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Sample records for revised simplex method

  1. Simplex method in problems of light-beam phase control.

    PubMed

    Chesnokov, S S; Davletshina, I V

    1995-12-20

    The possibility of the application of the simplex method to problems of wave-front control for light beams propagating in a nonlinear medium is investigated. A numerical analysis of simplex-method effectiveness in comparison with the gradient procedure of hill climbing is carried out. The regimes of stationary and nonstationary wind refraction are considered. The simplest optimization of the simplex size and the control basis is done. PMID:21068958

  2. A constrained optimization algorithm based on the simplex search method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vivek Kumar; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2012-05-01

    In this article, a robust method is presented for handling constraints with the Nelder and Mead simplex search method, which is a direct search algorithm for multidimensional unconstrained optimization. The proposed method is free from the limitations of previous attempts that demand the initial simplex to be feasible or a projection of infeasible points to the nonlinear constraint boundaries. The method is tested on several benchmark problems and the results are compared with various evolutionary algorithms available in the literature. The proposed method is found to be competitive with respect to the existing algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

  3. Simplex-stochastic collocation method with improved scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeling, W. N.; Dwight, R. P.; Cinnella, P.

    2016-04-01

    The Simplex-Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method is a robust tool used to propagate uncertain input distributions through a computer code. However, it becomes prohibitively expensive for problems with dimensions higher than 5. The main purpose of this paper is to identify bottlenecks, and to improve upon this bad scalability. In order to do so, we propose an alternative interpolation stencil technique based upon the Set-Covering problem, and we integrate the SSC method in the High-Dimensional Model-Reduction framework. In addition, we address the issue of ill-conditioned sample matrices, and we present an analytical map to facilitate uniformly-distributed simplex sampling.

  4. A Streamlined Artificial Variable Free Version of Simplex Method

    PubMed Central

    Inayatullah, Syed; Touheed, Nasir; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a streamlined form of simplex method which provides some great benefits over traditional simplex method. For instance, it does not need any kind of artificial variables or artificial constraints; it could start with any feasible or infeasible basis of an LP. This method follows the same pivoting sequence as of simplex phase 1 without showing any explicit description of artificial variables which also makes it space efficient. Later in this paper, a dual version of the new method has also been presented which provides a way to easily implement the phase 1 of traditional dual simplex method. For a problem having an initial basis which is both primal and dual infeasible, our methods provide full freedom to the user, that whether to start with primal artificial free version or dual artificial free version without making any reformulation to the LP structure. Last but not the least, it provides a teaching aid for the teachers who want to teach feasibility achievement as a separate topic before teaching optimality achievement. PMID:25767883

  5. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  6. Max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding rule for the simplex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipawanna, Monsicha; Sinapiromsaran, Krung

    2014-03-01

    The simplex method is used to solve linear programming problem by improving the current basic feasible solution. It uses a pivot rule to guide the search in the feasible region. The pivot rule is used to select an entering index in simplex method. Nowadays, many pivot rule have been presented, but no pivot rule shows superior performance than other. Therefore, this is still an active research in linear programming. In this research, we present the max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding for simplex method. This rule is based on maximum improvement of objective value of the current basic feasible point similar to the Dantzig's rule. We can illustrate by Klee and Minty problems that our rule outperforms that of Dantzig's rule by the number of iterations for solving linear programming problems.

  7. The Intelligence of Dual Simplex Method to Solve Linear Fractional Fuzzy Transportation Problem

    PubMed Central

    Narayanamoorthy, S.; Kalyani, S.

    2015-01-01

    An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example. PMID:25810713

  8. Introducing Adapted Nelder & Mead's Downhill Simplex Method to a Fully Automated Analysis of Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2005-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programmes, existing modelling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper focuses on Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method applied to a synthetically created test binary as it will be observed by Gaia.

  9. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038. PMID:19650633

  10. A Comparative Study of Three Revision Methods in EFL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to explore effective instruction in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting, this study investigated language errors identified by students and teachers in three different revision stages: self-revision, peer revision, and teacher revision. It gave the focus to the effects of the three different methods on learners' writing…

  11. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  12. Lentigo Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, including areas that are not exposed to sunlight. Multiple lentigos are associated with several inherited syndromes, ... as identical to those caused by exposure to sunlight. Who's At Risk Lentigo simplex may occur in ...

  13. Invader plus method detects herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and simultaneously differentiates types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Allawi, Hatim T; Li, Haijing; Sander, Tamara; Aslanukov, Azamat; Lyamichev, Victor I; Blackman, Amondrea; Elagin, Slava; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2006-09-01

    We report here on the development and validation of a prototype Invader Plus method for the qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method combines PCR and Invader techniques in a single, closed-tube, continuous-reaction format that gives an analytical sensitivity of approximately 10 copies per reaction. The clinical sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 98.6%, respectively, when the results of the method were validated against the results obtained with a PCR colorimetric microtiter plate system by use of clinical CSF specimens. PMID:16954297

  14. Biomechanics and Biotensegrity: Study Method and Frequency Response of the Simplex and 3-bar-SVD Tensegrity Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Arenas, C.; Ghersi, I.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the frequency response of 3D tensegrity structures. These are structures that have been used, since the 80’s, to model biological systems of different scales. This fact led to the origin of the field of biotensegrity, which includes biomechanics as a natural field of application. In this work: a) A simple method for the analysis of frequency response of different nodes in 3D tensegrity structures was set up and tuned. This method is based on a video-analysis algorithm, which was applied to the structures, as they were vibrated along their axis of symmetry, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 60 Hz. b) Frequency-response analyses were performed, for the simplest 3D structure, the Simplex module, as well as for two towers, formed by stacking two and three Simplex modules, respectively. Resonant frequencies were detected for the Simplex module at (19.2±0.1) Hz and (50.2±0.1) Hz (the latter being an average of frequencies between homologous nodes). For the towers with two and three modules, each selected node presented a characteristic frequency response, modulated by their spatial placement in each model. Resonances for the two-stage tower were found at: (12±0.1) Hz; (16.2±0.1) Hz; (29.4±0.1) Hz and (37.2±0.1) Hz. For the tower with three Simplex modules, the main resonant frequencies were found at (12.0±0.1) Hz and (21.0±0.1) Hz. Results show that the proposed method is adequate for the study (2D) of any 3D tensegrity structure, with the potential of being generalized to the study of oscillations in three dimensions. A growing complexity and variability in the frequency response of the nodes was observed, as modules were added to the structures. These findings were compared to those found in the available literature.

  15. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. ... affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes infections can affect the eyes, skin, or other parts of the body. The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in ...

  16. Nelder-Mead simplex method for modeling of cascaded continuous-wave multiple-Stokes Raman fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Chun Ho; Tang, Ming; Shum, Perry Ping; Wu, Rui Fen

    2010-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate an effective and computationally compact Nelder-Mead simplex method for the design and modeling of cw cascaded Raman fiber lasers. The Nelder-Mead method is efficient for finding a local minimum of a function of several variables. We employ this classical powerful local descent algorithm to solve the multidimensional problem for the modeling of n'th-order cascaded Raman fiber lasers. With our proposed method, we investigate a linear cascaded Raman fiber laser with a pump wavelength of 1064 nm. The convergence of the proposed method solving the rate equations with boundary conditions is easily and correctly achieved. Our simulation results verify that the proposed method has good computational speed without losing simulation accuracy.

  17. Efficient gradient-free simplex method for estimation of optical properties in image-guided diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Ravi Prasad K; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2013-03-01

    Typical image-guided diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction procedures involve reduction of the number of optical parameters to be reconstructed equal to the number of distinct regions identified in the structural information provided by the traditional imaging modality. This makes the image reconstruction problem less ill-posed compared to traditional underdetermined cases. Still, the methods that are deployed in this case are same as those used for traditional diffuse optical image reconstruction, which involves a regularization term as well as computation of the Jacobian. A gradient-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed here to perform the image reconstruction procedure and is shown to provide solutions that closely match ones obtained using established methods, even in highly noisy data. The proposed method also has the distinct advantage of being more efficient owing to being regularization free, involving only repeated forward calculations. PMID:23515862

  18. Efficient gradient-free simplex method for estimation of optical properties in image-guided diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannath, Ravi Prasad K.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Typical image-guided diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction procedures involve reduction of the number of optical parameters to be reconstructed equal to the number of distinct regions identified in the structural information provided by the traditional imaging modality. This makes the image reconstruction problem less ill-posed compared to traditional underdetermined cases. Still, the methods that are deployed in this case are same as those used for traditional diffuse optical image reconstruction, which involves a regularization term as well as computation of the Jacobian. A gradient-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed here to perform the image reconstruction procedure and is shown to provide solutions that closely match ones obtained using established methods, even in highly noisy data. The proposed method also has the distinct advantage of being more efficient owing to being regularization free, involving only repeated forward calculations.

  19. A Revised Simplex Method for Test Construction Problems. Research Report 90-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adema, Jos J.

    Linear programming models with 0-1 variables are useful for the construction of tests from an item bank. Most solution strategies for these models start with solving the relaxed 0-1 linear programming model, allowing the 0-1 variables to take on values between 0 and 1. Then, a 0-1 solution is found by just rounding, optimal rounding, or a…

  20. 77 FR 1129 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... published as a final rule on October 17, 2000 (65 FR 61744). Many of these needed revisions were brought to... determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentration. Method 26 is the non-isokinetic version of Method 26A and... not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR...

  1. A Revised Class Play Method of Peer Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Revised Class Play (RCP) was presented as a measure of peer reputation designed to improve the assessment of social competence as well as the psychometric properties of class play method. Administered to third through sixth graders three test dimensions were revealed: sociability-leadership, aggressive-disruptive, and sensitive-isolated. Data…

  2. Revising Geology Labs To Explicitly Use the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Kimberly A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that content- or skill-based labs can be revised to explicitly involve the scientific method by asking students to propose hypotheses before making observations. Students' self-assessment showed they felt that they learned a great deal from this style of labs and found the labs to be fun; however, students felt that they learned little…

  3. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  4. Improving amino-acid identification, fit and C(alpha) prediction using the Simplex method in automated model building.

    PubMed

    Romo, Tod D; Sacchettini, James C; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2006-11-01

    Automated methods for protein model building in X-ray crystallography typically use a two-phased approach that involves first modeling the protein backbone followed by building in the side chains. The latter phase requires the identification of the amino-acid side-chain type as well as fitting of the side-chain model into the observed electron density. While mistakes in identification of individual side chains are common for a number of reasons, sequence alignment can sometimes be used to correct errors by mapping fragments into the true (expected) amino-acid sequence and exploiting contiguity constraints among neighbors. However, side chains cannot always be confidently aligned; this depends on having sufficient accuracy in the initial calls. The recognition of amino-acid side-chains based on the surrounding pattern of electron density, whether by features, density correlation or free atoms, can be sensitive to inaccuracies in the coordinates of the predicted backbone C(alpha) atoms to which they are anchored. By incorporating a Nelder-Mead Simplex search into the side-chain identification and model-building routines of TEXTAL, it is demonstrated that this form of residue-by-residue rigid-body real-space refinement (in which the C(alpha) itself is allowed to shift) can improve the initial accuracy of side-chain selection by over 25% on average (from 25% average identity to 32% on a test set of five representative proteins, without corrections by sequence alignment). This improvement in amino-acid selection accuracy in TEXTAL is often sufficient to bring the pairwise amino-acid identity of chains in the model out of the so-called ;twilight zone' for sequence-alignment methods. When coupled with sequence alignment, use of the Simplex search yielded improvements in side-chain accuracy on average by over 13 percentage points (from 64 to 77%) and up to 38 percentage points (from 40 to 78%) in one case compared with using sequence alignment alone. PMID:17057345

  5. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin condition caused by chronic itching and scratching. ... You can control lichen simplex chronicus by controlling scratching and reducing stress. The condition may return or move to different areas on the ...

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  7. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  8. Relative roles of cement molecular weight and mixing method on the fatigue performance of acrylic bone cement: Simplex P versus Osteopal.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G

    2000-01-01

    The weight-average molecular weight (MW(w)) of a cement and the method used to mix its powder and liquid monomer constituents have been identified in the literature as key variables that affect mechanical properties of the fully polymerized cement that are relevant to its performance as a grouting agent in cemented arthroplasties. The goal of the present work was to identify which of these two variables exerts the greater effect in the case of fully reversed tension-compression fatigue performance. A judicious choice of cement brands, Surgical Simplex P and Osteopal, and the use of hand versus vacuum mixing, permitted this identification to be achieved. Three key observations were made in this work. First, for a given cement, the fatigue performance of vacuum-mixed specimens is far superior to that of hand-mixed ones, which may be a consequence of the substantially lower percentage areal porosity of the former specimens. Second, regardless of the mixing method, the fatigue performance of Osteopal outstrips that of Simplex P, a result that is attributed to the much higher MW(w) of the former cement. Third, hand-mixed Osteopal outperforms vacuum-mixed Simplex P (especially at low alternating stress levels), indicating that MW(w) of a bone cement is more influential than mixing method on its fatigue performance. PMID:10634961

  9. Optimization of preparation method for ketoprofen-loaded microspheres consisting polymeric blends using simplex lattice mixture design.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy Kumar; Khanam, Jasmina; Nanda, Arunabha

    2016-12-01

    In the present investigation, simplex lattice mixture design was applied for formulation development and optimization of a controlled release dosage form of ketoprofen microspheres consisting polymers like ethylcellulose and Eudragit(®)RL 100; when those were formed by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. The investigation was carried out to observe the effects of polymer amount, stirring speed and emulsifier concentration (% w/w) on percentage yield, average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release in 8h from the microspheres. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the significance of the models. Based on the desirability function approach numerical optimization was carried out. Optimized formulation (KTF-O) showed close match between actual and predicted responses with desirability factor 0.811. No adverse reaction between drug and polymers were observed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to show discreteness of microspheres (149.2±1.25μm) and their surface conditions during pre and post dissolution operations. The drug release pattern from KTF-O was best explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas and Higuchi models. The batch of optimized microspheres were found with maximum entrapment (~90%), minimum loss (~10%) and prolonged drug release for 8h (91.25%) which may be considered as favourable criteria of controlled release dosage form. PMID:27612752

  10. Establishment and in-house validation of simplex and duplex PCR methods for event-specific detection of maize SYN-E3272-5 using a new reference molecule.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kailin; Li, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Pan, Yingjie; Shi, Zhiyi; Sun, Yongning; Yang, Litao

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid developments in the detection techniques for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the event-specific PCR method with high specificity is still the most used technique. In this study, event-specific simplex and duplex qualitative and quantitative detection systems were developed targeting the 3' insertion site of GM maize SYN-E3272-5 (3272) construct. A reference molecule p3272 was constructed to act as positive control and as calibrator for quantitative analysis. The LOD for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR assays was 10 copies of p3272 control DNA. LOD and the LOQ for simplex and duplex quantitative PCR assays were 10 and 25 copies of p3272 DNA, respectively. Furthermore, four practical GM maize samples were quantified using the established simplex and duplex quantitative PCR systems by in-house validation. Results from five operators showed that the bias ranged from 3.44 to 17.24% in the simplex system and from 0.42 to 16.06% in the duplex system, respectively. These results demonstrated that the established event-specific simplex and duplex qualitative and quantitative PCR systems combined with the reference molecule p3272 are suitable for the detection of GM maize 3272 and its derived products. PMID:20480914

  11. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie; Boivin, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  12. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  13. The Revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Methods used to Establish and Validate Revised Axis I Diagnostic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Eric L.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Feng, Tai; Anderson, Gary C.; Pan, Wei; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; John, Mike T.; Sommers, Earl; List, Thomas; Velly, Ana M.; Kang, Wenjun; Look, John O.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. METHODS The multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project’s dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by 2 TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cut-offs for target validity were sensitivity ≥ 0.70 and specificity ≥ 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. RESULTS Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as “any joint pain.” Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other Group II disc displacements and Group III osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was ≥ 0.63. CONCLUSION Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements and osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis. PMID:20213032

  14. 78 FR 19605 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request... published a direct final rule, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method... petroleum and natural gas systems source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule are required...

  15. A hybrid multi-loop genetic-algorithm/simplex/spatial-grid method for locating the optimum orientation of an adsorbed protein on a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Mu, Shengjing; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shing, Katherine

    2009-05-01

    Atomistic simulation of protein adsorption on a solid surface in aqueous environment is computationally demanding, therefore the determination of preferred protein orientations on the solid surface usually serves as an initial step in simulation studies. We have developed a hybrid multi-loop genetic-algorithm/simplex/spatial-grid method to search for low adsorption-energy orientations of a protein molecule on a solid surface. In this method, the surface and the protein molecule are treated as rigid bodies, whereas the bulk fluid is represented by spatial grids. For each grid point, an effective interaction region in the surface is defined by a cutoff distance, and the possible interaction energy between an atom at the grid point and the surface is calculated and recorded in a database. In searching for the optimum position and orientation, the protein molecule is translated and rotated as a rigid body with the configuration obtained from a previous Molecular Dynamic simulation. The orientation-dependent protein-surface interaction energy is obtained using the generated database of grid energies. The hybrid search procedure consists of two interlinked loops. In the first loop A, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to identify promising regions for the global energy minimum and a local optimizer with the derivative-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is used to search for the lowest-energy orientation within the identified regions. In the second loop B, a new population for GA is generated and competitive solution from loop A is improved. Switching between the two loops is adaptively controlled by the use of similarity analysis. We test the method for lysozyme adsorption on a hydrophobic hydrogen-terminated silicon (110) surface in implicit water (i.e., a continuum distance-dependent dielectric constant). The results show that the hybrid search method has faster convergence and better solution accuracy compared with the conventional genetic algorithm.

  16. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  17. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  18. Fast gene transfer into the adult zebrafish brain by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and electroporation: methods and optogenetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; De Koninck, Paul; Neve, Rachael L.; Friedrich, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish has various advantages as a model organism to analyze the structure and function of neural circuits but efficient viruses or other tools for fast gene transfer are lacking. We show that transgenes can be introduced directly into the adult zebrafish brain by herpes simplex type I viruses (HSV-1) or electroporation. We developed a new procedure to target electroporation to defined brain areas and identified promoters that produced strong long-term expression. The fast workflow of electroporation was exploited to express multiple channelrhodopsin-2 variants and genetically encoded calcium indicators in telencephalic neurons for measurements of neuronal activity and synaptic connectivity. The results demonstrate that HSV-1 and targeted electroporation are efficient tools for gene delivery into the zebrafish brain, similar to adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses in other species. These methods fill an important gap in the spectrum of molecular tools for zebrafish and are likely to have a wide range of applications. PMID:24834028

  19. Solution of the Falkner-Skan wedge flow by a revised optimal homotopy asymptotic method.

    PubMed

    Madaki, A G; Abdulhameed, M; Ali, M; Roslan, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a revised optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) is applied to derive an explicit analytical solution of the Falkner-Skan wedge flow problem. The comparisons between the present study with the numerical solutions using (fourth order Runge-Kutta) scheme and with analytical solution using HPM-Padé of order [4/4] and order [13/13] show that the revised form of OHAM is an extremely effective analytical technique. PMID:27186477

  20. Nongenital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

    2010-11-01

    Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

  1. Oregon Custodial Training Program. Housekeeping Methods and Materials. (Revised 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed as an instructional aid in teaching about custodian housekeeping methods and materials, this booklet contains information on the school custodian's responsibilities and methods for maintaining the building inside and outside, including the cleaning and sanitation of classrooms, restrooms, showerrooms, lunchrooms, corridors, and special…

  2. 78 FR 25392 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program CO... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available monitoring methods to...

  3. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  4. Neonatal herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Alberto; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cecilia; Maria, Chiara Laguardia; Guidotti, Isotta; Gallo, Claudio; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2011-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in utero, the transmission frequently occurs during delivery. The disease may be disseminated, localized to the central nervous system, or involving skin, eye and/or mouth. Mortality rates markedly decreased with high-dose antiviral treatment. Diagnosis of neonatal infection is based on viral isolation from ulcerated vesicles or by scarifying mucocutaneous lesions. Recently polymerase chain reaction plays a central role for both viral detection (skin, mucosal, cerebrospinal fluid samples) and response to therapy. Vertical transmission may be decreased by prophylactic antiviral treatment. PMID:21942600

  5. The Revised OB-1 Method for Metal-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Wright, Richard Q

    2010-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass (mcm) of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a 2008 Nuclear Science and Engineering (NS&E) article. The purpose of the present work is to update and expand the application of this method with current nuclear data, including data uncertainties. The mcm and the hypothetical fissile metal density ({rho}{sub F}) in grams of metal/liter are obtained by a fit to values predicted with transport calculations. The input parameters required are thermal values for fission and absorption cross sections and nubar. A factor of ({radical}{pi})/2 is used to convert to Maxwellian averaged values. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the mcm, either in percent or grams.

  6. Simplex turbopump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Matt; Cowan, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Turbomachinery used in liquid rocket engines typically are composed of complex geometries made from high strength-to-weight super alloys and have long design and fabrication cycle times (3 to 5 years). A simple, low-cost turbopump is being designed in-house to demonstrate the ability to reduce the overall cost to $500K and compress life cycle time to 18 months. The simplex turbopump was designed to provide a discharge pressure of 1500 psia of liquid oxygen at 90 lbm/s. The turbine will be powered by gaseous oxygen. This eliminates the need for an inter-propellant seal typically required to separate the fuel-rich turbine gases from the liquid oxygen pump components. Materials used in the turbine flow paths will utilize existing characterized metals at 800 deg R that are compatible with a warm oxygen environment. This turbopump design would be suitable for integration with a 40 K pound thrust hybrid motor that provides warm oxygen from a tapped-off location to power the turbine. The preliminary and detailed analysis was completed in a year by a multiple discipline, concurrent engineering team. Manpower, schedule, and cost data were tracked during the process for a comparison to the initial goal. The Simplex hardware is the procurement cycle with the expectation of the first test to occur approximately 1.5 months behind the original schedule goal.

  7. Reputation Revision Method for Selecting Cloud Services Based on Prior Knowledge and a Market Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingtao; Zhang, Xulong; Zhang, Mingchuan; Lou, Ying; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wei, Wangyang

    2014-01-01

    The trust levels of cloud services should be evaluated to ensure their reliability. The effectiveness of these evaluations has major effects on user satisfaction, which is increasingly important. However, it is difficult to provide objective evaluations in open and dynamic environments because of the possibilities of malicious evaluations, individual preferences, and intentional praise. In this study, we propose a novel unfair rating filtering method for a reputation revision system. This method uses prior knowledge as the basis of similarity when calculating the average rating, which facilitates the recognition and filtering of unfair ratings. In addition, the overall performance is increased by a market mechanism that allows users and service providers to adjust their choice of services and service configuration in a timely manner. The experimental results showed that this method filtered unfair ratings in an effective manner, which greatly improved the precision of the reputation revision system. PMID:24696650

  8. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural... document extends the public comment period established in the Federal Register of December 9, 2009 (74 FR... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised...

  9. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, V E J; Stam, E D; Welborn, K M; Sas, T C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease. PMID:27122069

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  11. Herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stephen; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2006-07-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) results from an infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) also known as human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1). Primary infection may involve an ocular or non-ocular site, following which latency might be established principally in the trigeminal ganglion but also in the cornea. During latency, the virus appears as a circular episome associated with histones with active transcription only from the region encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). The LAT region is implicated in neuronal survival, anti-apoptosis, virulence, suppression of transcription, establishment of and reactivation from latency. The initial keratitis may develop after infection through the "front door route" (entry into the ocular surface from droplet spread) or "back door route" (spread to the eye from a non-ocular site, principally the mouth). The initial ocular infection may be mild. Visual morbidity results from recurrent keratitis, which leads to corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularisation. Although, recurrent disease may potentially occur through anterograde axonal spread from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea, recent evidence suggests that HSV-1 in the cornea may be another source of recurrent disease. The pathogenesis and severity of HSK is largely determined by an interaction between viral genes encoded by the strain of HSV-1 and the make up of the host's immune system. Herpetic stromal disease is due to the immune response to virus within the cornea and the ability of the strain to cause corneal stromal disease is correlated with its ability to induce corneal vascularisation. The pathogenesis of corneal scarring and vascularisation is uncertain but appears to be a complex interaction of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors either brought in by inflammatory cells or produced locally in response to HSV-1 infection. Evidence now suggests that HSV-1 infection disrupts the normal equilibrium between angiogenic and anti

  12. A revised terrain correction method for forest canopy height estimation using ICESat/GLAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Sheng; Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Hongcheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Xia, Shaobo

    2015-10-01

    Although spaceborne Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) can measure forest canopy height directly, the measurement accuracy is often affected by footprint size, shape and orientation, and terrain slope. Previous terrain correction methods only took into account the effect of terrain slope and footprint size when estimating forest canopy height. In this study, an improved terrain correction method was proposed to remove the effect of all aforementioned factors when estimating canopy height over sloped terrains. The revised method was found significantly better than the traditional ones according to the canopy height tested using small footprint LiDAR data in China. It reduced the RMSE of the canopy height estimates by up to 1.2 m. The effect of slope on canopy height estimation is almost eliminated by the proposed method since the slope had little correlation with the canopy heights estimated by revised method. When the footprint eccentricity is small, the canopy height error due to the footprint shape and orientation is small. However, when the footprint eccentricity is large enough, the height estimation error due to footprint shape and orientation is large. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the influence of footprint shape and orientation on forest canopy estimation.

  13. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  14. Anisakis simplex: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, V; Primavesi, L; Piantanida, M

    2012-08-01

    Anisakiasis, firstly described in 1960s in the Netherlands, is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods contaminated by third stage (13) larvae of the Anisakidae family, in particular Anisakis simplex (As), A. pegreffii and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Every year, approximately 20,000 cases of anisakiasis were reported worldwide, over 90% are from Japan and most others in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany, depending on the habits of fish consuming. Live As larvae can elicit i) a parasitic infection of the digestive tract or, occasionally, other organs, causing erosive and/or haemorrhagic lesions, ascites, perforations until granulomas and masses, if larva is not removed, and ii) allergic reactions, as anaphylaxis, acute/chronic urticaria and angioedema. Like other parasite infestations, As larva induces an immune adaptive response characterised by T-lymphocyte proliferation with polyclonal and monoclonal (responsible for As allergic symptoms) IgE production, eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Several As allergens, many of which thermostable, were described In particular the major allergen Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 could characterized a past or a recent infection. There is a general agreement that an active infection is required to initiate allergic sensitivity to Anisakis. Until now, the only effective treatment for anisakiasis is the endoscopic removal of live larvae and the best protection against anisakiasis is to educate consumers about the dangers of eating raw fish and to recommend avoiding the consumption of raw or inadequately thermally treated marine fish or cephalopods. PMID:23092000

  15. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328

  16. Revised Methods for Characterizing Stream Habitat in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Waite, Ian R.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.; Meador, Michael R.; Maupin, Molly A.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1998-01-01

    Stream habitat is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The goal of stream habitat characterization is to relate habitat to other physical, chemical, and biological factors that describe water-quality conditions. To accomplish this goal, environmental settings are described at sites selected for water-quality assessment. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in habitat are examined at local, regional, and national scales. This habitat protocol contains updated methods for evaluating habitat in NAWQA Study Units. Revisions are based on lessons learned after 6 years of applying the original NAWQA habitat protocol to NAWQA Study Unit ecological surveys. Similar to the original protocol, these revised methods for evaluating stream habitat are based on a spatially hierarchical framework that incorporates habitat data at basin, segment, reach, and microhabitat scales. This framework provides a basis for national consistency in collection techniques while allowing flexibility in habitat assessment within individual Study Units. Procedures are described for collecting habitat data at basin and segment scales; these procedures include use of geographic information system data bases, topographic maps, and aerial photographs. Data collected at the reach scale include channel, bank, and riparian characteristics.

  17. Evaluation of Students’ Perceptions Towards An Innovative Teaching-Learning Method During Pharmacology Revision Classes: Autobiography of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ganjiwale, Jaishree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various studies in medical education have shown that active learning strategies should be incorporated into the teaching–learning process to make learning more effective, efficient and meaningful. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate student’s perceptions on an innovative revision method conducted in Pharmacology i.e. in form of Autobiography of Drugs. The main objective of study was to help students revise the core topics in Pharmacology in an interesting way. Settings and Design Questionnaire based survey on a newer method of pharmacology revision in two batches of second year MBBS students of a tertiary care teaching medical college. Materials and Methods Various sessions on Autobiography of Drugs were conducted amongst two batches of second year MBBS students, during their Pharmacology revision classes. Student’s perceptions were documented with the help of a five point likert scale through a questionnaire regarding quality, content and usefulness of this method. Statistical analysis used Descriptive analysis. Results Students of both the batches appreciated the innovative method taken up for revision. The median scores in most of the domains in both batches were four out of five, indicative of good response. Feedback from open-ended questions also revealed that the innovative module on “Autobiography of Drugs” was taken as a positive learning experience by students. Conclusions Autobiography of drugs has been used to help students recall topics that they have learnt through other teachings methods. Autobiography sessions in Pharmacology during revision slots, can be one of the interesting ways in helping students revise and recall topics which have already been taught in theory classes. PMID:26393138

  18. Novel computer-assisted method for revision arthroplasty of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Hoffart, Hanns-Edgar; Dinges, Harald; Kolbeck, Stefan; Ritschl, Peter; Hommel, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To introduce the navigation system of software and instruments designed specifically for revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We present an imageless navigation system for revision TKA, with optical point and tracker identification to assess kinematic and anatomical landmarks. The system automatically positions the cutting guides with a motorized cutting unit. The cutting unit is placed on the distal femur with a femoral clamp and acts as a rigid body and the base for all femoral cuts. The surgical technique for using the navigation system for revision TKA is based on the technique used in primary TKA. However, there are some important differences. The most notable are: (1) differences in estimation of the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and the mechanical axes; (2) the specific possibilities the revision navigation software offers in terms of optimal joint level positioning; and (3) the suggested “best fit” position, in which the clock position, stem position and offset, femoral component size, and mediolateral position of the femoral component are taken into account to find the optimal femoral component position. We assessed the surgical technique, and accompanying software procedural steps, of the system, identifying any advantages or disadvantages that they present. RESULTS: The system aims to visualize critical steps of the procedure and is intended as a tool to support the surgeon in surgical decision-making. Combining a computer-assisted cutting device with navigation makes it possible to carry out precise cuts without pinning. Furthermore, the femoral clamp provides a stable fixation mechanism for the motorized cutting unit. A stable clamp is paramount in the presence of periarticular bony defects. The system allows the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and mechanical axes to be estimated, at which point any malalignments can be corrected. It also offers an optimal joint level position for

  19. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  20. Predicting a Longitudinal Guttman Simplex of Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Kimberly A.; And Others

    The longitudinal Guttman simplex (LGS), a method of modeling stage sequences or levels over time, allows for individual differences in sequence progression or development. The LGS is particularly appropriate in modeling tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use stages with adolescent subjects where relationships among drugs and degree of involvement may…

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  2. Revision of FMM-Yukawa: An adaptive fast multipole method for screened Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai

    2010-12-01

    FMM-YUKAWA is a mathematical software package primarily for rapid evaluation of the screened Coulomb interactions of N particles in three dimensional space. Since its release, we have revised and re-organized the data structure, software architecture, and user interface, for the purpose of enabling more flexible, broader and easier use of the package. The package and its documentation are available at http://www.fastmultipole.org/, along with a few other closely related mathematical software packages. New version program summaryProgram title: FMM-Yukawa Catalogue identifier: AEEQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 854 265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90, and C. Requires gcc and gfortran version 4.4.3 or later Computer: All Operating system: Any Classification: 4.8, 4.12 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2331 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: To evaluate the screened Coulomb potential and force field of N charged particles, and to evaluate a convolution type integral where the Green's function is the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation. Solution method: The new version of fast multipole method (FMM) that diagonalizes the multipole-to-local translation operator is applied with the tree structure adaptive to sample particle locations. Reasons for new version: To handle much larger particle ensembles, to enable the iterative use of the subroutines in a solver, and to remove potential contention in assignments for parallelization. Summary of revisions: The software package FMM-Yukawa has been

  3. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  4. A revised method of examining fish for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-06-16

    The infection of fish with zoonotic nematodes, particularly anisakid nematodes is of great interest to many researchers who study food safety, human or animal health or who use them as biological tags for stock assessment studies. Accurate examination of fish for infection with anisakid larvae is crucial in making accurate estimates of their occurrence, abundance and prevalence in their fish hosts. Here we describe a new method of examining fish for infection with these parasites. In 2015, a total of 261 fish were purchased from a fish market in New South Wales, Australia. All fish were first examined by routine visual examination for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae and all data were recorded. Subsequently all internal organs were placed in a container and filled with water and incubated in the room temperature overnight. The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of anisakids were significantly higher (p<0.05) when the revised method of examination, i.e., combining visual examination and overnight incubation in room temperature, was employed (63.98, 8.23 and 5.27, respectively) compared to routine visual examination with or without the aid of a microscope (8.81, 3.78 and 0.33, respectively). The proposed method is effective and has several advantages, such as: not using UV or HCl for fish examination, allowing the examination of a larger number of fish in shorter time; larval specimens collected being suitable for both morphological and DNA sequencing; and being simple and inexpensive. The disadvantages would be the odour of the specimens after overnight incubation as well as not being suitable for use with frozen fish. We suggest that results, conclusions or recommendations made in studies that claim no anisakid/ascaridoid larvae were found in a fish should be approached carefully if it is only based on visual examination of the fish. PMID:27043384

  5. Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Felikson, A A

    2002-12-31

    A Coxeter decomposition of a polyhedron in a hyperbolic space H{sup n} is a decomposition of it into finitely many Coxeter polyhedra such that any two tiles having a common facet are symmetric with respect to it. The classification of Coxeter decompositions is closely related to the problem of the classification of finite-index subgroups generated by reflections in discrete hyperbolic groups generated by reflections. All Coxeter decompositions of simplexes in the hyperbolic spaces H{sup n} with n>3 are described in this paper.

  6. Revising the spectral method as applied to the mantle dynamics modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, A. G.; Kaban, M. K.; Rogozhina, I.; Trubytsyn, V. P.

    2012-04-01

    The spectral method is widely used for modeling instantaneous flow and stress field distribution in a spherical shell. This method provides a high accuracy semi-analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes and Poisson equations when the viscosity is only depth- (radial-) dependent. However, the distribution of viscosity in the real Earth is essentially three-dimensional. In this case, non-linear coupling of different spherical harmonic modes does not allow obtaining a straightforward semi-analytical solution. In this study, we present a numerical approach, built on substantially revised method originally proposed by Zhang and Christensen (1993) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation in a spectral domain in case if lateral variations of viscosity (LVV) are present. We demonstrate a number of numerical algorithms allowing to efficiently calculate instantaneous Stokes flow in a sphere taking into account the effects of LVV, self-gravitation and compressibility. In particular, the Newton-Raphson procedure applied to the shooting method shows the ability to solve the boundary value problem, necessary for cross-linking solutions on spheres. In contrast to the traditionally used propagator method, our approach suggests continuous integration over depth without introducing internal interfaces. The Clenshaw-based recursion algorithms for computing associated Legendre functions and the Horner's scheme for computing partial sums allow avoiding the problems in the Poles vicinity typical for the spherical harmonic methods and obtaining a fast and robust solution on a sphere for high degree and order. Since the benchmarking technique of 3-D spherical codes is not developed substantially, we employ different approaches to test the proposed numerical algorithm. First, we show that the algorithm produces correct results for radially symmetric viscosity distribution. Second, an iterative scheme for the LVV case is validated by comparing the solution for the tetrahedral symmetric (l=3,m

  7. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  8. Liquid chromatographic-electrochemical determination of ethylenethiourea in foods by revised official method.

    PubMed

    Krause, R T

    1989-01-01

    AOAC official method 29.119-29.125 was revised to determine ethylenethiourea (ETU) directly by a liquid chromatographic-electrochemical (LC-EC) determinative technique and to improve ETU recovery. ETU is extracted from food products with a methanol-aqueous sodium acetate solution. A portion of the concentrated filtrate is added to a column of diatomaceous earth, and ETU is eluted with 2% methanol in methylene chloride to separate it from food coextractives, which are retained on the column. The eluate is collected in a siliconized flask and evaporated, the residue is dissolved in water, and 20 microL of solution is injected onto an LC graphitized carbon column. ETU is eluted from the LC column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-aqueous 0.1M phosphoric acid-water (5 + 25 + 70), and the eluted ETU is detected by using an amperometric electrochemical detector equipped with a gold/mercury working electrode. Recovery data were obtained by fortifying 13 food products with ETU: baked potatoes; canned applesauce, mushrooms, creamed spinach, green beans, spinach, and tomatoes; cooked fresh cabbage and frozen collards; fresh celery and lettuce; grape jelly; and powdered sugar cake donuts. Raw celery was found to cause low ETU recoveries. Average percent recoveries of ETU from the other 12 food products were 92 with a standard deviation of 12 for the low (0.05 and 0.1 ppm) fortification levels and 90 with a standard deviation of 6 for the higher (0.5 and 1 ppm) fortification levels. The limits of quantitation were 0.01 and 0.02 ppm for food products with low and high sugar content, respectively. PMID:2592320

  9. 78 FR 11585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... natural gas systems source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of... timely withdrawal notice in the Federal Register to inform the public that this rule will not take...

  10. 78 FR 11619 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available monitoring... address: GHGReportingRule@epa.gov . For technical information, contact the Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  11. Analysis of Cortical Shape in Children with Simplex Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Donna L.; Feczko, Eric; Pruett, John R.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Constantino, John N.; Harwell, John W.; Coalson, Timothy S.; Van Essen, David C.

    2015-01-01

    We used surface-based morphometry to test for differences in cortical shape between children with simplex autism (n = 34, mean age 11.4 years) and typical children (n = 32, mean age 11.3 years). This entailed testing for group differences in sulcal depth and in 3D coordinates after registering cortical midthickness surfaces to an atlas target using 2 independent registration methods. We identified bilateral differences in sulcal depth in restricted portions of the anterior-insula and frontal-operculum (aI/fO) and in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The aI/fO depth differences are associated with and likely to be caused by a shape difference in the inferior frontal gyrus in children with simplex autism. Comparisons of average midthickness surfaces of children with simplex autism and those of typical children suggest that the significant sulcal depth differences represent local peaks in a larger pattern of regional differences that are below statistical significance when using coordinate-based analysis methods. Cortical regions that are statistically significant before correction for multiple measures are peaks of more extended, albeit subtle regional differences that may guide hypothesis generation for studies using other imaging modalities. PMID:24165833

  12. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  13. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  14. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  15. The effect of adding tobramycin to Simplex P cement on femoral stem micromotion as measured by radiostereometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous in vitro research on addition of antibiotics to bone cement has found no statistically significant deterioration in mechanical properties. However, no clinical studies have compared the performance of tobramycin-laden bone cement with that of standard bone cement (Simplex P). Patients and Methods 23 patients (25 hips) were randomized to receive an Exeter (Stryker Orthopaedics) femoral stem cemented with either Simplex P (standard) or Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) cement. There were 2 years of follow-up, with scheduled radiostereometric (RSA) examinations. Results All stems migrated distally and showed some degree of retroversion. No clinically significant differences in stem subsidence or retroversion were found between the Simplex T and Simplex P cement groups after 2 years. Overall subsidence was less than in previous studies, probably due to a postponed initial post-surgical examination. Rates of subsidence in both cement groups were consistent with those from previous studies of Exeter stems. Interpretation Subsidence of the femoral stem after 2 years was similar in the Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) and Simplex P (standard) groups. PMID:22248163

  16. A REVISED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING OXIDE BASICITY PER THE SMITH SCALE WITH EXAMPLE APPLICATION TO GLASS DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG

    2011-07-27

    Previous researchers have developed correlations between oxide electronegativity and oxide basicity. The present paper revises those correlations using a newer method of calculating electronegativity of the oxygen anion. Basicity is expressed using the Smith {alpha} parameter scale. A linear relation was found between the oxide electronegativity and the Smith {alpha} parameter, with an R{sup 2} of 0.92. An example application of this new correlation to the durability of high-level nuclear waste glass is demonstrated. The durability of waste glass was found to be directly proportional to the quantity and basicity of the oxides of tetrahedrally coordinated network forming ions.

  17. Revision of the Predictive Method Improves Precision in the Prediction of Stroke Outcomes for Patients Admitted to Rehabilitation Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Tani, Keisuke; Mitani, Yasuhiro; Oku, Kosuke; Tamaru, Yoshiki; Nagano, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the accuracy of a revised method for predicting the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge when stroke patients are first admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. [Subjects and Methods] The predictive equation with logarithmic trend line was calculated based on the total score of the FIM at admission and discharge in 93 patients with cerebral infarction (CI) and 60 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In other patients with CI or ICH (validation group), the differences between the actual FIM and the predicted FIM at discharge calculated by the CI or ICH equation and the combined (CI + ICH) equation, as well as by the CI or ICH equation and combined equation used in a previous study, were calculated. [Results] The multiple correlation coefficients of the CI equation, ICH equation, and combined equation were 0.87, 0.71, and 0.8. The residual of the actual FIM and predicted FIM at discharge calculated by the CI equation was the smallest in the CI validation group. In the ICH validation group, the residual calculated for ICH patients alone was smaller than that calculated by the previous ICH equation. [Conclusion] This easy-to-use method using a new equation for prediction was more precise than the previous equation. Therefore, we should revise the equation for predicting stroke patient outcome strata according to data from within the governing medical administration system. PMID:25276029

  18. A Summary of Revisions Applied to a Turbulence Response Analysis Method for Flexible Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Christie J.; Perry, Boyd, III; Silva, Walter A.; Newman, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A software program and associated methodology to study gust loading on aircraft exists for a classification of geometrically simplified flexible configurations. This program consists of a simple aircraft response model with two rigid and three flexible symmetric degrees-of - freedom and allows for the calculation of various airplane responses due to a discrete one-minus- cosine gust as well as continuous turbulence. Simplifications, assumptions, and opportunities for potential improvements pertaining to the existing software program are first identified, then a revised version of the original software tool is developed with improved methodology to include more complex geometries, additional excitation cases, and additional output data so as to provide a more useful and precise tool for gust load analysis. In order to improve the original software program to enhance usefulness, a wing control surface and horizontal tail control surface is added, an extended application of the discrete one-minus-cosine gust input is employed, a supplemental continuous turbulence spectrum is implemented, and a capability to animate the total vehicle deformation response to gust inputs is included. These revisions and enhancements are implemented and an analysis of the results is used to validate the modifications.

