research teams, or those that involve clinicians, patients and lay people. The stages of the method are illustrated using examples from a published study. Summary Used effectively, with the leadership of an experienced qualitative researcher, the Framework Method is a systematic and flexible approach to analysing qualitative data and is appropriate for use in research teams even where not all members have previous experience of conducting qualitative research.

2013-01-01

310

Ethics and the Promotion of Inclusiveness within Qualitative Research: Case Examples from Asia and the Pacific  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers are often confronted by ethical challenges when making research decisions because current guidelines and principles guiding research ethics do not wholly cover the concerns that can arise in complex social research situations. In this article, the authors explore this dilemma in relation to our experiences of conducting…

Czymoniewicz-Klippel, Melina T.; Brijnath, Bianca; Crockett, Belinda

2010-01-01

311

Students' Conceptions of Research. I: A qualitative and quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively little is known about students' conceptions of research and, in particular, whether there are conceptually discrete patterns of variation that can be used to model this phenomenon in terms of research?as?learning outcomes. The present study explores the dimensionality of students' conceptions of research from two complementary research perspectives. The open?ended written responses of students (n?=?154) to questions aimed at

Jan H. F. Meyer; Martin P. Shanahan; Rüdiger C. Laugksch

2005-01-01

312

Qualitative Approaches to Research in Counselling and Psychotherapy: Issues and Challenges.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses key issues which address the distinctive dilemmas and challenges associated with qualitative approaches to evaluating counseling. Investigates such concerns as relationships with research participants, ethics, reflexivity, methodological choice, communicability, perspective, and obviousness. Makes some suggestions regarding the link…

McLeod, John

1996-01-01

313

A qualitative review for wireless health monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A proliferating interest has been being observed over the past years in accurate wireless system development in order to monitor incessant human activities in health care centres. Furthermore because of the swelling number of elderly population and the inadequate number of competent staffs for nursing homes there is a big market petition for health care monitoring system. In order to detect human researchers developed different methods namely which include Field Identification technique, Visual Sensor Network, radar detection, e-mobile techniques and so on. An all-encompassing overview of the non-wired human detection application advancement is presented in this paper. Inductive links are used for human detection application while wiring an electronic system has become impractical in recent times. Keeping in mind the shortcomings, an Inductive Intelligent Sensor (IIS) has been proposed as a novel human monitoring system for future implementation. The proposed sensor works towards exploring the signature signals of human body movement and size. This proposed sensor is fundamentally based on inductive loop that senses the presence and a passing human resulting an inductive change.

Arshad, Atika; Fadzil Ismail, Ahmad; Khan, Sheroz; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Tasnim, Rumana; Samnan Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Shahid, Zeeshan

2013-12-01

314

Alternative Arguments for Generalizing From Data as Applied to Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

One criticism about qualitative research is that it is difficult to generalize findings to settings not studied. To explore this issue, I examine three broad arguments for generalizing from data: sample-to-population extrapolation, analytic generalization, and case-to-case transfer. Qualitative research often uses the last argument, but some efforts have been made to use the first two. I suggest that analytic generalization

WILLIAM A. FIRESTONE

1993-01-01

315

Should we exclude inadequately reported studies from qualitative systematic reviews? An evaluation of sensitivity analyses in two case study reviews.  

PubMed

The role of critical appraisal of qualitative studies in systematic reviews remains an ongoing cause for debate. Key to such a debate is whether quality assessment can or should be used to exclude studies. In our study, we extended the use of existing criteria to assess the quality of reporting of studies included in two qualitative systematic reviews. We then excluded studies deemed to be inadequately reported from the subsequent analysis. We tested the impact of these exclusions on the overall findings of the synthesis and its depth or thickness. Exclusion of so-called inadequately reported studies had no meaningful effect on the synthesis. There was a correlation between quality of reporting of a study and its values as a source for the final synthesis. We propose that there is a possible case for excluding inadequately reported studies from qualitative evidence synthesis. PMID:22865107

Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Lloyd-Jones, Myfanwy

2012-10-01

316

Using Technology to Enhance Qualitative Research with Hidden Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances in technology provide researchers with increased opportunities to locate and conduct research with populations that have historically been inaccessible. This manuscript describes the development of private, voluntary web-based groups, and the process for using web cameras to conduct individual web-based interviews as a method of data…

Matthews, John; Cramer, Elizabeth P.

2008-01-01

317

Using Hermeneutics as a Qualitative Research Approach in Professional Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is targeted primarily at doctoral students and others considering hermeneutics as a research strategy. Research using hermeneutics was carried out with occupational therapy educators and clinicians in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the UK. A total of 53 participants engaged in focus groups and individual interviews over a one-year.…

Paterson, Margo; Higgs, Joy

2005-01-01

318

Beyond division: convergences between postmodern qualitative research and family therapy.  

PubMed

Starting from examples of postmodern research and therapeutic practice, we raise the question on the role of the research-therapy dichotomy within these approaches. The article aims to show the profound convergence between postmodern ethnographic research and constructionist, collaborative therapeutic approaches on a double, epistemological and practice level. First, we point out their converging development toward narrative and constructionist epistemologies. Second, an inquiry into the core features of these disciplinary activities' goal, process, and expert role reveals their profound convergence into a dialogical practice in which the boundaries between research and therapy are radically transgressed. We conclude by questioning the implications and acceptability of this convergence for researchers' and therapists' understanding of their practices. PMID:20074120

De Haene, Lucia

2010-01-01

319

A Review of Research on Parental Disability: Implications for Research and Counseling Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews research from the past 15 years of the influence of physical, cognitive, or sensory disabilities on parental role functioning. Focuses on conceptual problems about the impact of chronic illness or disability on individuals and families, countering the notion that parenting skills of disabled persons are qualitatively different. (RJM)

Kelley, Susan D. M.; Sikka, Anjoo; Venkatesan, Sivaraman

1997-01-01

320

Factors influencing the patient education: A qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Background: The related literatures revealed that there is a lack of effective patient/family education in the health care centers. Several studies indicate that patients, while getting discharged from hospitals, receive insufficient information about their illness and self-care. The purpose of the study was to explore the factors influencing patient education from the perspectives of nurses in Iran. Materials and Methods: We conducted a qualitative study using a content analysis approach. We used a purposive sampling technique to recruit and interview 18 nurses with at least 2 years of working experience in the cardiac care unit (CCU) and post-CCU ward of two educational hospitals in Tehran related to Tehran University. Data were collected through face-to-face audio-taped interviews and field observations. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed concurrently with data collection. Results: The major theme extracted in this study was the inappropriate organizational culture which includes eight categories listed as follows: Not putting value on education, non-professional activities, physician-oriented atmosphere, conflict and lack of coherence in education, inappropriate communication skills, ignoring patient's right in education, lack of motivation, rewarding system in the organization, and poor supervision and control. Conclusions: The results of this study show that according to the participants’ perspective, organizational culture is in a poor level. So, to improve the performance of nurses, it is necessary to increase their motivation through optimization of organizational culture.

Farahani, Mansoureh A.; Mohammadi, Eesa; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Mohammadi, Nooredin

2013-01-01

321

Insecurities of Women Regarding Breast Cancer Research: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Only 1.2%–11% of all potential study participants participate in cancer studies. Low participation rates can result in bias or in a failure to obtain data saturation. Subject-scientific psychology assumes that reasons for acting are based on individual premises. The objective of this study was to render reproducible individual reasons of female breast cancer patients to participate or not participate in breast cancer studies using a qualitative approach. Methods Problem-based interviews were conducted with female breast cancer patients. The selection of interview partners continued until theoretical data saturation was achieved. Results As main arguments against participation emotional overload and too many medication side-effects were stated. Improvement of health-related values, long-term protection and comprehensive follow-up exams were stated as arguments for participation. Trust in the attending physician was mentioned as influencing both participation and non-participation. Conclusions A significant influential factor determining willingness to participate in studies was one's contentment with patient-physician communication. In order to guarantee an adequate patient decision-making process, keeping existing standards for patient briefings is absolutely mandatory.

Habersack, Marion; Luschin, Gero

2013-01-01

322

The Evolution of Qualitative and Quantitative Research Classes when Delivered via Distance Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether new streamed Internet audio and video technology could be used for primary instruction in off-campus research classes. Several different off-campus student cohorts at Illinois State university enrolled in both a fall semester qualitative research methods class and a spring semester quantitative research methods class.…

Hecht, Jeffrey B.; Klass, Patricia H.

323

Qualitative Research as a Hero's Journey: Six Archetypes to Draw on  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is the research process similar to a hero's journey? Just as a hero draws on different archetypes during the journey, a researcher moves through phases and must draw upon different strengths. In this article, the six archetypes that Pearson (1998) links to the hero's journey are described. Then, each phase of a qualitative research study is…

Villate, Vanessa M.

2012-01-01

324

Using Qualitative Research Strategies in Cross-National Projects: The English-Finnish Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some methodological issues are discussed that arise from our comparative research conducted since the early 1990s into primary schooling in Finland and England. This research has been identified as part of a "new" comparative education that uses qualitative research strategies and which prioritises sensitivity to cultural context in data…

Vulliamy, Graham; Webb, Rosemary

2009-01-01

325

Multiple pathways to knowledge generation: qualitative and quantitative research approaches in sport and exercise psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative and qualitative research approaches incorporate different research methodologies but also are structured, evaluated and justified using different philosophical bases. Thus, they may truly involve different ‘ways to know’. The purpose of this article is to present one quantitative scholar’s perceptions as to how the work produced by both sets of researchers can be used to enhance the teaching, advising

Thelma S. Horn

2011-01-01

326

Qualitative Directions in Human–Animal Companion Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Researcher inquiries into topics such as animal welfare, animal affect, and human experiences of the human–animal bond have\\u000a historically been rooted in positivist epistemologies and reliant on quantitative measures and experiments, rather than naturalistic\\u000a observations and individual experiences (Fraser, 2009). In this chapter, I target several topic areas within human–animal\\u000a and animal research to explore the existence and benefits of

David Shen-Miller

327

Systematic Review: An Innovative Approach to Reviewing Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper gives a thorough description of the systematic review (SR) research methodology. SRs are designed to reduce the problems associated with less rigorous literature review methods by employing strict, quantitative research methods that lead to obje...

D. B. Larson E. Anthony J. S. Lyons L. E. Pastro

1992-01-01

328

Review of Neurotoxicology Methods Development by Neurotoxicology Research Review Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Neurotoxicology Research Review Panel of EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) reviewed the EPA research program to develop neurotoxicology methods. SAB analysis of the program produced six scientific recommendations, including the following: focusing th...

1988-01-01

329

Life Review: Implementation, Theory, Research, and Therapy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selective literature review of publications on life review generated ideas on implementation, theory, research, and therapy. The review begins by differentiating life review from reminiscence, and summarizing ways to conduct a life review. A dozen theories that have been influenced by the life review technique are presented, with a focus placed…

Haber, David

2006-01-01

330

An Applied Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods in Academic Advising  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Academic advising research aids faculty members and advisors in detecting, explaining, and addressing macro-level trends beyond their local campus. It also helps legitimize the professional nature of academic advising, moving it beyond mere prescriptive models that focus on rules and course selection. Due to the erroneous belief that skills in…

Hurt, Robert L.; McLaughlin, Eric J.

2012-01-01

331

Democratizing Qualitative Research: Photovoice and the Study of Human Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay discusses the possibilities of photovoice as a method to advance the study of human communication. Via a democratizing of the research process, photovoice can significantly affect the study of communication. Originally proposed by Wang and Burris (1994), photovoice traditionally has been used to study the social worlds of marginalized persons (e.g., rural, learning disabled, people without homes). Photovoice

David R. Novak

2010-01-01

332

Improving Transcription of Qualitative Research Interviews with Speech Recognition Technology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recent development of high-quality voice recognition software greatly facilitates the production of transcriptions for research and allows for objective and full transcription as well as annotated interpretation. Commercial speech recognition programs that are appropriate for generating transcriptions are available from a number of vendors,…

Fogg, Terry; Wightman, Colin W.

333

Including People with Intellectual Disabilities in Qualitative Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The voice of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) is needed in the literature to best understand their unique experiences and perspectives. Researchers face challenges in conducting interviews with people with ID who are limited in conceptual and verbal language skills. It can also be difficult to obtain participants with ID because of…

Hall, Sarah A.

