Science.gov

Sample records for rfid distance bounding

  1. RFID Distance Bounding Protocol with Mixed Challenges to Prevent Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chong Hee; Avoine, Gildas

    RFID systems suffer from different location-based attacks such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Among them mafia fraud attack is the most serious since this attack can be mounted without the notice of both the reader and the tag. An adversary performs a kind of man-in-the-middle attack between the reader and the tag. It is very difficult to prevent this attack since the adversary does not change any data between the reader and the tag. Recently distance bounding protocols measuring the round-trip time between the reader and the tag have been researched to prevent this attack.

  2. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  3. Adaptive signed distance transform for curves with guaranteed error bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Laney, D A; Duchaineau, M A; Max, N L

    2000-12-04

    We present an adaptive signed distance transform algorithm for curves in the plane. The algorithm provides guaranteed error bounds with a selective refinement approach. The domain over which the signed distance function is desired is adaptive triangulated and piecewise discontinuous linear approximations are constructed within each triangle. The resulting transform performs work only were requested and does not rely on a preset sampling rate or other constraints.

  4. Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim

    2016-08-01

    RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.

  5. Bounds for approximation in total variation distance by quantum circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Knill, E.

    1995-09-01

    It was recently shown that for reasonable notions of approximation of states and functions by quantum circuits, almost all states and,functions are exponentially hard to approximate. The bounds obtained are asymptotically tight except for the one based on total variation distance (TVD). TVD is the most relevant metric for the performance of a quantum circuit. In this paper we obtain asymptotically tight bounds for TVD. We show that in a natural sense, almost all states are hard to approximate to within a TVD of 2/e -- {epsilon} even for exponentially small {epsilon}. The quantity 2/e -- {epsilon} is asymptotically the average distance to the uniform distribution. Almost all states with probability amplitudes concentrated in a small fraction of the space are hard to approximate to within a TVD of 2 -- {epsilon}. These results imply that non-uniform quantum circuit complexity is non-trivial in any reasonable model. They also reinforce the notion that the relative information distance between states (which is based on the difficulty of transforming one state to another) fully reflects the dimensionality of the space of qubits, not the number of qubits.

  6. Distance bounded energy detecting ultra-wideband impulse radio secure protocol.

    PubMed

    Hedin, Daniel S; Kollmann, Daniel T; Gibson, Paul L; Riehle, Timothy H; Seifert, Gregory J

    2014-01-01

    We present a demonstration of a novel protocol for secure transmissions on a Ultra-wideband impulse radio that includes distance bounding. Distance bounding requires radios to be within a certain radius to communicate. This new protocol can be used in body area networks for medical devices where security is imperative. Many current wireless medical devices were not designed with security as a priority including devices that can be life threatening if controlled by a hacker. This protocol provides multiple levels of security including encryption and a distance bounding test to prevent long distance attacks. PMID:25571513

  7. Sensors closeness test based on an improved [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Mahat, Nor Idayu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Abdullah, Abu Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Mahalanobis distance Δ2 values are commonly in the range of 0 to +∞ where higher values represent greater distance between class means or points. The increase in Mahalanobis distance is unbounded as the distance multiply. To certain extend, the unbounded distance values pose difficulties in the evaluation and decision for instance in the sensors closeness test. This paper proposes an approach to [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ2 that enable researcher to easily perform sensors closeness test. The experimental data of four different types of rice based on three different electronic nose sensors namely InSniff, PEN3, and Cyranose320 were analyzed and sensor closeness test seems successfully performed within the [0, 1] bound.

  8. Sensors closeness test based on an improved [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Mahat, Nor Idayu; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md Abdullah, Abu Hassan

    2015-12-11

    Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2} values are commonly in the range of 0 to +∞ where higher values represent greater distance between class means or points. The increase in Mahalanobis distance is unbounded as the distance multiply. To certain extend, the unbounded distance values pose difficulties in the evaluation and decision for instance in the sensors closeness test. This paper proposes an approach to [0, 1] bounded Mahalanobis distance Δ{sup 2} that enable researcher to easily perform sensors closeness test. The experimental data of four different types of rice based on three different electronic nose sensors namely InSniff, PEN3, and Cyranose320 were analyzed and sensor closeness test seems successfully performed within the [0, 1] bound.

  9. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag. PMID:25570040

  10. Tight Uniform Continuity Bounds for Quantum Entropies: Conditional Entropy, Relative Entropy Distance and Energy Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    We present a bouquet of continuity bounds for quantum entropies, falling broadly into two classes: first, a tight analysis of the Alicki-Fannes continuity bounds for the conditional von Neumann entropy, reaching almost the best possible form that depends only on the system dimension and the trace distance of the states. Almost the same proof can be used to derive similar continuity bounds for the relative entropy distance from a convex set of states or positive operators. As applications, we give new proofs, with tighter bounds, of the asymptotic continuity of the relative entropy of entanglement, E R , and its regularization {E_R^{∞}} , as well as of the entanglement of formation, E F . Using a novel "quantum coupling" of density operators, which may be of independent interest, we extend the latter to an asymptotic continuity bound for the regularized entanglement of formation, aka entanglement cost, {E_C=E_F^{∞}} . Second, we derive analogous continuity bounds for the von Neumann entropy and conditional entropy in infinite dimensional systems under an energy constraint, most importantly systems of multiple quantum harmonic oscillators. While without an energy bound the entropy is discontinuous, it is well-known to be continuous on states of bounded energy. However, a quantitative statement to that effect seems not to have been known. Here, under some regularity assumptions on the Hamiltonian, we find that, quite intuitively, the Gibbs entropy at the given energy roughly takes the role of the Hilbert space dimension in the finite-dimensional Fannes inequality.

  11. On bounds for the Fisher-Rao distance between multivariate normal distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strapasson, João E.; Porto, Julianna P. S.; Costa, Sueli I. R.

    2015-01-01

    Information geometry is approached here by considering the statistical model of multivariate normal distributions as a Riemannian manifold with the natural metric provided by the Fisher information matrix. Explicit forms for the Fisher-Rao distance associated to this metric and for the geodesics of general distribution models are usually very hard to determine. In the case of general multivariate normal distributions lower and upper bounds have been derived. We approach here some of these bounds and introduce a new one discussing their tightness in specific cases.

  12. Distance measurements between paramagnetic ligands bound to parallel stranded guanine quadruplexes.

    PubMed

    Donohue, M P; Szalai, V A

    2016-06-01

    Aside from a double helix, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) folds into non-canonical structures, one of which is the guanine quadruplex. Cationic porphyrins bind guanine quadruplexes, but the effects of ligand binding on the structure of guanine quadruplexes with more than four contiguous guanine quartets remains to be fully elucidated. Double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy conducted at 9.5 GHz (X-band) using broadband, shaped inversion pulses was used to measure the distances between cationic copper porphyrins bound to model parallel-stranded guanine quadruplexes with increasing numbers of guanine quartets. A single Gaussian component was found to best model the time domain datasets, characteristic of a 2 : 1 binding stoichiometry between the porphyrins and each quadruplex. The measured Cu(2+)-Cu(2+) distances were found to be linearly proportional with the number of guanines. Rather unexpectedly, the ligand end-stacking distance was found to monotonically decreases the overall quadruplex length was extended, suggesting a conformational change in the quadruplex secondary structure dependent upon the number of successive guanine quartets. PMID:27218217

  13. Distance-Dependent Triplet Energy Transfer between CdSe Nanocrystals and Surface Bound Anthracene.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Huang, Zhiyuan; Zavala, Ramsha; Tang, Ming Lee

    2016-06-01

    We investigate triplet energy transfer (TET) across variable-length aromatic oligo-p-phenylene and aliphatic bridges in a covalently linked CdSe nanocrystal (NC)-bridge-anthracene hybrid system. Photon upconversion measurements in saturated 9,10-diphenylanthracene hexane solutions under air-free conditions at room temperature provided the steady-state rate of TET (ket) across this interface. For flexible transmitters, ket is similar for different lengths of aliphatic bridges, suggesting that the ligands bend backward. For the rigid phenylene spacer, triplet sensitization of anthracene transmitter molecules by CdSe NCs shows a strong distance dependence, with a Dexter damping coefficient of 0.43 ± 0.07 Å(-1). The anthracene transmitter bound closest to the NC surface gave the highest quantum yield of 14.3% for the conversion of green to violet light, the current record for a hybrid platform. PMID:27164056

  14. Neural Decoding and "Inner" Psychophysics: A Distance-to-Bound Approach for Linking Mind, Brain, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, J Brendan; Carlson, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for cognitive neuroscience is characterizing how the primitives of psychological theory are neurally implemented. Attempts to meet this challenge are a manifestation of what Fechner called "inner" psychophysics: the theory of the precise mapping between mental quantities and the brain. In his own time, inner psychophysics remained an unrealized ambition for Fechner. We suggest that, today, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), or neural "decoding," methods provide a promising starting point for developing an inner psychophysics. A cornerstone of these methods are simple linear classifiers applied to neural activity in high-dimensional activation spaces. We describe an approach to inner psychophysics based on the shared architecture of linear classifiers and observers under decision boundary models such as signal detection theory. Under this approach, distance from a decision boundary through activation space, as estimated by linear classifiers, can be used to predict reaction time in accordance with signal detection theory, and distance-to-bound models of reaction time. Our "neural distance-to-bound" approach is potentially quite general, and simple to implement. Furthermore, our recent work on visual object recognition suggests it is empirically viable. We believe the approach constitutes an important step along the path to an inner psychophysics that links mind, brain, and behavior. PMID:27199652

  15. NASA RFID Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick, Ph.D.; Kennedy, Timothy, Ph.D; Powers, Anne; Haridi, Yasser; Chu, Andrew; Lin, Greg; Yim, Hester; Byerly, Kent, Ph.D.; Barton, Richard, Ph.D.; Khayat, Michael, Ph.D.; Studor, George; Brocato, Robert; Ngo, Phong; Arndt, G. D., Ph.D.; Gross, Julia; Phan, Chau; Ni, David, Ph.D.; Dusl, John; Dekome, Kent

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some potential uses for Radio Frequency Identification in space missions. One of these is inventory management in space, including the methods used in Apollo, the Space Shuttle, and Space Station. The potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost are reviewed. The use of Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking are examined such as that used in Sapphire DART The advantages of RFID in passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications are shown such as: Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities The potential for E-textiles for wireless and RFID are also examined.

