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Sample records for revised simplex method

  1. Simplex method in problems of light-beam phase control.

    PubMed

    Chesnokov, S S; Davletshina, I V

    1995-12-20

    The possibility of the application of the simplex method to problems of wave-front control for light beams propagating in a nonlinear medium is investigated. A numerical analysis of simplex-method effectiveness in comparison with the gradient procedure of hill climbing is carried out. The regimes of stationary and nonstationary wind refraction are considered. The simplest optimization of the simplex size and the control basis is done. PMID:21068958

  2. A constrained optimization algorithm based on the simplex search method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Vivek Kumar; Dasgupta, Bhaskar

    2012-05-01

    In this article, a robust method is presented for handling constraints with the Nelder and Mead simplex search method, which is a direct search algorithm for multidimensional unconstrained optimization. The proposed method is free from the limitations of previous attempts that demand the initial simplex to be feasible or a projection of infeasible points to the nonlinear constraint boundaries. The method is tested on several benchmark problems and the results are compared with various evolutionary algorithms available in the literature. The proposed method is found to be competitive with respect to the existing algorithms in terms of effectiveness and efficiency.

  3. Simplex-stochastic collocation method with improved scalability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edeling, W. N.; Dwight, R. P.; Cinnella, P.

    2016-04-01

    The Simplex-Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method is a robust tool used to propagate uncertain input distributions through a computer code. However, it becomes prohibitively expensive for problems with dimensions higher than 5. The main purpose of this paper is to identify bottlenecks, and to improve upon this bad scalability. In order to do so, we propose an alternative interpolation stencil technique based upon the Set-Covering problem, and we integrate the SSC method in the High-Dimensional Model-Reduction framework. In addition, we address the issue of ill-conditioned sample matrices, and we present an analytical map to facilitate uniformly-distributed simplex sampling.

  4. A Streamlined Artificial Variable Free Version of Simplex Method

    PubMed Central

    Inayatullah, Syed; Touheed, Nasir; Imtiaz, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a streamlined form of simplex method which provides some great benefits over traditional simplex method. For instance, it does not need any kind of artificial variables or artificial constraints; it could start with any feasible or infeasible basis of an LP. This method follows the same pivoting sequence as of simplex phase 1 without showing any explicit description of artificial variables which also makes it space efficient. Later in this paper, a dual version of the new method has also been presented which provides a way to easily implement the phase 1 of traditional dual simplex method. For a problem having an initial basis which is both primal and dual infeasible, our methods provide full freedom to the user, that whether to start with primal artificial free version or dual artificial free version without making any reformulation to the LP structure. Last but not the least, it provides a teaching aid for the teachers who want to teach feasibility achievement as a separate topic before teaching optimality achievement. PMID:25767883

  5. Proposal of Evolutionary Simplex Method for Global Optimization Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yoshiaki

    To make an agile decision in a rational manner, role of optimization engineering has been notified increasingly under diversified customer demand. With this point of view, in this paper, we have proposed a new evolutionary method serving as an optimization technique in the paradigm of optimization engineering. The developed method has prospects to solve globally various complicated problem appearing in real world applications. It is evolved from the conventional method known as Nelder and Mead’s Simplex method by virtue of idea borrowed from recent meta-heuristic method such as PSO. Mentioning an algorithm to handle linear inequality constraints effectively, we have validated effectiveness of the proposed method through comparison with other methods using several benchmark problems.

  6. Max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding rule for the simplex method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipawanna, Monsicha; Sinapiromsaran, Krung

    2014-03-01

    The simplex method is used to solve linear programming problem by improving the current basic feasible solution. It uses a pivot rule to guide the search in the feasible region. The pivot rule is used to select an entering index in simplex method. Nowadays, many pivot rule have been presented, but no pivot rule shows superior performance than other. Therefore, this is still an active research in linear programming. In this research, we present the max-out-in pivot rule with Dantzig's safeguarding for simplex method. This rule is based on maximum improvement of objective value of the current basic feasible point similar to the Dantzig's rule. We can illustrate by Klee and Minty problems that our rule outperforms that of Dantzig's rule by the number of iterations for solving linear programming problems.

  7. The Intelligence of Dual Simplex Method to Solve Linear Fractional Fuzzy Transportation Problem

    PubMed Central

    Narayanamoorthy, S.; Kalyani, S.

    2015-01-01

    An approach is presented to solve a fuzzy transportation problem with linear fractional fuzzy objective function. In this proposed approach the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is decomposed into two linear fuzzy transportation problems. The optimal solution of the two linear fuzzy transportations is solved by dual simplex method and the optimal solution of the fractional fuzzy transportation problem is obtained. The proposed method is explained in detail with an example. PMID:25810713

  8. Introducing Adapted Nelder & Mead's Downhill Simplex Method to a Fully Automated Analysis of Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, A.; Zwitter, T.

    2005-01-01

    Eclipsing binaries are extremely attractive objects because absolute physical parameters (masses, luminosities, radii) of both components may be determined from observations. Since most efforts to extract these parameters were based on dedicated observing programmes, existing modelling code is based on interactivity. Gaia will make a revolutionary advance in shear number of observed eclipsing binaries and new methods for automatic handling must be introduced and thoroughly tested. This paper focuses on Nelder & Mead's downhill simplex method applied to a synthetically created test binary as it will be observed by Gaia.

  9. Simplex and duplex event-specific analytical methods for functional biotech maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Hun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Yi, Bu-Young

    2009-08-26

    Analytical methods are very important in the control of genetically modified organism (GMO) labeling systems or living modified organism (LMO) management for biotech crops. Event-specific primers and probes were developed for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038 on the basis of the 3' flanking regions, respectively. The qualitative primers confirmed the specificity by a single PCR product and sensitivity to 0.05% as a limit of detection (LOD). Simplex and duplex quantitative methods were also developed using TaqMan real-time PCR. One synthetic plasmid was constructed from two taxon-specific DNA sequences of maize and two event-specific 3' flanking DNA sequences of event 3272 and LY 038 as reference molecules. In-house validation of the quantitative methods was performed using six levels of mixing samples, from 0.1 to 10.0%. As a result, the biases from the true value and the relative deviations were all within the range of +/-30%. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of the quantitative methods were all 0.1% for simplex real-time PCRs of event 3272 and LY 038 and 0.5% for duplex real-time PCR of LY 038. This study reports that event-specific analytical methods were applicable for qualitative and quantitative analysis for biotech maize event 3272 and LY 038. PMID:19650633

  10. A Comparative Study of Three Revision Methods in EFL Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2011-01-01

    In an attempt to explore effective instruction in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) setting, this study investigated language errors identified by students and teachers in three different revision stages: self-revision, peer revision, and teacher revision. It gave the focus to the effects of the three different methods on learners' writing…

  11. Formulation and optimization of mucoadhesive bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol using simplex design method

    PubMed Central

    Shirsand, SB; Suresh, Sarasija; Keshavshetti, GG; Swamy, PV; Reddy, P Vijay Prakash

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In the present study, mucoadhesive buccal bilayer tablets of atenolol were fabricated with the objective of avoiding first pass metabolism and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency. Hence, the aim of this work was to design oral controlled release mucoadhesive tablets of atenolol and to optimize the drug release profile and bioadhesion. Materials and Methods: Bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol were prepared by direct compression method using simplex method of optimization to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (X1), Carbopol (X2) and mannitol (X3); the in vitro drug release (Y1) and mucoadhesive strength (Y2) were taken as responses. The designed tablets were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters like drug content uniformity, in vitro drug release, short-term stability, and drug- excipient interactions (FTIR). Results: The formulation C containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose 15 cps (10% w/w of matrix layer), Carbopol 934p (10% w/w of matrix layer) and mannitol (channeling agent, 40% w/w of matrix layer) was found to be promising. This formulation exhibited an in vitro drug release of 89.43% in 9 h along with satisfactory bioadhesion strength (7.20 g). Short-term stability studies on the promising formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro dissolution characteristics (P<0.05). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. PMID:23071958

  12. Lentigo Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... body, including areas that are not exposed to sunlight. Multiple lentigos are associated with several inherited syndromes, ... as identical to those caused by exposure to sunlight. Who's At Risk Lentigo simplex may occur in ...

  13. Invader plus method detects herpes simplex virus in cerebrospinal fluid and simultaneously differentiates types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Allawi, Hatim T; Li, Haijing; Sander, Tamara; Aslanukov, Azamat; Lyamichev, Victor I; Blackman, Amondrea; Elagin, Slava; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2006-09-01

    We report here on the development and validation of a prototype Invader Plus method for the qualitative detection of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The method combines PCR and Invader techniques in a single, closed-tube, continuous-reaction format that gives an analytical sensitivity of approximately 10 copies per reaction. The clinical sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% and 98.6%, respectively, when the results of the method were validated against the results obtained with a PCR colorimetric microtiter plate system by use of clinical CSF specimens. PMID:16954297

  14. Biomechanics and Biotensegrity: Study Method and Frequency Response of the Simplex and 3-bar-SVD Tensegrity Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro Arenas, C.; Ghersi, I.; Miralles, M. T.

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the frequency response of 3D tensegrity structures. These are structures that have been used, since the 80’s, to model biological systems of different scales. This fact led to the origin of the field of biotensegrity, which includes biomechanics as a natural field of application. In this work: a) A simple method for the analysis of frequency response of different nodes in 3D tensegrity structures was set up and tuned. This method is based on a video-analysis algorithm, which was applied to the structures, as they were vibrated along their axis of symmetry, at frequencies from 1 Hz to 60 Hz. b) Frequency-response analyses were performed, for the simplest 3D structure, the Simplex module, as well as for two towers, formed by stacking two and three Simplex modules, respectively. Resonant frequencies were detected for the Simplex module at (19.2±0.1) Hz and (50.2±0.1) Hz (the latter being an average of frequencies between homologous nodes). For the towers with two and three modules, each selected node presented a characteristic frequency response, modulated by their spatial placement in each model. Resonances for the two-stage tower were found at: (12±0.1) Hz; (16.2±0.1) Hz; (29.4±0.1) Hz and (37.2±0.1) Hz. For the tower with three Simplex modules, the main resonant frequencies were found at (12.0±0.1) Hz and (21.0±0.1) Hz. Results show that the proposed method is adequate for the study (2D) of any 3D tensegrity structure, with the potential of being generalized to the study of oscillations in three dimensions. A growing complexity and variability in the frequency response of the nodes was observed, as modules were added to the structures. These findings were compared to those found in the available literature.

  15. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... is an infection that is caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). Oral herpes causes cold sores around the mouth or face. ... affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes infections can affect the eyes, skin, or other parts of the body. The virus can be dangerous in newborn babies or in ...

  16. Nelder-Mead simplex method for modeling of cascaded continuous-wave multiple-Stokes Raman fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Chun Ho; Tang, Ming; Shum, Perry Ping; Wu, Rui Fen

    2010-09-01

    We propose and demonstrate an effective and computationally compact Nelder-Mead simplex method for the design and modeling of cw cascaded Raman fiber lasers. The Nelder-Mead method is efficient for finding a local minimum of a function of several variables. We employ this classical powerful local descent algorithm to solve the multidimensional problem for the modeling of n'th-order cascaded Raman fiber lasers. With our proposed method, we investigate a linear cascaded Raman fiber laser with a pump wavelength of 1064 nm. The convergence of the proposed method solving the rate equations with boundary conditions is easily and correctly achieved. Our simulation results verify that the proposed method has good computational speed without losing simulation accuracy.

  17. Efficient gradient-free simplex method for estimation of optical properties in image-guided diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Ravi Prasad K; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2013-03-01

    Typical image-guided diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction procedures involve reduction of the number of optical parameters to be reconstructed equal to the number of distinct regions identified in the structural information provided by the traditional imaging modality. This makes the image reconstruction problem less ill-posed compared to traditional underdetermined cases. Still, the methods that are deployed in this case are same as those used for traditional diffuse optical image reconstruction, which involves a regularization term as well as computation of the Jacobian. A gradient-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed here to perform the image reconstruction procedure and is shown to provide solutions that closely match ones obtained using established methods, even in highly noisy data. The proposed method also has the distinct advantage of being more efficient owing to being regularization free, involving only repeated forward calculations. PMID:23515862

  18. Efficient gradient-free simplex method for estimation of optical properties in image-guided diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannath, Ravi Prasad K.; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Typical image-guided diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction procedures involve reduction of the number of optical parameters to be reconstructed equal to the number of distinct regions identified in the structural information provided by the traditional imaging modality. This makes the image reconstruction problem less ill-posed compared to traditional underdetermined cases. Still, the methods that are deployed in this case are same as those used for traditional diffuse optical image reconstruction, which involves a regularization term as well as computation of the Jacobian. A gradient-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is proposed here to perform the image reconstruction procedure and is shown to provide solutions that closely match ones obtained using established methods, even in highly noisy data. The proposed method also has the distinct advantage of being more efficient owing to being regularization free, involving only repeated forward calculations.

  19. A Revised Simplex Method for Test Construction Problems. Research Report 90-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adema, Jos J.

    Linear programming models with 0-1 variables are useful for the construction of tests from an item bank. Most solution strategies for these models start with solving the relaxed 0-1 linear programming model, allowing the 0-1 variables to take on values between 0 and 1. Then, a 0-1 solution is found by just rounding, optimal rounding, or a…

  20. 77 FR 1129 - Revisions to Test Methods and Testing Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... published as a final rule on October 17, 2000 (65 FR 61744). Many of these needed revisions were brought to... determining hydrochloric acid (HCl) concentration. Method 26 is the non-isokinetic version of Method 26A and... not a ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR...

  1. A Revised Class Play Method of Peer Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Ann S.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Revised Class Play (RCP) was presented as a measure of peer reputation designed to improve the assessment of social competence as well as the psychometric properties of class play method. Administered to third through sixth graders three test dimensions were revealed: sociability-leadership, aggressive-disruptive, and sensitive-isolated. Data…

  2. Revising Geology Labs To Explicitly Use the Scientific Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Kimberly A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes that content- or skill-based labs can be revised to explicitly involve the scientific method by asking students to propose hypotheses before making observations. Students' self-assessment showed they felt that they learned a great deal from this style of labs and found the labs to be fun; however, students felt that they learned little…

  3. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter.

  4. Improving amino-acid identification, fit and C(alpha) prediction using the Simplex method in automated model building.

    PubMed

    Romo, Tod D; Sacchettini, James C; Ioerger, Thomas R

    2006-11-01

    Automated methods for protein model building in X-ray crystallography typically use a two-phased approach that involves first modeling the protein backbone followed by building in the side chains. The latter phase requires the identification of the amino-acid side-chain type as well as fitting of the side-chain model into the observed electron density. While mistakes in identification of individual side chains are common for a number of reasons, sequence alignment can sometimes be used to correct errors by mapping fragments into the true (expected) amino-acid sequence and exploiting contiguity constraints among neighbors. However, side chains cannot always be confidently aligned; this depends on having sufficient accuracy in the initial calls. The recognition of amino-acid side-chains based on the surrounding pattern of electron density, whether by features, density correlation or free atoms, can be sensitive to inaccuracies in the coordinates of the predicted backbone C(alpha) atoms to which they are anchored. By incorporating a Nelder-Mead Simplex search into the side-chain identification and model-building routines of TEXTAL, it is demonstrated that this form of residue-by-residue rigid-body real-space refinement (in which the C(alpha) itself is allowed to shift) can improve the initial accuracy of side-chain selection by over 25% on average (from 25% average identity to 32% on a test set of five representative proteins, without corrections by sequence alignment). This improvement in amino-acid selection accuracy in TEXTAL is often sufficient to bring the pairwise amino-acid identity of chains in the model out of the so-called ;twilight zone' for sequence-alignment methods. When coupled with sequence alignment, use of the Simplex search yielded improvements in side-chain accuracy on average by over 13 percentage points (from 64 to 77%) and up to 38 percentage points (from 40 to 78%) in one case compared with using sequence alignment alone. PMID:17057345

  5. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/article/003352.htm Serum herpes simplex antibodies To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Serum herpes simplex antibodies is a blood test that looks for antibodies ...

  6. Lichen simplex chronicus

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin condition caused by chronic itching and scratching. ... You can control lichen simplex chronicus by controlling scratching and reducing stress. The condition may return or move to different areas on the ...

  7. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  8. Relative roles of cement molecular weight and mixing method on the fatigue performance of acrylic bone cement: Simplex P versus Osteopal.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G

    2000-01-01

    The weight-average molecular weight (MW(w)) of a cement and the method used to mix its powder and liquid monomer constituents have been identified in the literature as key variables that affect mechanical properties of the fully polymerized cement that are relevant to its performance as a grouting agent in cemented arthroplasties. The goal of the present work was to identify which of these two variables exerts the greater effect in the case of fully reversed tension-compression fatigue performance. A judicious choice of cement brands, Surgical Simplex P and Osteopal, and the use of hand versus vacuum mixing, permitted this identification to be achieved. Three key observations were made in this work. First, for a given cement, the fatigue performance of vacuum-mixed specimens is far superior to that of hand-mixed ones, which may be a consequence of the substantially lower percentage areal porosity of the former specimens. Second, regardless of the mixing method, the fatigue performance of Osteopal outstrips that of Simplex P, a result that is attributed to the much higher MW(w) of the former cement. Third, hand-mixed Osteopal outperforms vacuum-mixed Simplex P (especially at low alternating stress levels), indicating that MW(w) of a bone cement is more influential than mixing method on its fatigue performance. PMID:10634961

  9. Optimization of preparation method for ketoprofen-loaded microspheres consisting polymeric blends using simplex lattice mixture design.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy Kumar; Khanam, Jasmina; Nanda, Arunabha

    2016-12-01

    In the present investigation, simplex lattice mixture design was applied for formulation development and optimization of a controlled release dosage form of ketoprofen microspheres consisting polymers like ethylcellulose and Eudragit(®)RL 100; when those were formed by oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. The investigation was carried out to observe the effects of polymer amount, stirring speed and emulsifier concentration (% w/w) on percentage yield, average particle size, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release in 8h from the microspheres. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to estimate the significance of the models. Based on the desirability function approach numerical optimization was carried out. Optimized formulation (KTF-O) showed close match between actual and predicted responses with desirability factor 0.811. No adverse reaction between drug and polymers were observed on the basis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to show discreteness of microspheres (149.2±1.25μm) and their surface conditions during pre and post dissolution operations. The drug release pattern from KTF-O was best explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas and Higuchi models. The batch of optimized microspheres were found with maximum entrapment (~90%), minimum loss (~10%) and prolonged drug release for 8h (91.25%) which may be considered as favourable criteria of controlled release dosage form. PMID:27612752

  10. Establishment and in-house validation of simplex and duplex PCR methods for event-specific detection of maize SYN-E3272-5 using a new reference molecule.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kailin; Li, Xiang; Wang, Shu; Pan, Yingjie; Shi, Zhiyi; Sun, Yongning; Yang, Litao

    2010-01-01

    Despite rapid developments in the detection techniques for genetically modified organisms (GMOs), the event-specific PCR method with high specificity is still the most used technique. In this study, event-specific simplex and duplex qualitative and quantitative detection systems were developed targeting the 3' insertion site of GM maize SYN-E3272-5 (3272) construct. A reference molecule p3272 was constructed to act as positive control and as calibrator for quantitative analysis. The LOD for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR assays was 10 copies of p3272 control DNA. LOD and the LOQ for simplex and duplex quantitative PCR assays were 10 and 25 copies of p3272 DNA, respectively. Furthermore, four practical GM maize samples were quantified using the established simplex and duplex quantitative PCR systems by in-house validation. Results from five operators showed that the bias ranged from 3.44 to 17.24% in the simplex system and from 0.42 to 16.06% in the duplex system, respectively. These results demonstrated that the established event-specific simplex and duplex qualitative and quantitative PCR systems combined with the reference molecule p3272 are suitable for the detection of GM maize 3272 and its derived products. PMID:20480914

  11. Novel Method Based on Real-Time Cell Analysis for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Herpes Simplex Virus and Human Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Piret, Jocelyne; Goyette, Nathalie; Boivin, Guy

    2016-08-01

    The plaque reduction assay (PRA) is the gold standard phenotypic method to determine herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) susceptibilities to antiviral drugs. However, this assay is subjective and labor intensive. Here, we describe a novel antiviral phenotypic method based on real-time cell analysis (RTCA) that measures electronic impedance over time. The effective drug concentrations that reduced by 50% (EC50s) the cytopathic effects induced by HSV-1 and HCMV were evaluated by both methods. The EC50s of acyclovir and foscarnet against a reference wild-type (WT) HSV-1 strain in Vero cells were, respectively, 0.5 μM and 32.6 μM by PRA and 0.8 μM and 93.6 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir against several HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) mutants were 101.8×, 73.4×, 28.8×, and 35.4× (PRA) and 18.0×, 52.0×, 5.5×, and 87.8× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios for acyclovir and foscarnet against the HSV-1 TK/DNA polymerase mutant were 182.8× and 9.7× (PRA) and >125.0× and 10.8× (RTCA) compared to the WT. The EC50s of ganciclovir and foscarnet against WT HCMV strain AD169 in fibroblasts were, respectively, 1.6 μM and 27.8 μM by PRA and 5.0 μM and 111.4 μM by RTCA. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir against the HCMV UL97 mutant were 3.8× (PRA) and 8.2× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. The EC50 ratios of ganciclovir and foscarnet against the HCMV UL97/DNA polymerase mutant were 17.1× and 12.1× (PRA) and 14.7× and 4.6× (RTCA) compared to those for the WT. RTCA allows objective drug susceptibility testing of HSV and HCMV and could permit high-throughput screening of new antivirals. PMID:27252463

  12. Transuranic waste characterization sampling and analysis methods manual. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Suermann, J.F.

    1996-04-01

    This Methods Manual provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic (TRU) Waste Characterization Program (the Program) and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. This Methods Manual includes all of the testing, sampling, and analytical methodologies accepted by DOE for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP and the WIPP Waste Analysis Plan. The procedures in this Methods Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site-specific procedures. With some analytical methods, such as Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry, the Methods Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive characterization, the Methods Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure. Sites must meet all of the specified quality control requirements of the applicable procedure. Each DOE site must document the details of the procedures it will use and demonstrate the efficacy of such procedures to the Manager, National TRU Program Waste Characterization, during Waste Characterization and Certification audits.

  13. The Revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Methods used to Establish and Validate Revised Axis I Diagnostic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Schiffman, Eric L.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Feng, Tai; Anderson, Gary C.; Pan, Wei; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; John, Mike T.; Sommers, Earl; List, Thomas; Velly, Ana M.; Kang, Wenjun; Look, John O.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS To derive reliable and valid revised Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Axis I diagnostic algorithms for clinical TMD diagnoses. METHODS The multi-site RDC/TMD Validation Project’s dataset (614 TMD community and clinic cases, and 91 controls) was used to derive revised algorithms for Axis I TMD diagnoses. Validity of diagnostic algorithms was assessed relative to reference standards, the latter based on consensus diagnoses rendered by 2 TMD experts using criterion examination data, including temporomandibular joint imaging. Cut-offs for target validity were sensitivity ≥ 0.70 and specificity ≥ 0.95. Reliability of revised algorithms was assessed in 27 study participants. RESULTS Revised algorithm sensitivity and specificity exceeded the target levels for myofascial pain (0.82, 0.99, respectively) and myofascial pain with limited opening (0.93, 0.97). Combining diagnoses for any myofascial pain showed sensitivity of 0.91 and specificity of 1.00. For joint pain, target sensitivity and specificity were observed (0.92, 0.96) when arthralgia and osteoarthritis were combined as “any joint pain.” Disc displacement without reduction with limited opening demonstrated target sensitivity and specificity (0.80, 0.97). For the other Group II disc displacements and Group III osteoarthritis and osteoarthrosis, sensitivity was below target (0.35 to 0.53), and specificity ranged from 0.80 to meeting target. Kappa for revised algorithm diagnostic reliability was ≥ 0.63. CONCLUSION Revised RDC/TMD Axis I TMD diagnostic algorithms are recommended for myofascial pain and joint pain as reliable and valid. However, revised clinical criteria alone, without recourse to imaging, are inadequate for valid diagnosis of two of the three disc displacements and osteoarthritis/osteoarthrosis. PMID:20213032

  14. 78 FR 19605 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request... published a direct final rule, Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method... petroleum and natural gas systems source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule are required...