2013-01-01

334

From qualitative work to intervention development in pediatric oncology palliative care research.  

PubMed

Qualitative methods can be particularly useful approaches to use with individuals who are experiencing a rare disease and thus who comprise a small sample (such as children with cancer) and are at points in care that few experience (such as end of life). This data-based methods article describes how findings from a qualitative study were used to guide and shape a pediatric oncology palliative care intervention. Qualitative data can lay a strong foundation for subsequent pilot intervention work by facilitating the development of an underlying study conceptualization, providing recruitment feasibility estimates, helping establish clinically meaningful inclusion criteria, establishing staff acceptability of a research intervention, and providing support for face validity of newly developed interventions. These benefits of preliminary qualitative research are described in the context of this study on legacy-making, which involves reports of children (7-12 years of age) living with advanced cancer and of their parent caregivers. PMID:23632900

Akard, Terrah Foster; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Friedman, Debra L; Given, Barbara; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L; Hinds, Pamela S

2013-01-01

335

From Qualitative Work to Intervention Development in Pediatric Oncology Palliative Care Research  

PubMed Central

Qualitative methods can be particularly useful approaches to use with individuals who are experiencing a rare disease and thus who comprise a small sample (such as children with cancer) and are at points in care that few experience (such as end of life). This data-based methods article describes how findings from a qualitative study were used to guide and shape a pediatric oncology palliative care intervention. Qualitative data can lay a strong foundation for subsequent pilot intervention work by facilitating the development of an underlying study conceptualization, providing recruitment feasibility estimates, helping establish clinically meaningful inclusion criteria, establishing staff acceptability of a research intervention, and providing support for face validity of newly developed interventions. These benefits of preliminary qualitative research are described in the context of this study on legacy-making, which involves reports of children (7-12 years of age) living with advanced cancer and of their parent caregivers.

Gilmer, Mary Jo; Friedman, Debra L.; Given, Barbara; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna L.; Hinds, Pamela S.

2013-01-01

336

Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

2009-01-01

337

[A review of metaphor research].  

PubMed

The study of the metaphor is interdisciplinary and focuses mostly on three points in cognitive psychology: (a) the cognition of metaphoricity, (b) metaphor comprehension processes, and (c) the reason why one concept is represented by another concept as a metaphor. This article reviews the history of research on the metaphor from these three perspectives. Most recent studies support the following viewpoints. Metaphor comprehension is as quick and automatic as literal comprehension. Metaphor comprehension entails the processes of comparison and abstraction. The reason why one concept is compared with another concept is strongly related with the motivation process of combination between different concepts such as embodied cognition. PMID:21919307

Taira, Tomohiro; Kusumi, Takashi

2011-08-01

338

The Interaction of Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Research: A View of the Second Language Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers both qualitative and quantitative research approaches on second language learning, with focus on second language classroom research. Concludes that both approaches are relevant to determining the important variables to investigate and the relationships those variables have to second language learning outcomes. (Author/CB)

Chaudron, Craig

1986-01-01

339

Qualitative Investigation of Doctoral Students' Learning Experiences in Online Research Methods Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although distance education courses have become commonplace in most colleges and universities, the introduction of online research methods courses in the preparation of doctoral students has been slow in developing. This qualitative study explores the online learning experiences of doctoral students who have taken 1 or more of their research

Lim, Jae Hoon; Dannels, Sharon A.; Watkins, Ryan

2008-01-01

340

The Use of Email Interviewing as a Qualitative Method of Inquiry in Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues for the potential that email interviewing has as a qualitative method in educational research. The article draws on research that uses email as a way of generating online narratives in order to understand how academics construct their identities. In doing so, the article considers the challenges that email interviewing poses…

James, Nalita

2007-01-01

341

Some Similarities and Differences Among Phenomenological and Other Methods of Psychological Qualitative Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the research method of phenomenological psychology to other qualitative research methods such as ethnography, participant observation, grounded theory, dramaturgical interviewing and content analysis. An attempt is made to identify similarities and differences. As a prelude, the major metatheories with which they are associated (phenomenology and symbolic interactionism) and the related differences between natural science and human science

JOHN W. OSBORNE

1994-01-01

342

Developing research journals and qualitative inquiry: the role of the editorial board  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the roles of research journal editorial boards in fostering scholarship and nurturing new knowledge areas and research approaches, typified by the growing qualitative methodological tradition, in the accounting and management disciplines. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Editors and their boards are considered as trustees of both journals and their stocks of

Lee D. Parker

2007-01-01

343

Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods: Old Wine in New Bottles? On Understanding and Interpreting Educational Phenomena  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the…

Smeyers, Paul

2008-01-01

344

Time Management, Passion, and Collaboration: A Qualitative Study of Highly Research Productive Counseling Psychologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study interviewed 17 of the most research-productive counseling psychologists within APA-accredited counseling psychology programs. Using Consensual Qualitative Research, seven domains emerged from the interviews: root of productivity, personality characteristics, productivity strategies, work environment, nonwork life, impact, and…

Duffy, Ryan D.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Schlosser, Lewis Z.

2013-01-01

345

Blending qualitative and behavior analytic research methods to evaluate outcomes in inclusive schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following Haring's (1992) recommendation, we have utilized qualitative research techniques to assist us in designing a program of research on inclusive education which is responsive to the outcome values and priorities identified by teachers and parents. Using interviews, observations, and document analysis to follow 35 children in full inclusion classrooms over a period of two years, we have described outcomes

Ilene S. Schwartz; Debbie Staub; Chrysan Gallucci; Charles A. Peck

1995-01-01

346

Leadership in University-Based Cooperative Research Centres: A Qualitative Investigation of Performance Dimensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In spite of the importance often attached to the role played by leadership in university-based cooperative research centres, we know very little about what "leadership" means in this specific context. The research reported here used a qualitative approach to identify fifteen dimensions of leadership performance for directors of university-based…

Craig, S. Bartholomew; Hess, Clara E.; McGinnis, Jennifer Lindberg; Gray, Denis O.

2009-01-01

347

Ten Steps for Conceptualizing and Conducting Qualitative Research Studies in a Pragmatically Curious Manner  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of methodological pluralism and mixed-methods, qualitative researchers can take a pathway of pragmatic curiosity by exploring their research interests and the possible design and methodology choices to create studies that not only allow them to pursue their investigative curiosities, but also result in coherent and effective systems of…

Chenail, Ronald J.

2011-01-01

348

Comprehensive criteria to judge validity and reliability of qualitative research within the realism paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims to address a gap in the literature about quality criteria for validity and reliability in qualitative research within the realism scientific paradigm. Six comprehensive and explicit criteria for judging realism research are developed, drawing on the three elements of a scientific paradigm of ontology, epistemology and methodology. The first two criteria concern ontology, that is, ontological appropriateness and contingent

Marilyn Healy; Chad Perry

2000-01-01

349

The Impact of a Qualitative Research Interview on Workers' Views of Their Situation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to explore whether qualitative research interviews impacted participants' views of their situations. Forty-five workers who reported handling well changes that affected their work were interviewed to explore their experiences of change, factors that helped and hindered their ability to handle change, and assess the…

Butterfield, Lee D.; Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.

2009-01-01

350

A Comparative Discussion of the Notion of 'Validity' in Qualitative and Quantitative Research by  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues surrounding the use and nature of the term 'validity' in qualitative research are controversial and many. In this paper, the author attempts to establish that 'validity' is not a single, fixed or universal concept, but rather a contingent construct, inescapably grounded in the processes and intentions of particular research methodologies and projects. The first section of this work

Glyn Winter

351

Qualitative and quantitative research methods: old wine in new bottles? On understanding and interpreting educational phenomena  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generally educational research is grounded in the empirical traditions of the social sciences (commonly called quantitative and qualitative methods) and is as such distinguished from other forms of scholarship such as theoretical, conceptual or methodological essays, critiques of research traditions and practices and those studies grounded in the humanities (e.g. history, philosophy, literary analysis, arts?based inquiry). Since the early twentieth

Paul Smeyers

2008-01-01

352

A Descriptive Review of LRE Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This annotated review of law-related education (LRE) research is organized into three parts. The first reviews research studies devoted to the impact or effects of law-related education on students in school settings. The second reviews studies relating to the process of implementing LRE in classrooms/schools. The third reviews studies of LRE in…

Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

353

Developing longitudinal qualitative designs: lessons learned and recommendations for health services research  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in the health service research, but the method and challenges particular to health care settings are not well described in the literature.We reflect on the strategies used in a longitudinal qualitative study to explore the experience of symptoms in cancer patients and their carers, following participants from diagnosis for twelve months; we highlight ethical, practical, theoretical and methodological issues that need to be considered and addressed from the outset of a longitudinal qualitative study. Results Key considerations in undertaking longitudinal qualitative projects in health research, include the use of theory, utilizing multiple methods of analysis and giving consideration to the practical and ethical issues at an early stage. These can include issues of time and timing; data collection processes; changing the topic guide over time; recruitment considerations; retention of staff; issues around confidentiality; effects of project on staff and patients, and analyzing data within and across time. Conclusions As longitudinal qualitative methods are becoming increasingly used in health services research, the methodological and practical challenges particular to health care settings need more robust approaches and conceptual improvement. We provide recommendations for the use of such designs. We have a particular focus on cancer patients, so this paper will have particular relevance for researchers interested in chronic and life limiting conditions.

2013-01-01

354

Qualitative analysis in gay men's health research: comparing thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis.  

PubMed

Gay men's health typically relies on traditional forms of qualitative analysis, such as thematic analysis, and would benefit from a diversity of analytic approaches. Such diversity offers public health researchers a breadth of tools to address different kinds of research questions and, thus, substantiate different types of social phenomenon relevant to the health and wellbeing of gay men. In this article, I compare and contrast three qualitative analytic approaches: thematic, critical discourse, and conversation analysis. I demonstrate and distinguish their key analytic assumptions by applying each approach to a single data excerpt taken from a public health interview conducted for a broader study on gay men's health. I engage in a discussion of each approach in relation to three themes: its utility for gay men's health, its approach to dilemmas of voice, and its capacity for reflexivity. I advocate that qualitative researchers should capitalise on the full range of qualitative analytic approaches to achieve the goals of gay men's health. However, I specifically encourage qualitative researchers to engage with conversation analysis, not only because of its capacity to resolve dilemmas of voice and to achieve reflexivity, but also for its ability to capture forms of social life hitherto undocumented through thematic and critical discourse analysis. PMID:22853179

Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P

2012-01-01

355

Methodological Review: A Handbook for Excellence in Focus Group Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides a step-by-step manual on conducting focus group research and suggests modifications for adapting its use to Third World realities. Topics covered include: an overview of qualitative research; the two leading qualitative methods, indivi...

M. Debus P. Novelli

1989-01-01

356

Qualitative case studies in operations management: Trends, research outcomes, and future research implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study examines the state of qualitative case studies in operations management. Five main operations management journals are included for their impact on the field. They are in alphabetical order: Decision Sciences, International Journal of Operations and Production Management, Journal of Operations Management, Management Science, and Production and Operations Management. The qualitative case studies chosen were published between 1992 and

Mark Barratt; Thomas Y. Choi; Mei Li

2011-01-01

357

Factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes: a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies  

PubMed Central

Background More than a third of people over the age of 65?years fall each year. Falling can lead to a reduction in quality of life, mortality, and a risk of prolonged hospitalisation. Reducing and preventing falls has become an international health priority. To help understand why research evidence has often not been translated into changes in clinical practice, we undertook a systematic review and synthesis of qualitative research in order to identify what factors serve as barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. Methods We conducted a review of literature published between 1980 and January 2012 for qualitative research studies that examined barriers and facilitators to the effective implementation of fall-prevention interventions among community-dwelling older people and healthcare professionals. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality according to predefined criteria. Findings were synthesised using meta-ethnography. Results Of the 5010 articles identified through database searching, 19 were included in the review. Analysis of the 19 studies revealed limited information about the mechanisms by which barriers to implementation of fall-prevention interventions had been overcome. Data synthesis produced three overarching concepts: (1) practical considerations, (2) adapting for community, and (3) psychosocial. A line of argument synthesis describes the barriers and facilitators to the successful implementation of fall-prevention programmes. These concepts show that the implementation of fall-prevention programmes is complex and multifactorial. This is the first systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies to examine factors influencing the implementation of fall-prevention programmes from the perspectives of both the healthcare professional and the community-dwelling older person. Conclusions The current literature on barriers and facilitators to the implementation of fall-prevention programmes examines a variety of interventions. However, the ways in which the interventions are reported suggests there are substantial methodological challenges that often inhibit implementation into practice. We recommend that successful implementation requires individuals, professionals, and organisations to modify established behaviours, thoughts, and practice. The issues identified through this synthesis need to be fully considered and addressed if fall-prevention programmes are to be successfully implemented into clinical practice.