  16. Overview of RFID technology and its applications in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P; Reinitz, H W; Simunovic, J; Sandeep, K P; Franzon, P D

    2009-10-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is an alternative technology with a potential to replace traditional universal product code (UPC) barcodes. RFID enables identification of an object from a distance without requiring a line of sight. RFID tags can also incorporate additional data such as details of product and manufacturer and can transmit measured environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity. This article presents key concepts and terminology related to RFID technology and its applications in the food industry. Components and working principles of an RFID system are described. Numerous applications of RFID technology in the food industry (supply chain management, temperature monitoring of foods, and ensuring food safety) are discussed. Challenges in implementation of RFID technology are also discussed in terms of read range, read accuracy, nonuniform standards, cost, recycling issues, privacy, and security concerns. PMID:19799677

  17. Security aspects of RFID communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bîndar, Valericǎ; Popescu, Mircea; Bǎrtuşicǎ, Rǎzvan; Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an overview of basic technical elements and security risks of RFID communication systems and to analyze the possible threats arising from the use of RFID systems. A number of measurements are performed on a communication system including RFID transponder and the tag reader, and it has been determined that the uplink signal level is 62 dB larger than the average value of the noise at the distance of 1m from the tag, therefore the shielding effectiveness has to exceed this threshold. Next, the card has been covered with several shielding materials and measurements were carried, under similar conditions to test the recovery of compromising signals. A very simple protection measure to prevent unauthorized reading of the data stored on the card has been proposed, and some electromagnetic shielding materials have been proposed and tested.

  18. Distance-dependent Schwarz-based integral estimates for two-electron integrals: Reliable tightness vs. rigorous upper bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Simon A.; Lambrecht, Daniel S.; Flaig, Denis; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2012-04-01

    A new integral estimate for four-center two-electron integrals is introduced that accounts for distance information between the bra- and ket-charge distributions describing the two electrons. The screening is denoted as QQR and combines the most important features of the conventional Schwarz screening by Häser and Ahlrichs published in 1989 [J. Comput. Chem. 10, 104 (1989), 10.1002/jcc.540100111] and our multipole-based integral estimates (MBIE) introduced in 2005 [D. S. Lambrecht and C. Ochsenfeld, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 184101 (2005), 10.1063/1.2079967]. At the same time the estimates are not only tighter but also much easier to implement, so that we recommend them instead of our MBIE bounds introduced first for accounting for charge-distance information. The inclusion of distance dependence between charge distributions is not only useful at the SCF level but is particularly important for describing electron-correlation effects, e.g., within AO-MP2 theory, where the decay behavior is at least 1/R4 or even 1/R6. In our present work, we focus on studying the efficiency of our QQR estimates within SCF theory and demonstrate the performance for a benchmark set of 44 medium to large molecules, where savings of up to a factor of 2 for exchange integrals are observed for larger systems. Based on the results of the benchmark set we show that reliable tightness of integral estimates is more important for the screening performance than rigorous upper bound properties.

  19. Neural Decoding and “Inner” Psychophysics: A Distance-to-Bound Approach for Linking Mind, Brain, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ritchie, J. Brendan; Carlson, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge for cognitive neuroscience is characterizing how the primitives of psychological theory are neurally implemented. Attempts to meet this challenge are a manifestation of what Fechner called “inner” psychophysics: the theory of the precise mapping between mental quantities and the brain. In his own time, inner psychophysics remained an unrealized ambition for Fechner. We suggest that, today, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), or neural “decoding,” methods provide a promising starting point for developing an inner psychophysics. A cornerstone of these methods are simple linear classifiers applied to neural activity in high-dimensional activation spaces. We describe an approach to inner psychophysics based on the shared architecture of linear classifiers and observers under decision boundary models such as signal detection theory. Under this approach, distance from a decision boundary through activation space, as estimated by linear classifiers, can be used to predict reaction time in accordance with signal detection theory, and distance-to-bound models of reaction time. Our “neural distance-to-bound” approach is potentially quite general, and simple to implement. Furthermore, our recent work on visual object recognition suggests it is empirically viable. We believe the approach constitutes an important step along the path to an inner psychophysics that links mind, brain, and behavior. PMID:27199652

  20. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters. PMID:21658266

  1. Panel: RFID Security and Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Kevin

    The panel on RFID security and privacy included Ross Anderson, Jon Callas, Yvo Desmedt, and Kevin Fu. Topics for discussion included the "chip and PIN" EMV payment systems, e-Passports, "mafia" attacks, and RFID-enabled credit cards. Position papers by the panelists appear in the following pages, and the RFID-enabled credit card work appears separately in these proceedings.

  2. Managing RFID sensors networks with a general purpose RFID middleware.

    PubMed

    Abad, Ismael; Cerrada, Carlos; Cerrada, Jose A; Heradio, Rubén; Valero, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    RFID middleware is anticipated to one of the main research areas in the field of RFID applications in the near future. The Data EPC Acquisition System (DEPCAS) is an original proposal designed by our group to transfer and apply fundamental ideas from System and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems into the areas of RFID acquisition, processing and distribution systems. In this paper we focus on how to organize and manage generic RFID sensors (edge readers, readers, PLCs, etc…) inside the DEPCAS middleware. We denote by RFID Sensors Networks Management (RSNM) this part of DEPCAS, which is built on top of two new concepts introduced and developed in this work: MARC (Minimum Access Reader Command) and RRTL (RFID Reader Topology Language). MARC is an abstraction layer used to hide heterogeneous devices inside a homogeneous acquisition network. RRTL is a language to define RFID Reader networks and to describe the relationship between them (concentrator, peer to peer, master/submaster). PMID:22969370

  3. Managing RFID Sensors Networks with a General Purpose RFID Middleware

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Ismael; Cerrada, Carlos; Cerrada, Jose A.; Heradio, Rubén; Valero, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    RFID middleware is anticipated to one of the main research areas in the field of RFID applications in the near future. The Data EPC Acquisition System (DEPCAS) is an original proposal designed by our group to transfer and apply fundamental ideas from System and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems into the areas of RFID acquisition, processing and distribution systems. In this paper we focus on how to organize and manage generic RFID sensors (edge readers, readers, PLCs, etc…) inside the DEPCAS middleware. We denote by RFID Sensors Networks Management (RSNM) this part of DEPCAS, which is built on top of two new concepts introduced and developed in this work: MARC (Minimum Access Reader Command) and RRTL (RFID Reader Topology Language). MARC is an abstraction layer used to hide heterogeneous devices inside a homogeneous acquisition network. RRTL is a language to define RFID Reader networks and to describe the relationship between them (concentrator, peer to peer, master/submaster). PMID:22969370

  4. RFID solution benefits Cambridge hospital.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Keeping track of thousands of pieces of equipment in a busy hospital environment is a considerable challenge, but, according to RFID tagging and asset tracking specialist, Harland Simon, RFID technology can make the task considerably simpler. Here Andrew James, the company's RFID sales manager, describes the positive benefits the technology has brought the Medical Equipment Library (MEL) at Addenbrooke's Hospital, one of the world's most famous teaching hospitals. PMID:24341115

  5. An RFID-based on-lens sensor system for long-term IOP monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Liao, Yu-Te; Yang, Tzu-Sen; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Wu, Tsung-Wei; Huang, Yu-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an RFID-based on-lens sensor system is proposed for noninvasive long-term intraocular pressure monitoring. The proposed sensor IC, fabricated in a 0.18um CMOS process, consists of capacitive sensor readout circuitry, RFID communication circuits, and digital processing units. The sensor IC is integrated with electroplating capacitive sensors and a receiving antenna on the contact lens. The sensor IC can be wirelessly powered, communicate with RFID compatible equipment, and perform IOP measurement using on-lens capacitive sensor continuously from a 2cm distance while the incident power from an RFID reader is 20 dBm. The proposed system is compatible to Gen2 RFID protocol, extending the flexibility and reducing the self-developed firmware efforts. PMID:26738033

  6. Evaluation of RFID Tags to Permanently Mark Trees in Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Marczewski, Tobias; Ma, Yongpeng; Sun, Weibang

    2016-01-01

    Long-term ecological and genetic studies in natural populations of tree species require marking techniques so that individuals can be re-visited over time, even in difficult terrain. Both GPS coordinates and physical labels have disadvantages that can make re-finding trees difficult. We tested passive and semi-active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and readers as a means to relocate individual trees. Passive RFID tags do not provide a good solution because of low transmission power of hand-held readers and strong directionality. Semi-active RFID tags provide detection over longer distances, but also suffer from strong directionality. Active RFID tags promise an improvement over semi-passive tags, and could be evaluated in a future study. We conclude that RFID technology has the potential to improve the ability of researchers to locate individual trees repeatedly under natural conditions, and can be used in conjunction with other marking techniques such as physical tags and GPS coordinates.

  7. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  8. RFID Label Tag Design for Metallic Surface Environments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Ryol; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a metal mount RFID tag that works reliably on metallic surfaces. The method proposes the use of commercial label type RFID tags with 2.5 mm thick Styrofoam103.7 with a relative permittivity of 1.03 attached on the back of the tag. In order to verify the performance of the proposed method, we performed experiments on an electric transformer supply chain system. The experimental results showed that the proposed tags can communicate with readers from a distance of 2 m. The recognition rates are comparable to those of commercial metallic mountable tags. PMID:22346612

  9. Cutting Edge RFID Technologies for NASA Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the use of Radio-frequency identification (RFID) for NASA applications. Some of the uses reviewed are: inventory management in space; potential RFID uses in a remote human outpost; Ultra-Wideband RFID for tracking; Passive, wireless sensors in NASA applications such as Micrometeoroid impact detection and Sensor measurements in environmental facilities; E-textiles for wireless and RFID.

  10. Precise RFID localization in impaired environment through sparse signal recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, Saurav; Zhang, Yimin D.; Amin, Moeness G.

    2013-05-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a rapidly developing wireless communication technology for electronically identifying, locating, and tracking products, assets, and personnel. RFID has become one of the most important means to construct real-time locating systems (RTLS) that track and identify the location of objects in real time using simple, inexpensive tags and readers. The applicability and usefulness of RTLS techniques depend on their achievable accuracy. In particular, when multilateration-based localization techniques are exploited, the achievable accuracy primarily relies on the precision of the range estimates between a reader and the tags. Such range information can be obtained by using the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and/or the phase difference of arrival (PDOA). In both cases, however, the accuracy is significantly compromised when the operation environment is impaired. In particular, multipath propagation significantly affects the measurement accuracy of both RSSI and phase information. In addition, because RFID systems are typically operated in short distances, RSSI and phase measurements are also coupled with the reader and tag antenna patterns, making accurate RFID localization very complicated and challenging. In this paper, we develop new methods to localize RFID tags or readers by exploiting sparse signal recovery techniques. The proposed method allows the channel environment and antenna patterns to be taken into account and be properly compensated at a low computational cost. As such, the proposed technique yields superior performance in challenging operation environments with the above-mentioned impairments.

  11. RFID receiver apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Jeffrey Wayne

    2006-12-26

    An RFID backscatter interrogator for transmitting data to an RFID tag, generating a carrier for the tag, and receiving data from the tag modulated onto the carrier, the interrogator including a single grounded-coplanar wave-guide circuit board and at least one surface mount integrated circuit supported by the circuit board.