  15. A hybrid multi-loop genetic-algorithm/simplex/spatial-grid method for locating the optimum orientation of an adsorbed protein on a solid surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tao; Mu, Shengjing; Nakano, Aiichiro; Shing, Katherine

    2009-05-01

    Atomistic simulation of protein adsorption on a solid surface in aqueous environment is computationally demanding, therefore the determination of preferred protein orientations on the solid surface usually serves as an initial step in simulation studies. We have developed a hybrid multi-loop genetic-algorithm/simplex/spatial-grid method to search for low adsorption-energy orientations of a protein molecule on a solid surface. In this method, the surface and the protein molecule are treated as rigid bodies, whereas the bulk fluid is represented by spatial grids. For each grid point, an effective interaction region in the surface is defined by a cutoff distance, and the possible interaction energy between an atom at the grid point and the surface is calculated and recorded in a database. In searching for the optimum position and orientation, the protein molecule is translated and rotated as a rigid body with the configuration obtained from a previous Molecular Dynamic simulation. The orientation-dependent protein-surface interaction energy is obtained using the generated database of grid energies. The hybrid search procedure consists of two interlinked loops. In the first loop A, a genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to identify promising regions for the global energy minimum and a local optimizer with the derivative-free Nelder-Mead simplex method is used to search for the lowest-energy orientation within the identified regions. In the second loop B, a new population for GA is generated and competitive solution from loop A is improved. Switching between the two loops is adaptively controlled by the use of similarity analysis. We test the method for lysozyme adsorption on a hydrophobic hydrogen-terminated silicon (110) surface in implicit water (i.e., a continuum distance-dependent dielectric constant). The results show that the hybrid search method has faster convergence and better solution accuracy compared with the conventional genetic algorithm.

  16. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... when it detects harmful substances such as the herpes virus. This test does not detect the virus itself. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2014:chap 308. Whitley RJ. Herpes simplex virus infections In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...

  17. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  18. Fast gene transfer into the adult zebrafish brain by herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and electroporation: methods and optogenetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; De Koninck, Paul; Neve, Rachael L.; Friedrich, Rainer W.

    2014-01-01

    The zebrafish has various advantages as a model organism to analyze the structure and function of neural circuits but efficient viruses or other tools for fast gene transfer are lacking. We show that transgenes can be introduced directly into the adult zebrafish brain by herpes simplex type I viruses (HSV-1) or electroporation. We developed a new procedure to target electroporation to defined brain areas and identified promoters that produced strong long-term expression. The fast workflow of electroporation was exploited to express multiple channelrhodopsin-2 variants and genetically encoded calcium indicators in telencephalic neurons for measurements of neuronal activity and synaptic connectivity. The results demonstrate that HSV-1 and targeted electroporation are efficient tools for gene delivery into the zebrafish brain, similar to adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses in other species. These methods fill an important gap in the spectrum of molecular tools for zebrafish and are likely to have a wide range of applications. PMID:24834028

  19. Solution of the Falkner-Skan wedge flow by a revised optimal homotopy asymptotic method.

    PubMed

    Madaki, A G; Abdulhameed, M; Ali, M; Roslan, R

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a revised optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) is applied to derive an explicit analytical solution of the Falkner-Skan wedge flow problem. The comparisons between the present study with the numerical solutions using (fourth order Runge-Kutta) scheme and with analytical solution using HPM-Padé of order [4/4] and order [13/13] show that the revised form of OHAM is an extremely effective analytical technique. PMID:27186477

  20. Nongenital herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Usatine, Richard P; Tinitigan, Rochelle

    2010-11-01

    Nongenital herpes simplex virus type 1 is a common infection usually transmitted during childhood via nonsexual contact. Most of these infections involve the oral mucosa or lips (herpes labialis). The diagnosis of an infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 is usually made by the appearance of the lesions (grouped vesicles or ulcers on an erythematous base) and patient history. However, if uncertain, the diagnosis of herpes labialis can be made by viral culture, polymerase chain reaction, serology, direct fluorescent antibody testing, or Tzanck test. Other nonoral herpes simplex virus type 1 infections include herpetic keratitis, herpetic whitlow, herpes gladiatorum, and herpetic sycosis of the beard area. The differential diagnosis of nongenital herpes simplex virus infection includes aphthous ulcers, acute paronychia, varicella-zoster virus infection, herpangina, herpes gestationis (pemphigoid gestationis), pemphigus vulgaris, and Behçet syndrome. Oral acyclovir suspension is an effective treatment for children with primary herpetic gingivostomatitis. Oral acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir are effective in treating acute recurrence of herpes labialis (cold sores). Recurrences of herpes labialis may be diminished with daily oral acyclovir or valacyclovir. Topical acyclovir, penciclovir, and docosanol are optional treatments for recurrent herpes labialis, but they are less effective than oral treatment. PMID:21121552

  1. Oregon Custodial Training Program. Housekeeping Methods and Materials. (Revised 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Designed as an instructional aid in teaching about custodian housekeeping methods and materials, this booklet contains information on the school custodian's responsibilities and methods for maintaining the building inside and outside, including the cleaning and sanitation of classrooms, restrooms, showerrooms, lunchrooms, corridors, and special…

  2. 78 FR 25392 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program CO... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available monitoring methods to...

  3. Neonatal herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Berardi, Alberto; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cecilia; Maria, Chiara Laguardia; Guidotti, Isotta; Gallo, Claudio; Ferrari, Fabrizio

    2011-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus is an important cause of neonatal infection, which can lead to death or long-term disabilities. Rarely in utero, the transmission frequently occurs during delivery. The disease may be disseminated, localized to the central nervous system, or involving skin, eye and/or mouth. Mortality rates markedly decreased with high-dose antiviral treatment. Diagnosis of neonatal infection is based on viral isolation from ulcerated vesicles or by scarifying mucocutaneous lesions. Recently polymerase chain reaction plays a central role for both viral detection (skin, mucosal, cerebrospinal fluid samples) and response to therapy. Vertical transmission may be decreased by prophylactic antiviral treatment. PMID:21942600

  4. Analytical chemistry methods for metallic core components: Revision March 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This standard provides analytical chemistry methods for the analysis of alloys used to fabricate core components. These alloys are 302, 308, 316, 316-Ti, and 321 stainless steels and 600 and 718 Inconels and they may include other 300-series stainless steels.

  5. The Revised OB-1 Method for Metal-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Wright, Richard Q

    2010-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass (mcm) of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a 2008 Nuclear Science and Engineering (NS&E) article. The purpose of the present work is to update and expand the application of this method with current nuclear data, including data uncertainties. The mcm and the hypothetical fissile metal density ({rho}{sub F}) in grams of metal/liter are obtained by a fit to values predicted with transport calculations. The input parameters required are thermal values for fission and absorption cross sections and nubar. A factor of ({radical}{pi})/2 is used to convert to Maxwellian averaged values. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the mcm, either in percent or grams.

  6. Simplex turbopump design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Matt; Cowan, Penny

    1994-01-01

    Turbomachinery used in liquid rocket engines typically are composed of complex geometries made from high strength-to-weight super alloys and have long design and fabrication cycle times (3 to 5 years). A simple, low-cost turbopump is being designed in-house to demonstrate the ability to reduce the overall cost to $500K and compress life cycle time to 18 months. The simplex turbopump was designed to provide a discharge pressure of 1500 psia of liquid oxygen at 90 lbm/s. The turbine will be powered by gaseous oxygen. This eliminates the need for an inter-propellant seal typically required to separate the fuel-rich turbine gases from the liquid oxygen pump components. Materials used in the turbine flow paths will utilize existing characterized metals at 800 deg R that are compatible with a warm oxygen environment. This turbopump design would be suitable for integration with a 40 K pound thrust hybrid motor that provides warm oxygen from a tapped-off location to power the turbine. The preliminary and detailed analysis was completed in a year by a multiple discipline, concurrent engineering team. Manpower, schedule, and cost data were tracked during the process for a comparison to the initial goal. The Simplex hardware is the procurement cycle with the expectation of the first test to occur approximately 1.5 months behind the original schedule goal.

  7. Reputation Revision Method for Selecting Cloud Services Based on Prior Knowledge and a Market Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingtao; Zhang, Xulong; Zhang, Mingchuan; Lou, Ying; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wei, Wangyang

    2014-01-01

    The trust levels of cloud services should be evaluated to ensure their reliability. The effectiveness of these evaluations has major effects on user satisfaction, which is increasingly important. However, it is difficult to provide objective evaluations in open and dynamic environments because of the possibilities of malicious evaluations, individual preferences, and intentional praise. In this study, we propose a novel unfair rating filtering method for a reputation revision system. This method uses prior knowledge as the basis of similarity when calculating the average rating, which facilitates the recognition and filtering of unfair ratings. In addition, the overall performance is increased by a market mechanism that allows users and service providers to adjust their choice of services and service configuration in a timely manner. The experimental results showed that this method filtered unfair ratings in an effective manner, which greatly improved the precision of the reputation revision system. PMID:24696650

  8. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... AGENCY Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural... document extends the public comment period established in the Federal Register of December 9, 2009 (74 FR... Register of December 9, 2009, making available for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised...

  9. [Neonatal herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    van Ham-Borawitz, V E J; Stam, E D; Welborn, K M; Sas, T C J

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a familiar disease with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Isolated skin-eye-mouth infection is less familiar among professionals. In this article we present two neonates with an isolated skin lesion caused by an HSV infection. Of the neonates infected with HSV, 40-45% show isolated skin-eye-mouth disease. With correct treatment, the risk of spread to the central nervous system will decrease from 50-60% to 5-10%. Typical HSV skin lesions may present at a late stage of the disease or may be masked by a secondary bacterial infection. When a neonate presents with atypical skin lesions starting 7-12 days after the birth, immediate testing for HSV and immediate treatment are required, to decrease the risk of further progression of the disease. PMID:27122069

  10. Herpes Simplex Virus (Cold Sores)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the skin, eyes, and mouth. This is a life-threatening infection that can lead to permanent brain damage or even death. Herpes simplex viruses also cause encephalitis, an infection of the brain. ...

  11. Herpes simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Stephen; Choudhary, Anshoo

    2006-07-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) results from an infection with the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) also known as human herpesvirus type 1 (HHV-1). Primary infection may involve an ocular or non-ocular site, following which latency might be established principally in the trigeminal ganglion but also in the cornea. During latency, the virus appears as a circular episome associated with histones with active transcription only from the region encoding the latency-associated transcript (LAT). The LAT region is implicated in neuronal survival, anti-apoptosis, virulence, suppression of transcription, establishment of and reactivation from latency. The initial keratitis may develop after infection through the "front door route" (entry into the ocular surface from droplet spread) or "back door route" (spread to the eye from a non-ocular site, principally the mouth). The initial ocular infection may be mild. Visual morbidity results from recurrent keratitis, which leads to corneal scarring, thinning and neovascularisation. Although, recurrent disease may potentially occur through anterograde axonal spread from the trigeminal ganglion to the cornea, recent evidence suggests that HSV-1 in the cornea may be another source of recurrent disease. The pathogenesis and severity of HSK is largely determined by an interaction between viral genes encoded by the strain of HSV-1 and the make up of the host's immune system. Herpetic stromal disease is due to the immune response to virus within the cornea and the ability of the strain to cause corneal stromal disease is correlated with its ability to induce corneal vascularisation. The pathogenesis of corneal scarring and vascularisation is uncertain but appears to be a complex interaction of various cytokines, chemokines and growth factors either brought in by inflammatory cells or produced locally in response to HSV-1 infection. Evidence now suggests that HSV-1 infection disrupts the normal equilibrium between angiogenic and anti

  12. Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Lichen simplex chronicus on the ankle: Lichen simplex chronicus is also known as neurodermatitis. A minor itch may encourage scratching which increases the irritation, leading to more scratching. This ...

  13. Anisakis simplex: current knowledge.

    PubMed

    Pravettoni, V; Primavesi, L; Piantanida, M

    2012-08-01

    Anisakiasis, firstly described in 1960s in the Netherlands, is a fish-borne parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods contaminated by third stage (13) larvae of the Anisakidae family, in particular Anisakis simplex (As), A. pegreffii and Pseudoterranova decipiens. Every year, approximately 20,000 cases of anisakiasis were reported worldwide, over 90% are from Japan and most others in Spain, the Netherlands and Germany, depending on the habits of fish consuming. Live As larvae can elicit i) a parasitic infection of the digestive tract or, occasionally, other organs, causing erosive and/or haemorrhagic lesions, ascites, perforations until granulomas and masses, if larva is not removed, and ii) allergic reactions, as anaphylaxis, acute/chronic urticaria and angioedema. Like other parasite infestations, As larva induces an immune adaptive response characterised by T-lymphocyte proliferation with polyclonal and monoclonal (responsible for As allergic symptoms) IgE production, eosinophilia and mastocytosis. Several As allergens, many of which thermostable, were described In particular the major allergen Ani s 1 and Ani s 7 could characterized a past or a recent infection. There is a general agreement that an active infection is required to initiate allergic sensitivity to Anisakis. Until now, the only effective treatment for anisakiasis is the endoscopic removal of live larvae and the best protection against anisakiasis is to educate consumers about the dangers of eating raw fish and to recommend avoiding the consumption of raw or inadequately thermally treated marine fish or cephalopods. PMID:23092000

  14. A revised terrain correction method for forest canopy height estimation using ICESat/GLAS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Sheng; Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Hongcheng; Xi, Xiaohuan; Xia, Shaobo

    2015-10-01

    Although spaceborne Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) can measure forest canopy height directly, the measurement accuracy is often affected by footprint size, shape and orientation, and terrain slope. Previous terrain correction methods only took into account the effect of terrain slope and footprint size when estimating forest canopy height. In this study, an improved terrain correction method was proposed to remove the effect of all aforementioned factors when estimating canopy height over sloped terrains. The revised method was found significantly better than the traditional ones according to the canopy height tested using small footprint LiDAR data in China. It reduced the RMSE of the canopy height estimates by up to 1.2 m. The effect of slope on canopy height estimation is almost eliminated by the proposed method since the slope had little correlation with the canopy heights estimated by revised method. When the footprint eccentricity is small, the canopy height error due to the footprint shape and orientation is small. However, when the footprint eccentricity is large enough, the height estimation error due to footprint shape and orientation is large. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the influence of footprint shape and orientation on forest canopy estimation.

  15. Validity of the coding for herpes simplex encephalitis in the Danish National Patient Registry

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Laura Krogh; Dalgaard, Lars Skov; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Andersen, Nanna Skaarup; Nørgaard, Mette; Mogensen, Trine Hyrup

    2016-01-01

    Background Large health care databases are a valuable source of infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are valid. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of the recorded diagnosis coding of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) in the Danish National Patient Registry (DNPR). Methods The DNPR was used to identify all hospitalized patients, aged ≥15 years, with a first-time diagnosis of HSE according to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision (ICD-10), from 2004 to 2014. To validate the coding of HSE, we collected data from the Danish Microbiology Database, from departments of clinical microbiology, and from patient medical records. Cases were classified as confirmed, probable, or no evidence of HSE. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of the HSE diagnosis coding stratified by diagnosis type, study period, and department type. Furthermore, we estimated the proportion of HSE cases coded with nonspecific ICD-10 codes of viral encephalitis and also the sensitivity of the HSE diagnosis coding. Results We were able to validate 398 (94.3%) of the 422 HSE diagnoses identified via the DNPR. Hereof, 202 (50.8%) were classified as confirmed cases and 29 (7.3%) as probable cases providing an overall PPV of 58.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53.0–62.9). For “Encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4), the PPV was 56.6% (95% CI: 51.1–62.0). Similarly, the PPV for “Meningoencephalitis due to herpes simplex virus” (ICD-10 code B00.4A) was 56.8% (95% CI: 39.5–72.9). “Herpes viral encephalitis” (ICD-10 code G05.1E) had a PPV of 75.9% (95% CI: 56.5–89.7), thereby representing the highest PPV. The estimated sensitivity was 95.5%. Conclusion The PPVs of the ICD-10 diagnosis coding for adult HSE in the DNPR were relatively low. Hence, the DNPR should be used with caution when studying patients with encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus. PMID:27330328

  16. Revised Methods for Characterizing Stream Habitat in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Waite, Ian R.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.; Meador, Michael R.; Maupin, Molly A.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1998-01-01

    Stream habitat is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The goal of stream habitat characterization is to relate habitat to other physical, chemical, and biological factors that describe water-quality conditions. To accomplish this goal, environmental settings are described at sites selected for water-quality assessment. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in habitat are examined at local, regional, and national scales. This habitat protocol contains updated methods for evaluating habitat in NAWQA Study Units. Revisions are based on lessons learned after 6 years of applying the original NAWQA habitat protocol to NAWQA Study Unit ecological surveys. Similar to the original protocol, these revised methods for evaluating stream habitat are based on a spatially hierarchical framework that incorporates habitat data at basin, segment, reach, and microhabitat scales. This framework provides a basis for national consistency in collection techniques while allowing flexibility in habitat assessment within individual Study Units. Procedures are described for collecting habitat data at basin and segment scales; these procedures include use of geographic information system data bases, topographic maps, and aerial photographs. Data collected at the reach scale include channel, bank, and riparian characteristics.

  17. Evaluation of Students’ Perceptions Towards An Innovative Teaching-Learning Method During Pharmacology Revision Classes: Autobiography of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Ganjiwale, Jaishree

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Various studies in medical education have shown that active learning strategies should be incorporated into the teaching–learning process to make learning more effective, efficient and meaningful. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate student’s perceptions on an innovative revision method conducted in Pharmacology i.e. in form of Autobiography of Drugs. The main objective of study was to help students revise the core topics in Pharmacology in an interesting way. Settings and Design Questionnaire based survey on a newer method of pharmacology revision in two batches of second year MBBS students of a tertiary care teaching medical college. Materials and Methods Various sessions on Autobiography of Drugs were conducted amongst two batches of second year MBBS students, during their Pharmacology revision classes. Student’s perceptions were documented with the help of a five point likert scale through a questionnaire regarding quality, content and usefulness of this method. Statistical analysis used Descriptive analysis. Results Students of both the batches appreciated the innovative method taken up for revision. The median scores in most of the domains in both batches were four out of five, indicative of good response. Feedback from open-ended questions also revealed that the innovative module on “Autobiography of Drugs” was taken as a positive learning experience by students. Conclusions Autobiography of drugs has been used to help students recall topics that they have learnt through other teachings methods. Autobiography sessions in Pharmacology during revision slots, can be one of the interesting ways in helping students revise and recall topics which have already been taught in theory classes. PMID:26393138

  18. Novel computer-assisted method for revision arthroplasty of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Hoffart, Hanns-Edgar; Dinges, Harald; Kolbeck, Stefan; Ritschl, Peter; Hommel, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To introduce the navigation system of software and instruments designed specifically for revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS: We present an imageless navigation system for revision TKA, with optical point and tracker identification to assess kinematic and anatomical landmarks. The system automatically positions the cutting guides with a motorized cutting unit. The cutting unit is placed on the distal femur with a femoral clamp and acts as a rigid body and the base for all femoral cuts. The surgical technique for using the navigation system for revision TKA is based on the technique used in primary TKA. However, there are some important differences. The most notable are: (1) differences in estimation of the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and the mechanical axes; (2) the specific possibilities the revision navigation software offers in terms of optimal joint level positioning; and (3) the suggested “best fit” position, in which the clock position, stem position and offset, femoral component size, and mediolateral position of the femoral component are taken into account to find the optimal femoral component position. We assessed the surgical technique, and accompanying software procedural steps, of the system, identifying any advantages or disadvantages that they present. RESULTS: The system aims to visualize critical steps of the procedure and is intended as a tool to support the surgeon in surgical decision-making. Combining a computer-assisted cutting device with navigation makes it possible to carry out precise cuts without pinning. Furthermore, the femoral clamp provides a stable fixation mechanism for the motorized cutting unit. A stable clamp is paramount in the presence of periarticular bony defects. The system allows the position of the primary implant relative to the bone and mechanical axes to be estimated, at which point any malalignments can be corrected. It also offers an optimal joint level position for

  19. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  20. Predicting a Longitudinal Guttman Simplex of Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Kimberly A.; And Others

    The longitudinal Guttman simplex (LGS), a method of modeling stage sequences or levels over time, allows for individual differences in sequence progression or development. The LGS is particularly appropriate in modeling tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use stages with adolescent subjects where relationships among drugs and degree of involvement may…

  1. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) in Infants and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide for infants and babies ... Herpes infections are caused by both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus ...

  2. Revision of FMM-Yukawa: An adaptive fast multipole method for screened Coulomb interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Huang, Jingfang; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Sun, Xiaobai

    2010-12-01

    FMM-YUKAWA is a mathematical software package primarily for rapid evaluation of the screened Coulomb interactions of N particles in three dimensional space. Since its release, we have revised and re-organized the data structure, software architecture, and user interface, for the purpose of enabling more flexible, broader and easier use of the package. The package and its documentation are available at http://www.fastmultipole.org/, along with a few other closely related mathematical software packages. New version program summaryProgram title: FMM-Yukawa Catalogue identifier: AEEQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 2.0 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 78 704 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 854 265 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 90, and C. Requires gcc and gfortran version 4.4.3 or later Computer: All Operating system: Any Classification: 4.8, 4.12 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 2331 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: To evaluate the screened Coulomb potential and force field of N charged particles, and to evaluate a convolution type integral where the Green's function is the fundamental solution of the modified Helmholtz equation. Solution method: The new version of fast multipole method (FMM) that diagonalizes the multipole-to-local translation operator is applied with the tree structure adaptive to sample particle locations. Reasons for new version: To handle much larger particle ensembles, to enable the iterative use of the subroutines in a solver, and to remove potential contention in assignments for parallelization. Summary of revisions: The software package FMM-Yukawa has been

  3. Advancing Paternal Age and Simplex Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puleo, Connor Morrow; Schmeidler, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Kolevzon, Alexander; Soorya, Latha V.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    De novo events appear more common in female and simplex autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases and may underlie greater ASD risk in older fathers' offspring. This study examined whether advancing paternal age predicts an increase in simplex (n = 90) versus multiplex ASD cases (n = 587) in 677 participants (340 families). Whether or not controlling…

  4. A revised method of examining fish for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, Shokoofeh; Suthar, Jaydipbhai

    2016-06-16

    The infection of fish with zoonotic nematodes, particularly anisakid nematodes is of great interest to many researchers who study food safety, human or animal health or who use them as biological tags for stock assessment studies. Accurate examination of fish for infection with anisakid larvae is crucial in making accurate estimates of their occurrence, abundance and prevalence in their fish hosts. Here we describe a new method of examining fish for infection with these parasites. In 2015, a total of 261 fish were purchased from a fish market in New South Wales, Australia. All fish were first examined by routine visual examination for infection with zoonotic nematode larvae and all data were recorded. Subsequently all internal organs were placed in a container and filled with water and incubated in the room temperature overnight. The prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of anisakids were significantly higher (p<0.05) when the revised method of examination, i.e., combining visual examination and overnight incubation in room temperature, was employed (63.98, 8.23 and 5.27, respectively) compared to routine visual examination with or without the aid of a microscope (8.81, 3.78 and 0.33, respectively). The proposed method is effective and has several advantages, such as: not using UV or HCl for fish examination, allowing the examination of a larger number of fish in shorter time; larval specimens collected being suitable for both morphological and DNA sequencing; and being simple and inexpensive. The disadvantages would be the odour of the specimens after overnight incubation as well as not being suitable for use with frozen fish. We suggest that results, conclusions or recommendations made in studies that claim no anisakid/ascaridoid larvae were found in a fish should be approached carefully if it is only based on visual examination of the fish. PMID:27043384

  5. Coxeter decompositions of hyperbolic simplexes

    SciTech Connect

    Felikson, A A

    2002-12-31

    A Coxeter decomposition of a polyhedron in a hyperbolic space H{sup n} is a decomposition of it into finitely many Coxeter polyhedra such that any two tiles having a common facet are symmetric with respect to it. The classification of Coxeter decompositions is closely related to the problem of the classification of finite-index subgroups generated by reflections in discrete hyperbolic groups generated by reflections. All Coxeter decompositions of simplexes in the hyperbolic spaces H{sup n} with n>3 are described in this paper.