2012-01-01

358

Quality of life of people with mental health problems: a synthesis of qualitative research  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify the domains of quality of life important to people with mental health problems. Method A systematic review of qualitative research undertaken with people with mental health problems using a framework synthesis. Results We identified six domains: well-being and ill-being; control, autonomy and choice; self-perception; belonging; activity; and hope and hopelessness. Firstly, symptoms or ‘ill-being’ were an intrinsic aspect of quality of life for people with severe mental health problems. Additionally, a good quality of life was characterised by the feeling of being in control (particularly of distressing symptoms), autonomy and choice; a positive self-image; a sense of belonging; engagement in meaningful and enjoyable activities; and feelings of hope and optimism. Conversely, a poor quality life, often experienced by those with severe mental health difficulties, was characterized by feelings of distress; lack of control, choice and autonomy; low self-esteem and confidence; a sense of not being part of society; diminished activity; and a sense of hopelessness and demoralization. Conclusions Generic measures fail to address the complexity of quality of life measurement and the broad range of domains important to people with mental health problems.

2012-01-01

359

Research Review: Children and Poverty [Book Review].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is a careful review and analysis of recent official statistics and academic studies about children and poverty in the United Kingdom. Kumar fully and succinctly identifies the link between increasing child poverty and economic, demographic, and policy changes and the greater risks of children from ethnic minorities. (SLD)

Holman, Bob

1994-01-01

360

Physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises in healthy subjects: a qualitative review.  

PubMed

In the last decades head-out aquatic exercises became one of the most important physical activities within the health system. Massive research has been produced throughout these decades in order to better understand the role of head-out aquatic exercises in populations' health. Such studies aimed to obtain comprehensive knowledge about the acute and chronic response of subjects performing head-out aquatic exercises. For that, it is assumed that chronic adaptations represent the accumulation of acute responses during each aquatic session. The purpose of this study was to describe the "state of the art "about physiological assessment of head-out aquatic exercises based on acute and chronic adaptations in healthy subjects based on a qualitative review. The main findings about acute response of head-out aquatic exercise according to water temperature, water depth, type of exercise, additional equipment used, body segments exercising and music cadence will be described. In what concerns chronic adaptations, the main results related to cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition improvements will be reported. Key pointsSeveral papers reported consistent and significant improvement in physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility and body composition) after a program of head-out aquatic exercise with at least eight weeks.Chronic adaptations to head-out aquatic exercise programs are the cumulative result of appropriate acute responses during the exercise session.Appropriate acute adaptations can be obtained taking into account the water temperature, water depth, type of exercise and its variants, the equipment used and the segmental cadence according to the subjects' profile. PMID:24149524

Barbosa, Tiago M; Marinho, Daniel A; Reis, Victor M; Silva, António J; Bragada, José A

2009-01-01

361

Using Qualitative Methods to Make and Support Claims in Physics Education Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document summarizes a session, held at the 2002 Physics Education research conference, that was designed to stimulate conversations about the use of qualitative methods in physics education research. The session began with a general overview of qualitative research. Then, to provide a context for discussion, facilitators conducted a mini research activity; in which they introduded data (interview, video transcripts, and student work) from a university physics course for preservice teachers. Participants were given the task of examining the data and deciding whether a particular claim was sufficiently supported by the data. A rich discussion ensued, in which many research-related issues were raised. These issues, which might serve as topics of discussion for future sessions, are listed and briefly editorialized at the end of this paper.

Johnson, Andy; Sandifer, Cody

2010-06-16

362

Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.  

PubMed

Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during pregnancy. Electronic databases and journals were searched with seven articles included in this review. The findings demonstrated that women were aware of the health risks to the foetus associated with smoking; however knowledge of potential health risks was not sufficient to motivate them to quit. Several barriers to quitting were identified which included willpower, role, and meaning of smoking, issues with cessation provision, changes in relationship interactions, understanding of facts, changes in smell and taste and influence of family and friends. A further interesting finding was that cessation service provision by health professionals was viewed negatively by women. It was concluded that there is a shortage of qualitative studies that concentrate on the specific difficulties that pregnant women face when trying to quit smoking. PMID:19879206

Ingall, Georgina; Cropley, Mark

2010-06-01

363

Qualitative Data Analysis: A Compendium of Techniques and a Framework for Selection for School Psychology Research and Beyond  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative researchers in school psychology have a multitude of analyses available for data. The purpose of this article is to present several of the most common methods for analyzing qualitative data. Specifically, the authors describe the following 18 qualitative analysis techniques: method of constant comparison analysis, keywords-in-context,…

Leech, Nancy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

2008-01-01

364

Research 2.0: A Framework for Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Web 2.0 Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the potential of the Web 2.0 environment for conducting both qualitative and quantitative research. The paper analyzes the emerging Research 2.0 domain using the theoretical framework of Web 2.0 core principles (e.g., web as a platform, harnessing collective intelligence, etc.). These principles, first proposed by Tim O'Reilly, provide a useful lens through which researchers can examine the

Dinesh Rathi; Lisa M. Given

2010-01-01

365

Cell Phones and Driving: Review of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The research literature on drivers' use of cell phones was reviewed to identify trends in drivers' phone use and to determine the state of knowledge about the safety consequences of such use.Methods. Approximately 125 studies were reviewed with regard to the research questions, type and rigor of the methods, and findings. Reviewed studies included surveys of drivers, experiments, naturalistic

Anne T. Mccartt; Laurie A. Hellinga; Keli A. Bratiman

2006-01-01

366

Understanding suicidal behaviour in young people referred to specialist CAMHS: a qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted suicide, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and consented to participate, were offered an

Jan Anderson; Margaret Hurst; Ana Marques; David Millar; Sue Moya; Lesley Pover; Sue Stewart

2012-01-01

367

Disaggregating Qualitative Data from Asian American College Students in Campus Racial Climate Research and Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article highlights the utility of disaggregating qualitative research and assessment data on Asian American college students. Given the complexity of and diversity within the Asian American population, scholars have begun to underscore the importance of disaggregating data in the empirical examination of Asian Americans, but most of those…

Museus, Samuel D.; Truong, Kimberly A.

2009-01-01

368

Complementary, Not Contradictory: The Spurious Conflict between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methodologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Zubir and M. Pope (1984) and K. Howe (1985, 1988) have argued against the "tyranny of methodological dogma" and that the division between quantitative psychometric and qualitative phenomenological and anthropological traditions is unnecessary. The postmodern self-consciousness of educational research has resulted in the realization that there…

Mashhadi, Azam

369

Reflecting on the Strategic Use of CAQDAS to Manage and Report on the Qualitative Research Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As an increasing number of researchers have been trained to use programs such as Atlas/ti, NUD*IST, Nvivo, and ETHNOGRAPH their value in analyzing qualitative data has gained greater recognition. Drawing on the experience of two PhD candidates at the University of Tasmania, this paper reflects upon some potential uses of a suite of computer…

Wickham, Mark; Woods, Megan

2005-01-01

370

Co-Operative Education: Challenges of Qualitative Research on Learning in the Workplace.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is concerned with the challenges of qualitative research on workplace learning that occurs within co-operative (co-op) education. Co-op education is extensive in Canada, with an estimated 10% of the student population enrolled in co-op secondary education each year. The context for this study was a veterinary clinic in which four co-op…

Chin, Peter; Munby, Hugh; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

371

Methods and Management of the Healthy Brain Study: A Large Multisite Qualitative Research Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of the study: To describe processes used in the Healthy Brain project to manage data collection, coding, and data distribution in a large qualitative project, conducted by researchers at 9 universities in 9 states. Design and Methods: Project management protocols included: (a) managing audiotapes and surveys to ensure data confidentiality,…

Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Friedman, Daniela B.; Mathews, Anna E.; Wilcox, Sara

2009-01-01

372

Qualitative Research, Educational Management and the Incorporation of the Further Education Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geoffrey Elliott and Michael Crossley are at the School of Education of the University of Bristol. In this paper they present a case for the increased application of qualitative research methodologies in the study of educational management. This view is explored in the context of a study of aspects of the management of the newly incorporated further education sector.

Geoffrey Elliott; Michael Crossley

1994-01-01

373

Popular Film as an Instructional Strategy in Qualitative Research Methods Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to provide university instructors pedagogical applications for popular film in graduate-level qualitative research methods courses. Media instruction has a longstanding tradition in Grade K-12 classrooms, and the power of "edutainment" in our visually oriented, electronically mediated, and performative culture should…

Saldana, Johnny

2009-01-01

374

Teaching Qualitative Research for Human Services Students: A Three-Phase Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative research is an inherent part of the human services profession, since it emphasizes the great and multifaceted complexity characterizing human experience and the sociocultural context in which humans act. In the department of human services at Emek Yezreel College, Israel, we have developed a three-phase model to ensure a relatively…

Goussinsky, Ruhama; Reshef, Arie; Yanay-Ventura, Galit; Yassour-Borochowitz, Dalit

2011-01-01

375

The Usefulness of Reflexive Photography for Qualitative Research: A Case Study in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explores the usefulness of reflexive photography for qualitative research in the human and social sciences. The investigation was done in the context of how male academics construct their world in a university during transformation. A group of white, male academics in the human sciences were provided with a camera and were requested to…

Schulze, S.

2007-01-01

376

Contributions of Qualitative Research to Understanding Savings for Children and Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores contributions of qualitative research to saving theory for children, youth, and parents in children's development account (CDAs) programs. It brings together findings from three studies: (1) elementary school age children saving for college, (2) youth transitioning from foster care saving for education and other purposes, and…

Sherraden, Margaret; Peters, Clark; Wagner, Kristen; Guo, Baorong; Clancy, Margaret

2013-01-01

377

Qualitative Methodology in Counseling Research: Recent Contributions and Challenges for a New Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the past 10 years, qualitative research methodology has become more visible in counseling studies. Results from a content analysis of articles published between 1997 and 2002 in 4 professional journals in the field (Counseling and Values, Journal of Counseling & Development, Professional School Counseling, and The Counseling Psychologist)…

Berrios, Reinaldo; Lucca, Nydia

2006-01-01

378

The Contributions of Qualitative Research to Discussions of Evidence-Based Practice in Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to recent trends and legislation, the concept of implementing evidence-based practices has become a critical component of contemporary schooling. It is important that teachers and families of students with disabilities understand the role that qualitative research plays in determining whether a practice is in fact evidence based.…

McDuffie, Kimberly A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

379

Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Traditions: Epistemological, Theoretical, and Methodological Differences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been much discussion about quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in different disciplines. In the behavioural and social sciences, these two paradigms are compared to reveal their relative strengths and weaknesses. But the debate about both traditions has commonly taken place in academic books. It is hard to find an article…

Yilmaz, Kaya

2013-01-01

380

Sampling Designs in Qualitative Research: Making the Sampling Process More Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to provide a typology of sampling designs for qualitative researchers. We introduce the following sampling strategies: (a) parallel sampling designs, which represent a body of sampling strategies that facilitate credible comparisons of two or more different subgroups that are extracted from the same levels of study;…

Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Leech, Nancy L.

2007-01-01

381

Bouncing between the Dark and Bright Sides: Can Technology Help Qualitative Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors carried out a 4-year qualitative analysis of a case study in higher education. An undergraduate course based on the principles of computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL) was designed, implemented, and evaluated. The process was developed by a community of practice, formed by quite a number of researchers coming from the…

Jorrin-Abellan, Ivan M.; Rubia-Avi, Bartolome; Anguita-Martinez, Rocio; Gomez-Sanchez, Eduardo; Martinez-Mones, Alejandra

2008-01-01

382

Using Qualitative Research to Assess Teaching and Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter describes the results of an assessment project whose purpose was to improve the faculty-development program for instructors who teach in technology-infused TILE (Transform, Interact, Learn, Engage) classrooms at the University of Iowa. Qualitative research methods were critical for (1) learning about how students and instructors…

Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia Titiek; Saichaie, Kem; Jesse, Maggie; Florman, Jean C.; Ingram, Beth F.