  12. Design considerations and tradeoffs for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussien, Faisal A.; Turker, Didem Z.; Srinivasan, Rangakrishnan; Mobarak, Mohamed S.; Cortes, Fernando P.; Sanchez-Sinencio, Edgar

    2005-06-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in a variety of tracking, security and tagging applications. Their operation in non line-of-sight environments makes them superior over similar devices such as barcode and infrared tags. RFID systems span a wide range of applications: medical history storage, dental prosthesis tracking, oil drilling pipe and concrete stress monitoring, toll ways services, animal tracking applications, etc. Passive RFID tags generate their power from the incoming signal; therefore, they do not require a power source. Accordingly, minimizing the power consumption and the implementation area are usually the main design considerations. This paper presents a complete analysis on designing a passive RFID tag. A system design methodology is introduced including the main issues and tradeoffs between different design parameters. The uplink modulation techniques used (ASK, PSK, FSK, and PWM) are illustrated showing how to choose the appropriate signaling scheme for a specific data rate, a certain distance of operation and a limited power consumption budget. An antenna system (transmitter and receiver) is proposed providing the maximum distance of operation with the transmitted power stated by FCC regulations. The backscatter modulation scheme used in the downlink is shown whether to be ASK-BM or PSK-BM and the differences between them are discussed. The key building blocks such as the charge pump, voltage reference, and the regulator used to generate the DC supply voltage from the incoming RF signal are discussed along with their design tradeoffs. A complete architecture for a passive RFID tag is provided as an example to illustrate the proposed RFID tag design methodology.

  13. Commercial Product Activation Using RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be used for commercial product activation, according to a proposal. What is new here is the concept of combining RFID with activation - more specifically, using RFID for activating commercial products (principally, electronic ones) and for performing such ancillary functions as tracking individual product units on production lines, tracking shipments, and updating inventories. According to the proposal, an RFID chip would be embedded in each product. The information encoded in the chip would include a unique number for identifying the product. An RFID reader at the point of sale would record the number of the product and would write digital information to the RFID chip for either immediate activation of the product or for later interrogation and processing. To be practical, an RFID product-activation system should satisfy a number of key requirements: the system should be designed to be integrable into the inventory-tracking and the data-processing and -communication infrastructures of businesses along the entire supply chain from manufacture to retail; the system should be resistant to sophisticated hacking; activation codes should be made sufficiently complexity to minimize the probability of activating stolen products; RFID activation equipment at points of sale must be capable to two-way RF communication for the purposes of reading information from, and writing information to, embedded RFID chips; the equipment at points of sale should be easily operable by sales clerks with little or no training; the point-of-sale equipment should verify activation and provide visible and/or audible signals indicating verification or lack thereof; and, the system should be able to handle millions of products per year with minimal human intervention, among other requirements.

  14. Survey of RFID and Its Application to International Ocean/Air Container Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Minoru; Nakada, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Masashi

    “Internet of Things” (IoT) requires information to be collected from “anything”, “anytime”, and “anywhere”. In order to achieve this, wireless devices are required that have (1) automatic data acquisition capability, (2) small size, (3) long life, and (4) long range communication capability. One way to meet these requirements is to adopt active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. Active RFID is more advantageous than passive RFID and enables higher data reading performance over longer distances. This paper surveys active RFID systems, the services they currently promise to provide, technical problems common to these services, and the direction in which research should head in the future. It also reports the results of EPCglobal (EPC: Electronic Product Code) pilot tests conducted on global logistics for tracking ocean/air container transportation using active RFID systems for which we developed several new types of active RFID tags. The test results confirm that our active RFID tags have sufficient capability and low power consumption to well support ocean/air transportation and logistics service.

  15. User Privacy in RFID Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singelée, Dave; Seys, Stefaan

    Wireless RFID networks are getting deployed at a rapid pace and have already entered the public space on a massive scale: public transport cards, the biometric passport, office ID tokens, customer loyalty cards, etc. Although RFID technology offers interesting services to customers and retailers, it could also endanger the privacy of the end-users. The lack of protection mechanisms being deployed could potentially result in a privacy leakage of personal data. Furthermore, there is the emerging threat of location privacy. In this paper, we will show some practical attack scenarios and illustrates some of them with cases that have received press coverage. We will present the main challenges of enhancing privacy in RFID networks and evaluate some solutions proposed in literature. The main advantages and shortcomings will be briefly discussed. Finally, we will give an overview of some academic and industrial research initiatives on RFID privacy.

  16. Characterization of polymer silver pastes for screen printed flexible RFID antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeczek, Kamil; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Futera, Konrad; MłoŻniak, Anna; Kozioł, GraŻyna; Araźna, Aneta

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have become more and more popular in the last few years because of their wide application fields, such as supply chain management and logistics. To continue their development further investigations of new conductive materials for fabrication of RFID transponders' antennas are necessary to be carried out. These materials should provide high flexibility and good radiation performance of printed antennas. In this paper, two polymer silver pastes based on silver flakes were characterized with regard to manufacturing of flexible RFID antennas with screen printing technique. Foil and paper were used as a substrate materials. Surface profile of the printed antennas was measured using an optical profilometer and their resistance was measured with a four-point-probe method. Antenna flexibility was evaluated in cyclic bending tests and its performance with reflection coefficient measurements with the use of differential probe connected to a vector network analyzer. In addition, a maximum read distance of a fabricated RFID transponder was measured.

  17. Experimental studies of high-accuracy RFID localization with channel impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauls, Eric; Zhang, Yimin D.

    2015-05-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems present an incredibly cost-effective and easy-to-implement solution to close-range localization. One of the important applications of a passive RFID system is to determine the reader position through multilateration based on the estimated distances between the reader and multiple distributed reference tags obtained from, e.g., the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) readings. In practice, the achievable accuracy of passive RFID reader localization suffers from many factors, such as the distorted RSSI reading due to channel impairments in terms of the susceptibility to reader antenna patterns and multipath propagation. Previous studies have shown that the accuracy of passive RFID localization can be significantly improved by properly modeling and compensating for such channel impairments. The objective of this paper is to report experimental study results that validate the effectiveness of such approaches for high-accuracy RFID localization. We also examine a number of practical issues arising in the underlying problem that limit the accuracy of reader-tag distance measurements and, therefore, the estimated reader localization. These issues include the variations in tag radiation characteristics for similar tags, effects of tag orientations, and reader RSS quantization and measurement errors. As such, this paper reveals valuable insights of the issues and solutions toward achieving high-accuracy passive RFID localization.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Analysis on the Distribution of Active Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Tracking Accuracy with the Kriging Method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy. PMID:25356648

  19. Spatial and temporal analysis on the distribution of active radio-frequency identification (RFID) tracking accuracy with the Kriging method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Shannon, Jeremy; Voun, Howard; Truijens, Martijn; Chi, Hung-Lin; Wang, Xiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been applied in a number of areas to facilitate the tracking process. However, the insufficient tracking accuracy of RFID is one of the problems that impedes its wider application. Previous studies focus on examining the accuracy of discrete points RFID, thereby leaving the tracking accuracy of the areas between the observed points unpredictable. In this study, spatial and temporal analysis is applied to interpolate the continuous distribution of RFID tracking accuracy based on the Kriging method. An implementation trial has been conducted in the loading and docking area in front of a warehouse to validate this approach. The results show that the weak signal area can be easily identified by the approach developed in the study. The optimum distance between two RFID readers and the effect of the sudden removal of readers are also presented by analysing the spatial and temporal variation of RFID tracking accuracy. This study reveals the correlation between the testing time and the stability of RFID tracking accuracy. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can be used to assist the RFID system setup process to increase tracking accuracy. PMID:25356648

  20. The Use of Mn(II) Bound to His-tags as Genetically Encodable Spin-Label for Nanometric Distance Determination in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ching, H Y Vincent; Mascali, Florencia C; Bertrand, Hélène C; Bruch, Eduardo M; Demay-Drouhard, Paul; Rasia, Rodolfo M; Policar, Clotilde; Tabares, Leandro C; Un, Sun

    2016-03-17

    A genetically encodable paramagnetic spin-label capable of self-assembly from naturally available components would offer a means for studying the in-cell structure and interactions of a protein by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Here, we demonstrate pulse electron-electron double resonance (DEER) measurements on spin-labels consisting of Mn(II) ions coordinated to a sequence of histidines, so-called His-tags, that are ubiquitously added by genetic engineering to facilitate protein purification. Although the affinity of His-tags for Mn(II) was low (800 μM), Mn(II)-bound His-tags yielded readily detectable DEER time traces even at concentrations expected in cells. We were able to determine accurately the distance between two His-tag Mn(II) spin-labels at the ends of a rigid helical polyproline peptide of known structure, as well as at the ends of a completely cell-synthesized 3-helix bundle. This approach not only greatly simplifies the labeling procedure but also represents a first step towards using self-assembling metal spin-labels for in-cell distance measurements. PMID:26938795

  1. Analysis and Design of a Long Range PTFE Substrate UHF RFID Tag for Cargo Container Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrariu, Adrian-Ioan; Popa, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high-performances microstrip antenna for UHF (ultra high frequency) RFID (radio frequency identification) tag is designed, prototyped and tested. The antenna consists of two main components: a 1.52 mm RT/duroid 5880 laminate substrate on which the antenna is designed and a 10 mm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) dielectric material placed as a separator between the antenna and the reference ground plane for the microstrip antenna. With this structure, the RFID tag can reach a maximum reading distance of 19 m, although the antenna has a compact size of 80 mm × 50 mm. The long reading distance is obtained by attaching to the antenna an RFID chip that can provide a reading sensitivity of -20.5 dBm. The high bandwidth from 677 MHz to 947 MHz measured at -10 dB, makes the tag being usable worldwide especially for cargo container identification, the main purpose of this research.

  2. Group Management Method of RFID Passwords for Privacy Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yuichi; Kuwana, Toshiyuki; Taniguchi, Yoji; Komoda, Norihisa

    When RFID tag is used in the whole item lifecycle including a consumer scene or a recycle scene, we have to protect consumer privacy in the state that RFID tag is stuck on an item. We use the low cost RFID tag that has the access control function using a password, and we propose a method which manages RFID tags by passwords identical to each group of RFID tags. This proposal improves safety of RFID system because the proposal method is able to reduce the traceability for a RFID tag, and hold down the influence for disclosure of RFID passwords in the both scenes.