  6. Revising the spectral method as applied to the mantle dynamics modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrunin, A. G.; Kaban, M. K.; Rogozhina, I.; Trubytsyn, V. P.

    2012-04-01

    The spectral method is widely used for modeling instantaneous flow and stress field distribution in a spherical shell. This method provides a high accuracy semi-analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes and Poisson equations when the viscosity is only depth- (radial-) dependent. However, the distribution of viscosity in the real Earth is essentially three-dimensional. In this case, non-linear coupling of different spherical harmonic modes does not allow obtaining a straightforward semi-analytical solution. In this study, we present a numerical approach, built on substantially revised method originally proposed by Zhang and Christensen (1993) for solving the Navier-Stokes equation in a spectral domain in case if lateral variations of viscosity (LVV) are present. We demonstrate a number of numerical algorithms allowing to efficiently calculate instantaneous Stokes flow in a sphere taking into account the effects of LVV, self-gravitation and compressibility. In particular, the Newton-Raphson procedure applied to the shooting method shows the ability to solve the boundary value problem, necessary for cross-linking solutions on spheres. In contrast to the traditionally used propagator method, our approach suggests continuous integration over depth without introducing internal interfaces. The Clenshaw-based recursion algorithms for computing associated Legendre functions and the Horner's scheme for computing partial sums allow avoiding the problems in the Poles vicinity typical for the spherical harmonic methods and obtaining a fast and robust solution on a sphere for high degree and order. Since the benchmarking technique of 3-D spherical codes is not developed substantially, we employ different approaches to test the proposed numerical algorithm. First, we show that the algorithm produces correct results for radially symmetric viscosity distribution. Second, an iterative scheme for the LVV case is validated by comparing the solution for the tetrahedral symmetric (l=3,m

  7. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing. PMID:26160820

  8. Liquid chromatographic-electrochemical determination of ethylenethiourea in foods by revised official method.

    PubMed

    Krause, R T

    1989-01-01

    AOAC official method 29.119-29.125 was revised to determine ethylenethiourea (ETU) directly by a liquid chromatographic-electrochemical (LC-EC) determinative technique and to improve ETU recovery. ETU is extracted from food products with a methanol-aqueous sodium acetate solution. A portion of the concentrated filtrate is added to a column of diatomaceous earth, and ETU is eluted with 2% methanol in methylene chloride to separate it from food coextractives, which are retained on the column. The eluate is collected in a siliconized flask and evaporated, the residue is dissolved in water, and 20 microL of solution is injected onto an LC graphitized carbon column. ETU is eluted from the LC column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-aqueous 0.1M phosphoric acid-water (5 + 25 + 70), and the eluted ETU is detected by using an amperometric electrochemical detector equipped with a gold/mercury working electrode. Recovery data were obtained by fortifying 13 food products with ETU: baked potatoes; canned applesauce, mushrooms, creamed spinach, green beans, spinach, and tomatoes; cooked fresh cabbage and frozen collards; fresh celery and lettuce; grape jelly; and powdered sugar cake donuts. Raw celery was found to cause low ETU recoveries. Average percent recoveries of ETU from the other 12 food products were 92 with a standard deviation of 12 for the low (0.05 and 0.1 ppm) fortification levels and 90 with a standard deviation of 6 for the higher (0.5 and 1 ppm) fortification levels. The limits of quantitation were 0.01 and 0.02 ppm for food products with low and high sugar content, respectively. PMID:2592320

  9. 78 FR 11585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... natural gas systems source category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of... timely withdrawal notice in the Federal Register to inform the public that this rule will not take...

  10. 78 FR 11619 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring Method Request Submission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 RIN 2060-AR74 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule: Revision to Best Available Monitoring... category of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule must submit requests for use of best available monitoring... address: GHGReportingRule@epa.gov . For technical information, contact the Greenhouse Gas Reporting...

  11. Analysis of Cortical Shape in Children with Simplex Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Donna L.; Feczko, Eric; Pruett, John R.; Petersen, Steven E.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Constantino, John N.; Harwell, John W.; Coalson, Timothy S.; Van Essen, David C.

    2015-01-01

    We used surface-based morphometry to test for differences in cortical shape between children with simplex autism (n = 34, mean age 11.4 years) and typical children (n = 32, mean age 11.3 years). This entailed testing for group differences in sulcal depth and in 3D coordinates after registering cortical midthickness surfaces to an atlas target using 2 independent registration methods. We identified bilateral differences in sulcal depth in restricted portions of the anterior-insula and frontal-operculum (aI/fO) and in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ). The aI/fO depth differences are associated with and likely to be caused by a shape difference in the inferior frontal gyrus in children with simplex autism. Comparisons of average midthickness surfaces of children with simplex autism and those of typical children suggest that the significant sulcal depth differences represent local peaks in a larger pattern of regional differences that are below statistical significance when using coordinate-based analysis methods. Cortical regions that are statistically significant before correction for multiple measures are peaks of more extended, albeit subtle regional differences that may guide hypothesis generation for studies using other imaging modalities. PMID:24165833

  12. Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 508 Herpes Simplex (Cold Sores and Genital Herpes) WHAT IS HERPES? HSV ... virus 1 (HSV1) is the common cause of cold sores (oral herpes) around the mouth. HSV2 normally ...

  13. MONSS: A multi-objective nonlinear simplex search approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapotecas-Martínez, Saúl; Coello Coello, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a novel methodology for dealing with continuous box-constrained multi-objective optimization problems (MOPs). The proposed algorithm adopts a nonlinear simplex search scheme in order to obtain multiple elements of the Pareto optimal set. The search is directed by a well-distributed set of weight vectors, each of which defines a scalarization problem that is solved by deforming a simplex according to the movements described by Nelder and Mead's method. Considering an MOP with n decision variables, the simplex is constructed using n+1 solutions which minimize different scalarization problems defined by n+1 neighbor weight vectors. All solutions found in the search are used to update a set of solutions considered to be the minima for each separate problem. In this way, the proposed algorithm collectively obtains multiple trade-offs among the different conflicting objectives, while maintaining a proper representation of the Pareto optimal front. In this article, it is shown that a well-designed strategy using just mathematical programming techniques can be competitive with respect to the state-of-the-art multi-objective evolutionary algorithms against which it was compared.

  14. Reactivation of herpes simplex virus-1 following epilepsy surgery☆

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro; Crippa, Ana; Cruz, Cristina; de Paola, Luciano; de Souza, Luciana Paula; Noronha, Lucia; Torres, Luis Fernando Bleggi; Koneski, Julio A.S.; Pessa, Luis Felipe Cavalli; Nogueira, Meri Bordignon; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Silvado, Carlos Eduardo; Vidal, Luine Rosele

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The present study reports a case of encephalitis due to herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), following surgical manipulation of the site of a primary infection. Methods Herpes simplex virus-1 infection was confirmed by CSF PCR and DNA sequencing. Results The patient was an 11-year-old girl who required temporal lobe surgery for epilepsy. She had meningoencephalitis due to HSV at the age of 20 months, and she was treated with acyclovir. Three years later, the patient developed uncontrolled seizures that became more frequent and changed in character at 11 years of age. On the 12th postoperative day, she developed fever and seizures, and she was diagnosed with HSV-1 by positive CSF PCR. She was treated with acyclovir (30 mg/kg/day for 21 days). In this report, we describe the patient and review the relevant literature. Conclusion The authors stress the potential risk of reactivation of HSV encephalitis after intracranial surgery. Herpes simplex virus encephalitis must be considered in neurosurgical patients who develop postoperative seizures and fever. PMID:26543809

  15. The effect of adding tobramycin to Simplex P cement on femoral stem micromotion as measured by radiostereometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous in vitro research on addition of antibiotics to bone cement has found no statistically significant deterioration in mechanical properties. However, no clinical studies have compared the performance of tobramycin-laden bone cement with that of standard bone cement (Simplex P). Patients and Methods 23 patients (25 hips) were randomized to receive an Exeter (Stryker Orthopaedics) femoral stem cemented with either Simplex P (standard) or Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) cement. There were 2 years of follow-up, with scheduled radiostereometric (RSA) examinations. Results All stems migrated distally and showed some degree of retroversion. No clinically significant differences in stem subsidence or retroversion were found between the Simplex T and Simplex P cement groups after 2 years. Overall subsidence was less than in previous studies, probably due to a postponed initial post-surgical examination. Rates of subsidence in both cement groups were consistent with those from previous studies of Exeter stems. Interpretation Subsidence of the femoral stem after 2 years was similar in the Simplex T (tobramycin-laden) and Simplex P (standard) groups. PMID:22248163

  16. A REVISED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING OXIDE BASICITY PER THE SMITH SCALE WITH EXAMPLE APPLICATION TO GLASS DURABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS JG

    2011-07-27

    Previous researchers have developed correlations between oxide electronegativity and oxide basicity. The present paper revises those correlations using a newer method of calculating electronegativity of the oxygen anion. Basicity is expressed using the Smith {alpha} parameter scale. A linear relation was found between the oxide electronegativity and the Smith {alpha} parameter, with an R{sup 2} of 0.92. An example application of this new correlation to the durability of high-level nuclear waste glass is demonstrated. The durability of waste glass was found to be directly proportional to the quantity and basicity of the oxides of tetrahedrally coordinated network forming ions.

  17. Revision of the Predictive Method Improves Precision in the Prediction of Stroke Outcomes for Patients Admitted to Rehabilitation Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Matsugi, Akiyoshi; Tani, Keisuke; Mitani, Yasuhiro; Oku, Kosuke; Tamaru, Yoshiki; Nagano, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to confirm the accuracy of a revised method for predicting the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) at discharge when stroke patients are first admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. [Subjects and Methods] The predictive equation with logarithmic trend line was calculated based on the total score of the FIM at admission and discharge in 93 patients with cerebral infarction (CI) and 60 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In other patients with CI or ICH (validation group), the differences between the actual FIM and the predicted FIM at discharge calculated by the CI or ICH equation and the combined (CI + ICH) equation, as well as by the CI or ICH equation and combined equation used in a previous study, were calculated. [Results] The multiple correlation coefficients of the CI equation, ICH equation, and combined equation were 0.87, 0.71, and 0.8. The residual of the actual FIM and predicted FIM at discharge calculated by the CI equation was the smallest in the CI validation group. In the ICH validation group, the residual calculated for ICH patients alone was smaller than that calculated by the previous ICH equation. [Conclusion] This easy-to-use method using a new equation for prediction was more precise than the previous equation. Therefore, we should revise the equation for predicting stroke patient outcome strata according to data from within the governing medical administration system. PMID:25276029

  18. A Summary of Revisions Applied to a Turbulence Response Analysis Method for Flexible Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Christie J.; Perry, Boyd, III; Silva, Walter A.; Newman, Brett

    2014-01-01

    A software program and associated methodology to study gust loading on aircraft exists for a classification of geometrically simplified flexible configurations. This program consists of a simple aircraft response model with two rigid and three flexible symmetric degrees-of - freedom and allows for the calculation of various airplane responses due to a discrete one-minus- cosine gust as well as continuous turbulence. Simplifications, assumptions, and opportunities for potential improvements pertaining to the existing software program are first identified, then a revised version of the original software tool is developed with improved methodology to include more complex geometries, additional excitation cases, and additional output data so as to provide a more useful and precise tool for gust load analysis. In order to improve the original software program to enhance usefulness, a wing control surface and horizontal tail control surface is added, an extended application of the discrete one-minus-cosine gust input is employed, a supplemental continuous turbulence spectrum is implemented, and a capability to animate the total vehicle deformation response to gust inputs is included. These revisions and enhancements are implemented and an analysis of the results is used to validate the modifications.

  19. Vaccines for herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Koelle, David M

    2006-02-01

    Infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) can have serious medical consequences. Although antiviral medications can suppress symptomatic disease, asymptomatic shedding and transmission, they neither cure nor alter the natural history of HSV infections. Manipulation of the immune response is one potential method to decrease disease burden. Current research on prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination approaches is discussed in this review, with a focus on compounds that have entered clinical trials or that display novel compositions or proposed mechanisms of action. One such vaccine is an alum and monophosphoryl lipid A-adjuvanted subunit glycoprotein D2 vaccine that has demonstrated activity in the prevention of HSV-2 infection and disease in HSV-uninfected women in a phase III clinical trial. Further confirmatory clinical trials of this vaccine are currently underway. Other vaccine formats also in development include attenuated live or replication-incompetent HSV-2 strains and technologies that target virus-specific CD8 T-cell responses. PMID:16499283

  20. Genomic identification of Anisakis simplex isolates.

    PubMed

    Siles, M; Cuéllar, C; Perteguer, M J

    1997-03-01

    RAPD technique was used to differentiate individuals of Anisakis simplex obtained from Merluccius merluccius, Phycis blennoides, Conger conger and Lepidorhombus boscii, from the North Atlantic Ocean. The amplification patterns of the host DNA controls were markedly different from those obtained for the parasitic material. No variation within the same host was detected. The amplification patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same genus were somewhat different. The amplification patterns of A. simplex isolates from M. merluccius, P. blennoides, C. conger and L. boscii, were different. These results suggest the possible existence of two populations with a considerable high genetic variability and a different adaptation to different host species. PMID:9166445

  1. A revised monitor source method for practical deadtime count loss compensation in clinical planar and SPECT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siman, W.; Silosky, M.; Kappadath, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to verify the fundamental assumption in the monitor source method, i.e. uniform fractional count loss across the field of view (FOV), and to introduce a revised monitor source method for SPECT deadtime correction that minimally interferes with the clinical protocol. SPECT images of non-uniform phantoms (4GBq 99mTc) with and without monitor sources (2  ×  20MBq 99mTc) attached to each detector were acquired nine times over 48 h in the photopeak energy window and the scatter energy window. Fractional count loss uniformity across the FOV was evaluated by correlating count rates in different regions of interest on projection images at different deadtime loss levels. The correction factors were calculated as the ratios of monitor source count rates with and without the phantom. Such factors were applied to the phantom images acquired without the monitor sources. The counting efficiency (count rate per unit activity) of the camera was calculated as a function of activity in the FOV both prior to and after the deadtime count-loss correction. The deadtime correction effectiveness was assessed by the independence of the efficiency on the activity in the FOV. Methods to interpolate the projection deadtime loss, based on limited projections, were also investigated. The fractional deadtime count loss was uniform across the FOV (r > 0.99). After the deadtime correction, the efficiency was largely independent of the activity in the FOV. The median and maximum absolute errors after the deadtime count loss correction were ≤1% and ~2%, respectively. Measured deadtime loss from five views per detector can be used to estimate deadtime count loss with errors ≤1% for all SPECT projections. The revised monitor source method can effectively correct planar and SPECT deadtime loss. Sparse sampling of the projection deadtime loss allows the acquisition of high monitor source counts with minimal time added while preserving the entire useful FOV.

  2. Recurrent lumbosacral herpes simplex virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Vassantachart, Janna M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old white woman with episodic lumbosacral lesions that she had been treating as psoriasis. Evaluation revealed classic herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. The discussion reviews the significance and potential complications of recurrent lumbosacral HSV infection. PMID:26722168

  3. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  4. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: An Uncommon Presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaeley, Nidhi; Bansal, Sunil; Bhatia, Rohan; Ahmad, Sohaib

    2016-05-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) encephalitis is an uncommon illness, with about 2 cases per 250,000 per year. Most are caused by HSV-1, with 10% having HSV-2 as the aetiologic factor. We present a case of Herpes simplex type1encephalitis in a 70 year old male with an uncommon presentation. The patient was a known case of endogenous depression with no medical records and on no treatment for the same, reported with acute changes in mental state for the past five days. He was talking irrelevantly, had hallucinations and was unduly aggressive and violent. He was subjected to a thorough clinical and diagnostic work-up which included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, CT head and MRI brain. MRI brain was suggestive of mild subdural effusion which hinted towards infectious cause of encephalitis. The cerebrospinal fluid viral serology panel detected herpes simplex type 1 virus (HSV1) that was later confirmed by CSF Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Hence, acyclovir was initiated by intravenous route at a dosage of 10mg/kg body weight and continued for two weeks. This case holds significance in view of the fact that organic causes must be excluded in suspected cases of psychiatric illness especially in the absence of fever. Also, CSF-PCR testing plays a pivotal role in diagnosing herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:27437286

  5. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  6. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    PubMed

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes. PMID:24680072

  7. Simplex GPS and InSAR Inversion Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnellan, Andrea; Parker, Jay W.; Lyzenga, Gregory A.; Pierce, Marlon E.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in the shape of the Earth's surface can be routinely measured with precisions better than centimeters. Processes below the surface often drive these changes and as a result, investigators require models with inversion methods to characterize the sources. Simplex inverts any combination of GPS (global positioning system), UAVSAR (uninhabited aerial vehicle synthetic aperture radar), and InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) data simultaneously for elastic response from fault and fluid motions. It can be used to solve for multiple faults and parameters, all of which can be specified or allowed to vary. The software can be used to study long-term tectonic motions and the faults responsible for those motions, or can be used to invert for co-seismic slip from earthquakes. Solutions involving estimation of fault motion and changes in fluid reservoirs such as magma or water are possible. Any arbitrary number of faults or parameters can be considered. Simplex specifically solves for any of location, geometry, fault slip, and expansion/contraction of a single or multiple faults. It inverts GPS and InSAR data for elastic dislocations in a half-space. Slip parameters include strike slip, dip slip, and tensile dislocations. It includes a map interface for both setting up the models and viewing the results. Results, including faults, and observed, computed, and residual displacements, are output in text format, a map interface, and can be exported to KML. The software interfaces with the QuakeTables database allowing a user to select existing fault parameters or data. Simplex can be accessed through the QuakeSim portal graphical user interface or run from a UNIX command line.

  8. Analysis of parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive based on the revised response surface method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jieliang; Yan, Shaoze; Wu, Jianing

    2014-05-01

    Space manipulator is an important tool for spacecraft to complete a variety of tasks in space. Nowadays the harmonic drive is widely used as the reducer in the space manipulator, which may influence the dynamical properties of flexible space manipulator. The analysis of dynamic reliability and parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive is of significant importance for space manipulator designers in the early stage of design. The trajectory precision of the manipulator determines whether the mechanism performs normally. However, it is difficult to use the existing methods to resolve reliability apportionment issues because of the data insufficiency and the uncertainty of the relations among the components in the mechanical system. This paper establishes the dynamical models of space manipulator considering the harmonic hysteresis phenomenon derived from the harmonic reducer. A new method is proposed to analyze the dynamic reliability and parameter sensitivity of space manipulator with harmonic drive. The proposed method extends the previous response surface method (RSM) and focuses on the characteristics of the output dynamical property of the space manipulator. With the result of parameter sensitivity analysis, we can prolong the fine arm or shorten the main arm to improve the motion precision reliability of space manipulator. Therefore, our revised response surface method (RRSM) is suitable for reliability apportionment of the space manipulator when the design information has not been clearly identified, particularly in early design phrase.

  9. Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in a University Health Population: Clinical Manifestations, Epidemiology, and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Robert; Aierstuck, Sara; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Melby, Bernette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors described clinical presentations of oral and genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in a university health population and implications of these findings. Participants and Methods: Using a standardized data collection tool, 215 records of patients with symptomatic culture-positive HSV infections were reviewed. Results:…

  10. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of focal herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    1984-12-18

    A method of mapping herpes simplex viral infection comprising administering a radiolabeled antiviral active 5-substituted 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-substituted-D-arabinofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside to the infected subject, and scanning the area in which the infection is to be mapped for the radiolabel.

  11. Serologic Screening for Herpes Simplex Virus among University Students: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Hayley; Nanda, Joy P.; Joffe, Alain; Roberts, Jessica; Rompalo, Anne; Melendez, Johan; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the feasibility of conducting serologic testing for the herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) among university students and assessed the psychosocial impact of an HSV-2 diagnosis. Methods: The authors recruited a convenience sample of 100 students (aged 18-39 years) without a history of genital herpes from 1 university…

  12. [DOE method for evaluating environmental and waste management samples: Revision 1, Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, S.C.

    1995-04-01

    The US Dapartment of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental and waste management (EM) sampling and analysis activities require that large numbers of samples be analyzed for materials characterization, environmental surveillance, and site-remediation programs. The present document, DOE Methods for Evaluating Environmental and Waste Management Samples (DOE Methods), is a supplemental resource for analyzing many of these samples.

  13. Polishing methods for metallic and ceramic transmission electron microscopy specimens: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kestel, B.J.

    1986-03-01

    In recent years, the increasing sophistication of transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies of materials has necessitated more exacting methods of specimen preparation. The present report describes improved equipment and techniques for electropolishing and chemically polishing a wide variety of specimens. Many of the specimens used in developing or improving the techniques to be described were irradiated with heavy ions such as nickel or vanadium to study radiation damage. The high cost of these specimens increased the need for reproducible methods of initial preparation postirradiation processing, and final thinning for TEM examination. A technique was also developed to salvage specimens that had previously been thinned but were unusable for various reasons. Jet polishing is, in general, the method of choice for surface polishing, sectioning, and thinning. The older beaker electropolishing method is included in this report because it is inexpensive and simple, and gives some insight into how the more recent methods were developed.

  14. Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C

    2000-05-01

    We present a new method for the fine scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation of posterior probabilities that each allele at a particular marker was present on the founder chromosome. We illustrate the method using simulated family data for cystic fibrosis and Huntingtons disease, for which the locations of mutations in the disease genes are now known. For both diseases, our new method provides good estimates of the location of the mutations. PMID:11246474

  15. Navigating Tensions in the Process of Change: An English Educator's Dilemma Management in the Revision and Implementation of a Diversity-Infused Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gort, Mileidis; Glenn, Wendy J.

    2010-01-01

    In response to growing concerns among faculty regarding the lack of attention to the bilingual student population in our pre-service teacher education program, the authors engaged in a shared self-study of the process of revising and implementing a secondary English methods course with explicit attention to the special needs of…

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11 B Appendix B to Part 136 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) GUIDELINES ESTABLISHING TEST PROCEDURES FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POLLUTANTS...

  17. Simultaneous Metabolite, Protein, Lipid Extraction (SIMPLEX): A Combinatorial Multimolecular Omics Approach for Systems Biology.

    PubMed

    Coman, Cristina; Solari, Fiorella Andrea; Hentschel, Andreas; Sickmann, Albert; Zahedi, René Peiman; Ahrends, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Interconnected molecular networks are at the heart of signaling pathways that mediate adaptive plasticity of eukaryotic cells. To gain deeper insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms, a comprehensive and representative analysis demands a deep and parallel coverage of a broad spectrum of molecular species. Therefore, we introduce a simultaneous metabolite, protein, lipid extraction (SIMPLEX) procedure, a novel strategy for the quantitative investigation of lipids, metabolites, and proteins. Compared with unimolecular workflows, SIMPLEX offers a fundamental turn in study design since multiple molecular classes can be accessed in parallel from one sample with equal efficiency and reproducibility. Application of this method in mass-spectrometry-based workflows allowed the simultaneous quantification of 360 lipids, 75 metabolites, and 3327 proteins from 10(6)cells. The versatility of this method is shown in a model system for adipogenesis- peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) signaling in mesenchymal stem cells-where we utilized SIMPLEX to explore cross-talk within and between all three molecular classes and identified novel potential molecular entry points for interventions, indicating that SIMPLEX provides a superior strategy compared with conventional workflows. PMID:26814187

  18. The Stenopsyche simplex Species Group from China with descriptions of three new species (Trichoptera: Stenopsychidae).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji-Hua; Wang, Bei-Xin; Sun, Chang-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese Stenopsyche simplex Group is revised for the first time since Weaver's (1987) revision. The group includes 14 described species and 3 new species. Two diagnostic subgroups were recognized by Schmid (1959). The first subgroup of Chinese species includes S. anaximander Malicky 2011, S. brevata Tian & Zheng 1989, S. chinensis Hwang 1957, S. dentata Navás 1930, S. splendida Martynov 1935, S. dubia Schmid 1965, S. rotundata Schmid 1965, S. simplex Schmid 1959, and S. tienmushanensis Hwang 1957; of these, S. dentata is assigned to this first subgroup for the first time. The second diagnostic subgroup includes S. denticulata Ulmer 1926, S. longispina Ulmer 1926, S. stoetzneri Döhler 1929, S. uniformis Schmid 1965 and S. formosana Kobayashi, 1987. The species newly described here include Stenopsyche ningshanensis sp. nov., from Shaan-xi Province, belonging to the first subgroup, and Stenopsyche acanthoclada sp. nov. and Stenopsyche jinxiuensis sp. nov., both from Guang-xi Province and belonging to the second subgroup. Distribution maps of the two diagnostic subgroups of Chinese species and illustrations of male genitalia of the three new species are provided along with collection data for additional specimens for the previously described species. PMID:24872179

  19. Methods and Materials in Teaching Secondary School Science - Syllabus. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallia, Thomas J.