  19. Vaccines for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M

    2006-02-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can have serious medical consequences. Although antiviral medications can suppress symptomatic disease, asymptomatic shedding and transmission, they neither cure nor alter the natural history of HSV infections. Manipulation of the immune response is one potential method to decrease disease burden. Current research on prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approaches is discussed in this review, with a focus on compounds that have entered clinical trials or that display novel compositions or proposed mechanisms of action. One such vaccine is an alum and monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted subunit glycoprotein D2 vaccine that has demonstrated activity in the prevention of HSV-2 infection and disease in HSV-uninfected women in a phase III clinical trial. Further confirmatory clinical trials of this vaccine are currently underway. Other vaccine formats also in development include attenuated live or replication-incompetent HSV-2 strains and technologies that target virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. PMID:16499283

  20. Genomic identification of Anisakis simplex isolates.

    PubMed

    Siles, M; Cuéllar, C; Perteguer, M J

    1997-03-01

    RAPD technique was used to differentiate individuals of Anisakis simplex obtained from Merluccius merluccius, Phycis blennoides, Conger conger and Lepidorhombus boscii, from the North Atlantic Ocean. The amplification patterns of the host DNA controls were markedly different from those obtained for the parasitic material. No variation within the same host was detected. The amplification patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same genus were somewhat different. The amplification patterns of A. simplex isolates from M. merluccius, P. blennoides, C. conger and L. boscii, were different. These results suggest the possible existence of two populations with a considerable high genetic variability and a different adaptation to different host species. PMID:9166445

  1. A revised monitor source method for practical deadtime count loss compensation in clinical planar and SPECT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman, W.; Silosky, M.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to verify the fundamental assumption in the monitor source method, i.e. uniform fractional count loss across the field of view (FOV), and to introduce a revised monitor source method for SPECT deadtime correction that minimally interferes with the clinical protocol. SPECT images of non-uniform phantoms (4GBq 99mTc) with and without monitor sources (2  ×  20MBq 99mTc) attached to each detector were acquired nine times over 48 h in the photopeak energy window and the scatter energy window. Fractional count loss uniformity across the FOV was evaluated by correlating count rates in different regions of interest on projection images at different deadtime loss levels. The correction factors were calculated as the ratios of monitor source count rates with and without the phantom. Such factors were applied to the phantom images acquired without the monitor sources. The counting efficiency (count rate per unit activity) of the camera was calculated as a function of activity in the FOV both prior to and after the deadtime count-loss correction. The deadtime correction effectiveness was assessed by the independence of the efficiency on the activity in the FOV. Methods to interpolate the projection deadtime loss, based on limited projections, were also investigated. The fractional deadtime count loss was uniform across the FOV (r > 0.99). After the deadtime correction, the efficiency was largely independent of the activity in the FOV. The median and maximum absolute errors after the deadtime count loss correction were ≤1% and ~2%, respectively. Measured deadtime loss from five views per detector can be used to estimate deadtime count loss with errors ≤1% for all SPECT projections. The revised monitor source method can effectively correct planar and SPECT deadtime loss. Sparse sampling of the projection deadtime loss allows the acquisition of high monitor source counts with minimal time added while preserving the entire useful FOV.

  2. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  3. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Nidhi; Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-05-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  4. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  5. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vassantachart, Janna M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection. PMID:26722168

  6. Simplex GPS and InSAR Inversion Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Pierce, Marlon E.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the Earth's surface can be routinely measured with precisions better than centimeters. Processes below the surface often drive these changes and as a result, investigators require models with inversion methods to characterize the sources. Simplex inverts any combination of GPS (global positioning system), UAVSAR (uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar), and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) data simultaneously for elastic response from fault and fluid motions. It can be used to solve for multiple faults and parameters, all of which can be specified or allowed to vary. The software can be used to study long-term tectonic motions and the faults responsible for those motions, or can be used to invert for co-seismic slip from earthquakes. Solutions involving estimation of fault motion and changes in fluid reservoirs such as magma or water are possible. Any arbitrary number of faults or parameters can be considered. Simplex specifically solves for any of location, geometry, fault slip, and expansion/contraction of a single or multiple faults. It inverts GPS and InSAR data for elastic dislocations in a half-space. Slip parameters include strike slip, dip slip, and tensile dislocations. It includes a map interface for both setting up the models and viewing the results. Results, including faults, and observed, computed, and residual displacements, are output in text format, a map interface, and can be exported to KML. The software interfaces with the QuakeTables database allowing a user to select existing fault parameters or data. Simplex can be accessed through the QuakeSim portal graphical user interface or run from a UNIX command line.

  7. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes. PMID:24680072

  8. Analysis of parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive based on the revised response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2014-05-01

    Space manipulator is an important tool for spacecraft to complete a variety of tasks in space. Nowadays the harmonic drive is widely used as the reducer in the space manipulator, which may influence the dynamical properties of flexible space manipulator. The analysis of dynamic reliability and parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive is of significant importance for space manipulator designers in the early stage of design. The trajectory precision of the manipulator determines whether the mechanism performs normally. However, it is difficult to use the existing methods to resolve reliability apportionment issues because of the data insufficiency and the uncertainty of the relations among the components in the mechanical system. This paper establishes the dynamical models of space manipulator considering the harmonic hysteresis phenomenon derived from the harmonic reducer. A new method is proposed to analyze the dynamic reliability and parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive. The proposed method extends the previous response surface method (RSM) and focuses on the characteristics of the output dynamical property of the space manipulator. With the result of parameter sensitivity analysis, we can prolong the fine arm or shorten the main arm to improve the motion precision reliability of space manipulator. Therefore, our revised response surface method (RRSM) is suitable for reliability apportionment of the space manipulator when the design information has not been clearly identified, particularly in early design phrase.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  10. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1984-12-18

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

  11. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  12. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  13. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kestel, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11 B Appendix B to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS...

  15. Navigating Tensions in the Process of Change: An English Educator's Dilemma Management in the Revision and Implementation of a Diversity-Infused Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gort, Mileidis; Glenn, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to growing concerns among faculty regarding the lack of attention to the bilingual student population in our pre-service teacher education program, the authors engaged in a shared self-study of the process of revising and implementing a secondary English methods course with explicit attention to the special needs of…

  16. Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C

    2000-05-01

    We present a new method for the fine scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation of posterior probabilities that each allele at a particular marker was present on the founder chromosome. We illustrate the method using simulated family data for cystic fibrosis and Huntingtons disease, for which the locations of mutations in the disease genes are now known. For both diseases, our new method provides good estimates of the location of the mutations. PMID:11246474

  17. Methods and Materials in Teaching Secondary School Science - Syllabus. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallia, Thomas J.

    The course content, specific objectives, and evaluation for a science teaching methods course required for students planning to be secondary school science teachers in the biological, physical, or earth sciences are described. (CS)

  18. The Stenopsyche simplex Species Group from China with descriptions of three new species (Trichoptera: Stenopsychidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Hua; Wang, Bei-Xin; Sun, Chang-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Stenopsyche simplex Group is revised for the first time since Weaver's (1987) revision. The group includes 14 described species and 3 new species. Two diagnostic subgroups were recognized by Schmid (1959). The first subgroup of Chinese species includes S. anaximander Malicky 2011, S. brevata Tian & Zheng 1989, S. chinensis Hwang 1957, S. dentata Navás 1930, S. splendida Martynov 1935, S. dubia Schmid 1965, S. rotundata Schmid 1965, S. simplex Schmid 1959, and S. tienmushanensis Hwang 1957; of these, S. dentata is assigned to this first subgroup for the first time. The second diagnostic subgroup includes S. denticulata Ulmer 1926, S. longispina Ulmer 1926, S. stoetzneri Döhler 1929, S. uniformis Schmid 1965 and S. formosana Kobayashi, 1987. The species newly described here include Stenopsyche ningshanensis sp. nov., from Shaan-xi Province, belonging to the first subgroup, and Stenopsyche acanthoclada sp. nov. and Stenopsyche jinxiuensis sp. nov., both from Guang-xi Province and belonging to the second subgroup. Distribution maps of the two diagnostic subgroups of Chinese species and illustrations of male genitalia of the three new species are provided along with collection data for additional specimens for the previously described species. PMID:24872179

  19. Simultaneous Metabolite, Protein, Lipid Extraction (SIMPLEX): A Combinatorial Multimolecular Omics Approach for Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Coman, Cristina; Solari, Fiorella Andrea; Hentschel, Andreas; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René Peiman; Ahrends, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Interconnected molecular networks are at the heart of signaling pathways that mediate adaptive plasticity of eukaryotic cells. To gain deeper insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms, a comprehensive and representative analysis demands a deep and parallel coverage of a broad spectrum of molecular species. Therefore, we introduce a simultaneous metabolite, protein, lipid extraction (SIMPLEX) procedure, a novel strategy for the quantitative investigation of lipids, metabolites, and proteins. Compared with unimolecular workflows, SIMPLEX offers a fundamental turn in study design since multiple molecular classes can be accessed in parallel from one sample with equal efficiency and reproducibility. Application of this method in mass-spectrometry-based workflows allowed the simultaneous quantification of 360 lipids, 75 metabolites, and 3327 proteins from 10(6)cells. The versatility of this method is shown in a model system for adipogenesis- peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) signaling in mesenchymal stem cells-where we utilized SIMPLEX to explore cross-talk within and between all three molecular classes and identified novel potential molecular entry points for interventions, indicating that SIMPLEX provides a superior strategy compared with conventional workflows. PMID:26814187

  20. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhar, Reneega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. PMID:26894083

  1. A Variational Assimilation Method for Satellite and Conventional Data: a Revised Basic Model 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.; Scott, Robert W.; Chen, J.

    1991-01-01

    A variational objective analysis technique that modifies observations of temperature, height, and wind on the cyclone scale to satisfy the five 'primitive' model forecast equations is presented. This analysis method overcomes all of the problems that hindered previous versions, such as over-determination, time consistency, solution method, and constraint decoupling. A preliminary evaluation of the method shows that it converges rapidly, the divergent part of the wind is strongly coupled in the solution, fields of height and temperature are well-preserved, and derivative quantities such as vorticity and divergence are improved. Problem areas are systematic increases in the horizontal velocity components, and large magnitudes of the local tendencies of the horizontal velocity components. The preliminary evaluation makes note of these problems but detailed evaluations required to determine the origin of these problems await future research.

  2. A revised version of the transfer matrix method to analyze one-dimensional structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitzsche, F.

    1983-01-01

    A new and general method to analyze both free and forced vibration characteristics of one-dimensional structures is discussed in this paper. This scheme links for the first time the classical transfer matrix method with the recently developed integrating matrix technique to integrate systems of differential equations. Two alternative approaches to the problem are presented. The first is based upon the lumped parameter model to account for the inertia properties of the structure. The second releases that constraint allowing a more precise description of the physical system. The free vibration of a straight uniform beam under different support conditions is analyzed to test the accuracy of the two models. Finally some results for the free vibration of a 12th order system representing a curved, rotating beam prove that the present method is conveniently extended to more complicated structural dynamics problems.

  3. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  4. Improvement of the GRACE star camera data based on the revision of the combination method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandikova, Tamara; Flury, Jakob

    2014-11-01

    The new release of the sensor and instrument data (Level-1B release 02) of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) had a substantial impact on the improvement of the overall accuracy of the gravity field models. This has implied that improvements on the sensor data level can still significantly contribute to arriving closer to the GRACE baseline accuracy. The recent analysis of the GRACE star camera data (SCA1B RL02) revealed their unexpectedly higher noise. As the star camera (SCA) data are essential for the processing of the K-band ranging data and the accelerometer data, thorough investigation of the data set was needed. We fully reexamined the SCA data processing from Level-1A to Level-1B with focus on the combination method of the data delivered by the two SCA heads. In the first step, we produced and compared our own combined attitude solution by applying two different combination methods on the SCA Level-1A data. The first method introduces the information about the anisotropic accuracy of the star camera measurement in terms of a weighing matrix. This method was applied in the official processing as well. The alternative method merges only the well determined SCA boresight directions. This method was implemented on the GRACE SCA data for the first time. Both methods were expected to provide optimal solution characteristic by the full accuracy about all three axes, which was confirmed. In the second step, we analyzed the differences between the official SCA1B RL02 data generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and our solution. SCA1B RL02 contains systematically higher noise of about a factor 3-4. The data analysis revealed that the reason is the incorrect implementation of algorithms in the JPL processing routines. After correct implementation of the combination method, significant improvement within the whole spectrum was achieved. Based on these results, the official reprocessing of the SCA data is suggested, as the SCA attitude data

  5. A New Height Error Revision Method of Predicting Long-Term Wind Speed with MCP Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yujue; Hu, Fei

    2013-04-01

    Wind energy technology is one of the fastest in growing rate in new and renewable energy technologies. It is very important to select stronger windy sites in a country for the purpose of producing more electricity. Measure-Correlate-Predict (MCP) algorithms are used to predict the wind resource at target site for wind power development. MCP method model bases on a relationship between wind data (speed and direction) measured at the target site and concurrent wind data at reference site nearby. The model is then used with long-term data from the reference site to predict the long-term wind speed and direction distributions at the target site. MCP method is in order to be able to determine the annual energy capture of a wind farm located at the target site. Over the last 15 years well over a half dozen of MCP methods in the literature. The MCP algorithms differ in terms of overall approach, model definition, use of direction sectors, and length of the data. Such as 1)a linear regression model; 2)a model using distributions of ratios of wind speeds at two sites; 3)a vector regression method; 4)a method based on the ratio of standard deviations of two data sets, etc. Unfortunately, none of these MCP algorithms can predict wind speed from two sites at different altitudes. If the target site is much higher or lower than the reference site, the result accuracy will be much poorer. Inner Mongolia grassland is known as one of the regions that rich in wind resource in China. The data we use is from three wind measurements, consisting of nearly one year of six layers in XiLinGuoLe of Inner Mongolia . Firstly, we use the maximum likelihood method to estimate k, shape parameter and c, scale parameter of the Weibull function for different time periods. And then we find out that c has a power law function of height, and that k varies as the form of a quadratic function of height and obtains the max value in the height of 10 to100 meters. Finally, we add the height distribution

  6. Revisions to some parameters used in stochastic-method simulations of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David; Thompson, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation specifies the amplitude spectrum as a function of magnitude (M) and distance (R). The manner in which the amplitude spectrum varies with M and R depends on physical‐based parameters that are often constrained by recorded motions for a particular region (e.g., stress parameter, geometrical spreading, quality factor, and crustal amplifications), which we refer to as the seismological model. The remaining ingredient for the stochastic method is the ground‐motion duration. Although the duration obviously affects the character of the ground motion in the time domain, it also significantly affects the response of a single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator. Recently published updates to the stochastic method include a new generalized double‐corner‐frequency source model, a new finite‐fault correction, a new parameterization of duration, and a new duration model for active crustal regions. In this article, we augment these updates with a new crustal amplification model and a new duration model for stable continental regions. Random‐vibration theory (RVT) provides a computationally efficient method to compute the peak oscillator response directly from the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration. Because the correction factor used to account for the nonstationarity of the ground motion depends on the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration, we also present new RVT correction factors for both active and stable regions.

  7. Herpes simplex virus colitis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Daley, Andrew J; Craven, Paul; Holland, Andrew J A; Jones, Cheryl A; Badawi, Nadia; Isaacs, David

    2002-09-01

    Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates with congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely described. We report a case of a newborn with disseminated HSV infection associated with profuse hematochezia and late sigmoid colon perforation. Histologic examination showed patchy areas of ulceration with multinucleated giant cells and HSV nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in colonic tissue. No clinically apparent episodes of recurrent colitis occurred in the first year of life. PMID:12380594

  8. Revised methods for few-group cross sections generation in the Serpent Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Leppaenen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents new calculation methods, recently implemented in the Serpent Monte Carlo code, and related to the production of homogenized few-group constants for deterministic 3D core analysis. The new methods fall under three topics: 1) Improved treatment of neutron-multiplying scattering reactions, 2) Group constant generation in reflectors and other non-fissile regions and 3) Homogenization in leakage-corrected criticality spectrum. The methodology is demonstrated by a numerical example, comparing a deterministic nodal diffusion calculation using Serpent-generated cross sections to a reference full-core Monte Carlo simulation. It is concluded that the new methodology improves the results of the deterministic calculation, and paves the way for Monte Carlo based group constant generation. (authors)

  9. Revision of the brick wall method for calculating the black hole thermodynamic quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, F.; Ohta, K.; Yazaki, K.

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of the "brick wall model," a novel method is developed to compute the contributions of a scalar field to the thermodynamic quantities of black holes. The relations between (transverse) momenta and frequencies in Rindler space are determined numerically with high accuracy and analytically with an accuracy of better than 10% and are compared with the corresponding quantities in Minkowski space. In conflict with earlier results, the thermodynamic properties of black holes turn out to be those of a low-temperature system. The resulting discrepancy for partition function and entropy by 2 orders of magnitude is analyzed in detail. In the final part we carry out the analogous studies for scalar fields in de Sitter space and thereby confirm that our method applies also to the important case of spherically symmetric spaces.

  10. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  11. Refinement Method for Residential Area Revision Using Remote Sensing Image and GIS Data in Earthquake Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, A. X.; Yuan, X. X.; Wang, X. Q.; Li, Z. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an automatic approach for residential areas revision by means of analysing the correlation between the residential area and the topographic and geographical factors. The approach consists of four major steps: the extracting of missing residential area from the remote sensing images with high resolution; the statistic analysing on the size changes of missing residential area in each grade of the elevation, slope, distance from the road and other impact factors; modelling of residential area modification in the urban and rural region; testing the methods using 100 counties data which are located in the middle part of China North-South Seismic Belt and comparing the result to the Land Use in map scale 1:100000. The experimental results present the accuracy of urban residents by 70% increased to 89.4%, rural residents by 47% up to 81.9%, rural residents from 8% increased to 78.5%. Therefore, there is available risk exposure information in a sparsely populated area because the spatial grid distributions of population and buildings are based on the residential areas. The proposed approach in this paper will improve the accuracy of the seismic risk assessment if it is applied to the national or the whole world.

  12. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  13. Neptunium nitrate solution. Neptunium TiOA - TTA method. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    An analytical solvent extraction method for separating neptunium from plutonium, americium, curium, uranium, thorium, and fission products using tri-iso-octylamine (TiOA) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) is described. Neptunium is separated from the bulk of the plutonium, americium, curium, and fission products by the extraction of neptunium(IV) into RiOA, dissolved in xylene, from an aqueous nitric acid reducing solution. The neptunium bearing organic solution is then scrubbed with a nitric acid reducing solution to achieve further purification. Final purification is obtained by stripping neptunium from tri-iso-octylaminexylene solution into dilute hydrochloric acid and then extracting the neptunium(IV) into TTA dissolved in xylene. A quantitative neptunium measurement is then made by alpha counting and alpha pulse height analysis. Most of the neptunium bearing sample solutions associated with the chemical processing of irradiated uranium are aqueous nitric acid solutions, and with the exception of uranium(IV) are free from interfering materials.

  14. Comparative methods with sampling error and within-species variation: contrasts revisited and revised.

    PubMed

    Felsenstein, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Comparative methods analyses have usually assumed that the species phenotypes are the true means for those species. In most analyses, the actual values used are means of samples of modest size. The covariances of contrasts then involve both the covariance of evolutionary changes and a fraction of the within-species phenotypic covariance, the fraction depending on the sample size for that species. Ives et al. have shown how to analyze data in this case when the within-species phenotypic covariances are known. The present model allows them to be unknown and to be estimated from the data. A multivariate normal statistical model is used for multiple characters in samples of finite size from species related by a known phylogeny, under the usual Brownian motion model of change and with equal within-species phenotypic covariances. Contrasts in each character can be obtained both between individuals within a species and between species. Each contrast can be taken for all of the characters. These sets of contrasts, each the same contrast taken for different characters, are independent. The within-set covariances are unequal and depend on the unknown true covariance matrices. An expectation-maximization algorithm is derived for making a reduced maximum likelihood estimate of the covariances of evolutionary change and the within-species phenotypic covariances. It is available in the Contrast program of the PHYLIP package. Computer simulations show that the covariances are biased when the finiteness of sample size is not taken into account and that using the present model corrects the bias. Sampling variation reduces the power of inference of covariation in evolution of different characters. An extension of this method to incorporate estimates of additive genetic covariances from a simple genetic experiment is also discussed. PMID:18419518

  15. Revised methods for estimating potential reentry exposure associated with indoor crack and crevice and perimeter application.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey H; Ross, John H; Pandian, Muhilan; Selim, Sami; Sharp, Janice K

    2013-01-01

    Surface deposition of insecticides applied as indoor residential foggers, baseboard or perimeter sprays, spot sprays, and crack-and-crevice (C&C) sprays represent pathways of unintentional, postapplication exposure for children and adults. Estimation of the magnitude of this exposure following an application event is associated with uncertainty due to many factors, including (1) surface residue deposition and distribution, (2) access to and the nature of contact with treated surfaces based on time-activity patterns of residents, and (3) the role of residue removal mechanisms such as cleaning treated surfaces, pesticide degradation or redistribution, and hand washing and bathing following contact. A comparative spatial deposition study was conducted involving broadcast, perimeter, and C&C application methods. Residues measured using a spatial grid of deposition dosimeters on floor surfaces demonstrated significantly lower residue concentrations in readily accessible areas following C&C and perimeter applications, versus broadcast treatment. Analyses of other monitoring studies support this finding. The implications of these findings are discussed for both screening-level and higher tier probabilistic postapplication, residential exposure assessment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) current guidance on interpretation of deposition following C&C application is supported by data in this study and others that indicate a ratio of 10:1 for deposition for broadcast versus C&C application. However, the perimeter deposition data are quite similar to C&C deposition and do not support a 70/30 default relative to broadcast recommended by the U.S. EPA (2012). PMID:23751000

  16. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  17. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  18. Study of Academic Growth Using Simplex Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    Forming a sequence covering the various aspects of the simplex model, four articles are presented here under the following titles: "A Simplex Model for Analyzing Academic Growth", "Analyzing Ratings With Correlated Intrajudge Measurement Errors", "The Correlation of States With Gain", and "The Reliability of College Grades from Longitudinal Data".…

  19. A Revised Method of Presenting Wavenumber-Frequency Power Spectrum Diagrams That Reveals the Asymmetric Nature of Tropical Large-scale Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua

    2007-01-01

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called "convectively-coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves" are presented as existing only in the symmetric (antisymmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves," which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves" do show anti-symmetric components, and "convectively-coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)" do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves be called "chimeric Kelvin waves," "chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves," etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers a more rigorous means of comparing the General Circulation Models (GCM) output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs in correctly simulating the asymmetric characteristics of the equatorial waves.

  20. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevention, treatment, and revision. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap ... Hebe Molmenti, MD, PhD, private practice specializing in plastic and reconstructive surgery, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by ...

  1. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  2. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  3. Connecting the dots : analysis, development and applications of the SimpleX algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruip, Chael

    2011-11-01

    The SimpleX radiative transfer method is based on the interpretation of photons as particles interacting on a natural scale: the local mean free path. In our method, light is transported along the lines of an unstructured Delaunay mesh that encodes this natural distance and represents the physical medium. The SimpleX method is fast, highly adaptive and its computational cost does not scale with the number of sources. It is therefore well-suited for cosmological applications where it is essential to cover many orders of magnitude in resolution and where millions of sources can exist within a single simulation. We describe the code, its recent developments and apply it to several relevant astrophysical problems. In particular, we perform radiative transfer calculations of cosmological reionization and of the wind-wind interaction region of the Eta Carinae binary system.

  4. Subjective Well-Being: Revisions to Dynamic Equilibrium Theory Using National Panel Data and Panel Regression Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This paper partly revises the dynamic equilibrium (DE) theory of subjective well-being (SWB), sometimes termed set point theory. Results from four national panel surveys show that correlations among measures of SWB diminish over time, and that the SWB set points of a minority of individuals substantially change. These results mean that DE theory…

  5. Studies on the constituents of seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus and their anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities.

    PubMed

    Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu

    2002-04-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus (Leguminosae) resulted in the isolation of nine known components: five rotenoids [dolineone (3), pachyrrhizone (5), 12a-hydroxydolineone (7), 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9), and 12a-hydroxyrotenone (2)], two isoflavonoids [neotenone (4) and dehydroneotenone (8)], one phenylfuranocoumarin [pachyrrhizine (6)], and a monosaccharide (dulcitol). The full 1H- and 13C-NMR assignments for the isolated products except a sugar, including revision of previous assignments in the literature, are reported. Moderate anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity was observed in 12a-hydroxydolineone (7) and 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9) among the isolated products. PMID:11964004

  6. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated. PMID:23399415

  7. Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2006-09-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains one of the most devastating infections of the central nervous system despite available antiviral therapy. Children and adolescents account for approximately one third of all cases of HSE. Clinical diagnosis is suggested in the encephalopathic, febrile patient with focal neurologic signs. However, these clinical findings are not pathognomonic because numerous other diseases in the central nervous system can mimic HSE. Neurodiagnostic evaluation can provide support for the diagnosis by the demonstration of temporal lobe edema/hemorrhage by magnetic resonance image scan and spike and slow-wave activity on electroencephalogram. In the current era, the diagnostic gold standard is the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although PCR is an excellent test and preferable to brain biopsy, false negatives can occur early after disease onset. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice and is administered at 10 mg/kg every 8 h for 21 days. Even with early administration of therapy after the disease onset, nearly two thirds of survivors have significant residual neurologic deficits. Current investigative efforts are assessing the prognostic value of quantitative PCR detection of viral DNA at the onset of therapy as well as at the completion of therapy and the contribution of prolonged antiviral therapy to improved neurologic outcome. PMID:16675036

  8. Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general

  9. Revision Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Loyo, Myriam; Wang, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging operations the facial plastic surgeon performs given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nose and the psychological impact it has on patients. The intricate interplay of cartilages, bone, and soft tissue in the nose gives it its aesthetic and function. Facial harmony and attractiveness depends greatly on the nose given its central position in the face. In the following article, the authors review common motivations and anatomic findings for patients seeking revision rhinoplasty based on the senior author's 30-year experience with rhinoplasty and a review of the literature. PMID:26616705

  10. Kernel simplex growing algorithm for hyperspectral endmember extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liaoying; Zheng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaorun; Wang, Lijiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively extract endmembers for hyperspectral imagery where linear mixing model may not be appropriate due to multiple scattering effects, this paper extends the simplex growing algorithm (SGA) to its kernel version. A new simplex volume formula without dimension reduction is used in SGA to form a new simplex growing algorithm (NSGA). The original data are nonlinearly mapped into a high-dimensional space where the scatters can be ignored. To avoid determining complex nonlinear mapping, a kernel function is used to extend the NSGA to kernel NSGA (KNSGA). Experimental results of simulated and real data prove that the proposed KNSGA approach outperforms SGA and NSGA.

  11. Transforming low-discrepancy sequences from a cube to a simplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillards, Tim; Cools, Ronald

    2005-02-01

    Sequences of points with a low discrepancy are the basic building blocks for quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Traditionally these points are generated in a unit cube.To develop point sets on a simplex we will transform the low-discrepancy points from the unit cube to a simplex. An advantage of this approach is that most of the known results on low-discrepancy sequences can be re-used. After introducing several transformations, their efficiency as well as their quality will be evaluated. We present a Koksma-Hlawka inequality which says that under certain conditions the order of convergence using the new point set is the same as that of the original set.

  12. Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

    1981-06-01

    Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

  13. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  14. GPU implementation of the simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Jorge; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging can be used for object detection and for discriminating between different objects based on their spectral characteristics. One of the main problems of hyperspectral data analysis is the presence of mixed pixels, due to the low spatial resolution of such images. This means that several spectrally pure signatures (endmembers) are combined into the same mixed pixel. Linear spectral unmixing follows an unsupervised approach which aims at inferring pure spectral signatures and their material fractions at each pixel of the scene. The huge data volumes acquired by such sensors put stringent requirements on processing and unmixing methods. This paper proposes an efficient implementation of a unsupervised linear unmixing method on GPUs using CUDA. The method finds the smallest simplex by solving a sequence of nonsmooth convex subproblems using variable splitting to obtain a constraint formulation, and then applying an augmented Lagrangian technique. The parallel implementation of SISAL presented in this work exploits the GPU architecture at low level, using shared memory and coalesced accesses to memory. The results herein presented indicate that the GPU implementation can significantly accelerate the method's execution over big datasets while maintaining the methods accuracy.

  15. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18627656

  16. Revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Bagger, Jens; Schrøder, Henrik M; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - The surgical treatment of periprosthetic knee infection is generally either a partial revision procedure (open debridement and exchange of the tibial insert) or a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty procedure. We describe the failure rates of these procedures on a nationwide basis. Patients and methods - 105 partial revisions (100 patients) and 215 potential 2-stage revision procedures (205 patients) performed due to infection from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013 were identified from the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register (DKR). Failure was defined as surgically related death ≤ 90 days postoperatively, re-revision due to infection, or not reaching the second stage for a planned 2-stage procedure within a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.2-4.2) years. Results - The failure rate of the partial revisions was 43%. 71 of the partial revisions (67%) were revisions of a primary prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 34%, as compared to 55% in revisions of a revision prosthesis (p = 0.05). The failure rate of the 2-stage revisions was 30%. Median time interval between stages was 84 (9-597) days. 117 (54%) of the 2-stage revisions were revisions of a primary prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 21%, as compared to 29% in revisions of a previously revised prosthesis (p = 0.1). Overall postoperative mortality was 0.6% in high-volume centers (> 30 procedures within 2 years) as opposed to 7% in the remaining centers (p = 0.003). Interpretation - The failure rates of 43% after the partial revision procedures and 30% after the 2-stage revisions in combination with the higher mortality outside high-volume centers call for centralization and reconsideration of surgical strategies. PMID:26900908

  17. On the existence of binary simplex codes. [using combinatorial construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple combinatorial construction, the existence of a binary simplex code with m codewords for all m is greater than or equal to 1 is proved. The problem of the shortest possible length is left open.

  18. A Case of Steatocystoma Simplex Involving the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dong Nyeok; Won, Jong Hoon; Chung, Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Steatocystoma is a benign adnexal tumor originating from the pilosebaceous duct junction which can be classified into two groups (steatocystoma simplex and steatocystoma multiplex). Steatocystoma simplex, which presents as a solitary lesion, is very rare. Steatocystoma simplex occurs most commonly on the face and the case reported herein involving the scalp is extremely rare. A 49-year-old man presented for evaluation and treatment of a solitary papule on the right parietal scalp which had persisted for a period of 1 year. The histopathologic examination revealed a thin-walled cyst consisting of stratified squamous epithelium with hyaline cuticle that lacked a stratum granulosum. Based on clinical and histologic findings, we diagnosed this case as steatocystoma simplex of the scalp and report this rare case. PMID:27303199

  19. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteveen, Jeroen A. S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC-SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers' equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC-SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Weinberg, Adriana; Schmid, D Scott

    2016-06-01

    The most common specimens from immunocompromised patients that are analyzed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are from skin lesions. Many types of assays are applicable to these samples, but some, such as virus isolation and direct fluorescent antibody testing, are useful only in the early phases of the lesions. In contrast, nucleic acid (NA) detection methods, which generally have superior sensitivity and specificity, can be applied to skin lesions at any stage of progression. NA methods are also the best choice, and sometimes the only choice, for detecting HSV or VZV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous or vitreous humor, and from mucosal surfaces. NA methods provide the best performance when reliability and speed (within 24 hours) are considered together. They readily distinguish the type of HSV detected or the source of VZV detected (wild type or vaccine strain). Nucleic acid detection methods are constantly being improved with respect to speed and ease of performance. Broader applications are under study, such as the use of quantitative results of viral load for prognosis and to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy. PMID:27337486

  1. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-15

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC–SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers’ equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC–SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  2. Parallel Implementations Of The Nelder-Mead Simplex Algorithm For Unconstrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, J. E.; Torczon, Virginia

    1988-04-01

    We are interested in implementing direct search methods on parallel computers to solve the unconstrained minimization problem: Given a function f : IRn --? IR find an x E En that minimizes 1 (x). Our preliminary work has focused on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. The origin of the algorithm can be found in a 1962 paper by Spendley, Hext and Himsworth;1 Nelder and Meade proposed an adaptive version which proved to be much more robust in practice. Dennis and Woods3 give a clear presentation of the standard Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm; Woods4 includes a more complete discussion of implementation details as well as some preliminary convergence results. Since descriptions of the standard Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm appear in Nelder and Mead,2 Dennis and Woods,3 and Woods,4 we will limit our introductory discussion to the advantages and disadvantages of the algorithm, as well as some of the features which make it so popular. We then outline the approaches we have taken and discuss our preliminary results. We conclude with a discussion of future research and some observations about our findings.

  3. Characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Jonscher, Karen R.; Dooper, Maaike M.W.B.; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Moen, Anders; Daschner, Alvaro; Egaas, Eliann; Christians, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. A. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis) and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. Protein extracts of A. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and IgE-immunostaining. In the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from A. simplex-sensitised patients and proteome data obtained by mass spectrometry. A. simplex proteins were homologous to allergens in other nematodes, insects, and shellfish indicating cross-reactivity. Characteristic marker peptides for relevant A. simplex proteins were described. PMID:27110489

  4. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  5. Development of a reservoir type prolonged release system with felodipine via simplex methodology

    PubMed Central

    IOVANOV, RAREŞ IULIU; TOMUŢĂ, IOAN; LEUCUŢA, SORIN EMILIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Felodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that presents good characteristics to be formulated as prolonged release preparations. The aim of the study was the formulation and in vitro characterization of a reservoir type prolonged release system with felodipine, over a 12 hours period using the Simplex method. Methods The first step of the Simplex method was to study the influence of the granules coating method on the felodipine release. Furthermore the influence of the coating polymer type, the percent of the coating polymer and the percent of pore forming agent in the coating on the felodipine release were studied. Afterwards these two steps of the experimental design the percent of Surelease applied on the felodipine loaded granules and the percent of pore former in the polymeric coating formulation variables were studied. The in vitro dissolution of model drug was performed in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.5) with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. The released drug quantification was done using an HPLC method. The release kinetics of felodipine from the final granules was assessed using different mathematical models. Results A 12 hours release was achieved using granules with the size between 315–500 μm coated with 45% Surelease with different pore former ratios in the coating via the top-spray method. Conclusion We have prepared prolonged release coated granules with felodipine using a fluid bed system based on the Simplex method. The API from the studied final formulations was released over a 12 hours period and the release kinetics of the model drug substance from the optimized preparations fitted best the Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models. PMID:27004036

  6. Mycosis inhibits cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, a tettigonid. These behaviors have been proposed as mechanisms for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. After anecdotal observations that Melanoplus sanguinipes and A. simplex did ...

  7. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  8. Herpes simplex virus duodenitis accompanying Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Hoo; Um, Wook Hyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jin, So Young

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patient's symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. PMID:24262595

  9. Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Field, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially important differences, the clinical trials, and the clinical experience through two decades. Some possible areas for further investigation are suggested. The focus shifts to new approaches and novel compounds, in particular, the combination of ACV with hydrocortisone, known as ME609 or zovirax duo, an HSV helicase-primase inhibitor, pritelivir (AIC316), and CMX001, the cidofovir prodrug for treating resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Letermovir has established that the human cytomegalovirus terminase enzyme is a valid target and that similar compounds could be sought for HSV. We discuss the difficulties facing the progression of new compounds. In our concluding remarks, we summarize the present situation including a discussion on the reclassification of FCV from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely? We conclude that HSV research is emerging from a quiescent phase. PMID:23885997

  10. Uncoating the Herpes Simplex Virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Initiation of infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) involves a step in which the parental virus capsid docks at a nuclear pore and injects its DNA into the nucleus. Once “uncoated” in this way, the virus DNA can be transcribed and replicated. In an effort to clarify the mechanism of DNA injection, we examined DNA release as it occurs in purified capsids incubated in vitro. DNA ejection was observed following two different treatments, trypsin digestion of capsids in solution, and heating of capsids after attachment to a solid surface. In both cases, electron microscopic analysis revealed that DNA was ejected as a single double helix with ejection occurring at one vertex presumed to be the portal. In the case of trypsin-treated capsids, DNA release was found to correlate with cleavage of a small proportion of the portal protein, UL6, suggesting UL6 cleavage may be involved in making the capsid permissive for DNA ejection. In capsids bound to a solid surface, DNA ejection was observed only when capsids were warmed above 4°C. The proportion of capsids releasing their DNA increased as a function of incubation temperature with nearly all capsids ejecting their DNA when incubation was at 37°C. The results demonstrate heterogeneity among HSV-1 capsids with respect to their sensitivity to heat-induced DNA ejection. Such heterogeneity may indicate a similar heterogeneity in the ease with which capsids are able to deliver DNA to the infected cell nucleus. PMID:17540405

  11. A Drosophila Model of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Paululat, Achim; Baccam, Gabriel C; Wallrath, Lori L; Magin, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    The blistering skin disorder epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) results from dominant mutations in keratin 5 (K5) or keratin 14 (K14) genes, encoding the intermediate filament (IF) network of basal epidermal keratinocytes. The mechanisms governing keratin network formation and collapse due to EBS mutations remain incompletely understood. Drosophila lacks cytoplasmic IFs, providing a 'null' environment to examine the formation of keratin networks and determine mechanisms by which mutant keratins cause pathology. Here, we report that ubiquitous co-expression of transgenes encoding wild-type human K14 and K5 resulted in the formation of extensive keratin networks in Drosophila epithelial and non-epithelial tissues, causing no overt phenotype. Similar to mammalian cells, treatment of transgenic fly tissues with phosphatase inhibitors caused keratin network collapse, validating Drosophila as a genetic model system to investigate keratin dynamics. Co-expression of K5 and a K14(R125C) mutant that causes the most severe form of EBS resulted in widespread formation of EBS-like cytoplasmic keratin aggregates in epithelial and non-epithelial fly tissues. Expression of K14(R125C)/K5 caused semi-lethality; adult survivors developed wing blisters and were flightless due to a lack of intercellular adhesion during wing heart development. This Drosophila model of EBS is valuable for the identification of pathways altered by mutant keratins and for the development of EBS therapies. PMID:25830653

  12. A pilot application of risk-informed methods to establish inservice inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.K.; Gore, B.F.; Simonen, F.A.; Doctor, S.R.

    1997-02-01

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed risk-informed approaches for inservice inspection plans of nuclear power plants. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results to identify and prioritize the most risk-important components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot application of this methodology. This report, which incorporates more recent plant-specific information and improved risk-informed methodology and tools, is Revision 1 of the earlier report (NUREG/CR-6181). The methodology discussed in the original report is no longer current and a preferred methodology is presented in this Revision. This report, NUREG/CR-6181, Rev. 1, therefore supersedes the earlier NUREG/CR-6181 published in August 1994. The specific systems addressed in this report are the auxiliary feedwater, the low-pressure injection, and the reactor coolant systems. The results provide a risk-informed ranking of components within these systems.

  13. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tamara P.; Mitchell, Michelle C.; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A.; Belshe, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency. PMID:26658766

  14. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Tamara P; Mitchell, Michelle C; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A; Belshe, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency. PMID:26658766

  15. Bioactive lignan derivatives from the stems of Firmiana simplex.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Suh, Won Se; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Aejung; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-01

    The CHCl3 soluble fraction of the 80% MeOH extract of the stems of Firmiana simplex strongly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 cells. A bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation yielded two new lignans, firmianols A and B (1-2) together with seventeen known lignans (3-19). The structural elucidation of the new compounds was determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-FAB-MS. All isolated lignans were evaluated for their antineuroinflammatory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-activated murine microglia BV2 cells. Among the isolated, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent inhibitory activity against NO production (IC50 1.05 and 0.929 μM, respectively) without cell toxicity in murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 11-13 and 17 also exhibited strong inhibitory effects on NO production, with IC50 values ranging from 7.07 to 15.28 μM. PMID:26774654

  16. Position error propagation in the simplex strapdown navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an analysis of the effects of deterministic error sources on position error in the simplex strapdown navigation system were documented. Improving the long term accuracy of the system was addressed in two phases: understanding and controlling the error within the system, and defining methods of damping the net system error through the use of an external reference velocity or position. Review of the flight and ground data revealed error containing the Schuler frequency as well as non-repeatable trends. The only unbounded terms are those involving gyro bias and azimuth error coupled with velocity. All forms of Schuler-periodic position error were found to be sufficiently large to require update or damping capability unless the source coefficients can be limited to values less than those used in this analysis for misalignment and gyro and accelerometer bias. The first-order effects of the deterministic error sources were determined with a simple error propagator which provided plots of error time functions in response to various source error values.

  17. Clinical Correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia Among Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William R.; Jerome, Keith R.; Cook, Linda; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA from the peripheral blood is often used to evaluate patients suspected of having disseminated HSV infection. Few studies have examined the clinical correlates of HSV viremia among adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood samples sent to a reference molecular virology diagnostic facility at a university hospital for quantification of HSV DNA between October 2001 and June 2006. Medical records of patients with detectable HSV DNA were reviewed to abstract relevant clinical characteristics. Results HSV DNA was detected in 37 (4.0%) of 951 samples from 29 individual patients. 19 (65.5%) were >16 years of age, and detailed medical records were available for review from 13 (68.4%) of 19 adults patients. Of the 10 patients whose HSV infection was typed, 6 (60%) had HSV-2, 3 (30%) had HSV-1, and one had evidence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. All viremic patients were treated with antiviral medications. The most common clinical findings were hepatitis (62%), fever (54%), CNS alterations (46%), skin lesions (38%), abdominal pain (31%), and sepsis (31%). Respiratory failure (23%) was uncommon. Patients with HSV viremia were observed to have a high mortality rate (6 of 10 immunocompromised and 1 of 3 immunocompetent individuals). Conclusions HSV viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. PMID:19807272

  18. 3D radiative transfer in colliding wind binaries: Application of the SimpleX algorithm to 3D SPH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael; Icke, Vincent; Gull, Theodore

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in a massive binary system. We accomplish this by applying the SIMPLEX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the colliding winds in the binary system η Carinae. We use SIMPLEX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We show how the SIMPLEX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in η Car's extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SIMPLEX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the η Car system, such as the primary's mass-loss rate and the companion's temperature and luminosity. While we initially focus specifically on the η Car binary, the numerical methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR140, WR137, WR19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR104, WR98a) binary systems. One of the biggest remaining mysteries is how dust can form and survive in such systems that contain a hot, luminous O star. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SIMPLEX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  19. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  20. The Shortlist Method for Fast Computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and Finding Optimal Solutions to Transportation Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  1. A New Method for Revision of Encapsulated Blebs after Trabeculectomy: Combination of Standard Bleb Needling with Transconjunctival Scleral Flap Sutures Prevents Early Postoperative Hypotony

    PubMed Central

    Laspas, Panagiotis; Culmann, Philipp David; Grus, Franz Hermann; Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Poplawksi, Alicia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Hoffmann, Esther Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A simple needling procedure is the standard method for restoring the function of an encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy. However, postoperative hypotony represents a possible hazard. This study describes a new surgical approach for treating encapsulated blebs with reduced risk of early postoperative hypotony: bleb needling combined with transconjunctival sutures tightening the scleral flap directly. Methods The study included two groups of 23 patients with failing bleb following trabeculectomy: “Group 1” underwent simple needling revision of the filtering bleb and served as a control group, while “Group 2” received needling revision with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures, if intraoperatively the intraocular pressure was estimated to be very low. Intraocular pressure (IOP), postoperative management and complications were analyzed over a follow-up period of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results Adverse effects occurred with a higher frequency after sole needling of the bleb (5 cases of choroidal effusion and 1 case of choroidal hemorrhage) than after the combined method with additional scleral sutures (1 case of choroidal effusion). The IOP on the first postoperative day was significantly lower in group 1, with 9.43 ± 9.01 mm Hg vs. 16.43 ± 8.35 mm Hg in group 2 (P = 0.01). Ten patients with ocular hypotony (IOD of 5 mmHg or lower) were found in group 1 and only two in group 2. One week and one month after surgery the intraocular pressure was similar in both groups (P>0.05). Conclusions This new needling technique with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures appears to reduce postoperative hypotony, and may thus protect from further complications, such as subchoroidal hemorrhage. PMID:27314495

  2. Scar revision

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

  3. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  4. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  5. Changes in nurses’ work associated with computerised information systems: Opportunities for international comparative studies using the revised Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT)

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Creswick, Nerida J.; Duffield, Christine; Li, Ling; Dunsmuir, William T. M.