  3. A Framework for Sediment Particle Tracking via Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsakiris, Achilleas; Papanicolaou, Thanos; Abban, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    The study of sedimentary and morphodynamic processes in riverine environments has recently been shifting from the traditional Eulerian, static perspective to a Lagrangian perspective, which considers the movement characteristics of the individual transported particles, such as their travel and resting distance and time. The Lagrangian framework, in turn allows to better study processes such as bedload particle diffusion, erosion and deposition within a river reach, to more accurately predict bedload fluxes especially through the use of stochastic Discrete Particle models. A technology that goes hand-in-hand with this Lagrangian perspective is Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID), which has been recently applied for tracking the movement of tagged sediment particles within the river continuum. RFID allows the wireless, bidirectional exchange of information between a base station, known as the reader, with a typically large number of transponders (or tags) via an (excitation) antenna. RFID allows essentially the unique, wireless detection and identification of a transponder over a distance. The goal of this study is to further enhance the utility of RFID in riverine applications by developing a framework that allows extracting the 3D location of RFID tagged sediment particles in nearly real-time. To address the goal of this coupled theoretical and experimental study, a semi-theoretical approach based on antenna inductive coupling was combined with experimental measurements for developing a relationship that provides an estimate of the distance between a tagged particle and the antenna using the Return Signal Strength Indication (RSSI). The RSSI quantifies the magnetic energy transmitted from the transponder to the antenna. The RFID system used in this study was a passive, Low-Frequency (LF) system, which ensured that the LF radio waves could penetrate through the river bed material. The RSSI of the signal transmitted from each transponder was measured with an

  4. Optimal Detection Range of RFID Tag for RFID-based Positioning System Using the k-NN Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Han, Soohee; Kim, Junghwan; Park, Choung-Hwan; Yoon, Hee-Cheon; Heo, Joon

    2009-01-01

    Positioning technology to track a moving object is an important and essential component of ubiquitous computing environments and applications. An RFID-based positioning system using the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) algorithm can determine the position of a moving reader from observed reference data. In this study, the optimal detection range of an RFID-based positioning system was determined on the principle that tag spacing can be derived from the detection range. It was assumed that reference tags without signal strength information are regularly distributed in 1-, 2- and 3-dimensional spaces. The optimal detection range was determined, through analytical and numerical approaches, to be 125% of the tag-spacing distance in 1-dimensional space. Through numerical approaches, the range was 134% in 2-dimensional space, 143% in 3-dimensional space. PMID:22408540

  5. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  6. RFID Technology for Inventory Management

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is leveraging the use and application of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to a variety of markets. Tagging and tracking of individual items for inventory control is revealing rich rewards through increased time efficiency and reduced human intervention.

  7. Some Fundamental Limits on SAW RFID Tag Information Capacity and Collision Resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we apply results from multi-user information theory to study the limits of information capacity and collision resolution for SAW RFID tags. In particular, we derive bounds on the achievable data rate per tag as a function of fundamental parameters such as tag time-bandwidth product, tag signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and number of tags in the environment. We also discuss the implications of these bounds for tag waveform design and tag interrogation efficiency

  8. Antenna for passive RFID tags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Cristea, Ionica; Grosu, Neculai; Vladescu, Marian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    Minuscule devices, called RFID tags are attached to objects and persons and emit information which positioned readers may capture wirelessly. Many methods of identification have been used, but that of most common is to use a unique serial number for identification of person or object. RFID tags can be characterized as either active or passive [1,2]. Traditional passive tags are typically in "sleep" state until awakened by the reader's emitted field. In passive tags, the reader's field acts to charge the capacitor that powers the badge and this can be a combination of antenna and barcodes obtained with SAW( Surface Acoustic Wave) devices [1,2,3] . The antenna in an RFID tag is a conductive element that permits the tag to exchange data with the reader. The paper contribution are targeted to antenna for passive RFID tags. The electromagnetic field generated by the reader is somehow oriented by the reader antenna and power is induced in the tag only if the orientation of the tag antenna is appropriate. A tag placed orthogonal to the reader yield field will not be read. This is the reason that guided manufacturers to build circular polarized antenna capable of propagating a field that is alternatively polarized on all planes passing on the diffusion axis. Passive RFID tags are operated at the UHF frequencies of 868MHz (Europe) and 915MHz (USA) and at the microwave frequencies of 2,45 GHz and 5,8 GHz . Because the tags are small dimensions, in paper, we present the possibility to use circular polarization microstrip antenna with fractal edge [2].

  9. Extended-Range Passive RFID and Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.; Kennedy, Timothy F.; Lin, Gregory Y.; Barton, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Extended-range passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and related sensor tags are undergoing development. A tag of this type incorporates a retroreflective antenna array, so that it reflects significantly more signal power back toward an interrogating radio transceiver than does a comparable passive RFID tag of prior design, which does not incorporate a retroreflective antenna array. Therefore, for a given amount of power radiated by the transmitter in the interrogating transceiver, a tag of this type can be interrogated at a distance greater than that of the comparable passive RFID or sensor tag of prior design. The retroreflective antenna array is, more specifically, a Van Atta array, named after its inventor and first published in a patent issued in 1959. In its simplest form, a Van Atta array comprises two antenna elements connected by a transmission line so that the signal received by each antenna element is reradiated by the other antenna element (see Figure 1). The phase relationships among the received and reradiated signals are such as to produce constructive interference of the reradiated signals; that is, to concentrate the reradiated signal power in a direction back toward the source. Hence, an RFID tag equipped with a Van Atta antenna array automatically tracks the interrogating transceiver. The effective gain of a Van Atta array is the same as that of a traditional phased antenna array having the same number of antenna elements. Additional pairs of antenna elements connected by equal-length transmission lines can be incorporated into a Van Atta array to increase its directionality. Like some RFID tags here-to-fore commercially available, an RFID or sensor tag of the present developmental type includes one-port surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) devices. In simplified terms, the mode of operation of a basic one-port SAW device as used heretofore in an RFID device is the following: An interrogating radio signal is converted, at an input end, from

  10. Small-scale Testing of RFID in a Hospital Setting: RFID as Bed Trigger

    PubMed Central

    Kannry, Joseph; Emro, Susan; Blount, Marion; Ebling, Maria

    2007-01-01

    RFID technology shows significant potential for transforming healthcare, yet few studies assess this potential. Our study measured the effectiveness of using RFID as a bed trigger: a tool to accelerate identification of empty beds. We made a small alteration in the discharge process to associate RFID tags with patients and created an RFID-based system that automatically determined discharge time. For each patient, we evaluated the difference in the discharge times recorded manually by the current process and the RFID-based system. The study was conducted on 86 patients over 2 months in 2 physically separate multi-specialty units. Compared to the preexisting process, the RFID-based system identified empty beds >20 minutes earlier 67% of the time with an average of 25 minutes and median of 9 minutes earlier. Hospital leadership defined an improvement of ~10 minutes as significant. With minimal investment, our small-scale study lead hospital leadership to begin planning RFID deployment. PMID:18693863

  11. Passive RFID tag based heart rate monitoring from an ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Vora, Shrenik; Dandekar, Kapil; Kurzweg, Timothy

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a monitoring system that employs a passive RFID tag to transmit heart rate using an ECG signal as its source. This system operates without a battery and has been constructed with easily available commercial components. Here, an RFID tag is used as an on-off keying device, wherein it is normally transmitting, but turns off every time a heart beat is detected. Heart beats ranging from 30BPM through 300BPM are successfully measured using our device. It is shown that the system is capable of providing accurate heart rate measurements up to a distance of ten feet with a standard deviation of less than one beat per minute without a local power source. The proposed system is also found to be resilient in the presence of an additional RFID tag. PMID:26737271

  12. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function. PMID:26491714

  13. Fully Integrated Passive UHF RFID Tag for Hash-Based Mutual Authentication Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Shugo; Watanabe, Dai; Li, Yang; Sakiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag has been used in many applications. While the RFID market is expected to grow, concerns about security and privacy of the RFID tag should be overcome for the future use. To overcome these issues, privacy-preserving authentication protocols based on cryptographic algorithms have been designed. However, to the best of our knowledge, evaluation of the whole tag, which includes an antenna, an analog front end, and a digital processing block, that runs authentication protocols has not been studied. In this paper, we present an implementation and evaluation of a fully integrated passive UHF RFID tag that runs a privacy-preserving mutual authentication protocol based on a hash function. We design a single chip including the analog front end and the digital processing block. We select a lightweight hash function supporting 80-bit security strength and a standard hash function supporting 128-bit security strength. We show that when the lightweight hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with a reader-tag distance of 10 cm. Similarly, when the standard hash function is used, the tag completes the protocol with the distance of 8.5 cm. We discuss the impact of the peak power consumption of the tag on the distance of the tag due to the hash function. PMID:26491714

  14. RFID tags as a direct tracer for water and sediment dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommerer, Erik; Plate, Simon; Güntner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    derived transport distances and velocities for a one year period. The transport behavior of the RFID tags was similar to the micrite limestone material of the badland. These results indicate the important role of terrain position and vegetation patches for erosion patterns, sediment transfer and the associated time scales along the catchment. We assess the potentials and limitations of the RFID technique as a direct tracer for assessing water and sediment connectivity along hillslopes to first order channels.

  15. A Research on Issues Related to RFID Security and Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongki; Yang, Chao; Jeon, Jinhwan

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology for automated identification of objects and people. RFID systems have been gaining more popularity in areas especially in supply chain management and automated identification systems. However, there are many existing and potential problems in the RFID systems which could threat the technology's future. To successfully adopt RFID technology in various applications, we need to develop the solutions to protect the RFID system's data information. This study investigates important issues related to privacy and security of RFID based on the recent literature and suggests solutions to cope with the problem.

  16. Applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in Mining Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairul Nizam Mahmad, Mohd; Z, Mohd Remy Rozainy M. A.; Baharun, Norlia

    2016-06-01

    RFID technology has recently become a dream of many companies or organizations because of its strategic potential in transforming mining operations. Now is the perfect time, for RFID technology arise as the next revolution in mining industries. This paper will review regarding the application of RFID in mining industries and access knowledge regarding RFID technology and overseen the opportunity of this technology to become an importance element in mining industries. The application of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) in mining industries includes to control of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), control of personnel to access mining sites and RFID solutions for tracking explosives.

  17. Applying RFID technology in nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y.; Norair, J. P.; Bellamy, S.; Shuler, J.; SRL; Savi Technology; DOE

    2008-01-01

    The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) of US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM), Office of Safety Management and Operations (EM-60), has developed a radio frequency identification (RFID) system for the management of nuclear materials. Argonne National Laboratory, a PCP supporting laboratory, and Savi Technology, a Lockheed Martin Company, are collaborating in the development of the RFID system, a process that involves hardware modification (form factor, seal sensor and batteries), software development and irradiation experiments. Savannah River National Laboratory and Argonne will soon field test the active RFID system on Model 9975 drums, which are used for storage and transportation of fissile and radioactive materials. Potential benefits of the RFID system are enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real time access of status and history data, and overall cost effectiveness.

  18. A fractal circular polarized RFID tag antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouki, Guesmi; Ferchichi, Abdelhak; Gharsallah, Ali

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we present a novel fractal antenna for radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed antenna has a resonant frequency equal to 2.45GHz and circular polarization. The fractal technique was very useful to obtain a miniaturization of antenna size by more than 30%. The gain and directivity of the antenna are acceptable for the desired RFID application. All the results are obtained using CST Microwave simulation tool.