    The course content, specific objectives, and evaluation for a science teaching methods course required for students planning to be secondary school science teachers in the biological, physical, or earth sciences are described. (CS)

  20. A Variational Assimilation Method for Satellite and Conventional Data: a Revised Basic Model 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achtemeier, Gary L.; Scott, Robert W.; Chen, J.

    1991-01-01

    A variational objective analysis technique that modifies observations of temperature, height, and wind on the cyclone scale to satisfy the five 'primitive' model forecast equations is presented. This analysis method overcomes all of the problems that hindered previous versions, such as over-determination, time consistency, solution method, and constraint decoupling. A preliminary evaluation of the method shows that it converges rapidly, the divergent part of the wind is strongly coupled in the solution, fields of height and temperature are well-preserved, and derivative quantities such as vorticity and divergence are improved. Problem areas are systematic increases in the horizontal velocity components, and large magnitudes of the local tendencies of the horizontal velocity components. The preliminary evaluation makes note of these problems but detailed evaluations required to determine the origin of these problems await future research.

  1. A revised version of the transfer matrix method to analyze one-dimensional structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitzsche, F.

    1983-01-01

    A new and general method to analyze both free and forced vibration characteristics of one-dimensional structures is discussed in this paper. This scheme links for the first time the classical transfer matrix method with the recently developed integrating matrix technique to integrate systems of differential equations. Two alternative approaches to the problem are presented. The first is based upon the lumped parameter model to account for the inertia properties of the structure. The second releases that constraint allowing a more precise description of the physical system. The free vibration of a straight uniform beam under different support conditions is analyzed to test the accuracy of the two models. Finally some results for the free vibration of a 12th order system representing a curved, rotating beam prove that the present method is conveniently extended to more complicated structural dynamics problems.

  2. Effectiveness of Revised Pharmacology Record Books as a Teaching-Learning Method for Second Year Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Gangadhar, Reneega

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The goal of teaching medical undergraduates Pharmacology is to form a sound foundation of therapeutics. The pharmacology record books are maintained as a part of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to obtain feedback of the medical students about the new record adopted in the institution after major revision Materials and Methods This was a questionnaire based study done in a Government Medical College of Kerala in February 2013. The data was analysed using SPSS. The feedback on clinical pharmacology exercises was given positive and negative scores. Results Majority (64.5%) opined that the content in pharmacology record was good. A total of 78.1% completed the record during discussions in practical classes. Majority wrote the records for understanding pharmacology. For 79.8% General Pharmacology exercises were most relevant, 33.8% considered Clinical Pharmacology exercises to be the most thought provoking. Drug use in special groups received the maximum positive score. Conclusion The new improved pharmacology record is an effective teaching-learning method. Inclusion of more clinically oriented exercises has increased the interest of the students in the subject. PMID:26894083

  3. Microbiological methods for the water recovery systems test, revision 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoads, Tim; Kilgore, M. V., Jr.; Mikell, A. T., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Current microbiological parameters specified to verify microbiological quality of Space Station Freedom water quality include the enumeration of total bacteria, anaerobes, aerobes, yeasts and molds, enteric bacteria, gram positives, gram negatives, and E. coli. In addition, other parameters have been identified as necessary to support the Water Recovery Test activities to be conducted at the NASA/MSFC later this year. These other parameters include aerotolerant eutrophic mesophiles, legionellae, and an additional method for heterotrophic bacteria. If inter-laboratory data are to be compared to evaluate quality, analytical methods must be eliminated as a variable. Therefore, each participating laboratory must utilize the same analytical methods and procedures. Without this standardization, data can be neither compared nor validated between laboratories. Multiple laboratory participation represents a conservative approach to insure quality and completeness of data. Invariably, sample loss will occur in transport and analyses. Natural variance is a reality on any test of this magnitude and is further enhanced because biological entities, capable of growth and death, are specific parameters of interest. The large variation due to the participation of human test subjects has been noted with previous testing. The resultant data might be dismissed as 'out of control' unless intra-laboratory control is included as part of the method or if participating laboratories are not available for verification. The purpose of this document is to provide standardized laboratory procedures for the enumeration of certain microorganisms in water and wastewater specific to the water recovery systems test. The document consists of ten separate cultural methods and one direct count procedure. It is not intended nor is it implied to be a complete microbiological methods manual.

  4. Herpes simplex virus colitis in a neonate.

    PubMed

    Daley, Andrew J; Craven, Paul; Holland, Andrew J A; Jones, Cheryl A; Badawi, Nadia; Isaacs, David

    2002-09-01

    Involvement of the gastrointestinal tract in neonates with congenital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is rarely described. We report a case of a newborn with disseminated HSV infection associated with profuse hematochezia and late sigmoid colon perforation. Histologic examination showed patchy areas of ulceration with multinucleated giant cells and HSV nucleic acid was detected by polymerase chain reaction in colonic tissue. No clinically apparent episodes of recurrent colitis occurred in the first year of life. PMID:12380594

  5. Improvement of the GRACE star camera data based on the revision of the combination method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandikova, Tamara; Flury, Jakob

    2014-11-01

    The new release of the sensor and instrument data (Level-1B release 02) of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) had a substantial impact on the improvement of the overall accuracy of the gravity field models. This has implied that improvements on the sensor data level can still significantly contribute to arriving closer to the GRACE baseline accuracy. The recent analysis of the GRACE star camera data (SCA1B RL02) revealed their unexpectedly higher noise. As the star camera (SCA) data are essential for the processing of the K-band ranging data and the accelerometer data, thorough investigation of the data set was needed. We fully reexamined the SCA data processing from Level-1A to Level-1B with focus on the combination method of the data delivered by the two SCA heads. In the first step, we produced and compared our own combined attitude solution by applying two different combination methods on the SCA Level-1A data. The first method introduces the information about the anisotropic accuracy of the star camera measurement in terms of a weighing matrix. This method was applied in the official processing as well. The alternative method merges only the well determined SCA boresight directions. This method was implemented on the GRACE SCA data for the first time. Both methods were expected to provide optimal solution characteristic by the full accuracy about all three axes, which was confirmed. In the second step, we analyzed the differences between the official SCA1B RL02 data generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and our solution. SCA1B RL02 contains systematically higher noise of about a factor 3-4. The data analysis revealed that the reason is the incorrect implementation of algorithms in the JPL processing routines. After correct implementation of the combination method, significant improvement within the whole spectrum was achieved. Based on these results, the official reprocessing of the SCA data is suggested, as the SCA attitude data

  6. A New Height Error Revision Method of Predicting Long-Term Wind Speed with MCP Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yujue; Hu, Fei

    2013-04-01

    Wind energy technology is one of the fastest in growing rate in new and renewable energy technologies. It is very important to select stronger windy sites in a country for the purpose of producing more electricity. Measure-Correlate-Predict (MCP) algorithms are used to predict the wind resource at target site for wind power development. MCP method model bases on a relationship between wind data (speed and direction) measured at the target site and concurrent wind data at reference site nearby. The model is then used with long-term data from the reference site to predict the long-term wind speed and direction distributions at the target site. MCP method is in order to be able to determine the annual energy capture of a wind farm located at the target site. Over the last 15 years well over a half dozen of MCP methods in the literature. The MCP algorithms differ in terms of overall approach, model definition, use of direction sectors, and length of the data. Such as 1)a linear regression model; 2)a model using distributions of ratios of wind speeds at two sites; 3)a vector regression method; 4)a method based on the ratio of standard deviations of two data sets, etc. Unfortunately, none of these MCP algorithms can predict wind speed from two sites at different altitudes. If the target site is much higher or lower than the reference site, the result accuracy will be much poorer. Inner Mongolia grassland is known as one of the regions that rich in wind resource in China. The data we use is from three wind measurements, consisting of nearly one year of six layers in XiLinGuoLe of Inner Mongolia . Firstly, we use the maximum likelihood method to estimate k, shape parameter and c, scale parameter of the Weibull function for different time periods. And then we find out that c has a power law function of height, and that k varies as the form of a quadratic function of height and obtains the max value in the height of 10 to100 meters. Finally, we add the height distribution

  7. Revisions to some parameters used in stochastic-method simulations of ground motion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, David; Thompson, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic method of ground‐motion simulation specifies the amplitude spectrum as a function of magnitude (M) and distance (R). The manner in which the amplitude spectrum varies with M and R depends on physical‐based parameters that are often constrained by recorded motions for a particular region (e.g., stress parameter, geometrical spreading, quality factor, and crustal amplifications), which we refer to as the seismological model. The remaining ingredient for the stochastic method is the ground‐motion duration. Although the duration obviously affects the character of the ground motion in the time domain, it also significantly affects the response of a single‐degree‐of‐freedom oscillator. Recently published updates to the stochastic method include a new generalized double‐corner‐frequency source model, a new finite‐fault correction, a new parameterization of duration, and a new duration model for active crustal regions. In this article, we augment these updates with a new crustal amplification model and a new duration model for stable continental regions. Random‐vibration theory (RVT) provides a computationally efficient method to compute the peak oscillator response directly from the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration. Because the correction factor used to account for the nonstationarity of the ground motion depends on the ground‐motion amplitude spectrum and duration, we also present new RVT correction factors for both active and stable regions.

  8. Revision of the brick wall method for calculating the black hole thermodynamic quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, F.; Ohta, K.; Yazaki, K.

    2015-09-01

    Within the framework of the "brick wall model," a novel method is developed to compute the contributions of a scalar field to the thermodynamic quantities of black holes. The relations between (transverse) momenta and frequencies in Rindler space are determined numerically with high accuracy and analytically with an accuracy of better than 10% and are compared with the corresponding quantities in Minkowski space. In conflict with earlier results, the thermodynamic properties of black holes turn out to be those of a low-temperature system. The resulting discrepancy for partition function and entropy by 2 orders of magnitude is analyzed in detail. In the final part we carry out the analogous studies for scalar fields in de Sitter space and thereby confirm that our method applies also to the important case of spherically symmetric spaces.

  9. Revised methods for few-group cross sections generation in the Serpent Monte Carlo code

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, E.; Leppaenen, J.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents new calculation methods, recently implemented in the Serpent Monte Carlo code, and related to the production of homogenized few-group constants for deterministic 3D core analysis. The new methods fall under three topics: 1) Improved treatment of neutron-multiplying scattering reactions, 2) Group constant generation in reflectors and other non-fissile regions and 3) Homogenization in leakage-corrected criticality spectrum. The methodology is demonstrated by a numerical example, comparing a deterministic nodal diffusion calculation using Serpent-generated cross sections to a reference full-core Monte Carlo simulation. It is concluded that the new methodology improves the results of the deterministic calculation, and paves the way for Monte Carlo based group constant generation. (authors)

  10. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  11. The Autism Simplex Collection: an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection began in 2008 and was completed in 2010, and included nine sites from North America and four sites from Western Europe, as well as a centralized Data Coordinating Center. Results Over 1,700 trios are part of this collection, with DNA from transformed cells now available through the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-Generic (ADOS-G) measures are available for all probands, as are standardized IQ measures, Vineland Adaptive Behavioral Scales (VABS), the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and physical measures (height, weight, and head circumference). At almost every site, additional phenotypic measures were collected, including the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ) and Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised (RBS-R), as well as the non-word repetition scale, Communication Checklist (Children’s or Adult), and Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC). Moreover, for nearly 1,000 trios, the Autism Genome Project Consortium (AGP) has carried out Illumina 1 M SNP genotyping and called copy number variation (CNV) in the samples, with data being made available through the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been carried out in over 500 probands, together with ancestry matched controls, and this data is also available through the NIH. Additional WES is being carried out by the Autism Sequencing Consortium (ASC), where the

  12. Refinement Method for Residential Area Revision Using Remote Sensing Image and GIS Data in Earthquake Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, A. X.; Yuan, X. X.; Wang, X. Q.; Li, Z. M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes an automatic approach for residential areas revision by means of analysing the correlation between the residential area and the topographic and geographical factors. The approach consists of four major steps: the extracting of missing residential area from the remote sensing images with high resolution; the statistic analysing on the size changes of missing residential area in each grade of the elevation, slope, distance from the road and other impact factors; modelling of residential area modification in the urban and rural region; testing the methods using 100 counties data which are located in the middle part of China North-South Seismic Belt and comparing the result to the Land Use in map scale 1:100000. The experimental results present the accuracy of urban residents by 70% increased to 89.4%, rural residents by 47% up to 81.9%, rural residents from 8% increased to 78.5%. Therefore, there is available risk exposure information in a sparsely populated area because the spatial grid distributions of population and buildings are based on the residential areas. The proposed approach in this paper will improve the accuracy of the seismic risk assessment if it is applied to the national or the whole world.

  13. Neptunium nitrate solution. Neptunium TiOA - TTA method. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-04-01

    An analytical solvent extraction method for separating neptunium from plutonium, americium, curium, uranium, thorium, and fission products using tri-iso-octylamine (TiOA) and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) is described. Neptunium is separated from the bulk of the plutonium, americium, curium, and fission products by the extraction of neptunium(IV) into RiOA, dissolved in xylene, from an aqueous nitric acid reducing solution. The neptunium bearing organic solution is then scrubbed with a nitric acid reducing solution to achieve further purification. Final purification is obtained by stripping neptunium from tri-iso-octylaminexylene solution into dilute hydrochloric acid and then extracting the neptunium(IV) into TTA dissolved in xylene. A quantitative neptunium measurement is then made by alpha counting and alpha pulse height analysis. Most of the neptunium bearing sample solutions associated with the chemical processing of irradiated uranium are aqueous nitric acid solutions, and with the exception of uranium(IV) are free from interfering materials.

  14. Comparative methods with sampling error and within-species variation: contrasts revisited and revised.

    PubMed

    Felsenstein, Joseph

    2008-06-01

    Comparative methods analyses have usually assumed that the species phenotypes are the true means for those species. In most analyses, the actual values used are means of samples of modest size. The covariances of contrasts then involve both the covariance of evolutionary changes and a fraction of the within-species phenotypic covariance, the fraction depending on the sample size for that species. Ives et al. have shown how to analyze data in this case when the within-species phenotypic covariances are known. The present model allows them to be unknown and to be estimated from the data. A multivariate normal statistical model is used for multiple characters in samples of finite size from species related by a known phylogeny, under the usual Brownian motion model of change and with equal within-species phenotypic covariances. Contrasts in each character can be obtained both between individuals within a species and between species. Each contrast can be taken for all of the characters. These sets of contrasts, each the same contrast taken for different characters, are independent. The within-set covariances are unequal and depend on the unknown true covariance matrices. An expectation-maximization algorithm is derived for making a reduced maximum likelihood estimate of the covariances of evolutionary change and the within-species phenotypic covariances. It is available in the Contrast program of the PHYLIP package. Computer simulations show that the covariances are biased when the finiteness of sample size is not taken into account and that using the present model corrects the bias. Sampling variation reduces the power of inference of covariation in evolution of different characters. An extension of this method to incorporate estimates of additive genetic covariances from a simple genetic experiment is also discussed. PMID:18419518

  15. Revised methods for estimating potential reentry exposure associated with indoor crack and crevice and perimeter application.

    PubMed

    Driver, Jeffrey H; Ross, John H; Pandian, Muhilan; Selim, Sami; Sharp, Janice K

    2013-01-01

    Surface deposition of insecticides applied as indoor residential foggers, baseboard or perimeter sprays, spot sprays, and crack-and-crevice (C&C) sprays represent pathways of unintentional, postapplication exposure for children and adults. Estimation of the magnitude of this exposure following an application event is associated with uncertainty due to many factors, including (1) surface residue deposition and distribution, (2) access to and the nature of contact with treated surfaces based on time-activity patterns of residents, and (3) the role of residue removal mechanisms such as cleaning treated surfaces, pesticide degradation or redistribution, and hand washing and bathing following contact. A comparative spatial deposition study was conducted involving broadcast, perimeter, and C&C application methods. Residues measured using a spatial grid of deposition dosimeters on floor surfaces demonstrated significantly lower residue concentrations in readily accessible areas following C&C and perimeter applications, versus broadcast treatment. Analyses of other monitoring studies support this finding. The implications of these findings are discussed for both screening-level and higher tier probabilistic postapplication, residential exposure assessment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) current guidance on interpretation of deposition following C&C application is supported by data in this study and others that indicate a ratio of 10:1 for deposition for broadcast versus C&C application. However, the perimeter deposition data are quite similar to C&C deposition and do not support a 70/30 default relative to broadcast recommended by the U.S. EPA (2012). PMID:23751000

  16. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  17. Use of Adeno-Associated and Herpes Simplex Viral Vectors for In Vivo Neuronal Expression in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Penrod, Rachel D.; Wells, Audrey M.; Carlezon, William A.; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Adeno-associated viruses and the herpes simplex virus are the two most widely used vectors for the in vivo expression of exogenous genes. Advances in the development of these vectors have enabled remarkable temporal and spatial control of gene expression. This unit provides methods for storing, delivering, and verifying expression of adeno-associated and herpes simplex viruses in the adult mouse brain. It also describes important considerations for experiments using in vivo expression of these viral vectors, including serotype and promoter selection, as well as timing of expression. Additional protocols are provided that describe methods for preliminary experiments to determine the appropriate conditions for in vivo delivery. PMID:26426386

  18. Study of Academic Growth Using Simplex Models. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werts, Charles E.; Linn, Robert L.

    Forming a sequence covering the various aspects of the simplex model, four articles are presented here under the following titles: "A Simplex Model for Analyzing Academic Growth", "Analyzing Ratings With Correlated Intrajudge Measurement Errors", "The Correlation of States With Gain", and "The Reliability of College Grades from Longitudinal Data".…

  19. Mixing and Simplex Search for Optimal Illumination in Machine Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, HyungTae; Cho, KyeongYong; Jin, Kyungchan; Yoon, JooSung; Cho, YoungJune

    2014-07-01

    Mixed-color illumination affects the quality of images in industrial vision system and it is important to optimize color and intensity for image acquisition. This study used simplex search to find the optimal illumination in a short amount of time. A typical color mixer synthesized various color of lights by changing the inputs of RGB power LEDs and passing the lights through an optical system. The image quality under mixed-color illumination was calculated according to the sharpness. For the purpose of optimal illumination using simplex search, a probe network was organized with N + 1probing points for N inputs. The shape of the probe network, simplex, was varied through procedures of extension, contraction, and shrinkage. The inputs of the color mixer were changed until the size of the simplex became smaller than a threshold. The simplex search was tested for commercial semiconductor patterns, and was useful for finding the optimal illumination.

  20. A Revised Method of Presenting Wavenumber-Frequency Power Spectrum Diagrams That Reveals the Asymmetric Nature of Tropical Large-scale Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Winston C.; Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiouhua

    2007-01-01

    The popular method of presenting wavenumber-frequency power spectrum diagrams for studying tropical large-scale waves in the literature is shown to give an incomplete presentation of these waves. The so-called "convectively-coupled Kelvin (mixed Rossby-gravity) waves" are presented as existing only in the symmetric (antisymmetric) component of the diagrams. This is obviously not consistent with the published composite/regression studies of "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves," which illustrate the asymmetric nature of these waves. The cause of this inconsistency is revealed in this note and a revised method of presenting the power spectrum diagrams is proposed. When this revised method is used, "convectively-coupled Kelvin waves" do show anti-symmetric components, and "convectively-coupled mixed Rossby-gravity waves (also known as Yanai waves)" do show a hint of symmetric components. These results bolster a published proposal that these waves be called "chimeric Kelvin waves," "chimeric mixed Rossby-gravity waves," etc. This revised method of presenting power spectrum diagrams offers a more rigorous means of comparing the General Circulation Models (GCM) output with observations by calling attention to the capability of GCMs in correctly simulating the asymmetric characteristics of the equatorial waves.

  1. Immunological Aspects of Acute and Recurrent Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Hus, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) belongs to the major causes of visual morbidity worldwide and available methods of treatment remain unsatisfactory. Primary infection occurs usually early in life and is often asymptomatic. Chronic visual impairment and visual loss are caused by corneal scaring, thinning, and vascularization connected with recurrent HSV infections. The pathogenesis of herpetic keratitis is complex and is still not fully understood. According to the current knowledge, corneal scarring and vascularization are the result of chronic inflammatory reaction against HSV antigens. In this review we discuss the role of innate and adaptive immunities in acute and recurrent HSV ocular infection and present the potential future targets for novel therapeutical options based on immune interventions. PMID:25276842

  2. Scar revision

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevention, treatment, and revision. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap ... Hebe Molmenti, MD, PhD, private practice specializing in plastic and reconstructive surgery, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by ...

  3. Connecting the dots : analysis, development and applications of the SimpleX algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruip, Chael

    2011-11-01

    The SimpleX radiative transfer method is based on the interpretation of photons as particles interacting on a natural scale: the local mean free path. In our method, light is transported along the lines of an unstructured Delaunay mesh that encodes this natural distance and represents the physical medium. The SimpleX method is fast, highly adaptive and its computational cost does not scale with the number of sources. It is therefore well-suited for cosmological applications where it is essential to cover many orders of magnitude in resolution and where millions of sources can exist within a single simulation. We describe the code, its recent developments and apply it to several relevant astrophysical problems. In particular, we perform radiative transfer calculations of cosmological reionization and of the wind-wind interaction region of the Eta Carinae binary system.

  4. Studies on the constituents of seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus and their anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities.