2014-01-01

383

Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Approaches [with CD-ROM]. Second Edition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This new version explores the philosophical underpinnings, history, and key elements of each of five qualitative inquiry approaches: narrative research, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Using an accessible and engaging writing style, the author compares theoretical frameworks, ways to employ standards of quality, and…

Creswell, John W.

2006-01-01

384

Behavioural interventions for weight management in pregnancy: A systematic review of quantitative and qualitative data  

PubMed Central

Background There is a rising prevalence of excessive weight gain in pregnancy and an increasing number of pregnant women who are overweight or obese at the start of the pregnancy. Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal consequences and increases the risk of long-term obesity. Pregnancy therefore may be a key time to prevent excessive weight gain and improve the health of women and their unborn child. This systematic review sought to assess the effectiveness of behavioural interventions to prevent excessive weight gain in pregnancy and explore the factors that influence intervention effectiveness. Methods We undertook a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence. This included a meta-analysis of controlled trials of diet and physical activity interventions to prevent excessive weight gain during pregnancy and a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies that investigated the views of women on weight management during pregnancy. A thorough search of eleven electronic bibliographic databases, reference lists of included studies, relevant review articles and experts in the field were contacted to identify potentially relevant studies. Two independent reviewers extracted data. RevMan software was used to perform the meta-analyses. Qualitative data was subject to thematic analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative data were aligned using a matrix framework. Results Five controlled trials and eight qualitative studies were included. The overall pooled effect size found no significant difference in gestational weight gain amongst participants in the intervention group compared with the control group (mean difference -0.28 95% CI -0.64 to 0.09). The study designs, participants and interventions all varied markedly and there was significant heterogeneity within this comparison in the meta-analysis (I2 67%). Subgroup and sensitivity analysis did not identify contextual elements that influenced the effectiveness of the intervention. In a thematic analysis of the qualitative studies, three major themes emerged relating to women's views of weight management in pregnancy: pregnancy as a time of transition and change, conflicting and contradictory messages and a perceived lack of control. When the results of both quantitative and qualitative data were aligned it was clear that some of the barriers that women described in achieving healthy weight gain in pregnancy were not addressed by the interventions evaluated. This may have contributed to the limited effectiveness of the interventions. Conclusions Despite intense and often tailored interventions there was no statistically significant effect on weight gain during pregnancy. Inadequate and often contradictory information regarding healthy weight management was reported by women in qualitative studies and this was addressed in the interventions but this in itself was insufficient to lead to reduced weight gain. Multiple types of interventions, including community based strategies are needed to address this complex health problem.

2011-01-01

385

Is mandatory research ethics reviewing ethical?  

PubMed

Review boards responsible for vetting the ethical conduct of research have been criticised for their costliness, unreliability and inappropriate standards when evaluating some non-medical research, but the basic value of mandatory ethical review has not been questioned. When the standards that review boards use to evaluate research proposals are applied to review board practices, it is clear that review boards do not respect researchers or each other, lack merit and integrity, are not just and are not beneficent. The few benefits of mandatory ethical review come at a much greater, but mainly hidden, social cost. It is time that responsibility for the ethical conduct of research is clearly transferred to researchers, except possibly in that small proportion of cases where prospective research participants may be so intrinsically vulnerable that their well-being may need to be overseen. PMID:22865925

Dyck, Murray; Allen, Gary

2013-08-01

386

Nurses' experiences of ethical preparedness for public health emergencies and healthcare disasters: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.  

PubMed

Little is known about nurses' direct experiences of ethical preparedness for dealing with catastrophic public health emergencies and healthcare disasters or the ethical quandaries that may arise during such events. A systematic literature review was undertaken to explore and synthesize qualitative research literature reporting nurses' direct experiences of being prepared for and managing the ethical challenges posed by catastrophic public health emergencies and healthcare disasters. Twenty-six research studies were retrieved for detailed examination and assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological validity prior to inclusion in the review. Of these, 12 studies published between 1973 and 2011 were deemed to meet the inclusion criteria and were critically appraised. The review confirmed there is a significant gap in the literature on nurses' experiences of ethical preparedness for managing public health emergencies and healthcare disasters, and the ethical quandaries they encounter during such events. This finding highlights the need for ethical considerations in emergency planning, preparedness, and response by nurses to be given more focused attention in the interests of better informing the ethical basis of emergency disaster management. PMID:24635901

Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Turale, Sue

2014-03-01

387

A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science

R. Todd Hartle

2007-01-01

388

Typology of Analytical Errors in Qualitative Educational Research: An Analysis of the 2003-2007 Education Science Dissertations in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this research, the level of quality of the qualitative research design used and the analytic mistakes made in the doctorate dissertations carried out in the field of education science in Turkey have been tried to be identified. Case study design has been applied in the study in which qualitative research techniques have been used. The universe…

Karadag, Engin

2010-01-01

389

End of life care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review of the qualitative literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  End of life (EoL) care in sub-Saharan Africa still lacks the sound evidence-base needed for the development of effective,\\u000a appropriate service provision. It is essential to make evidence from all types of research available alongside clinical and\\u000a health service data, to ensure that EoL care is ethical and culturally appropriate. This article aims to synthesize qualitative\\u000a research on EoL care

Marjolein Gysels; Christopher Pell; Lianne Straus; Robert Pool

2011-01-01

390

Using Multiple Interviewers in Qualitative Research Studies: The Influence of Ethic of Care Behaviors in Research Interview Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study considered the methodological implications of a qualitative study that involved two research practitioners as interviewers, one male and one female, who conducted semistructured cognitive interviews with middle school students. During the reading and analysis of interview transcriptions, differences were noted between the interviewers'…

Matteson, Shirley M.; Lincoln, Yvonna S.

2009-01-01

391

How Does Reviewing the Evidence Change Veterinary Surgeons' Beliefs Regarding the Treatment of Ovine Footrot? A Quantitative and Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i) to quantify how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii) to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii) to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method) was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons’ beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons’ knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i) veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii) more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i) demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs change (ii) revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii) suggested that improved transfer of research knowledge into veterinary practice is needed (iv) identified some potential obstacles to the implementation of veterinary advice by farmers.

Higgins, Helen M.; Green, Laura E.; Green, Martin J.; Kaler, Jasmeet

2013-01-01

392

Research Focus: Reviewing Recent Research on Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is perhaps no subject more contentious in schools than assessment and yet, often, at classroom, school and national level, inferences and decisions are made without much reference to research in this area. In fact, teachers often accept or interpret assessment requirements without question, feeling that assessment has to be approached in a…

Harrison, Chris

2012-01-01

393

Fear of crime and the environment: systematic review of UK qualitative evidence  

PubMed Central

Background The fear of crime may have negative consequences for health and wellbeing. It is influenced by factors in the physical and social environment. This study aimed to review and synthesize qualitative evidence from the UK on fear of crime and the environment. Methods Eighteen databases were searched, including crime, health and social science databases. Qualitative studies conducted in the UK which presented data on fear of crime and the environment were included. Quality was assessed using Hawker et al.’s framework. Data were synthesized thematically. Results A total of 40 studies were included in the review. Several factors in the physical environment are perceived to impact on fear of crime, including visibility and signs of neglect. However, factors in the local social environment appear to be more important as drivers of fear of crime, including social networks and familiarity. Broader social factors appear to be of limited relevance. There is considerable evidence for limitations on physical activity as a result of fear of crime, but less for mental health impacts. Conclusions Fear of crime represents a complex set of responses to the environment. It may play a role in mediating environmental impacts on health and wellbeing.

2013-01-01

394

Anthropology and Education Quarterly, Vol. VIII, No. 2, May 1977. Special Issue: Exploring Qualitative/Quantitative Research Methodologies in Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special journal issue contains the proceedings of the Workshop Exploring Qualitative/Quantitative Research Methodologies in Education, held July 21-23, 1976, in Monterey, California. An introductory overview comments on the epistemological nature of the quantitative and the qualitative approaches to educational research and compares several…

Tikunoff, William J., Ed.; Ward, Beatrice A., Ed.

395

Can We Integrate Qualitative and Quantitative Research in Science Education? ---Lest The Crevice May Become a Canyon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of this paper is to emphasize the importance of integrating qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in science education. It is argued that the Kuhnian incommensurability thesis, a major source of inspiration for qualitative researchers, represents an obstacle for this integration. A major thesis of this paper is…

Niaz, Mansoor

396

Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

2011-01-01

397

The State of Qualitative Research in Gifted Education as Published in American Journals: An Analysis and Critique  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As qualitative research has become a more familiar form of inquiry in gifted education, judging its quality and value remains obscure and problematic to the field. This article analyzes and critiques published studies for the purpose of understanding the state of qualitative research in gifted education. Data for this study are from the major…

Coleman, Laurence J.; Guo, Aige; Dabbs, Charlotte Simms

2007-01-01

398

The Influence of Power Shifts in Data Collection and Analysis Stages: A Focus on Qualitative Research Interview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper analyzes the power relation between the interviewer and the interviewee in the qualitative research interview methodology. The paper sets out to grapple with the extent to which the dynamisms in power shifts influence data collection and analysis in the interview methodology. The exploration of power shifts in the qualitative research

Anyan, Frederick

2013-01-01

399

Entry-Level Training. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Existing research on vocational education and training (VET) for entry-level employment in Australia was reviewed. According to the review, research on entry-level VET has enhanced knowledge related to the following: competence requiring knowledge and understanding as well as performance; graded standards-based assessment; problems of policy…

Lundberg, David

400

Naval Research Lab Review 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the annual report for the Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC for the year 2000. The mission of the Naval Research Laboratory is to conduct broadly based scientific and multidisciplinary programs of technological development directed toward ...

2000-01-01

401

Review of Physical Activity Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While the federal government supports numerous physical activity research projects, the diversity of sponsoring departments and agencies makes it difficult to characterize this body of research, identify gaps, encourage collaboration and disseminate findi...

1989-01-01

402

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

PubMed Central

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence. Recognizing that not all factors were examined in all studies, we considered standard methods for dealing with missing data and chose a Bayesian data augmentation method. We were able to summarize, rank, and compare the effects of each of the 10 factors on medication adherence. This is a promising methodological development in the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research.

Crandell, Jamie L.; Voils, Corrine I.; Chang, YunKyung; Sandelowski, Margarete

2010-01-01

403

Sandia Combustion Research: Technical review  

SciTech Connect

This report contains reports from research programs conducted at the Sandia Combustion Research Facility. Research is presented under the following topics: laser based diagnostics; combustion chemistry; reacting flow; combustion in engines and commercial burners; coal combustion; and industrial processing. Individual projects were processed separately for entry onto the DOE databases.

NONE

1995-07-01

404

Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

Deaver, Sarah P.

2011-01-01

405

Bayesian data augmentation methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible utility of Bayesian methods for the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative research has been repeatedly suggested\\u000a but insufficiently investigated. In this project, we developed and used a Bayesian method for synthesis, with the goal of\\u000a identifying factors that influence adherence to HIV medication regimens. We investigated the effect of 10 factors on adherence.\\u000a Recognizing that not all factors

Jamie L. Crandell; Corrine I. Voils; YunKyung Chang; Margarete Sandelowski

2011-01-01

406

Implicit Informal Qualitative Research Processes Embedded in Legal Proceedings: A Case Example  

PubMed Central

Objective: To make manifest, through a qualitative research process, the competing meanings constructed by the various parties in a legal case based on their own phenomenological perspective and/or experience of the events that gave rise to the legal complaint. Methods: Representative quotes from the documentary court filings of various parties in a U.S. Supreme Court case, Safford Unified School District v. Redding, involving a highly emotional issue-strip search of a child at school by school officials –provide the data source. These texts are analyzed conceptually to discover themes which help summarize the parties’ diverse phenomenological perspectives on the ‘facts’. Results: The sample texts from the court filings in the case were readily organized by themes and the competing parties’ conflicting perspectives located on opposite ends of various continuums described in terms of those themes. Conclusions: Making sense of conflicting legal positions can be considered, in part, as an informal qualitative research process. The use of textual analysis, a qualitative research process, can greatly assist in making more explicit the conflicting phenomenological perspectives of the various parties latent in the hundreds of documents typically filed with the courts in any major case. This may be helpful in mediation.