  19. Behavior-based cleaning for unreliable RFID data sets.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items and assets, but in RFID systems, missreading is a common phenomenon and it poses an enormous challenge to RFID data management, so accurate data cleaning becomes an essential task for the successful deployment of systems. In this paper, we present the design and development of a RFID data cleaning system, the first declarative, behavior-based unreliable RFID data smoothing system. We take advantage of kinematic characteristics of tags to assist in RFID data cleaning. In order to establish the conversion relationship between RFID data and kinematic parameters of the tags, we propose a movement behavior detection model. Moreover, a Reverse Order Filling Mechanism is proposed to ensure a more complete access to get the movement behavior characteristics of tag. Finally, we validate our solution with a common RFID application and demonstrate the advantages of our approach through extensive simulations. PMID:23112595

  20. Behavior-Based Cleaning for Unreliable RFID Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong

    2012-01-01

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology promises to revolutionize the way we track items and assets, but in RFID systems, missreading is a common phenomenon and it poses an enormous challenge to RFID data management, so accurate data cleaning becomes an essential task for the successful deployment of systems. In this paper, we present the design and development of a RFID data cleaning system, the first declarative, behavior-based unreliable RFID data smoothing system. We take advantage of kinematic characteristics of tags to assist in RFID data cleaning. In order to establish the conversion relationship between RFID data and kinematic parameters of the tags, we propose a movement behavior detection model. Moreover, a Reverse Order Filling Mechanism is proposed to ensure a more complete access to get the movement behavior characteristics of tag. Finally, we validate our solution with a common RFID application and demonstrate the advantages of our approach through extensive simulations. PMID:23112595

  1. Development of Wireless RFID Glove for Various Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changwon; Kim, Minchul; Park, Jinwoo; Oh, Jeonghoon; Eom, Kihwan

    Radio Frequency Identification is increasingly popular technology with many applications. The majority of applications of RFID are supply-chain management. In this paper, we proposed the development of wireless RFID Glove for various applications in real life. Proposed wireless RFID glove is composed of RFID reader of 13.56 MHz and RF wireless module. Proposed Gloves were applied to two applications. First is the interactive leaning and second is Meal aid system for blind people. The experimental results confirmed good performances.

  2. The design of RFID convey or belt gate systems using an antenna control unit.

    PubMed

    Park, Chong Ryol; Lee, Seung Joon; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPC)global for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance. PMID:22164119

  3. [Automatic tracking of cleaned dental instruments by means of the RFID technique].

    PubMed

    Krejci, Ivo; Ney, Hervé; Bonny, Diane; Bréhier, Céline; Massa, Nicole; Negrin, Nadège; Bovet, Marc

    2013-01-01

    For dental care professionals, the availability and cleanliness of reusable instruments is of major importance. In order to guarantee a proper reprocessing (cleaning, sterilization) of each instrument and ensure optimum safety for the patients, a single instrument traceability solution can be implemented. The RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology is the only approach that can provide a fully automated identification of instruments, and a precise monitoring throughout the reprocessing cycle. It consists in integrating a miniature electronic component (RFID tag) to each instrument able to communicate with a transmitter located at a relatively close distance and capable of uniquely identifying each element in any given container, even when closed. In 2011, a pilot project was implemented in collaboration with the Division of Dentistry (SMD) of the University of Geneva and the central sterilization of the Geneva University Hospitals (HUG). This project has demonstrated the applicability and usefulness of RFID technology for tracking reusable dental instruments. In particular, the time saved by the operators and the massive risk reduction when compared to the possible errors during the process of manual identification are two major elements that justify the implementation of an RFID-based instrument traceability solution. PMID:24554592

  4. The Design of RFID Convey or Belt Gate Systems Using an Antenna Control Unit

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chong Ryol; Lee, Seung Joon; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPC)global for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance. PMID:22164119

  5. A matrix lower bound

    SciTech Connect

    Grcar, Joseph F.

    2002-02-04

    A matrix lower bound is defined that generalizes ideas apparently due to S. Banach and J. von Neumann. The matrix lower bound has a natural interpretation in functional analysis, and it satisfies many of the properties that von Neumann stated for it in a restricted case. Applications for the matrix lower bound are demonstrated in several areas. In linear algebra, the matrix lower bound of a full rank matrix equals the distance to the set of rank-deficient matrices. In numerical analysis, the ratio of the matrix norm to the matrix lower bound is a condition number for all consistent systems of linear equations. In optimization theory, the matrix lower bound suggests an identity for a class of min-max problems. In real analysis, a recursive construction that depends on the matrix lower bound shows that the level sets of continuously differential functions lie asymptotically near those of their tangents.

  6. Implantation of an RFID-tag into human molars to reduce hard forensic identification labor. Part I: working principle.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, Patrick W; Poelman, Guy; De Cooman, Michel; Puers, Robert; Willems, Guy

    2006-05-15

    Recently the tsunami disaster, the London bombings and the landfall of hurricane Katrina demonstrated once more the need for an accurate, quick and easy to handle identification system. The implantation of a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag into a human tooth and the read-out of its information may give an answer to this problem. A description is given of the modification of an existing RFID-tag that was made for veterinary use. This modified system was implanted in human molars using directly bonded resin composites. A protocol for tooth preparation and tag implantation was developed. A study of tag read-out patterns, revealed their accurate read-out distance range, the optimal site of RFID-tag implantation, assemblage of its components, and dimensions of the primary coil. It was found that disassembling the commercial RFID-tags was practically feasible and resulted in a properly working set-up. Further research is needed to optimize the design and the stability of RFID-tags for human identification purposes. PMID:16563681

  7. HF RFID versus UHF RFID--Technology for Library Service Transformation at City University of Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching, Steve H.; Tai, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Since libraries first used RFID systems in the late 1990s, more and more libraries have identified the advantages of the technology. With advances in HF and UHF RFID, both alternatives are now viable in library applications. While some librarians are still skeptical towards UHF RFID as unproven in the library arena, the City University of Hong…

  8. Preliminary exploration of the measurement of walking speed for the apoplectic people based on UHF RFID.

    PubMed

    Huang Hua-Lin; Mo Ling-Fei; Liu Ying-Jie; Li Cheng-Yang; Xu Qi-Meng; Wu Zhi-Tong

    2015-08-01

    The number of the apoplectic people is increasing while population aging is quickening its own pace. The precise measurement of walking speed is very important to the rehabilitation guidance of the apoplectic people. The precision of traditional measuring methods on speed such as stopwatch is relatively low, and high precision measurement instruments because of the high cost cannot be used widely. What's more, these methods have difficulty in measuring the walking speed of the apoplectic people accurately. UHF RFID tag has the advantages of small volume, low price, long reading distance etc, and as a wearable sensor, it is suitable to measure walking speed accurately for the apoplectic people. In order to measure the human walking speed, this paper uses four reader antennas with a certain distance to reads the signal strength of RFID tag. Because RFID tag has different RSSI (Received Signal Strength Indicator) in different distances away from the reader, researches on the changes of RSSI with time have been done by this paper to calculate walking speed. The verification results show that the precise measurement of walking speed can be realized by signal processing method with Gaussian Fitting-Kalman Filter. Depending on the variance of walking speed, doctors can predict the rehabilitation training result of the apoplectic people and give the appropriate rehabilitation guidance. PMID:26738158

  9. An approach for removing redundant data from RFID data streams.

    PubMed

    Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are emerging as the primary object identification mechanism, especially in supply chain management. However, RFID naturally generates a large amount of duplicate readings. Removing these duplicates from the RFID data stream is paramount as it does not contribute new information to the system and wastes system resources. Existing approaches to deal with this problem cannot fulfill the real time demands to process the massive RFID data stream. We propose a data filtering approach that efficiently detects and removes duplicate readings from RFID data streams. Experimental results show that the proposed approach offers a significant improvement as compared to the existing approaches. PMID:22163730

  10. An Approach for Removing Redundant Data from RFID Data Streams

    PubMed Central

    Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are emerging as the primary object identification mechanism, especially in supply chain management. However, RFID naturally generates a large amount of duplicate readings. Removing these duplicates from the RFID data stream is paramount as it does not contribute new information to the system and wastes system resources. Existing approaches to deal with this problem cannot fulfill the real time demands to process the massive RFID data stream. We propose a data filtering approach that efficiently detects and removes duplicate readings from RFID data streams. Experimental results show that the proposed approach offers a significant improvement as compared to the existing approaches. PMID:22163730

  11. Enhanced UHF RFID tags for drug tracing.

    PubMed

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; De Blasi, Mario; Patrono, Luigi; Tarricone, Luciano

    2012-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is playing a crucial role for item-level tracing systems in healthcare scenarios. The pharmaceutical supply chain is a fascinating application context, where RFID can guarantee transparency in the drug flow, supporting both suppliers and consumers against the growing counterfeiting problem. In such a context, the choice of the most adequate RFID tag, in terms of shape, frequency, size and reading range, is crucial. The potential presence of items containing materials hostile to the electromagnetic propagation exasperates the problem. In addition, the peculiarities of the different RFID-based checkpoints make even more stringent the requirements for the tag. In this work, the performance of several commercial UHF RFID tags in each step of the pharmaceutical supply chain has been evaluated, confirming the expected criticality. On such basis, a guideline for the electromagnetic design of new high-performance tags capable to overcome such criticalities has been defined. Finally, driven by such guidelines, a new enhanced tag has been designed, realized and tested. Due to patent pending issues, the antenna shape is not shown. Nevertheless, the optimal obtained results do not lose their validity. Indeed, on the one hand they demonstrate that high performance item level tracing systems can actually be implemented also in critical operating conditions. On the other hand, they encourage the tag designer to follow the identified guidelines so to realize enhanced UHF tags. PMID:22048779

  12. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F.; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9–11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  13. An RFID Based Smart Feeder for Hummingbirds.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Vicente; Araya-Salas, Marcelo; Tang, Yu-ping; Park, Charlie; Hyde, Anthony; Wright, Timothy F; Tang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We present an interdisciplinary effort to record feeding behaviors and control the diet of a hummingbird species (Phaethornis longirostris, the long-billed hermit or LBH) by developing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based smart feeder. The system contains an RFID reader, a microcontroller, and a servo-controlled hummingbird feeder opener; the system is presented as a tool for studying the cognitive ability of the LBH species. When equipped with glass capsule RFID tags (which are mounted on the hummingbird), the smart feeder can provide specific diets for predetermined sets of hummingbirds at the discretion of biologists. This is done by reading the unique RFID tag on the hummingbirds and comparing the ID number with the pre-programmed ID numbers stored in the smart feeder. The smart feeder records the time and ID of each hummingbird visit. The system data is stored in a readily available SD card and is powered by two 9 V batteries. The detection range of the system is approximately 9-11 cm. Using this system, biologists can assign the wild hummingbirds to different experimental groups and monitor their diets to determine if they develop a preference to any of the available nectars. During field testing, the smart feeder system has demonstrated consistent detection (when compared to detections observed by video-recordings) of RFID tags on hummingbirds and provides pre-designed nectars varying water and sugar concentrations to target individuals. The smart feeder can be applied to other biological and environmental studies in the future. PMID:26694402