    PubMed

    Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu

    2002-04-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus (Leguminosae) resulted in the isolation of nine known components: five rotenoids [dolineone (3), pachyrrhizone (5), 12a-hydroxydolineone (7), 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9), and 12a-hydroxyrotenone (2)], two isoflavonoids [neotenone (4) and dehydroneotenone (8)], one phenylfuranocoumarin [pachyrrhizine (6)], and a monosaccharide (dulcitol). The full 1H- and 13C-NMR assignments for the isolated products except a sugar, including revision of previous assignments in the literature, are reported. Moderate anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity was observed in 12a-hydroxydolineone (7) and 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9) among the isolated products. PMID:11964004

  5. Subjective Well-Being: Revisions to Dynamic Equilibrium Theory Using National Panel Data and Panel Regression Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headey, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This paper partly revises the dynamic equilibrium (DE) theory of subjective well-being (SWB), sometimes termed set point theory. Results from four national panel surveys show that correlations among measures of SWB diminish over time, and that the SWB set points of a minority of individuals substantially change. These results mean that DE theory…

  6. [Genetic susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, F

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is a rare but severe complication of frequent and mostly benign infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). Although rapid and sensitive diagnosis tools and active antiviral drugs are available, HSE morbidity/mortality levels remain unsatisfactory. Molecular and cellular determinants of HSE are incompletely understood. The rarity and severity of the disease have suggested an increased susceptibility of some subjects to HSV infection. Numerous experimental studies have investigated the respective role of host and viral factors in HSE. The results of these studies have illustrated the major role of the innate immune response, in particular interferons (IFNs), in limiting access of the virus into and/or virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS). In a few children with HSE, specific defects of the immune innate response have been identified, which impair the IFN-α/β and IFN-λ production of fibroblasts and/or neurons infected with HSV and render these cells more permissive to infection. The mutations affect proteins involved in the IFN pathway induced by stimulation of the TLR3 receptor. The patients' susceptibility to infection is restricted to HSV CNS invasion, underlining the major role of TLR3 in CNS protection against viral infection. The incomplete clinical penetrance of these molecular defects suggests that other factors (age, infectious dose) are involved in HSE. Whether pathogenesis of adult HSE is similar has not been investigated. PMID:23399415

  7. Herpes simplex encephalitis: adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2006-09-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) remains one of the most devastating infections of the central nervous system despite available antiviral therapy. Children and adolescents account for approximately one third of all cases of HSE. Clinical diagnosis is suggested in the encephalopathic, febrile patient with focal neurologic signs. However, these clinical findings are not pathognomonic because numerous other diseases in the central nervous system can mimic HSE. Neurodiagnostic evaluation can provide support for the diagnosis by the demonstration of temporal lobe edema/hemorrhage by magnetic resonance image scan and spike and slow-wave activity on electroencephalogram. In the current era, the diagnostic gold standard is the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although PCR is an excellent test and preferable to brain biopsy, false negatives can occur early after disease onset. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice and is administered at 10 mg/kg every 8 h for 21 days. Even with early administration of therapy after the disease onset, nearly two thirds of survivors have significant residual neurologic deficits. Current investigative efforts are assessing the prognostic value of quantitative PCR detection of viral DNA at the onset of therapy as well as at the completion of therapy and the contribution of prolonged antiviral therapy to improved neurologic outcome. PMID:16675036

  8. Equation-of-State Based Tie-Simplex Parameterization for Multiphase Thermal-Compositional Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iranshahr, A.; Voskov, D.; Tchelepi, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes usually involve complex phase behaviors between the injected fluid (e.g., steam, hydrocarbon, CO2, sour) and the in-situ rock-fluid system. Several fundamental questions remain regarding equation-of-state computations for mixtures than can form three, or more, phases at equilibrium. In addition, numerical and computational issues related to proper coupling of the thermodynamic phase-behavior with multiphase flow multi-component transport must be resolved in order to model the behaviors of large-scale EOR processes accurately and efficiently. We describe a general negative-flash method for multi-component, thermal systems that can form three, or more, fluid phases. We prove that the new method is convergent to the unique solution. Based on our multiphase negative-flash technique, we have developed an adaptive tie-simplex parameterization framework for thermal-compositional simulation. We also prove that the tie-simplexes change continuously as a function of pressure, temperature, and composition. The continuity of the parameterized compositional space allows for interpolation in pressure and temperature using a limited number of tie-simplexes. We show that the tie-simplex framework constrains thermodynamic computations, and converges to the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The extended negative-flash approach accounts rigorously for tie-simplex degeneration (critical behavior) across phase boundaries. We study the behaviors of thermal-compositional reservoir displacement processes across a wide range of fluid mixtures, pressures, and temperatures. The focus is on the complex behaviors of the tie-triangles and tie-lines associated with three-phase, thermal steam-injection problems in heterogeneous formations. The algorithms that capture the complex combinations of the appearance and disappearance of multiple phases are described in detail. This tie-simplex based parameterization framework is integrated with a general

  9. Kernel simplex growing algorithm for hyperspectral endmember extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liaoying; Zheng, Junpeng; Li, Xiaorun; Wang, Lijiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to effectively extract endmembers for hyperspectral imagery where linear mixing model may not be appropriate due to multiple scattering effects, this paper extends the simplex growing algorithm (SGA) to its kernel version. A new simplex volume formula without dimension reduction is used in SGA to form a new simplex growing algorithm (NSGA). The original data are nonlinearly mapped into a high-dimensional space where the scatters can be ignored. To avoid determining complex nonlinear mapping, a kernel function is used to extend the NSGA to kernel NSGA (KNSGA). Experimental results of simulated and real data prove that the proposed KNSGA approach outperforms SGA and NSGA.

  10. Revision Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Loyo, Myriam; Wang, Tom D

    2016-01-01

    Revision rhinoplasty is one of the most challenging operations the facial plastic surgeon performs given the complex 3-dimensional anatomy of the nose and the psychological impact it has on patients. The intricate interplay of cartilages, bone, and soft tissue in the nose gives it its aesthetic and function. Facial harmony and attractiveness depends greatly on the nose given its central position in the face. In the following article, the authors review common motivations and anatomic findings for patients seeking revision rhinoplasty based on the senior author's 30-year experience with rhinoplasty and a review of the literature. PMID:26616705

  11. Psoralen inactivation of influenza and herpes simplex viruses and of virus-infected cells

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, D.C.; Richman, D.D.; Oxman, M.N.; Kronenberg, L.H.

    1981-06-01

    Psoralen compounds covalently bind to nucleic acids when irradiated with long-wavelength ultraviolet light. This treatment can destroy the infectivity of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid viruses. Two psoralen compounds, 4'-hydroxymethyltrioxsalen and 4'-aminomethyltrioxsalen, were used with long-wavelength ultraviolet light to inactivate cell-free herpes simplex and influenza viruses and to render virus-infected cells noninfectious. This method of inactivation was compared with germicidal (short-wavelength) ultraviolet light irradiation. The antigenicity of the treated, virus-infected, antigen-bearing cells was examined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoassay and by measuring the capacity of the herpes simplex virus-infected cells to stimulate virus-specific lymphocyte proliferation. The infectivity of the virus-infected cells could be totally eliminated without altering their viral antigenicity. The use of psoralen plus long-wavelength ultraviolet light is well suited to the preparation of noninfectious virus antigens and virus antigen-bearing cells for immunological assays.

  12. Transforming low-discrepancy sequences from a cube to a simplex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillards, Tim; Cools, Ronald

    2005-02-01

    Sequences of points with a low discrepancy are the basic building blocks for quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Traditionally these points are generated in a unit cube.To develop point sets on a simplex we will transform the low-discrepancy points from the unit cube to a simplex. An advantage of this approach is that most of the known results on low-discrepancy sequences can be re-used. After introducing several transformations, their efficiency as well as their quality will be evaluated. We present a Koksma-Hlawka inequality which says that under certain conditions the order of convergence using the new point set is the same as that of the original set.

  13. Application of low-intensity laser in the treatment of Herpes simplex recidivans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunov, Tzonko T.; Uzunov, T.; Grozdanova, R.

    2004-06-01

    We made our aim to investigate the effect of the low intensive laser with λ=630 nm in the visible red spectrum of light at Herpes simplex treatment. For this purpose we carried out a clinical research upon 62 persons with Herpes simplex lesions which have been divided into two groups of 31 persons. At the first group the effect of laser with power density 100 mW/cm2 +/- 5 mW/cm2 and time of exposure 3 min. on field was traced out. At the second group the low intensive laser with the same characteristics has been used but in combination with the patent medicine Granofurin H as a photosensibilizer. The clinical approbations of this method showed high therapeutical effectiveness. The obtained results showed that at both groups there is an expressed anaesthetic, anti-inflammatory and regeneration stimulating effect and at the second group with the use of Granofurin H the reconvalescent period is shorter.

  14. GPU implementation of the simplex identification via split augmented Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilla, Jorge; Nascimento, José M. P.

    2015-10-01

    Hyperspectral imaging can be used for object detection and for discriminating between different objects based on their spectral characteristics. One of the main problems of hyperspectral data analysis is the presence of mixed pixels, due to the low spatial resolution of such images. This means that several spectrally pure signatures (endmembers) are combined into the same mixed pixel. Linear spectral unmixing follows an unsupervised approach which aims at inferring pure spectral signatures and their material fractions at each pixel of the scene. The huge data volumes acquired by such sensors put stringent requirements on processing and unmixing methods. This paper proposes an efficient implementation of a unsupervised linear unmixing method on GPUs using CUDA. The method finds the smallest simplex by solving a sequence of nonsmooth convex subproblems using variable splitting to obtain a constraint formulation, and then applying an augmented Lagrangian technique. The parallel implementation of SISAL presented in this work exploits the GPU architecture at low level, using shared memory and coalesced accesses to memory. The results herein presented indicate that the GPU implementation can significantly accelerate the method's execution over big datasets while maintaining the methods accuracy.

  15. Herpes simplex virus and the alimentary tract.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Eric A; Coyle, Walter J

    2008-08-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is well known as a sexually transmitted disease. However, relatively little has been published concerning the presentations and treatment of HSV infection within the gastrointestinal tract, where HSV most commonly affects the esophagus in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. HSV proctitis is not uncommon and occurs primarily in males having sex with males. In patients with normal immune systems, gastrointestinal HSV infections are generally self-limited and rarely require antiviral therapy. Treatment of infection is suggested for immunocompromised patients, though no large randomized controlled trials have been performed. This article reviews the manifestations of HSV infection within the luminal gastrointestinal tract and options for diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18627656

  16. A Case of Steatocystoma Simplex Involving the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Dong Nyeok; Won, Jong Hoon; Chung, Hyun

    2008-01-01

    Steatocystoma is a benign adnexal tumor originating from the pilosebaceous duct junction which can be classified into two groups (steatocystoma simplex and steatocystoma multiplex). Steatocystoma simplex, which presents as a solitary lesion, is very rare. Steatocystoma simplex occurs most commonly on the face and the case reported herein involving the scalp is extremely rare. A 49-year-old man presented for evaluation and treatment of a solitary papule on the right parietal scalp which had persisted for a period of 1 year. The histopathologic examination revealed a thin-walled cyst consisting of stratified squamous epithelium with hyaline cuticle that lacked a stratum granulosum. Based on clinical and histologic findings, we diagnosed this case as steatocystoma simplex of the scalp and report this rare case. PMID:27303199

  17. On the existence of binary simplex codes. [using combinatorial construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple combinatorial construction, the existence of a binary simplex code with m codewords for all m is greater than or equal to 1 is proved. The problem of the shortest possible length is left open.

  18. Revision of infected knee arthroplasties in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Lindberg-Larsen, Martin; Jørgensen, Christoffer C; Bagger, Jens; Schrøder, Henrik M; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - The surgical treatment of periprosthetic knee infection is generally either a partial revision procedure (open debridement and exchange of the tibial insert) or a 2-stage exchange arthroplasty procedure. We describe the failure rates of these procedures on a nationwide basis. Patients and methods - 105 partial revisions (100 patients) and 215 potential 2-stage revision procedures (205 patients) performed due to infection from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013 were identified from the Danish Knee Arthroplasty Register (DKR). Failure was defined as surgically related death ≤ 90 days postoperatively, re-revision due to infection, or not reaching the second stage for a planned 2-stage procedure within a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.2-4.2) years. Results - The failure rate of the partial revisions was 43%. 71 of the partial revisions (67%) were revisions of a primary prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 34%, as compared to 55% in revisions of a revision prosthesis (p = 0.05). The failure rate of the 2-stage revisions was 30%. Median time interval between stages was 84 (9-597) days. 117 (54%) of the 2-stage revisions were revisions of a primary prosthesis with a re-revision rate due to infection of 21%, as compared to 29% in revisions of a previously revised prosthesis (p = 0.1). Overall postoperative mortality was 0.6% in high-volume centers (> 30 procedures within 2 years) as opposed to 7% in the remaining centers (p = 0.003). Interpretation - The failure rates of 43% after the partial revision procedures and 30% after the 2-stage revisions in combination with the higher mortality outside high-volume centers call for centralization and reconsideration of surgical strategies. PMID:26900908

  19. Herpes Simplex Virus and Varicella-Zoster Virus.

    PubMed

    Levin, Myron J; Weinberg, Adriana; Schmid, D Scott

    2016-06-01

    The most common specimens from immunocompromised patients that are analyzed for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are from skin lesions. Many types of assays are applicable to these samples, but some, such as virus isolation and direct fluorescent antibody testing, are useful only in the early phases of the lesions. In contrast, nucleic acid (NA) detection methods, which generally have superior sensitivity and specificity, can be applied to skin lesions at any stage of progression. NA methods are also the best choice, and sometimes the only choice, for detecting HSV or VZV in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous or vitreous humor, and from mucosal surfaces. NA methods provide the best performance when reliability and speed (within 24 hours) are considered together. They readily distinguish the type of HSV detected or the source of VZV detected (wild type or vaccine strain). Nucleic acid detection methods are constantly being improved with respect to speed and ease of performance. Broader applications are under study, such as the use of quantitative results of viral load for prognosis and to assess the efficacy of antiviral therapy. PMID:27337486

  20. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-15

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC–SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers’ equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC–SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  1. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteveen, Jeroen A. S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC-SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers' equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC-SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  2. Parallel Implementations Of The Nelder-Mead Simplex Algorithm For Unconstrained Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, J. E.; Torczon, Virginia

    1988-04-01

    We are interested in implementing direct search methods on parallel computers to solve the unconstrained minimization problem: Given a function f : IRn --? IR find an x E En that minimizes 1 (x). Our preliminary work has focused on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. The origin of the algorithm can be found in a 1962 paper by Spendley, Hext and Himsworth;1 Nelder and Meade proposed an adaptive version which proved to be much more robust in practice. Dennis and Woods3 give a clear presentation of the standard Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm; Woods4 includes a more complete discussion of implementation details as well as some preliminary convergence results. Since descriptions of the standard Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm appear in Nelder and Mead,2 Dennis and Woods,3 and Woods,4 we will limit our introductory discussion to the advantages and disadvantages of the algorithm, as well as some of the features which make it so popular. We then outline the approaches we have taken and discuss our preliminary results. We conclude with a discussion of future research and some observations about our findings.

  3. Characterisation of potential novel allergens in the fish parasite Anisakis simplex

    PubMed Central

    Fæste, Christiane Kruse; Jonscher, Karen R.; Dooper, Maaike M.W.B.; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Moen, Anders; Daschner, Alvaro; Egaas, Eliann; Christians, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex occurs in fish stocks in temperate seas. A. simplex contamination of fish products is unsavoury and a health concern considering human infection with live larvae (anisakiasis) and allergic reactions to anisakid proteins in seafood. Protein extracts of A. simplex produce complex band patterns in gel electrophoresis and IgE-immunostaining. In the present study potential allergens have been characterised using sera from A. simplex-sensitised patients and proteome data obtained by mass spectrometry. A. simplex proteins were homologous to allergens in other nematodes, insects, and shellfish indicating cross-reactivity. Characteristic marker peptides for relevant A. simplex proteins were described. PMID:27110489

  4. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. Method This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. Results 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). Interpretation In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties. PMID:25267502

  5. Development of a reservoir type prolonged release system with felodipine via simplex methodology

    PubMed Central

    IOVANOV, RAREŞ IULIU; TOMUŢĂ, IOAN; LEUCUŢA, SORIN EMILIAN

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Felodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist that presents good characteristics to be formulated as prolonged release preparations. The aim of the study was the formulation and in vitro characterization of a reservoir type prolonged release system with felodipine, over a 12 hours period using the Simplex method. Methods The first step of the Simplex method was to study the influence of the granules coating method on the felodipine release. Furthermore the influence of the coating polymer type, the percent of the coating polymer and the percent of pore forming agent in the coating on the felodipine release were studied. Afterwards these two steps of the experimental design the percent of Surelease applied on the felodipine loaded granules and the percent of pore former in the polymeric coating formulation variables were studied. The in vitro dissolution of model drug was performed in phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.5) with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate. The released drug quantification was done using an HPLC method. The release kinetics of felodipine from the final granules was assessed using different mathematical models. Results A 12 hours release was achieved using granules with the size between 315–500 μm coated with 45% Surelease with different pore former ratios in the coating via the top-spray method. Conclusion We have prepared prolonged release coated granules with felodipine using a fluid bed system based on the Simplex method. The API from the studied final formulations was released over a 12 hours period and the release kinetics of the model drug substance from the optimized preparations fitted best the Higuchi and Peppas kinetic models. PMID:27004036

  6. Mycosis inhibits cannibalism by Melanoplus sanguinipes, M. differentialis, Schistocerca americana, and Anabrus simplex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cannibalism is common among the Acrididae and the Mormon cricket, Anabrus simplex, a tettigonid. These behaviors have been proposed as mechanisms for the horizontal transmission of Microsporida and entomopathogenic fungi. After anecdotal observations that Melanoplus sanguinipes and A. simplex did ...

  7. Herpes simplex virus duodenitis accompanying Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Hoo; Um, Wook Hyun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Jin-Oh; Jin, So Young

    2013-11-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a recognized cause of gastrointestinal infection in immunodeficient patients. Although a few cases of HSV gastritis and colitis in immunocompromised patients have been reported, there are no reports of HSV duodenitis in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). A 74-year-old female was admitted with general weakness and refractory epigastric pain. She had been diagnosed with CD three years ago. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed diffuse edematous and whitish mucosa with multiple erosions in the duodenum. Considering the possibility of viral co-infection, cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunohistochemical staining, PCR, and cultures of duodenal biopsies were performed, all of which were negative with the exception of the isolation of HSV in culture. After administration of intravenous acyclovir for 1 week, follow-up EGD showed almost complete resolution of the lesions and the patient's symptoms improved. In CD patients with refractory gastro-intestinal symptoms, HSV, as well as CMV, should be considered as a possible cause of infection, so that the diagnosis of viral infection is not delayed and the appropriate antiviral treatment can be initiated. PMID:24262595

  8. Antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Vere Hodge, R Anthony; Field, Hugh J

    2013-01-01

    This review starts with a brief description of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), the clinical diseases they cause, and the continuing clinical need for antiviral chemotherapy. A historical overview describes the progress from the early, rather toxic antivirals to acyclovir (ACV) which led the way for its prodrug, valacyclovir, to penciclovir and its prodrug, famciclovir (FCV). These compounds have been the mainstay of HSV therapy for two decades and have established a remarkable safety record. This review focuses on these compounds, the preclinical studies which reveal potentially important differences, the clinical trials, and the clinical experience through two decades. Some possible areas for further investigation are suggested. The focus shifts to new approaches and novel compounds, in particular, the combination of ACV with hydrocortisone, known as ME609 or zovirax duo, an HSV helicase-primase inhibitor, pritelivir (AIC316), and CMX001, the cidofovir prodrug for treating resistant HSV infection in immunocompromised patients. Letermovir has established that the human cytomegalovirus terminase enzyme is a valid target and that similar compounds could be sought for HSV. We discuss the difficulties facing the progression of new compounds. In our concluding remarks, we summarize the present situation including a discussion on the reclassification of FCV from prescription-only to pharmacist-controlled for herpes labialis in New Zealand in 2010; should this be repeated more widely? We conclude that HSV research is emerging from a quiescent phase. PMID:23885997

  9. Uncoating the Herpes Simplex Virus Genome

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Initiation of infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) involves a step in which the parental virus capsid docks at a nuclear pore and injects its DNA into the nucleus. Once “uncoated” in this way, the virus DNA can be transcribed and replicated. In an effort to clarify the mechanism of DNA injection, we examined DNA release as it occurs in purified capsids incubated in vitro. DNA ejection was observed following two different treatments, trypsin digestion of capsids in solution, and heating of capsids after attachment to a solid surface. In both cases, electron microscopic analysis revealed that DNA was ejected as a single double helix with ejection occurring at one vertex presumed to be the portal. In the case of trypsin-treated capsids, DNA release was found to correlate with cleavage of a small proportion of the portal protein, UL6, suggesting UL6 cleavage may be involved in making the capsid permissive for DNA ejection. In capsids bound to a solid surface, DNA ejection was observed only when capsids were warmed above 4°C. The proportion of capsids releasing their DNA increased as a function of incubation temperature with nearly all capsids ejecting their DNA when incubation was at 37°C. The results demonstrate heterogeneity among HSV-1 capsids with respect to their sensitivity to heat-induced DNA ejection. Such heterogeneity may indicate a similar heterogeneity in the ease with which capsids are able to deliver DNA to the infected cell nucleus. PMID:17540405

  10. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, E K; Bloom, D C

    1997-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of herpes simplex virus infection generally involve a mild and localized primary infection followed by asymptomatic (latent) infection interrupted sporadically by periods of recrudescence (reactivation) where virus replication and associated cytopathologic findings are manifest at the site of initial infection. During the latent phase of infection, viral genomes, but not infectious virus itself, can be detected in sensory and autonomic neurons. The process of latent infection and reactivation has been subject to continuing investigation in animal models and, more recently, in cultured cells. The initiation and maintenance of latent infection in neurons are apparently passive phenomena in that no virus gene products need be expressed or are required. Despite this, a single latency-associated transcript (LAT) encoded by DNA encompassing about 6% of the viral genome is expressed during latent infection in a minority of neurons containing viral DNA. This transcript is spliced, and the intron derived from this splicing is stably maintained in the nucleus of neurons expressing it. Reactivation, which can be induced by stress and assayed in several animal models, is facilitated by the expression of LAT. Although the mechanism of action of LAT-mediated facilitation of reactivation is not clear, all available evidence argues against its involving the expression of a protein. Rather, the most consistent models of action involve LAT expression playing a cis-acting role in a very early stage of the reactivation process. PMID:9227860

  11. A Drosophila Model of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Bohnekamp, Jens; Cryderman, Diane E; Paululat, Achim; Baccam, Gabriel C; Wallrath, Lori L; Magin, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    The blistering skin disorder epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) results from dominant mutations in keratin 5 (K5) or keratin 14 (K14) genes, encoding the intermediate filament (IF) network of basal epidermal keratinocytes. The mechanisms governing keratin network formation and collapse due to EBS mutations remain incompletely understood. Drosophila lacks cytoplasmic IFs, providing a 'null' environment to examine the formation of keratin networks and determine mechanisms by which mutant keratins cause pathology. Here, we report that ubiquitous co-expression of transgenes encoding wild-type human K14 and K5 resulted in the formation of extensive keratin networks in Drosophila epithelial and non-epithelial tissues, causing no overt phenotype. Similar to mammalian cells, treatment of transgenic fly tissues with phosphatase inhibitors caused keratin network collapse, validating Drosophila as a genetic model system to investigate keratin dynamics. Co-expression of K5 and a K14(R125C) mutant that causes the most severe form of EBS resulted in widespread formation of EBS-like cytoplasmic keratin aggregates in epithelial and non-epithelial fly tissues. Expression of K14(R125C)/K5 caused semi-lethality; adult survivors developed wing blisters and were flightless due to a lack of intercellular adhesion during wing heart development. This Drosophila model of EBS is valuable for the identification of pathways altered by mutant keratins and for the development of EBS therapies. PMID:25830653

  12. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tamara P.; Mitchell, Michelle C.; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A.; Belshe, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency. PMID:26658766

  13. Position error propagation in the simplex strapdown navigation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The results of an analysis of the effects of deterministic error sources on position error in the simplex strapdown navigation system were documented. Improving the long term accuracy of the system was addressed in two phases: understanding and controlling the error within the system, and defining methods of damping the net system error through the use of an external reference velocity or position. Review of the flight and ground data revealed error containing the Schuler frequency as well as non-repeatable trends. The only unbounded terms are those involving gyro bias and azimuth error coupled with velocity. All forms of Schuler-periodic position error were found to be sufficiently large to require update or damping capability unless the source coefficients can be limited to values less than those used in this analysis for misalignment and gyro and accelerometer bias. The first-order effects of the deterministic error sources were determined with a simple error propagator which provided plots of error time functions in response to various source error values.