    2012-01-01

    An important step in advancing global health through informatics is to understand how systems support health professionals to deliver improved services to patients. Studies in several countries have highlighted the potential for clinical information systems to change patterns of work and communication, and in particular have raised concerns that they reduce nurses’ time in direct care. However measuring the effects of systems on work is challenging and comparisons across studies have been hindered by a lack of standardised definitions and measurement tools. This paper describes the Work Observation Method by Activity Time (WOMBAT) technique version 1.0 and the ways in which the data generated can describe different aspects of health professionals’ work. In 2011 a revised WOMBAT version 2.0 was developed specifically to facilitate its use by research teams in different countries. The new features provide opportunities for international comparative studies of nurses’ work to be conducted. PMID:24199139

  6. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  7. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  8. A Case Series: Herpes Simplex Virus as an Occupational Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Browning, William D; McCarthy, James P

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes labialis infections are common and present a serious risk to the dental team. Purpose of the Study The purpose is to make dentists aware of the risks involved with treatment of patients with active herpes labialis. In addition, evidence-based risk-management strategies are presented. Methods and Materials The incidence and natural history of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are reviewed. Four previously unreported case histories are presented to illustrate the impact common sequelae of HSV-1 can have on the dental team. The differences between HSV-1 and the blood-borne diseases which are the focus of universal precautions are discussed. In particular, the highly contagious, highly transmissible nature of HSV-1 and its transmission through aerosols are highlighted. Finally, the need to include protection against aerosols in the profession's understanding of universal precautions is noted. Results The authors suggest limiting the treatment of patients with active lesions to urgent care only, and treating active HSV-1 lesions to reduce time of healing. For four common clinical situations involving HSV-1 infections, evidence-based methods for protecting the dental team and the patient from cross-contamination are also presented. Conclusion While it is clear that the treatment of patients with active herpes labialis lesions increases risk of cross-infection, there are good protocols for controlling this risk. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE By bringing common vectors of cross-infection to light and providing evidence-based protocols for preventing them, this article provides practitioners with positive steps that can be taken for controlling the risk of spreading herpes infections to the dental team. (J Esthet Restor Dent 24:61–67, 2012) PMID:22296698

  9. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM. PMID:26922461

  10. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  11. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."). PMID:25552056

  12. Testing for Herpes Simplex Virus in Low-Volume Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples: Comparison of Three Protocols To Optimize Detection

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Mark J.; Irish, Cole L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a medical emergency and requires rapid, sensitive testing. However, the volume of CSF received for microbiological studies may be limited, especially from young children. In this study, we compared three testing protocols to our routine real-time PCR method to determine the most sensitive approach for detecting HSV-1 and HSV-2 in low-volume (≤100 μl) CSF. PMID:26400783

  13. Revision sphenoidethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Eichel, B S

    1985-03-01

    In 1981, a series of 236 intranasal ethmoidectomy (INE) procedures was reported with a complication rate of 1.8%. Special attention has subsequently been directed to the surgical failures; namely, recurrent nasal polyposis which accounted for approximately 17%. The reason for recurrence in most instances was felt due to failure to do a more thorough posterior ethmoidectomy and enter and clean out the sphenoid sinuses. Subsequently, in all revision cases where a more thorough sphenoidethmoidectomy (RSE) was performed, the overall long-term success rate raised to better than 90%. Attention to skeletonizing the middle turbinate by stripping mucosa and leaving a thin bony shell is an important technical factor. An attempt is made to leave some of this bony skeletonized medial wall of the middle turbinate as it represents the most crucial landmark in doing the surgery via the intranasal route. There still remains approximately 8% to 10% of this patient population with nasal polyposis and sinusitis of such severity that surgery has offered only a temporary measure of relief. In dealing with this group it may be necessary to see these patients postoperatively at four to six-week intervals, carefully suctioning the ethmoid labyrinth and occasionally doing minor office "touch-up" ethmoidectomy-polypectomy procedures to clean off redundant mucosa or early polyposis. This paper is written to offer a compromise to the two schools of intranasal ethmoidectomy surgery as to the necessity of removing the middle turbinate in its entirety. PMID:3974381

  14. The Longitudinal Guttman Simplex: Applications to Health Behavior Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Dent, Clyde W.

    Because health behavior is often concerned with dynamic constructs, a longitudinal approach to measurement is needed. The Longitudinal Guttman Simplex (LGS) is a measurement model developed especially for dynamic constructs exhibiting cumulative, unitary development measured longitudinally. Data from the Television Smoking Prevention Project, a…

  15. Larvicidal constituents of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, June-Der; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol, compounds isolated from the roots of Zingiber officinale L., Zingiberaceae (ginger), against Anisakis simplex. The above compounds kill or reduce spontaneous movement in A. simplex larvae. The maximum lethal efficacy of [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol was approximately 80% and 100%, respectively. We further examined the time course of compound-induced loss of mobility in A. simplex. The results showed that various concentrations of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol have maximum effects on loss of spontaneous movement from 24 to 72 h. In addition, the time course of mortality and the percentage of loss of spontaneous movements were ascertained to determine the minimum effective doses of [10]-gingerol and [10]-shogaol. [10]-Gingerol exhibited a larger maximum larvicidal effect and greater loss of spontaneous movement than [10]-shogaol and albendazole. In addition, these constituents of Zingiber officinale showed effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals. These constituents of Zingiber officinale are responsible for its larvicidal activity against A. simplex. PMID:20533167

  16. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection presenting with hypopigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Low, Lynette C M; Carton, James; Walker, Marjorie; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Hardman, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a sexually transmitted infection that can be transmitted from mother to child in utero, perinatally, or postnatally. Cutaneous infection with HSV commonly presents as vesicles affecting the skin, eyes, or mouth. In our case, we report a well child with cutaneous hypopigmented patches at birth that preceded typical blistering. PMID:22010816

  17. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  18. Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Seppänen, Mikko; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lappalainen, Maija; Valtonen, Ville; Färkkilä, Markus; Kalso, Eija

    2009-01-01

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996–2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2–5 days after symptom onset. PMID:19624935

  19. Recurrent lymphocytic meningitis positive for herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Kallio-Laine, Katariina; Seppänen, Mikko; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lokki, Marja Liisa; Lappalainen, Maija; Valtonen, Ville; Färkkilä, Markus; Kalso, Eija

    2009-07-01

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996-2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2-5 days after symptom onset. PMID:19624935

  20. Numerical analysis of EPR spectra. 7. The simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Athelstan L. J.; Brumby, Steven

    The Simplex algorithm is well suited to the least-squares analysis of highly complex EPR spectra. The application of the algorithm to the analysis of the spectra of benzo[ a]pyrenyl-6-oxy, chloro(methoxycarbonyl)methyl, and cyano(methoxy)methyl free radicals is described.

  1. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

    2002-01-01

    Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

  2. Nonlinear and Quasi-Simplex Patterns in Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In the SEM literature, simplex and latent growth models have always been considered competing approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data, even if they are strongly connected and both of specific importance. General dynamic models, which simultaneously estimate autoregressive structures and latent curves, have been recently proposed in the…

  3. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  4. The Law of Cosines for an "n"-Dimensional Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yiren

    2008-01-01

    Using the divergence theorem technique of L. Eifler and N.H. Rhee, "The n-dimensional Pythagorean Theorem via the Divergence Theorem" (to appear: Amer. Math. Monthly), we extend the law of cosines for a triangle in a plane to an "n"-dimensional simplex in an "n"-dimensional space.

  5. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  6. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  7. SIMPLEX OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIELEMENT ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Simplex search was used to locate an optimum for an ultrasonic extraction of trace elements from atmospheric particulates collected on glass fiber high-volume sampler filters. The optimized procedure produced quantitative results for 13 elements with precisions of 10% or less, ...

  8. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  9. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  12. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  13. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  14. Laboratory development and field evaluation of a generic method for sampling and analysis of isocyanates. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, J.F.; Foster, S.C.; Merrill, R.G.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the authority of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, requires the identification and validation of sampling and analytical methods for the isocyanate compounds which are listed among the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. In all, three field tests were performed to accomplish the isocyanate field evaluation. The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the isocyanate sampling and analytical test method through field testing at operating stationary sources. The method was evaluated by collecting flue gas samples for the analysis of the individual isocyanate and evaluating the data for bias and precision. EPA Method 301, Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media, was used as the model for the experimental design of this method evaluation project.

  15. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the 'EZT method') by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  16. Unexpected but Most Welcome: Mixed Methods for the Validation and Revision of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although combining methods is nothing new, more contributions about why and how to mix methods for validation purposes are needed. This article presents a case of validating the inferences drawn from the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument, an instrument that purports to measure stakeholder participation in evaluation. Although the…

  17. Revised method to detect the onset and demise dates of the rainy season in the South American Monsoon areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Kayano, Mary T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes the detection of dates for the onset and demise of the rainy season (ONR and DER, respectively) for some areas within the South American monsoon system (SAMS) region using procedures based on indices which could be easily calculated and subjected to very simple criterion. Previously, the time series of the averaged antisymmetric outgoing longwave radiation ([AOLR]) in each region of interest was used by some authors to detect ONR and DER. This method is referred to as OLD. First, it was proposed in this paper to smooth this time series with the five-pentad running mean ([RM_AOLR]). This modified method is called NEW. Then, an additional modification was adopted by smoothing the [AOLR] with the three-pentad running mean but with the [AOLR] in the most recent pentad being replaced by its climatological value ([RM_AOLRCLI]). This method is called NEW_CLI. For these methods, the criterion was that the first pentad with negative (positive) [AOLR] (or [RM_AOLR] or [RM_AOLRCLI]) is the ONR (DER) date in the region of interest. All these methods were applied for the Central Amazon (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) regions during the rainy seasons in the 2001-2013 period. The efficiency of these methods was analyzed using the precipitation estimated from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. The spatial average of the TRMM ([TRMM]) time series with threshold values, which depends on the area and season, was used to determine the ONR and DER dates. In this case, the single method based on the threshold value is called RAIN, and the method which considers the persistence of dry or wet condition is referred to as NEW_RAIN. Comparisons between the methods were performed by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) when ONR and DER dates obtained from a given method were considered as the true dates. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods were discussed here. It was previously noted that the

  18. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  19. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  20. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-06-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ((14C)FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional (14C)FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application.

  2. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  3. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

  4. Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

    2014-08-18

    Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

  5. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  6. Copyright Revision in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    The article discusses the history of copyright laws, the directions which copyright revision can take, and the rationale behind revision. Regulations for protecting various media such as sound recordings, performances, and cable television are discussed. (JAB)

  7. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients' quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Grest, P; Albicker, P; Hoelzle, L; Wild, P; Pospischil, A

    2002-05-01

    An adult domestic rabbit showing neurological signs was subjected to euthanasia. At necropsy, macroscopical lesions were absent. Histopathologically, extensive lesions were seen, particularly in the cerebral cortex. Non-suppurative meningitis was present and there was lymphocytic and plasmacytic perivascular cuffing in the neuropil. The cerebral cortex showed extensive segmental neuronal and glial necrosis. Within the necrotic areas, large amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in neurons and glial cells. Immunohistochemically, neurons and glial cells in the affected areas were labelled by polyclonal antibodies against both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The agent was classified as HSV-1 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. This is only the second reported natural case of herpes simplex infection in a rabbit. PMID:12056779

  9. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients’ quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  10. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994.

  11. Deletion of amelogenin Y-locus in forensics: literature revision and description of a novel method for sex confirmation.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, P; Giuliodori, A; Corato, S; Ponzano, E; Rodriguez, D; Caenazzo, L

    2013-07-01

    Today, the molecular technique routinely for sex determination in forensics is based the detection of length variations in the X-Y homologous amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY). In humans, the amelogenin gene is a single-copy gene located on Xp22.1-Xp22.3 and Yp11.2; the simultaneous detection of the X and Y alleles using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can lead to gender determination. Several studies have shown that normal males may be typed as females with this test: AMELY deletions may result in no product of amplification and normal males being typed as female as a result of the test (negative male). Considering the consequences of the result obtained using only the amelogenin marker, and the related potential difficulties in interpreting the results, the gender misinterpretation may be troublesome in clinical practice and in forensic casework. In this article, beginning with a review of the incidence of gender-testing failures among different populations, and with the different strategies proposed in the literature in case of doubt regarding the presence of deleted AMEL in the DNA profile, we propose a method for the identification of samples with deleted AMEL that can be applied, as an additional assay, in case of doubt regarding PCR results of sex determination. PMID:23756502

  12. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  13. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  14. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  15. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  16. Herpes simplex virus latency in isolated human neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Wigdahl, B; Smith, C A; Traglia, H M; Rapp, F

    1984-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is most probably maintained in the ganglion neurons of the peripheral nervous system of humans in a latent form that can reactivate to produce recurrent disease. As an approximation of this cell-virus interaction, we have constructed a herpes simplex virus latency in vitro model system using human fetus sensory neurons as the host cell. Human fetus neurons were characterized as neuronal in origin by the detection of the neuropeptide substance P and the neuron-specific plasma membrane A2B5 antigen. Virus latency was established by blocking complete expression of the virus genome by treatment of infected human neurons with a combination of human leukocyte interferon and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine for 7 days. After removal of inhibitors, virus latency was maintained for at least 9 days. This in vitro model will provide a system to analyze, in a primary human neuron, the state of the herpes simplex virus genome during establishment and maintenance of experimental latency. Images PMID:6091142

  17. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. PMID:26891594

  18. Simplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of Herculex RW (59122) maize based on one reference molecule including separated fragments of 5' integration site and endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Shu; Shen, Kailin; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reference molecules, as positive controls and calibrators, have been recently developed in genetically modified organism analysis as a potential substitute for reference materials derived from plant raw materials. In this study, a novel reference molecule p59122, including the revealed 5' integration sequence of maize Herculex RW (59122), was constructed that was suitable for simplex and duplex event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detections. The LOD values were 10 copies both for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR when p59122 was used as the calibrator. These values were comparable to those of using genomic DNA samples with 0.01 and 0.05%, approximately 5 and 25 hyploid genomic DNA copies, respectively. The absolute LOD and LOQ values were confirmed to be as low as 10 and 25 copies of p59122 DNA both in simplex and duplex quantitative systems. Furthermore, ideal quantification data with low bias, SD and RSD values were obtained from the practical samples analyses in simplex and duplex real-time PCR systems using the reference molecule p59122 as a calibrator. All these results suggested that the developed reference molecule p59122 and the qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods are suitable for identification and quantification of GM maize 59122 and its derived products. PMID:19916386

  19. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  20. Antigens of herpes simplex virus in whole corneal epithelial sheets from mice.

    PubMed

    Shimeld, C; Lewkowicz-Moss, S J; Lipworth, K M; Hill, T J; Blyth, W A; Easty, D L

    1986-12-01

    Mice were inoculated with herpes simplex virus in the skin of the snout or by scarification on the cornea and then examined for eye disease using a slit lamp. Whole mounts of corneal epithelium were stained for virus antigens by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method, and infectious virus was isolated from eyewashings. Antigens were present one day after corneal inoculation, but after inoculation of the snout, there was a delay of three days before antigens were seen. This delay and the distribution of antigens were evidence of zosteriform spread from the snout to the eye via the nervous system. Disease of the cornea varied in severity and timing depending on the site of inoculation. The peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was more sensitive than isolation of virus from eyewashings and allowed the site and distribution of infected cells to be seen. PMID:3024609

  1. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

    2010-11-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. PMID:20624604

  2. Stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparation for passive haemagglutination test with herpes simplex virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Krichevskaya, G I; Basova, N N

    1976-10-01

    A method for the preparation of stable suspensions of erythrocytes sensitized with herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen and for their use in the passive haemagglutination test (PHAT) was developed. Formolized sheep erythrocytes were treated with tannin and sensitized with HSV antigen prepared from infected chick embryo cell culture by ultrasonication and virus extraction with alkaline glycine buffer. Antibody titres determined in the PHAT were higher than titres of neutralizing antibody. The specificity of the results was checked by the passive haemagglutination-inhibition test (PHAIT). The sensitized erythrocytes retained their activity for 5 months (the observation period) and gave reproducible results. The availability of stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparations simplifies the detection of herpesvirus antibody and makes the method widely applicable. PMID:11670

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of the wild edible cruciferous: Diplotaxis simplex.

    PubMed

    Jdir, Hamida; Khemakham, Bassem; Najjaa, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Jridi, Mourad; Ben Arfa, Abdelkarim; Ben Ali, Yassine; Zouari, Nacim

    2016-10-01

    Context The present study deals with new biological properties of the wild edible Diplotaxis simplex (Viv.) Spreng (Brassicaceae). Objectives The current study evaluates the antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory and the anti-cancer properties of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from D. simplex flowers. Materials and methods The anti-proliferative activity of the extracts (10-70 μg/mL) was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of the extracts (1.5-7.5 mg/mL) on phospholipase A2 activity as well as on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Extracts (200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (50 mg/kg) as positive control were injected intraperitoneally for albino mice prior to the induction of the oedema by carrageenan. Antioxidant activities were investigated using various complementary methods. Results Flower extracts contained a high level of polyphenolics (17.10-52.70 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (74.20-100.60 mg QE/g), which correlate with its appreciable antioxidant potential in β-carotene peroxidation (IC50 value: 12.50-27.10 μg/mL), DPPH(•) radical-scavenging (IC50 value: 0.20-0.40 mg/mL), Fe(3+ )reducing (EC50 value: 0.10-0.14 mg/mL) and Fe(2+ )chelating (IC50 value: 0.20-0.60 mg/mL) assays. These extracts were effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth (IC50 value: 62.0-63.25 μg/mL). Besides, the ethyl acetate extract inhibited phospholipase A2 activity (IC50 value: 2.97 mg/mL) and reduced the paw oedema in mice (from 0.38 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 cm), 4 h post-carrageenan challenge. Conclusion These data suggest that D. simplex may be useful as a candidate in the treatment of inflammation and the colon cancer. PMID:26916801

  4. Type I and Type II Error Rates and Overall Accuracy of the Revised Parallel Analysis Method for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional parallel analysis (T-PA) estimates the number of factors by sequentially comparing sample eigenvalues with eigenvalues for randomly generated data. Revised parallel analysis (R-PA) sequentially compares the "k"th eigenvalue for sample data to the "k"th eigenvalue for generated data sets, conditioned on"k"-…

  5. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  6. [Role of herpes simplex virus in the development of exudative erythema multiforme].

    PubMed

    Samgin, M A; Ivanov, O L; Kuzheleva, S A; Biriukov, A V; L'vov, N D

    1990-03-01

    The paper presents analysis of current knowledge on etiology and immunopathogenesis of multiform exudative erythema (MEE). Among a variety of pathogenetic actions of herpes simplex on immune system are those relevant to MEE onset. These variants are dealt with in detail. The view on MEE as resultant from herpes simplex infection promises appearance of new prospective modes of etiotropic therapy. PMID:2370760

  7. The Dynamics of HCF-1 Modulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Chromatin during Initiation of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection of herpes simplex virus is dependent upon chromatin modulation by the cellular coactivator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). This review focuses on the multiple chromatin modulation components associated with HCF-1 and the chromatin-related dynamics mediated by this coactivator that lead to the initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early gene expression. PMID:23698399

  8. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  9. Rapid detection of herpes simplex virus with fluorescein-labeled Helix pomatia lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R

    1989-01-01

    The use of fluorescein-conjugated Helix pomatia lectin was shown to be as effective as fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody reagents for the detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in MRC-5 cell culture. Cells infected with HSV-1 generally displayed a pattern of nongranular or diffuse fluorescence, while cells infected with HSV-2 were identified by the production of fluorescent grains and flecks. This unique nonimmunological reagent, when used in combination with low-speed centrifugation, provides a remarkably specific, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means to detect HSV-infected MRC-5 or BHK-21 cells as early as 20 h postinoculation. In contrast to the immunofluorescence method, the serotypes of HSV can be differentiated with only one fluorescein-H. pomatia reagent in MRC-5 cell cultures. Images PMID:2545739

  10. Feedforward suppression of force ripple based on a simplex-optimized dither signal.

    PubMed

    Tan, K K; Chin, S J; Dou, H F

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a feedforward dither signal to reduce the force ripple in an iron-core permanent magnet linear motor (PMLM). A composite control structure is used, consisting of three components: a simple feedforward component, a PID feedback component, and a ripple compensator (RC). The first two components are designed based on a dominant linear model of the motor. The dither signal is generated based on a signal model which is identified using a multidimensional simplex downhill method. In this way, a simple approach is available to eliminate or suppress the inherent force ripple, thus facilitating smooth precise motion while uncompromising on the maximum force achievable. Real-time experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for high precision motion trajectory tracking. PMID:12546465

  11. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice. PMID:12688217

  12. Determination of Hearing-Impaired Students' Requirements for Editing and Revision of Written Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasu, H. Pelin

    2014-01-01

    The editing and revision stages are an important part of the writing process. This study documented the types of revisions, revision units, and revision methods used during writing conferences with hearing-impaired students. The study included seventeen hearing-impaired students educated with the auditory/oral approach and enrolled in grades six…

  13. Comparison of an experimental bone cement with surgical Simplex P, Spineplex and Cortoss.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D; Towler, M R; Wren, A; Clarkin, O M

    2008-04-01

    Conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cements and more recently Bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) composite cements are employed in procedures such as vertebroplasty. Unfortunately, such materials have inherent drawbacks including, a high curing exotherm, the incorporation of toxic components in their formulations, and critically, exhibit a modulus mismatch between cement and bone. The literature suggests that aluminium free, zinc based glass polyalkenoate cements (Zn-GPC) may be suitable alternative materials for consideration in such applications as vertebroplasty. This paper, examines one formulation of Zn-GPC and compares its strengths, modulus, and biocompatibility with three commercially available bone cements, Spineplex, Simplex P and Cortoss. The setting times indicate that the current formulation of Zn-GPC sets in a time unsuitable for clinical deployment. However during setting, the peak exotherm was recorded to be 33 degrees C, the lowest of all cements examined, and well below the threshold level for tissue necrosis to occur. The data obtained from mechanical testing shows the Zn-GPC has strengths of 63 MPa in compression and 30 MPa in biaxial flexure. Importantly these strengths remain stable with maturation; similar long term stability was exhibited by both Spineplex and Simplex P. Conversely, the strengths of Cortoss were observed to rapidly diminish with time, a cause for clinical concern. In addition to strengths, the modulus of each material was determined. Only the Zn-GPC exhibited a modulus similar to vertebral trabecular bone, with all commercial materials exhibiting excessively high moduli. Such data indicates that the use of Zn-GPC may reduce adjacent fractures. The final investigation used the well established simulated body fluid (SBF) method to examine the ability of each material to bond with bone. The results indicate that the Zn-GPC is capable of producing a bone like apatite layer at its surface within 24 h which

  14. Linearized dynamics from the 4-simplex Regge action

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Bianca; Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone

    2007-11-15

    We study the relation between the Hessian matrix of the Riemannian Regge action on a 4-simplex and linearized quantum gravity. We give an explicit formula for the Hessian as a function of the geometry, and show that it has a single zero mode. We then use a 3D lattice model to show that (i) the zero mode is a remnant of the continuum diffeomorphism invariance, and (ii) we recover the complete free graviton propagator in the continuum limit. The results help clarify the structure of the boundary state needed in the recent calculations of the graviton propagator in loop quantum gravity, and, in particular, its role in fixing the gauge.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  16. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis 4 years after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Zimmermann, Arthur; Bernasch, Dirke; Furrer, Hansjakob; Dufour, Jean-FranCois

    2003-01-01

    If not promptly recognized and treated, herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is associated with a high mortality. A patient transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis required, 4 years later, a colectomy for a steroid-resistant flare of ulcerative colitis. He subsequently developed fever, with genital and oral ulcerations. He was hospitalized for diabetic decompensation with massive elevation of serum aminotransferases. Examination revealed vesicles on the hands. Liver biopsy showed Cowdry type B inclusions. Therapy with acyclovir was immediately initiated and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the diagnostic importance of mucocutaneous lesions in the assessment of complications after liver transplantation. PMID:14614611

  17. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  18. Stimulation of human lymphocytes by Herpes simplex virus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, S E; Karatela, S A; Shore, S L; Duffey, A; Nahmias, A J

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with laboratory evidence of prior infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or type 2 demonstrated transformation (av antigens. Higher stimulation indexes were obtained when lymphocytes were incubated with the homologous as compared with the heterologous antigen. Higher mean lymphocyte stimulation indexes were also demonstrated in seropositive as compared with seronegative individuals. Lymphocytes from children with HSV-1 stomatitis usually became responsive to HSV-1 antigen within 2 to 6 weeks after the onset of illness. Lymphocytes from infants with neonatal HSV-2 infection were stimulated by HSV-2 antigen. PMID:163788

  19. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood.

    PubMed

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Ozlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Celik, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  20. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Özlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Çelik, Çetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  1. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  2. Automated gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning with image registration, data-mining, and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuan J.; Barber, David C.; Walton, Lee

    2006-07-15

    Gamma knife treatments are usually planned manually, requiring much expertise and time. We describe a new, fully automatic method of treatment planning. The treatment volume to be planned is first compared with a database of past treatments to find volumes closely matching in size and shape. The treatment parameters of the closest matches are used as starting points for the new treatment plan. Further optimization is performed with the Nelder-Mead simplex method: the coordinates and weight of the isocenters are allowed to vary until a maximally conformal plan specific to the new treatment volume is found. The method was tested on a randomly selected set of 10 acoustic neuromas and 10 meningiomas. Typically, matching a new volume took under 30 seconds. The time for simplex optimization, on a 3 GHz Xeon processor, ranged from under a minute for small volumes (<1000 cubic mm, 2-3 isocenters), to several tens of hours for large volumes (>30 000 cubic mm,>20 isocenters). In 8/10 acoustic neuromas and 8/10 meningiomas, the automatic method found plans with conformation number equal or better than that of the manual plan. In 4/10 acoustic neuromas and 5/10 meningiomas, both overtreatment and undertreatment ratios were equal or better in automated plans. In conclusion, data-mining of past treatments can be used to derive starting parameters for treatment planning. These parameters can then be computer optimized to give good plans automatically.

  3. Automated gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning with image registration, data-mining, and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan J; Barber, David C; Walton, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Gamma knife treatments are usually planned manually, requiring much expertise and time. We describe a new, fully automatic method of treatment planning. The treatment volume to be planned is first compared with a database of past treatments to find volumes closely matching in size and shape. The treatment parameters of the closest matches are used as starting points for the new treatment plan. Further optimization is performed with the Nelder-Mead simplex method: the coordinates and weight of the isocenters are allowed to vary until a maximally conformal plan specific to the new treatment volume is found. The method was tested on a randomly selected set of 10 acoustic neuromas and 10 meningiomas. Typically, matching a new volume took under 30 seconds. The time for simplex optimization, on a 3 GHz Xeon processor, ranged from under a minute for small volumes (<1000 cubic mm, 2-3 isocenters), to several tens of hours for large volumes (>30,000 cubic mm, >20 isocenters). In 8/10 acoustic neuromas and 8/10 meningiomas, the automatic method found plans with conformation number equal or better than that of the manual plan. In 4/10 acoustic neuromas and 5/10 meningiomas, both overtreatment and undertreatment ratios were equal or better in automated plans. In conclusion, data-mining of past treatments can be used to derive starting parameters for treatment planning. These parameters can then be computer optimized to give good plans automatically. PMID:16898457

  4. Scar Revision Surgery: The Patient's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Methods Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Results Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Conclusions Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision. PMID:26618120

  5. Herpes simplex virus colitis complicating ulcerative colitis: A case report and brief review on superinfections.

    PubMed

    Schunter, Marco Oliver; Walles, Thorsten; Fritz, Peter; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Thon, Klaus-Peter; Fellermann, Klaus; Stange, Eduard Friedrich; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2007-09-01

    In patients with inflammatory bowel disease herpes simplex virus infection has been described as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Here we present the case of a 35-year old woman with an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis caused by herlpes simplex virus infection (HSV-2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically following subtotal colectomy. After intravenous treatment with aciclovir for 2 weeks postoperative hematochezia stopped. Herpes simplex virus colitis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prompt diagnosis and efficient antiviral therapy are mandatory to improve prognosis. PMID:21172183

  6. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  7. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  8. Secretory IgA specific for herpes simplex virus in lacrimal fluid from patients with herpes keratitis--a possible diagnostic parameter.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, B; Møller Andersen, S; Klauber, A; Ottovay, E; Prause, J U; Zhong, C U; Norrild, B

    1982-01-01

    In the present study a solid-phase radioimmune assay was used for the demonstration of herpes simplex virus-specific IgG and secretory IgA antibodies in the lacrimal fluid from patients with active recurrent herpes keratitis. The method was quantitative and made it possible to test specifically for the production of secretory IgA antibodies produced during an active herpes simplex virus infection. The production of secretory IgA was followed in 2 patients with fresh recurrent lesions. The HSV-specific secretory IgA could be demonstrated during the first 10 days of infection, where the maximal concentration was reached 3-5 days after the first symptoms occurred. The secretory antibodies were locally produced, and it is shown for the first time that herpes virus-specific secretory antibodies were of diagnostic value. PMID:6288066

  9. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  10. Chromatin assembly on herpes simplex virus genomes during lytic infection

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xu; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2009-01-01

    The human herpes simplex viruses HSV-1 and HSV-2 infect a significant portion of the human population. Both viruses can undergo lytic infection in epithelial cells and establish lifelong latency in neuronal cells. The large HSV-1 DNA genomes have long been considered to be devoid of histones both inside the virion particle and inside the cell during lytic infection, but to be packaged in repressive chromatin during latency. However, recent reports indicate that many histone and non-histone chromosomal proteins can associate with viral DNA during lytic infection and may influence important events during the HSV-1 lytic cycle. In this article, we summarize recent developments in this field and their implications. PMID:19682614

  11. Encephalitis herpes simplex: aural rehabilitation following bilateral deafness.

    PubMed

    Montano, J J; Melley, C C; Karam, D B

    1983-10-01

    Aural rehabilitation is a critical and often neglected aspect of a hearing-impaired patient's total rehabilitation. This case description illustrates the need for implementation of aural rehabilitation services. A 59-year-old woman exhibited bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss following the onset of encephalitis herpes simplex. Auditory amplification attempts were unsuccessful. Aural rehabilitation was initiated immediately, and she was seen for lipreading and vibrotactile stimulation training. Goals progressed from identification of single words within a category to phonemic recognition. Vibrotactile stimulation was used to facilitate environmental awareness. Therapy goals reflected the patient's increased motivation to communicate within her environment. This patient's communicative status is viewed on a continuum: from success in individual treatment goals, extending to successful communication within the structure of the entire rehabilitation setting, and finally to functional communication within her home environment. PMID:6625883

  12. Autophagy Stimulation Abrogates Herpes simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yakoub, Abraam M.; Shukla, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a double-stranded DNA virus that causes life-long infections. HSV-1 infections may lead to herpetic stromal keratitis that may advance to corneal blindness. HSV-1 infections can also cause fatal conditions, such as herpes encephalitis, or neonatal disease. A major virulence mechanism of HSV-1 is the control of autophagy, an innate immune defense strategy that could otherwise degrade viral particles. Here, to investigate a new mechanism for antiviral therapy, we tested the effect of various autophagy inducers (physiological and pharmacological) on infection. Autophagy stimulation was confirmed to significantly suppress HSV-1 infection in various cell types, without affecting cell viability. This study establishes the importance of autophagy for regulating HSV-1 infection, and provides a proof-of-principle evidence for a novel antiviral mechanism. PMID:25856282

  13. Herpes simplex virus 1 induces de novo phospholipid synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, Esther; Oliveira, Anna Paula de; Tobler, Kurt; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Sonda, Sabrina; Kaech, Andres; Lucas, Miriam S.; Ackermann, Mathias; Wild, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids bud at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes acquiring an envelope composed of phospholipids. Hence, we measured incorporation of phospholipid precursors into these membranes, and quantified changes in size of cellular compartments by morphometric analysis. Incorporation of [{sup 3}H]-choline into both nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes was significantly enhanced upon infection. [{sup 3}H]-choline was also part of isolated virions even grown in the presence of brefeldin A. Nuclei expanded early in infection. The Golgi complex and vacuoles increased substantially whereas the endoplasmic reticulum enlarged only temporarily. The data suggest that HSV-1 stimulates phospholipid synthesis, and that de novo synthesized phospholipids are inserted into nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes to i) maintain membrane integrity in the course of nuclear and cellular expansion, ii) to supply membrane constituents for envelopment of capsids by budding at nuclear membranes and Golgi membranes, and iii) to provide membranes for formation of transport vacuoles.

  14. A note concerning multivariate total positivity on the simplex

    SciTech Connect

    Rayens, W.S.

    1996-12-31

    Although compositional data arise frequently in many different disciplines, relatively little is known about families of parametric densities that reside on a simplex, which is the natural sample space for such data. An exception to this is a recent paper by Gupta and Richards wherein the Liouville family is defined and discussed. They sought to characterize dependence properties within this new family using, among other ideas, multivariate total positivity. Further investigation reveals that their results are not very useful. In fact, it is shown that there does not exist a Liouville density, as defined by Gupta and Richards, that is also multivariate totally positive of order 2. Fatal flaws associated with an obvious alternative to their definition are discussed.

  15. Fulminant hepatitis following primary herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Al Midani, A; Pinney, J; Field, N; Atkinson, C; Haque, T; Harber, M

    2011-01-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare but well-recognized complication of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report two cases of acute hepatitis and FHF secondary to primary HSV type 1 infection following renal transplantation in the absence of any mucocutaneous manifestation. High levels of HSV type-1 DNA were detected in the blood. Both patients were seronegative for HSV 1 and HSV 2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) before transplantation, whereas the donor of patient 1 was HSV 1 IgG-positive but had no viremia and the donor of patient 2 was HSV-seronegative. Patient 1 recovered with acyclovir and immunoglobulin whereas patient 2 did not respond and succumbed to death. HSV-seronegative patients are potentially at risk of developing severe primary HSV disease following transplantation, particularly in the absence of routine anti-viral prophylaxis. HSV infection should always be excluded in transplant patients with hepatic dysfunction. PMID:21196623

  16. Lytic Promoters Express Protein during Herpes Simplex Virus Latency

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Tiffany A.; Tscharke, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has provided the prototype for viral latency with previously well-defined acute or lytic and latent phases. More recently, the deep quiescence of HSV latency has been questioned with evidence that lytic genes can be transcribed in this state. However, to date the only evidence that these transcripts might be translated has come from immunological studies that show activated T cells persist in the nervous system during latency. Here we use a highly sensitive Cre-marking model to show that lytic and latent phases are less clearly defined in two significant ways. First, around half of the HSV spread leading to latently infected sites occurred beyond the initial acute infection and second, we show direct evidence that lytic promoters can drive protein expression during latency. PMID:27348812

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kadayakkara, Deepak K.; Candelaria, Angela; Kwak, Ye Eun; Loeser, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection. PMID:27195158

  18. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  19. New strategies against drug resistance to herpes simplex virus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu-Chen; Feng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Guo, Xiu-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the Herpesviridae family, is a significant human pathogen that results in mucocutaneous lesions in the oral cavity or genital infections. Acyclovir (ACV) and related nucleoside analogues can successfully treat HSV infections, but the emergence of drug resistance to ACV has created a barrier for the treatment of HSV infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. There is an urgent need to explore new and effective tactics to circumvent drug resistance to HSV. This review summarises the current strategies in the development of new targets (the DNA helicase/primase (H/P) complex), new types of molecules (nature products) and new antiviral mechanisms (lethal mutagenesis of Janus-type nucleosides) to fight the drug resistance of HSV. PMID:27025259

  20. Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Esophagitis in a Young Immunocompetent Adult.

    PubMed

    Kadayakkara, Deepak K; Candelaria, Angela; Kwak, Ye Eun; Loeser, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex esophagitis (HSE) is commonly identified in immunosuppressed patients. It is rare among immunocompetent patients and almost all of the reported cases are due to HSV-1 infection. HSV-2 esophagitis is extremely rare. We report the case of a young immunocompetent male who presented with dysphagia, odynophagia, and epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed multitudes of white nummular lesions in the distal esophagus initially suspected to be candida esophagitis. However, classic histopathological findings of multinucleated giant cells with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions and positive HSV-2 IgM confirmed the diagnosis of HSV-2 esophagitis. The patient rapidly responded to acyclovir treatment. Although HSV-2 is predominantly associated with genital herpes, it can cause infections in other parts of the body previously attributed to only HSV-1 infection. PMID:27195158

  1. Analysis of test data on the simplex strapdown navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of test data taken on the simplex strapdown navigation system were presented. That system consisted of the following components: strapdown platform, altimeter, digital computer, tape recorder, typewriter, and power source. The objective of these tests was to isolate error sources which may cause degradation of the system's accuracy and to recommend appropriate changes to the system test procedures or computer software. The following recommendations were made: (1) addition of a gyro compassing alignment program into the navigation program, (2) addition of line drivers at the signal processor end of the transmission line, (3) need for extensive laboratory testing to determine sensor misalignments, biases, and scale factors, (4) need to stabilize the power source to prevent transients during power transfer, (5) need to isolate and eliminate the source of the large noise inputs.

  2. Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions.

    PubMed

    Field, Scott S

    2016-02-01

    Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acquisition, which can be lethal. PMID:26185119

  3. Advance in herpes simplex viruses for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shanglong; Dai, Meihua; You, Lei; Zhao, Yupei

    2013-04-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is an attractive approach that uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cell lyses through virus replication and cytotoxic protein expression. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has become one of the most widely clinically used oncolytic agent. Various types of HSV have been studied in basic or clinical research. Combining oncolytic virotherapy with chemotherapy or radiotherapy generally produces synergic action with unclear molecular mechanisms. Arming HSV with therapeutic transgenes is a promising strategy and can be used to complement conventional therapies. As an efficient gene delivery system, HSV has been successfully used to deliver various immunomodulatory molecules. Arming HSV with therapeutic genes merits further investigation for potential clinical application. PMID:23564184

  4. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.; Notkins, A.L.; Straus, S.E.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  5. Disseminated herpes simplex infection during pregnancy, rare but important to recognise

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Nawar Younis; Uriel, Alison; Mammen, Catherine; Bonington, Alec

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection during pregnancy is a rare, but potentially fatal condition. We present a case where prompt treatment with intravenous acyclovir resulted in a successful outcome for both mother and baby. PMID:25320695

  6. Detection of herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences in latently infected mice and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, S; Minson, A C; Field, H J; Anderson, J R; Wildy, P

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences have been detected by Southern hybridization analysis in both central and peripheral nervous system tissues of latently infected mice. We have detected virus-specific sequences corresponding to the junction fragment but not the genomic termini, an observation first made by Rock and Fraser (Nature [London] 302:523-525, 1983). This "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is both qualitatively and quantitatively stable in mouse neural tissue analyzed over a 4-month period. In addition, examination of DNA extracted from human trigeminal ganglia has shown herpes simplex virus DNA to be present in an "endless" form similar to that found in the mouse model system. Further restriction enzyme analysis of latently infected mouse brainstem and human trigeminal DNA has shown that this "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is present in all four isomeric configurations. Images PMID:3003377

  7. Bionomics of Orasema simplex (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae) a parasitoid of Solenopsis fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological characteristics of the parasitoid Orasema simplex Heraty (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae), a potential candidate for the biological control of fire ants in the United States were investigated. Female survivorship, fertility and oviposition preferences were studied in the laboratory. Naturally ...

  8. PARAMETERS DISTINGUISHING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 2-TRANSFORMED TUMORIGENIC AND NONTUMORIGENIC RAT CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A newly developed experimental model system was used to determine in vitro transformation-specific parameters which correlate with tumorigenicity. The data suggested that clonal herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed syngeneic rat embryo cells with intermediate, transformed rat ...

  9. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION (REVISION 3): SOURCE CODE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This tape contains the source code (FORTRAN) for Revision 3 of the Mathematical Model of Electrostatic Precipitation. Improvements found in Revision 3 of the model include a new method of calculating the solutions to the electric field equations, a dynamic method for calculating ...

  10. Transmission Disequilibrium of Small CNVs in Simplex Autism

    PubMed Central

    Krumm, Niklas; O’Roak, Brian J.; Karakoc, Emre; Mohajeri, Kiana; Nelson, Ben; Vives, Laura; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphe; Eichler, Evan E.

    2013-01-01

    We searched for disruptive, genic rare copy-number variants (CNVs) among 411 families affected by sporadic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Simons Simplex Collection by using available exome sequence data and CoNIFER (Copy Number Inference from Exome Reads). Compared to high-density SNP microarrays, our approach yielded ∼2× more smaller genic rare CNVs. We found that affected probands inherited more CNVs than did their siblings (453 versus 394, p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19) and that the probands’ CNVs affected more genes (921 versus 726, p = 0.02; OR = 1.30). These smaller CNVs (median size 18 kb) were transmitted preferentially from the mother (136 maternal versus 100 paternal, p = 0.02), although this bias occurred irrespective of affected status. The excess burden of inherited CNVs among probands was driven primarily by sibling pairs with discordant social-behavior phenotypes (p < 0.0002, measured by Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS] score), which contrasts with families where the phenotypes were more closely matched or less extreme (p > 0.5). Finally, we found enrichment of brain-expressed genes unique to probands, especially in the SRS-discordant group (p = 0.0035). In a combined model, our inherited CNVs, de novo CNVs, and de novo single-nucleotide variants all independently contributed to the risk of autism (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that small transmitted rare CNVs play a role in the etiology of simplex autism. Importantly, the small size of these variants aids in the identification of specific genes as additional risk factors associated with ASD. PMID:24035194

  11. Transmission disequilibrium of small CNVs in simplex autism.

    PubMed

    Krumm, Niklas; O'Roak, Brian J; Karakoc, Emre; Mohajeri, Kiana; Nelson, Ben; Vives, Laura; Jacquemont, Sebastien; Munson, Jeff; Bernier, Raphe; Eichler, Evan E

    2013-10-01

    We searched for disruptive, genic rare copy-number variants (CNVs) among 411 families affected by sporadic autism spectrum disorder (ASD) from the Simons Simplex Collection by using available exome sequence data and CoNIFER (Copy Number Inference from Exome Reads). Compared to high-density SNP microarrays, our approach yielded ∼2× more smaller genic rare CNVs. We found that affected probands inherited more CNVs than did their siblings (453 versus 394, p = 0.004; odds ratio [OR] = 1.19) and that the probands' CNVs affected more genes (921 versus 726, p = 0.02; OR = 1.30). These smaller CNVs (median size 18 kb) were transmitted preferentially from the mother (136 maternal versus 100 paternal, p = 0.02), although this bias occurred irrespective of affected status. The excess burden of inherited CNVs among probands was driven primarily by sibling pairs with discordant social-behavior phenotypes (p < 0.0002, measured by Social Responsiveness Scale [SRS] score), which contrasts with families where the phenotypes were more closely matched or less extreme (p > 0.5). Finally, we found enrichment of brain-expressed genes unique to probands, especially in the SRS-discordant group (p = 0.0035). In a combined model, our inherited CNVs, de novo CNVs, and de novo single-nucleotide variants all independently contributed to the risk of autism (p < 0.05). Taken together, these results suggest that small transmitted rare CNVs play a role in the etiology of simplex autism. Importantly, the small size of these variants aids in the identification of specific genes as additional risk factors associated with ASD. PMID:24035194

  12. Effects of herpes simplex virus on mRNA stability.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, T; Frenkel, N

    1987-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus virions contain one or more functions which mediate shutoff of host protein synthesis, disaggregation of host polyribosomes, and degradation of host mRNA. We studied aspects of the host shutoff mechanism by using herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants deficient in virion-induced shutoff of host protein synthesis (G. S. Read and N. Frenkel, J. Virol. 46:498-512, 1983). Shutoff of host protein synthesis by the wild-type virus was associated with degradation of host mRNAs, including beta-actin, alpha-tubulin, and heat shock protein 70. In contrast, the virion host shutoff (vhs) mutants were deficient to various degrees in their ability to induce host mRNA degradation; the extent of mRNA degradation correlated well with the extent of inhibition of host protein synthesis. This finding suggests that inhibition of host protein synthesis and degradation of host mRNA were mediated by the same virion-associated function. Virion-induced degradation of host mRNA was not prevented by inhibitors of ribosome translocation, nor could it be augmented, for mutant vhs-1, by drugs which disaggregate polyribosomes. This suggests that mRNA in polyribosomes, as well as nonpolyribosomal mRNA, is susceptible to virion-induced degradation. Finally, the half-life of viral transcripts was also prolonged in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus, suggesting that the vhs function indiscriminately decreased the half-lives of both host and viral mRNAs. The vhs function may thus play a dual role in virus infection. (i) It inhibits host gene expression, and (ii) it enables rapid transitions in the expression of viral genes which are sequentially transcribed as infection progresses. Images PMID:3035220

  13. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Abdelmagid, Nada; Bereczky-Veress, Biborka; Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines-generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89-174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11-2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  14. Gasification of Simplex briquets: briquet production. Vol. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    A 7-ton/hr briquetting plant was installed at International Briquetting in Baltimore, Maryland, and used to produce 360 tons of Simplex briquets from Pittsburgh No. 8 seam, Champion No. 1 mine caking coal and shredded, air-classified Baltimore County refuse. The production of these briquets was funded by the Department of Energy, through the US Bureau of Mines, and a consortium comprised of the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Company. This report describes the briquetting plant and discusses the problems that were encountered in producing the briquets. The following modifications are recommended for future Simplex briquetting plants: drying equipment should be installed on the RDF feed system to ensure that the RDF moisture is below 18%; the crushed coal must be dried to less than 4% moisture to ensure its free flow in the bins; magnets should be installed above the coal and RDF feed conveyors to remove any tramp metal; a 3/4-inch screen should be installed over the coal feed bin to remove any oversize rocks or lump coal; the RDF handling system and turbulizer discharge to the press should all be enclosed for dust control (the enclosures should be vented to a baghouse); only heavy duty apron conveyors should be used where belt conveyors are needed; briquetts should be cured if they are going to be stored in containers where they might sweat; and a screen with 1 1/4-inch openings should be used to remove the fines from 2 1/4-inch briquets (this screen should be sufficiently large to prevent briquets from crowding together on the screen).