Grover, Sonja

2010-01-01

407

Sources of research confidence for early career academics: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a paucity of studies investigating how early career academics (ECAs) form attitudes towards aspects of their work and gain skills in research, teaching and service. This is especially the case with respect to research. A review of the pertinent literature revealed the prominence of a notion of research self-efficacy (or confidence) and how it was aligned with the

Brian Hemmings

2012-01-01

408

Sources of research confidence for early career academics: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a paucity of studies investigating how early career academics (ECAs) form attitudes towards aspects of their work and gain skills in research, teaching and service. This is especially the case with respect to research. A review of the pertinent literature revealed the prominence of a notion of research self-efficacy (or confidence) and how it was aligned with the

Brian Hemmings

2011-01-01

409

Sources of Research Confidence for Early Career Academics: A Qualitative Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a paucity of studies investigating how early career academics (ECAs) form attitudes towards aspects of their work and gain skills in research, teaching and service. This is especially the case with respect to research. A review of the pertinent literature revealed the prominence of a notion of research self-efficacy (or confidence) and…

Hemmings, Brian

2012-01-01

410

UK Health-Care Professionals' Experience of On-Line Learning Techniques: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: Continuing professional development and education is vital to the provision of better health services and outcomes. The aim of this study is to contribute to the evidence base by performing a systematic review of qualitative data from studies reporting health professionals' experience of e-learning. No such previous review has been…

Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Papaioannou, Diana; Sutton, Anthea; Wong, Ruth

2009-01-01

411

A research review of e?assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of e?assessment in higher education is a relatively new educational practice that has been more frequently studied in recent years. This review aims to summarise some research on e?assessment, providing an overview based on articles from three well?established scientific journals. Focusing on research topics, settings for e?assessment and research methods used in the articles, the review reveals a

Ulf Stödberg

2011-01-01

412

A research review of e-assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of e-assessment in higher education is a relatively new educational practice that has been more frequently studied in recent years. This review aims to summarise some research on e-assessment, providing an overview based on articles from three well-established scientific journals. Focusing on research topics, settings for e-assessment and research methods used in the articles, the review reveals a

Ulf Stödberg

2012-01-01

413

Skype interviewing: The new generation of online synchronous interview in qualitative research  

PubMed Central

The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.

Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Taghipour, Ali

2014-01-01

414

It's all about relationships: A qualitative study of health researchers' perspectives of conducting interdisciplinary health research  

PubMed Central

Background Interdisciplinary research has been promoted as an optimal research paradigm in the health sciences, yet little is known about how researchers experience interdisciplinarity in practice. This study sought to determine how interdisciplinary research was conceptualized and operationalized from the researcher's perspective and to better understand how best to facilitate interdisciplinary research success. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with health researchers with expertise or experience in conducting interdisciplinary research. Interviews were completed either in person or over the telephone using a semi-structured interview guide. Data collection occurred simultaneously with data analysis so that emerging themes could be explored in subsequent interviews. A content analysis approach was used. Results Nineteen researchers took part in this study. Interdisciplinary research was conceptualized disparately between participants, and there was modest attention towards operationalization of interdisciplinary research. There was one overriding theme, "It's all about relationships", that emerged from the data. Within this theme, there were four related subthemes: 1) Involvement in interdisciplinary research; 2) Why do I do interdisciplinary research?; 3) Managing and fostering interdisciplinary relationships; and 4) The prickly side to interdisciplinary research. Together, these themes suggest that the choice to conduct interdisciplinary research, though often driven by the research question, is highly influenced by interpersonal and relationship-related factors. In addition, researchers preferred to engage in interdisciplinary research with those that they had already established relationships and where their role in the research process was clearly articulated. A focus on relationship building was seen as a strong facilitator of interdisciplinary success. Conclusion Many health researchers experienced mixed reactions towards their involvement in interdisciplinary research. A well thought-out rationale for interdisciplinary research, and strategies to utilize the contribution of each researcher involved were seen as facilitators towards maximizing the benefits that could be derived from interdisciplinary research.

Nair, Kalpana M; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Raina, Parminder

2008-01-01

415

Journal peer review in context: A qualitative study of the social and subjective dimensions of manuscript review in biomedical publishing.  

PubMed

Peer- and editorial review of research submitted to biomedical journals ('manuscript review') is frequently argued to be essential for ensuring scientific quality and the dissemination of important ideas, but there is also broad agreement that manuscript review is often unsuccessful in achieving its goals. Problems with manuscript review are frequently attributed to the social and subjective dimensions of the process (e.g., bias and conflict of interest). While there have been numerous efforts to improve the process, these have had limited success. This may be because these efforts do not account sufficiently for all of the social and subjective dimensions of the process. We set out, therefore, to characterise the most salient social and subjective dimensions of the manuscript review process, from the perspective of practising reviewers and editors. Open-ended interviews were carried out with 35 journal editors, and peer reviewers in the U.K., U.S.A. and Australia. It emerged from these interviews that reviewers and editors were conscious of a number of social and subjective influences on the review process including: a wide variety of motivations for participation, complex relations of power, epistemic authority and moral responsibility, and unavoidable prejudice and intuition. Importantly, these social and subjective influences were often viewed positively and were seen as expressions of, rather than threats to, editors' and reviewers' epistemic authority and expertise. From this we conclude that the social and subjective dimensions of biomedical manuscript review should be made more explicit, accommodated and even encouraged, not only because these dimensions of human relationships and judgements are unavoidable, but because their explicit presence is likely to enrich, rather than threaten the manuscript review process. We suggest a 'dialectical' model which can simultaneously accommodate, and embrace, all dimensions of the manuscript review process. PMID:21388730

Lipworth, Wendy L; Kerridge, Ian H; Carter, Stacy M; Little, Miles

2011-04-01

416

Research review for information management  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of RICIS research in information management is to apply currently available technology to existing problems in information management. Research projects include the following: the Space Business Research Center (SBRC), the Management Information and Decision Support Environment (MIDSE), and the investigation of visual interface technology. Several additional projects issued reports. New projects include the following: (1) the AdaNET project to develop a technology transfer network for software engineering and the Ada programming language; and (2) work on designing a communication system for the Space Station Project Office at JSC. The central aim of all projects is to use information technology to help people work more productively.

Bishop, Peter C.

1988-01-01

417

A Review of Mobile HCI Research Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines and reviews research methods applied within the field of mobile human-computer interaction. The purpose is to provide a snapshot of current practice for studying mobile HCI to identify shortcomings in the way research is conducted and to propose opportunities for future ap- proaches. 102 publications on mobile human-computer interaction research were categorized in a matrix relating their

Jesper Kjeldskov; Connor Graham

2003-01-01

418

Review of Narrative Therapy: Research and Utility.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative therapy has captured the attention of many in the family counseling field. Despite the apparent appeal of narrative therapy as a therapeutic modality, research on its effectiveness is in its infancy. This article will review current research on narrative therapy and discuss why a broader research base has yet to be developed. Suggestions…

Etchison, Mary; Kleist, David M.

2000-01-01

419

Review of Research on Practicum Supervision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviewed research on practicum supervision in terms of findings and research designs employed. Classified research according to counselor-supervisor similarity, training methods, and evaluation. Conclusions indicated no support for supervisor-counselor matching, support for experiential, modeling and didatic methods, and peer supervision. (Author)

Hansen, James C.

1982-01-01

420

BERA review 2006: education research and policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review examines the relationship between educational research and policy, from the post?war period to the present, throughout the United Kingdom. Its purpose is to (a) illuminate the changing relationship between education research and policy, and (b) to clarify the different ways in which that relationship is understood. Its overarching purpose is to enable the education research community to locate

Delma Byrne; Jenny Ozga

2008-01-01

421

VET and Small Business. Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research since 1990 on vocational education and training (VET) and small business was reviewed. Special attention was paid to the research that has been conducted in the following categories identified in the Australian National Training Authority (ANTA) Small Business Policy Framework: context; role of government; approach to training; research

Gibb, Jennifer

422

Pension accounting and research: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a review of empirical research on pension accounting. Empirical research on pension accounting has focused mainly on two issues, the value?relevance of pension accounting information and earnings management in pension accounting. Further work has been done on the information efficiency of capital markets with regard to pension accounting information. I outline how research in these areas has

Martin Glaum

2009-01-01

423

[The positioning of nursing research in the academic studies: the origin and development of qualitative and quantitative studies].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to discuss the historical context of qualitative and quantitative research so as to explain the principle of qualitative study and examine the positioning of nursing research within academic study as a whole. This paper guides the readers towards the historical context from empirical science, discusses the influences of qualitative and quantitative research on nursing research, then investigates the nature of research paradigms, examines the positioning of nursing research, which includes the characteristics of fields such as natural science, humanity and social studies, and science, and lastly, presents the research standard proposed by Yardley in 2000. The research paradigms include Positivism, Postpositivism, Criticism, and Constructivism, which can be compared with Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The nature of the paradigm is to determine the assumption of the paradigm on the basis of Ontology, Epistemology, and Methodology. The paradigm determines how the researcher views the world and decides on what to answer, how to research, and how to answer. The difference in academic environment is reflected in the long-term dialogue between qualitative and quantitative studies, as well as the standard for criticism. This paper introduces the method of evaluation of the quality of qualitative study proposed by Yardley in 2002, namely the sensitivity of the context, the promise and conscientiousness, transparency and consistency, influence and significance. The paper is intended to provide a guideline for readers in evaluating the quality of qualitative study. PMID:16432800

Lu, Pei-Pei; Ting, Shing-Shiang; Chen, Mei-Ling; Tang, Woung-Ru

2005-12-01

424

A Review of Astronomy Education Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of astronomy education is rapidly growing beyond merely sharing effective activities or curriculum ideas. This paper categorizes and summarizes the literature in astronomy education research and contains more than 100 references to articles, books, and Web-based materials. Research into student understanding on a variety of topics now occupies a large part of the literature. Topics include the shape of Earth and gravity, lunar phases, seasons, astrobiology, and cosmology. The effectiveness of instructional methods is now being tested systematically, taking data beyond the anecdotal with powerful research designs and statistical analyses. Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed-methods approaches have found their places in the researcher's toolbox. In all cases, the connection between the research performed and its effect on classroom instruction is largely lacking.

Bailey, Janelle M.; Slater, Timothy F.

425

United States Private-Sector Physicians and Pharmaceutical Contract Research: A Qualitative Study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. Methods and Findings We conducted a qualitative study in 2003–2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. Conclusions Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

Fisher, Jill A.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.

2012-01-01

426

Handling Interpretation and Representation in Multilingual Research: A Meta-Study of Pragmatic Issues Resulting from the Use of Multiple Languages in a Qualitative Information Systems Research Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the number of multilingual qualitative research studies appears to be growing, investigations concerned with methodological issues arising from the use of several languages within a single research are still very scarce. Most of these seem to deal exclusively with issues related to the use of interpreters and translators in qualitative

Baumgartner, Ilse

2012-01-01

427

I Yam What I Am: Examining Qualitative Research through the Ethnographic Self, the Literary "Other" and the Academy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conduct and use of qualitative research and the role of fiction as a way of examining the experiences of an African American woman are explored. The paper uses an alternative qualitative model to examine issues of power, equity, and race in the particular context of the African American woman. It discusses the writings of Zora Neale Hurston as…

Jeffries, Rhonda Baynes

428

The impact of funding deadlines on personal workloads, stress and family relationships: a qualitative study of Australian researchers  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the impact of applying for funding on personal workloads, stress and family relationships. Design Qualitative study of researchers preparing grant proposals. Setting Web-based survey on applying for the annual National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Project Grant scheme. Participants Australian researchers (n=215). Results Almost all agreed that preparing their proposals always took top priority over other work (97%) and personal (87%) commitments. Almost all researchers agreed that they became stressed by the workload (93%) and restricted their holidays during the grant writing season (88%). Most researchers agreed that they submitted proposals because chance is involved in being successful (75%), due to performance requirements at their institution (60%) and pressure from their colleagues to submit proposals (53%). Almost all researchers supported changes to the current processes to submit proposals (95%) and peer review (90%). Most researchers (59%) provided extensive comments on the impact of writing proposals on their work life and home life. Six major work life themes were: (1) top priority; (2) career development; (3) stress at work; (4) benefits at work; (5) time spent at work and (6) pressure from colleagues. Six major home life themes were: (1) restricting family holidays; (2) time spent on work at home; (3) impact on children; (4) stress at home; (5) impact on family and friends and (6) impact on partner. Additional impacts on the mental health and well-being of researchers were identified. Conclusions The process of preparing grant proposals for a single annual deadline is stressful, time consuming and conflicts with family responsibilities. The timing of the funding cycle could be shifted to minimise applicant burden, give Australian researchers more time to work on actual research and to be with their families.