  14. Clinical Correlates of Herpes Simplex Virus Viremia Among Hospitalized Adults

    PubMed Central

    Berrington, William R.; Jerome, Keith R.; Cook, Linda; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Casper, Corey

    2009-01-01

    Background The quantification of herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA from the peripheral blood is often used to evaluate patients suspected of having disseminated HSV infection. Few studies have examined the clinical correlates of HSV viremia among adults. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of blood samples sent to a reference molecular virology diagnostic facility at a university hospital for quantification of HSV DNA between October 2001 and June 2006. Medical records of patients with detectable HSV DNA were reviewed to abstract relevant clinical characteristics. Results HSV DNA was detected in 37 (4.0%) of 951 samples from 29 individual patients. 19 (65.5%) were >16 years of age, and detailed medical records were available for review from 13 (68.4%) of 19 adults patients. Of the 10 patients whose HSV infection was typed, 6 (60%) had HSV-2, 3 (30%) had HSV-1, and one had evidence of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 infection. All viremic patients were treated with antiviral medications. The most common clinical findings were hepatitis (62%), fever (54%), CNS alterations (46%), skin lesions (38%), abdominal pain (31%), and sepsis (31%). Respiratory failure (23%) was uncommon. Patients with HSV viremia were observed to have a high mortality rate (6 of 10 immunocompromised and 1 of 3 immunocompetent individuals). Conclusions HSV viremia may be associated with a variety of morbid signs and symptoms in hospitalized immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, and is associated with high rates of mortality, though causality can only be determined by additional studies. PMID:19807272

  15. Bioactive lignan derivatives from the stems of Firmiana simplex.

    PubMed

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Suh, Won Se; Subedi, Lalita; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Aejung; Lee, Kang Ro

    2016-02-01

    The CHCl3 soluble fraction of the 80% MeOH extract of the stems of Firmiana simplex strongly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 cells. A bioactivity-guided column chromatographic separation yielded two new lignans, firmianols A and B (1-2) together with seventeen known lignans (3-19). The structural elucidation of the new compounds was determined by spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D NMR and HR-FAB-MS. All isolated lignans were evaluated for their antineuroinflammatory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-activated murine microglia BV2 cells. Among the isolated, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent inhibitory activity against NO production (IC50 1.05 and 0.929 μM, respectively) without cell toxicity in murine microglia BV-2 cells. Compounds 11-13 and 17 also exhibited strong inhibitory effects on NO production, with IC50 values ranging from 7.07 to 15.28 μM. PMID:26774654

  16. Higher Throughput Quantification of Neutralizing Antibody to Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Tamara P; Mitchell, Michelle C; Korom, Maria; Wang, Hong; Yu, Yinyi; Morrison, Lynda A; Belshe, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    We report a rapid, higher throughput method for measuring neutralizing antibody to herpes simplex virus (HSV) in human sera. Clinical isolates and sera from the Herpevac Trial for Women were used in a colorimetric assay in which infection of tissue culture (lack of neutralization) was indicated by substrate metabolism by beta-galactosidase induced in the ELVIS cell line. The neutralization assay was optimized by addition of guinea pig complement, which particularly enhanced neutralizing antibody titers to HSV-2. Higher neutralizing antibody titers were also achieved using virus particles isolated from the supernatant of infected cells rather than lysate of infected cells as the source of virus. The effect of assay incubation time and incubation time with substrate were also optimized. We found that incubating with substrate until a standard optical density of 1.0 was reached permitted a better comparison among virus isolates, and achieved reliable measurement of neutralizing antibody activity. Interestingly, in contrast to results in the absence of complement, addition of complement allowed sera from HSV-2 gD-vaccinated subjects to neutralize HSV-1 and HSV-2 clinical and laboratory isolates with equal potency. PMID:26658766

  17. A pilot application of risk-informed methods to establish inservice inspection priorities for nuclear components at Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Station. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, T.V.; Phan, H.K.; Gore, B.F.; Simonen, F.A.; Doctor, S.R.

    1997-02-01

    As part of the Nondestructive Evaluation Reliability Program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed risk-informed approaches for inservice inspection plans of nuclear power plants. This method uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) results to identify and prioritize the most risk-important components for inspection. The Surry Nuclear Power Station Unit 1 was selected for pilot application of this methodology. This report, which incorporates more recent plant-specific information and improved risk-informed methodology and tools, is Revision 1 of the earlier report (NUREG/CR-6181). The methodology discussed in the original report is no longer current and a preferred methodology is presented in this Revision. This report, NUREG/CR-6181, Rev. 1, therefore supersedes the earlier NUREG/CR-6181 published in August 1994. The specific systems addressed in this report are the auxiliary feedwater, the low-pressure injection, and the reactor coolant systems. The results provide a risk-informed ranking of components within these systems.

  18. 3D radiative transfer in colliding wind binaries: Application of the SimpleX algorithm to 3D SPH simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madura, Thomas; Clementel, Nicola; Kruip, Chael; Icke, Vincent; Gull, Theodore

    2014-09-01

    We present the first results of full 3D radiative transfer simulations of the colliding stellar winds in a massive binary system. We accomplish this by applying the SIMPLEX algorithm for 3D radiative transfer on an unstructured Delaunay grid to recent 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of the colliding winds in the binary system η Carinae. We use SIMPLEX to obtain detailed ionization fractions of hydrogen and helium, in 3D, at the resolution of the original SPH simulations. We show how the SIMPLEX simulations can be used to generate synthetic spectral data cubes for comparison to data obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph as part of a multi-cycle program to map changes in η Car's extended interacting wind structures across one binary cycle. Comparison of the HST observations to the SIMPLEX models can help lead to more accurate constraints on the orbital, stellar, and wind parameters of the η Car system, such as the primary's mass-loss rate and the companion's temperature and luminosity. While we initially focus specifically on the η Car binary, the numerical methods employed can be applied to numerous other colliding wind (WR140, WR137, WR19) and dusty 'pinwheel' (WR104, WR98a) binary systems. One of the biggest remaining mysteries is how dust can form and survive in such systems that contain a hot, luminous O star. Coupled with 3D hydrodynamical simulations, SIMPLEX simulations have the potential to help determine the regions where dust can form and survive in these unique objects.

  19. The Shortlist Method for Fast Computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and Finding Optimal Solutions to Transportation Problems

    PubMed Central

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  20. The Shortlist Method for fast computation of the Earth Mover's Distance and finding optimal solutions to transportation problems.

    PubMed

    Gottschlich, Carsten; Schuhmacher, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Finding solutions to the classical transportation problem is of great importance, since this optimization problem arises in many engineering and computer science applications. Especially the Earth Mover's Distance is used in a plethora of applications ranging from content-based image retrieval, shape matching, fingerprint recognition, object tracking and phishing web page detection to computing color differences in linguistics and biology. Our starting point is the well-known revised simplex algorithm, which iteratively improves a feasible solution to optimality. The Shortlist Method that we propose substantially reduces the number of candidates inspected for improving the solution, while at the same time balancing the number of pivots required. Tests on simulated benchmarks demonstrate a considerable reduction in computation time for the new method as compared to the usual revised simplex algorithm implemented with state-of-the-art initialization and pivot strategies. As a consequence, the Shortlist Method facilitates the computation of large scale transportation problems in viable time. In addition we describe a novel method for finding an initial feasible solution which we coin Modified Russell's Method. PMID:25310106

  1. A New Method for Revision of Encapsulated Blebs after Trabeculectomy: Combination of Standard Bleb Needling with Transconjunctival Scleral Flap Sutures Prevents Early Postoperative Hypotony

    PubMed Central

    Laspas, Panagiotis; Culmann, Philipp David; Grus, Franz Hermann; Prokosch-Willing, Verena; Poplawksi, Alicia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Hoffmann, Esther Maria

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A simple needling procedure is the standard method for restoring the function of an encapsulated bleb after trabeculectomy. However, postoperative hypotony represents a possible hazard. This study describes a new surgical approach for treating encapsulated blebs with reduced risk of early postoperative hypotony: bleb needling combined with transconjunctival sutures tightening the scleral flap directly. Methods The study included two groups of 23 patients with failing bleb following trabeculectomy: “Group 1” underwent simple needling revision of the filtering bleb and served as a control group, while “Group 2” received needling revision with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures, if intraoperatively the intraocular pressure was estimated to be very low. Intraocular pressure (IOP), postoperative management and complications were analyzed over a follow-up period of 4 weeks postoperatively. Results were compared using t-test or Mann-Whitney U-tests. Results Adverse effects occurred with a higher frequency after sole needling of the bleb (5 cases of choroidal effusion and 1 case of choroidal hemorrhage) than after the combined method with additional scleral sutures (1 case of choroidal effusion). The IOP on the first postoperative day was significantly lower in group 1, with 9.43 ± 9.01 mm Hg vs. 16.43 ± 8.35 mm Hg in group 2 (P = 0.01). Ten patients with ocular hypotony (IOD of 5 mmHg or lower) were found in group 1 and only two in group 2. One week and one month after surgery the intraocular pressure was similar in both groups (P>0.05). Conclusions This new needling technique with additional transconjunctival scleral flap sutures appears to reduce postoperative hypotony, and may thus protect from further complications, such as subchoroidal hemorrhage. PMID:27314495

  2. Retargeting Strategies for Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Campadelli-Fiume, Gabriella; Petrovic, Biljana; Leoni, Valerio; Gianni, Tatiana; Avitabile, Elisa; Casiraghi, Costanza; Gatta, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Most of the oncolytic herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) exhibit a high safety profile achieved through attenuation. They carry defects in virulence proteins that antagonize host cell response to the virus, including innate response, apoptosis, authophagy, and depend on tumor cell proliferation. They grow robustly in cancer cells, provided that these are deficient in host cell responses, which is often the case. To overcome the attenuation limits, a strategy is to render the virus highly cancer-specific, e.g., by retargeting their tropism to cancer-specific receptors, and detargeting from natural receptors. The target we selected is HER-2, overexpressed in breast, ovarian and other cancers. Entry of wt-HSV requires the essential glycoproteins gD, gH/gL and gB. Here, we reviewed that oncolytic HSV retargeting was achieved through modifications in gD: the addition of a single-chain antibody (scFv) to HER-2 coupled with appropriate deletions to remove part of the natural receptors’ binding sites. Recently, we showed that also gH/gL can be a retargeting tool. The insertion of an scFv to HER-2 at the gH N-terminus, coupled with deletions in gD, led to a recombinant capable to use HER-2 as the sole receptor. The retargeted oncolytic HSVs can be administered systemically by means of carrier cells-forcedly-infected mesenchymal stem cells. Altogether, the retargeted oncolytic HSVs are highly cancer-specific and their replication is not dependent on intrinsic defects of the tumor cells. They might be further modified to express immunomodulatory molecules. PMID:26927159

  3. Herpes simplex virus virion host shutoff function.

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, A D; Kruper, J A; Frenkel, N

    1988-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions contain one or more functions which mediate the shutoff of host protein synthesis and the degradation of host mRNA. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) mutants deficient in the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis (vhs mutants) were isolated and were found to be defective in their ability to degrade host mRNA. Furthermore, it was found that viral mRNAs in cells infected with the vhs 1 mutant have a significantly longer functional half-life than viral mRNAs in wild-type virus-infected cells. In the present study we have mapped the vhs1 mutation affecting the virion shutoff of host protein synthesis to a 265-base-pair NruI-XmaIII fragment spanning map coordinates 0.604 to 0.606 of the HSV-1 genome. The mutation(s) affecting the functional half-lives of host mRNA as well as the alpha (immediate-early), beta (early), and gamma (late) viral mRNAs were also mapped within this 265-base-pair fragment. Thus, the shutoff of host protein synthesis is most likely mediated by the same function which decreases the half-life of viral mRNA. The shorter half-life of infected-cell mRNAs may allow a more rapid modulation of viral gene expression in response to changes in the transcription of viral genes. Interestingly, the vhs1 mutation of HSV-1 maps within a region which overlaps the Bg/II-N sequences of HSV-2 DNA shown previously to transform cells in culture. The possible relationship between the transformation and host shutoff functions are discussed. Images PMID:2828686

  4. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  5. SIMPLEX: simulator and postprocessor for free-electron laser experiments.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    SIMPLEX is a computer program developed for simulating the amplification process of free-electron lasers (FELs). It numerically solves the so-called FEL equations describing the evolution of the radiation field and growth of microbunching while the electron beam travels along the undulator. In order to reduce the numerical cost, the FEL equations have been reduced to more convenient forms for numerical implementation by applying reasonable approximations. SIMPLEX is equipped with a postprocessor to facilitate the retrieval of desired information from the simulation results, which is crucial for practical applications such as designing the beamline and analyzing the experimental results. PMID:26289287

  6. Scar revision

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mohit; Wakure, Abhijeet

    2013-01-01

    Most surgical patients end up with a scar and most of these would want at least some improvement in the appearance of the scar. Using sound techniques for wound closure surgeons can, to a certain extent, prevent suboptimal scars. This article reviews the principles of prevention and treatment of suboptimal scars. Surgical techniques of scar revision, i.e., Z plasty, W plasty, and geometrical broken line closure are described. Post-operative care and other adjuvant therapies of scars are described. A short description of dermabrasion and lasers for management of scars is given. It is hoped that this review helps the surgeon to formulate a comprehensive plan for management of scars of these patients. PMID:24516292

  7. Changes in nurses’ work associated with computerised information systems: Opportunities for international comparative studies using the revised Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT)

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Creswick, Nerida J.; Duffield, Christine; Li, Ling; Dunsmuir, William T. M.

    2012-01-01

    An important step in advancing global health through informatics is to understand how systems support health professionals to deliver improved services to patients. Studies in several countries have highlighted the potential for clinical information systems to change patterns of work and communication, and in particular have raised concerns that they reduce nurses’ time in direct care. However measuring the effects of systems on work is challenging and comparisons across studies have been hindered by a lack of standardised definitions and measurement tools. This paper describes the Work Observation Method by Activity Time (WOMBAT) technique version 1.0 and the ways in which the data generated can describe different aspects of health professionals’ work. In 2011 a revised WOMBAT version 2.0 was developed specifically to facilitate its use by research teams in different countries. The new features provide opportunities for international comparative studies of nurses’ work to be conducted. PMID:24199139

  8. A Case Series: Herpes Simplex Virus as an Occupational Hazard

    PubMed Central

    Browning, William D; McCarthy, James P

    2012-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes labialis infections are common and present a serious risk to the dental team. Purpose of the Study The purpose is to make dentists aware of the risks involved with treatment of patients with active herpes labialis. In addition, evidence-based risk-management strategies are presented. Methods and Materials The incidence and natural history of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are reviewed. Four previously unreported case histories are presented to illustrate the impact common sequelae of HSV-1 can have on the dental team. The differences between HSV-1 and the blood-borne diseases which are the focus of universal precautions are discussed. In particular, the highly contagious, highly transmissible nature of HSV-1 and its transmission through aerosols are highlighted. Finally, the need to include protection against aerosols in the profession's understanding of universal precautions is noted. Results The authors suggest limiting the treatment of patients with active lesions to urgent care only, and treating active HSV-1 lesions to reduce time of healing. For four common clinical situations involving HSV-1 infections, evidence-based methods for protecting the dental team and the patient from cross-contamination are also presented. Conclusion While it is clear that the treatment of patients with active herpes labialis lesions increases risk of cross-infection, there are good protocols for controlling this risk. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE By bringing common vectors of cross-infection to light and providing evidence-based protocols for preventing them, this article provides practitioners with positive steps that can be taken for controlling the risk of spreading herpes infections to the dental team. (J Esthet Restor Dent 24:61–67, 2012) PMID:22296698

  9. Screening of pollution control and clean-up materials for river chemical spills using the multiple case-based reasoning method with a difference-driven revision strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rentao; Jiang, Jiping; Guo, Liang; Shi, Bin; Liu, Jie; Du, Zhaolin; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-01

    In-depth filtering of emergency disposal technology (EDT) and materials has been required in the process of environmental pollution emergency disposal. However, an urgent problem that must be solved is how to quickly and accurately select the most appropriate materials for treating a pollution event from the existing spill control and clean-up materials (SCCM). To meet this need, the following objectives were addressed in this study. First, the material base and a case base for environment pollution emergency disposal were established to build a foundation and provide material for SCCM screening. Second, the multiple case-based reasoning model method with a difference-driven revision strategy (DDRS-MCBR) was applied to improve the original dual case-based reasoning model method system, and screening and decision-making was performed for SCCM using this model. Third, an actual environmental pollution accident from 2012 was used as a case study to verify the material base, case base, and screening model. The results demonstrated that the DDRS-MCBR method was fast, efficient, and practical. The DDRS-MCBR method changes the passive situation in which the choice of SCCM screening depends only on the subjective experience of the decision maker and offers a new approach to screening SCCM. PMID:26922461

  10. Testing for Herpes Simplex Virus in Low-Volume Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples: Comparison of Three Protocols To Optimize Detection

    PubMed Central

    Espy, Mark J.; Irish, Cole L.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a medical emergency and requires rapid, sensitive testing. However, the volume of CSF received for microbiological studies may be limited, especially from young children. In this study, we compared three testing protocols to our routine real-time PCR method to determine the most sensitive approach for detecting HSV-1 and HSV-2 in low-volume (≤100 μl) CSF. PMID:26400783

  11. [The lysate and recombinant antigens in ELISA-test-systems for diagnostic of herpes simplex].

    PubMed

    Ganova, L A; Kovtoniuk, G V; Korshun, L N; Kiseleva, E K; Tereshchenko, M I; Vudmaska, M I; Moĭsa, L N; Shevchuk, V A; Spivak, N Ia

    2014-08-01

    The lysate and recombinant antigens of various production included informula of ELISA-test-systems were analyzed. The ELISA-test-systems are used for detection of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I and II. For testing the panel of serums PTH 201 (BBI Inc.) were used. The samples of this panel contain antibodies to Herpes simplex virus type I and II in mixed titers. The 69 serums of donors were used too (17 samples had IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I, 23 samples to Herpes simplex virus type II and 29 samples had no antibodies to Herpes simplex virus). The diagnostic capacity of mixture of recombinant antigens gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I and gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II (The research-and-production complex "DiaprofMed") was comparable with mixture of lysate antigen Herpes simplex virus type I and II (Membrane) EIE Antigen ("Virion Ltd."). In the test-systems for differentiation of IgG to Herpes simplex virus type I the recombinant antigen gG1 Herpes simplex virus type I proved to be comparable with commercial analogue Herpes simplex virus-1 gG1M ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."'). At the same time, capacity to detect IgG to Herpes simplex virus type II in recombinant protein gG2 Herpes simplex virus type II is significantly higher than in its analogue Herpes simplex virus-2 gG2c ("Viral Therapeutics Inc."). PMID:25552056

  12. Replication-Competent Controlled Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, David C.; Feller, Joyce; McAnany, Peterjon; Vilaboa, Nuria

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We present the development and characterization of a replication-competent controlled herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). Replication-essential ICP4 and ICP8 genes of HSV-1 wild-type strain 17syn+ were brought under the control of a dually responsive gene switch. The gene switch comprises (i) a transactivator that is activated by a narrow class of antiprogestins, including mifepristone and ulipristal, and whose expression is mediated by a promoter cassette that comprises an HSP70B promoter and a transactivator-responsive promoter and (ii) transactivator-responsive promoters that drive the ICP4 and ICP8 genes. Single-step growth experiments in different cell lines demonstrated that replication of the recombinant virus, HSV-GS3, is strictly dependent on an activating treatment consisting of administration of a supraphysiological heat dose in the presence of an antiprogestin. The replication-competent controlled virus replicates with an efficiency approaching that of the wild-type virus from which it was derived. Essentially no replication occurs in the absence of activating treatment or if HSV-GS3-infected cells are exposed only to heat or antiprogestin. These findings were corroborated by measurements of amounts of viral DNA and transcripts of the regulated ICP4 gene and the glycoprotein C (gC) late gene, which was not regulated. Similar findings were made in experiments with a mouse footpad infection model. IMPORTANCE The alphaherpesviruses have long been considered vectors for recombinant vaccines and oncolytic therapies. The traditional approach uses vector backbones containing attenuating mutations that restrict replication to ensure safety. The shortcoming of this approach is that the attenuating mutations tend to limit both the immune presentation and oncolytic properties of these vectors. HSV-GS3 represents a novel type of vector that, when activated, replicates with the efficiency of a nonattenuated virus and whose safety is derived from deliberate

  13. The "Other" Venereal Diseases: Herpes Simplex, Trichomoniasis and Candidiasis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNab, Warren L.

    1979-01-01

    Although the term venereal disease has been synonymous with gonorrhea and syphilis, the Center for Disease Control now states that the number of new cases of herpes simplex, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis is rapidly approaching the number of cases of syphilis and gonorrhea. (MM)

  14. Prevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Antibodies in Dental Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodu, Brad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study of 125 sophomore preclinical dental students found that these young professionals, because of having a low prevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibodies, are at risk for acquiring a primary HSV infection when treating HSV positive patients and should take precautions to avoid virus transmission. (MSE)

  15. The N-Simplex and Its Generalizations towards Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosi-Ulbl, Irena; Pagon, Dusan

    2002-01-01

    Nature is full of different crystals and many of them have shapes of regular geometric objects. Those in which the fractal structure of a geometric object can be recognized are especially unusual. In this paper a generalization of one of these shapes is described: a formation, based on an n-dimensional simplex. The construction of an n-dimensional…

  16. Nonlinear and Quasi-Simplex Patterns in Latent Growth Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianconcini, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    In the SEM literature, simplex and latent growth models have always been considered competing approaches for the analysis of longitudinal data, even if they are strongly connected and both of specific importance. General dynamic models, which simultaneously estimate autoregressive structures and latent curves, have been recently proposed in the…

  17. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  18. The Longitudinal Guttman Simplex: Applications to Health Behavior Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Dent, Clyde W.

    Because health behavior is often concerned with dynamic constructs, a longitudinal approach to measurement is needed. The Longitudinal Guttman Simplex (LGS) is a measurement model developed especially for dynamic constructs exhibiting cumulative, unitary development measured longitudinally. Data from the Television Smoking Prevention Project, a…

  19. Larvicidal constituents of Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Anisakis simplex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Rong-Jyh; Chen, Chung-Yi; Lee, June-Der; Lu, Chin-Mei; Chung, Li-Yu; Yen, Chuan-Min

    2010-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the anthelmintic activity of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol, compounds isolated from the roots of Zingiber officinale L., Zingiberaceae (ginger), against Anisakis simplex. The above compounds kill or reduce spontaneous movement in A. simplex larvae. The maximum lethal efficacy of [10]-shogaol and [10]-gingerol was approximately 80% and 100%, respectively. We further examined the time course of compound-induced loss of mobility in A. simplex. The results showed that various concentrations of [10]-shogaol, [6]-shogaol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-gingerol have maximum effects on loss of spontaneous movement from 24 to 72 h. In addition, the time course of mortality and the percentage of loss of spontaneous movements were ascertained to determine the minimum effective doses of [10]-gingerol and [10]-shogaol. [10]-Gingerol exhibited a larger maximum larvicidal effect and greater loss of spontaneous movement than [10]-shogaol and albendazole. In addition, these constituents of Zingiber officinale showed effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals. These constituents of Zingiber officinale are responsible for its larvicidal activity against A. simplex. PMID:20533167

  20. Intrauterine herpes simplex virus infection presenting with hypopigmented lesions.

    PubMed

    Low, Lynette C M; Carton, James; Walker, Marjorie; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Hardman, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a sexually transmitted infection that can be transmitted from mother to child in utero, perinatally, or postnatally. Cutaneous infection with HSV commonly presents as vesicles affecting the skin, eyes, or mouth. In our case, we report a well child with cutaneous hypopigmented patches at birth that preceded typical blistering. PMID:22010816

  1. Argument Structure of Tsou: Simplex and Complex Predicates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Gujing

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the argument structure of Tsou, a Formosan language within the Austronesian family. The investigation studies both simplex and complex predicates as well as describes the valency groupings and alignment patterns emerging from various clausal configurations. Assuming the stance that language description should respect…

  2. Recurrent Lymphocytic Meningitis Positive for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Seppänen, Mikko; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lappalainen, Maija; Valtonen, Ville; Färkkilä, Markus; Kalso, Eija

    2009-01-01

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996–2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2–5 days after symptom onset. PMID:19624935

  3. Recurrent lymphocytic meningitis positive for herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Kallio-Laine, Katariina; Seppänen, Mikko; Kautiainen, Hannu; Lokki, Marja Liisa; Lappalainen, Maija; Valtonen, Ville; Färkkilä, Markus; Kalso, Eija

    2009-07-01

    We found the prevalence of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was 2.2/100,000 population in Finland during 1996-2006, higher than previous estimates. PCR was most sensitive in detecting HSV-2 DNA from cerebrospinal fluid if the sample was taken 2-5 days after symptom onset. PMID:19624935

  4. Numerical analysis of EPR spectra. 7. The simplex algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Athelstan L. J.; Brumby, Steven

    The Simplex algorithm is well suited to the least-squares analysis of highly complex EPR spectra. The application of the algorithm to the analysis of the spectra of benzo[ a]pyrenyl-6-oxy, chloro(methoxycarbonyl)methyl, and cyano(methoxy)methyl free radicals is described.