  15. Von Willebrand Factor Gene Variants Associate with Herpes simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Atanur, Santosh; Musilová, Alena; Zídek, Václav; Saba, Laura; Warnecke, Andreas; Khademi, Mohsen; Studahl, Marie; Aurelius, Elisabeth; Hjalmarsson, Anders; Garcia-Diaz, Ana; Denis, Cécile V.; Bergström, Tomas; Sköldenberg, Birgit; Kockum, Ingrid; Aitman, Timothy; Hübner, Norbert; Olsson, Tomas; Pravenec, Michal; Diez, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare complication of Herpes simplex virus type-1 infection. It results in severe parenchymal damage in the brain. Although viral latency in neurons is very common in the population, it remains unclear why certain individuals develop HSE. Here we explore potential host genetic variants predisposing to HSE. In order to investigate this we used a rat HSE model comparing the HSE susceptible SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) with the asymptomatic infection of BN (Brown Norway). Notably, both strains have HSV-1 spread to the CNS at four days after infection. A genome wide linkage analysis of 29 infected HXB/BXH RILs (recombinant inbred lines—generated from the prior two strains), displayed variable susceptibility to HSE enabling the definition of a significant QTL (quantitative trait locus) named Hse6 towards the end of chromosome 4 (160.89–174Mb) containing the Vwf (von Willebrand factor) gene. This was the only gene in the QTL with both cis-regulation in the brain and included several non-synonymous SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). Intriguingly, in human chromosome 12 several SNPs within the intronic region between exon 43 and 44 of the VWF gene were associated with human HSE pathogenesis. In particular, rs917859 is nominally associated with an odds ratio of 1.5 (95% CI 1.11–2.02; p-value = 0.008) after genotyping in 115 HSE cases and 428 controls. Although there are possibly several genetic and environmental factors involved in development of HSE, our study identifies variants of the VWF gene as candidates for susceptibility in experimental and human HSE. PMID:27224245

  16. Grounded spatial belief revision.

    PubMed

    Nejasmic, Jelica; Bucher, Leandra; Knauff, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Beliefs frequently undergo revisions, especially when new pieces of information are true but inconsistent with current beliefs. In previous studies, we showed that linguistic asymmetries provided by relational statements, play a crucial role in spatial belief revision. Located objects (LO) are preferably revised compared to reference objects (RO), known as the LO-principle. Here we establish a connection between spatial belief revision and grounded cognition. In three experiments, we explored whether imagined physical object properties influence which object is relocated and which remains at its initial position. Participants mentally revised beliefs about the arrangements of objects which could be envisaged as light and heavy (Experiment 1), small and large (Experiment 2), or movable and immovable (Experiment 3). The results show that intrinsic object properties are differently taken into account during spatial belief revision. Object weight did not alter the LO-principle (Experiment 1), whereas object size was found to influence which object was preferably relocated (Experiment 2). Object movability did not affect relocation preferences but had an effect on relocation durations (Experiment 3). The findings support the simulation hypothesis within the grounded cognition approach and create new connections between the spatial mental model theory of reasoning and the idea of grounded cognition. PMID:25796056

  17. Antioxidant, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity and anthelmintic activities against Anisakis simplex and Hymenolepis nana of yakuchinone A from Alpinia oxyphylla

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpinia oxyphylla is a common remedy in traditional Chinese medicine. Yakuchinone A is a major constituent of A. oxyphylla and exhibits anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antibacterial, and gastric protective activities. Methods Antioxidant and antitumor characteristics of yakuchinone A in skin cancer cells as well as novel mechanisms for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation, cestocidal activities against Hymenolepis nana adults, and nematocidal activities against Anisakis simplex larvae are investigated. Results Yakuchinone A presents the ability of the removal of DPPH·and ABTS+ free radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Yakuchinone A suppresses intracellular lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells and the expressions of leptin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Yakuchinone A induces apoptosis and inhibits cell proliferation in skin cancer cells. The inhibition of cell growth by yakuchinone A is more significant for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) cells than for melanoma (A375 and B16) and noncancerous (HaCaT and BNLCL2) cells. Treatment BCC cells with yakuchinone A shows down-regulation of Bcl-2, up-regulation of Bax, and an increase in cleavage poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This suggests that yakuchinone A induces BCC cells apoptosis through the Bcl-2-mediated signaling pathway. The anthelmintic activities of yakuchinone A for A. simplex are better than for H. nana. Conclusions In this work, yakuchinone A exhibits antioxidative properties, anti-adipocyte differentiation, antitumor activity, and anthelmintic activities against A. simplex and H. nana. PMID:24070160

  18. Handling time-expensive global optimization problems through the surrogate-enhanced evolutionary annealing-simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsoukalas, Ioannis; Kossieris, Panagiotis; Efstratiadis, Andreas; Makropoulos, Christos

    2015-04-01

    In water resources optimization problems, the calculation of the objective function usually presumes to first run a simulation model and then evaluate its outputs. In several cases, however, long simulation times may pose significant barriers to the optimization procedure. Often, to obtain a solution within a reasonable time, the user has to substantially restrict the allowable number of function evaluations, thus terminating the search much earlier than required by the problem's complexity. A promising novel strategy to address these shortcomings is the use of surrogate modelling techniques within global optimization algorithms. Here we introduce the Surrogate-Enhanced Evolutionary Annealing-Simplex (SE-EAS) algorithm that couples the strengths of surrogate modelling with the effectiveness and efficiency of the EAS method. The algorithm combines three different optimization approaches (evolutionary search, simulated annealing and the downhill simplex search scheme), in which key decisions are partially guided by numerical approximations of the objective function. The performance of the proposed algorithm is benchmarked against other surrogate-assisted algorithms, in both theoretical and practical applications (i.e. test functions and hydrological calibration problems, respectively), within a limited budget of trials (from 100 to 1000). Results reveal the significant potential of using SE-EAS in challenging optimization problems, involving time-consuming simulations.

  19. Incorporation of a lambda phage recombination system and EGFP detection to simplify mutagenesis of Herpes simplex virus bacterial artificial chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmeisser, Falko; Weir, Jerry P

    2007-01-01

    Background Targeted mutagenesis of the herpesvirus genomes has been facilitated by the use of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology. Such modified genomes have potential uses in understanding viral pathogenesis, gene identification and characterization, and the development of new viral vectors and vaccines. We have previously described the construction of a herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) BAC and the use of an allele replacement strategy to construct HSV-2 recombinants. While the BAC mutagenesis procedure is a powerful method to generate HSV-2 recombinants, particularly in the absence of selective marker in eukaryotic culture, the mutagenesis procedure is still difficult and cumbersome. Results Here we describe the incorporation of a phage lambda recombination system into an allele replacement vector. This strategy enables any DNA fragment containing the phage attL recombination sites to be efficiently inserted into the attR sites of the allele replacement vector using phage lambda clonase. We also describe how the incorporation of EGFP into the allele replacement vector can facilitate the selection of the desired cross-over recombinant BACs when the allele replacement reaction is a viral gene deletion. Finally, we incorporate the lambda phage recombination sites directly into an HSV-2 BAC vector for direct recombination of gene cassettes using the phage lambda clonase-driven recombination reaction. Conclusion Together, these improvements to the techniques of HSV BAC mutagenesis will facilitate the construction of recombinant herpes simplex viruses and viral vectors. PMID:17501993

  20. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa boharti sp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhyncha sp. n., Acupalpa glossa sp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeos sp. n., Acupalpa miaboolya sp. n., Acupalpa minuta sp. n., Acupalpa minutoides sp. n., Acupalpa notomelas sp. n., Acupalpa novayamarna sp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralica sp. n., Acupalpa yalgoo sp. n. and Acupalpa yanchep sp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallis sp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeierae sp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecoda sp. n. Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life

  1. Revision of the stiletto fly genera Acupalpa Kröber and Pipinnipons Winterton (Diptera, Therevidae, Agapophytinae) using cybertaxonomic methods, with a key to Australasian genera.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Shaun L

    2011-01-01

    Australian stiletto flies of the sister-genera Acupalpa Kröber, 1912 and Pipinnipons Winterton, 2001 (Diptera: Therevidae: Agapophytinae) are revised. Twelve new species of Acupalpa are described, while Acupalpa imitans (White, 1915), comb. n. is transferred from Pipinnipons and Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber, 1914), comb. n. is transferred from Ectinorhynchus Macquart as a senior synonym of Acupalpa pollinosa Mann. The total number of species of Acupalpa is therefore increased to 19: Acupalpa albimanis (Kröber), comb. n., Acupalpa albitarsa Mann, Acupalpa bohartisp. n., Acupalpa divisa (Walker), Acupalpa dolichorhynchasp. n., Acupalpa glossasp. n., Acupalpa imitans (White), comb. n., Acupalpa irwini Winterton, Acupalpa melanophaeossp. n.,Acupalpa miaboolyasp. n., Acupalpa minutasp. n., Acupalpa minutoidessp. n., Acupalpa notomelassp. n., Acupalpa novayamarnasp. n., Acupalpa rostrata Kröber, Acupalpa semirufa Mann, Acupalpa westralicasp. n., Acupalpa yalgoosp. n. and Acupalpa yanchepsp. n. Three new species of Pipinnipons are described, increasing the total number of species to five: Pipinnipons chauncyvallissp. n., Pipinnipons fascipennis (Kröber), Pipinnipons kampmeieraesp. n., Pipinnipons kroeberi Winterton, and P. sphecodasp. n.Pipinnipons and Acupalpa are rediagnosed in light of the new species presented herein and revised keys to species are included. A dichotomous key to genera of Australasian Therevidae is included. As an empirical example of cybertaxonomy, taxonomic descriptions were composed using a character matrix developed in Lucid Builder (in Structured Descriptive Data (SDD) format) to generate natural language descriptions supplemented by online specimen and image databases. Web resources are provided throughout the document including: a) links to high resolution colour images of all species on Morphbank, b) registration of authors, publications, taxon names and other nomenclatural acts in Zoobank, with assignment of Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs

  2. The treatment of herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelmus, K R

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Epithelial keratitis is the most common presentation of ocular infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Quantitative assessment of available therapy is needed to guide evidence-based ophthalmology. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of various treatments for dendritic or geographic HSV epithelial keratitis and to evaluate the role of various clinical characteristics on epithelial healing. METHODS: Following a systematic review of the literature, information from clinical trials of HSV dendritic or geographic epithelial keratitis was extracted, and the methodological quality of each study was scored. Methods of epithelial cauterization and curettage were grouped as relatively equivalent physicochemical therapy, and solution and ointment formulations of a given topical antiviral agent were combined. The proportion healed with 1 week of therapy, a scheduled follow-up day that approximated the average time of resolution with antiviral therapy, was selected as the primary outcome based on a masked evaluation of maximum treatment differences in published healing curves. The proportion healed at 14 days was recorded as supplemental information. Fixed-effects and random-effects meta-analysis models were used to obtain summary estimates by pooling results from comparative treatment trials. Hypotheses about which prognostic factors might affect epithelial healing during antiviral therapy were developed by multivariate analysis of the Herpetic Eye Disease Study dataset. RESULTS: After excluding 48 duplicate reports, 14 nonrandomized studies, 15 studies with outdated or similar treatments, and 29 trials lacking sufficient data on healing or accessibility, 76 primary reports were identified. These reports involved 4,251 patients allocated to 93 treatment comparisons of dendritic epithelial keratitis in 28 categories and 9 comparisons of geographic epithelial keratitis in 6 categories. For dendritic keratitis, idoxuridine was better than placebo at 7 days

  3. Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Antibody Mediated Neurologic Relapse Post Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, Sarah; Walsh, Aoibhinn; King, Mary D; Lynch, Bryan; Webb, David; Twomey, Eilish; Ronan Leahy, T; Butler, Karina; Gavin, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Despite the advent of antiviral therapy, herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains a devastating condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Neurologic relapse after initial improvement is generally attributed to herpes simplex virus reactivation. In 2013, inflammation caused by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies was reported in association with cases of neurologic relapse after herpes simplex encephalitis. We present 3 such cases and discuss diagnostic and management dilemmas. PMID:27171680

  4. A Single Counterexample Leads to Moral Belief Revision.

    PubMed

    Horne, Zachary; Powell, Derek; Hummel, John

    2015-11-01

    What kind of evidence will lead people to revise their moral beliefs? Moral beliefs are often strongly held convictions, and existing research has shown that morality is rooted in emotion and socialization rather than deliberative reasoning. In addition, more general issues-such as confirmation bias-further impede coherent belief revision. Here, we explored a unique means for inducing belief revision. In two experiments, participants considered a moral dilemma in which an overwhelming majority of people judged that it was inappropriate to take action to maximize utility. Their judgments contradicted a utilitarian principle they otherwise strongly endorsed. Exposure to this scenario led participants to revise their belief in the utilitarian principle, and this revision persisted over several hours. This method provides a new avenue for inducing belief revision. PMID:25810137

  5. Synthesis of fiber Bragg grating parameters from experimental reflectivity: a simplex approach and its application to the determination of temperature-dependent properties.

    PubMed

    Lhommé, Frederic; Caucheteur, Christophe; Chah, Karima; Blondel, Michel; Mégret, Patrice

    2005-02-01

    A simple, accurate, and fast method to synthesize the physical parameters of a fiber Bragg grating numerically from its reflectivity is proposed and demonstrated. Our program uses the transfer matrix method and is based on a Nelder-Mead simplex optimization algorithm. It can be applied to both uniform and nonuniform (apodized and chirped) fiber Bragg gratings. The method is then used to synthesize a uniform Bragg grating from its reflectivity taken at different temperatures. It gives a good estimate of the thermal expansion coefficient and the thermo-optic coefficient of the fiber. PMID:15726944

  6. Recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 strains with targeted mutations relevant for aciclovir susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Brunnemann, Anne-Kathrin; Liermann, Kristin; Deinhardt-Emmer, Stefanie; Maschkowitz, Gregor; Pohlmann, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Krumbholz, Andi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a novel reliable method to assess the significance of individual mutations within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to nucleoside analogue resistance. Eleven defined single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur in the TK gene of clinical HSV-1 isolates and a fluorescence reporter were introduced into the HSV-1 strain 17+ that had been cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. The susceptibility of these different strains to aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and foscarnet was determined with a modified cytopathic effect reduction assay. The strains were also tested for their aciclovir susceptibility by measuring the relative fluorescence intensity as an indicator for HSV-1 replication and by quantifying the virus yield. Our data indicate that the amino acid substitutions R41H, R106H, A118V, L139V, K219T, S276R, L298R, S345P, and V348I represent natural polymorphisms of the TK protein, whereas G61A and P84L mediate broad cross-resistance against aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and susceptibility to foscarnet. This method allows the definition of the resistance genotype of otherwise unclear mutations in the TK gene of HSV-1. Thus, it provides a scientific basis for antiviral testing in clinical isolates of patients suffering from serious diseases and will facilitate testing of new antivirals against HSV-1. PMID:27426251

  7. Recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 strains with targeted mutations relevant for aciclovir susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Brunnemann, Anne-Kathrin; Liermann, Kristin; Deinhardt-Emmer, Stefanie; Maschkowitz, Gregor; Pohlmann, Anja; Sodeik, Beate; Fickenscher, Helmut; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Krumbholz, Andi

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a novel reliable method to assess the significance of individual mutations within the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) to nucleoside analogue resistance. Eleven defined single nucleotide polymorphisms that occur in the TK gene of clinical HSV-1 isolates and a fluorescence reporter were introduced into the HSV-1 strain 17(+) that had been cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. The susceptibility of these different strains to aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and foscarnet was determined with a modified cytopathic effect reduction assay. The strains were also tested for their aciclovir susceptibility by measuring the relative fluorescence intensity as an indicator for HSV-1 replication and by quantifying the virus yield. Our data indicate that the amino acid substitutions R41H, R106H, A118V, L139V, K219T, S276R, L298R, S345P, and V348I represent natural polymorphisms of the TK protein, whereas G61A and P84L mediate broad cross-resistance against aciclovir, penciclovir, brivudin, and susceptibility to foscarnet. This method allows the definition of the resistance genotype of otherwise unclear mutations in the TK gene of HSV-1. Thus, it provides a scientific basis for antiviral testing in clinical isolates of patients suffering from serious diseases and will facilitate testing of new antivirals against HSV-1. PMID:27426251

  8. Novel agents and strategies to treat herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald

    2003-02-01

    The quiet pandemic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has plagued humanity since ancient times, causing mucocutaneous infection, such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis. Disease symptoms often interfere with everyday activities and occasionally HSV infections are the cause of life-threatening or sight-impairing disease, especially in neonates and the immunocompromised patient population. After primary or initial infection the virus persists for life in a latent form in neurons of the host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently, no cure is available. In the mid-1950s the first antiviral, idoxuridine, was developed for topical treatment of herpes disease and, in 1978, vidarabine was licensed for systemic use to treat HSV encephalitis. Acyclovir (Zovirax), a potent, specific and tolerable nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, was a milestone in the development of antiviral drugs in the late 1970s. In the mid-1990s, when acyclovir became a generic drug, valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir), prodrugs of the gold standard and penciclovir (Denavir), Vectavir), a close analogue, were launched. Though numerous approaches and strategies were tested and considerable effort was expended in the search of the next generation of an antiherpetic therapy, it proved difficult to outperform acyclovir. Notable in this regard was the award of a Nobel Prize in 1988 for the elucidation of mechanistic principles which resulted in the development of new drugs such as acyclovir. Vaccines, interleukins, interferons, therapeutic proteins, antibodies, immunomodulators and small-molecule drugs with specific or nonspecific modes of action lacked either efficacy or the required safety profile to replace the nucleosidic drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir as the first choice of treatment. Recently though, new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro

  9. Planned revision to DOE Order 5820.2A, Radioactive Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    Duggan, G.J.; Williams, R.E.; Kudera, D.E.; Bailey, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    US Department of Energy Headquarters initiated efforts to revise DOE Order 5820.2A, ``Radioactive Waste Management``. The purpose of the revision is to enhance DOE waste management requirements, reflect new DOE organizational responsibilities, and consolidate requirements for management of all waste, under the responsibility of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into a single order. This paper discusses the revision philosophy, objectives of the revision, and strategy for the revision. Issues being considered for inclusion in the revision and recommended methods of resolving each issue are also discussed.

  10. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis in Peru: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed

    Montano, S M; Mori, N; Nelson, C A; Ton, T G N; Celis, V; Ticona, E; Sihuincha, M; Tilley, D H; Kochel, T; Zunt, J R

    2016-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of the most commonly identified infectious aetiologies of encephalitis in North America and Europe. The epidemiology of encephalitis beyond these regions, however, is poorly defined. During 2009-2012 we enrolled 313 patients in a multicentre prospective study of encephalitis in Peru, 45 (14·4%) of whom had confirmed HSV infection. Of 38 patients with known HSV type, 84% had HSV-1 and 16% had HSV-2. Patients with HSV infection were significantly more likely to present in the summer months (44·4% vs. 20·0%, P = 0·003) and have nausea (60·0% vs. 39·8%, P = 0·01) and rash (15·6% vs. 5·3%, P = 0·01) compared to patients without HSV infection. These findings highlight differences in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HSV encephalitis outside of the Northern Hemisphere that warrant further investigation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for improved HSV diagnostic capacity and availability of intravenous acyclovir in Peru. PMID:26733400

  11. Simplex-in-cell technique for collisionless plasma simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kates-Harbeck, Julian; Totorica, Samuel; Zrake, Jonathan; Abel, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We extend the simplex-in-cell (SIC) technique recently introduced in the context of collisionless dark matter fluids [1,2] to the case of collisionless plasmas. The six-dimensional phase space distribution function f (x , v) is represented by an ensemble of three-dimensional manifolds, which we refer to as sheets. The electric potential field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation on a uniform mesh, where the charge density is evaluated by a spatial projection of the phase space sheets. The SIC representation of phase space density facilitates robust, high accuracy numerical evolution of the Vlasov-Poisson system using significantly fewer tracer particles than comparable particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches by reducing the numerical shot-noise associated with the latter. We introduce the SIC formulation and describe its implementation in a new code, which we validate using standard test problems including plasma oscillations, Landau damping, and two stream instabilities in one dimension. Merits of the new scheme are shown to include higher accuracy and faster convergence rates in the number of particles. We finally motivate and outline the efficient application of SIC to higher dimensional problems.

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Products in Productive and Abortive Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Susan B.; Roizman, Bernard; Schwartz, Jerome

    1968-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus strain MPdk− multiplies in HEp-2 cells, but not in dog kidney (DK) cells. Strain MPdk+sp, a multistep mutant of MPdk−, multiplies in both HEp-2 and DK cells. Stabilized lysates of productively infected cells yield three macromolecular aggregates of viral deoxyribonucleic acid and protein banding in CsCl gradients at densities of 1.285 g/cm3 (α), 1.325 g/cm3 (β), and 1.37 to 1.45 g/cm3 (γ). Similar lysates from abortively infected cells yield only the β and γ bands. Electron microscopic examination revealed that (i) the α band contained enveloped nucleocapsids, whereas the β band contained naked nucleocapsids and particles tentatively identified as internal components of the nucleocapsids, and that (ii) the enveloped virions and reduplication of cellular membranes observed in thin sections of productively infected cells were absent from abortively infected cells. Studies of the surface antigens of infected cells in a cytolytic system described previously revealed that abortively infected cells contained approximately 10-fold less virus-induced surface antigen than did productively infected cells. From these and other data published previously, we concluded that infectious MPdk− virions are not made in DK cells because (i) functional viral products necessary for the envelopment of the nucleocapsid are not made, and (ii) capsid proteins and some nonstructural products specified by the virus malfunction. Images PMID:4316018

  13. Cervical cancer: is herpes simplex virus type II a cofactor?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, C

    1995-01-01

    In many ways, cervical cancer behaves as a sexually transmitted disease. The major risk factors are multiple sexual partners and early onset of sexual activity. Although high-risk types of human papillomaviruses (HPV) play an important role in the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer, other sexually transmitted infectious agents may be cofactors. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is transmitted primarily by sexual contact and therefore has been implicated as a risk factor. Several independent studies suggest that HSV-2 infections correlate with a higher than normal incidence of cervical cancer. In contrast, other epidemiological studies have concluded that infection with HSV-2 is not a major risk factor. Two separate transforming domains have been identified within the HSV-2 genome, but continued viral gene expression apparently is not necessary for neoplastic transformation. HSV infections lead to unscheduled cellular DNA synthesis, chromosomal amplifications, and mutations. These observations suggest that HSV-2 is not a typical DNA tumor virus. It is hypothesized that persistent or abortive infections induce permanent genetic alterations that interfere with differentiation of cervical epithelium and subsequently induce abnormal proliferation. Thus, HSV-2 may be a cofactor in some but not all cases of cervical cancer. PMID:8665469

  14. Subassemblies and Asymmetry in Assembly of Herpes Simplex Virus Procapsid

    PubMed Central

    Aksyuk, Anastasia A.; Newcomb, William W.; Cheng, Naiqian; Winkler, Dennis C.; Fontana, Juan; Heymann, J. Bernard

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) capsid is a massive particle (~200 MDa; 1,250-Å diameter) with T=16 icosahedral symmetry. It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds. The procapsid undergoes major changes in structure and composition as it matures, a process driven by proteolysis and expulsion of the internal scaffolding protein. Assembly also relies on an external scaffolding protein, the triplex, an α2β heterotrimer that coordinates neighboring capsomers in the procapsid and becomes a stabilizing clamp in the mature capsid. To investigate the mechanisms that regulate its assembly, we developed a novel isolation procedure for the metastable procapsid and collected a large set of cryo-electron microscopy data. In addition to procapsids, these preparations contain maturation intermediates, which were distinguished by classifying the images and calculating a three-dimensional reconstruction for each class. Appraisal of the procapsid structure led to a new model for assembly; in it, the protomer (assembly unit) consists of one triplex, surrounded by three major capsid protein (MCP) subunits. The model exploits the triplexes’ departure from 3-fold symmetry to explain the highly skewed MCP hexamers, the triplex orientations at each 3-fold site, and the T=16 architecture. These observations also yielded new insights into maturation. PMID:26443463

  15. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Danovich, R.M.; Frenkel, N.

    1988-08-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions. HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed.

  16. Stabilising the Herpes Simplex Virus capsid by DNA packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuite, Gijs; Radtke, Kerstin; Sodeik, Beate; Roos, Wouter

    2009-03-01

    Three different types of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) nuclear capsids can be distinguished, A, B and C capsids. These capsids types are, respectively, empty, contain scaffold proteins, or hold DNA. We investigate the physical properties of these three capsids by combining biochemical and nanoindentation techniques. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments show that A and C capsids are mechanically indistinguishable whereas B capsids already break at much lower forces. By extracting the pentamers with 2.0 M GuHCl or 6.0 M Urea we demonstrate an increased flexibility of all three capsid types. Remarkably, the breaking force of the B capsids without pentamers does not change, while the modified A and C capsids show a large drop in their breaking force to approximately the value of the B capsids. This result indicates that upon DNA packaging a structural change at or near the pentamers occurs which mechanically reinforces the capsids structure. The reported binding of proteins UL17/UL25 to the pentamers of the A and C capsids seems the most likely candidate for such capsids strengthening. Finally, the data supports the view that initiation of DNA packaging triggers the maturation of HSV-1 capsids.

  17. Herpes simplex virus induces the replication of foreign DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Danovich, R M; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Plasmids containing the simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA replication origin and the large T gene are replicated efficiently in Vero monkey cells but not in rabbit skin cells. Efficient replication of the plasmids was observed in rabbit skin cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The HSV-induced replication required the large T antigen and the SV40 replication origin. However, it produced concatemeric molecules resembling replicative intermediates of HSV DNA and was sensitive to phosphonoacetate at concentrations known to inhibit the HSV DNA polymerase. Therefore, it involved the HSV DNA polymerase itself or a viral gene product(s) which was expressed following the replication of HSV DNA. Analyses of test plasmids lacking SV40 or HSV DNA sequences showed that, under some conditions, HSV also induced low-level replication of test plasmids containing no known eucaryotic replication origins. Together, these results show that HSV induces a DNA replicative activity which amplifies foreign DNA. The relevance of these findings to the putative transforming potential of HSV is discussed. Images PMID:2850486

  18. The herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Frenkel, N

    1989-01-01

    The virion host shutoff (vhs) function of herpes simplex virus (HSV) limits the expression of genes in the infected cells by destabilizing both host and viral mRNAs. vhs function mutants have been isolated which are defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, the half-life of viral mRNAs is significantly longer in cells infected with the vhs-1 mutant virus than in cells infected with the wild-type (wt) virus. Recent data have shown that the vhs-1 mutation resides within the open reading frame UL41. We have analyzed the shutoff of host protein synthesis in cells infected with a mixture of the wt HSV-1 (KOS) and the vhs-1 mutant virus. The results of these experiments revealed that (i) the wt virus shutoff activity requires a threshold level of input virions per cell and (ii) the mutant vhs-1 virus protein can irreversibly block the wt virus shutoff activity. These results are consistent with a stoichiometric model in which the wt vhs protein interacts with a cellular factor which controls the half-life of cell mRNA. This wt virus interaction results in the destabilization of both host and viral mRNAs. In contrast, the mutant vhs function interacts with the cellular factor irreversibly, resulting in the increased half-life of both host and viral mRNAs. Images PMID:2552156

  19. Recent Progress in Herpes Simplex Virus Immunobiology and Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) cause prevalent, chronic infections that have serious outcomes in some individuals. Neonatal herpes may occur when the infant traverses the cervix during maternal genital herpes. Genital herpes is a major risk factor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission. Considerable efforts have been made to design and test vaccines for HSV, focusing on genital infection with HSV-2. Several protein subunit vaccines based on HSV-2 envelope glycoproteins have reached advanced-phase clinical trials. These antigens were chosen because they are the targets of neutralizing-antibody responses and because they elicit cellular immunity. Encouraging results have been reported in studies of treatment of HSV-seronegative women with a vaccine consisting of truncated glycoprotein D of HSV-2 and a novel adjuvant. Because most sexual HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, it is important to evaluate the impact of vaccination on HSV-2 infection, clinically apparent genital herpes, and HSV shedding among vaccine recipients who acquire infection. There are several other attractive formats, including subunit vaccines that target cellular immune responses, live attenuated virus strains, and mutant strains that undergo incomplete lytic replication. HSV vaccines have also been evaluated for the immunotherapy of established HSV infection. PMID:12525427

  20. Seroreactive recombinant herpes simplex virus type 2-specific glycoprotein G.

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, D L; Smith, C M; Rose, J M; Brandis, J; Coates, S R

    1991-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genome codes for an envelope protein, glycoprotein G (gG), which contains predominantly type 2-specific epitopes. A portion of this gG gene has been expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli. Expression was regulated by a lambda phage pL promoter. The 60,000-molecular-weight recombinant protein was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Amino acid sequence analysis confirmed the N terminus of the purified protein. Mice immunized with recombinant gG developed antibodies reactive with native HSV-2 protein, but not with HSV-1 protein, in an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The serological activity of this purified recombinant gG protein was evaluated by immunoblot assay. This protein was reactive with an HSV-2 gG monoclonal antibody. It was also reactive with HSV-2 rabbit antiserum but not with HSV-1 rabbit antiserum. Of 15 patient serum samples known to have antibody to HSV-2, 14 were reactive with this recombinant type 2-specific gG protein, and none of 15 HSV antibody-negative patient serum samples showed reactivity. In agreement with the expected prevalence of HSV-2 infection, 27.6% of 134 serum samples from random normal individuals had antibodies reactive with recombinant gG. This recombinant gG protein may be of value in detecting HSV-2-specific antibody responses in patients infected with HSV-2. Images PMID:1653787

  1. An unusual presentation of herpes simplex encephalitis with negative PCR.

    PubMed

    Buerger, Kelly J; Zerr, Kayleigh; Salazar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A 74-year-old man presented with acute right-sided hemiparesis and epilepsia partialis continua in association with fever and confusion. Initial workup revealed possible cerebritis in the left medial frontal lobe without involvement of the temporal lobes. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed minimal lymphocytic pleocytosis but negative real-time herpes simplex virus (HSV) PCR. Acyclovir was discontinued on day 5 due to a negative infectious workup and clinical improvement. On day 9 his condition deteriorated and he was transferred to a higher level of acuity for advanced supportive care. Worsening encephalopathy and refractory status epilepticus ensued despite medical care. Repeat CSF analysis showed mild lymphocytic pleocytosis with negative real-time HSV PCR. Brain MRI revealed progression of cortical enhancement. Immunosuppressive therapy and plasma exchange were attempted without clinical response. On day 24, another lumbar puncture showed only mild lymphocytic pleocytosis. Brain MRI showed involvement of the right medial temporal lobe. Subsequently, acyclovir was resumed. The HSV-1 PCR result was positive on day 30. Unfortunately, the patient expired. PMID:26243746

  2. Simplex Factor Models for Multivariate Unordered Categorical Data

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Anirban; Dunson, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Gaussian latent factor models are routinely used for modeling of dependence in continuous, binary, and ordered categorical data. For unordered categorical variables, Gaussian latent factor models lead to challenging computation and complex modeling structures. As an alternative, we propose a novel class of simplex factor models. In the single-factor case, the model treats the different categorical outcomes as independent with unknown marginals. The model can characterize flexible dependence structures parsimoniously with few factors, and as factors are added, any multivariate categorical data distribution can be accurately approximated. Using a Bayesian approach for computation and inferences, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is proposed that scales well with increasing dimension, with the number of factors treated as unknown. We develop an efficient proposal for updating the base probability vector in hierarchical Dirichlet models. Theoretical properties are described, and we evaluate the approach through simulation examples. Applications are described for modeling dependence in nucleotide sequences and prediction from high-dimensional categorical features. PMID:23908561

  3. Treatment of Herpes simplex virus infections with topical antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Hamuy, R; Berman, B

    1998-01-01

    Clinical studies of topical therapy against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections have been reviewed. Idoxuridine (IDU) 15% in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), interferons, and penciclovir result in significant clinical benefit against this virus. IDU reduced pain duration and decreased time to loss of crust in a study of 301 patients. Alpha-interferon has shown synergism with other anti-HSV drugs such as caffeine, trifluorothymidine (TFT), DMSO, and nonoxynol-9. Finally, in a study of over 2,000 patients, application of penciclovir cream, both early and late in the course of HSV infection, decreased the duration of lesions, pain, and viral shedding. Acyclovir (ACV)-resistant strains of HSV are susceptible to (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl) cytosine (HPMPC), and ascorbic acid shows promising effects against HSV. Using a vehicle that enhances skin penetration of a drug or possibly further exploring combination therapy may result in efficacious treatment of HSV. The possibility of topical vaccination or topical gene therapy may also prove beneficial in the future. PMID:9683881

  4. Determination of gallic acid with rhodanine by reverse flow injection analysis using simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Phakthong, Wilaiwan; Liawruangrath, Boonsom; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2014-12-01

    A reversed flow injection (rFI) system was designed and constructed for gallic acid determination. Gallic acid was determined based on the formation of chromogen between gallic acid and rhodanine, resulting in a colored product with a λmax at 520 nm. The optimum conditions for determining gallic acid were also investigated. Optimizations of the experimental conditions were carried out based on the so-call univariate method. The conditions obtained were 0.6% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 0.9 mol L(-1) NaOH, 2.0 mL min(-1) flow rate, 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. Comparative optimizations of the experimental conditions were also carried out by multivariate or simplex optimization method. The conditions obtained were 1.2% (w/v) rhodanine, 70% (v/v) ethanol, 1.2 mol L(-1) NaOH, flow rate 2.5 mL min(-1), 75 μL injection loop and 600 cm mixing tubing length, respectively. It was found that the optimum conditions obtained by the former optimization method were mostly similar to those obtained by the latter method. The linear relationship between peak height and the concentration of gallic acid was obtained over the range of 0.1-35.0 mg L(-1) with the detection limit 0.081 mg L(-1). The relative standard deviations were found to be in the ranges 0.46-1.96% for 1, 10, 30 mg L(-1) of gallic acid (n=11). The method has the advantages of simplicity extremely high selectivity and high precision. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of gallic acid in longan samples without interferent effects from other common phenolic compounds that might be present in the longan samples collected in northern Thailand. PMID:25159449

  5. School Safety Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    The revised edition of this handbook represents a concerted effort to bring school safety to the forefront of business managers' daily and long-range planning activities. Although statistics show few fatalities on school grounds, schools appear to have a high frequency and incident rate of nonfatal injuries. According to the introduction, school…

  6. Business Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau. Div. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of…

  7. Revising the Institutional Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Revision of a college mission statement through a broadly participatory process can provide a new and sharpened sense of direction and priorities and a powerful mechanism for institutional change. Although institutional circumstances and processes may differ, the experience of Wittenberg University (Ohio) serves as an example of a model for…

  8. Cutaneous Co-infected Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex Virus Perigenital Ulcers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Jason; Cannon, Sarah; Cam, Kristin; Keller, Matthew

    2013-10-01

    There is uncertainty regarding the pathogenic nature of cytomegalovirus in cutaneous lesions co-infected with herpes simplex virus. It is widely believed that herpes simplex virus is the main pathogenic factor in such lesions and that cytomegalovirus plays little if any role. There are, however, isolated case reports that describe cytomegalovirus as an important driving pathogen in such lesions. The authors present two human immunodeficiency virus patients who have cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus co-infected perigenital ulcers, one of whom improved on valacyclovir, while the other, who was already on valacyclovir for chronic herpes simplex virus suppression, showed no improvement with a single dose of cidofovir. He only showed rapid improvement when treated with valganciclovir. The latter patient underscores the viewpoint that at least in some cases, cytomegalovirus may be an important driving force behind the formation of such lesions. The authors therefore recommend that clinicians be aware of the possible pathogenic role of cytomegalovirus in these ulcers, and, in nonhealing ulcers, use anti-cytomegalovirus agents to prevent the onset of systemic disease. These results warrant further study of the pathogenesis of cytomegalovirus in co-infected herpes simplex virus ulcers. PMID:24155993

  9. A Fast Hyperplane-Based Minimum-Volume Enclosing Simplex Algorithm for Blind Hyperspectral Unmixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hsiang; Chi, Chong-Yung; Wang, Yu-Hsiang; Chan, Tsung-Han

    2016-04-01

    Hyperspectral unmixing (HU) is a crucial signal processing procedure to identify the underlying materials (or endmembers) and their corresponding proportions (or abundances) from an observed hyperspectral scene. A well-known blind HU criterion, advocated by Craig in early 1990's, considers the vertices of the minimum-volume enclosing simplex of the data cloud as good endmember estimates, and it has been empirically and theoretically found effective even in the scenario of no pure pixels. However, such kind of algorithms may suffer from heavy simplex volume computations in numerical optimization, etc. In this work, without involving any simplex volume computations, by exploiting a convex geometry fact that a simplest simplex of N vertices can be defined by N associated hyperplanes, we propose a fast blind HU algorithm, for which each of the N hyperplanes associated with the Craig's simplex of N vertices is constructed from N-1 affinely independent data pixels, together with an endmember identifiability analysis for its performance support. Without resorting to numerical optimization, the devised algorithm searches for the N(N-1) active data pixels via simple linear algebraic computations, accounting for its computational efficiency. Monte Carlo simulations and real data experiments are provided to demonstrate its superior efficacy over some benchmark Craig-criterion-based algorithms in both computational efficiency and estimation accuracy.

  10. Prognostic Value of Initial Standard EEG and MRI in Patients with Herpes Simplex Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Soo; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Kang, Bong Su; Yeom, Jung Sook; Moon, Jangsup; Shin, Jung-Won; Lee, Sang Kun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common type of sporadic encephalitis worldwide, and it remains fatal even when optimal antiviral therapy is applied. There is only a weak consensus on the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with HSE. This study examined whether the radiological and electrophysiological findings have a prognostic value in patients with HSE. Methods We retrospectively analyzed patients who were diagnosed with HSE by applying the polymerase chain reaction to cerebrospinal fluid and who received intravenous acyclovir at our hospital from 2000 to 2014. We evaluated the clinical outcomes at 6 months after onset and their correlations with initial and clinical findings, including the volume of lesions on MRI, the severity of EEG findings, and the presence of epileptic seizures at the initial presentation. Results Twenty-nine patients were enrolled (18 men and 11 women). Univariate analysis revealed that the presence of severe EEG abnormality and epileptic seizures at the initial presentation were significant correlated with a poor clinical outcome at 6 months (p=0.005 and p=0.009, respectively). In multivariate analysis, the presence of severe EEG abnormality was the only independent predictor of a poor outcome at 6 months (p=0.006). Conclusions In cases of HSE, the initial EEG severity and seizure presentation may be useful predictive factors for the outcome at 6 months after acyclovir treatment. PMID:26833985

  11. Complement-mediated phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus by granulocytes. Binding or ingestion.

    PubMed Central

    Van Strijp, J A; Van Kessel, K P; van der Tol, M E; Verhoef, J

    1989-01-01

    The role of complement receptors in phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus (HSV) by PMN was examined. Complement components were deposited on the surface of the virus particle in the presence or absence of specific anti-HSV antibodies. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the phagocytosis of fluorescence-labeled viruses and demonstrated that although a virion is able to associate with PMN in the presence of complement alone, the granulocyte is not triggered to mount a metabolic burst. Efficient stimulation of PMN occurs when complexes are formed consisting of virus, specific antibodies, and complement. To address the question whether the viruses were inside or outside the cell, a combined enhancement/quenching method was developed using ammonium chloride as a lysosomotropic agent and trypan blue as a quenching dye. The data indicate that Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis by PMN results in the ingestion of all cell-associated herpes virions. Interactions of virions through PMN-complement receptors CR1 and CR3 results solely in binding to the PMN but not in internalization. Interactions via both complement and Fc receptors cause synergistic stimulation of the PMN and result in very efficient association of viruses, greater than 80% of which were inside the cell. PMID:2544621

  12. Targeting the Central Nervous System with Herpes Simplex Virus / Sleeping Beauty Hybrid Amplicon Vectors

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J.

    2014-01-01

    The pursuits of sustainable treatments for diseases and disorders that afflict the central nervous system (CNS) have proven challenging for the field of viral vector-based gene therapy. However, recent advances in viral vector technology coupled with efficient delivery methods have opened up new avenues that show promise at the preclinical testing stage. The development of the Herpes Simplex Virus/Sleeping Beauty (HSV/SB) hybrid vector represents such an advance for devising treatments targeting the CNS with its potential for stably integrating large transgenomic segments of DNA within the genomes of transduced cells. In utero administration of this hybrid vector into the embryonic mouse brain has revealed the capacity for widespread transgene dissemination due to the targeting of a neuronal precursor cell population. This unique feature has provided the means to stably express a transgene throughout the brain for prolonged periods, which is a prerequisite for the treatment of progressive CNS disorders. In this review we provide a comprehensive breakdown of the characteristics of the HSV/SB vector system and how it can be efficiently employed in the derivation of CNS-targeted gene therapeutic strategies. PMID:21711226

  13. Rapidly Cleared Episodes of Oral and Anogenital Herpes Simplex Virus Shedding in HIV-Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Karen E.; Wald, Anna; Magaret, Amalia S.; Selke, Stacy; Kuntz, Steven; Huang, Meei-Li; Corey, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether rapidly cleared episodes of herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivation occur in HIV-infected adults. Methods Twenty HSV-2 seropositive, HIV seropositive adults, including 9 (45%) who were also HSV-1 seropositive, collected oral and anogenital swabs for HSV DNA PCR 4 times a day for 60 days. Samples were positive for HSV if we detected ≥ 150 copies of HSV DNA/mL of specimen. Results Median HSV shedding episode duration was 7.5 (range 4–253) hours for oral and 11 (range 4–328) hours for anogenital reactivation. Thirty-five percent of oral and 29% of anogenital reactivations lasted ≤ 6 hours, and 59% of oral and 53% of anogenital reactivations lasted ≤ 12 hours. Seven of 9 participants who shed orally and 10 of 15 who shed anogenitally had ≥ 1 reactivation lasting ≤ 6 hours. The median maximum level of HSV DNA detected in an episode increased with episode duration for both oral and anogenital episodes. Concurrent oral and anogenital shedding occurred more frequently than expected: Oral HSV shedding was detected on 17% of time points with anogenital, but 1% of time points without anogenital, shedding (p < 0.001). Conclusions Rapidly cleared episodes of oral and anogenital HSV shedding occur in HIV-infected persons, supporting the hypothesis that frequent anogenital mucosal immune activation caused by HSV-2 is present in HIV co-infected persons, potentially contributing to HIV infectiousness. PMID:20616743

  14. Entry of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus into Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Okunaga, Shusuke; Takasu, Ayako; Meshii, Noritoshi; Imai, Tomoaki; Hamada, Masakagu; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2015-10-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound is a useful method to introduce materials into cells due to the transient formation of micropores, called sonoporations, on the cell membrane. Whether oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can be introduced into oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells through membrane pores remains undetermined. Human SCC cell line SAS and oncolytic HSV-1 RH2, which was deficient in the 134.5 gene and fusogenic, were used. Cells were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of microbubbles. The increase of virus entry was estimated by plaque numbers. Viral infection was hardly established without the adsorption step, but plaque number was increased by the exposure of HSV-1-inoculated cells to ultrasound. Plaque number was also increased even if SAS cells were exposed to ultrasound and inoculated with RH2 without the adsorption step. This effect was abolished when the interval from ultrasound exposure to virus inoculation was prolonged. Scanning electron microscopy revealed depressed spots on the cell surface after exposure to ultrasound. These results suggest that oncolytic HSV-1 RH2 can be introduced into SAS cells through ultrasound-mediated pores of the cell membrane that are resealed after an interval. PMID:26516901

  15. Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

  16. Phase transitions in a model for the formation of herpes simplex ulcers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Claudia P.; Fontanari, J. F.; Zorzenon Dos Santos, Rita M.