Herbert, Danielle L; Coveney, John; Clarke, Philip; Graves, Nicholas; Barnett, Adrian G

2014-01-01

429

Review of Recent Neutrino Physics Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent research in neutrino physics, including neutrino oscillations to test time reversal and CP symmetry violations, the measurement of parameters in the U matrix, sterile neutrino emission causing pulsar kicks, and neutrino energies in the neutrinosphere.

Kisslinger, Leonard S.

2013-09-01

430

Research on USMC Marksmanship Training Assessment Tools, Instructional Simulations, and Qualitative Field-Based Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Naval Research (ONR) has funded the UCLA National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST) and its subcontractor, the University of Southern California Behavioral Technology Laboratories (BTL), to conduct re...

W. L. Bewley G. K. Chung G. C. Delacruz A. Munro J. Walker

2003-01-01

431

Institutional Review Boards and Professional Counseling Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Institutional review boards (IRBs) are responsible for regulating and safeguarding research with human participants in academic institutions in the United States. The authors explore (a) the historical impetus for IRBs, (b) the ethical values and principles as core components of the review process, and (c) the American Counseling Association's…

Robinson, Edward H., III; Curry, Jennifer R.

2008-01-01

432

Individual influences on lifestyle change to reduce vascular risk: a qualitative literature review  

PubMed Central

Background Management of cardiovascular risk includes adoption of healthy lifestyles. Uptake and completion rates for lifestyle programmes are low and many barriers and facilitators to lifestyle behaviour change have been reported in the literature. Clarity on which barriers and facilitators to target during consultations in primary care may support a more systematic approach to lifestyle behaviour change in those at high risk of cardiovascular events. Aim To identify the main barriers and facilitators to lifestyle behaviour change in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. Design A content synthesis of the qualitative literature reporting patient-level influences on lifestyle change. Method Qualitative studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screening against predefined selection criteria. Factors (reported influences) were extracted and, using a clustering technique, organised into categories that were then linked to key themes through relationship mapping. Results A total of 348 factors were extracted from 33 studies. Factors were organised into 20 categories and from these categories five key themes were identified: emotions, beliefs, information and communication, friends and family support, and cost/transport. Conclusion It is possible to organise the large number of self-reported individual influences on lifestyle behaviours into a small number of themes. Further research is needed to clarify which of these patient-level barriers and facilitators are the best predictors of uptake and participation in programmes aimed at helping people to change lifestyle.

Murray, Jenni; Honey, Stephanie; Hill, Kate; Craigs, Cheryl; House, Allan

2012-01-01

433

An Examination of Qualitative Empirical Studies at the AHRD from 1999-2003: Research Purpose, Research Questions, and Inquiry Literature Cited  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the nature of qualitative empirical studies published in the AHRD proceedings from 1999-2003 and discusses findings on research purpose, research question(s), and inquiry literature cited. (Contains 4 tables.)

Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.; McCarley, Howard; Ianinska, Silvana; Bernier, Judith D.

2006-01-01

434

Increasing the Salience of NRM Research With Innovative Methodologies: The Example of Oriented Qualitative Case Study (OQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent approaches in natural resource management emphasize decision makers’ need for research that (1) encompasses a landscape or regional scale, (2) uses multiple scales of analysis, and (3) has a relatively timely research process. This article presents a novel qualitative research methodology that seeks to increase research salience (relevance) for decision makers in natural resource management agencies by taking steps

Blythe J. McLennan; Theresa Garvin

2012-01-01

435

Increasing the Salience of NRM Research With Innovative Methodologies: The Example of Oriented Qualitative Case Study (OQCS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent approaches in natural resource management emphasize decision makers' need for research that (1) encompasses a landscape or regional scale, (2) uses multiple scales of analysis, and (3) has a relatively timely research process. This article presents a novel qualitative research methodology that seeks to increase research salience (relevance) for decision makers in natural resource management agencies by taking steps

Blythe J. McLennan; Theresa Garvin

2011-01-01

436

[Ethical review in biomedical research].  

PubMed

Through the difficulties encountered during the previous centuries in order for an animal to be recognized as a sensitive being, we saw the evolution of society's attitudes change from antiquity to our present day. Over the past twenty years animal testing has first evolved within a progressive regulatory framework reinforced by an ethical thinking which has, since 1990, led to the establishment of the ethics committees. The dialogue between these committees and researchers has led to the recovery of principles previously ignored such as the 3Rs (Replace, Reduce, Refine). This in turn has led to the application of improving experimental conditions, the progressive decrease in the number of animals used through a wise use and the replacement of animals by in vitro techniques in the very preliminary stages of research. Progress remains to be done, but the evolution of European regulations being amended, the formalization in France of ethics committees and the establishment of the National Ethics Committee should further contribute to the improvement of animal welfare in experimental research. PMID:18405647

Autissier, Chantal

2008-04-01

437

Australian mental health consumers' priorities for research: Qualitative findings from the SCOPE for Research project.  

PubMed

Background? There is growing acceptance of the importance of the consumer viewpoint in mental health research. Previous studies have identified differences in research priorities between researchers and mental health consumers in Australia defined broadly. However, little is known about the research priorities of consumers with specific mental health conditions. Objective? The aim of this study was to explore Australian mental health consumers' priorities for depression and bipolar disorder research. Design? Focus groups with consumers and individual telephone interviews with consumer advocates. Participants were asked to discuss the topics they believed were priorities for depression or bipolar disorder research. Transcripts were thematically analysed using NVivo 7. Setting and Participants? Ten people with depression and 19 with bipolar disorder participated in face-to-face focus groups held in three Australian capital cities. Five participants with each disorder participated in online focus groups. Five Australian consumer advocates with experience of depression and six with experience of bipolar disorder were individually interviewed by telephone. Results? Participants raised a broad variety of topics for research. The most salient themes included the need for research on medication, and lifestyle and psychosocial influences on depression and bipolar disorder. Conclusions? Participants' priorities reflect an interest in a holistic approach to mental health research that examines the influences of everyday life and psychosocial influences both on the development and on the management of these disorders. Their focus was on research that explores individualized care and the active role that consumers can play in their own care and recovery. PMID:22221624

Banfield, Michelle A; Barney, Lisa J; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen M

2014-06-01

438

DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AND THEIR SOCIAL CONTEXTS: A QUALITATIVE SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW OF CONTEXTUAL INTERVENTIONS  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous observational studies demonstrate associations between social context and depressive symptoms, yet few intervention trials exist in this arena. Aims This review examines intervention trials that explore the impact of contextual change on depressive symptoms. Methods Electronic literature databases of PubMed and PsycINFO, bibliographies of retrieved articles and the publicly available internet were searched for English-language articles published between 1997 and 2008. Peer-reviewed studies were eligible for inclusion if they reported contextual interventions and depressive symptoms measures in adult populations without other significant underlying medical or psychological illness. In total, 2,128 studies met search term criteria. Of these, 13 studies meeting inclusion criteria were classified by type of intervention. Qualitative synthesis was used to interpret the mental health impact of contextual interventions. Results The interventions focused on employment, housing, poverty, parenting and violence. Eight of these studies reported a decrease in depressive symptoms and/or psychological distress in intervention groups. Interventions varied in focus, length of follow-up and measures of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Contextual interventions for the prevention and treatment of depressive symptoms and psychological distress can be effective, though very limited data exist in this field. Policy implications include a greater emphasis on improving context to decrease depression and other mental disorders.

GOTTLIEB, LAURA; WAITZKIN, HOWARD; MIRANDA, JEANNE

2010-01-01

439

The ALICE Data Quality Monitoring: qualitative and quantitative review of three years of operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is a detector designed to study the physics of strongly interacting matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the complexity of ALICE in terms of number of detectors and performance requirements, Data Quality Monitoring (DQM) plays an essential role in providing online feedback on the data being recorded. It intends to provide shifters with precise and complete information to quickly identify problems, and as a consequence to ensure acquisition of high quality data. This paper presents a review of the ALICE DQM system during the first three years of LHC operations from a quantitative and qualitative point of view. We start by presenting the DQM software and tools before moving on to the various analyses carried out. An overview of the produced monitoring quantities is given, presenting the diversity of usage and flexibility of the DQM. Well-prepared shifters and experts, in addition to a precise organisation, were required to ensure smooth and successful operations. The description of the measures taken to ensure both aspects and an account of the DQM shifters' job are followed by a summary of the evolution of the system. We then give a quantitative review of the final setup of the system used during the whole year 2012. We conclude the paper with use cases where the DQM proved to be very valuable, scalable and efficient and with the plans for the coming years.

von Haller, Barthélémy; Bellini, Francesca; Telesca, Adriana; Foka, Yiota; Alice Dqm Collaboration

2014-06-01

440

Pharmacological perioperative brain neuroprotection: a qualitative review of randomized clinical trials.  

PubMed

Perioperative cerebral damage may be associated with surgery and anaesthesia. Pharmacological perioperative neuroprotection is associated with conflicting results. In this qualitative review of randomized controlled clinical trials on perioperative pharmacological brain neuroprotection, we report the effects of tested therapies on new postoperative neurological deficit, postoperative cognitive decline (POCD), and mortality rate. Studies were identified from Cochrane Central Register and MEDLINE and by hand-searching. Of 5904 retrieved studies, 25 randomized trials met our inclusion criteria. Tested therapies were: lidocaine, thiopental, S(+)-ketamine, propofol, nimodipine, GM1 ganglioside, lexipafant, glutamate/aspartate and xenon remacemide, atorvastatin, magnesium sulphate, erythropoietin, piracetam, rivastigmine, pegorgotein, and 17?-estradiol. The use of atorvastatin and magnesium sulphate was associated with a lower incidence of new postoperative neurological deficit. The use of lidocaine, ketamine, and magnesium sulphate was associated with controversial results on POCD. The POCD did not differ between treated patients and control group for other tested drugs (thiopental, propofol, nimodipine, GM1 ganglioside, lexipafant, glutamate/aspartate, xenon, erythropoietin, remacemide, piracetam, rivastigmine, pegorgotein, and 17?-estradiol). None of the tested drugs was associated with a reduction in mortality rate. Drugs with various mechanisms of action have been tested over time; current evidence suggests that pharmacological brain neuroprotection might reduce the incidence of new postoperative neurological deficits and POCD, while no benefits on perioperative mortality are described. Of importance from this review is the need for shared methodological approach when clinical studies on pharmacological neuroprotection are designed. PMID:23562933

Bilotta, F; Gelb, A W; Stazi, E; Titi, L; Paoloni, F P; Rosa, G

2013-06-01

441

A Qualitative Investigation of Practicing Psychologists' Attitudes Toward Research-Informed Practice: Implications for Dissemination Strategies  

PubMed Central

This article presents the results of a qualitative analysis of interviews with 25 psychologists in independent practice, investigating everyday treatment decisions and attitudes about treatment outcome research and empirically supported treatments (ESTs). Clinicians noted positive aspects about treatment outcome research, such as being interested in what works. However, they had misgivings about the application of controlled research findings to their practices, were skeptical about using manualized protocols, and expressed concern that nonpsychologists would use EST lists to dictate practice. Clinicians reported practicing in an eclectic framework, and many reported including cognitive-behavioral elements in their practice. To improve their practice, they reported valuing clinical experience, peer networks, practitioner-oriented books, and continuing education when it was not too basic. Time and financial barriers concerned nearly all participants. Clinicians suggested they might be interested in ESTs if they could integrate them into their current frameworks, and if resources for learning ESTs were improved.