  14. Study of Development for RFID System to Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung Kwon; Sung, Myung-Whun

    2015-01-01

    RFID/USN develops information systems for anytime, anywhere to anybody access Electronic Medical Records (EMR). The goal of the present study is to develop a RFID/USN-based information system for the hospital environment. First, unable to recognize, second, able to recognize as a pursuit of place and suppose the time of medical examination. A retrospective analysis of 235 RFID monitoring results, from four ENT ambulatory clinics of Seoul National University Hospital were extracted by a reader program and monitoring of RFID tag (2006.11.16~2006.12.16). RFID detection for sensing reader of this study has been put into representing "place" and "spending time" of patients for medical history taking and examination. Through the RFID of detection for specific place and spending time of medical examination, RFID/USN develops information system progressing in the EMR of hospital system. PMID:26262206

  15. Thoracoscopic surgery support system using passive RFID marker.

    PubMed

    Takahata, Hiromi; Kojima, Fumitsugu; Okada, Minoru; Sugiura, Tadao; Sato, Toshihiko; Oshiro, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a RFID based thoracoscopic surgery support system, which is capable of marking a tumor inside organ tissue. The marker composed of small RFID-tags is implanted in the vicinity of tumor found in the endoscopy test. In the thoracoscopic surgery operation for removing the tumor, an RFID detector determines the accurate position of the implanted RFID-tag markers by measuring the strength of the signal emitted from the target tag. Due to limitation in the size of RFID-tag, the proposed system employs a passive RFID. To activate the passive tag implanted in the organ tissue, this paper designs a saddle-shape efficient power supply antenna. A sensitive and frequency-selective receiver is then designed for detecting the weak signal from the tag. The feasibility test confirms that the proposed method is capable of determining the accurate location of RFID tags implanted in the patient's organ tissue. PMID:23365862

  16. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  17. An expression of uncertainty and its application to positioning: a quality-metric and optimal ranges for the identification of cells with RFID.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, Eduardo; Ferreira, Luiz Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Here we devise an approach to model error and its propagation. Without approximations, we define the uncertainty of a measurement as its maximum possible error (maper). Thus, we propose and solve analytically two optimization problems. The one designed to determine the uncertainty of a measurement, the other specifically designed to optimize the accuracy of a RFID location system. The usefulness of this general approach is shown by applying it to the particular instance of estimating the coordinates of a person in real-time using RFID devices. This way, exact formulae to evaluate the quality of this measurement are mathematically deduced, which is useful, for example, to predict whether an inexpensive RFID location technology can meet a desired quality standard or not. The second optimization problem proposed here defines an optimal range (orange) for the RFID devices employed. Again, analytically, its exact formulae were derived. We propose an approach to distribute RFID tags for a positioning system based solely on RFID technology. In the light of the formulae, its quality is good enough as to locate emergency phone calls in real time. We found that key to an optimal performance is the range used and the distance between consecutive tags. PMID:26217551

  18. Pharmaceutical counterfeiting and the RFID technology intervention.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Arvidson, Cody; Rutsohn, Phil

    2010-07-01

    Both nationally and internationally, pharmaceutical counterfeiting has become a problem that is threatening economic stability and public health. The purpose of the present research study review was to analyze the scope and severity of pharmaceutical counterfeiting and to establish if the implantation of the Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) model can more efficiently be used within the pharmaceutical supply chain to reduce the problem counterfeit drugs impose on public health and international economic stability. Results indicated that implementing the RFID model for tracking drugs at the item level in the pharmaceutical supply chain has potential to alleviate the scope of the counterfeit drug problem. Recommendations for how the pharmaceutical industry may sooner adopt the RFID model are made. PMID:20582850

  19. Design and Implementation of Embedded RFID Middleware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen-xiang, Li.; Yu-xiang, Zhang

    An embedded RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) middleware based on ARM Linux operating system and S3C2410 hardware platform was designed and implemented. The system architecture and platform of software and hardware of this middleware were introduced. The key technology applied in some device management and tag data processing and the application of SQLite were specialized. Since its rich standard interfaces offered by the hardware platform, the middleware can connect with different kind of readers from different manufacturers without cosidering the diversity and complexity of RFID bottom layer hardware. So, it can supply upper layer application of system with a powerful, uniform platform, and lay a broader, richer foundation for the application of RFID.

  20. Semantic-Based RFID Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Virgilio, Roberto; di Sciascio, Eugenio; Ruta, Michele; Scioscia, Floriano; Torlone, Riccardo

    Traditional Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) applications have been focused on replacing bar codes in supply chain management. Leveraging a ubiquitous computing architecture, the chapter presents a framework allowing both quick decentralized on-line item discovery and centralized off-line massive business logic analysis, according to needs and requirements of supply chain actors. A semantic-based environment, where tagged objects become resources exposing to an RFID reader not a trivial identification code but a semantic annotation, enables tagged objects to describe themselves on the fly without depending on a centralized infrastructure. On the other hand, facing on data management issues, a proposal is formulated for an effective off-line multidimensional analysis of huge amounts of RFID data generated and stored along the supply chain.

  1. Design and evaluation of RFID deployments in a trauma resuscitation bay.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Siddika; Ayyer, Shriniwas; Liu, Ying Yu; Marsic, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    We examined configuring a radio frequency identification (RFID) equipment for the best object use detection in a trauma bay. Unlike prior work on RFID, we 1) optimized the accuracy of object use detection rather than just object detection; and 2) quantitatively assessed antenna placement while addressing issues specific to tag placement likely to occur in a trauma bay. Our design started with an analysis of the environment requirements and constraints. We designed several antenna setups with different number of components (RFID tags or antennas) and their orientations. Setups were evaluated under scenarios simulating a dynamic medical setting. We used three metrics with increasing complexity and bias: read rate, received signal strength indication distribution distance, and target application performance. Our experiments showed that antennas above the regions with high object density are most suitable for detecting object use. We explored tagging strategies for challenging objects so that sufficient readout rates are obtained for computing evaluation metrics. Among the metrics, distribution distance was correlated with target application performance, and also less biased and simpler to calculate, which made it an excellent metric for context-aware applications. We present experimental results obtained in the real trauma bay to validate our findings. PMID:24108484

  2. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2011-01-01

    The ISS has some significant inventory management challenges. RFID solves many of these, and was deployed 8/2011. Significant issues (some unique to spacecraft) remain. NASA is interested and investing in technologies that will help to overcome the remaining issues.

  3. RFID: A Revolution in Automatic Data Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2004-01-01

    Radio frequency identification, or RFID, is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to automatically identify people or objects. There are several methods of identification, but the most common is to store a serial number that identifies a person or object, and perhaps other information, on a microchip that is attached to an antenna…

  4. A tool management system based on RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. G.; Xu, L. D.; Cai, D. S.; Xu, L.; Yu, H. H.

    2010-12-01

    Built the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) hardware system then developed a tool management system based on Labview in the paper. The software can control the read/write device to read/write data through the serial port and use the database management module to add, query, modify and delete record. So, the automatic identification and management of cutting tool is realized.

  5. A tool management system based on RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. G.; Xu, L. D.; Cai, D. S.; Xu, L.; Yu, H. H.

    2011-05-01

    Built the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) hardware system then developed a tool management system based on Labview in the paper. The software can control the read/write device to read/write data through the serial port and use the database management module to add, query, modify and delete record. So, the automatic identification and management of cutting tool is realized.

  6. Introducing RFID at Middlesex University Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, Alan; Chandrakar, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the first year of the implementation of radio frequency identification (RFID) in Middlesex University Learning Resources. Design/methodology/approach: The technology is explained in detail to set the scene. Information on the implementation is presented in chronological order. Findings: Problems which would generally be…

  7. Development and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna for monitoring freshwater mussels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jesse R.; Neebling, Travis E.; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Development of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags has substantially increased the ability of researchers and managers to monitor populations of aquatic organisms. However, use of transportable RFID antenna systems (i.e., backpack-mounted) is currently limited to wadeable aquatic environments (<1.4 m water depth). We describe the design, construction, and evaluation of a boat-mounted RFID antenna to detect individually PIT-tagged benthic aquatic organisms (mussels). We evaluated the effects of tag orientation on detection distances in water with a 32-mm half-duplex PIT tag. Detection distances up to 50 cm from the antenna coils were obtained, but detection distance was dependent on tag orientation. We also evaluated detection distance of PIT tags beneath the sediment to simulate detection of burrowing mussels with 23- and 32-mm tags. In sand substrate, the maximum detection distance varied from 3.5 cm and 4.5 cm (vertical tag orientation) to 24.7 cm and 39.4 cm (45° tag orientation) for the 23- and 32-mm PIT tags, respectively. Our results suggest a 1.4-m total detection width for tagged mussels on the substrate surface by the boat-mounted antenna system regardless of tag orientation. However, burrowed mussels may require multiple passes to increase detection that would be influenced by depth, tag orientation, and tag size. Construction of the boat-mounted antenna was relatively low in cost (<500 USD) and had several advantages (less labor and time intensive, increased safety) over traditional mussel sampling techniques (diving, snorkeling) in nonwadeable habitats.

  8. RFID - based Staff Control System (SCS) in Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saparkhojayev, N.

    2015-06-01

    RFID - based Staff Control System (SCS) will allow complete hands-free access control, monitoring the whereabouts of employee and record the attendance of the employee as well. Moreover, with a help of this system, it is possible to have a nice report at the end of the month and based on the total number of worked hours, the salary will be allocated to each personnel. The access tag can be read up to 10 centimeters from the RFID reader. The proposed system is based on UHF RFID readers, supported with antennas at gate and transaction sections, and employee identification cards containing RFID-transponders which are able to electronically store information that can be read / written even without the physical contact with the help of radio medium. This system is an innovative system, which describes the benefits of applying RFID- technology in the Education System process of Republic of Kazakhstan. This paper presents the experiments conducted to set up RFID based SCS.

  9. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  10. Investment Evaluation of RFID TechnologyApplications: An Evolution Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakopoulou, Andriana; Pramatari, Katerina; Karagiannaki, Angeliki; Papadopoulos, George; Paraskevopoulos, Antonis

    Prior empirical research on the evaluation of RFID technologytreats and assesses individual RFID applications independently and in isolation from each other. However, literature on investment evaluation of information technologies has recognised and utilised the significance of evaluating "interdependent" information systems (IS) projects with synergies. Moreover, previous studies when appraising the business value of an RFID investment ignore its opportunity to offer and evolve into additional follow-on investments in the future. Nevertheless, the importance of this notion has been acknowledged by the pertinent literature for the evaluation of other information technologies. This chapter proposes an approach for the investment evaluation of RFID applications considering them rather as a bundle of interdependent and sequential investments than as stand-alone ones. The results from a case study demonstrate how the proposed approach can be employed for the evaluation of RFID projects and offering an additional insight into evaluating investments in RFID applications.