    2001-10-01

    The critical properties of a cellular automaton model describing the spreading of infection of the herpes simplex virus in corneal tissue are investigated through the dynamic Monte Carlo method. The model takes into account different cell susceptibilities to the viral infection, as suggested by experimental findings. In a two-dimensional square lattice the sites are associated with two distinct types of cells, namely, permissive and resistant to the infection. While a permissive cell becomes infected in the presence of a single infected cell in its neighborhood, a resistant cell needs to be surrounded by at least R>1 infected or dead cells in order to become infected. The infection is followed by the death of the cells resulting in ulcers whose forms may be dendritic (self-limited clusters) or amoeboid (percolating clusters) depending on the degree of resistance R of the resistant cells as well as on the density of permissive cells in the healthy tissue. We show that a phase transition between these two regimes occurs only for R>=5 and, in addition, that the phase transition is in the universality class of the ordinary percolation.

  17. Structures of herpes simplex virus type 1 genes required for replication of virus DNA.

    PubMed Central

    McGeoch, D J; Dalrymple, M A; Dolan, A; McNab, D; Perry, L J; Taylor, P; Challberg, M D

    1988-01-01

    Recently, a method has been developed to identify regions in the genome of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) which contain genes required for DNA synthesis from an HSV-1 origin of DNA replication, and seven genomic loci have been identified as representing the necessary and sufficient gene set for such replication (C. A. Wu, N. J. Nelson, D. J. McGeoch, and M. D. Challberg, J. Virol. 62:435-443, 1988). Two of the loci represent the well-known genes for DNA polymerase and major DNA-binding protein, but the remainder had little or no previous characterization. In this report we present the DNA sequences of the five newly identified genes and their deduced transcript organizations and encoded amino acid sequences. These genes were designated UL5, UL8, UL9, UL42, and UL52 and were predicted to encode proteins with molecular weights of, respectively, 99,000, 80,000, 94,000, 51,000, and 114,000. All of these genes had clear counterparts in the genome of the related alphaherpesvirus varicella-zoster virus, but only UL5 and UL52 were detectably conserved in the distantly related gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus, as judged by amino acid sequence similarity. The sequence of the UL5 protein, and of its counterparts in the other viruses, contained a region closely resembling known ATP-binding sites; this could be indicative, for instance, of a helicase or primase activity. PMID:2826807

  18. Woodylides A–C, New Cytotoxic Linear Polyketides from the South China Sea Sponge Plakortis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hao-Bing; Liu, Xiang-Fang; Xu, Ying; Gan, Jian-Hong; Jiao, Wei-Hua; Shen, Yang; Lin, Hou-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Three new polyketides, woodylides A–C (1–3), were isolated from the ethanol extract of the South China Sea sponge Plakortis simplex. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data (IR, 1D and 2D NMR, and HRESIMS). The absolute configurations at C-3 of 1 and 3 were determined by the modified Mosher’s method. Antifungal, cytotoxic, and PTP1B inhibitory activities of these polyketides were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 3 showed antifungal activity against fungi Cryptococcus neoformans with IC50 values of 3.67 and 10.85 µg/mL, respectively. In the cytotoxicity test, compound 1 exhibited a moderate effect against the HeLa cell line with an IC50 value of 11.2 µg/mL, and compound 3 showed cytotoxic activity against the HCT-116 human colon tumor cell line and PTP1B inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 9.4 and 4.7 µg/mL, respectively. PMID:22822354

  19. Entry of Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus into Human Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells by Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Okunaga, Shusuke; Takasu, Ayako; Meshii, Noritoshi; Imai, Tomoaki; Hamada, Masakagu; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Low-intensity ultrasound is a useful method to introduce materials into cells due to the transient formation of micropores, called sonoporations, on the cell membrane. Whether oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can be introduced into oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells through membrane pores remains undetermined. Human SCC cell line SAS and oncolytic HSV-1 RH2, which was deficient in the γ134.5 gene and fusogenic, were used. Cells were exposed to ultrasound in the presence or absence of microbubbles. The increase of virus entry was estimated by plaque numbers. Viral infection was hardly established without the adsorption step, but plaque number was increased by the exposure of HSV-1-inoculated cells to ultrasound. Plaque number was also increased even if SAS cells were exposed to ultrasound and inoculated with RH2 without the adsorption step. This effect was abolished when the interval from ultrasound exposure to virus inoculation was prolonged. Scanning electron microscopy revealed depressed spots on the cell surface after exposure to ultrasound. These results suggest that oncolytic HSV-1 RH2 can be introduced into SAS cells through ultrasound-mediated pores of the cell membrane that are resealed after an interval. PMID:26516901

  20. Global and Regional Estimates of Prevalent and Incident Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infections in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Looker, Katharine J.; Magaret, Amalia S.; May, Margaret T.; Turner, Katherine M. E.; Vickerman, Peter; Gottlieb, Sami L.; Newman, Lori M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) commonly causes orolabial ulcers, while HSV-2 commonly causes genital ulcers. However, HSV-1 is an increasing cause of genital infection. Previously, the World Health Organization estimated the global burden of HSV-2 for 2003 and for 2012. The global burden of HSV-1 has not been estimated. Methods We fitted a constant-incidence model to pooled HSV-1 prevalence data from literature searches for 6 World Health Organization regions and used 2012 population data to derive global numbers of 0-49-year-olds with prevalent and incident HSV-1 infection. To estimate genital HSV-1, we applied values for the proportion of incident infections that are genital. Findings We estimated that 3709 million people (range: 3440–3878 million) aged 0–49 years had prevalent HSV-1 infection in 2012 (67%), with highest prevalence in Africa, South-East Asia and Western Pacific. Assuming 50% of incident infections among 15-49-year-olds are genital, an estimated 140 million (range: 67–212 million) people had prevalent genital HSV-1 infection, most of which occurred in the Americas, Europe and Western Pacific. Conclusions The global burden of HSV-1 infection is huge. Genital HSV-1 burden can be substantial but varies widely by region. Future control efforts, including development of HSV vaccines, should consider the epidemiology of HSV-1 in addition to HSV-2, and especially the relative contribution of HSV-1 to genital infection. PMID:26510007

  1. A Report of Three Cases and Review of Intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Lucila; Levy, Moise L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Palazzi, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection often is omitted from descriptions of neonatal HSV disease. Previous characterizations of intrauterine HSV infection limit manifestations to the triad of cutaneous, central nervous system (CNS), and ophthalmologic findings. We report 3 cases of intrauterine HSV infection and provide a contemporary literature review of this disease. Methods Cases published between 1963 and January 2009 were identified. Selected cases fit the clinical description of intrauterine HSV infection, had manifestations present at birth, and had virologic confirmation of infection. Results This review yielded 64 cases, 3 of which were our own, of intrauterine HSV infection. Less than one-third fit the typical triad. Of the patients with cutaneous findings at birth, 24 (44%) had manifestations other than vesicles or bullae. Confirmation of HSV infection by culture of cutaneous lesions present at birth was delayed beyond 72 hours after birth in 15 patients and occurred at a median of 10 days of age. Nine of these patients had lesions at birth that were neither vesicles nor bullae, and 14 cases were confirmed by culture of new vesicles. Conclusions More than two-thirds of reported cases do not present with the typical triad. Cutaneous findings are not limited to vesicles or bullae. A high index of suspicion and recognition of varied cutaneous manifestations is necessary to diagnose infants with intrauterine HSV infection. PMID:20811312

  2. Misassigned natural products and their revised structures.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye-Dong; Nam, Sang-Jip; Chin, Young-Won; Kim, Min-Sun

    2016-02-01

    Natural products are a major pipeline for drug development and are responsible for more than 50 % of drugs on the market. NMR is a fundamental and powerful tool for the structure determination of natural products. It is essential to provide unambiguous chemical structure information on natural products in drug development research, including the structure-activity relationship, derivatization and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies. Advancement of NMR instruments has made it possible to deal with nanomole-scale natural products for structure elucidation, but misinterpretation of NMR spectra still occurs. We review 21 natural products with revised chemical structures and the methods used for those revisions. PMID:26310208

  3. Metaphyseal bone loss in revision knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Austin, Matthew S

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of bone loss encountered during revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often multifactorial and can include stress shielding, osteolysis, osteonecrosis, infection, mechanical loss due to a grossly loose implant, and iatrogenic loss at the time of implant resection. Selection of the reconstructive technique(s) to manage bone deficiency is determined by the location and magnitude of bone loss, ligament integrity, surgeon experience, and patient factors including the potential for additional revision, functional demand, and comorbidities. Smaller, contained defects are reliably managed with bone graft, cement augmented with screw fixation, or modular augments. Large metaphyseal defects require more extensive reconstruction such as impaction bone grafting with or without mesh augmentation, prosthetic augmentation, use of bulk structural allografts, or use of metaphyseal cones or sleeves. While each technique has advantages and disadvantages, the most optimal method for reconstruction of large metaphyseal bone defects during revision TKA is not clearly established. PMID:26362647

  4. Revision of the Halstead Category Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Elbert W.; Levy, Marie

    1987-01-01

    Implemented a method of abbreviating the Category Test of the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery. The revision shortened the scales and reorganized Subtests 5 and 6 into two new scales using separate principles. Demonstrated it to be as accurate as the full test in predicting the presence or absence of brain damage in subjects.…

  5. The Uterus Duplex Bicollis, Vagina Simplex of Female Chinchillas.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Carla L; Jarrett, Timothy R; Harvey, Stephen B; Alworth, Leanne

    2016-03-01

    The available literature describing the morphology of the female chinchilla's uterine cervix varies and includes phrases such as 'the cervical canal,' 'a single cervix,' and 'the cervix;' alternatively, some publications describe 2 cervices. In this report, we provide an anatomically correct and definitive description of the uterine cervical morphology of the laboratory chinchilla. We further propose revised, anatomically precise nomenclature to characterize the female chinchilla reproductive tract as a whole. PMID:27025806

  6. Latency of Herpes Simplex Virus in Absence of Neutralizing Antibody: Model for Reactivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, Tsuyoshi; Openshaw, Harry; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis

    1980-11-01

    Mice inoculated with herpes simplex virus (type 1) by the lip or corneal route and then passively immunized with rabbit antibody to herpes simplex virus developed a latent infection in the trigeminal ganglia within 96 hours. Neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus was cleared from the circulation and could not be detected in most of these mice after 2 months. Examination of ganglia from the antibody-negative mice revealed latent virus in over 90 percent of the animals, indicating that serum neutralizing antibody is not necessary to maintain the latent state. When the lips or corneas of these mice were traumatized, viral reactivation occurred in up to 90 percent of the mice, as demonstrated by the appearance of neutralizing antibody. This study provides a model for identifying factors that trigger viral reactivation.

  7. Chronic active destructive herpes simplex encephalitis with recovery of viral DNA 12 years after disease onset.

    PubMed

    Asenbauer, B; McEntagart, M; King, M D; Gallagher, P; Burke, M; Farrell, M A

    1998-06-01

    Acute herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) carries significant morbidity and mortality even after early treatment with antiviral agents (7). As well as causing acute neurological disease, Herpes viruses are associated with relapsing--remitting (Varicella--Zoster, Epstein-Barr) and chronic (Rasmussen encephalitis) disease processes (1). A two-year-old girl developed acute HSE which was followed by a 10-year neurologic illness characterised by asymmetric spastic tetraparesis, pseudobulbar palsy, the opercular syndrome of Foix-Chavany-Marie (4) and seizures. The neurological signs remained static until the child died suddenly 12 years after disease onset. Neuropathologic examination demonstrated active chronic encephalitis. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA was recovered from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain tissue. This case provides additional evidence for the development of chronic neurological disease attributable to persistence of herpes simplex virus type 1. PMID:9706620

  8. Antihelmintic effects of nutmeg (Myristica fragans) on Anisakis simplex L3 larvae obtained from Micromesistius potassou.

    PubMed

    López, Víctor; Gerique, Javier; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; Valero, Marta Sofía; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota

    2015-06-01

    Anisakis simplex is a foodborne pathogen that can produce human infections and allergic reactions due to the high consumption of raw fish. The seeds of Myristica fragans (Myristicaceae), popularly known as nutmeg, are worldwide used as a culinary spice due to its flavour and properties in food preservation. A nutmeg extract was prepared, analyzed, screened for cytotoxicity and tested against Anisakis simplex L3 larvae. In order to detect the biologically active constituents of the extract, myristicin was tested on the larvae. An acetylcholinesterase inhibition bioassay was also carried out to investigate the antihelmintic mechanism of action. Our results demonstrate that nutmeg exerts antihelmintic effects on Anisakis simplex, being myristicin one of the active compounds. The extract induced a high rate of dead anisakis at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.7 mg/ml without being considered cytotoxic; however, an inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was discarded as the molecular mechanism involved in the activity. PMID:25890576

  9. Digital coherent detection research on Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry with simplex pulse codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yun-Qi; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zheng-Qing; Cai, Hai-Wen; Qu, Rong-Hui

    2014-11-01

    The digital coherent detection technique has been investigated without any frequency-scanning device in the Brillouin optical time domain reflectometry (BOTDR), where the simplex pulse codes are applied in the sensing system. The time domain signal of every code sequence is collected by the data acquisition card (DAQ). A shift-averaging technique is applied in the frequency domain for the reason that the local oscillator (LO) in the coherent detection is fix-frequency deviated from the primary source. With the 31-bit simplex code, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) has 3.5-dB enhancement with the same single pulse traces, accordant with the theoretical analysis. The frequency fluctuation for simplex codes is 14.01 MHz less than that for a single pulse as to 4-m spatial resolution. The results are believed to be beneficial for the BOTDR performance improvement.

  10. Thrust efficiency optimization of the pulsed plasma thruster SIMP-LEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Albertoni, Riccardo; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    2010-08-01

    The effect of electric parameters on the thrust efficiency of an ablative pulsed plasma thruster was studied. Analytically, it was shown that a higher efficiency can be obtained by increasing energy of a bank of capacitors. This can be achieved by changing the inductance per distance of the plasma sheet, or reducing the resistance of the circuit and the mass bit. Further, an optimum discharge time was found when the capacitance and the inductance were varied. A low initial inductance increases the thrust efficiency. Experimentally, these trends can be verified by comparing two thrusters: SIMP-LEX and ADD SIMP-LEX, with their different initial inductances. For ADD SIMP-LEX, the optimal thrust efficiency for different capacities was determined to be 31% at 60μF for a 17 J configuration.

  11. Structure and origin of defective genomes contained in serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (Justin).

    PubMed Central

    Locker, H; Frenkel, N

    1979-01-01

    Restriction enzyme and hybridization analyses have revealed that high-density DNA prepared from passage 15 of serially passaged herpes simplex virus type 1 (Justin) contains three major classes of modified viral DNA molecules, each composed of distinct but closely related types of repeate units. The DNA sequences within the three types of repeat units are colinear with the DNA sequences located at the right end (between coordinates 0.94 and 1.0) of the parental herpes simplex virus type 1 genome. Thus, the three types of repeat units each contain the entire repeat sequence (ac) (which brackets the unique sequences of the small [S] component of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA) and differ only with respect to the amount of unique S sequences which they contain. The three classes of high-density DNA molecules were found to be stably propagated between passages 6 and 15 of this series. Images PMID:221666

  12. A remarkable autosomal heteromorphism in Pseudoryzomys simplex 2n = 56; FN = 54–55 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae)

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Camila Nascimento; Di-Nizo, Camilla Bruno; de Jesus Silva, Maria José; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Ventura, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Pseudoryzomys simplex, the false rice rat, is a monotypic genus of the Oryzomyini tribe (Sigmodontinae) distributed in part of Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. Its diploid number has been described as 56 acrocentric chromosomes decreasing in size and no karyotype figure has been depicted. Herein, we present karyotypic data on P. simplex, including chromosome banding and molecular fluorescent in situ hybridization using telomeric sequences and the whole X-chromosome of its sister clade Holochilus brasiliensis (HBR) as probes. A case of remarkable autosomal heteromorphism due to the presence of a whole heterochromatic arm leading to the variability of FN is reported, as well as the occurrence of regions of homology between the X and Y chromosomes (pseudoautosomal regions) after chromosome painting with the HBR X probe on P. simplex metaphases. PMID:23885202

  13. CAP37-derived antimicrobial peptides have in vitro antiviral activity against adenovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Y. Jerold; Romanowski, Eric G.; Shanks, Robert M. Q.; Yates, Kathleen A.; Hinsley, Heather; Pereira, H. Anne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The antiviral activity of an established antibacterial CAP37 domain and its extracellular mechanism of action were investigated. Methods CAP37-derived peptides modified to assess the importance of disulfide bonds were evaluated in cytotoxicity, and antiviral assays (direct time kill, dose-dependency and TOTO-1) for adenovirus (Ad) and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Results Variable virus, adenovirus serotype-dependant, and dose-dependent inhibition were demonstrated without cytotoxicity. For Peptide A (CAP3720-44), TOTO-1 dye uptake was demonstrated for Ad5 and HSV-1. Conclusions Unlike the antibacterial activity of this CAP37 domain, its antiviral activity is not fully dependent upon disulfide bond formation. Viral inhibition appears to result, in part, from disruption of the envelope and/or capsid. PMID:19274533

  14. Decreasing Herpes Simplex Viral Infectivity in Solution by Surface-Immobilized and Suspended N,N-Dodecyl, methyl-polyethylenimine

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Alyssa M.; Oh, Hyung Suk

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore surface-immobilized and suspended modalities of the hydrophobic polycation N,N-dodecyl, methyl-polyethylenimine (DMPEI) for the ability to reduce viral infectivity in aqueous solutions containing herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) 1 and 2. Methods Surface-immobilized (coated onto surfaces) and suspended DMPEI were incubated with aqueous solutions containing HSV-1 or -2 to measure the antiviral effect of the hydrophobic polycation’s formulations on HSVs. Results DMPEI coated on either polyethylene slides or male latex condoms dramatically decreases infectivity in solutions containing HSV-1 or -2. Moreover, DMPEI suspended in aqueous solution markedly reduces the infectious titer of these HSVs. Conclusion Our results suggest potential uses of DMPEI for both prophylaxis (in the form of coated condoms) and treatment (as a topical suspension) for HSV infections. PMID:22798261

  15. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection impacts stress granule accumulation.

    PubMed

    Finnen, Renée L; Pangka, Kyle R; Banfield, Bruce W

    2012-08-01

    Interference with stress granule (SG) accumulation is gaining increased appreciation as a common strategy used by diverse viruses to facilitate their replication and to cope with translational arrest. Here, we examined the impact of infection by herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) on SG accumulation by monitoring the localization of the SG components T cell internal antigen 1 (TIA-1), Ras-GTPase-activating SH3-domain-binding protein (G3BP), and poly(A)-binding protein (PABP). Our results indicate that SGs do not accumulate in HSV-2-infected cells and that HSV-2 can interfere with arsenite-induced SG accumulation early after infection. Surprisingly, SG accumulation was inhibited despite increased phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), implying that HSV-2 encodes previously unrecognized activities designed to maintain translation initiation downstream of eIF2α. SG accumulation was not inhibited in HSV-2-infected cells treated with pateamine A, an inducer that works independently of eIF2α phosphorylation. The SGs that accumulated following pateamine A treatment of infected cells contained G3BP and PABP but were largely devoid of TIA-1. We also identified novel nuclear structures containing TIA-1 that form late in infection. These structures contain the RNA binding protein 68-kDa Src-associated in mitosis (Sam68) and were noticeably absent in infected cells treated with inhibitors of viral DNA replication, suggesting that they arise as a result of late events in the virus replicative cycle. PMID:22623775

  16. Interactome analysis of herpes simplex virus 1 envelope glycoprotein H.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Yoshitaka; Kato, Akihisa; Oyama, Masaaki; Kozuka-Hata, Hiroko; Koyanagi, Naoto; Arii, Jun; Kawaguchi, Yasushi

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) envelope glycoprotein H (gH) is important for viral entry into cells and nuclear egress of nucleocapsids. To clarify additional novel roles of gH during HSV-1 replication, host cell proteins that interact with gH were screened for by tandem affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics in 293T cells transiently expressing gH. This screen identified 123 host cell proteins as potential gH interactors. Of these proteins, general control nonderepressive-1 (GCN1), a trans-acting positive effector of GCN2 kinase that regulates phosphorylation of the α subunit of translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), was subsequently confirmed to interact with gH in HSV-1-infected cells. eIF2α phosphorylation is known to downregulate protein synthesis, and various viruses have evolved mechanisms to prevent the accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2α in infected cells. Here, it was shown that GCN1 knockdown reduces phosphorylation of eIF2α in HSV-1-infected cells and that the gH-null mutation increases eIF2α in HSV-1-infected cells, whereas gH overexpression in the absence of other HSV-1 proteins reduces eIF2α phosphorylation. These findings suggest that GCN1 can regulate eIF2α phosphorylation in HSV-1-infected cells and that the GCN1-binding viral partner gH is necessary and sufficient to prevent the accumulation of phosphorylated eIF2α. Our database of 123 host cell proteins potentially interacting with gH will be useful for future studies aimed at unveiling further novel functions of gH and the roles of cellular proteins in HSV-1-infected cells. PMID:25808324

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis. PMID:8930949

  18. Dynasore Disrupts Trafficking of Herpes Simplex Virus Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mues, Mascha B.; Cheshenko, Natalia; Wilson, Duncan W.; Gunther-Cummins, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of the GTPase activity of dynamin, inhibits the entry of several viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), but its impact on other steps in the viral life cycle has not been delineated. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that dynamin is required for viral protein trafficking and thus has pleiotropic inhibitory effects on HSV infection. Dynasore inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection of human epithelial and neuronal cells, including primary genital tract cells and human fetal neurons and astrocytes. Similar results were obtained when cells were transfected with a plasmid expressing dominant negative dynamin. Kinetic studies demonstrated that dynasore reduced the number of viral capsids reaching the nuclear pore if added at the time of viral entry and that, when added as late as 8 h postentry, dynasore blocked the transport of newly synthesized viral proteins from the nucleus to the cytosol. Proximity ligation assays demonstrated that treatment with dynasore prevented the colocalization of VP5 and dynamin. This resulted in a reduction in the number of viral capsids isolated from sucrose gradients. Fewer capsids were observed by electron microscopy in dynasore-treated cells than in control-treated cells. There were also reductions in infectious progeny released into culture supernatants and in cell-to-cell spread. Together, these findings suggest that targeting dynamin-HSV interactions may provide a new strategy for HSV treatment and prevention. IMPORTANCE HSV infections remain a global health problem associated with significant morbidity, particularly in neonates and immunocompromised hosts, highlighting the need for novel approaches to treatment and prevention. The current studies indicate that dynamin plays a role in multiple steps in the viral life cycle and provides a new target for antiviral therapy. Dynasore, a small-molecule inhibitor of dynamin, has pleiotropic effects on HSV-1 and HSV-2

  19. Purification and structural characterization of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, G.E.; Baker, S.A.; Merajver, S.D.; Coligan, J.E.; Levine, M.; Glorioso, J.C.; Nairn, R.

    1987-01-27

    Purification of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein C (gC) in microgram amounts yielded sufficient material for an analysis of its secondary structure. Purification was facilitated by using the mutant virus gC-3, which bears a point mutation that interrupts the putative hydrophobic membrane anchor sequence, causing the secretion of gC-3 protein into the cell culture medium. gC-3 protein was purified by size fractionation of concentrated culture medium from infected cells on a gel filtration column of Sephacryl S-200, followed by immunoaffinity chromatography on a column constructed of gC-specific monoclonal antibodies cross-linked to a protein A-Sepharose CL-4B matrix. Purified gC-3 had a molecular weight of 130,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the size expected for gC, was reactive with gC-specific monoclonal antibodies in protein immunoblots, and contained amino acid sequences characteristic of gC as determined by radiochemical amino acid microsequence analyses. Polyclonal antisera obtained from a rabbit immunized with gC-3 reacted with wild-type gC in immunoprecipitation, enzyme immunoassay, and immunoelectroblot (western blot) assays. Deglycosylation by treatment with trifluoromethanesulfonic acid reduced the molecular weight of gC-3 by approximately 35%. Analyses of both native and deglycosylated gC-3 by Raman spectroscopy showed that the native molecule consists of about 17%..cap alpha..-helix, 24% ..beta..-sheet, and 60% disordered secondary structures, whereas deglycosylated gC-3 consists of about 8% ..cap alpha..-helix, 10% ..beta..-sheet, 81% disordered structures. These data were in good agreement with the 11% ..cap alpha..-helix, 18% ..beta..-sheet, 61% ..beta..-turn, and 9% disordered structures calculated from Chou-Fasman analysis of the primary sequence of gC-3.

  20. [Cytoskeletal disorders in human keratinocytes--epidermolysis bullosa simplex].

    PubMed

    Kitajima, Y; Jokura, Y; Yaoita, H

    1991-06-01

    The cytoskeletons possibly related to pathogenesis in skin disease may be limited to keratin intermediate filaments (KIF) in epidermal keratinocytes. Keratins are divided into two subclasses; 11 acidic (type I) keratins and 8 basic (type II) keratins. Combination of equimolar amounts of type I and type II can form KIF. KIFs in human epidermal basal cells consist of a pair of type I and type II keratins specifically synthesized in the basal cells, and those in spinous cells contain two pairs of keratin; a pair of basal cell keratin and another pair of keratin specific for suprabasal cells. In the first section, molecular biology and differentiation of keratins are reviewed. In the second section, epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) was introduced from the view point of abnormal organization of KIFs. In the epidermis of EBS, clefts are induced in the basal cells by minor trauma or frictions consequently to produce bullae. Electron microscopy reveals small spherical aggregations of tonofilaments (KIFs) in the basal cells. In biopsies, these KIF aggregations might be caused by artifacts during procedures for biopsies, so that, in order to avoid these artifacts, we studied the KIF organization in cultured keratinocytes from a patient by immunofluorescence using anti-keratin antibodies and electron microscopy. Anti-keratin antibodies revealed a formation of small droplet-like aggregations of KIFs in many cultured cells adhering to the culture bottles, which were also suggested by electron microscopy. From these observations, it is suggested that the abnormal organization (droplets) of KIFs might be one of intrinsic factors for the pathogenesis of EBS.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1720328

  1. Concurrent chemotherapy inhibits Herpes simplex virus 1 replication and oncolysis

    PubMed Central

    Kulu, Yakup; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Donahue, James M.; Kasuya, Hideki; Cusack, James C.; Choi, Enid W.; Kuruppu, Darshini K.; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Tanabe, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) replication in cancer cells leads to their destruction (viral oncolysis) and has been under investigation as an experimental cancer therapy in clinical trials as single agents, and as combinations with chemotherapy. Cellular responses to chemotherapy modulate viral replication, but these interactions are poorly understood. To investigate the effect of chemotherapy on HSV-1 oncolysis, viral replication in cells exposed to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan (CPT-11), methotrexate (MTX) or a cytokine (TNF-α) was examined. Exposure of colon and pancreatic cancer cells to 5-FU, CPT-11, or MTX in vitro significantly antagonizes both HSV-1 replication and lytic oncolysis. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation is required for efficient viral replication, and experimental inhibition of this response with an IκBα dominant-negative repressor significantly antagonizes HSV-1 replication. Nonetheless cells exposed to 5-FU, CPT-11, TNF-α or HSV-1 activate NF-κB. Cells exposed to MTX do not activate NF-κB, suggesting a possible role for NF-κB inhibition in the decreased viral replication observed following exposure to MTX. The role of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF-2α) dephosphorylation was examined; HSV-1 mediated eIF-2α dephosphorylation proceeds normally in HT29 cells exposed to 5-FU-, CPT-11-, or MTX. This report demonstrates that cellular responses to chemotherapeutic agents provide an unfavorable environment for HSV-1-mediated oncolysis, and these observations are relevant to the design of both preclinical and clinical studies of HSV-1 oncolysis. PMID:23348635

  2. [Japanese guidelines for the management of herpes simplex encephalitis; comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum].

    PubMed

    Shoji, Hiroshi

    2006-11-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is still recognized as a severe sporadic encephalitis, although the mortality and morbidity rates have been decreased to 10% and 30%, respectively. This disease is diagnosed using clinical symptoms, CSF, EEG, CT, MRI, and virologic tests such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or enzyme immunosorbent assay (EIA). Early diagnosis and treatment are essential for HSE. However, the early symptoms of this disease are various, and the laboratory diagnostic criteria are unclear to the non-specialist. In 2005, Japanese guidelines for the management of HSE have been issued via two sets of Workshops at the Japanese Neuroinfectious Disease Congress. The diagnostic and therapeutic criteria were discussed in comparison with those from the International Management Herpes Forum (IMHF) in 2004. For a definitive diagnosis, CSF PCR for herpes simplex virus (HSV) is recommended, and the detection rate has been reported to be 60 to 80% within the 7th day of the illness. In the IMHF, the PCR method has also been the primary method for early diagnosis and for monitoring the therapy. Further, quantitative real-time PCR has become available for measuring the effectiveness of aciclovir therapy. To measure HSV antibody levels, complement antibody (CF), neutralizing antibody (NT), or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA or EIA) are available. Significant elevation of EIA IgG or intrathecal HSV antibody production should be shown, although these antibody responses often appear two weeks after the onset of HSE. Regarding anti-herpesvirus drugs, in both Japanese and IMHF guidelines aciclovir is consistent with the first choice, and it is recommended that its administration would be started as soon as HSE is suspected on the basis of clinical pictures, CT * MRI, EEG, or CSF findings. However, antiviral therapy may be discontinued if a negative CSF HSV PCR is obtained at > 72 hours after onset. A recent Japanese study shows the efficacy of a combination

  3. Simplex didactics: A non-linear trajectory for research in education.

    PubMed

    Sibilio, Maurizio

    2015-12-01

    The concept of simplexity, as proposed by Alain Berthoz, is based on the assumption that solutions elaborated by living organisms to decipher and face complexity could be applicable to all complex adaptive systems. Within the pedagogical and didactic context the proposal of the French physiologist could provide a scientific research trajectory aiming at solving the tension between theory, praxis, descriptive approaches and practical needs. Thus, simplexity seems to be an operational strategy based on the identification of the principles that rule and guide the didactic action through patterns of adaptation, which allow to decipher complexity in terms of data elaboration and decision making among different opportunities. PMID:26746648

  4. Phosphonoacetic Acid-Resistant Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in Hairless Mice1

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard J.; Friedman-Kien, Alvin E.

    1975-01-01

    Phosphonoacetic acid (PAA)-resistant type 1 herpes simplex virus population was isolated by repeated passage of the virus in the presence of this inhibitor. Hairless mice infected percutaneously with the inhibitor-resistant or the parental inhibitor-susceptible virus were treated intraperitoneally with PAA and 9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-adenine by using several different dosage schedules. Whereas 9-β-d-arabinofuranosyl-adenine was effective both in the PAA-susceptible and PAA-resistant herpes simplex virus-induced skin infection, PAA suppressed only the infection induced by the parental PAA-susceptible virus. PMID:166611

  5. Herpes simplex-like infection in a bottlenose dolphin stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Esperón, F; Fernández, A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2008-08-19

    A bottlenose dolphin, stranded in the Canary Islands in 2001 exhibited non-suppurative encephalitis. No molecular detection of cetacean morbillivirus (CeMV) was found, but a herpesviral-specific band of 250 bp was detected in the lung and brain. The sequenced herpesviral PCR product was compared with GenBank sequences, obtaining 98% homology (p-distance of 0.02) with Human herpesvirus 1 (herpes simplex virus 1 or HSV-1). This is the first report of a herpes simplex-like infection in a stranded dolphin. PMID:18828564

  6. Carbon Fiber Reinforced/Silicon Carbide Turbine Blisk Testing in the SIMPLEX Turbopump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genge, Gary G.; Marsh, Matthew W.

    1999-01-01

    the two blisks, however, as the test series progressed, the funding allowed additional testing to occur. The additional test time was placed on the polar weave blisk. The total test time accrued on the polar blisk was 2550 seconds with 860 seconds near the turbopump design speed of 25,000 rpm. This testing included 6 tests / 775 seconds pumping liquid nitrogen and 7 tests / 1775 seconds pumping liquid oxygen. The drive gas for all of the tests was gaseous nitrogen due to the lack of hot gas source for the Simplex turbopump. The quasi-isotropic blisk was tested for XX total tests and XXXX seconds with X tests/XXXX seconds pumping liquid nitrogen and X tests/XXXX seconds pumping liquid \\oxygen.During the test series, the blisks were inspected following each test. Inspections initially were viewed from the downstream side of the blisks only. Midway through the testing, a method of borescoping the leading edges of the blades was devised, and subsequently, both sides of the blades were inspected following each test. The leading and trailing edges of the polar blisk held up better than the quasi-isotropic blisk. This was a known possibility due to the varying fiber direction in the blades as the rectangular preform weave is cut in a circular pattern. The surprising fact about the testing was that there was no measurable performance loss due to the inaccuracies in the blade manufacturing in the C/SiC blisks, the surface roughness C/SiC of the blades, or the loss of the material in the polar blisk. A performance shift was seen in the quasi-isotropic blisk as portions of the leading and trailing edges were lost. After the testing was completed, detailed inspections of the blisks were performed. The largest surprise was the polar blisk had a obvious crack in a single blade that was located nearly midspan which was not detected in test. The crack ran completely through the blade circumferenciary and through the radial length of the blade. However, the crack does not appear to

  7. Much More than Model Fitting? Evidence for the Heritability of Method Effect Associated with Positively Worded Items of the Life Orientation Test Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Fagnani, Corrado; Bentler, Peter M.; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Medda, Emanuela; Nistico, Lorenza; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio

    2010-01-01

    When a self-report instrument includes a balanced number of positively and negatively worded items, factor analysts often use method effect factors to aid model fitting. One of the most widely investigated sources of method effects stems from the respondent tendencies to agree with an item regardless of its content. The nature of these effects,…

  8. Radio-telemetric evidence of migration in the gregarious but not the solitary morph of the Mormon cricket (Anabrus simplex: Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorch, Patrick D.; Gwynne, D. T.

    The Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, is one of just a few species of katydids (or bushcrickets, Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) that, like migratory locusts, appear to have solitary and migratory morphs. Using radio telemetry we studied movements of individuals of two morphs of this flightless species. Individuals within each migratory band had similar rates of movements along similar directional headings whereas solitary individuals moved little and showed little evidence of directionality in movement. Our results also add to other recent radio-telemetry studies showing that flightless insects of 1-2g in mass can be tracked successfully using these methods.

  9. Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, J.L.; Edwards, J.A.; Evans, J.C.

    1996-08-01

    This report discusses comparison tests for two methods of collecting vapor samples from the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank headspaces. The two sampling methods compared are the truck-mounted vapor sampling system (VSS) and the cart-mounted in-situ vapor sampling (ISVS). Three tanks were sampled by both the VSS and ISVS methods from the same access risers within the same 8-hour period. These tanks have diverse headspace compositions and they represent the highest known level of several key vapor analytes.

  10. A New Era of Laparoscopic Revision of Kasai Portoenterostomy for the Treatment of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Naruhiko; Uchida, Hiroo; Ono, Yasuyuki; Tainaka, Takahisa; Yokota, Kazuki; Tanano, Akihide; Shirota, Chiyoe; Shirotsuki, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Kasai portoenterostomy is the standard therapy for biliary atresia (BA). If Kasai is unsuccessful, there is controversy over whether revision of Kasai restores adequate biliary drainage. Although there are several reports of laparoscopic Kasai (Lap-Kasai), none has described laparoscopic revision (Lap-revision). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of Lap-revision. Methods. 65 patients underwent open Kasai between November 2001 and November 2013, and 12 patients underwent Lap-Kasai between December 2013 to January 2015. The indications for revision included bile flow cessation and recurrent cholangitis. Clinical data were compared between open and laparoscopic revisions of Kasai. Results. Open revision of Kasai was performed in 20 patients after open Kasai, and Lap-revision was performed in 4 patients after Lap-Kasai. Lap-revision was completed without conversion or major complication in any patient. The bilirubin level was normalized by Lap-revision in all four patients, and three of them were alive with their native liver. Open and laparoscopic revisions of Kasai were comparable in terms of the operation time, blood loss, and surgical outcomes. Conclusion. Lap-revision is a feasible and effective method for the treatment of BA and might herald a new era for the treatment of this disease. PMID:26266251

  11. The Uterus Duplex Bicollis, Vagina Simplex of Female Chinchillas

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Carla L; Jarrett, R Timothy; Harvey, Stephen B; Alworth, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The available literature describing the morphology of the female chinchilla's uterine cervix varies and includes phrases such as ‘the cervical canal,’ ‘a single cervix,’ and ‘the cervix;’ alternatively, some publications describe 2 cervices. In this report, we provide an anatomically correct and definitive description of the uterine cervical morphology of the laboratory chinchilla. We further propose revised, anatomically precise nomenclature to characterize the female chinchilla reproductive tract as a whole. PMID:27025806

  12. Cloning and characterization of oriL2, a large palindromic DNA replication origin of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Lockshon, D; Galloway, D A

    1986-01-01

    An origin of replication within the long unique sequence of herpes simplex virus type 2 designated oriL2 has been identified in a position homologous to its type 1 counterpart, oriL1, between map coordinates 0.398 and 0.413. The difficulties encountered in previous attempts to clone both oriL2 and oriL1 in an undeleted form were surmounted by minimizing the growth of the host Escherichia coli, using a recBC sbcB E. coli host, and purifying the full-length plasmid from delected forms by using a novel method which exploits the ability of a palindrome-containing plasmid to adopt a cruciform conformation, thereby decreasing its supercoiling. In a previously developed assay for functional origin activity, oriL2 was localized to a 241-base-pair ApaI-SstII fragment. DNA sequence analysis revealed a 136-base pair, almost perfect palindrome. Comparison with oriL1 showed a very high degree of conservation: the two origins differ in only 16 of the 144-base-pair oriL1 palindromic region. Most significantly, the differences between oriL1 and oriL2 mainly occur in pairs so as to generally preserve the potential for intrastrand base pairing. The central region of oriL2 is homologous with the shorter palindromic structures detected in origins located within the repetitive sequences of the short component of herpes simplex virus type 1 or 2. Images PMID:3009865

  13. Voronoi polyhedra and Delaunay simplexes in the structural analysis of molecular-dynamics-simulated materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brostow, Witold; Chybicki, Mieczyslaw; Laskowski, Robert; Rybicki, Jaroslaw

    1998-06-01

    Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations are applied to pattern recognition of atomic environments and to investigation of the nonlocal order in molecular-dynamics (MD)-simulated materials. The method is applicable also to materials generated using other computer techniques such as Monte Carlo. The pattern recognition is based on an analysis of the shapes of the Voronoi polyhedron (VP). A procedure for contraction of short edges and small faces of the polyhedron is presented. It involves contraction to vertices of all edges shorter than a certain fraction x of the average edge length, with concomitant contraction of the associated faces. Thus, effects of fluctuations are eliminated, providing ``true'' values of the geometric coordination numbers f, both local and averaged over the material. Nonlocal order analysis involves geometric relations between Delaunay simplexes. The methods proposed are used to analyze the structure of MD-simulated solid lead [J. Rybicki, W. Alda, S. Feliziani, and W. Sandowski, in Proceedings of the Conference on Intermolecular Interactions in Matter, edited by K. Sangwal, E. Jartych, and J. M. Olchowik (Technical University of Lublin, Lublin, 1995), p. 57; J. Rybicki, R. Laskowski, and S. Feliziani, Comput. Phys. Commun. 97, 185 (1997)] and germianium dioxide [T. Nanba, T. Miyaji, T. Takada, A. Osaka, Y. Minura, and I. Yosui, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 131 (1994)]. For Pb the contraction results are independent of x. For the open structure of GeO2 there is an x dependence of the contracted structure, so that using several values of x is preferable. In addition to removing effects of thermal perturbation, in open structures the procedure also cleans the resulting VP from faces contributed by the second neighbors. The analysis can be combined with that in terms of the radial distribution g(R), making possible comparison of geometric coordination numbers with structural ones [W. Brostow, Chem. Phys. Lett. 49, 285 (1977)].

  14. Development of a tank test method for a national survey of underground storage tanks (revised draft). Final report, June 1985-January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, H.K.; Flora, J.D.; Haile, C.L.; Gabriel, M.J.; Maresca, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks have become a matter of national concern. Materials leaking from underground tanks can pose a risk of groundwater contamination and in the case of flammable materials, a risk of fire or explosion. The United States Congress, in recognition of this problem, mandated the Environmental Protection Agency to develop regulations for underground storage tanks containing motor fuels. As a part of the regulatory process, EPA was mandated to conduct a national survey of underground-fuels-storage tanks. The objectives of the project were to evaluate and select a suitable method for testing the tanks, quantify the performance of the recommended method, and develop a standard operating procedure for tank testing for the national survey. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary evaluation of existing tank-test methods by literature review and field observation.

  15. Preventing herpes simplex virus transmission to the neonate.

    PubMed

    Brown, Zane

    2004-08-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection can have severe consequences. Skin, eye and mouth infection is rarely fatal, but disseminated or central nervous system (CNS) disease has a mortality rate of 80% in the absence of therapy, and most surviving infants have neurological sequelae. Aciclovir therapy can improve the outcome of neonatal herpes, but is often delayed due to the early non-specific symptoms of the disease. Even with early therapy, some infants develop disseminated infection or CNS complications. The virus is usually vertically transmitted to the neonate from an infected mother during delivery. As such, the optimal strategy for reducing the morbidity of neonatal herpes is to prevent the neonate from acquiring HSV infection at delivery. The highest risk of neonatal infection occurs when the mother sheds HSV at labour, which happens more frequently in women who acquire genital herpes in the third trimester. Therefore, one approach for reducing maternal-fetal transmissions is to prevent HSV acquisition in late pregnancy. Definitive classification of genital HSV infection during pregnancy as either primary, non-primary first episode or recurrent can be accomplished only when clinical evaluation is accompanied by laboratory testing, including the use of gG-specific serological tests. The serological status of the mother's sexual partner should be considered when determining her risk of infection. The use of weekly viral cultures in pregnant women with confirmed genital herpes is not warranted, as they do not predict an infant's risk of acquisition of HSV at delivery and are not cost-effective. High-risk susceptible women should be counselled about abstinence and reducing oral-genital contact near term. Observational studies suggest that caesarean section can reduce transmission of neonatal herpes, and is warranted for women who shed HSV at delivery, although different countries vary in their approach to caesarean sections and so universal

  16. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Chan, Woan-Eng; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Jiann-Shiun; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

  17. Using Optimal Combination of Teaching-Learning Methods (Open Book Assignment and Group Tutorials) as Revision Exercises to Improve Learning Outcome in Low Achievers in Biochemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H.; Suryapriya, R.; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B.; Revathy, G.; Priyadarssini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving…

  18. Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, and its predation by a coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex, is a pest of ficus plant such as Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis and others. This invasive pest causes plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, wilting, and eventually, leaf drop. There is little information on the effectiveness of insect predators to contr...