Stewart, Rebecca E.; Stirman, Shannon Wiltsey; Chambless, Dianne L.

2012-01-01

442

Qualitative research and content validity: developing best practices based on science and experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Establishing content validity for both new and existing patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures is central to a scientifically\\u000a sound instrument development process. Methodological and logistical issues present a challenge in regard to determining the\\u000a best practices for establishing content validity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This paper provides an overview of the current state of knowledge regarding qualitative research to establish content validity\\u000a based on the

Meryl Brod; Laura E. Tesler; Torsten L. Christensen

2009-01-01

443

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs.  

PubMed

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models.In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale-with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures. PMID:22308079

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2011-12-21

444

Embarking on large-scale qualitative research: reaping the benefits of mixed methods in studying youth, clubs and drugs  

PubMed Central

Qualitative research is often conceptualized as inherently small-scale research, primarily conducted by a lone researcher enmeshed in extensive and long-term fieldwork or involving in-depth interviews with a small sample of 20 to 30 participants. In the study of illicit drugs, traditionally this has often been in the form of ethnographies of drug-using subcultures. Such small-scale projects have produced important interpretive scholarship that focuses on the culture and meaning of drug use in situated, embodied contexts. Larger-scale projects are often assumed to be solely the domain of quantitative researchers, using formalistic survey methods and descriptive or explanatory models. In this paper, however, we will discuss qualitative research done on a comparatively larger scale—with in-depth qualitative interviews with hundreds of young drug users. Although this work incorporates some quantitative elements into the design, data collection, and analysis, the qualitative dimension and approach has nevertheless remained central. Larger-scale qualitative research shares some of the challenges and promises of smaller-scale qualitative work including understanding drug consumption from an emic perspective, locating hard-to-reach populations, developing rapport with respondents, generating thick descriptions and a rich analysis, and examining the wider socio-cultural context as a central feature. However, there are additional challenges specific to the scale of qualitative research, which include data management, data overload and problems of handling large-scale data sets, time constraints in coding and analyzing data, and personnel issues including training, organizing and mentoring large research teams. Yet large samples can prove to be essential for enabling researchers to conduct comparative research, whether that be cross-national research within a wider European perspective undertaken by different teams or cross-cultural research looking at internal divisions and differences within diverse communities and cultures.

Hunt, Geoffrey; Moloney, Molly; Fazio, Adam

2012-01-01

445

Review of Research: Neuroscience and Reading--A Review for Reading Education Researchers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this review, we lay the groundwork for an interdisciplinary conversation between literacy education research and relevant neuroscience research. We review recent neuroscience research on correlates of proposed cognitive subprocesses in text decoding and reading comprehension and analyze some of the methodological and conceptual challenges of…

Hruby, George G.; Goswami, Usha

2011-01-01

446

Using Qualitative Research to Inform the Development of a Comprehensive Outcomes Assessment for Asthma.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Qualitative research can inform the development of asthma patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures and user-friendly technologies through defining measurement constructs, identifying potential limitations in measurement and sources of response error, and evaluating usability. OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to inform the development of a comprehensive asthma PRO assessment with input from patients and clinical experts. METHOD: Self-reported adult asthma sufferers recruited from a 3,000 member New England-area research panel participated in either one of three focus groups (N=21) or individual cognitive item debriefing interviews (N=20) to discuss how asthma impacts their health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and provide feedback on a preliminary set of asthma impact survey items and prototype patient report. Focus groups and cognitive interviews were conducted using traditional research principles (e.g., semi-structured interview guide, probing, and think aloud techniques). An Expert Advisory Panel (N=12) including asthma clinical specialists and measurement professionals was convened to review results from the focus group and cognitive interview studies and make recommendations for final survey and report development. RESULTS: Domains of health impacted by asthma included physical (recreation, play, competitive sports, and exercise), social (activities, family relationships), emotional (anger, upset, frustration, anxiety, worry), sleep, role (recreational/leisure activities; work), and sexual functioning. Most items in the impact survey were easily understood, covered important content, and included relevant response options. Items with contradictory examples and multiple concepts were difficult to comprehend. Suggestions were made to expand survey content by including additional items on physical and sexual functioning, sleep, self-consciousness, stigma, and finances. Reports were considered useful and participants saw value in sharing the results with their doctor. Graphic presentation of scores was not always understood; participants preferred tabular presentation of score levels with associated interpretative text. Display of inverse scores for different measures (higher scores equaling better health on one scale and worse health on another) shown on a single page was confusing. The score history section of the report was seen as helpful for monitoring progress over time, particularly for those recently diagnosed with asthma. Expert panelists agreed that displaying inverse scores in a single summary report may be confusing to patients and providers. They also stressed the importance of comprehensive interpretation guidelines for patients, with an emphasis on what they should do next based on scores. Panelists made recommendations for provider and aggregate-level reports (e.g., "red flags" to indicate significant score changes or cut-points of significance; identification of subgroups that have scored poorly or recently gotten worse). CONCLUSION: Incorporating input from patients, clinicians, and measurement experts in the early stages of product development should improve the construct validity of this PRO measure and enhance its practical application in healthcare. PMID:20508735

Turner-Bowker, Diane M; Saris-Baglama, Renee N; Derosa, Michael A; Paulsen, Christine A; Bransfield, Christopher P

2009-12-01

447

The challenges of including sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews: a qualitative survey  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic review methodology includes the rigorous collection, selection, and evaluation of data in order to synthesize the best available evidence for health practice, health technology assessments, and health policy. Despite evidence that sex and gender matter to health outcomes, data and analysis related to sex and gender are frequently absent in systematic reviews, raising concerns about the quality and applicability of reviews. Few studies have focused on challenges to implementing sex/gender analysis within systematic reviews. Methods A multidisciplinary group of systematic reviewers, methodologists, biomedical and social science researchers, health practitioners, and other health sector professionals completed an open-ended survey prior to a two-day workshop focused on sex/gender, equity, and bias in systematic reviews. Respondents were asked to identify challenging or ‘thorny’ issues associated with integrating sex and gender in systematic reviews and indicate how they address these in their work. Data were analysed using interpretive description. A summary of the findings was presented and discussed with workshop participants. Results Respondents identified conceptual challenges, such as defining sex and gender, methodological challenges in measuring and analysing sex and gender, challenges related to availability of data and data quality, and practical and policy challenges. No respondents discussed how they addressed these challenges, but all proposed ways to address sex/gender analysis in the future. Conclusions Respondents identified a wide range of interrelated challenges to implementing sex/gender considerations within systematic reviews. To our knowledge, this paper is the first to identify these challenges from the perspectives of those conducting and using systematic reviews. A framework and methods to integrate sex/gender analysis in systematic reviews are in the early stages of development. A number of priority items and collaborative initiatives to guide systematic reviewers in sex/gender analysis are provided, based on the survey results and subsequent workshop discussions. An emerging ‘community of practice’ is committed to enhancing the quality and applicability of systematic reviews by integrating considerations of sex/gender into the review process, with the goals of improving health outcomes and ensuring health equity for all persons.

2014-01-01

448

The concept and definition of therapeutic inertia in hypertension in primary care: a qualitative systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Therapeutic inertia has been defined as the failure of health-care provider to initiate or intensify therapy when therapeutic goals are not reached. It is regarded as a major cause of uncontrolled hypertension. The exploration of its causes and the interventions to reduce it are plagued by unclear conceptualizations and hypothesized mechanisms. We therefore systematically searched the literature for definitions and discussions on the concept of therapeutic inertia in hypertension in primary care, to try and form an operational definition. Methods A systematic review of all types of publications related to clinical inertia in hypertension was performed. Medline, EMbase, PsycInfo, the Cochrane library and databases, BDSP, CRD and NGC were searched from the start of their databases to June 2013. Articles were selected independently by two authors on the basis of their conceptual content, without other eligibility criteria or formal quality appraisal. Qualitative data were extracted independently by two teams of authors. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative qualitative method. Results The final selection included 89 articles. 112 codes were grouped in 4 categories: terms and definitions (semantics), “who” (physician, patient or system), “how and why” (mechanisms and reasons), and “appropriateness”. Regarding each of these categories, a number of contradictory assertions were found, most of them relying on little or no empirical data. Overall, the limits of what should be considered as inertia were not clear. A number of authors insisted that what was considered deleterious inertia might in fact be appropriate care, depending on the situation. Conclusions Our data analysis revealed a major lack of conceptualization of therapeutic inertia in hypertension and important discrepancies regarding its possible causes, mechanisms and outcomes. The concept should be split in two parts: appropriate inaction and inappropriate inertia. The development of consensual and operational definitions relying on empirical data and the exploration of the intimate mechanisms that underlie these behaviors are now needed.

2014-01-01

449

Health sector accreditation research: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze research into accreditation and accreditation processes. Data sources. A multi-method, systematic review of the accreditation literature was conducted from March to May 2007. The search identified articles researching accreditation. Discussion or commentary pieces were excluded. Study selection. From the initial identification of over 3000 abstracts, 66 studies that met

DAVID GREENFIELD; JEFFREY BRAITHWAITE

2008-01-01

450

Live Supervision: A Review of the Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews research on live supervision published within the past 12 years. The focus of the research on live supervision can be conceptualized as addressing its prevalence and use, the impact of live supervision interventions, and perceptions of live supervision by supervisors, trainees, and clients. Implications for supervisors,…

Champe, Julia; Kleist, David M.

2003-01-01

451

Waiting Online: A Review and Research Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 21 papers based on 13 separate empirical studies on waiting on the Internet, drawn from the areas of marketing, system response time, and quality of service studies. The article proposes an agenda for future research, including extending the range of research methodologies, broadening the definition of waiting on the Internet, and…

Ryan, Gerard; Valverde, Mireia

2003-01-01

452

BERA Review 2006: Education Research and Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The review examines the relationship between educational research and policy, from the post-war period to the present, throughout the United Kingdom. Its purpose is to (a) illuminate the changing relationship between education research and policy, and (b) to clarify the different ways in which that relationship is understood. Its overarching…

Byrne, Delma; Ozga, Jenny

2008-01-01

453

Biomechanical research in artistic gymnastics: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomechanical research into artistic gymnastics has grown substantially over the years. However, most research is still skill oriented with few tries at generalization. Consequently, our understanding of the principles and bases of the sport, although improved, is still marginal with gaps in knowledge about technique attributes throughout the sport. For that reason, this review begins with an attempt to identify

Spiros Prassas; William A. Sands

2006-01-01

454

Research in Review. Malnutrition and Children's Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Indicates how various degrees of malnutrition affect children's development. Reviews research conducted in several developing countries and the United States, and describes the nutritional status of children in the United States. Implications for nutrition programs, research and policy formation are pointed out. (Author/RH)

Stevens, Joseph H., Jr.; Baxter, Delia H.

1981-01-01

455

Interdisciplinary Doctoral Research Supervision: A Scoping Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This scoping literature review examines the topic of interdisciplinary doctoral research supervision. Interdisciplinary doctoral research programs are expanding in response to encouragement from funding agencies and enthusiasm from faculty and students. In an acknowledgement that the search for creative and innovative solutions to complex problems…

Vanstone, Meredith; Hibbert, Kathy; Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne; McKenzie, Pam; Pitman, Allan; Lingard, Lorelei

2013-01-01

456

Summary of: Continuing professional development and application of knowledge from research findings: a qualitative study of general dental practitioners.  

PubMed

Objectives To explore general dental practitioners' opinions about continuing professional development (CPD) and potential barriers to translating research findings into clinical dental practice.Design Qualitative focus group and interviews.Subjects, setting and methods Four semi-structured interviews and a single focus group were conducted with 11 general dental practitioners in North East England.Outcome measure Transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes.Results The key theme for practitioners was a need to interact with colleagues in order to make informed decisions on a range of clinical issues. For some forms of continuing professional development the value for money and subsequent impact upon clinical practice was limited. There were significant practice pressures that constrained the ability of practitioners to participate in certain educational activities. The relevance of some research findings and the formats used for their dissemination were often identified as barriers to their implementation in general dental practice.Conclusions There are a number of potential barriers that exist in general dental practice to the uptake and implementation of translational research. CPD plays a pivotal role in this process and if new methods of CPD are to be developed consideration should be given to include elements of structured content and peer review that engages practitioners in a way that promotes implementation of contemporary research findings. PMID:24923943

White, Deborah

2014-06-13

457

Continuing professional development and application of knowledge from research findings: a qualitative study of general dental practitioners.  