  11. The Application used RFID in Third Party Logistics*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingxiu, Zheng; Chunchang, Fu; Minggen, Yang

    RFID is a non-contact automatic identification technology, which will be the future information storage extraction and processing technology. In recent years the mainstream of the large-scale development has manifested the situation. RFID is the key technology of tripartite logistics information and automation. RFID-based logistics system can enlarge the logistics operation capacity, and improve labor productivity to reduce logistics operations mistakes.

  12. Low-cost inkjet antennas for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftçi, T.; Karaosmanoğlu, B.; Ergül, Ö.

    2016-03-01

    We present paper-based inkjet antennas that are fabricated by using silver-based cartridges in standard printers. In addition to their low costs, the produced antennas are flexible, environmentally friendly, and suitable for radio-frequency identification (RFID) applications. Among alternative choices, hybrid structures involving loop and parasitic meander parts are preferred and successfully combined with passive RFID chips. We also discuss main challenges in the design and fabrication of low-cost inkjet antennas and the related RFID tags.

  13. Evaluation of Efficiency Improvement in Vital Documentation Using RFID Devices.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Eizen; Nakai, Miho; Ishihara, Ken

    2016-01-01

    We introduced medical devices with RFID tags and the terminal with RFID reader in our hospital. Time study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, nurses round as usual, and in phase II, the nurse round the ward with a terminal installed on a cart. This study concluded that RFID system shortens the time for vital sign documentation. However, deploying the terminals at every bedside did not contribute the more time reduction. PMID:27332473

  14. RFIDs can improve the patient care supply chain.

    PubMed

    Revere, Lee; Black, Ken; Zalila, Faiza

    2010-01-01

    Technologies that increase efficiency, enhance quality, and improve patient safety are essential for all healthcare organizations. Radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs) seem to be right for this challenge. RFIDs can be integrated into all areas of the internal patient supply chain, serving as clearinghouses of information. By providing timely information on patients, processes, and equipment, RFIDs can save time and reduce costs while simultaneously improving quality and patient safety. Healthcare leaders owe it to all constituencies to take a serious look at what RFIDs can offer. PMID:20194108

  15. Permissible Link Quality for RFID Anti-Collision in a Practical Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Yuusuke; Nakamura, Osamu; Murai, Jun

    UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) has gathered significant interest in the field of long-distance automatic identification applications. Since UHF RFID shares the frequency band with other RFID and/or other wireless systems, it is important to determine how much interference can be applied without causing a significant degradation of anti-collision speed. In this paper, the permissible link quality for RFID anti-collision in a practical environment is discussed by considering an erroneous communication link, taking into account of bit encoding and the type of interference. We approach the quantification of permissible link quality experimentally along with protocol simulations and the mathematical analyses. An international standard protocol, employing frame slotted ALOHA, was used as the air protocol. For these investigations, the present authors developed a protocol simulator. The simulation results were compared with analytical values based on Poisson distribution. The investigation in the return (tag to reader) link, and the forward (reader to tag) link, were analyzed separately. As result of the protocol simulation, it is generally important to secure the Pulse Error Rate 10-4 or better in both return and forward links for the anti-collision of 64 or less tags. The quality of the return link may be relaxed when the application does not require fast anti-collision. The degradation of the forward link, on the other hand, may entail loss of important commands, resulting in extremely slow anti-collision. It is measured experimentally that the required link quality can be relaxed by up to 10dB in the return links and by 5dB in the forward link when the primary source of interference originates in the interfering readers.

  16. A new laboratory radio frequency identification (RFID) system for behavioural tracking of marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops' grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals' behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest. PMID:22163710

  17. A New Laboratory Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) System for Behavioural Tracking of Marine Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Sbragaglia, Valerio; Sarriá, David; García, José Antonio; Costa, Corrado; del Río, Joaquín; Mànuel, Antoni; Menesatti, Paolo; Sardà, Francesc

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) devices are currently used to quantify several traits of animal behaviour with potential applications for the study of marine organisms. To date, behavioural studies with marine organisms are rare because of the technical difficulty of propagating radio waves within the saltwater medium. We present a novel RFID tracking system to study the burrowing behaviour of a valuable fishery resource, the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus L.). The system consists of a network of six controllers, each handling a group of seven antennas. That network was placed below a microcosm tank that recreated important features typical of Nephrops’ grounds, such as the presence of multiple burrows. The animals carried a passive transponder attached to their telson, operating at 13.56 MHz. The tracking system was implemented to concurrently report the behaviour of up to three individuals, in terms of their travelled distances in a specified unit of time and their preferential positioning within the antenna network. To do so, the controllers worked in parallel to send the antenna data to a computer via a USB connection. The tracking accuracy of the system was evaluated by concurrently recording the animals’ behaviour with automated video imaging. During the two experiments, each lasting approximately one week, two different groups of three animals each showed a variable burrow occupancy and a nocturnal displacement under a standard photoperiod regime (12 h light:12 h dark), measured using the RFID method. Similar results were obtained with the video imaging. Our implemented RFID system was therefore capable of efficiently tracking the tested organisms and has a good potential for use on a wide variety of other marine organisms of commercial, aquaculture, and ecological interest. PMID:22163710

  18. Reliable Food Traceability Using RFID Tagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuara, Guillermo; Salazar, José L.; Tornos, José L.; Piles, Joan J.

    Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has numerous potential applications in various industries. One important use is for complete traceability of a specific product with the added advantage of being able to verify that quality controls have been passed, with all the necessary steps complied with and for the time required. The aim of this work is to present a food traceability system using RFID tags with contents guaranteed secure by the use of public-key cryptography and at an affordable cost without the need for substantial investment in infrastructure. Aggregate signatures are used so that all the steps can be signed in a reduced memory space. This type of signature is a cryptographic primitive that "consolidates" several signatures into one in such a way that if n users sign n messages, all the signatures can be grouped into one single signature.

  19. Rfid Based Traceability System For Sheepbreeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Jian; Fu, Zetian

    As China's meat production is growing, the quality safety of meat food as an important human food sources has increasingly become a major issue which related to the national economy and people's livelihood. Using early warning technique, tracking and tracing techniques and so on in the key link of meat food production in order to fulfill quality control is an important method which can effectively guarantee the food quality and safety. The use of RFID techniques and handhelds can automatically collect information about sheep breeding. Meanwhile this information could be inquired conveniently through Internet. This study uses C/S (Client/Server) model structure, and builds the sheep breeding traceability system based on RFID.

  20. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  1. An Estimation for Availability of Battery less LF Band RFID Tag to Identify Patients in Operation Room from Viewpoint of Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Ryosuke

    Nowadays, medical accidents increase in Japanese patient environment. Especially, misidentification of the patients occurred in operation room of higher level hospitals. It is considered that the great deals of accidents are due to mistakes by nurse. However, the accidents are prevented by management of patients. If a suitable patient identification system is developed, the accidents are prevented. In this study, new patient identification system using battery less LF band RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) is proposed. In the method, battery less RFID tag is attached to patient. In operation room, patient is identified before operation using the proposed system. However, identification distance of RFID is small. It is important that extension of the distance. In this study, antennas of RFID tag and sensor are designed. Two types of tag are proposed. One of them is set on wristband. An antenna for the tag is designed as a circular shape with 30mm in diameter. The other one is shaped like a necklace. The antenna is also designed 220mm, 240mm and 260mm in diameter. Using necklace type new antenna, sufficient identification distance for detection of the tag in the operation room is realized. The patient identification is realized using the proposed system

  2. Evolution of RFID Applications in Construction: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Valero, Enrique; Adán, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in the field of construction during the last two decades. Basically, RFID facilitates the control on a wide variety of processes in different stages of the lifecycle of a building, from its conception to its inhabitance. The main objective of this paper is to present a review of RFID applications in the construction industry, pointing out the existing developments, limitations and gaps. The paper presents the establishment of the RFID technology in four main stages of the lifecycle of a facility: planning and design, construction and commission and operation and maintenance. Concerning this last stage, an RFID application aiming to facilitate the identification of pieces of furniture in scanned inhabited environments is presented. Conclusions and future advances are presented at the end of the paper. PMID:26151210

  3. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  4. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Pressure Sensing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  5. System and Method for RFID-Enabled Information Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  6. Evolution of RFID Applications in Construction: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Enrique; Adán, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in the field of construction during the last two decades. Basically, RFID facilitates the control on a wide variety of processes in different stages of the lifecycle of a building, from its conception to its inhabitance. The main objective of this paper is to present a review of RFID applications in the construction industry, pointing out the existing developments, limitations and gaps. The paper presents the establishment of the RFID technology in four main stages of the lifecycle of a facility: planning and design, construction and commission and operation and maintenance. Concerning this last stage, an RFID application aiming to facilitate the identification of pieces of furniture in scanned inhabited environments is presented. Conclusions and future advances are presented at the end of the paper. PMID:26151210

  7. A POI-Based RFID Reader Deployment and Associated Interference Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Donghun; Yang, Hoongee; Yang, Sunghyun; Kim, Youngsoo; Yook, Jonggwan; Kang, Bongsoon

    This paper presents a simulation based method to predict the amount of frequency interference in a passive type RFID system. To judge occurrence of frequency interference, we use a parameter POI (probability of interference) that depends on several factors such as multiple access method, emission mask, the number of channel, etc. Due to its dependence on several factors, a Monte-carlo based simulation is suitably used. Through the simulation, we draw minimum separation distance between two readers and examine performance degradation due to aggregate interfering readers. Moreover, we present a reader deployment strategy based on the average POI of active readers operating in some area.