  19. REPRODUCTION OF THE FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE): A NEW INVASIVE PEST IN THE USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  20. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of August 25, 2009 (74 FR 42773). The direct final rule... INFORMATION: In the Federal Register of August 25, 2009 (74 FR 42773), FDA solicited comments concerning the... Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food...

  1. Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

  2. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: molecular association with HIV and novel microbicides to prevent disease.

    PubMed

    Suazo, Paula A; Tognarelli, Eduardo I; Kalergis, Alexis M; González, Pablo A

    2015-04-01

    Infection with herpes simplex viruses is one of the most ancient diseases described to affect humans. Infection with these viruses produces vexing effects to the host, which frequently recur. Infection with herpes simplex viruses is lifelong, and currently there is no vaccine or drug to prevent or cure infection. Prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection varies significantly depending on the geographical region and nears 20% worldwide. Importantly, HSV-2 is the first cause of genital ulcers in the planet. HSV-2 affects approximately 500 million people around the globe and significantly increases the likelihood of acquiring the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as well as its shedding. Thus, controlling HSV-2 infection and spread is of public health concern. Here, we review the diseases produced by herpes simplex viruses, the factors that modulate HSV-2 infection, the relationship between HSV-2 and HIV and novel therapeutic and prophylactic microbicides/antivirals under development to prevent infection and pathological outcomes produced by this virus. We also review mutations associated with HSV-2 resistance to common antivirals. PMID:25209142

  3. Herpes simplex colitis in a child with combined liver and small bowel transplant.

    PubMed

    Delis, S; Kato, T; Ruiz, P; Mittal, N; Babinski, L; Tzakis, A

    2001-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) has been a rare cause of gastrointestinal (GI) infection, especially in immunocompromised patients. A variety of GI sites may be involved; however, only three reported cases of HSV colitis have been documented in the literature. To our knowledge, this is the first report of HSV colitis in a small bowel transplant recipient. PMID:11560759

  4. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) colitis in a bone marrow transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Naik, H R; Chandrasekar, P H

    1996-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are common in bone marrow transplantation patients. Unusual sites may be involved, however colonic disease with HSV is rare. We report a successfully treated case of colitis due to HSV, cytomegalovirus, Clostridium difficile and graft-versus-host disease in an allogeneic marrow recipient. PMID:8640181

  5. Does the Cognitive Architecture of Simplex and Multiplex ASD Families Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oerlemans, Anoek M.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Rommelse, Nanda N. J.

    2016-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their unaffected siblings from 54 simplex (SPX, one individual in the family affected) and 59 multiplex (MPX, two or more individuals affected) families, and 124 controls were assessed on intelligence, social cognition and executive functions. SPX and MPX ASD probands displayed similar cognitive…

  6. Herpes simplex virus lymphadenitis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Witt, Mallory D; Torno, Mauro S; Sun, Nora; Stein, Tomiko

    2002-01-01

    Localized or regional necrotizing lymphadenitis is an extremely uncommon manifestation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. We report a case of necrotizing HSV lymphadenitis in a patient with both common variable immunodeficiency and natural killer cell deficiency and review the literature on this unusual complication of HSV infection. PMID:11731938

  7. Intraoral herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2013-10-01

    We report a challenging case of an atypical presentation of recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in a patient with common variable immunodeficiency. Oral infections in immunosuppressed patients may present with unusual clinical features that can mimic non-infectious diseases. This report discusses the diagnostic steps necessary for definitive diagnosis and to guide appropriate and effective management. PMID:23933299

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Steroid-Transforming Nocardioides simplex VKM Ac-2033D

    PubMed Central

    Shtratnikova, Victoriya Y.; Schelkunov, Mikhail I.; Pekov, Yury A.; Fokina, Victoria V.; Logacheva, Mariya D.; Sokolov, Sergey L.; Bragin, Eugeny Y.; Ashapkin, Vasily V.

    2015-01-01

    Nocardioides simplex VKM Ac-2033D is an effective microbial catalyst for 3-ketosteroid 1(2)-dehydrogenation, and it is capable of effective reduction of carbonyl groups at C-17 and C-20, hydrolysis of acetylated steroids, and utilization of natural sterols. Here, the complete genome sequence is reported. An array of genes related to steroid metabolic pathways have been identified. PMID:25573942

  9. Molluscum contagiosum and herpes simplex in Maasai pastoralists; refeeding activation of virus infection following famine?

    PubMed

    Murray, M J; Murray, A B; Murray, N J; Murray, M B; Murray, C J

    1980-01-01

    An epidemic of molluscum contagiosum and oro-genital herpes simplex was observed in Maasai pastoralists of the Rift Valley. It coincided with a period of refeeding following famine, when the relief diet was different from normal milk fare. We propose that refeeding may be an important mechanism for activation of certain viral infections previously suppressed by famine. PMID:7434431

  10. Predation of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex by the coccinellid beetle, Delphastus catalinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  11. Acute retinal necrosis secondary to herpes simplex virus type 2 with preexisting chorioretinal scarring.

    PubMed

    Moesen, Ingemarie; Khemka, Sneh; Ayliffe, William

    2008-01-01

    Acute retinal necrosis in children is a devastating disease that requires early diagnosis and treatment. The authors describe a rarely reported case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis in a child caused by neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2, where the presence of previous chorioretinal scarring made diagnosis challenging. PMID:18286969

  12. Amino-terminal sequence of glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenberg, R.J.; Long, D.; Hogue-Angeletti, R.; Cohen, G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus is a structural component of the virion envelope which stimulates production of high titers of herpes simplex virus type-common neutralizing antibody. The authors caried out automated N-terminal amino acid sequencing studies on radiolabeled preparations of gD-1 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 1) and gD-2 (gD of herpes simplex virus type 2). Although some differences were noted, particularly in the methionine and alanine profiles for gD-1 and gD-2, the amino acid sequence of a number of the first 30 residues of the amino terminus of gD-1 and gD-2 appears to be quite similar. For both proteins, the first residue is a lysine. When we compared out sequence data for gD-1 with those predicted by nucleic acid sequencing, the two sequences could be aligned (with one exception) starting at residue 26 (lysine) of the predicted sequence. Thus, the first 25 amino acids of the predicted sequence are absent from the polypeptides isolated from infected cells.

  13. Influence of herpes simplex virus infection on benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in monkey kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Degenhardt, J.H.; Whitcomb, B.; Hall, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    Current research in our laboratory is designed to investigate the intracellular interactions of BP with oncogenic DNA viruses of animals and humans. In this study, our purpose was to determine whether BP is metabolized in herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infected cells and whether HSV-2 infection affects intracellular levels of the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase system necessary for BP metabolism.

  14. Inhibition of topoisomerase II by ICRF-193 prevents efficient replication of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Hammarsten, O; Yao, X; Elias, P

    1996-01-01

    Cellular topoisomerase II is specifically inactivated by the drug ICRF-193. This compound turns topoisomerase II into a closed clamp that is unable to cleave DNA. We have investigated the effects of this inhibitor on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1. We show that ICRF-193 at low multiplicities of infection dramatically inhibits viral DNA synthesis and the production of infectious virus. The inhibition is less efficient at high multiplicities of infection. In addition, inhibition of viral DNA synthesis was observed only when ICRF-193 was present during the first 4 h of the infectious cycle. The transient replication of plasmids containing a herpes simplex virus type 1 origin of DNA replication, oriS, was affected by ICRF-193 in the same way. In contrast, neither cellular DNA synthesis nor replication of plasmids containing a simian virus 40 origin of DNA replication was inhibited. The observed effect on herpes simplex virus DNA replication was not caused by a decreased transcription of replication genes inasmuch as the levels of UL8, UL9, UL29, and UL30 rmRNAs were unaffected by the drug. These results suggest that topoisomerase II plays a vital role during the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA. We speculate that topoisomerase II is involved in the decatenation of newly synthesized daughter molecules. PMID:8676478

  15. Life history and biological control of the ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. Since then, the whitefly has been found throughout southern Florida, as well as along both coasts of Florida up to central Florida. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followe...

  16. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  17. Long-range BOTDA sensor over 50 km distance employing pre-pumped Simplex coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiao; Tu, Xiaobo; Sun, Shilin; Meng, Zhou

    2016-05-01

    We propose and demonstrate a long-range Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensor based on the pre-pumped Simplex coding technique. This approach combines Simplex coding with the pulse pre-pump technique, which takes full advantage of the signal-to-noise ratio enhancement provided by optical pulse coding and achieves meter-scale spatial resolution with an unbroadened Brillouin gain spectrum by the use of pre-pumped short pump pulse. Compared to the widely used differential pulse-width pair technique, a comparable performance can be realized while the measurement time is reduced by half. The theoretical analysis of pre-pumped Simplex coding applied to BOTDA systems is presented and a proof-of-concept experiment is carried out along a ∼51 km single-mode fiber composed of two fiber segments with slightly different Brillouin frequency shift values. With the proposed technique, Brillouin frequency shifts of the two different fiber sections at the end of the sensing fiber are clearly distinguished, and the obtained spatial resolution and temperature/strain accuracy along the sensing fiber are respectively 1 m and {0.4}\\circ {{C}}/8μ \\varepsilon . According to the experimental results, we believe that the BOTDA employing pre-pumped Simplex coding is able to realize extra-long distance sensing without Raman amplification, while keeping a high spatial resolution and measurement accuracy.

  18. FECUNDITY OF FICUS WHITEFLY, SINGHIELLA SIMPLEX (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE), AND ITS PREDATION BY DELPHASTUS CATALINAE (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ficus Whitefly (Singhiella simplex) was first reported in Miami-Dade County in August 2007. This invasive pest causes infested plants to exhibit leaf yellowing, followed by leaf drop. The pest has been recorded on multiple ficus hosts including Ficus benjamina, F. altissima, F. bengalensis, F. micro...

  19. New records of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil, with description of a new species of the simplex-branch (Crustacea: Cladocera: Chydoridae).

    PubMed

    Sousa, Francisco Diogo R; Elmoor-Loureiro, Lourdes M A; Debastiani-Júnior, José Roberto; Mugnai, Riccardo; Senna, André

    2015-01-01

    The range of geographical distribution of Anthalona acuta Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011 and Anthalona brandorffi (Sinev & Hollwedel, 2002) in Brazil has increased by almost 2000 km to the south. New records of Anthalona verrucosa verrucosa (Sars, 1901) were also added. Populations of Anthalona brandorffi from Central Brazil showed a peculiar morphological variation, with some individuals having only a single denticle on the labral keel. A new species of the simplex-branch, Anthalona neotropica sp. nov., was described based on Brazilian material, and this is the first taxon of this branch registered in the Neotropics. It differs from Anthalona simplex Van Damme, Sinev & Dumont 2011, a Central African species, in the morphology of underneath sack of the lateral head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of first flaming-torch seta of limb IV. It could be distinguished from Anthalona sanoamuangae Sinev & Kotov, 2012 (distributed through the South- East Asia) by the morphology of the main head pores, length of IDL setae and armature of the pecten of postabdominal claw. Anthalona neotropica sp. nov. seems to have a benthic/hyporheic habit. All studied species have a wide geographical distribution and could be confused with Anthalona verrucosa Sars, 1901, thus at least some if not all previous records of this species on the continent must be revised. PMID:26624710

  20. Controversies in Revision Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Eric S; Toriumi, Dean M

    2016-08-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is a complex operation with many variables that may influence the final esthetic and functional outcome of the procedure. Cartilage forms the structural framework of the lower two-thirds of nose and is essential for long-term support and maintenance of a patent nasal airway. The use of autologous cartilage grafting is the primary source of this material, limited by donor site quantity, quality, and harvest morbidity. Alloplastic materials, solid and injectable, are often used for augmentation purposes and may have devastating consequences. This article discusses past and current treatment concepts for various nasal deformities using available autologous grafting techniques. PMID:27400847

  1. CompCytogen of two of the smallest Amazonian fishes: Fluviphylax simplex Costa, 1996 and Fluviphylax zonatus Costa, 1996 (Cyprinodontiformes, Poeciliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, E.R.; Ribeiro, L.B.; Feldberg, E.; Hrbek, I.P. Farias T.; Gross, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Fluviphylax Whitley, 1965is comprized of five valid species (Fluviphylax pygmaeus Myers et Carvalho, 1955, Fluviphylax zonatus, Fluviphylax simplex, Fluviphylax obscurus Costa, 1996,and Fluviphylax palikur Costa et Le Bail, 1999), which are endemic to the Amazon region. These fishes are the smallest known South American vertebrates and among the smallest know vertebrates on Earth. All species but the type Fluviphylax pygmaeus have been described in late 1990’s, and much remains unknown about the biology, taxonomy and systematics of this group of fishes. The aims of the present study were to establish the diploid and haploid number of Fluviphylax zonatus and Fluviphylax simplex, and to find species-specific markers for the discrimination of taxa. The diploid number for both species was 48 chromosomes, with no sex chromosome heteromorphism. Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited the karyotypic formula 4m+8sm+22st+14a and FN=82, and Fluviphylax simplex exhibited 4m+16sm+18st+10a and FN=86. The determination of the total mean length of the chromosomes and their grouping into five size classes demonstrated different chromosome composition of the two species. This difference was further supported by the distribution of constitutive heterochromatin. The meiotic analysis revealed 24 bivalents in both species, but Fluviphylax zonatus exhibited chromosomes with late pairing of the telomeric portions in the pachytene. These data reveal that cytogenetic characterization is useful and important for the discrimination of these species. Our study further indicates that this method could be employed in the analysis of other species of small fishes that are difficult to distinguish using traditional morphological traits or are morphologically cryptic. PMID:24260645

  2. Sub-categorisation of skin corrosive chemicals by the EpiSkin™ reconstructed human epidermis skin corrosion test method according to UN GHS: revision of OECD Test Guideline 431.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Grandidier, M H; Cotovio, J

    2014-03-01

    The EpiSkin™ skin corrosion test method was formally validated and adopted within the context of OECD TG 431 for identifying corrosive and non-corrosive chemicals. The EU Classification, Labelling and Packaging Regulation (EU CLP) system requires the sub-categorisation of corrosive chemicals into the three UN GHS optional subcategories 1A, 1B and 1C. The present study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of the validated EpiSkin™ test method to identify skin corrosive UN GHS Categories 1A, 1B and 1C using the original and validated prediction model and adapted controls for direct MTT reduction. In total, 85 chemicals selected by the OECD expert group on skin corrosion were tested in three independent runs. The results obtained were highly reproducible both within (>80%) and between (>78%) laboratories when compared with historical data. Moreover the results obtained showed that the EpiSkin™ test method is highly sensitive (99%) and specific (80%) in discriminating corrosive from non-corrosive chemicals and allows reliable and relevant identification of the different skin corrosive UN GHS subcategories, with high accuracies being obtained for both UN GHS Categories 1A (83%) and 1B/1C (76%) chemicals. The overall accuracy of the test method to subcategorise corrosive chemicals into three or two UN GHS subcategories ranged from 75% to 79%. Considering those results, the revised OECD Test Guideline 431 permit the use of EpiSkin™ for subcategorising corrosive chemicals into at least two classes (Category 1A and Category 1B/1C). PMID:24211528

  3. Revision and Validation of the Revised Teacher Beliefs Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane

    This study revised the Teacher Beliefs Survey (S. Wooley and A. Wooley, 1999; TBS), an instrument to assess teachers beliefs related to constructivist and behaviorist theories of learning, and then studied the validity of the revised TBS. Drawing on a literature review, researchers added items for the existing constructs of the TBS and added a new…

  4. Parasite diversity of Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Crustacea: Euphausiacea) along the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Robinson, Carlos J; Kawaguchi, So; Nicol, Stephen

    2010-02-17

    The diversity of parasites found on Nyctiphanes simplex and Nematoscelis difficilis (Order Euphausiacea) was compared during 10 oceanographic cruises made off both coasts of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that N. simplex has a more diverse parasitic assemblage than N. difficilis because it is a neritic species, has larger population abundance, and tends to form denser and more compact swarms than N. difficilis. These biological and behavioral features may enhance parasite transmission within swarms. We detected 6 types of ectoparasites: (1) epibiotic diatoms Licmophora sp.; (2) Ephelotidae suctorian ciliates; (3) Foettingeriidae exuviotrophic apostome ciliates; (4) an unidentified epicaridean cryptoniscus larvae (isopoda); and 2 castrators: (5) the ectoparasitic Dajidae isopod Notophryxus lateralis and (6) the ellobiopsid mesoparasite Thalassomyces fagei. We also detected 7 types of endoparasites: (1) an undescribed Collinia ciliate (Apostomatida); 3 types of Cestoda: (2) a Tetrarhynchobothruium sp. (Trypanorhyncha), (3) Echinobothrium sp. (Diphyllidea: Echinobothyriidae), and (4) unidentified metacestode; (5) a Trematoda Paronatrema-like metacercaria (Syncoeliidae); (6) the nematode Anisakis simplex (L3); and (7) Polymorphidae acantocephalan larvae (acanthor, acanthella, and cystacanth larval stages). N. simplex is affected by all types of parasites, except the isopod N. lateralis, having a considerably larger parasitic diversity and prevalence rates than N. difficilis, which is only infested with 3 types of ectoparasites and T. fagei. Euphausiid swarming is an adaptive behavior for reproduction, protection against predators, and increased efficiency in food searching, but has a negative effect due to parasitism. Although the advantages of aggregation must overcome the reduction of population and individual fitness induced by parasites, we demonstrated that all types of parasites can affect approximately 14% of N. simplex

  5. Mycosis Inhibits Cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    PubMed Central

    Jaronski, Stefan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex Haldeman (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). This behavior has been proposed as a mechanism for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. Aanecdotal observations suggested that the migratory grasshopper, Melanoplus sanguinipes Fabricius (Acrididae), and A. simplex did not eat cadavers that had been killed by insect pathogenic fungi. The hypothesis tested was that A. simplex or M. sanguinipes would not cannibalize individuals freshly killed by the entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana Bals.-Criv. (Vuill.) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), or Metarhizium acridum (Driver and Milner) Bischoff, Rehner, and Humber. Cannibalism was examined in a series of no-choice tests with individual insects. Test insects included healthy adults of M. sanguinipes; the differential grasshopper, M. differentialis (Thomas); the American grasshopper, Schistocerca americana (Drury) (Acrididae); and A. simplex. Individual, starved Acrididae or A. simplex were confined in small cages with either a fungus-killed (but unsporulated) or uninfected cadaver. The insects were then observed periodically for the first 4 hr. After 24 hr, the cadavers were scored for the degree to which they had been consumed. Very few mycotic cadavers were fed upon by the healthy insects, and, at most only the tarsi were eaten. All four species generally refused to eat fungus-infected cadavers. In contrast, freeze-killed cadavers were partly or entirely consumed by most of the test insects, often within a few hours. Transmission of infection through contact in these tests was between 0–18.9%, depending upon the fungus and insect species, and was lower than the prevalence of cannibalism in all cases. PMID:24786183

  6. Anisakis simplex: from Obscure Infectious Worm to Inducer of Immune Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Audicana, M. Teresa; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Infection of humans with the nematode worm parasite Anisakis simplex was first described in the 1960s in association with the consumption of raw or undercooked fish. During the 1990s it was realized that even the ingestion of dead worms in food fish can cause severe hypersensitivity reactions, that these may be more prevalent than infection itself, and that this outcome could be associated with food preparations previously considered safe. Not only may allergic symptoms arise from infection by the parasites (“gastroallergic anisakiasis”), but true anaphylactic reactions can also occur following exposure to allergens from dead worms by food-borne, airborne, or skin contact routes. This review discusses A. simplex pathogenesis in humans, covering immune hypersensitivity reactions both in the context of a living infection and in terms of exposure to its allergens by other routes. Over the last 20 years, several studies have concentrated on A. simplex antigen characterization and innate as well as adaptive immune response to this parasite. Molecular characterization of Anisakis allergens and isolation of their encoding cDNAs is now an active field of research that should provide improved diagnostic tools in addition to tools with which to enhance our understanding of pathogenesis and controversial aspects of A. simplex allergy. We also discuss the potential relevance of parasite products such as allergens, proteinases, and proteinase inhibitors and the activation of basophils, eosinophils, and mast cells in the induction of A. simplex-related immune hypersensitivity states induced by exposure to the parasite, dead or alive. PMID:18400801

  7. Herpes simplex virus inoculation in murine rete testis results in irreversible testicular damage

    PubMed Central

    Malolina, Ekaterina A; Kulibin, Andrey Y; Naumenko, Victor A; Gushchina, Elena A; Zavalishina, Larisa E; Kushch, Alla A

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the influence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) on testis morphology and germ cell development using a model of ascending urogenital HSV infection in mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were inoculated with 100 plaque-forming units of HSV1 in rete testis. Viral proteins and HSV DNA were detected from 3 days postinoculation (DPI), while capsids and virions could be visualized at 6 DPI. Infectious activity of HSV was revealed by rapid culture method in testes from 3 to 14 DPI, and virus DNA by PCR – from 3 to 100 DPI. Germ and Sertoli cells were infected during the early stages of the infection, whereas interstitial cells only occasionally contained the virus at 21 and 45 DPI. Microscopic analysis revealed severe degeneration of the germinal epithelium in the infected testes. By 21 DPI, testes became atrophic and most Sertoli cells were destroyed. No testicular regeneration and no spermatozoa in the epididymis were observed at 45 and 100 DPI. From 3 DPI, inflammatory cells accumulated in the interstitium between damaged tubules; a significant increase in the number of CD4+, CD8+ T lymphocytes and F4/80+ cells was observed in the infected testes. This study shows that in the case of HSV retrograde ascent into seminiferous tubules, the acute viral infection results in irreversible atrophy of the germinal epithelium, orchitis and infertility. These results may be used to further study viral orchitis and the influence of HSV on spermatogenesis and male fertility. PMID:24673915

  8. Foreskin inflammation is associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type-2 infections in Rakai, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristine E.; Sherman, Mark E.; Ssempiija, Victor; Tobian, Aaron A.R.; Zenilman, Jonathan M.; Duggan, Maire A.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Rabkin, Charles S.; Gray, Ronald H.

    2009-01-01

    Design We assessed foreskin inflammation associated with HIV and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in circumcised men. Methods Foreskin tissues were assessed in 97 HIV-infected and 135 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in randomized trials of circumcision in Rakai, Uganda. Inflammation was quantified using an ordinal score evaluating extent, intensity, and cellular composition of infiltrates in the epithelium and stroma. Prevalence rate ratios of inflammation were estimated by multivariate Poisson regression. Results Foreskin inflammation was primarily focal. Epithelial inflammation was present in 4.2% of men with neither HIV nor HSV-2 infection; 7.8% of men with only HSV-2; 19.0% with HIV alone (P=0.04); and 31.6% in HIV/HSV-2 coinfected men [prevalence rate ratio (PRR) 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-23.8, P<0.001]. Stromal inflammation was present in 14.1% of HIV/HSV-2 uninfected men, compared with 29.7% in men with HSV-2 alone (P=0.03), 33.3% in men with HIV alone (P=0.04), and 61.0% in men with HIV/HSV-2 coinfection (PRR 4.3, 95% CI 2.3-7.9, P<0.001). In HIV-infected men, epithelial inflammation was associated with higher HIV viral load. Epithelial inflammation was more frequent among men reporting recent genital ulceration. Both epithelial and stromal inflammation were more common among men with smegma on physical examination. Conclusion Foreskin inflammation is increased with HIV and HSV-2 infections, higher HIV viral load and presence of smegma. Foreskin inflammation may have implications for HIV transmission and acquisition in uncircumcised men. PMID:19584700

  9. Treatment of experimental human mesothelioma using adenovirus transfer of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Smythe, W R; Hwang, H C; Elshami, A A; Amin, K M; Eck, S L; Davidson, B L; Wilson, J M; Kaiser, L R; Albelda, S M

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors demonstrate the ability of an adenovirus vector expressing the herpes simplex thymidine kinase (HSVtk) gene to treat human malignant mesothelioma growing within the peritoneal cavity of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. BACKGROUND DATA: Introduction of the HSVtk gene into tumor cells renders them sensitive to the antiviral drug ganciclovir (GCV). This approach has been used previously to treat experimental brain tumors. Although malignant mesothelioma is refractory to current therapies, its localized nature and the accessibility of the pleural space make it a potential target for a similar type of in vivo gene therapy using adenovirus. METHODS: An adenovirus containing the HSVtk gene (Ad.RSVtk) was used to transduce mesothelioma cells in vitro. These cells were then injected into the flanks of SCID mice. Ad.RSVtk was also injected directly into the peritoneal cavity of SCID mice with established human mesothelioma tumors. Mice were subsequently treated for 7 days with GCV at a dose of 5 mg/kg. RESULTS: Mesothelioma cells transduced in vitro with Ad.RSVtk formed nodules when injected in the subcutaneous tissue. These tumors could be eliminated by the administration of GCV, even when as few as 10% of cells were transduced to express HSVtk (bystander effect). Administration of Ad.RSVtk into the peritoneal space of animals with established multifocal human mesothelioma followed by GCV therapy resulted in the eradication of macroscopic tumor in 90% of animals and microscopic tumor in 80% of animals when evaluated after 30 days. The median survival of animals treated with Ad.RSVtk/GCV was significantly longer than that of control animals treated with similar protocols. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that an adenoviral vector containing the HSVtk gene is effective in treating established malignant mesothelioma in an in vivo setting and raise the possibility of using adenovirus transfer of HSVtk for clinical trials in mesothelioma and

  10. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanaee, Layli; Karnauchow, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  11. Behavioral and Cognitive Characteristics of Females and Males With Autism in the Simons Simplex Collection

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Thomas W.; Georgiades, Stelios; Bishop, Somer L.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine differences in behavioral symptoms and cognitive functioning between males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Method We analyzed data from 2,418 probands with autism (304 females, 2,114 males) included in the Simons Simplex Collection. Sex differences were evaluated across measures of autism symptoms, cognitive and motor functioning, adaptive behavior, and associated behavior problems. Measurement bias was examined using latent variable models of symptoms. Unadjusted and propensity-adjusted analyses were computed to ensure sex differences were not due to unbalanced sampling. Moderator and mediator analyses evaluated whether sex differences were modified by clinical characteristics or driven by cognitive ability. Results Females with ASD had greater social communication impairment, lower levels of restricted interests, lower cognitive ability, weaker adaptive skills, and greater externalizing problems relative to males. Symptom differences could not be accounted for by measurement differences, indicating that diagnostic instruments captured autism similarly in males and females. IQ reductions mediated greater social impairment and reduced adaptive behavior in females with ASD, but did not mediate reductions in restricted interests or increases in irritability. Conclusions A specific female ASD phenotype is emerging that cannot be accounted for by differential symptom measurement. The present data suggest that the relatively low proportion of high functioning females may reflect the effect of protective biological factors or may be due to under-identification. Additional carefully-accrued samples are needed to confirm the present pattern and to evaluate whether observed sex ratios in high functioning cases are reduced if female-specific indicators of restricted interests are included. PMID:24565360

  12. Designing Novel and Simple Competitive Internal Amplification Control for Reliable PCR Diagnosis of Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Akbarian, Asiye; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Vafaei, Somayeh; Moslemi, Elham; Ghahri, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: PCR is a molecular technique for herpes simplex virus (HSV) detection that can cause life-threatening infections such as encephalitis and keratitis. However, the main issues, false-negative results causing by PCR inhibitors, of this technique that reduce PCR efficiency. To overcome this problem, a competitive internal amplification control (IAC) was constructed for conventional PCR using the PCR-cloning technique. Objectives: The purpose of this study is the design of competitive IAC for PCR diagnosis of HSV, which in fact is the main cause of keratitis and viral encephalitis in developed countries. Materials and Methods: Composite primers for PCR amplification of Leishmania major kDNA (kinetoplast DNA) were designed and optimized to use as IAC-HSV. IAC-HSV amplified in a non-stringent condition, ligated into pTZ57R plasmid vector, and transformed into Escherichia coli JM207 and then cloned. Resulting IAC was used for 105 CSF and 78 keratitis specimens. Results: PCR amplicons for HSV and IAC-HSV were 454-bp and 662-bp, respectively. Detection limit of IAC was determined as 1000 plasmids per PCR reaction. IAC sensitivity for HSV detection was determined as 1000 plasmids per PCR reaction. IAC sensitivity for HSV detection was 500 copies/mL of HSV DNA. Among all specimens, 7 inhibited specimens were detected. Conclusions: Indeed, using other DNA as an IAC is expected to detect false-negative results and amplification of the DNA is the key tool to examine the accuracy of amplification and detection steps. This internal amplification control is applicable for early reliable diagnosis of HSV in different loads of virus in different specimens. PMID:25793095

  13. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sanaee, Layli; Taljaard, Monica; Karnauchow, Tim; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p < 0.001, altered mental status 46.2% versus 3.2% for EnV, p < 0.001, or neurological deficits 44.7% versus 3.9% for EnV, p < 0.001. CSF neutrophils were lower in HSV (median 3.0% versus 9.5%, p = 0.0002); median lymphocytes (87.0% versus 67.0%, p = 0.0004) and protein (0.9 g/L versus 0.6 g/L, p = 0.0005) were elevated. Conclusion. Our study found that HSV patients were older and more likely to have seizure, altered mental status, or neurological deficits than patients with benign EnV meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  14. Cholera toxin conjugates for intragastric vaccination against herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Drew, M D; Estrada, A E; Underdown, B J; McDermott, M R

    1992-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enteric immunization with cholera toxin (CTX) conjugated to glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) or a peptide corresponding to residues (1-23) of gD (gD(1-23)) would induce relevant antiviral immunity. Intraperitoneal (IP) immunization of mice with CTX-gD(1-23) conjugate induced anti-HSV-2 sera antibody responses which correlated with protection from a lethal IP challenge with HSV-2. Intragastric (IG) immunization of mice with the same conjugate or a CTX-gD conjugate did not result in measurable anti-HSV-2 responses in sera or vaginal washings and only small numbers of anti-HSV-2 antibody-secreting cells (ASC) were found in intestinal lamina propria cell and splenocyte preparations. In comparison, anti-CTX responses were detected in sera and vaginal washings after IG immunization with CTX and anti-CTX ASC in lamina propria cell preparations accounted for 5-10% of total ASC detected at this site. No significant differences in the survival of mice immunized with the conjugates were noted after a lethal intravaginal (IVAG) challenge with HSV-2. The poor enteric immunogenicity of gD(1-23) and gD conjugated to CTX was attributable to proteolysis in the gastrointestinal tract. These results indicate that although peptide-CTX conjugates can induce protective immune responses when administered parenterally, it may not be feasible to use peptides as the basis of an oral vaccine unless methods are developed to protect these antigens from degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:1503890

  15. Revision of the standard reference data for thermocouples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Revision of the International Practical Temperature Scale requires that there be changes for all accurately tabulated thermophysical values. Revised reference data for thermocouples have been generated in a program carried out by the National Bureau of Standards. The new reference data reflect not only revisions in the temperature scale, but also slight changes in the materials themselves and improvements in data fitting methods. A new NBS monograph that contains tables, analytic expressions, various approximations, and explanatory text has been prepared. A general discussion of the project and some specific examples are given.

  16. Baseline Activity of Telavancin against Gram-Positive Clinical Isolates Responsible for Documented Infections in U.S. Hospitals (2011-2012) as Determined by the Revised Susceptibility Testing Method

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, David J.; Sader, Helio S.; Flamm, Robert K.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Telavancin had MIC50 and MIC90 values of 0.03 and 0.06 μg/ml (100.0% susceptible), respectively, against methicillin-resistant and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus. Telavancin was active against vancomycin-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis (MIC50/90, 0.12/0.12 μg/ml; 100% susceptible) and Enterococcus faecium (MIC50/90, 0.03/0.06 μg/ml), while higher MIC values were obtained against vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (MIC50/90, 1/2 μg/ml) and E. faecalis (MIC50/90, >2/>2 μg/ml). Streptococci showed telavancin modal MIC results of ≤0.015 μg/ml, except against Streptococcus agalactiae (i.e., 0.03 μg/ml). This study reestablishes the telavancin spectrum of activity against isolates recovered from the United States (2011-2012) using the revised broth microdilution method. PMID:25348529

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most

  18. Valacyclovir for the prevention of recurrent herpes simplex virus eye disease after excimer laser photokeratectomy.

    PubMed Central

    Asbell, P A

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: A variety of factors have been reported as inducing the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), among them stress, trauma, and UV radiation. Excimer laser photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a surgical procedure utilizing a 193 nm ultraviolet light to alter the curvature of the cornea and hence correct vision. Reactivation of ocular herpes simplex keratitis following such excimer laser PRK has been reported. All published cases of HSV reactivation following excimer laser treatment in humans are reviewed. The present study evaluates whether stress, trauma of the corneal de-epithelialization prior to the laser, or the excimer laser treatment itself to the stromal bed induces this ocular reactivation of the latent HSV, and whether a systemic antiviral agent, valacyclovir, would prevent such laser PRK-induced reactivation of the HSV. METHODS: Forty-three normal 1.5- to 2.5-kg New Zealand white rabbits were infected on the surface of the cornea with HSV-1, strain RE. The animals were monitored until resolution, and then all animals were divided into 5 treatment groups: (1) de-epithelialization only, intraperitoneal (i.p.) saline for 14 days; (2) de-epithelialization plus laser, i.p. saline for 14 days; (3) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 50 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (4) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 100 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days; (5) de-epithelialization plus laser, valacyclovir 150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 14 days. Animals were evaluated in a masked fashion by clinical examination biweekly and viral cultures biweekly through day 28. RESULTS: The reactivation rates were as follows: group 1, 0%; group 2, 67%; group 3, 50%; group 4, 17%; and group 5, 0%. Viral titers were negative in animals that had no reactivation but persistently positive in those that had reactivation (day 6 through day 28). CONCLUSIONS: Excimer laser (193 nm) treatment can trigger reactivation of ocular herpes disease (67%) and viral

  19. Inactivation of Anisakis simplex L3 in the flesh of white spotted conger (Conger myriaster) by high hydrostatic pressure and its effect on quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Hoon; Park, Shin Young; Ha, Sang-Do

    2016-06-01

    Koreans consume much seafood; the country is surrounded on the east, west and south by the sea. Koreans have eaten raw sashimi for a long time. However, a concern in the raw sea food industry is that the parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex L3 occurs naturally in marine fish. Thus, the fishery industry needs a non-thermal processing method. High hydrostatic pressure (HPP) has been demonstrated to be effective. White spotted conger flesh containing 20 live larvae was exposed to different pressures (150 and 200 MPa for 1 and 5 min; 250 and 300 MPa each for 1 min). The viability of A. simplex L3 was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in the flesh of white spotted conger by the stepwise increase of high pressure and time. The conditions required to eliminate A. simplex L3 were as follows: 200 MPa for 5 min or 300 MPa for 1 min. The flesh of the white spotted conger treated at 300 MPa for 1 min was whiter and yellower than untreated controls or that treated at 200 MPa for 5 min. No significant changes (p > 0.05) in any of the Hunter colour ('L', 'a' and 'b') values were found after HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min. The fresh treated at 300 MPa for 1 min scored < 4.0 (the defect limit of quality) of flavour, texture and overall acceptability in untrained sensory evaluation using a seven-point hedonic scale. However, the flesh treated at 200 MPa for 5 min scored > 5.0 ('like') for all sensory parameters. This study suggested that HPP at 200 MPa for 5 min could potentially be used for the inactivation of A. simplex L3 in raw fishery food products without any concomitant changes in their colour or sensory qualities. PMID:27117731

  20. CINAHL list of subject headings: a nursing thesaurus revised.

    PubMed Central

    Fishel, C C; Graham, K E; Greer, D M; Gupta, A D; Lockwood, D K; Prime, E E

    1985-01-01

    The rationale and methods for revising the thesaurus of one of the major health sciences indexing tools are discussed. Computer production of the Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature and the possibility of online access mandated a revision of the list of subject headings. CINAHL has maintained a policy of responding to user needs and to changes in the nursing and allied health literature, and user input was encouraged during revision of the thesaurus. The methods of structural revision are described, and major changes in the thesaurus are detailed. Modification of the thesaurus is expected to have a far-reaching impact on the retrieval of information in nursing and allied health. Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL) is now available online through DIALOG (file 218) and BRS (access code NAHL). PMID:3995203

  1. Multimodal Revision Techniques in Webtexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Cheryl E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how an online scholarly journal, "Kairos: Rhetoric, Technology, Pedagogy," mentors authors to revise their webtexts (interactive, digital media scholarship) for publication. Using an editorial pedagogy in which multimodal and rhetorical genre theories are merged with revision techniques found in process-based…

  2. TRICARE reimbursement revisions. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-06-27

    This final rule provides several necessary revisions to the regulation in order for TRICARE to be consistent with Medicare. These revisions affect: Hospice periods of care; reimbursement of physician assistants and assistant-at-surgery claims; and diagnosis-related group values, removing references to specific numeric diagnosis-related group values and replacing them with their narrative description. PMID:22737760

  3. Gendered Performances during Peer Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styslinger, Mary E.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the ways gender is accomplished in varied social contexts during the peer revision process in a secondary English classroom. Using a post-structural feminist theoretical framework, an analysis of classroom discourse provided a basis for understanding the performance of gender during peer revision, the effects of gender…

  4. A revision of the New World genus Aptilotella Duda (Sphaeroceridae: Limosininae).

    PubMed

    Luk, Stephen P L; Marshall, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    The genus Aptilotella Duda (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae: Limosininae) is redefined and revised. The type species, Aptilotella borgmeieri Duda is redescribed, and twenty-seven species are described as new: Aptilotella andersoni sp. n., A. angela sp. n., A. caerulea sp. n., A. corona sp. n., A. diffisa sp. n., A. ebenea sp. n., A. erinacea sp. n., A. gemmula sp. n., A. germana sp. n., A. gladia sp. n., A. gloriosa sp. n., A. gracilis sp. n., A. hamata sp. n., A. involucris sp. n., A. macta sp. n., A. macula sp. n., A. pennifera sp. n., A. pichin chensis sp. n., A. pyropanda sp. n., A. quadrata sp. n., A. quatuorchela sp. n., A. radians sp. n., A. simplex sp. n., A. solaria sp. n., A. sphyra sp. n., A. umbracatus sp. n., and A. viva sp. n. A phylogenetic analysis and key to species are presented, with illustrations and distributional notes. PMID:24870274

  5. Single particle analysis of herpes simplex virus: comparing the dimensions of one and the same virions via atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kämmer, Evelyn; Götz, Isabell; Bocklitz, Thomas; Stöckel, Stephan; Dellith, Andrea; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Zell, Roland; Dellith, Jan; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Currently, two types of direct methods to characterize and identify single virions are available: electron microscopy (EM) and scanning probe techniques, especially atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM in particular provides morphologic information even of the ultrastructure of viral specimens without the need to cultivate the virus and to invasively alter the sample prior to the measurements. Thus, AFM can play a critical role as a frontline method in diagnostic virology. Interestingly, varying morphological parameters for virions of the same type can be found in the literature, depending on whether AFM or EM was employed and according to the respective experimental conditions during the AFM measurements. Here, an inter-methodological proof of principle is presented, in which the same single virions of herpes simplex virus 1 were probed by AFM previously and after they were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sophisticated chemometric analyses then allowed a calculation of morphological parameters of the ensemble of single virions and a comparison thereof. A distinct decrease in the virions' dimensions was found during as well as after the SEM analyses and could be attributed to the sample preparation for the SEM measurements. Graphical abstract The herpes simplex virus is investigated with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy in view of varying dimensions. PMID:27052775

  6. Revision of the genus Devadatta Kirby, 1890 in Borneo based on molecular and morphological methods, with descriptions of four new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Devadattidae).

    PubMed

    Dow, Rory A; Hämäläinen, Matti; Stokvis, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Species of Devadatta from Borneo are studied using both morphological and molecular methods. As well as D. podolestoides Laidlaw, four new species are recognised from the island: D. aran spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Pulong Tau National Park, Miri division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. clavicauda spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Bukit Mina, Bukit Mina Wildlife Corridor, Sarawak Planted Forest Project, Bintulu division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH), D. somoh spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from the Sungai Kahei area, Ulu Balui, Kapit division, Sarawak, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH) and D. tanduk spec. nov. (holotype ♂, from Poring Hot Springs, Kinabalu National Park, West Coast division, Sabah, Malaysia, deposited in RMNH). The Philippine taxon D. basilanensis Laidlaw is considered a good species rather than a subspecies of D. podolestoides. The Bornean species plus D. basilanensis are provisionally considered to form a species group, the podolestoides-group, within Devadatta. The species of the podolestoides-group are so similar in morphology and colouration that they are close to truly cryptic species. Two species appear to exhibit character displacement where their ranges overlap with other Devadatta species. A molecular analysis using four markers (COI, 16S, ITS and 28S) is presented. This analysis includes specimens of all species from the podolestoides-group and two Devadatta species from mainland Asia. PMID:26624409

  7. Revision of ISO 15859 Aerospace Fluid Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Benjamin; McClure, Mark B.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed review of ISO 15859 "Space Systems - Fluid Characteristics, Sampling and Test Methods" was performed An approach to revising Parts 1-9 and 11-13 was developed and concurred by the NASA Technical Standards Program Office. The approach was to align them with the highest level source documents, and not to program-specific requirements. The updated documents were prepared and presented.

  8. Cementless Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty with Ceramic Articulation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jong-Hyuck; Yang, Seong-Jo; Kang, Joon-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The results of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearing surfaces in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) were well known. However, it was not known in revision THA. The purpose of this study is to report the results of revision THA with ceramic articulation. Materials and Methods A total of 112 revision THAs were evaluated. The mean age at the time of surgery was 51.6 years (27.7 to 84.2 years). The mean duration of the follow-up periods was 6.3 years (2.3 to 11.4 years). Results The Harris hip scores improved from an average of 56.2 at the index surgery to an average of 93.3 at the last follow-up (P<0.001). None of hips showed osteolysis or ceramic head fracture. One hip showed aseptic loosening in the acetabular component with squeaking that caused a re-revision. There were nine cases of dislocation. The survivorship at 5 years was 94.5% (95% confidence interval, 87.9% to 97.6%) with revision for any reason as the endpoint and 100% with femoral revision. Conclusion The ceramic articulation is one of good bearing options for revision THA in patients with a long life expectancy. PMID:27536630

  9. Molecular epidemiology and risk factors for Anisakis simplex s.l. infection in blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean: Differences between A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Mateos, Magdalena; Valero, Adela; Morales-Yuste, Manuel; Martín-Sánchez, Joaquina

    2016-09-01

    Our study determined parameters of parasitization of Anisakis simplex s.l. in Micromesistius poutassou in a confluence zone of the Atlantic and Mediterranean, with a total prevalence of 82%. Also, in the three seasons analyzed, high prevalence's values were found, reaching 100% in spring; however mean intensity and abundance values were higher in winter. The use of molecular techniques to differentiate between Anisakis genotypes of the larvae characterized allowed obtaining values of 99.7% Anisakis simplex s.l. (50.1% A. simplex s.s., 42.9% A. pegreffii, 7.0% A. simplex s.s. - A. pegreffii hybrids) and 0.3% A. typica. The infections found in the fish were of both single and mixed species, in all the different possible combinations. The presence of A. simplex s.l. in the viscera varied according to genotype and season. Likewise, factors associated with the presence of the parasite in the ventral or dorsal musculature were different, where A. simplex s.s. proportion was double than that of A. pegreffii. The ecology of the two sibling species with regard to their location in fish and the influence of the season were different. PMID:27289194

  10. Effect of Prior Immunization on Induction of Cervical Cancer in Mice by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budd Wentz, W.; Heggie, Alfred D.; Anthony, Donald D.; Reagan, James W.