PubMed

Objectives To explore general dental practitioners' opinions about continuing professional development (CPD) and potential barriers to translating research findings into clinical dental practice.Design Qualitative focus group and interviews.Subjects, setting and methods Four semi-structured interviews and a single focus group were conducted with 11 general dental practitioners in North East England.Outcome measure Transcripts were analysed using the constant comparative method to identify emergent themes.Results The key theme for practitioners was a need to interact with colleagues in order to make informed decisions on a range of clinical issues. For some forms of continuing professional development the value for money and subsequent impact upon clinical practice was limited. There were significant practice pressures that constrained the ability of practitioners to participate in certain educational activities. The relevance of some research findings and the formats used for their dissemination were often identified as barriers to their implementation in general dental practice.Conclusions There are a number of potential barriers that exist in general dental practice to the uptake and implementation of translational research. CPD plays a pivotal role in this process and if new methods of CPD are to be developed consideration should be given to include elements of structured content and peer review that engages practitioners in a way that promotes implementation of contemporary research findings. PMID:24923961

Stone, S J; Holmes, R D; Heasman, P A; McCracken, G I

2014-06-13

458

Using qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) in systematic reviews of complex interventions: a worked example  

PubMed Central

Background Systematic reviews that address policy and practice questions in relation to complex interventions frequently need not only to assess the efficacy of a given intervention but to identify which intervention - and which intervention components - might be most effective in particular situations. Here, intervention replication is rare, and commonly used synthesis methods are less useful when the focus of analysis is the identification of those components of an intervention that are critical to its success. Methods Having identified initial theories of change in a previous analysis, we explore the potential of qualitative comparative analysis (QCA) to assist with complex syntheses through a worked example. Developed originally in the area of political science and historical sociology, a QCA aims to identify those configurations of participant, intervention and contextual characteristics that may be associated with a given outcome. Analysing studies in these terms facilitates the identification of necessary and sufficient conditions for the outcome to be obtained. Since QCA is predicated on the assumption that multiple pathways might lead to the same outcome and does not assume a linear additive model in terms of changes to a particular condition (that is, it can cope with ‘tipping points’ in complex interventions), it appears not to suffer from some of the limitations of the statistical methods often used in meta-analysis. Results The worked example shows how the QCA reveals that our initial theories of change were unable to distinguish between ‘effective’ and ‘highly effective’ interventions. Through the iterative QCA process, other intervention characteristics are identified that better explain the observed results. Conclusions QCA is a promising alternative (or adjunct), particularly to the standard fall-back of a ‘narrative synthesis’ when a quantitative synthesis is impossible, and should be considered when reviews are broad and heterogeneity is significant. There are very few examples of its use with systematic review data at present, and further methodological work is needed to establish optimal conditions for its use and to document process, practice, and reporting standards.

2014-01-01

459

There is more to the story: The place of qualitative research on female adolescent sexuality in policy making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual testimonials have an unprecedented currency in policy making about adolescent sexuality. While highly problematic\\u000a as grounds for making policy, the current deployment of testimonials as evidence may in fact provide an unexpected opportunity\\u000a for qualitative researchers to capitalize on the power of stories to influence policy makers’ decisions. Qualitative research\\u000a combines the power of stories with methodological rigor, providing

Deborah L. Tolman; Celeste Hirschman; Emily A. Impett

2005-01-01

460

Is it science? A study of the attitudes of medical trainees and physicians toward qualitative and quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the\\u000a causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels\\u000a of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation. After completing a questionnaire,\\u000a participants were interviewed using a semi-structured procedure. Transcriptions

Jeannette Goguen; Melanie Knight; Richard Tiberius

2008-01-01

461

Qualitative Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qualitative research is broadly defined as a set of interpretative, material practices that make the world visible by turning\\u000a it into a series of representations (e.g., field notes, observations, interview recordings) through the study of things in\\u000a their natural settings (1). In sexually transmitted infection (STI)\\/HIV research, qualitative research is the study of the\\u000a words and the significance of certain

Pamina M. Gorbach; Jerome Galea

462

Patient and professional attitudes towards research in general practice: the RepR qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1990s, professional institutions worldwide have emphasised the need to develop research in general practice to improve the health of the population. The recent creation of professorships in general practice in French Universities should foster research in this field. Our aim was to explore the views of patients and relevant professionals on research in general practice. Methods Qualitative study, using the grounded theory approach according to Strauss and Corbin, conducted in 2010 in three French regions. Nine focus groups were run to data saturation, and included 57 participants in four different categories: patients, non-academic GPs, academic GPs, academics in other disciplines. Results Most of the participants in the four categories described research in general practice as specific to the population managed and relevant for health care. They considered that its grounding in day-to-day practice enabled pragmatic approaches. The influence of the pharmaceutical industry, rivalries between university disciplines and a possible gap between research and practice were considered as pitfalls. The barriers identified were representations of the medical researcher as a “laboratory worker”, the lack of awareness of any research in the discipline, and lack of time and training. While the views of patients and non-academic GPs are mostly focused on professional issues and the views of academics other than GPs on technical issues, academic GPs are in a position to play a role of interface between the universities and general practices. Conclusions Although the role of GPs in research is perceived differently by the various protagonists, research in general practice has an undisputed legitimacy in France. Solutions for overcoming the identified barriers include research networks with appropriate resources and training and scientifically sound collaborative research projects, as already implemented in leading countries.

2014-01-01

463

IACUC Review of Nonhuman Primate Research  

PubMed Central

This article will detail some of the issues that must be considered as institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) review the use of nonhuman primates (NHPs) in research. As large, intelligent, social, long-lived, and non-domesticated animals, monkeys are amongst the most challenging species used in biomedical research and the duties of the IACUC in relation to reviewing research use of these species can also be challenging. Issues of specific concern for review of NHP research protocols that are discussed in this article include scientific justification, reuse, social housing requirements, amelioration of distress, surgical procedures, and humane endpoints. Clear institutional policies and procedures as regards NHP in these areas are critical, and the discussion of these issues presented here can serve as a basis for the informed establishment of such policies and procedures.

Tardif, Suzette D.; Coleman, Kristine; Hobbs, Theodore R.; Lutz, Corrine

2013-01-01

464

Using qualitative inquiry and participatory research approaches to develop prevention research: validating a life course perspective.  

PubMed

Application of life course theory (LCT) holds promise for advancing knowledge toward the elimination of health disparities. This article validates the usefulness of employing a life course perspective when conducting health disparities research. We provide an overview of LCT as it applies to our research program in prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among Latino teen parents. We illustrate the goodness-of-fit of our research with the basic premises of LCT. Though early adverse life experiences impact health over the lifespan, strength-based HIV prevention programs designed for Latino teen parents that recognize the reality of their lives may alter their health trajectory. PMID:23168344

Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah

2013-01-01

465

Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations  

PubMed Central

Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, while conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors’ research on HIV risk among injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a needle/syringe exchange program in Los Angeles, California, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts.

Wagner, Karla D.; Davidson, Peter J.; Pollini, Robin A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

2011-01-01

466

Advances in agricultural research. [Review  

SciTech Connect

Several factors could have disastrous consequences for the world's food supply, namely: shrinking agricultural acreage; increasing population; decreasing productivity gains in most crops; heavy dependence on petroleum-based pesticides and fertilizers; and genetic vulnerability. Many feel that solutions to these potentially grave problems lie in expanding agricultural research, with particular focus on age-old plant-breeding techniques. The newest plant-breeding technology, genetic engineering (also called recombinant DNA technology), could some day allow biologists to design actually new genetic material rather than just manipulate genetic material already present in crops. Most scientists foresee imminent breakthroughs with recombinant DNA technology and plant breeding, but warn the practial applications may be decades away - perhaps 20 to 50 years. Many of the larger chemical companies are working in the following areas of agriculture R and D: nitrogen fixation; plant growth regulants; photosynthesis; recombinant DNA; plant genetics; and soybean hybrids. New progress in hydroponic technology is reported briefly. Germ plasm collection and storage is being pursued in the US, Soviet Union, and Mexico; US activities are summarized. In addition to the chemical-company efforts in R and D, there have been many acquisitions of seed companies by some of the nation's largest corporations in the last decade; a significant difference of opinion exists as to what this growing corporate involvement portends for agriculture. 49 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

Leepson, M.

1981-05-22

467

Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

Franck, Bruno M.

1990-01-01

468

34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false IRB review of research. 97.109 Section 97.109 Education...Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and...

2011-07-01

469

34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false IRB review of research. 97.109 Section 97.109 Education...Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and...

2010-07-01

470

45 CFR 46.109 - IRB review of research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false IRB review of research. 46.109 Section 46.109 Public... Basic HHS Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects § 46.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and...

2013-10-01

471

34 CFR 97.109 - IRB review of research.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false IRB review of research. 97.109 Section 97.109 Education...Basic ED Policy for Protection of Human Research Subjects) § 97.109 IRB review of research. (a) An IRB shall review and...

2012-07-01

472

7 CFR 3406.19 - Proposal review-research.  

...2014-01-01 false Proposal review-research. 3406.19 Section 3406.19 Agriculture...GRANTS PROGRAM Review and Evaluation of a Research Proposal § 3406.19 Proposal review—research. The proposal evaluation process...

2014-01-01

473

Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. METHODS: A qualitative case-study approach

Karen Daniels; Simon Lewin

2008-01-01

474

An Ethno-medical Perspective on Research Participation: A Qualitative Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background Recruitment of racial/ethnic minorities for clinical research continues to be problematic, yet critical to ensuring that research data will be applicable to diverse populations. There is a paucity of information about culturally appropriate methods for recruiting and retaining racial/ethnic minorities in research. Objective To cross-culturally assess perceptions of research participation by African American and immigrant Latinos living in the inner-city community of Watts, Los Angeles, California, using qualitative methods. Design Focus groups using ethnically matched moderators were convened with African American and immigrant Latino participants. Discussion was facilitated using a script that focused on perceived “feelings” and “perceptions” about research. Discussions were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using manual and computerized statistically based software (mixed) methods. Results African Americans and immigrant Latinos shared several barriers and motivators to research. However, they also reported barriers and motivators to research that were distinct to each group. Latinos were more interested in healthcare and health information, and African Americans were more concerned with issues of trust and quality of care. Most participants said they would participate in research if they were better informed, or if they or a family member had an illness. Improving communication was reported as being important for motivating participation in clinical research. Overall, socioecologically and socioeconomically based domains were shared, whereas historically and/or socioculturally based domains were distinct. Conclusions Using an ethno-medical science model, we demonstrated that it is possible to identify shared barriers and motivators to research participation between 2 distinct cultural groups. This approach can be useful in developing targeted community-based strategies to increase minority participation in clinical trials.

Calderon, Jose L.; Baker, Richard S.; Fabrega, Horacio; Conde, Jose G.; Hays, Ron D.; Fleming, Erik; Norris, Keith

2006-01-01

475

Barriers to the effective treatment and prevention of malaria in Africa: A systematic review of qualitative studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In Africa, an estimated 300-500 million cases of malaria occur each year resulting in approximately 1 million deaths. More than 90% of these are in children under 5 years of age. To identify commonly held beliefs about malaria that might present barriers to its successful treatment and prevention, we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies examining beliefs and

David M Maslove; Anisa Mnyusiwalla; Edward J Mills; Jessie McGowan; Amir Attaran; Kumanan Wilson

2009-01-01

476

A qualitative analysis of the determinants in the choice of a French journal reviewing procedures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Between 1993 and 2010, two French journals (Aster and Didaskalia) coming from different backgrounds but belonging to the same institution used to publish papers on research in science and technology education. The merging of these journals made it necessary for them to compare the different reviewing procedures used by each. This merging occurred at a time when research is becoming increasingly international which partly determines some of the reviewi