  5. SIMPLEX OPTIMIZATION OF MULTIELEMENT ULTRASONIC EXTRACTION OF ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Simplex search was used to locate an optimum for an ultrasonic extraction of trace elements from atmospheric particulates collected on glass fiber high-volume sampler filters. The optimized procedure produced quantitative results for 13 elements with precisions of 10% or less, ...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305...

  11. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  12. The Law of Cosines for an "n"-Dimensional Simplex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Yiren

    2008-01-01

    Using the divergence theorem technique of L. Eifler and N.H. Rhee, "The n-dimensional Pythagorean Theorem via the Divergence Theorem" (to appear: Amer. Math. Monthly), we extend the law of cosines for a triangle in a plane to an "n"-dimensional simplex in an "n"-dimensional space.

  13. Laboratory development and field evaluation of a generic method for sampling and analysis of isocyanates. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGaughey, J.F.; Foster, S.C.; Merrill, R.G.

    1995-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the authority of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, requires the identification and validation of sampling and analytical methods for the isocyanate compounds which are listed among the 189 hazardous air pollutants identified in Title III. In all, three field tests were performed to accomplish the isocyanate field evaluation. The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate the isocyanate sampling and analytical test method through field testing at operating stationary sources. The method was evaluated by collecting flue gas samples for the analysis of the individual isocyanate and evaluating the data for bias and precision. EPA Method 301, Field Validation of Pollutant Measurement Methods from Various Waste Media, was used as the model for the experimental design of this method evaluation project.

  14. Revision sphenoidethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Eichel, B S

    1985-03-01

    In 1981, a series of 236 intranasal ethmoidectomy (INE) procedures was reported with a complication rate of 1.8%. Special attention has subsequently been directed to the surgical failures; namely, recurrent nasal polyposis which accounted for approximately 17%. The reason for recurrence in most instances was felt due to failure to do a more thorough posterior ethmoidectomy and enter and clean out the sphenoid sinuses. Subsequently, in all revision cases where a more thorough sphenoidethmoidectomy (RSE) was performed, the overall long-term success rate raised to better than 90%. Attention to skeletonizing the middle turbinate by stripping mucosa and leaving a thin bony shell is an important technical factor. An attempt is made to leave some of this bony skeletonized medial wall of the middle turbinate as it represents the most crucial landmark in doing the surgery via the intranasal route. There still remains approximately 8% to 10% of this patient population with nasal polyposis and sinusitis of such severity that surgery has offered only a temporary measure of relief. In dealing with this group it may be necessary to see these patients postoperatively at four to six-week intervals, carefully suctioning the ethmoid labyrinth and occasionally doing minor office "touch-up" ethmoidectomy-polypectomy procedures to clean off redundant mucosa or early polyposis. This paper is written to offer a compromise to the two schools of intranasal ethmoidectomy surgery as to the necessity of removing the middle turbinate in its entirety. PMID:3974381

  15. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method.

    PubMed

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the 'EZT method') by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  16. Unexpected but Most Welcome: Mixed Methods for the Validation and Revision of the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Pierre-Marc; Jacob, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Although combining methods is nothing new, more contributions about why and how to mix methods for validation purposes are needed. This article presents a case of validating the inferences drawn from the Participatory Evaluation Measurement Instrument, an instrument that purports to measure stakeholder participation in evaluation. Although the…

  17. Evolutionary Origins of Human Herpes Simplex Viruses 1 and 2

    PubMed Central

    Wertheim, Joel O.; Smith, Martin D.; Smith, Davey M.; Scheffler, Konrad; Kosakovsky Pond, Sergei L.

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. The primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus–host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes. Humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human population infected by at least one virus. Here, we investigated whether the additional human simplex virus is the result of ancient viral lineage duplication or cross-species transmission. We found that standard phylogenetic models of nucleotide substitution are inadequate for distinguishing among these competing hypotheses; the extent of synonymous substitutions causes a substantial underestimation of the lengths of some of the branches in the phylogeny, consistent with observations in other viruses (e.g., avian influenza, Ebola, and coronaviruses). To more accurately estimate ancient viral divergence times, we applied a branch-site random effects likelihood model of molecular evolution that allows the strength of natural selection to vary across both the viral phylogeny and the gene alignment. This selection-informed model favored a scenario in which HSV-1 is the result of ancient codivergence and HSV-2 arose from a cross-species transmission event from the ancestor of modern chimpanzees to an extinct Homo precursor of modern humans, around 1.6 Ma. These results provide a new framework for understanding human herpes simplex virus evolution and demonstrate the importance of using selection-informed models of sequence evolution when investigating viral origin hypotheses. PMID:24916030

  18. Revised method to detect the onset and demise dates of the rainy season in the South American Monsoon areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Sâmia R.; Calheiros, Alan J. P.; Kayano, Mary T.

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes the detection of dates for the onset and demise of the rainy season (ONR and DER, respectively) for some areas within the South American monsoon system (SAMS) region using procedures based on indices which could be easily calculated and subjected to very simple criterion. Previously, the time series of the averaged antisymmetric outgoing longwave radiation ([AOLR]) in each region of interest was used by some authors to detect ONR and DER. This method is referred to as OLD. First, it was proposed in this paper to smooth this time series with the five-pentad running mean ([RM_AOLR]). This modified method is called NEW. Then, an additional modification was adopted by smoothing the [AOLR] with the three-pentad running mean but with the [AOLR] in the most recent pentad being replaced by its climatological value ([RM_AOLRCLI]). This method is called NEW_CLI. For these methods, the criterion was that the first pentad with negative (positive) [AOLR] (or [RM_AOLR] or [RM_AOLRCLI]) is the ONR (DER) date in the region of interest. All these methods were applied for the Central Amazon (CAM) and Western-Central Brazil (WCB) regions during the rainy seasons in the 2001-2013 period. The efficiency of these methods was analyzed using the precipitation estimated from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis. The spatial average of the TRMM ([TRMM]) time series with threshold values, which depends on the area and season, was used to determine the ONR and DER dates. In this case, the single method based on the threshold value is called RAIN, and the method which considers the persistence of dry or wet condition is referred to as NEW_RAIN. Comparisons between the methods were performed by calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) when ONR and DER dates obtained from a given method were considered as the true dates. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods were discussed here. It was previously noted that the

  19. Estimation of Instantaneous Gas Exchange in Flow-Through Respirometry Systems: A Modern Revision of Bartholomew's Z-Transform Method

    PubMed Central

    Pendar, Hodjat; Socha, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Flow-through respirometry systems provide accurate measurement of gas exchange over long periods of time. However, these systems have limitations in tracking rapid changes. When an animal infuses a metabolic gas into the respirometry chamber in a short burst, diffusion and airflow in the chamber gradually alter the original signal before it arrives at the gas analyzer. For single or multiple bursts, the recorded signal is smeared or mixed, which may result in dramatically altered recordings compared to the emitted signal. Recovering the original metabolic signal is a difficult task because of the inherent ill conditioning problem. Here, we present two new methods to recover the fast dynamics of metabolic patterns from recorded data. We first re-derive the equations of the well-known Z-transform method (ZT method) to show the source of imprecision in this method. Then, we develop a new model of analysis for respirometry systems based on the experimentally determined impulse response, which is the response of the system to a very short unit input. As a result, we present a major modification of the ZT method (dubbed the ‘EZT method’) by using a new model for the impulse response, enhancing its precision to recover the true metabolic signals. The second method, the generalized Z-transform (GZT) method, was then developed by generalizing the EZT method; it can be applied to any flow-through respirometry system with any arbitrary impulse response. Experiments verified that the accuracy of recovering the true metabolic signals is significantly improved by the new methods. These new methods can be used more broadly for input estimation in variety of physiological systems. PMID:26466361

  20. Draft Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for managing treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive and hazardous waste. Volume 3, Appendix A: Public response to revised NOI, Appendix B: Environmental restoration, Appendix C, Environmental impact analysis methods, Appendix D, Risk

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Volume three contains appendices for the following: Public comments do DOE`s proposed revisions to the scope of the waste management programmatic environmental impact statement; Environmental restoration sensitivity analysis; Environmental impacts analysis methods; and Waste management facility human health risk estimates.

  1. Diagnostic imaging of herpes simplex virus encephalitis using a radiolabeled antiviral drug: autoradiographic assessment in an animal model

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Y.; Rubenstein, R.; Price, R.W.; Fox, J.J.; Watanabe, K.A.

    1984-06-01

    To develop a new approach to the diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis, we used a radiolabeled antiviral drug, 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinosyluracil labeled with carbon 14 ((14C)FMAU), as a probe for selectively imaging brain infection in a rat model by quantitative autoradiography. A high correlation was found between focal infection, as defined by immunoperoxidase viral antigen staining, and increased regional (14C)FMAU uptake in brain sections. Two potential sources of false-positive imaging were defined: high concentrations of drug in the choroid plexus because of its higher permeability compared with brain, and drug sequestration by proliferating uninfected cell populations. Our results support the soundness of the proposed strategy of using a labeled antiviral drug that is selectively phosphorylated by herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase in conjunction with scanning methods for human diagnosis, and also define some of the factors that must be taken into account when planning clinical application.

  2. An extended study of seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis simplex IgE antibodies in Norwegian blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lin, A H; Nepstad, I; Florvaag, E; Egaas, E; Van Do, T

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade, cases of the fish parasite Anisakis simplex infection and allergy in human have increased in countries with high fish consumption. Our aim was to perform an extended seroprevalence study of anti-IgE antibodies against this parasite in Norway, one of the high fish-consuming countries. At the Department of Immunology and Transfusion Medicine and the Laboratory of Clinical Biochemistry, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, two main groups of anonymized serum samples were collected; the first (n = 993) from recently recruited blood donors (designated 'BDO') and the second (n = 414) from patient with total IgE levels ≥1000 kU/l (designated 'IGE+'). The sera were analysed by the ImmunoCAP(®) method for total IgE and IgE antibodies against A. simplex, house dust mite (HDM), shrimp, cod, crab, brine shrimp and shrimp tropomyosin. The A. simplex positive sera were further tested by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, which uses 2 recombinant (r) major allergens, rAni s 1 and rAni s 7 as target antigens. SDS-PAGE and Western immunoblotting analyses were also performed. Whereas the prevalences by ImmunoCAP(®) were 0.4% and 16.2% in the BDO and IGE+ groups, respectively, analyses with recombinant allergens showed only 0.0% and 0.2%. Cross-reactivity and immunoblotting analyses suggested that most of the ImmunoCAP(®) positive sera were probably false-positive due to cross-sensitization to shrimp and HDM. However, positivity due to other A. simplex antigens should also be considered. Compared with other high fish-consuming countries, we observed a very low seroprevalence of anti-Anisakis IgE antibodies in a Norwegian population. PMID:24219706

  3. HEDR modeling approach: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shipler, D.B.; Napier, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    This report is a revision of the previous Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project modeling approach report. This revised report describes the methods used in performing scoping studies and estimating final radiation doses to real and representative individuals who lived in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. The scoping studies and dose estimates pertain to various environmental pathways during various periods of time. The original report discussed the concepts under consideration in 1991. The methods for estimating dose have been refined as understanding of existing data, the scope of pathways, and the magnitudes of dose estimates were evaluated through scoping studies.

  4. Occurrence of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto in imported Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) represents a risk for Turkish consumers.

    PubMed

    Pekmezci, Gokmen Zafer

    2014-08-18

    Anisakid larvae are a prevalent food-borne pathogen that has been found in numerous fish species destined for human consumption. The accidental consumption of infected raw or poorly cooked fish may cause gastroenteric diseases and allergies in humans. In spite of the fact that thorough cooking or freezing kills Anisakis worms, this method does not destroy their allergenic capacity. The presence of A. simplex (s.s.) in seafood products may present a health risk for consumers. In Turkey, Atlantic mackerels are marketed as frozen and mainly imported from Norway. The aim of this study was to identify the Anisakis species found in deep-frozen whole Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) destined for human consumption in fish markets that imported fish from Norway to Turkey. All Anisakis larvae isolated from imported Atlantic mackerel were identified via morphology as third larvae of Anisakis Type I. The ITS region (ITS-1, 5.8S subunit, ITS-2) was amplified and digested with the restriction enzymes Hinf I and Hha I. Larvae of the genus Anisakis were identified via PCR-RFLP as belonging to Anisakis simplex (s.s.), and this was confirmed by sequencing the cox2 gene. The overall prevalence of Anisakis larvae was 25% (95% confidence limits: 13-41%), and the mean intensity was 19.1 (bootstrap 95% confidence limits: 15.3-25.5). Recognized zoonotic A. simplex (s.s.) larvae found in imported Atlantic mackerel could represent a risk. Those who consume them could acquire parasitic allergies. The results will have an important impact on public health risk assessment in that they suggest reviewing critical control points at the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmer to reduce the risk of anisakid-induced allergies among consumers. Consequently, the present study provides the first data regarding the occurrence of A. simplex (s.s.) larvae in imported Atlantic mackerel in Turkish markets. PMID:24935687

  5. The Padua Inventory: Do Revisions Need Revision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonner, Sascha; Ecker, Willi; Leonhart, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties, factorial structure, and validity of the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision and of the Padua Inventory-Revised in a large sample of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 228) and with anxiety disorders and/or depression (n = 213). The…

  6. Copyright Revision in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, A. A.

    1977-01-01

    The article discusses the history of copyright laws, the directions which copyright revision can take, and the rationale behind revision. Regulations for protecting various media such as sound recordings, performances, and cable television are discussed. (JAB)

  7. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi; Diniz, Michele Baffi

    2015-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients' quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  8. Herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Grest, P; Albicker, P; Hoelzle, L; Wild, P; Pospischil, A

    2002-05-01

    An adult domestic rabbit showing neurological signs was subjected to euthanasia. At necropsy, macroscopical lesions were absent. Histopathologically, extensive lesions were seen, particularly in the cerebral cortex. Non-suppurative meningitis was present and there was lymphocytic and plasmacytic perivascular cuffing in the neuropil. The cerebral cortex showed extensive segmental neuronal and glial necrosis. Within the necrotic areas, large amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were present in neurons and glial cells. Immunohistochemically, neurons and glial cells in the affected areas were labelled by polyclonal antibodies against both herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2. The agent was classified as HSV-1 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. This is only the second reported natural case of herpes simplex infection in a rabbit. PMID:12056779

  9. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex

    PubMed Central

    Scheidt, Lisa; Sanabe, Mariane Emi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is a group of hereditary chronic disorders, characterized by fragility of the skin and mucous membranes in response to minor mechanical trauma. The objective of this study was to report the case of a young girl diagnosed with epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS), transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene. Cutaneous findings included blisters and dystrophy following minimal friction. Recurrent blisters and vesicle formation on the hard palate were the main oral findings. In conclusion, publications concerning the oral and clinical manifestations of EBS are important for providing knowledge and an early multidisciplinary approach that prevents blister formation and improves these patients’ quality of life, with the dentist playing an important role in oral health management. How to cite this article: Scheidt L, Sanabe ME, Diniz MB. Oral Manifestations and Dental Management of Epidermolysis Bullosa Simplex. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):239-241. PMID:26604545

  10. Burning mouth syndrome due to herpes simplex virus type 1.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Maria A; Choe, Alexander; Traktinskiy, Igor; Gilden, Don

    2015-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is characterised by chronic orofacial burning pain. No dental or medical cause has been found. We present a case of burning mouth syndrome of 6 months duration in a healthy 65-year-old woman, which was associated with high copy numbers of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in the saliva. Her pain resolved completely after antiviral treatment with a corresponding absence of salivary HSV-1 DNA 4 weeks and 6 months later. PMID:25833911

  11. The Broader Autism Phenotype in Simplex and Multiplex Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerdts, Jennifer A.; Bernier, Raphael; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Mothers, fathers, and siblings from 87 multiplex (M-mothers, M-fathers, and M-siblings) and 41 simplex (S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings) Autism spectrum disorder families were assessed using the Broader Phenotype Autism Symptom Scale. S-mothers, S-fathers, and S-siblings showed more social interest and were more expressive in their use of…

  12. Deletion of amelogenin Y-locus in forensics: literature revision and description of a novel method for sex confirmation.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, P; Giuliodori, A; Corato, S; Ponzano, E; Rodriguez, D; Caenazzo, L

    2013-07-01

    Today, the molecular technique routinely for sex determination in forensics is based the detection of length variations in the X-Y homologous amelogenin gene (AMELX and AMELY). In humans, the amelogenin gene is a single-copy gene located on Xp22.1-Xp22.3 and Yp11.2; the simultaneous detection of the X and Y alleles using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can lead to gender determination. Several studies have shown that normal males may be typed as females with this test: AMELY deletions may result in no product of amplification and normal males being typed as female as a result of the test (negative male). Considering the consequences of the result obtained using only the amelogenin marker, and the related potential difficulties in interpreting the results, the gender misinterpretation may be troublesome in clinical practice and in forensic casework. In this article, beginning with a review of the incidence of gender-testing failures among different populations, and with the different strategies proposed in the literature in case of doubt regarding the presence of deleted AMEL in the DNA profile, we propose a method for the identification of samples with deleted AMEL that can be applied, as an additional assay, in case of doubt regarding PCR results of sex determination. PMID:23756502

  13. The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type model: A method to sort single-shell tanks into characteristic groups. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.G.; Simpson, B.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Sort on Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) model presents a method to categorize Hanford Site single-shell tanks (SSTs) into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar chemical and physical characteristics based on their major waste types and processing histories. This model has identified 29 different waste-type groups encompassing 135 of the 149 SSTs and 93% of the total waste volume in SSTs. The remaining 14 SSTs and associated wastes could not be grouped according to the established criteria and were placed in an ungrouped category. This letter report will detail the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the SORWT model and present the grouping results. Included with this report is a brief description and approximate compositions of the single-shell tank waste types. In the near future, the validity of the predicted groups will be statistically tested using analysis of variance of characterization data obtained from recent (post-1989) core sampling and analysis activities. In addition, the SORWT model will be used to project the nominal waste characteristics of entire waste type groups that have some recent characterization data available. These subsequent activities will be documented along with these initial results in a comprehensive, formal PNL report cleared for public release by September 1994.

  14. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.; Gilden, D.H. ); Murray, R.S. Veterans Administration Medical Center, Denver, CO )

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteins in human sensory ganglia.

  15. MOTIVATION INTERNALIZATION AND SIMPLEX STRUCTURE IN SELF-DETERMINATION THEORY.

    PubMed

    Ünlü, Ali; Dettweiler, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    Self-determination theory, as proposed by Deci and Ryan, postulated different types of motivation regulation. As to the introjected and identified regulation of extrinsic motivation, their internalizations were described as "somewhat external" and "somewhat internal" and remained undetermined in the theory. This paper introduces a constrained regression analysis that allows these vaguely expressed motivations to be estimated in an "optimal" manner, in any given empirical context. The approach was even generalized and applied for simplex structure analysis in self-determination theory. The technique was exemplified with an empirical study comparing science teaching in a classical school class versus an expeditionary outdoor program. Based on a sample of 84 German pupils (43 girls, 41 boys, 10 to 12 years old), data were collected using the German version of the Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire. The science-teaching format was seen to not influence the pupils' internalization of identified regulation. The internalization of introjected regulation differed and shifted more toward the external pole in the outdoor teaching format. The quantification approach supported the simplex structure of self-determination theory, whereas correlations may disconfirm the simplex structure. PMID:26595290

  16. Herpes simplex virus latency in isolated human neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Wigdahl, B; Smith, C A; Traglia, H M; Rapp, F

    1984-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is most probably maintained in the ganglion neurons of the peripheral nervous system of humans in a latent form that can reactivate to produce recurrent disease. As an approximation of this cell-virus interaction, we have constructed a herpes simplex virus latency in vitro model system using human fetus sensory neurons as the host cell. Human fetus neurons were characterized as neuronal in origin by the detection of the neuropeptide substance P and the neuron-specific plasma membrane A2B5 antigen. Virus latency was established by blocking complete expression of the virus genome by treatment of infected human neurons with a combination of human leukocyte interferon and (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine for 7 days. After removal of inhibitors, virus latency was maintained for at least 9 days. This in vitro model will provide a system to analyze, in a primary human neuron, the state of the herpes simplex virus genome during establishment and maintenance of experimental latency. Images PMID:6091142

  17. Using optimal combination of teaching-learning methods (open book assignment and group tutorials) as revision exercises to improve learning outcome in low achievers in biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Rajappa, Medha; Bobby, Zachariah; Nandeesha, H; Suryapriya, R; Ragul, Anithasri; Yuvaraj, B; Revathy, G; Priyadarssini, M

    2016-07-01

    Graduate medical students of India are taught Biochemistry by didactic lectures and they hardly get any opportunity to clarify their doubts and reinforce the concepts which they learn in these lectures. We used a combination of teaching-learning (T-L) methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) to study their efficacy in improving the learning outcome. About 143 graduate medical students were classified into low (<50%: group 1, n = 23), medium (50-75%: group 2, n = 74), and high (>75%: group 3, n = 46) achievers, based on their internal assessment marks. After the regular teaching module on the topics "Vitamins and Enzymology", all the students attempted an open book assignment without peer consultation. Then all the students participated in group tutorials. The effects on the groups were evaluated by pre and posttests at the end of each phase, with the same set of MCQs. Gain from group tutorials and overall gain was significantly higher in the low achievers, compared to other groups. High and medium achievers obtained more gain from open book assignment, than group tutorials. The overall gain was significantly higher than the gain obtained from open book assignment or group tutorials, in all three groups. All the three groups retained the gain even after 1 week of the exercise. Hence, optimal use of novel T-L methods (open book assignment followed by group tutorials) as revision exercises help in strengthening concepts in Biochemistry in this oft neglected group of low achievers in graduate medical education. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):321-325, 2016. PMID:26891594

  18. Simplex and duplex polymerase chain reaction analysis of Herculex RW (59122) maize based on one reference molecule including separated fragments of 5' integration site and endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Shu; Shen, Kailin; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-01-01

    Reference molecules, as positive controls and calibrators, have been recently developed in genetically modified organism analysis as a potential substitute for reference materials derived from plant raw materials. In this study, a novel reference molecule p59122, including the revealed 5' integration sequence of maize Herculex RW (59122), was constructed that was suitable for simplex and duplex event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detections. The LOD values were 10 copies both for simplex and duplex qualitative PCR when p59122 was used as the calibrator. These values were comparable to those of using genomic DNA samples with 0.01 and 0.05%, approximately 5 and 25 hyploid genomic DNA copies, respectively. The absolute LOD and LOQ values were confirmed to be as low as 10 and 25 copies of p59122 DNA both in simplex and duplex quantitative systems. Furthermore, ideal quantification data with low bias, SD and RSD values were obtained from the practical samples analyses in simplex and duplex real-time PCR systems using the reference molecule p59122 as a calibrator. All these results suggested that the developed reference molecule p59122 and the qualitative and quantitative PCR detection methods are suitable for identification and quantification of GM maize 59122 and its derived products. PMID:19916386

  19. Efficacy Results of a Trial of a Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Leone, Peter A.; Bernstein, David I.; Wald, Anna; Levin, Myron J.; Stapleton, Jack T.; Gorfinkel, Iris; Morrow, Rhoda L. Ashley; Ewell, Marian G.; Stokes-Riner, Abbie; Dubin, Gary; Heineman, Thomas C.; Schulte, Joann M.; Deal, Carolyn D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Two previous studies of a herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine containing glycoprotein D in HSV-discordant couples revealed 73% and 74% efficacy against genital disease in women who were negative for both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 antibodies. Efficacy was not observed in men or HSV-1 seropositive women. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind efficacy field trial involving 8323 women 18 to 30 years of age who were negative for antibodies to HSV-1 and HSV-2. At months 0, 1, and 6, some subjects received the investigational vaccine, consisting of 20 μg of glycoprotein D from HSV-2 with alum and 3-O-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A as an adjuvant; control subjects received the hepatitis A vaccine, at a dose of 720 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) units. The primary end point was occurrence of genital herpes disease due to either HSV-1 or HSV-2 from month 2 (1 month after dose 2) through month 20. Results The HSV vaccine was associated with an increased risk of local reactions as compared with the control vaccine, and it elicited ELISA and neutralizing antibodies to HSV-2. Overall, the vaccine was not efficacious; vaccine efficacy was 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], −29 to 50) against genital herpes disease. However, efficacy against HSV-1 genital disease was 58% (95% CI, 12 to 80). Vaccine efficacy against HSV-1 infection (with or without disease) was 35% (95% CI, 13 to 52), but efficacy against HSV-2 infection was not observed (−8%; 95% CI, −59 to 26). Conclusions In a study population that was representative of the general population of HSV-1– and HSV-2–seronegative women, the investigational vaccine was effective in preventing HSV-1 genital disease and infection but not in preventing HSV-2 disease or infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00057330.) PMID:22216840

  20. Antigens of herpes simplex virus in whole corneal epithelial sheets from mice.

    PubMed

    Shimeld, C; Lewkowicz-Moss, S J; Lipworth, K M; Hill, T J; Blyth, W A; Easty, D L

    1986-12-01

    Mice were inoculated with herpes simplex virus in the skin of the snout or by scarification on the cornea and then examined for eye disease using a slit lamp. Whole mounts of corneal epithelium were stained for virus antigens by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method, and infectious virus was isolated from eyewashings. Antigens were present one day after corneal inoculation, but after inoculation of the snout, there was a delay of three days before antigens were seen. This delay and the distribution of antigens were evidence of zosteriform spread from the snout to the eye via the nervous system. Disease of the cornea varied in severity and timing depending on the site of inoculation. The peroxidase-antiperoxidase method was more sensitive than isolation of virus from eyewashings and allowed the site and distribution of infected cells to be seen. PMID:3024609

  1. Simplex-centroid mixture formulation for optimised composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, N; Chin, N L

    2010-11-01

    Composting is a good recycling method to fully utilise all the organic wastes present in kitchen waste due to its high nutritious matter within the waste. In this present study, the optimised mixture proportions of kitchen waste containing vegetable scraps (V), fish processing waste (F) and newspaper (N) or onion peels (O) were determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve the desired initial moisture content and carbon-to-nitrogen (CN) ratio for effective composting process. The best mixture was at 48.5% V, 17.7% F and 33.7% N for blends with newspaper while for blends with onion peels, the mixture proportion was 44.0% V, 19.7% F and 36.2% O. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions fall in the acceptable limits of moisture content of 50% to 65% and CN ratio of 20-40 and were also validated experimentally. PMID:20624604

  2. Stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparation for passive haemagglutination test with herpes simplex virus antigen.