    1983-12-01

    Previous studies at this laboratory showed that repeated application of inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 to the mouse cervix produces premalignant and malignant lesions. In the present study mice were inoculated with inactivated herpes simplex virus type 2 or control solution and Freund's adjuvant by intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes before exposure of the cervix to inactivated virus. It appears that immunization with inactivated virus conferred a protection against the induction of cervical carcinoma.

  11. In vitro evaluation of anti-herpes simplex-1 activity of three standardized medicinal plants from Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mehdi; Sharififar, Fariba; Arabzadeh, Ali Mohammad; Mehni, Firoozeh; Mirtadzadini, Manosur; Iranmanesh, Zahra; Nikpour, Najmeh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic acid with antioxidant and anti-viral effects. We have studied anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) effect of three medicinal plants from Lamiaceae family which have been standardized on the basis of RA content. Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of Teucrium polium, Ziziphora clinopoides, and Salvia rhytidea was prepared by maceration method and RA content of the plants was determined using a spectrophotometric method. Maximum nontoxic concentration (MNTC) of the extracts was determined using neutral red method. Serial dilutions of extracts up to MNTC were examined on Vero cells for anti-HSV-1 effect by plaque assay in comparison to acyclovir as a positive control. Results: Among the tested extracts, T. polium contained the highest percentage of RA (1.8%w/w) and exhibited the least toxicity (MNTC = 1000 μg/ml). The greatest anti-HSV-1 was shown by T. polium and Z. clinopoides extracts which exhibited both time and concentration-dependent plaque inhibition. Conclusion: Considering the low toxicity and significant anti-viral effect of T. polium extract, this plant would prove valuable as an active anti-viral drug. PMID:25737608

  12. Chronic urticaria associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection and success of antiviral therapy--a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Zawar, Vijay; Godse, Kiran; Sankalecha, Sudhir

    2010-06-01

    The role of infectious agents as a cause of chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) is uncertain. The objective of this study was to investigate whether genital herpes simplex infection is causally related to CIU. We identified two patients with recurrent genital herpes simplex infections associated with CIU. Episodes of genital herpes were especially associated with acute exacerbation of urticaria. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies and Tzanck smears were done in both patients, along with other relevant investigations for CIU. Acyclovir was added to antihistamine therapy. Both patients were apparently in good health and appeared clinically immunologically stable, though one of them was found to be diabetic. Clinical and laboratory investigations for genital lesions supported a diagnosis of herpes simplex. Anti-herpes simplex 2 antibodies were markedly raised in both patients. The Tzanck smear was positive in one case and negative in the other, despite a definitive clinical diagnosis of herpes progenitalis. CIU, which was inadequately controlled with antihistamines alone, responded dramatically to the addition of acyclovir therapy. Our results may not be applicable to other patients with CIU, especially when there is inadequate evidence of an association with genital herpes. CIU may be associated with recurrent genital herpes simplex infection. In such situations, the addition of acyclovir to therapy may be beneficial. PMID:19699670

  13. Positive associations between infections of Toxoplasma gondii and seropositivity with Anisakis simplex in human patients suffering from chronic urticaria.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, V; Rodero, M; Valls, A; De Frutos, C; Daschner, A; Cuéllar, C

    2015-11-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a food-borne and orofecal microorganism which produces chronic infection, and attempts have been made to prove its negative association with atopy in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite associated with chronic urticaria (CU) in endemic regions. We analysed the relationship between both infectious agents in CU. We included 42 patients with chronic urticaria (18 patients with CU associated with A. simplex sensitization and 24 not sensitized CU patients). Patients were assessed for atopy by a skin prick test (SPT) against common aeroallergens and for respiratory symptoms. Anisakis simplex sensitization was assessed by SPT and specific IgE by CAP fluoro-enzyme immunoassay (CAP-FEIA). Anti-T. gondii IgG levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CU patients were analysed with respect to T. gondii seropositivity, A. simplex sensitization, atopy and immigrant status. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was 40.5% in CU patients and 42.1% in the control group. Immigrants were more frequently infected by T. gondii (41.2% versus 12%; P =0.036). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were associated with past A. simplex parasitism (odds ratio 6.73; P =0.03) and independently with atopic sensitization (odds ratio 5.85; P =0.04). In CU patients, T. gondii has no protective effect on atopic sensitization or A. simplex sensitization. PMID:24991841

  14. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Glycoprotein B by a Recombinant Vaccinia Virus and Protection of Mice against Lethal Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantin, Edouard M.; Eberle, Richard; Baldick, Joseph L.; Moss, Bernard; Willey, Dru E.; Notkins, Abner L.; Openshaw, Harry

    1987-08-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain F gene encoding glycoprotein gB was isolated and modified at the 5' end by in vitro oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. The modified gB gene was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome and expressed under the control of a vaccinia virus promoter. The mature gB glycoprotein produced by the vaccinia virus recombinant was glycosylated, was expressed at the cell surface, and was indistinguishable from authentic HSV-1 gB in terms of electrophoretic mobility. Mice immunized intradermally with the recombinant vaccinia virus produced gB-specific neutralizing antibodies and were resistant to a lethal HSV-1 challenge.

  15. The identities and anti-herpes simplex virus activity of Clinacanthus nutans and Clinacanthus siamensis

    PubMed Central

    Kunsorn, Paween; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Khanboon, Ariya; Rungsihirunrat, Kanchana

    2013-01-01

    Objective To distinguish the difference among the Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans) and Clinacanthus siamensis Bremek (C. siamensis) by assessing pharmacognosy characteristics, molecular aspect and also to evaluate their anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2 activities. Methods Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation were performed according to WHO Geneva guideline. Stomatal number, stomatal index and palisade ratio of leaves were evaluated. Genomic DNA was extracted by modified CTAB method and ITS region was amplified using PCR and then sequenced. Dry leaves were subsequently extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol and antiviral activity was performed using plaque reduction assay and the cytotoxicity of the extracts on Vero cells was determined by MTT assay. Results Cross section of midrib and stem showed similar major components. Leaf measurement index of stomatal number, stomatal index and palisade ratio of C. nutans were 168.32±29.49, 13.83±0.86 and 6.84±0.66, respectively, while C. siamensis were 161.60±18.04, 11.93±0.81 and 3.37±0.31, respectively. The PCR amplification of ITS region generated the PCR product approximately 700 bp in size. There were 34 polymorphisms within the ITS region which consisted of 11 Indels and 23 nucleotide substitutions. The IC50 values of C. nutans extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol against HSV-1 were (32.05±3.63) µg/mL, (44.50±2.66) µg/mL, (64.93±7.00) µg/mL, respectively where as those of C. siamensis were (60.00±11.61) µg/mL, (55.69±4.41) µg/mL, (37.39±5.85) µg/mL, respectively. Anti HSV-2 activity of n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol C. nutans leaves extracts were (72.62±12.60) µg/mL, (65.19±21.45) µg/mL, (65.13±2.22) µg/mL, respectively where as those of C. siamensis were (46.52±4.08) µg/mL, (49.63±2.59) µg/mL, (72.64±6.52) µg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The combination of macroscopic, microscopic and biomolecular method are able

  16. Revising the senior walking environmental assessment tool

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Yvonne L.; Keast, Erin M.; Chaudhury, Habib; Day, Kristen; Mahmood, Atiya; Sarte, Ann F.I.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Senior Walking Environmental Assessment Tool (SWEAT), an instrument for measuring built environmental features associated with physical activity of older adults, was revised to create an easier-to-use tool for use by practitioners and community members. Methods Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the modified instrument (SWEAT-R) was assessed in Portland, Oregon in 2007. Five trained observers audited street segments in 12 neighborhoods, resulting in 361 pairs of audits, including 63 repeated audits. Results Overall, 88% and 75% of items assessed had good or excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, respectively. The revised instrument required less time to complete than the original instrument, while obtaining more information. Conclusion SWEAT-R provides easy to gather, reliable data for use in community-based audits of built environment in relation to walking among older adults. PMID:19136025

  17. Standards for vision science libraries: 2014 revision

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Kristin; Caldwell, C. Brooke; Lamson, Karen S.; Ferimer, Suzanne; Nims, J. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This Association of Vision Science Librarians revision of the “Standards for Vision Science Libraries” aspires to provide benchmarks to address the needs for the services and resources of modern vision science libraries (academic, medical or hospital, pharmaceutical, and so on), which share a core mission, are varied by type, and are located throughout the world. Methods: Through multiple meeting discussions, member surveys, and a collaborative revision process, the standards have been updated for the first time in over a decade. Results: While the range of types of libraries supporting vision science services, education, and research is wide, all libraries, regardless of type, share core attributes, which the standards address. Conclusions: The current standards can and should be used to help develop new vision science libraries or to expand the growth of existing libraries, as well as to support vision science librarians in their work to better provide services and resources to their respective users. PMID:25349547

  18. Genetic and morphological approaches distinguish the three sibling species of the Anisakis simplex species complex, with a species designation as Anisakis berlandi n. sp. for A. simplex sp. C (Nematoda: Anisakidae).

    PubMed

    Mattiucci, Simonetta; Cipriani, Paolo; Webb, Stephen C; Paoletti, Michela; Marcer, Federica; Bellisario, Bruno; Gibson, David I; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    Numerous specimens of the 3 sibling species of the Anisakis simplex species complex (A. pegreffii, A. simplex (senso stricto)), and A. simplex sp. C) recovered from cetacean species stranded within the known geographical ranges of these nematodes were studied morphologically and genetically. The genetic characterization was performed on diagnostic allozymes and sequences analysis of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] of ribosomal [r]DNA) and mitochondrial (mitochondrial [mt]DNA cox2 and rrnS) genes. These markers showed (1) the occurrence of sympatry of the 2 sibling species A. pegreffii and A. simplex sp. C in the same individual host, the pilot whale, Globicephala melas Traill, from New Zealand waters; (2) the identification of specimens of A. pegreffii in the striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen), from the Mediterranean Sea; and (3) the presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in the pilot whale and the minke whale, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, from the northeastern Atlantic waters. No F1 hybrids were detected among the 3 species using the nuclear markers. The phylogenetic inference, obtained by maximum parsimony (MP) analysis of separate nuclear (ITS rDNA region), combined mitochondrial (mtDNA cox2 and rrnS) sequences datasets, and by concatenated analysis obtained at both MP and Bayesian inference (BI) of the sequences datasets at the 3 studied genes, resulted in a similar topology. They were congruent in depicting the existence of the 3 species as distinct phylogenetic lineages, and the tree topologies support the finding that A. simplex (s.s.), A. pegreffii, and A. berlandi n. sp. (= A. simplex sp. C) represent a monophyletic group. The morphological and morphometric analyses revealed the presence of morphological features that differed among the 3 biological species. Morphological analysis using principal component analysis, and Procrustes analysis, combining morphological and genetic datasets, showed the specimens clustering into 3 well

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus simplex DSM 1321 for Setting Up Phylogenomics in Genomic Taxonomy of the Bacillus-Like Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo-hong; Wang, Jie-ping; Che, Jian-mei; Chen, Qian-qian; Chen, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus simplex DSM 1321 is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, and aerobic bacterium. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. simplex DSM 1321, with 6,494,937 bp, which will provide useful information for setting up phylogenomics in genomic taxonomy of the Bacillus-like bacteria as well as for the functional gene mining and application of B. simplex DSM 1321. PMID:27340061

  20. Which plant for which skin disease? Part 1: Atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condyloma and herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Juliane; Wölfle, Ute; Weckesser, Steffi; Schempp, Christoph

    2010-10-01

    Plant extracts and isolated compounds are increasingly used in cosmetics and food supplements to improve skin conditions. We first introduce the positive plant monographs with dermatological relevance of the former German Commission E. Subsequently clinical studies with botanicals for atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, condylomata acuminata and herpes simplex are discussed. The best studies have been conducted with atopic dermatitis and psoriasis patients. Mahonia aquifolium, Hypericum perforatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra and certain traditional Chinese therapies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Mahonia aquifolium, Indigo naturalis and Capsicum frutescens are effective treatments for psoriasis. Green tea extract and tea tree oil have been investigated in the treatment of acne. Podophyllin and green tea extract are effective treatments for condylomata acuminata. Balm mint and a combination of sage and rhubarb have been shown to be effective in the treatment of herpes simplex in proof of concept studies. PMID:20707875

  1. Fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    PubMed

    Allison, N; Chang, T C; Steele, K E; Hilliard, J K

    2002-01-01

    An adult pygmy African hedgehog developed acute posterior paresis attributed to a prolapsed intervertebral disc diagnosed by C-T scan. Corticosteroid therapy resulted in prompt resolution of the ataxia, but 2 weeks later the animal became anorexic and died. Macroscopically, the liver was stippled with punctate off-white foci which were confirmed microscopically to be foci of necrosis. Numerous hepatocytes contained intranuclear inclusions and syncytial cell formation was also present. A herpes virus was isolated and identified by fluorescent antibody and polymerase chain reaction studies as herpesvirus simplex type 1. To our knowledge, this is the first report of herpes infection in the African hedgehog and the first time herpes simplex has been identified as a cause of disease in insectivores. PMID:11814325

  2. Pathogenesis of herpes simplex labialis: correlation of vesicle fluid interferon with lesion age and virus titer.

    PubMed Central

    Spruance, S L; Green, J A; Chiu, G; Yeh, T J; Wenerstrom, G; Overall, J C

    1982-01-01

    Of 51 patients with herpes simplex labialis, 50 had detectable interferon (IFN) in samples of lesion vesicle fluid. The median titer of vesicle fluid IFN was 8,200 U. and the range of values was 400 to 63,600 U. The amount of vesicle fluid IFN was correlated with lesion age (r = 0.32, P = 0.024) and vesicle fluid virus titer (r = 0.59, P = 0.00004), but not with the clinical severity of the disease. The presence of vesicle fluid IFN (1,500 to 28,600 U) in 15 lesions less than 12 h old emphasizes the need for early treatment in studies of antiviral agents for herpes simplex labialis. PMID:6178690

  3. Optimization of soy isoflavone extraction with different solvents using the simplex-centroid mixture design.

    PubMed

    Yoshiara, Luciane Yuri; Madeira, Tiago Bervelieri; Delaroza, Fernanda; da Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to optimize the extraction of different isoflavone forms (glycosidic, malonyl-glycosidic, aglycone and total) from defatted cotyledon soy flour using the simplex-centroid experimental design with four solvents of varying polarity (water, acetone, ethanol and acetonitrile). The obtained extracts were then analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The profile of the different soy isoflavones forms varied with different extractions solvents. Varying the solvent or mixture used, the extraction of different isoflavones was optimized using the centroid-simplex mixture design. The special cubic model best fitted to the four solvents and its combination for soy isoflavones extraction. For glycosidic isoflavones extraction, the polar ternary mixture (water, acetone and acetonitrile) achieved the best extraction; malonyl-glycosidic forms were better extracted with mixtures of water, acetone and ethanol. Aglycone isoflavones, water and acetone mixture were best extracted and total isoflavones, the best solvents were ternary mixture of water, acetone and ethanol. PMID:22621769

  4. Targeted Entry of Enveloped Viruses: Measles and Herpes Simplex Virus I

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnarajah, Chanakha K.; Miest, Tanner S.; Carfi, Andrea; Cattaneo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We compare the receptor-based mechanisms that a small RNA virus and a larger DNA virus have evolved to drive the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Both systems rely on tight control over triggering the concerted refolding of a trimeric fusion protein. While measles virus entry depends on a receptor-binding protein and a fusion protein only, the herpes simplex virus is more complex and requires four viral proteins. Nevertheless, in both viruses a receptor-binding protein is required for triggering the membrane fusion process. Moreover, specificity domains can be appended to these receptor-binding proteins to target virus entry to cells expressing a designated receptor. We discuss how principles established with measles and herpes simplex virus can be applied to targeting other enveloped viruses, and alternatively how retargeted envelopes can be fitted on foreign capsids. PMID:22440965

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 1 entry into epithelial MDCKII cells: role of VASP activities.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Verena; Hoppe, Sven; Petermann, Philipp; Liebig, Timo; Jansen, Matthias K; Renné, Thomas; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2010-09-01

    VASP is an actin-regulatory protein that links signalling to remodelling of the cytoskeleton. We investigated the role of VASP during entry of herpes simplex viruses into epithelial MDCKII cells. As VASP functions are regulated by phosphorylations, the phosphorylation pattern was determined upon infection. Phosphorylated VASP decreased temporarily at 15 and 30 min after infection. The impact of phosphorylated VASP was addressed by overexpression of phosphomimetic VASP mutants. Our results revealed that phosphorylated VASP slightly reduced the number of infected cells. Expression studies with deletion mutants further indicated minor effects of VASP on infection efficiency, whereas RNA interference studies demonstrated that reduced VASP expression did not suppress infection. We conclude that VASP activities alone may contribute to herpes simplex virus infection to only a minor extent. PMID:20463151

  6. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions.

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, N; Bzik, D; Person, S; Snipes, W

    1981-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyante (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 micrograms/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 micrograms/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell. Images PMID:6262783

  7. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions.

    PubMed

    DeLuca, N; Bzik, D; Person, S; Snipes, W

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyante (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 micrograms/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 micrograms/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell. PMID:6262783

  8. Herpes simplex virus latency-associated transcript is a stable intron.

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, M J; Dobson, A T; Feldman, L T

    1991-01-01

    The latency-associated transcript (LAT) is the major viral transcript detected by in situ hybridization of mouse and human sensory ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus type 1. The last 750 bases of LAT are complementary to infected-cell polypeptide 0, a herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early gene that encodes a transactivating protein that may facilitate re-activation of the virus from the latent state. Several laboratories have shown that LAT accumulates in the nucleus and is not polyadenylylated. Recently, we showed that the promoter for LAT lies 688 bases upstream from its 5' end. We report here that LAT is actually a uniquely stable intron. Furthermore, LAT effectively inhibits transactivation of gene expression by infected-cell polypeptide 0 in transient transfection assays. Images PMID:1846963

  9. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.; Homa, F.L.; Levine, M.; Kelley, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolation of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus: Genome Size and Redundancy Studied by Renaturation Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Niza; Roizman, Bernard

    1971-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus subtype 1 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was sheared in a French press to uniform fragments, denatured by heating, then allowed to reassociate. The renaturation reaction followed second-order kinetics with a single rate constant indicating that at least 95% of the genome was unique and that repetitive sequences, if present, were not detectable by this technique. The kinetic complexity of the herpes simplex genome was determined by DNA renaturation kinetics to be (95 ± 1) × 106 daltons. Since this value is in excellent agreement with the molecular weight of viral DNA [(99 ± 5) × 106 daltons] obtained from velocity sedimentation studies, it is concluded that virions contain only one species of double-stranded DNA molecules 95 × 106 to 99 × 106 daltons in molecular weight. PMID:4331657

  11. A DNA Fragment of Herpes Simplex 2 and Its Transcription in Human Cervical Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Niza; Roizman, Bernard; Cassai, Enzo; Nahmias, Andre

    1972-01-01

    A human cervical tumor, free of detectable infectious herpes simplex 2 virus, contained a fragment comprising 39% of herpes viral DNA. Renaturation kinetics indicate that an average of 1 to 3.5 DNA fragments of herpes simplex virus are present per cell, depending on the ploidy of the cells in this particular tumor. Virus-specific sequences were found linked to highly repetitive sequences of host DNA, which reassociated under conditions designed to preclude reassociation of viral sequences. The tumor also contained RNA transcripts complementary to 5% of the viral DNA. The fraction of viral DNA template transcribed in the cervical tumor is considerably less than that transcribed in productively infected cells (50%). PMID:4345508

  12. Transmission of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in rugby players.

    PubMed

    White, W B; Grant-Kels, J M

    1984-07-27

    Skin infections, both bacterial and viral, are endemic in contact sports such as wrestling and rugby football. In this report, we describe four cases of extensive cutaneous herpes simplex virus in players on a rugby team. All players had a prodrome of fever, malaise, and anorexia with a weight loss of 3.6 to 9.0 kg. Two players experienced ocular lesions associated with cutaneous vesicular lesions of the face. A third player, who had herpetic lesions on his lower extremity, experienced paresthesias, weakness, and intermittent urinary retention and constipation. All infected players on the team were forwards or members of the "scrum," which suggests a field-acquired infection analogous to the herpetic infections seen in wrestlers (herpes gladiatorum). Considering the serious sequelae of recurrent herpes simplex keratitis, the traumatic skin lesions in rugby football players should be cultured for herpes virus, and infected individuals should be restricted from playing until crusted lesions have disappeared. PMID:6737650

  13. Rapid isolation of herpes simplex virus by using mink lung and rhabdomyosarcoma cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, S L; Wellens, K; Siegel, C S

    1990-01-01

    Highly sensitive and rapid results can be obtained by isolating herpes simplex virus from clinical specimens in simple cell culture with rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells. In this study, 3,186 clinical specimens were inoculated into locally produced, equivalent-age RD and mink lung (ML) cells. Of 727 positive isolates, all (100%) were isolated from RD cells and only 691 (95%) were isolated from ML cells. Furthermore, 162 of the positive isolates (22%) were isolated in RD cells earlier than in ML cells. RD cells are continuous and can be cultivated in house without decreasing sensitivity as the passage number increases. They produce a highly distinguishable cytopathic effect in response to herpes simplex virus and maintain intense confirmatory staining patterns. PMID:2177754

  14. Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 infection: photosensitivity of fluorescein isothiocyanate-treated virions

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuca, N.; Bzik, D.; Person, S.; Snipes, W.

    1981-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 is photosensitized by treatment with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The inactivation of FITC-treated virions upon subsequent exposure to light is inhibited by the presence of sodium azide, suggesting the involvement of singlet oxygen in the process. Sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that treatment with FITC plus light induces crosslinks in viral envelope glycoproteins. Treatment of virions with high concentrations of FITC (50 ..mu..g/ml) plus light causes a reduction in the adsorption of the virus to monolayers of human embryonic lung cells. For lower concentrations of FITC (10 ..mu..g/ml) plus light, treated virions adsorb to the host cells, but remain sensitive to light until entry occurs. The loss of light sensitivity coincides with the development of resistance to antibodies. These results are most consistent with a mechanism of entry for herpes simplex virus involving fusion of the viral membrane with the plasma membrane of the host cell.

  15. Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in two pet marmosets in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imura, Kei; Chambers, James Kenn; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Miwa, Yasutsugu

    2014-12-01

    An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection in Two Pet Marmosets in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IMURA, Kei; CHAMBERS, James Kenn; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; NOMURA, Shunsuke; SUZUKI, Satoshi; NAKAYAMA, Hiroyuki; MIWA, Yasutsugu

    2014-01-01

    An 8-month-old common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) was presented with tic-like symptoms, and a 2-year-old pigmy marmoset (Callithrix pygmaea) was presented with dyspnea and hypersalivation. Both monkeys died within a few days, and necropsies were performed. Histopathological examinations revealed ulcerative stomatitis with epithelial cell swelling and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in the oral epithelium of both cases. In the central and peripheral nervous systems, neuronal cell degeneration with intranuclear inclusion bodies was observed. Immunohistochemical examination using anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 antibody revealed virus antigens in both cases. Both animals had been kept as pets with limited exposure to the ambient environment except via their owners. Therefore, herpes simplex virus type-1 was probably acquired from close contact with their owners. PMID:25649955

  17. The Use of Cultured Allogenic Keratinocyte Grafting in a Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kee Cheol; Park, Bo Young; Kim, Woo Seob; Bae, Tae Hui

    2011-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a rare genetic disease that is known for continuous skin blistering caused by minor trauma. The skin blisters and bullae that develop often cause skin defects. There is no definitive treatment for EB, only symptomatic relief. We report our experience with cultured allogenic keratinocyte grafting in a newborn patient with EB simplex who had unhealed raw surfaces and was not a skin grafting candidate. The skin lesions of the patient were covered with cultured allogenic keratinocyte grafts and re-epithelialized quickly with no scarring. Allogenic keratinocyte grafting reduced pain and produced noticeable improvements in the unhealed wounds. We think that allogenic keratinocyte grafting can play an important role in the management of patients with EB simplex. PMID:22346287

  18. Simplex s={plus_minus}i excitations in {sup 141}Xe.

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, W.; Schulz, N.; Bentaleb, M.; Lubkiewicz, E.; Durell, J. L.; Leddy, M. J.; Jones, M. A.; Phillips, W. R.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Ahmad, I.; Morss, L. R.; Warsaw Univ.; Univ. Louis Pasteur; Univ. of Manchester

    2000-05-01

    Excited levels of {sup 141}Xe, populated in spontaneous fission of {sup 248}Cm, were studied by means of prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy, using the EUROGAMM2 array. Level scheme of {sup 141}Xe obtained in this work shows patterns characteristic of simplex symmetry with s = +i and s = -i bands present but low value of D{sub 0} moment indicates that octupole correlations in Xe isotopes are systematically lower than in Ba nuclei.

  19. Vessel wall enhancement in herpes simplex virus central nervous system vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Waldo R; Dababneh, Haitham; Hedna, Shushrutha; Johnson, James A; Peters, Keith; Waters, Michael F

    2013-09-01

    Infection is a well-known cause of cerebral vasculopathy and vasculitis. We report a 36-year-old woman with cerebral vasculitis and ischemic stroke secondary to herpes simplex virus (HSV). MRI studies revealed a pontine stroke with basilar artery stenosis and vessel wall gadolinium enhancement. This case demonstrates the ability of HSV to cause a focal brainstem vasculitis and the utility of enhanced MRI in the diagnosis of stroke related to HSV central nervous system vasculitis. PMID:23517674

  20. Multiple strokes associated with herpes simplex virus type-2 infection: case report.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Prajwol

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-2 is known to cause meningitis and usually runs a benign course. Association of such infection with vasculitis of the central nervous system is not well known. Presented here is a case initially diagnosed as aseptic meningitis that subsequently evolved as stroke and exhibited angiographic evidence of widespread vasculitis of the intracranial vessels in association with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PMID:26443565

  1. Georges-Paul Dieulafoy (1839-1911) and the first description of "exulceratio simplex"

    PubMed

    Karamanou, Marianna; Fiska, Aliki; Demetriou, Thespis; Androutsos, George

    2011-01-01

    Professor Georges Dieulafoy is considered to be an outstanding clinician who played a leading role in medicine during the 19th century. He invented the well-known Dieulafoy aspirator, he described a triad for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis and he tried to bridge the gap between internal medicine and surgery. This article presents in details the first description of "exulceratio simplex" that bears his name. PMID:24713721

  2. Contributions of herpes simplex virus type 1 envelope proteins to entry by endocytosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) proteins specifically required for endocytic entry but not direct penetration have not been identified. HSVs deleted of gE, gG, gI, gJ, gM, UL45, or Us9 entered cells via either pH-dependent or pH-independent endocytosis and were inactivated by mildly acidic pH. Thus, the ...

  3. Topical and systemic therapies for oral and perioral herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2013-04-01

    Oral and perioral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in healthy individuals often present with signs and symptoms that are clearly recognized by oral health care providers (OHCPs). Management of these infections is dependent upon a variety of factors and several agents may be used for treatment to accelerate healing and decrease symptoms associated with lesions. This article will review the pertinent aspects of topical and systemic therapies of HSV infections for the OHCP. PMID:23705241

  4. Proton MR spectroscopy in herpes simplex encephalitis: Assessment of neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, D.K.; Sargentoni, J.; Peden, C.J.; Bell, J.D.; Cox, I.J.; Coutts, G.A.; Baudouin, C.; Newman, C.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We present here the case of an 11-year-old boy with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, serology, and response to acyclovir, who relapsed after 3 weeks of therapy. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of the brain, at 8 and 16 weeks after the onset of symptoms, showed abnormalities, most prominently a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio. The role of 1H MRS in assessing disease activity is discussed.

  5. Successful treatment of hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis in HIV-infected patient with topical imiquimod.

    PubMed

    Deza, Gustavo; Martin-Ezquerra, Gemma; Curto-Barredo, Laia; Villar García, Judit; Pujol, Ramon M

    2015-12-01

    Hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis is an atypical presentation of genital herpes described in the context of immunosuppression, particularly HIV-positive patients. This situation can become a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. For this reason, alternative therapies are currently being discussed in the literature. We report a case of hypertrophic genital herpes in a HIV-positive patient who was successfully treated with topical 5% imiquimod after treatment failures with oral and i.v. antivirals. PMID:26074211

  6. Antiviral activity of sandalwood oil against herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2.

    PubMed

    Benencia, F; Courrèges, M C

    1999-05-01

    Sandalwood oil, the essential oil of Santalum album L., was tested for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2. It was found that the replication of these viruses was inhibited in the presence of the oil. This effect was dose-dependent and more pronounced against HSV-1. A slight diminution of the effect was observed at higher multiplicity of infections. The oil was not virucidal and showed no cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested. PMID:10374251

  7. Ascending in utero herpes simplex virus infection in an initially healthy-appearing premature infant.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morven S; Popek, Edwina J; Wise, Brittany; Hatzenbuehler, Lindsay; Arunachalam, Athis R; Hair, Amy B

    2015-01-01

    The usual route of acquisition for intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is transplacental. We evaluated a premature infant with in utero acquisition of HSV resulting from ascending infection. Histopathologic evidence of chronic chorioamnionitis and positive staining with immunohistochemistry for HSV in the placenta and umbilical cord established the diagnosis. The clinical presentation was also of interest in that the infant was initially healthy appearing. PMID:25535792

  8. Slipping and Sliding: frameshift mutations in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase and drug-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Some of the most successful antiviral agents currently available are effective against herpes simplex virus. However, resistance to these drugs is frequently associated with significant morbidity, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In addition to the clinical implications of drug resistance, the range of biological processes exploited by the virus to attain resistance while maintaining pathogenicity is proving to be surprising. These mechanisms, which include ribosomal frameshifting, induced infidelity of the DNA polymerase, and internal ribosome entry, are discussed. PMID:21940196

  9. Annotation and Classification of Argumentative Writing Revisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Fan; Litman, Diane

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the annotation and classification of students' revision behaviors in argumentative writing. A sentence-level revision schema is proposed to capture why and how students make revisions. Based on the proposed schema, a small corpus of student essays and revisions was annotated. Studies show that manual annotation is reliable with…

  10. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  11. Viability and antigenicity of anisakis simplex after conventional and microwave heating at fixed temperatures.

    PubMed

    Vidaček, Sanja; De Las Heras, Cristina; Solas, Maria Teresa; García, Maria Luisa; Mendizábal, Angel; Tejada, Margarita

    2011-12-01

    Inactivation of parasites in food by microwave treatment may vary due to differences in the characteristics of microwave ovens and food properties. Microwave treatment in standard domestic ovens results in hot and cold spots, and the microwaves do not penetrate all areas of the samples depending on the thickness, which makes it difficult to compare microwave with conventional heat treatments. The viability of Anisakis simplex (isolated larvae and infected fish muscle) heated in a microwave oven with precise temperature control was compared with that of larvae heated in a water bath to investigate any additional effect of the microwaves. At a given temperature, less time was required to kill the larvae by microwaves than by heated water. Microwave treatment killed A. simplex larvae faster than did conventional cooking when the microwaves fully penetrated the samples and resulted in fewer changes in the fish muscle. However, the heat-stable allergen Ani s 4 was detected by immunohistochemistry in the fish muscle after both heat treatments, even at 70°C, suggesting that Ani s 4 allergens were released from the larvae into the surrounding tissue and that the tissues retained their allergenicity even after the larvae were killed by both heat treatments. Thus, microwave cooking will not render fish safe for individuals already sensitized to A. simplex heat-resistant allergens. PMID:22186053

  12. Herpes Simplex Virus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Adult: A Fatal Outcome due to Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Poley, Rachel A.; Snowdon, Jaime F.; Howes, Daniel W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To present a case of a healthy 41-year-old female who developed fulminant hepatic failure leading to death. The cause of hepatic failure identified on postmortem exam was herpes simplex virus hepatitis. Design. Observation of a single patient. Setting. Intensive care unit of a tertiary care university teaching hospital in Canada. Patient. 41-year-old previously healthy female presenting with a nonspecific viral illness and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Intervention. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and broad-spectrum antibiotics. On the second day of admission, she was found to have elevated transaminases, and, over 48 hours, she progressed to fulminant liver failure with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, refractory lactic acidosis, and shock. She progressed to respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. She was started on N-acetylcysteine, a bicarbonate infusion, hemodialysis, and multiple vasopressors and inotropes. Measurements and Main Results. Despite treatment, the patient died roughly 70 hours after her initial presentation to hospital. Her postmortem liver biopsy revealed herpes simplex virus hepatitis as her cause of death. Conclusions. Herpes simplex virus must be considered in all patients presenting with liver failure of unknown cause. If suspected, prompt treatment with acyclovir should be initiated. PMID:24826316

  13. Herpes Simplex Vaccines: Prospects of Live-attenuated HSV Vaccines to Combat Genital and Ocular infections

    PubMed Central

    Stanfield, Brent; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and its closely related type-2 (HSV-2) viruses cause important clinical manifestations in humans including acute ocular disease and genital infections. These viruses establish latency in the trigeminal ganglionic and dorsal root neurons, respectively. Both viruses are widespread among humans and can frequently reactivate from latency causing disease. Currently, there are no vaccines available against herpes simplex viral infections. However, a number of promising vaccine approaches are being explored in pre-clinical investigations with few progressing to early phase clinical trials. Consensus research findings suggest that robust humoral and cellular immune responses may partially control the frequency of reactivation episodes and reduce clinical symptoms. Live-attenuated viral vaccines have long been considered as a viable option for generating robust and protective immune responses against viral pathogens. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) belongs to the same alphaherpesvirus subfamily with herpes simplex viruses. A live-attenuated VZV vaccine has been extensively used in a prophylactic and therapeutic approach to combat primary and recurrent VZV infection indicating that a similar vaccine approach may be feasible for HSVs. In this review, we summarize pre-clinical approaches to HSV vaccine development and current efforts to test certain vaccine approaches in human clinical trials. Also, we discuss the potential advantages of using a safe, live-attenuated HSV-1 vaccine strain to protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections. PMID:27114893

  14. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  15. Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinder, Melissa; Wright, Alison

    2015-11-01

    The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovir (500 mg BD) during April 2013 and March 2014, if they had been treated with aciclovir (400 mg TDS) instead, a saving of £828.80 (66% reduction) could have been made. PMID:25505043

  16. Development of New Lipid-Based Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using Sequential Simplex Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael; Cho, Moo; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to develop Cremophor-free lipid-based paclitaxel (PX) nanoparticle formulations prepared from warm microemulsion precursors. To identify and optimize new nanoparticles, experimental design was performed combining Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization. The combination of Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization efficiently directed the design of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Two optimized paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained: G78 NPs composed of glyceryl tridodecanoate (GT) and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78), and BTM NPs composed of Miglyol 812, Brij 78 and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). Both nanoparticles successfully entrapped paclitaxel at a final concentration of 150 μg/ml (over 6% drug loading) with particle sizes less than 200 nm and over 85% of entrapment efficiency. These novel paclitaxel nanoparticles were stable at 4°C over three months and in PBS at 37°C over 102 hours as measured by physical stability. Release of paclitaxel was slow and sustained without initial burst release. Cytotoxicity studies in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells showed that both nanoparticles have similar anticancer activities compared to Taxol®. Interestingly, PX BTM nanocapsules could be lyophilized without cryoprotectants. The lyophilized powder comprised only of PX BTM NPs in water could be rapidly rehydrated with complete retention of original physicochemical properties, in-vitro release properties, and cytotoxicity profile. Sequential Simplex Optimization has been utilized to identify promising new lipid-based paclitaxel nanoparticles having useful attributes. PMID:19111929

  17. Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F; Khalil, M H; Pope, L E; Katz, L R

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultured target cells. Susceptible viruses included wild-type herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 as well as acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 and also respiratory syncytial virus--all of which are lipid-enveloped. In contrast, nonenveloped poliovirus was not susceptible to the inhibitory action of 1-docosanol. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, current evidence suggests that 1-docosanol inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early intracellular events surrounding viral entry into target cells. It is possible that interaction between the highly lipophilic compound and components of target cell membranes renders such target cells less susceptible to viral fusion and/or entry. If this mechanism proves to be correct, 1-docosanol may provide a broad spectrum activity against many different viruses, especially those with lipid-containing envelopes. Images PMID:1660151

  18. Developmental stages and fecundity of Lepeophtheirus simplex (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on bullseye puffer fish (Sphoeroides annulatus).

    PubMed

    Neptali Morales-Serna, Francisco; Rivas-Salas, Ana Ines; Gomez, Samuel; Fajer-Avila, Emma Josefina

    2015-01-01

    Lepeophtheirus simplex Ho, Gómez et Fajer-Avila, 2001 is a parasite of Sphoeroides annulatus (Jenyns), an economically important fish species, with potential for aquaculture, in northwestern Mexico. The goal of this study was to describe the developmental stages under experimental conditions and seasonal fecundity of this parasite on wild fish. There are two naupliar, one copepodid, two chalimus and two pre-adult stages preceding the adult of L. simplex. The results support previous findings, which point out that the life cycle of the caligid copepods includes only six post-naupliar stages. The generation time from egg extrusion to adult for L. simplex was approximately 10 days at 22 °C. The body length of the ovigerous females ranged between 2.2 and 4.1 mm, and its fecundity between 12 and 36 eggs per string. Fecundity was negatively correlated with the egg size and positively correlated with the egg string length. Our data did not reveal significant differences in fecundity among sampling months, but ovigerous females were significantly larger in March (when water temperature was 22 °C) than in June and July (when water temperature was 30 °C). To some extent, our fecundity results contrast with those found in species of sea lice from higher latitudes. Undoubtedly, biological information on different species of sea lice from different environmental conditions will enhance our understanding of their infection strategies and will be valuable, given the increasing interest in marine fish farming in Mexico. PMID:25960548

  19. Exchange lists: revised 1986.

    PubMed

    Franz, M J; Barr, P; Holler, H; Powers, M A; Wheeler, M L; Wylie-Rosett, J

    1987-01-01

    A committee composed of members of The American Dietetic Association and the American Diabetes Association has revised Exchange List for Meal Planning. Changes were made, as deemed necessary, on the basis of nutritional recommendations for persons with diabetes as understood in 1986. Major changes include rewriting the text to make it more useful in the education of persons with diabetes; changing the order of the exchange lists to emphasize a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber diet, as well as to better reflect the order of foods in menu planning; adding symbols to foods high in fiber and sodium; changing nutritive values for the starch/bread and fruit lists; adding lists of combination foods, free foods, and foods recommended only for occasional use; developing a data base; and initiating a plan for field testing and evaluation. The committee also developed a simplified meal planning tool, Healthy Food Choices, to be used for initial or "survival" level education. In poster format, foods are grouped by calories into six food groups. Approximate portion sizes of commonly used foods are listed. Blank lines are provided for the nutrition counselor to write in a suggested menu or meal plan for the client. Because the booklet does not use the word "diabetes" specifically, it is appropriate as a general teaching tool. PMID:3794130

  20. OMB revises overhead rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    After pressure from university administrators, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has issued a new plan for saving money on research overhead costs, in place of a controversial proposal that was originally published in February 1986 (Eos, May 20, 1986, p. 481). The agency made the new plan more palatable to administrators and faculty by choosing to cap the rate of reimbursement for the activity that researchers say they find among the most difficult to document: the time they spend on administration of federally sponsored grants and contracts. An amendment to a bill signed by President Ronald Reagan on July 2 might force OMB to make additional concessions to colleges and universities.How much money the federal government would save under this policy is a matter of dispute. The agency's revisions to OMB Circular A-21, “Cost Principles for Educational Institutions,” call for fixing the reimbursement rate at 3% of modified total direct costs for departmental administration work done by “department heads, directors of divisions faculty, and professional staff.” The 3% figure represents about half of the current national average rate of reimbursement for these costs and would lead to federal government savings of $100 million a year, according to OMB.

  1. Type-Specific Identification of Anogenital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections by Use of a Commercially Available Nucleic Acid Amplification Test

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Terri; Taylor, Stephanie N.; Martens, Mark; Jerome, Keith R.; Mena, Leandro; Lebed, Joel; Ginde, Savita; Fine, Paul; Hook, Edward W.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes infections are among the most common sexually transmitted infections (STI), but diagnostic methods for genital herpes have not kept pace with the movement toward molecular testing. Here, we describe an FDA-approved molecular assay that identifies and types herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections for use in routine clinical settings. Paired samples from anogenital lesions were tested using the BD ProbeTec HSV Qx (HSVQx) system, HSV culture and, a laboratory-developed PCR assay. Family planning, obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN), or sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in the United States served as recruitment sites. Sensitivity and specificity estimates, head-to-head comparisons, measures of agreement, and latent-class analyses were performed to provide robust estimates of performance. A total of 508 participants (174 men and 334 women) with anogenital lesions were included; 260 HSV-2 and 73 HSV-1 infections were identified. No differences in test performance based on gender, clinic type, location of the lesion, or type of lesion were observed. The sensitivity of HSV-2 detection ranged from 98.4 to 100% depending on the analytical approach, while the specificity ranged from 80.6%, compared to the less sensitive culture method, to 97.0%, compared to PCR. For HSV-1, the sensitivity and specificity ranges were 96.7 to 100% and 95.1 to 99.4%, respectively. This assay may improve our ability to accurately diagnose anogenital lesions due to herpes infection. PMID:22875892

  2. Performance of the HSV OligoGen kit for the diagnosis of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Parra-Sánchez, Manuel; Marcuello López, Ana; García-Rey, Silvia; Zakariya-Yousef Breval, Ismail; Bernal Martínez, Samuel; Pueyo Rodríguez, Isabel; Martín-Mazuelos, Estrella; Palomares Folía, José Carlos

    2016-07-01

    PCR methods are nowadays between the most rapid and sensitive methods for screening and diagnosing herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2. The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability, accuracy, and usefulness of the new assay HSV OligoGen kit in comparison with the Roche LightCycler HSV ½ Qual Kit assay for the detection of HSV in clinical samples. For this analysis, a prospective study was designed for detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2 including 110 ulcer specimens, 48 urine, 48 endocervical, 43 cerebral spinal fluids, 4 urethral and 3 pharyngeal swabs that were sent from a regional STI clinic or an Intensive Clinical Unit, both in Seville, Spain. In comparison to the Roche LightCycler HSV ½ Qual Kit assay, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values, and kappa value for HSV detection using the HSV OligoGen kit were 96.2%, 100%, 100%, 98.3%, and 0.97 for HSV-1, respectively. For HSV-2, the corresponding values were 98.3%, 100%, 100%, 99.5%, and 0.98, respectively. Statistical data obtained in this study confirms the usefulness and reliable results of this new assay. PMID:27185644

  3. Rett Syndrome: Revised Diagnostic Criteria and Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    Neul, Jeffrey L.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Christodoulou, John; Clarke, Angus J.; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Leonard, Helen; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Schanen, N. Carolyn; Zappella, Michele; Renieri, Alessandra; Huppke, Peter; Percy, Alan K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is often caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Despite distinct clinical features, the accumulation of clinical and molecular information in recent years has generated considerable confusion regarding the diagnosis of RTT. The purpose of this work was revise and clarify 2002 consensus criteria for the diagnosis of RTT in anticipation of treatment trials. Method RettSearch members, representing the majority of the international clinical RTT specialists, participated in an iterative process to come to a consensus on a revised and simplified clinical diagnostic criteria for RTT. Results The clinical criteria required for the diagnosis of classic and atypical RTT were clarified and simplified. Guidelines for the diagnosis and molecular evaluation of specific variant forms of RTT were developed. Interpretation These revised criteria provide clarity regarding the key features required for the diagnosis of RTT and reinforce the concept that RTT is a clinical diagnosis based on distinct clinical criteria, independent of molecular findings. We recommend that these criteria and guidelines be utilized in any proposed clinical research. PMID:21154482

  4. Early migration of tibial components is associated with late revision

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We performed two parallel systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine the association between early migration of tibial components and late aseptic revision. Methods One review comprised early migration data from radiostereometric analysis (RSA) studies, while the other focused on revision rates for aseptic loosening from long-term survival studies. Thresholds for acceptable and unacceptable migration were determined according to that of several national joint registries: < 5% revision at 10 years. Results Following an elaborate literature search, 50 studies (involving 847 total knee prostheses (TKPs)) were included in the RSA review and 56 studies (20,599 TKPs) were included in the survival review. The results showed that for every mm increase in migration there was an 8% increase in revision rate, which remained after correction for age, sex, diagnosis, hospital type, continent, and study quality. Consequently, migration up to 0.5 mm was considered acceptable during the first postoperative year, while migration of 1.6 mm or more was unacceptable. TKPs with migration of between 0.5 and 1.6 mm were considered to be at risk of having revision rates higher than 5% at 10 years. Interpretation There was a clinically relevant association between early migration of TKPs and late revision for loosening. The proposed migration thresholds can be implemented in a phased, evidence-based introduction of new types of knee prostheses, since they allow early detection of high-risk TKPs while exposing only a small number of patients. PMID:23140091

  5. Antibiotic cement was associated with half the risk of re-revision in 1,154 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Bini, Stefano A; Chan, Priscilla H; Inacio, Maria C S; Paxton, Elizabeth W; Khatod, Monti

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Aseptic revisions comprise 80% of revision total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). We determined the incidence of re-revision TKA, the reasons for re-revision, and risk factors associated with these procedures. Patients and methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,154 patients who underwent aseptic revision TKA between 2002 and 2013 and were followed prospectively by a total joint replacement registry in the USA. Revision was defined as any operation in which an implanted component was replaced. Patient-, surgeon-, and procedure-related risk factors were evaluated. Survival analyses were conducted. Results There were 114 re-revisions (10%) with a median time to reoperation of 3.6 years (interquartile range (IQR): 2.6–5.2). The infection rate was 2.9% (34/1,154) and accounted for 30% of re-revisions (34 of 114). In adjusted models, use of antibiotic-loaded cement was associated with a 50% lower risk of all-cause re-revision surgery (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3–0.9), age with a 20% lower risk for every 10-year increase (HR = 0.8, CI: 0.7–1.0), body mass index (BMI) with a 20% lower risk for every 5-unit increase (HR = 0.8, CI: 0.7–1.0), and a surgeon’s greater cumulative experience (≥ 20 cases vs. < 20 cases) with a 3 times higher risk of re-revision (HR = 2.8, CI: 1.5–5). Interpretation Revised TKAs were at high risk of subsequent failure. The use of antibiotic-loaded cement, higher age, and higher BMI were associated with lower risk of further revision whereas a higher degree of surgeon experience was associated with higher risk. PMID:26472086

  6. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  7. The role of viral and host genes in corneal infection with herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Curtis R

    2005-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection of the eye is the leading cause of blindness due to infection in the US despite the availability of several antiviral drugs. Studies with animal models have shown that three factors, innate host resistance, the host adaptive immune response, and the strain of virus interact to determine whether an infection is asymptomatic or proceeds to the development of blinding keratitis (HSK). Of these, the role of adaptive immunity has received the most attention. This work has clearly shown that stromal keratitis is an immunopathological disease, most likely due to the induction of a delayed type hypersensitivity response. Substantially less is known about the role of specific host genes in resistance to HSK. The fact that different strains of virus display different disease phenotypes indicates that viral 'virulence' genes are critical. Of the 80 plus HSV genes, few have been formally tested for their role in HSV keratitis. Most studies of virulence genes to date have focused on a single gene or protein and large changes in disease phenotypes are usually measured. Large changes in the ability to cause disease are likely to reduce the fitness of the virus, thus such studies, although useful, do not mimic the natural situation. Viral gene products are known to interact with each other, and with host proteins and these interactions are critical in determining the outcome of infection. In reality, the 'constellation' of genes encoded by each particular strain is critical, and how this constellation of genes works together and with host proteins determines the outcome of an infection. The goal of this review is to discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the role of host and viral genes in HSV keratitis. The roles of specific genes that have been shown to influence keratitis are discussed. Recent data showing that different viral genes cooperate to influence disease severity and confirming that the constellation of genes within a particular

  8. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and 2 in Taiwan and Risk Factor Analysis, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Chao-Yu, Chen; Chen, Chih-Jung; Lin, Tzou-Yien; Huang, Yhu-Chering

    2015-01-01

    Background Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are common human pathogens and might cause severe illness. Following primary infection, the viruses establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted by close contact, both sexual and nonsexual. However, the information about the seroprevalence of HSV-1 and HSV-2 across all age groups is limited. Methods Residual sera collected during the nationwide serosurvey in 2007 in Taiwan were selected for the study. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 type-specific glycoprotein IgG. Demographics and personal health data were used for risk analysis. Results A total of 1411 and 1072 serum samples were included for anti-HSV-1 and anti-HSV-2 seroprevalence analysis, respectively. The weighted overall seroprevalence was 63.2% for HSV-1, and 7.7% for HSV-2, respectively. The HSV-1 seropositive rate was 19.2% for those less than 5 years old, increased to 46.4% for those aged 5–13 years, 60.9% for those aged 14–29 years, and reached as much as 95.0% for those aged over 30 years. In contrast, the HSV-2 seropositve rate was 1.6% for those less than 30 years old, rose to 10.1% for those age 30–39 years, and was up to 31.2% for those aged over 60 years. A significantly higher HSV-2 seropositive rate was noted in females than males aged over 40 years (26.3% v.s. 16.8%), and the overall HSV-2 seropositive rate was almost twice higher in females than males. Smoking history, drinking habit, and educational level were associated with the HSV-1 seropositivity. Female gender and rural residence were independent factors for the HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions An obvious increase of primary HSV-1 infection occurred in late adolescents and young adults, joined by the rise of HSV-2 infection in middle-aged adults, especially females. The acquistion and transmission of HSV warrant further studies in the susceptible population. PMID:26252011

  9. Herpes simplex virus type 1 protein IE63 affects the nuclear export of virus intron-containing transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, A; Dunlop, J; Clements, J B

    1996-01-01

    Using in situ hybridization labelling methods, we have determined that the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein IE63 (ICP27) affects the cellular localization of virus transcripts. Intronless transcripts from the IE63, UL38, and UL44 genes are rapidly exported to and accumulate in the cytoplasm throughout infection, in either the presence or absence of IE63 expression. The intron-containing transcripts from the IE110 and UL15 genes, while initially cytoplasmic, are increasingly retained in the nucleus in distinct clumps as infection proceeds, and the clumps colocalize with the redistributed small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles. Infections with the IE63 mutant virus 27-lacZ demonstrated that in the absence of IE63 expression, nuclear retention of intron-containing transcripts was lost. The nuclear retention of UL15 transcripts, which demonstrated both nuclear and cytoplasmic label, was not as pronounced as that of the IE110 transcripts, and we propose that this is due to the late expression of UL15. Infections with the mutant virus 110C1, in which both introns of IE110 have been precisely removed (R.D. Everett, J. Gen. Virol. 72:651-659, 1991), demonstrated IE110 transcripts in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm; thus, exon definition sequences which regulate viral RNA transport are present in the IE110 transcript. By in situ hybridization a stable population of polyadenylated RNAs was found to accumulate in the nucleus in spots, most of which were separate from the small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle clumps. The IE63 protein has an involvement, either direct or indirect, in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral transcripts, a function which contrasts with the recently proposed role of herpes simplex virus type 1 Us11 in promoting the nuclear export of partially spliced or unspliced transcripts (J.-J. Diaz, M. Duc Dodon, N. Schaerer-Uthurraly, D. Simonin, K. Kindbeiter, L. Gazzolo, and J.-J. Madjar, Nature [London] 379

  10. Leak testing plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste systems (active tanks): Revision 2. Volume 1: Regulatory background and plan approach; Volume 2: Methods, protocols, and schedules; Volume 3: Evaluation of the ORNL/LT-823DP differential pressure leak detection method; Appendix to Revision 2: DOE/EPA/TDEC correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Wise, R.F.; Starr, J.W.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1994-11-01

    This document, the Leak Testing Plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Liquid Low-Level Waste System (Active Tanks), comprises three volumes. The first two volumes address the component-based leak testing plan for the liquid low-level waste system at Oak Ridge, while the third volume describes the performance evaluation of the leak detection method that will be used to test this system. Volume 1, describes that portion of the liquid low-level waste system at that will be tested; it provides the regulatory background, especially in terms of the requirements stipulated in the Federal Facilities Agreement, upon which the leak testing plan is based. Volume 1 also describes the foundation of the plan, portions of which were abstracted from existing federal documents that regulate the petroleum and hazardous chemicals industries. Finally, Volume 1 gives an overview the plan, describing the methods that will be used to test the four classes of components in the liquid low-level waste system. Volume 2 takes the general information on component classes and leak detection methods presented in Volume 1 and shows how it applies particularly to each of the individual components. A complete test plan for each of the components is presented, with emphasis placed on the methods designated for testing tanks. The protocol for testing tank systems is described, and general leak testing schedules are presented. Volume 3 describes the results of a performance evaluation completed for the leak testing method that will be used to test the small tanks at the facility (those less than 3,000 gal in capacity). Some of the details described in Volumes 1 and 2 are expected to change as additional information is obtained, as the viability of candidate release detection methods is proven in the Oak Ridge environment, and as the testing program evolves.

  11. Experimental challenge of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in rainbow trout and olive flounder.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi; Ogawa, Kazuo

    2011-06-01

    The third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s.l.) are found in many marine fishes. To ensure food safety, it is important to determine whether these larvae are present in the body muscle of commercial fish species. However, there is little information regarding the tissue specificity of Anisakis and two of its sibling species, A. simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anisakis pegreffii, that are common in marine fish in Japanese waters. We orally challenged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)), and olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus (Temminck and Schlegel)) with L3 larvae of these two sibling species and monitored infection for 5weeks. In rainbow trout, A. simplex s.s., but not A. pegreffii larvae, migrated into the body muscle. A small number of freely moving A. pegreffii larvae were recovered within the body cavity. In olive flounder, A. simplex s.s. larvae were found in both the body cavity and body muscle. A. pegreffii larvae were found only in the body cavity and primarily encapsulated in lumps. Our results indicate that there are differences in the sites of infection and host specificity between the two sibling species of A. simplex s.l. PMID:21122822

  12. Activation of Checkpoint Kinase 2 Is Critical for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Replication in Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Alekseev, Oleg; Limonnik, Vladimir; Donovan, Kelly; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type I keratitis remains a leading cause of corneal morbidity, despite the availability of effective antiviral drugs. Improved understanding of virus-host interactions at the level of the host DNA damage response (DDR), a known factor in the development of HSV-1 keratitis, may shed light on potential new therapeutic targets. This report examines the role of checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), a DDR mediator protein, in corneal epithelial HSV-1 infection. Methods A small-molecule inhibitor of Chk2 (Chk2 inhibitor II) was applied to HSV-1-infected cultured human corneal epithelial cells (hTCEpi and HCE) as well as to explanted and organotypically cultured human and rabbit corneas. Infection levels were assessed by plaque assay and real-time PCR. RNAi-mediated depletion of Chk2 was performed to confirm the effect of the inhibitor. Results Inhibition of the Chk2 kinase activity greatly suppresses the cytopathic effect, genome replication and infectious progeny production in vitro and ex vivo. Conclusion This report demonstrates the critical role of Chk2 kinase in the establishment of HSV-1 corneal epithelial infection. These data contribute to our understanding of herpesvirus-host interactions and underscore the significance of DDR activation in HSV-1 keratitis. PMID:25531207

  13. A Cationic Peptide, TAT-Cd0, Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Ocular Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Gilbert G.; Larsen, Inna V.; Gauger, Joshua; Carballo, Erica; Stern, Rebecca; Brummel, Rachel; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the in vivo activity of a peptide derived from the protein transducing domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, TAT-Cd0, in a murine herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) keratitis model. Methods. The efficacy of TAT-Cd0 was assessed in a postinfection treatment model with different concentrations (1 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.01 mg/mL) of the peptide in one of four delivery vehicles: artificial tears, PBS, methylcellulose, and aquaphor cream. Treatment began within 4 or 24 hours postinfection. Viral titers in the tear film were determined by plaque assay. Results. TAT-Cd0 reduced the severity of keratitis in all of the delivery vehicles tested when treatment started, 4 hours postinfection. Peptide in the tears or PBS delivery vehicle had the most significant reduction in disease severity and delayed the onset of vascularization and stromal keratitis. The percentage of mice presenting with disease was also significantly reduced and viral titers were reduced by 1 log at 24 hours postinfection in mice treated with 1 mg/mL TAT-Cd0, suggesting that inhibiting replication early is sufficient to achieve clinical effects. Lower concentrations were not effective and delaying treatment by 24 hours was also not effective. Conclusions. This study shows that TAT-Cd0 is an effective antiviral against HSV-1 strain KOS when applied shortly postinfection and that aqueous-based formulations are more suitable. PMID:23341013

  14. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction mediated herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase gene treats hepatoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the study was to explore the anti-tumor effect of ultrasound -targeted microbubble destruction mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) suicide gene system on mice hepatoma. Methods Forty mice were randomly divided into four groups after the models of subcutaneous transplantation tumors were estabilished: (1) PBS; (2) HSV-TK (3) HSV-TK+ ultrasound (HSV-TK+US); (4) HSV-TK+ultrasound+microbubbles (HSV-TK+US+MB). The TK protein expression in liver cancer was detected by western-blot. Applying TUNEL staining detected tumor cell apoptosis. At last, the inhibition rates and survival time of the animals were compared among all groups. Results The TK protein expression of HSV-TK+MB+US group in tumor-bearing mice tissues were significantly higher than those in other groups. The tumor inhibitory effect of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction mediated HSV-TK on mice transplantable tumor was significantly higher than those in other groups (p < 0.05), and can significantly improve the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Conclusion Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction can effectively transfect HSV-TK gene into target tissues and play a significant inhibition effect on tumors, which provides a new strategy for gene therapy in liver cancer. PMID:21176239

  15. No Evidence of Pritelivir Resistance Among Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Isolates After 4 Weeks of Daily Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Paul T.; Birkmann, Alexander; Huang, Meei-Li; Magaret, Craig A.; Kee, Jia Jin; Diem, Kurt; Goldner, Thomas; Timmler, Burkhard; Stoelben, Susanne; Ruebsamen-Schaeff, Helga; Zimmermann, Holger; Warren, Terri; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pritelivir is a novel helicase-primase inhibitor in clinical development for treatment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. In preclinical work, resistance-mediating mutations were identified in the HSV-2 genome at 3 loci in the UL5 gene and 1 locus in UL52. Methods. To evaluate whether daily pritelivir treatment results in emergence of resistance-mediating mutations, we analyzed HSV-2 strains detected in genital swab specimens from trial participants who were randomly assigned to receive different dosages of pritelivir. We sequenced resistance regions from 87 participants' samples, the UL5 gene in 73 samples from 44 participants, and the UL52 gene in 71 samples from 43 participants. Results. We found no evidence that pritelivir induced known resistance-mediating mutations or for amino acid variation at other loci. In one participant's HSV-2 isolate, we found a previously unidentified mutation close to the putative resistance-mediating region in UL5 and subsequently determined in vitro susceptibility to pritelivir. We characterized mutations from 32 cultivated HSV-2 isolates previously found to be susceptible to pritelivir in vitro and identified several novel mutations that most likely reflect preexisting variation in circulating HSV-2. Conclusions. This study demonstrates evidence of retained susceptibility of HSV-2 to pritelivir in immunocompetent persons following daily therapy for up to 28 days. PMID:27056950

  16. Safety, formulation, and in vitro antiviral activity of the antimicrobial peptide subtilosin against herpes simplex virus type 1

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Nicolás I.; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Xu, Shiqi; Li, Ji; Huang, Qingrong; Sinko, Patrick J.; Wachsman, Mónica B.; Chikindas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the antiviral properties of the bacteriocin subtilosin against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the safety and efficacy of a subtilosin-based nanofiber formulation were determined. High concentrations of subtilosin, the cyclical antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, were virucidal against HSV-1. Interestingly, at non-virucidal concentrations, subtilosin inhibited wild type HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent manner. Although the exact antiviral mechanism is not fully understood, time of addition experiments and western blot analysis suggest that subtilosin does not affect viral multiplication steps prior to protein synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based subtilosin nanofibers with a width of 278 nm were produced by the electrospinning process. The retained antimicrobial activity of the subtilosin-based fibers was determined via an agar well diffusion assay. The loading capacity of the fibers was 2.4 mg subtilosin/g fiber, and loading efficiency was 31.6%. Furthermore, the nanofibers with and without incorporated subtilosin were shown to be nontoxic to human epidermal tissues using an in vitro human tissue model. Taking together these results subtilosin-based nanofibers should be further studied as a novel alternative method for treatment and/or control of HSV-1 infection. PMID:23637711

  17. Preparation and Evaluation of Novel In Situ Gels Containing Acyclovir for the Treatment of Oral Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Binu; Verma, Surajpal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an oral mucosal drug delivery system to facilitate the local and systemic delivery of acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). An in situ gelling system was used to increase the residence time and thus the bioavailability of acyclovir in oral mucosa. Temperature and pH trigged in situ gel formulations were prepared by cold method using polymers like poloxamer 407, carbopol 934, and HPMC. Glycerin and a mixture of tween 80 and ethanol (1 : 2 ratio) were used as the drug dissolving solvent. The pH of carbopol containing formulation was adjusted to pH 5.8 while the pH of poloxamer solution was adjusted to pH 7. These formulations were evaluated for sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, gel strength, drug content, ex-vitro permeation, and mucoadhesion. The gelation temperatures of all the formulations were within the range of 28–38°C. All the formulations exhibited fairly uniform drug content (98.15–99.75%). Drug release study of all the formulations showed sustained release properties. The release of drug through these in situ gel formulations followed the Higuchi model and Korsmeyer peppas model mechanism. PMID:24790559

  18. Measuring elastic properties of cells by evaluation of scanning acoustic microscopy V(Z) values using simplex algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, T.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.; Hillmann, K.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a new technique is proposed to determine the acoustic properties as well as the thickness (and volume) of biological cells. Variations of thickness, density, acoustic wave velocity, stiffness, and attenuation coefficient of a living or dead cell are obtained by scanning the cell by an acoustic microscope. The distance between the cell and the microscope lens is varied and several voltage curves are thus obtained. These curves are then inverted by simplex optimization technique to obtain the cell parameters. The spatial resolution of the method is limited to the resolution of the scanning acoustic microscope. It allows to take advantage of the full range of frequencies and amplification of the microscope. Characteristic distributions of stiffness are exemplified with an endothelial cell in culture. The main part of the thin, lamellar cytoplasm has high stiffness, which drops close to the lamella/cell body transition region and only slightly increases again through the central part of the cell. Acoustic attenuation seems to be related to two factors, cytoplasm accumulation (in the lamellar parts) and scattering in the central part rich in organelles. ImagesFIGURE 10 PMID:19431793

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 Infection Increases Atherosclerosis Risk: Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu peng; Wang, Yun; Liu, Wen; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) infection with the risk of atherosclerosis (AS). Methods. A systematic literature search was performed through three electronic databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the effect of HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection on AS risk. Results. 17 studies were available for meta-analysis of HSV-1 infection and AS risk and seven studies for meta-analysis of HSV-2 infection and AS risk. Subjects exposed to HSV-1 infection exhibited an increased risk of AS (OR = 1.77; 95% CI: 1.40–2.23; P < 0.001). And consistent elevated AS risks for HSV-1 positive subjects were found in all subgroup analysis of disease type, region, male proportion, and age. HSV-2 positive subjects demonstrated significantly increased AS risk (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.13–1.67; P < 0.005). In subgroup analysis, elevated AS risks were only observed in myocardial ischemia group, male proportion >60% group, and age ≤60-year-old group. Conclusion. Our meta-analysis indicated that HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection could increase the risk of contracting AS. PMID:27195284

  20. Extended Release of an Anti–Heparan Sulfate Peptide From a Contact Lens Suppresses Corneal Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Dinesh; Buhrman, Jason S.; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor; Gemeinhart, Richard A.; Shukla, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To prolong the release of a heparan sulfate binding peptide, G2-C, using a commercially available contact lens as a delivery vehicle and to demonstrate the ability of the released peptide to block herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection using in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models of corneal HSV-1 infection. Methods Commercially available contact lenses were immersed in peptide solution for 5 days prior to determining the release of the peptide at various time points. Cytotoxicity of the released samples was determined by MTT and cell cycle analysis, and the functional activity of the released samples were assessed by viral entry, and viral spread assay using human corneal epithelial cells (HCE). The ability to suppress infection in human and pig cornea ex vivo and mouse in vivo models were also assessed. Results Peptide G2-C was released through the contact lens. Following release for 3 days, the peptide showed significant activity by inhibiting HSV-1 viral entry and spread in HCE cells. Significant suppression of infection was also observed in the ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving corneas. Conclusions Extended release of an anti–HS peptide through a commercially available contact lens can generate significant anti–HSV-1 activity and provides a new and effective way to control corneal herpes. PMID:26780322

  1. Preparation and evaluation of novel in situ gels containing acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Binu; Verma, Surajpal

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an oral mucosal drug delivery system to facilitate the local and systemic delivery of acyclovir for the treatment of oral herpes infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). An in situ gelling system was used to increase the residence time and thus the bioavailability of acyclovir in oral mucosa. Temperature and pH trigged in situ gel formulations were prepared by cold method using polymers like poloxamer 407, carbopol 934, and HPMC. Glycerin and a mixture of tween 80 and ethanol (1 : 2 ratio) were used as the drug dissolving solvent. The pH of carbopol containing formulation was adjusted to pH 5.8 while the pH of poloxamer solution was adjusted to pH 7. These formulations were evaluated for sol-gel transition temperature, gelling capacity, pH, viscosity, spreadability, gel strength, drug content, ex-vitro permeation, and mucoadhesion. The gelation temperatures of all the formulations were within the range of 28-38°C. All the formulations exhibited fairly uniform drug content (98.15-99.75%). Drug release study of all the formulations showed sustained release properties. The release of drug through these in situ gel formulations followed the Higuchi model and Korsmeyer peppas model mechanism. PMID:24790559

  2. Application of modified simplex on the development of a preconcentration system for cadmium determination in sediments, food and cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Santos, Queila O; Moreno, Islania; Santos, Leandro Dos; Santos, Aldenor G; Souza, Valdinei S; Bezerra, Marcos A

    2016-05-13

    A modified simplex algorithm was used to optimize a system of preconcentration for cadmium determination in samples of sediments, cigarettes and food using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The preconcentration system is based on the sorption of cadmium in a minicolumn packed with Amberlite XAD-2 resin functionalized with 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). The optimized variables were pH and sampling flow rate and the optimum conditions found for these variables were, respectively 8.7 and 8.8 mL min-1. The developed system showed a preconcentration factor of 15.3, detection limit of 0.49 µg L-1, quantification limit of 1.65 µg L-1 and precision expressed as relative standard deviation (% RSD, n=10) of 5.9. The accuracy of the method was checked by analysis of estuary sediment certified reference material (NIST 1646-1). The cadmium concentrations found in sediment samples ranged from 1.73 and 1.90 µg g-1. In cigarette samples the results were 0.085 and 0.193 µg g-1, and in food samples (coriander and lettuce) the concentrations found of this metal were, respectively, 0.33 and 0.12 µg g-1. PMID:27192197

  3. Detection of asymptomatic initial herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in animals immunized with subunit HSV glycoprotein vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, D I; Ashley, R L; Stanberry, L R; Myers, M G

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccine efficacy will require methods to detect asymptomatic acquisition of HSV infection and to assess the risk of recurrences in these patients. HSV-infected vaccinees should develop antibodies to HSV polypeptides not included in subunit vaccines. Sera from 57 HSV glycoprotein-vaccinated guinea pigs that had asymptomatic initial infections after genital HSV type 2 challenge were collected after vaccination but before HSV challenge and again 30 days after HSV challenge to determine the antibody response to HSV polypeptides. Antibodies to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides were detected in sera collected after viral challenge from 32 (56%) of these 57 animals. Twenty-six (81%) of the 32 animals with detectable antibody developed recurrent disease; however, recurrences also developed in 11 (44%) of the remaining 25 that did not show detectable antibody to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides. The magnitude of vaginal viral shedding during the initial disease period following challenge was significantly lower in animals that did not develop antibody to nonvaccine polypeptides compared with those that did develop antibody (area under the viral shedding curve, 5.2 +/- 3.2 versus 18.1 +/- 5.8; P less than 0.0001) . These data suggest that detection of antibody to nonvaccine HSV polypeptides will identify the majority (70%) of initially asymptomatic vaccinees that develop recurrent disease but that latency can be established even with markedly reduced levels of viral replication that did not induce a detectable antibody response. Images PMID:2153698

  4. Safety, formulation, and in vitro antiviral activity of the antimicrobial peptide subtilosin against herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nicolás I; Noll, Katia Sutyak; Xu, Shiqi; Li, Ji; Huang, Qingrong; Sinko, Patrick J; Wachsman, Mónica B; Chikindas, Michael L

    2013-03-01

    In the present study the antiviral properties of the bacteriocin subtilosin against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and the safety and efficacy of a subtilosin-based nanofiber formulation were determined. High concentrations of subtilosin, the cyclical antimicrobial peptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, were virucidal against HSV-1. Interestingly, at non-virucidal concentrations, subtilosin inhibited wild type HSV-1 and aciclovir-resistant mutants in a dose-dependent manner. Although the exact antiviral mechanism is not fully understood, time of addition experiments and western blot analysis suggest that subtilosin does not affect viral multiplication steps prior to protein synthesis. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH)-based subtilosin nanofibers with a width of 278 nm were produced by the electrospinning process. The retained antimicrobial activity of the subtilosin-based fibers was determined via an agar well diffusion assay. The loading capacity of the fibers was 2.4 mg subtilosin/g fiber, and loading efficiency was 31.6%. Furthermore, the nanofibers with and without incorporated subtilosin were shown to be nontoxic to human epidermal tissues using an in vitro human tissue model. Taking together these results subtilosin-based nanofibers should be further studied as a novel alternative method for treatment and/or control of HSV-1 infection. PMID:23637711

  5. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  6. Rayleigh's Scattering Revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiets, Sergey; Gorelik, Andrey

    Mie’s waves while sounding within coincident volumes. Being sensitive to the size of scatters, Mie’s waves can give us additional information about particle size distribution. But how about using several wavelengths corresponding to Rayleigh’s diffraction on scatters only? Can any effects be detected in such a case and what performance characteristics of the equipment are required to detect them? The deceptive simplicity of the negative answer to the first part of the question posed will disappear if one collects different definitions of Rayleigh's scattering and consider them more closely than usually. Several definitions borrowed from the introductory texts and most popular textbooks and articles can be seen as one of the reasons for the research presented in the report. Hopefully, based on the comparison of them all, anyone could easily conclude that Rayleigh's scattering has been analyzed extensively, but despite this extensive analysis made fundamental ambiguities in introductory texts are not eliminated completely to date. Moreover, there may be found unreasonably many examples on how these ambiguities have already caused an error to be foreseen, published on the one article, amplified in another one, then cited with approval in the third one, before being finally corrected. Everything indicated that in the light of all the lesions learned and based on modern experimental data, it is time to address these issues again. After the discussion of ambiguities of Rayleigh's scattering concepts, the development of the corrections to original ideas looks relatively easy. In particular, there may be distinguished at least three characteristic regions of the revised models application from the point of view of the scattered field statistical averaging. The authors of the report suggest naming them Rayleigh’s region, Einstein’s region and the region with compensations of the scattering intensity. The most important fact is that the limits of applicability of all

  7. The revised classification of eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Adl, Sina M.; Simpson, Alastair. G.; Lane, Christopher E.; Lukeš, Julius; Bass, David; Bowser, Samuel S.; Brown, Matt; Burki, Fabien; Dunthorn, Micah; Hampl, Vladimir; Heiss, Aaron; Hoppenrath, Mona; Lara, Enrique; leGall, Line; Lynn, Denis H.; McManus, Hilary; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Mozley-Stanridge, Sharon E.; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Pawlowski, Jan; Rueckert, Sonja; Shadwick, Lora; Schoch, Conrad; Smirnov, Alexey; Spiegel, Frederick W.

    2012-01-01

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes, which updates that of Adl et al. (2005), retains an emphasis on the protists and incorporates changes since 2005 that have resolved nodes and branches in phylogenetic trees. Whereas the previous revision was successful in re-introducing name stability to the classification, this revision provides a classification for lineages that were then still unresolved. The supergroups have withstood phylogenetic hypothesis testing with some modifications, but despite some progress, problematic nodes at the base of the eukaryotic tree still remain to be statistically resolved. Looking forward, subsequent transformations to our understanding of the diversity of life will be from the discovery of novel lineages in previously under-sampled areas and from environmental genomic information. PMID:23020233

  8. Revision of Wise pattern breast reductions with vertical procedures.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Mark R; Schwartz, Jamie A; Smith, Mark L; Samson, William; Dayan, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    A small percentage of patients who undergo Wise pattern mammaplasties request revisions to address recurrent macromastia or poor breast shape. Reuse of the Wise pattern method at times results in disappointing aesthetic results. Recently, in a series of 15 consecutive patients, we used vertical techniques with glandular reshaping to perform these revisions. Advantages include the ability to significantly improve breast shape and to avoid reopening of potentially problematic inframammary scars. No major complications occurred. Patients have been uniformly pleased with the significant improvement in their breast contour, width, and size. In summary, despite the use of the Wise pattern method for the original procedure, consideration should be given to use vertical techniques for revisions in that they are safe and can better address patient goals. Gratifying results can be achieved. PMID:23945532

  9. Immunity to herpes simplex virus type 2. Suppression of virus-induced immune responses in ultraviolet B-irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Yasumoto, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Aurelian, L.

    1987-10-15

    Ultraviolet B irradiation (280 to 320 nm) of mice at the site of intradermal infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 increased the severity of the herpes simplex virus type 2 disease and decreased delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses to viral antigen. Decrease in DTH resulted from the induction of suppressor T cells, as evidenced by the ability of spleen cells from UV-irradiated mice to inhibit DTH and proliferative responses after adoptive transfer. Lymph node cells from UV-irradiated animals did not transfer suppression. DTH was suppressed at the induction but not the expression phase. Suppressor T cells were Lyt-1+, L3T4+, and their activity was antigen-specific. However, after in vitro culture of spleen cells from UV-irradiated mice with herpes simplex virus type 2 antigen, suppressor activity was mediated by Lyt-2+ cells. Culture supernatants contained soluble nonantigen-specific suppressive factors.

  10. Accuracy of Revised and Traditional Parallel Analyses for Assessing Dimensionality with Binary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Redell, Nickalus; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Parallel analysis (PA) is a useful empirical tool for assessing the number of factors in exploratory factor analysis. On conceptual and empirical grounds, we argue for a revision to PA that makes it more consistent with hypothesis testing. Using Monte Carlo methods, we evaluated the relative accuracy of the revised PA (R-PA) and traditional PA…

  11. [Revision after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Mohr, G; Martin, J; Clarius, M

    2014-10-01

    Unicompartmental arthroplasty is an efficient and approved treatment option of unicompartmental arthritis of the knee, being performed with increasing frequency worldwide. Compared to total knee replacement, there are several advantages such as faster recovery, lower blood loss, better functional outcome and lower infection rates. However, higher revision rates are a frequent argument against the use of unicompartmental arthroplasty. The following article gives an overview of failure mechanisms and strategies for revision arthroplasty. This article is based on a selective literature review including PubMed and relevant print media. Our own clinical experience is considered as well. PMID:25209015

  12. Simplex optimization of the variables affecting the micelle-stabilized room temperature phosphorescence of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid and its kinetic determination in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pulgarín, J A Murillo; Molina, A Alañón; Pardo, M T Alañón

    2005-04-01

    This article reports the kinetic determination of 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6-MNA), the major metabolite of nabumetone, from micelle-stabilized room temperature phosphorescence (MS-RTP) measurements made by using the stopped-flow mixing technique. This methodology allows one to determine analytes in complex matrices without the need for a tedious separation process. It also shortens analysis times substantially. The proposed method uses simplex methodology to optimize the chemical and instrumental variables affecting the phosphorescence. It was applied to the determination of 6-MNA in human urine. The maximum phosphorescence signal is obtained within only 10 s after the sample is prepared. The maximum slope of the kinetic curve, which corresponds to the maximum rate of the phosphorescence development, is measured at lambda(ex)=273 nm and lambda(em)=516 nm. Least-squares regression was used to fit experimental data, and the detection limit, repeatability, and standard deviation for replicate samples were determined. PMID:15766723

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and normal protein permeability in the lungs of critically ill patients: a case for low pathogenicity?

    PubMed Central

    Verheij, Joanne; Groeneveld, AB Johan; Beishuizen, Albertus; Lingen, Arthur van; Simoons-Smit, Alberdina M; van Schijndel, Rob JM Strack

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The pathogenicity of late respiratory infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in the critically ill is unclear. Methods In four critically ill patients with persistent pulmonary infiltrates of unknown origin and isolation of HSV-1 from tracheal aspirate or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, at 7 (1–11) days after start of mechanical ventilatory support, a pulmonary leak index (PLI) for 67Gallium (67Ga)-transferrin (upper limit of normal 14.1 × 10-3/min) was measured. Results The PLI ranged between 7.5 and 14.0 × 10-3/min in the study patients. Two patients received a course of acyclovir and all survived. Conclusions The normal capillary permeability observed in the lungs argues against pathogenicity of HSV-1 in the critically ill, and favors that isolation of the virus reflects reactivation in the course of serious illness and immunodepresssion, rather than primary or superimposed infection in the lungs. PMID:15153242

  14. Database on natural polymorphisms and resistance-related non-synonymous mutations in thymidine kinase and DNA polymerase genes of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas; Bohn-Wippert, Kathrin; Kaspar, Marisa; Krumbholz, Andi; Karrasch, Matthias; Zell, Roland

    2016-01-01

    The use of genotypic resistance testing of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) is increasing because the rapid availability of results significantly improves the treatment of severe infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. However, an essential precondition is a broad knowledge of natural polymorphisms and resistance-associated mutations in the thymidine kinase (TK) and DNA polymerase (pol) genes, of which the DNA polymerase (Pol) enzyme is targeted by the highly effective antiviral drugs in clinical use. Thus, this review presents a database of all non-synonymous mutations of TK and DNA pol genes of HSV-1 and HSV-2 whose association with resistance or natural gene polymorphism has been clarified by phenotypic and/or functional assays. In addition, the laboratory methods for verifying natural polymorphisms or resistance mutations are summarized. This database can help considerably to facilitate the interpretation of genotypic resistance findings in clinical HSV-1 and HSV-2 strains. PMID:26433780

  15. Revised evaluations for ENDF/B-VI Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.Q.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on revised cross-section evaluations for 17 nuclides that have been prepared for ENDF/B-VI Revision 2. The nuclides considered include five fission products and various isotopes of cadmium and hafnium. The previous ENDF/B-VI evaluations for these 17 nuclides were carried over from ENDF/B-V and were completed in the 1974--1980 time period. By utilizing the experimental data that have become available since 1980 the revised evaluations will result in significant improvements in the evaluated nuclear data files. The primary emphasis was placed on the resolved and unresolved resonance regions, but new experimental data were also used to improve the cross sections for energies above the unresolved resonance region. Negative elastic scattering cross sections were encountered in some of the previous evaluations; since the revised evaluations use multilevel Breit-Wigner (MLBW) parameters, rather than single-level Breit-Wigner (SLBW), this problem is eliminated.

  16. Non-traumatic acquisition of herpes simplex virus infection through the eye.

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, S B; Shimeld, C; Grinfeld, E; Maitland, N J; Hill, T J; Easty, D L

    1992-01-01

    Primary ocular herpes is usually seen as a follicular conjunctivitis and blepharitis, with or without involvement of the cornea. It is unknown, however, to what extent asymptomatic and/or subclinical primary disease occurs, and whether primary ocular herpes follows direct droplet spread to the eye. Previous models of murine ocular herpes have used trauma (scarification) to introduce virus into the cornea, producing disease which results in significant corneal scarring. To mimic a likely route of infection in humans, a droplet containing virus was placed on the mouse eye and clinical disease recorded. At least 1 month after inoculation, serum was assayed for neutralising antibodies and the cornea, iris, and trigeminal ganglion were investigated for evidence of herpes simplex virus type 1, by cocultivation and the polymerase chain reaction. Some animals showed a severe ulcerative blepharitis with little to no involvement of the cornea, while disease was undetectable in others. The development of disease depended on the dose and strain of virus and age of the animal, with older mice appearing more resistant. Virus was isolated from the trigeminal ganglion of younger animals inoculated with higher doses of virus, after 21 days in culture, suggesting that latency had been established. Neutralising antibodies were present in most mice irrespective of the presence of recognisable clinical disease. Using primers for the thymidine kinase and glycoprotein C regions of the viral genome, herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA was found in the cornea, iris, and trigeminal ganglion of most animals and showed a good correlation with the presence of neutralising antibodies. It would thus appear that herpes simplex virus type 1 is able to accede into the cornea, iris, and trigeminal ganglion following nontraumatic application of virus onto the mouse eye. This model mimics primary ocular disease in humans and may be useful for studies on recurrent disease and the spread of ocular herpes

  17. Histophagous ciliate Pseudocollinia brintoni and bacterial assemblage interaction with krill Nyctiphanes simplex. I. Transmission process.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Jaime; López-Cortés, Alejandro; Aguilar-Méndez, Mario J; Del Angel-Rodríguez, Jorge A; Tremblay, Nelly; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Robinson, Carlos J

    2015-10-27

    Histophagous ciliates of the genus Pseudocollinia cause epizootic events that kill adult female krill (Euphausiacea), but their mode of transmission is unknown. We compared 16S rRNA sequences of bacterial strains isolated from stomachs of healthy krill Nyctiphanes simplex specimens with sequences of bacterial isolates and sequences of natural bacterial communities from the hemocoel of N. simplex specimens infected with P. brintoni to determine possible transmission pathways. All P. brintoni endoparasitic life stages and the transmission tomite stage (outside the host) were associated with bacterial assemblages. 16S rRNA sequences from isolated bacterial strains showed that Photobacterium spp. and Pseudoalteromonas spp. were dominant members of the bacterial assemblages during all life phases of P. brintoni and potential pathobionts. They were apparently unaffected by the krill's immune system or the histophagous activity of P. brintoni. However, other bacterial strains were found only in certain P. brintoni life phases, indicating that as the infection progressed, microhabitat conditions and microbial interactions may have become unfavorable for some strains of bacteria. Trophic infection is the most parsimonious explanation for how P. brintoni infects krill. We estimated N. simplex vulnerability to P. brintoni infection during more than three-fourths of their life span, infecting mostly adult females. The ciliates have relatively high prevalence levels (albeit at <10% of sampled stations) and a short life cycle (estimated <7 d). Histophagous ciliate-krill interactions may occur in other krill species, particularly those that form dense swarms and attain high population densities that potentially enhance trophic transmission and allow completion of the Pseudocollinia spp. life cycle. PMID:26503776

  18. Formulation and optimization of floating matrix tablets of clarithromycin using simplex lattice design.

    PubMed

    Singh, Inderbir; Saini, Vikrant

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to prepare floating matrix tablets of clarithromycin employing simplex lattice design. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Ethyl Cellulose (EC) were used as matrix forming agents; sodium bicarbonate and citric acid as effervescence producing agents. Simplex lattice design was used as optimization technique employing three independent formulation variables viz. concentration of HPMC (X1), Citric Acid (X2), EC (X3) whereas floating lag time, t50%, t90%, and MDT (Mean Dissolution Time) were the response (dependent) variables. Seven formulations (F1-F7) were prepared and evaluated for dissolution studies, floating characteristics, weight variation, hardness, thickness, friability.t50% of the formulations was found to be ranging from 317±2.54 to 522±2.39 minutes. The t90% and MDT of the tablets were found to be ranging between 659.65±1.89 to 967.35±1.67 minutes and 527.20±1.22 to 846.78±2.61 minutes respectively. Total floating time of the formulations was more than 12 hours and the drug content was in the range of 98.54±0.46 to 99.92±0.32. The amount of both HPMC and EC were found to play a dominating role in controlling the release of the drug from the formulation whereas ratios of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid were showing significant effect on the floating lag time. The release exponent (n) from Korsmeyer-Peppas model was found to be between 0.62 and 0.75 indicating non-Fickian or anomalous drug release behavior from the formulated floating matrix tablets. Simplex lattice design was reported to be an effective optimization technique for optimizing pharmaceutical formulations against desired responses. PMID:27087096

  19. Clinical experiment of mutant herpes simplex virus HF10 therapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakao, A; Takeda, S; Shimoyama, S; Kasuya, H; Kimata, H; Teshigahara, O; Sawaki, M; Kikumori, T; Kodera, Y; Nagasaka, T; Goshima, F; Nishiyama, Y; Imai, T

    2007-03-01

    We reviewed our clinical trial using mutant herpes simplex virus "HF10". We have evaluated the safety and effect of HF10 against recurrent breast cancer since 2003 and also applied HF10 to non-resectable pancreatic cancer since 2005. An oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1, mutant HF10, has been isolated and evaluated for anti-tumor efficacy in syngeneic immunocompetent mouse models. From long time before clinical trial, we have found that the mutant virus can have remarkable potential to effectively treat cancer in experimental studies using animals, and that all of the surviving mice acquire resistance to rechallenge of the tumor cells. A number of studies have shown that HF10 is effective and safe for use in localized or peritoneally disseminated malignant tumors of non-neuronal origin in animals. Pilot studies using HF10 have been initiated in patients with metastatic breast cancer. For each patient, 0.5 ml HF10 diluents at various doses were injected into test nodule, and 0.5 ml sterile saline was injected into a second nodule. All patients were monitored for local and systemic adverse effects, and the nodules were excised 14 days after viral injection for histopathological studies. All patients tolerated the clinical trial well. While no adverse effects occurred, there was cancer cell death and 30-100% regression histopathologically in recurrent breast cancer. As mentioned above, intratumoral injection of mutant herpes simplex virus HF10 for recurrent metastatic breast cancer was safe and effective. Also a trial for non-resectable pancreatic cancer being carried out on the basis of the above result has proved to be innocuous and has been in progress to assess the clinical benefit and enhance the potentiality of HF10 against cancer. PMID:17346108

  20. Growth and nutrient removal properties of the diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex under different nitrogen sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, Panneerselvam; Manimaran, Kuppusamy; Sampathkumar, Pitchai; Rameshkumar, Lakshmanan

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of the marine diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex for the removal of macronutrients from different wastewater, the growth and nitrate-phosphate removal properties were studied with nitrate, ammonium and urea nitrogen sources. Three separate experiments were conducted using modified F/2 medium with 12.35 mg L-1 total nitrogen and 1.12 mg L-1 total phosphorous (simulating the typical concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in secondary effluent) as growth medium. The maximum cell densities of C. curvisetus and C. simplex were 7.16 ± 0.34 × 104 cells mL-1 in {{NO}}3^{ - } and 3.88 ± 0.32 × 105 cells mL-1 in urea, respectively. The maximum chlorophyll a per cell was 1.7 and 4.7 pg for C. simplex and C. curvisetus, cultured with urea and nitrate, respectively. The high protein contents of 4.7 pg cell-1 in C. simplex with urea and 19.7 pg cell-1 in C. curvisetus nitrate nitrogen sources were found. The higher cell density and protein content of both species from urea and nitrate nitrogen sources ( p < 0.05) have shown that these were utilized by microalgae and were converted to protein. The C. simplex and C. curvisetus showed maximum removal efficiencies of nitrate by 97.86 and 91.62 % and phosphate by 98.5 and 100 %, respectively when urea used as nitrogen source than ammonia. The results indicated the C. simplex was more efficient than C. curvisetus and suitable for the removal of macronutrients when cultured with urea and nitrate nitrogen sources.