    PubMed

    Krichevskaya, G I; Basova, N N

    1976-10-01

    A method for the preparation of stable suspensions of erythrocytes sensitized with herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigen and for their use in the passive haemagglutination test (PHAT) was developed. Formolized sheep erythrocytes were treated with tannin and sensitized with HSV antigen prepared from infected chick embryo cell culture by ultrasonication and virus extraction with alkaline glycine buffer. Antibody titres determined in the PHAT were higher than titres of neutralizing antibody. The specificity of the results was checked by the passive haemagglutination-inhibition test (PHAIT). The sensitized erythrocytes retained their activity for 5 months (the observation period) and gave reproducible results. The availability of stable erythrocyte diagnostic preparations simplifies the detection of herpesvirus antibody and makes the method widely applicable. PMID:11670

  3. Anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of the wild edible cruciferous: Diplotaxis simplex.

    PubMed

    Jdir, Hamida; Khemakham, Bassem; Najjaa, Hanen; Chakroun, Mouna; Jridi, Mourad; Ben Arfa, Abdelkarim; Ben Ali, Yassine; Zouari, Nacim

    2016-10-01

    Context The present study deals with new biological properties of the wild edible Diplotaxis simplex (Viv.) Spreng (Brassicaceae). Objectives The current study evaluates the antioxidant, the anti-inflammatory and the anti-cancer properties of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from D. simplex flowers. Materials and methods The anti-proliferative activity of the extracts (10-70 μg/mL) was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) against human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. The anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of the extracts (1.5-7.5 mg/mL) on phospholipase A2 activity as well as on carrageenan-induced paw oedema in mice. Extracts (200 mg/kg) or indomethacin (50 mg/kg) as positive control were injected intraperitoneally for albino mice prior to the induction of the oedema by carrageenan. Antioxidant activities were investigated using various complementary methods. Results Flower extracts contained a high level of polyphenolics (17.10-52.70 mg GAE/g) and flavonoids (74.20-100.60 mg QE/g), which correlate with its appreciable antioxidant potential in β-carotene peroxidation (IC50 value: 12.50-27.10 μg/mL), DPPH(•) radical-scavenging (IC50 value: 0.20-0.40 mg/mL), Fe(3+ )reducing (EC50 value: 0.10-0.14 mg/mL) and Fe(2+ )chelating (IC50 value: 0.20-0.60 mg/mL) assays. These extracts were effective in inhibiting cancer cell growth (IC50 value: 62.0-63.25 μg/mL). Besides, the ethyl acetate extract inhibited phospholipase A2 activity (IC50 value: 2.97 mg/mL) and reduced the paw oedema in mice (from 0.38 ± 0.01 to 0.24 ± 0.01 cm), 4 h post-carrageenan challenge. Conclusion These data suggest that D. simplex may be useful as a candidate in the treatment of inflammation and the colon cancer. PMID:26916801

  4. JPLEX: Java Simplex Implementation with Branch-and-Bound Search for Automated Test Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ryoungsun; Kim, Jiseon; Dodd, Barbara G.; Chung, Hyewon

    2011-01-01

    JPLEX, short for Java simPLEX, is an automated test assembly (ATA) program. It is a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) solver written in Java. It reads in a configuration file, solves the minimization problem, and produces an output file for postprocessing. It implements the simplex algorithm to create a fully relaxed solution and…

  5. [Role of herpes simplex virus in the development of exudative erythema multiforme].

    PubMed

    Samgin, M A; Ivanov, O L; Kuzheleva, S A; Biriukov, A V; L'vov, N D

    1990-03-01

    The paper presents analysis of current knowledge on etiology and immunopathogenesis of multiform exudative erythema (MEE). Among a variety of pathogenetic actions of herpes simplex on immune system are those relevant to MEE onset. These variants are dealt with in detail. The view on MEE as resultant from herpes simplex infection promises appearance of new prospective modes of etiotropic therapy. PMID:2370760

  6. The Dynamics of HCF-1 Modulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Chromatin during Initiation of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Jodi L.; Kristie, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection of herpes simplex virus is dependent upon chromatin modulation by the cellular coactivator host cell factor-1 (HCF-1). This review focuses on the multiple chromatin modulation components associated with HCF-1 and the chromatin-related dynamics mediated by this coactivator that lead to the initiation of herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early gene expression. PMID:23698399

  7. Type I and Type II Error Rates and Overall Accuracy of the Revised Parallel Analysis Method for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo

    2015-01-01

    Traditional parallel analysis (T-PA) estimates the number of factors by sequentially comparing sample eigenvalues with eigenvalues for randomly generated data. Revised parallel analysis (R-PA) sequentially compares the "k"th eigenvalue for sample data to the "k"th eigenvalue for generated data sets, conditioned on"k"-…

  8. Feedforward suppression of force ripple based on a simplex-optimized dither signal.

    PubMed

    Tan, K K; Chin, S J; Dou, H F

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the design and realization of a feedforward dither signal to reduce the force ripple in an iron-core permanent magnet linear motor (PMLM). A composite control structure is used, consisting of three components: a simple feedforward component, a PID feedback component, and a ripple compensator (RC). The first two components are designed based on a dominant linear model of the motor. The dither signal is generated based on a signal model which is identified using a multidimensional simplex downhill method. In this way, a simple approach is available to eliminate or suppress the inherent force ripple, thus facilitating smooth precise motion while uncompromising on the maximum force achievable. Real-time experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for high precision motion trajectory tracking. PMID:12546465

  9. Spectroscopic investigation of herpes simplex viruses infected cells and their response to antiviral therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, we used microscopic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the antiviral activity of known antiviral agents against herpes viruses. The antiviral activity of Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) (which is an active compound of propolis) against herpes simplex type 1 and 2 was examined in cell culture. The advantage of microscopic FTIR spectroscopy over conventional FTIR spectroscopy is that it facilitates inspection of restricted regions of cell culture or tissue. Our results showed significant spectral differences at early stages of infection between infected and non-infected cells, and between infected cells treated with the used antiviral agent and those not treated. In infected cells, there was a considerable increase in phosphate levels. Our results show that treatment with used antiviral agent considerably abolish the spectral changes induced by the viral infection. In addition, it is possible to track by FTIR microscopy method the deferential effect of various doses of the drug.

  10. Rapid detection of herpes simplex virus with fluorescein-labeled Helix pomatia lectin.

    PubMed Central

    Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R

    1989-01-01

    The use of fluorescein-conjugated Helix pomatia lectin was shown to be as effective as fluorescein-conjugated monoclonal antibody reagents for the detection and differentiation of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) in MRC-5 cell culture. Cells infected with HSV-1 generally displayed a pattern of nongranular or diffuse fluorescence, while cells infected with HSV-2 were identified by the production of fluorescent grains and flecks. This unique nonimmunological reagent, when used in combination with low-speed centrifugation, provides a remarkably specific, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective means to detect HSV-infected MRC-5 or BHK-21 cells as early as 20 h postinoculation. In contrast to the immunofluorescence method, the serotypes of HSV can be differentiated with only one fluorescein-H. pomatia reagent in MRC-5 cell cultures. Images PMID:2545739

  11. [Use of the nested polymerase chain reaction in the differential diagnosis of human herpes simplex virus].

    PubMed

    Glukhov, A I; Gordeev, S A; Al'tshuler, M L; Severin, S E

    2003-02-01

    Herpes is one of the most widespread human viral pathologies. The article depicts a special modification of polymerized chain reaction--(PCR)--(referred to as "nested"), which has a higher sensitivity, specificity and reliability as compared to the ordinary PCR, and which is designed to detect the herpes viruses. The method was initially tested at purified preparation of viral DNA, and later--at clinical materials obtained from patients and healthy donors. Secretions from the urogenital tract (smears), scrapes from the urogenital tracts and urinal cellular samples were examined in patients. Herpes simplex was detected in all cases. As for the healthy people, the identical examinations produced in them mainly the negative findings. Therefore, the nested PCR is a simple, sensitive and effective instrument in the diagnostics and prevention of herpes; it can be recommended for a comprehensive usage in medical practice. PMID:12688217

  12. Comparison of an experimental bone cement with surgical Simplex P, Spineplex and Cortoss.

    PubMed

    Boyd, D; Towler, M R; Wren, A; Clarkin, O M

    2008-04-01

    Conventional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cements and more recently Bisphenol-a-glycidyl dimethacrylate (BIS-GMA) composite cements are employed in procedures such as vertebroplasty. Unfortunately, such materials have inherent drawbacks including, a high curing exotherm, the incorporation of toxic components in their formulations, and critically, exhibit a modulus mismatch between cement and bone. The literature suggests that aluminium free, zinc based glass polyalkenoate cements (Zn-GPC) may be suitable alternative materials for consideration in such applications as vertebroplasty. This paper, examines one formulation of Zn-GPC and compares its strengths, modulus, and biocompatibility with three commercially available bone cements, Spineplex, Simplex P and Cortoss. The setting times indicate that the current formulation of Zn-GPC sets in a time unsuitable for clinical deployment. However during setting, the peak exotherm was recorded to be 33 degrees C, the lowest of all cements examined, and well below the threshold level for tissue necrosis to occur. The data obtained from mechanical testing shows the Zn-GPC has strengths of 63 MPa in compression and 30 MPa in biaxial flexure. Importantly these strengths remain stable with maturation; similar long term stability was exhibited by both Spineplex and Simplex P. Conversely, the strengths of Cortoss were observed to rapidly diminish with time, a cause for clinical concern. In addition to strengths, the modulus of each material was determined. Only the Zn-GPC exhibited a modulus similar to vertebral trabecular bone, with all commercial materials exhibiting excessively high moduli. Such data indicates that the use of Zn-GPC may reduce adjacent fractures. The final investigation used the well established simulated body fluid (SBF) method to examine the ability of each material to bond with bone. The results indicate that the Zn-GPC is capable of producing a bone like apatite layer at its surface within 24 h which

  13. Herpes simplex virus hepatitis 4 years after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bissig, Karl-Dimiter; Zimmermann, Arthur; Bernasch, Dirke; Furrer, Hansjakob; Dufour, Jean-FranCois

    2003-01-01

    If not promptly recognized and treated, herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is associated with a high mortality. A patient transplanted for primary sclerosing cholangitis required, 4 years later, a colectomy for a steroid-resistant flare of ulcerative colitis. He subsequently developed fever, with genital and oral ulcerations. He was hospitalized for diabetic decompensation with massive elevation of serum aminotransferases. Examination revealed vesicles on the hands. Liver biopsy showed Cowdry type B inclusions. Therapy with acyclovir was immediately initiated and the patient recovered. This case illustrates the diagnostic importance of mucocutaneous lesions in the assessment of complications after liver transplantation. PMID:14614611

  14. Linearized dynamics from the 4-simplex Regge action

    SciTech Connect

    Dittrich, Bianca; Freidel, Laurent; Speziale, Simone

    2007-11-15

    We study the relation between the Hessian matrix of the Riemannian Regge action on a 4-simplex and linearized quantum gravity. We give an explicit formula for the Hessian as a function of the geometry, and show that it has a single zero mode. We then use a 3D lattice model to show that (i) the zero mode is a remnant of the continuum diffeomorphism invariance, and (ii) we recover the complete free graviton propagator in the continuum limit. The results help clarify the structure of the boundary state needed in the recent calculations of the graviton propagator in loop quantum gravity, and, in particular, its role in fixing the gauge.

  15. Herpes Simplex Virus Oncolytic Therapy for Pediatric Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gregory K; Pressey, Joseph G; Reddy, Alyssa T; Markert, James M; Gillespie, G Yancey

    2009-01-01

    Despite improving survival rates for children with cancer, a subset of patients exist with disease resistant to traditional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. These patients require newer, targeted treatments used alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) is one of these newer therapies that offer promise for several difficult to treat pediatric malignancies. The potential benefit of HSV therapy in pediatric solid tumors including brain tumors, neuroblastomas, and sarcomas is reviewed along with the many challenges that need to be addressed prior to moving oncolytic HSV therapy from the laboratory to the beside in the pediatric population. PMID:19367259

  16. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood.

    PubMed

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Ozlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Celik, Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  17. Lichen Simplex Chronicus That Accompanies Anogenital Warts during the Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Seçilmiş Kerimoğlu, Özlem; Doğan, Nasuh Utku; Tazegül, Aybike; Karameşe, Mehtap; Beyhekim, Hasan; Çelik, Çetin

    2012-01-01

    Anogenital warts and lichen simplex chronicus (LSC) are rarely seen during the childhood. A 9-year-old girl has been presented to hospital by her parents with itching in the anogenital area. There were anogenital warts and a different erythematous lesion in the perianal region. On the pulpa of the right thumb, there was a wart extending under the nail. The lesions are surgically removed. The results of the histopathological examination were reported as condyloma acuminata and LSC. Children with anogenital warts should be examined carefully to discover the transmission route and other possible concomitant cutaneous diseases. PMID:23118760

  18. Human herpes simplex virus: life cycle and development of inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kukhanova, M K; Korovina, A N; Kochetkov, S N

    2014-12-01

    WHO reports that 90% of human population is infected by different types of herpesviruses, which develop latency or cause oral and genital herpes, conjunctivitis, eczema herpeticum, and other diseases. Herpesvirus almost always accompanies HIV-infection and complicates AIDS treatment. Herpes simplex virus type 1 is one of the most wide spread viruses from the Herpesviridae family. HSV virion, genome structure, replication mechanisms, antiherpes drug development strategies, including design of prodrugs, and mutations causing ACV-resistance in clinical HSV isolates are discussed in this review. PMID:25749169

  19. Stimulation of human lymphocytes by Herpes simplex virus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Starr, S E; Karatela, S A; Shore, S L; Duffey, A; Nahmias, A J

    1975-01-01

    Lymphocytes from individuals with laboratory evidence of prior infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or type 2 demonstrated transformation (av antigens. Higher stimulation indexes were obtained when lymphocytes were incubated with the homologous as compared with the heterologous antigen. Higher mean lymphocyte stimulation indexes were also demonstrated in seropositive as compared with seronegative individuals. Lymphocytes from children with HSV-1 stomatitis usually became responsive to HSV-1 antigen within 2 to 6 weeks after the onset of illness. Lymphocytes from infants with neonatal HSV-2 infection were stimulated by HSV-2 antigen. PMID:163788

  20. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  1. Determination of Hearing-Impaired Students' Requirements for Editing and Revision of Written Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karasu, H. Pelin

    2014-01-01

    The editing and revision stages are an important part of the writing process. This study documented the types of revisions, revision units, and revision methods used during writing conferences with hearing-impaired students. The study included seventeen hearing-impaired students educated with the auditory/oral approach and enrolled in grades six…

  2. Automated gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning with image registration, data-mining, and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kuan J.; Barber, David C.; Walton, Lee

    2006-07-15

    Gamma knife treatments are usually planned manually, requiring much expertise and time. We describe a new, fully automatic method of treatment planning. The treatment volume to be planned is first compared with a database of past treatments to find volumes closely matching in size and shape. The treatment parameters of the closest matches are used as starting points for the new treatment plan. Further optimization is performed with the Nelder-Mead simplex method: the coordinates and weight of the isocenters are allowed to vary until a maximally conformal plan specific to the new treatment volume is found. The method was tested on a randomly selected set of 10 acoustic neuromas and 10 meningiomas. Typically, matching a new volume took under 30 seconds. The time for simplex optimization, on a 3 GHz Xeon processor, ranged from under a minute for small volumes (<1000 cubic mm, 2-3 isocenters), to several tens of hours for large volumes (>30 000 cubic mm,>20 isocenters). In 8/10 acoustic neuromas and 8/10 meningiomas, the automatic method found plans with conformation number equal or better than that of the manual plan. In 4/10 acoustic neuromas and 5/10 meningiomas, both overtreatment and undertreatment ratios were equal or better in automated plans. In conclusion, data-mining of past treatments can be used to derive starting parameters for treatment planning. These parameters can then be computer optimized to give good plans automatically.

  3. Automated gamma knife radiosurgery treatment planning with image registration, data-mining, and Nelder-Mead simplex optimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan J; Barber, David C; Walton, Lee

    2006-07-01

    Gamma knife treatments are usually planned manually, requiring much expertise and time. We describe a new, fully automatic method of treatment planning. The treatment volume to be planned is first compared with a database of past treatments to find volumes closely matching in size and shape. The treatment parameters of the closest matches are used as starting points for the new treatment plan. Further optimization is performed with the Nelder-Mead simplex method: the coordinates and weight of the isocenters are allowed to vary until a maximally conformal plan specific to the new treatment volume is found. The method was tested on a randomly selected set of 10 acoustic neuromas and 10 meningiomas. Typically, matching a new volume took under 30 seconds. The time for simplex optimization, on a 3 GHz Xeon processor, ranged from under a minute for small volumes (<1000 cubic mm, 2-3 isocenters), to several tens of hours for large volumes (>30,000 cubic mm, >20 isocenters). In 8/10 acoustic neuromas and 8/10 meningiomas, the automatic method found plans with conformation number equal or better than that of the manual plan. In 4/10 acoustic neuromas and 5/10 meningiomas, both overtreatment and undertreatment ratios were equal or better in automated plans. In conclusion, data-mining of past treatments can be used to derive starting parameters for treatment planning. These parameters can then be computer optimized to give good plans automatically. PMID:16898457

  4. Herpes simplex virus colitis complicating ulcerative colitis: A case report and brief review on superinfections.

    PubMed

    Schunter, Marco Oliver; Walles, Thorsten; Fritz, Peter; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Thon, Klaus-Peter; Fellermann, Klaus; Stange, Eduard Friedrich; Lamadé, Wolfram

    2007-09-01

    In patients with inflammatory bowel disease herpes simplex virus infection has been described as a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised individuals. Here we present the case of a 35-year old woman with an exacerbation of ulcerative colitis caused by herlpes simplex virus infection (HSV-2). The diagnosis was confirmed histologically following subtotal colectomy. After intravenous treatment with aciclovir for 2 weeks postoperative hematochezia stopped. Herpes simplex virus colitis is a rare but potentially fatal complication of immunosuppressive treatment in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Prompt diagnosis and efficient antiviral therapy are mandatory to improve prognosis. PMID:21172183

  5. Clinical and biological differences between recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections

    SciTech Connect

    Straus, S.E. )

    1989-12-01

    The major features that distinguish recurrent herpes simplex virus infections from zoster are illustrated in this article by two case histories. The clinical and epidemiologic features that characterize recurrent herpes simplex virus and varicella-zoster virus infections are reviewed. It is noted that herpesvirus infections are more common and severe in patients with cellular immune deficiency. Each virus evokes both humoral and cellular immune response in the course of primary infection. DNA hybridization studies with RNA probes labelled with sulfur-35 indicate that herpes simplex viruses persist within neurons, and that varicella-zoster virus is found in the satellite cells that encircle the neurons.

  6. Isolation of a protein kinase induced by herpes simplex virus type 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, W.T.; Stobbs, D.G.

    1981-04-01

    Researchers have isolated a new cyclic AMP-independent protein kinase activity induced in HeLa cells by infection with herpes simplex virus type 1. Induction of the enzyme does not occur in cells treated with cycloheximide at the time of infection, or in cells infected with UV-inactivated herpes simplex virus type 1. The amount of enzyme induced in infected cells is dependent upon the multiplicity of infection. An enzyme with identical properties to the appearing in infected HeLa cells is also induced by herpes simplex virus type 1 in BHK cells.

  7. Scar Revision Surgery: The Patient's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Methods Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Results Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Conclusions Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision. PMID:26618120

  8. Secretory IgA specific for herpes simplex virus in lacrimal fluid from patients with herpes keratitis--a possible diagnostic parameter.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, B; Møller Andersen, S; Klauber, A; Ottovay, E; Prause, J U; Zhong, C U; Norrild, B

    1982-01-01

    In the present study a solid-phase radioimmune assay was used for the demonstration of herpes simplex virus-specific IgG and secretory IgA antibodies in the lacrimal fluid from patients with active recurrent herpes keratitis. The method was quantitative and made it possible to test specifically for the production of secretory IgA antibodies produced during an active herpes simplex virus infection. The production of secretory IgA was followed in 2 patients with fresh recurrent lesions. The HSV-specific secretory IgA could be demonstrated during the first 10 days of infection, where the maximal concentration was reached 3-5 days after the first symptoms occurred. The secretory antibodies were locally produced, and it is shown for the first time that herpes virus-specific secretory antibodies were of diagnostic value. PMID:6288066

  9. Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

    2013-04-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/μL, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration

  10. Fulminant hepatitis following primary herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Al Midani, A; Pinney, J; Field, N; Atkinson, C; Haque, T; Harber, M

    2011-01-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a rare but well-recognized complication of primary herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in immunocompromised patients. Here, we report two cases of acute hepatitis and FHF secondary to primary HSV type 1 infection following renal transplantation in the absence of any mucocutaneous manifestation. High levels of HSV type-1 DNA were detected in the blood. Both patients were seronegative for HSV 1 and HSV 2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) before transplantation, whereas the donor of patient 1 was HSV 1 IgG-positive but had no viremia and the donor of patient 2 was HSV-seronegative. Patient 1 recovered with acyclovir and immunoglobulin whereas patient 2 did not respond and succumbed to death. HSV-seronegative patients are potentially at risk of developing severe primary HSV disease following transplantation, particularly in the absence of routine anti-viral prophylaxis. HSV infection should always be excluded in transplant patients with hepatic dysfunction. PMID:21196623