  8. Mobile robot trajectory tracking using noisy RSS measurements: an RFID approach.

    PubMed

    Miah, M Suruz; Gueaieb, Wail

    2014-03-01

    Most RF beacons-based mobile robot navigation techniques rely on approximating line-of-sight (LOS) distances between the beacons and the robot. This is mostly performed using the robot's received signal strength (RSS) measurements from the beacons. However, accurate mapping between the RSS measurements and the LOS distance is almost impossible to achieve in reverberant environments. This paper presents a partially-observed feedback controller for a wheeled mobile robot where the feedback signal is in the form of noisy RSS measurements emitted from radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed controller requires neither an accurate mapping between the LOS distance and the RSS measurements, nor the linearization of the robot model. The controller performance is demonstrated through numerical simulations and real-time experiments. PMID:24268746

  9. Sediment routing through channel confluences: RFID tracer experiments from a gravel-bed river headwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, K.; Wilcox, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Tributary confluences may significantly impact large-scale patterns of sediment transport because of their role in connecting individual streams in a network. These unique locations feature complex flow structures and geomorphic features, and may represent ecological hotspots. Sediment transport across confluences is poorly understood, however. We present research on coarse sediment transport and dispersion through confluences using sediment tracers in the East Fork Bitterroot River, Montana, USA. We tagged a range of gravel (>40 mm) and cobble particles with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags and painted smaller (10-40 mm) gravels, and then we traced them through confluences in a montane river's headwaters. We measured the effects of confluences on dispersion, path length, and depositional location and compare properties of sediment routing with a non-confluence control reach. We also measured topographic change through repeat bed surveys and combined topography, hydraulics, and tracer measurements to calculate basal shear and critical Shields stresses for different grain sizes. Field observations suggest that tagged particles in confluences routed along flanks of scour holes in confluences, with sediment depositing further downstream along bank-lateral bars than within the channel thalweg. Travel distances of RFID-tagged particles ranged up to 35 meters from original seeding points, with initial recovery rates of RFID-tagged tracers ranging between 84-89%. In both confluence and control reaches only partial mobility was observed within the entire tracer population, suggesting a hiding effect imposed by the roughness of the bed. Particles seeded in the channel thalweg experienced further travel distances than those seeded towards the banks and on bars. Differences in dispersion between confluence and control reaches are implied by field observation. This study quantified patterns of sediment routing within confluences and provided insight to the importance

  10. Signal and array processing techniques for RFID readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Amin, Moeness; Zhang, Yimin

    2006-05-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has recently attracted much attention in both the technical and business communities. It has found wide applications in, for example, toll collection, supply-chain management, access control, localization tracking, real-time monitoring, and object identification. Situations may arise where the movement directions of the tagged RFID items through a portal is of interest and must be determined. Doppler estimation may prove complicated or impractical to perform by RFID readers. Several alternative approaches, including the use of an array of sensors with arbitrary geometry, can be applied. In this paper, we consider direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation techniques for application to near-field narrowband RFID problems. Particularly, we examine the use of a pair of RFID antennas to track moving RFID tagged items through a portal. With two antennas, the near-field DOA estimation problem can be simplified to a far-field problem, yielding a simple way for identifying the direction of the tag movement, where only one parameter, the angle, needs to be considered. In this case, tracking of the moving direction of the tag simply amounts to computing the spatial cross-correlation between the data samples received at the two antennas. It is pointed out that the radiation patterns of the reader and tag antennas, particularly their phase characteristics, have a significant effect on the performance of DOA estimation. Indoor experiments are conducted in the Radar Imaging and RFID Labs at Villanova University for validating the proposed technique for target movement direction estimations.

  11. Applying radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in transfusion medicine.

    PubMed

    Hohberger, Clive; Davis, Rodeina; Briggs, Lynne; Gutierrez, Alfonso; Veeramani, Dhamaraj

    2012-05-01

    ISO/IEC 18000-3 mode 1 standard 13.56 MHz RFID tags have been accepted by the International Society for Blood Transfusion (ISBT) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as data carriers to integrate with and augment ISBT 128 barcode data carried on blood products. The use of 13.56 MHz RFID carrying ISBT 128 data structures allows the global deployment and use of RFID, supporting both international transfer of blood and international disaster relief. The deployment in process at the BloodCenter of Wisconsin and testing at the University of Iowa Health Center is the first FDA-permitted implementation of RFID throughout in all phases of blood banking, donation through transfusion. RFID technology and equipment selection will be discussed along with FDA-required RF safety testing; integration with the blood enterprise computing system and required RFID tag performance. Tag design and survivability is an issue due to blood bag centrifugation and irradiation. Deployment issues will be discussed. Use of RFID results in significant return on investment over the use of barcodes in the blood center operations through labor savings and error reduction. PMID:22079476

  12. RFID in the pharmaceutical industry: addressing counterfeits with technology.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Douglas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in the pharmaceutical industry has grown in recent years. The technology has matured from its specialized tracking and retail uses to a systemic part of supply chain management in international pharmaceutical production and distribution. Counterfeit drugs, however, remain a significant challenge for governments, pharmaceutical companies, clinicians, and patients and the use of RFID to track these compounds represents an opportunity for development. This paper discusses the medical, technological, and economic factors that support widespread adoption of RFID technology in the pharmaceutical industry in an effort to prevent counterfeit medicines from harming patients and brand equity. PMID:25308613

  13. An Active RFID Accountability System (RAS) for Constrained Wireless Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Alan M; Hanson, Gregory R; Sexton, Angela Kay; Jones Jr, J P; Freer, Eva B; Sjoreen, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    A team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed an RFID Accountability System (RAS) that allows items with active RFID tags to be tracked in environments where tags may not be able to transmit their location continuously. The system uses activators that transmit a short range signal. Active RFID tags are in a sleep state until they encounter an activator. Then they transmit a signal that is picked up by the antennas installed throughout the building. This paper presents the theory of operation, application areas, lessons learned, and key features developed over the course of seven years of development and use.

  14. Investigation of Interference Models for RFID Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linchao; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The reader-to-reader collision in an RFID system is a challenging problem for communications technology. In order to model the interference between RFID readers, different interference models have been proposed, mainly based on two approaches: single and additive interference. The former only considers the interference from one reader within a certain range, whereas the latter takes into account the sum of all of the simultaneous interferences in order to emulate a more realistic behavior. Although the difference between the two approaches has been theoretically analyzed in previous research, their effects on the estimated performance of the reader-to-reader anti-collision protocols have not yet been investigated. In this paper, the influence of the interference model on the anti-collision protocols is studied by simulating a representative state-of-the-art protocol. The results presented in this paper highlight that the use of additive models, although more computationally intensive, is mandatory to improve the performance of anti-collision protocols. PMID:26861326

  15. Ethical implications of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kenneth R; Jaeger, Jan

    2008-08-01

    This article reviews the use of implantable radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags in humans, focusing on the VeriChip (VeriChip Corporation, Delray Beach, FL) and the associated VeriMed patient identification system. In addition, various nonmedical applications for implanted RFID tags in humans have been proposed. The technology offers important health and nonhealth benefits, but raises ethical concerns, including privacy and the potential for coercive implantation of RFID tags in individuals. A national discussion is needed to identify the limits of acceptable use of implantable RFID tags in humans before their use becomes widespread and it becomes too late to prevent misuse of this useful but ethically problematic technology. PMID:18802863

  16. A Graph Summarization Algorithm Based on RFID Logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Hu, Kongfa; Lu, Zhipeng; Zhao, Li; Chen, Ling

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) applications are set to play an essential role in object tracking and supply chain management systems. The volume of data generated by a typical RFID application will be enormous as each item will generate a complete history of all the individual locations that it occupied at every point in time. The movement trails of such RFID data form gigantic commodity flowgraph representing the locations and durations of the path stages traversed by each item. In this paper, we use graph to construct a warehouse of RFID commodity flows, and introduce a database-style operation to summarize graphs, which produces a summary graph by grouping nodes based on user-selected node attributes, further allows users to control the hierarchy of summaries. It can cut down the size of graphs, and provide convenience for users to study just on the shrunk graph which they interested. Through extensive experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. A secure RFID authentication protocol adopting error correction code.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shuai-Min; Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu; Sun, Hung-Min

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance. PMID:24959619

  18. A Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Adopting Error Correction Code

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xinying; Chen, Pei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    RFID technology has become popular in many applications; however, most of the RFID products lack security related functionality due to the hardware limitation of the low-cost RFID tags. In this paper, we propose a lightweight mutual authentication protocol adopting error correction code for RFID. Besides, we also propose an advanced version of our protocol to provide key updating. Based on the secrecy of shared keys, the reader and the tag can establish a mutual authenticity relationship. Further analysis of the protocol showed that it also satisfies integrity, forward secrecy, anonymity, and untraceability. Compared with other lightweight protocols, the proposed protocol provides stronger resistance to tracing attacks, compromising attacks and replay attacks. We also compare our protocol with previous works in terms of performance. PMID:24959619

  19. Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outward Bound, Inc., Andover, MA.

    The Outward Bound concept was developed in Germany and Great Britain with the saving of human life as the ultimate goal. Courses are designed to help students discover their true physical and mental limits through development of skills including emergency medical aid, firefighting, search and rescue, mountaineering, and sailing. Five Outward Bound…

  20. A design of tamper resistant prescription RFID access control system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Huang, Der-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a tamper resistant prescription RFID access control protocol for different authorized readers. Not only the authentication mechanism but also the access right authorization mechanism is designed in our scheme. Only the specific doctor, usually the patient's doctor, can access the tag. Moreover, some related information of patient's prescription is attached to a RFID tag for tamper resistance. The patients' rights will be guaranteed. PMID:21751015

  1. Processing Uncertain RFID Data in Traceability Supply Chains

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries. PMID:24737978

  2. Processing uncertain RFID data in traceability supply chains.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Xiao, Jie; Guo, Guangjun; Jiang, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is widely used to track and trace objects in traceability supply chains. However, massive uncertain data produced by RFID readers are not effective and efficient to be used in RFID application systems. Following the analysis of key features of RFID objects, this paper proposes a new framework for effectively and efficiently processing uncertain RFID data, and supporting a variety of queries for tracking and tracing RFID objects. We adjust different smoothing windows according to different rates of uncertain data, employ different strategies to process uncertain readings, and distinguish ghost, missing, and incomplete data according to their apparent positions. We propose a comprehensive data model which is suitable for different application scenarios. In addition, a path coding scheme is proposed to significantly compress massive data by aggregating the path sequence, the position, and the time intervals. The scheme is suitable for cyclic or long paths. Moreover, we further propose a processing algorithm for group and independent objects. Experimental evaluations show that our approach is effective and efficient in terms of the compression and traceability queries. PMID:24737978

  3. A Qualitative Approach to Mobile Robot Navigation Using RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, M.; Rashid, M. M.; Bhuiyan, M. M. I.; Ahmed, S.; Akhtaruzzaman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system allows automatic identification of items with RFID tags using radio-waves. As the RFID tag has its unique identification number, it is also possible to detect a specific region where the RFID tag lies in. Recently it is widely been used in mobile robot navigation, localization, and mapping both in indoor and outdoor environment. This paper represents a navigation strategy for autonomous mobile robot using passive RFID system. Conventional approaches, such as landmark or dead-reckoning with excessive number of sensors, have complexities in establishing the navigation and localization process. The proposed method satisfies less complexity in navigation strategy as well as estimation of not only the position but also the orientation of the autonomous robot. In this research, polar coordinate system is adopted on the navigation surface where RFID tags are places in a grid with constant displacements. This paper also presents the performance comparisons among various grid architectures through simulation to establish a better solution of the navigation system. In addition, some stationary obstacles are introduced in the navigation environment to satisfy the viability of the navigation process of the autonomous mobile robot.

  4. Application of RFID technology-upper extremity rehabilitation training.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539

  5. Application of RFID technology—upper extremity rehabilitation training

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Chen; Chen, Yu-Luen; Chen, Shih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Upper extremity rehabilitation after an injury is very important. This study proposes radio frequency identification (RFID) technology to improve and enhance the effectiveness of the upper extremity rehabilitation. [Subjects and Methods] People use their upper extremities to conduct daily activities. When recovering from injuries, many patients neglect the importance of rehabilitation, which results in degraded function. This study recorded the training process using the traditional rehabilitation hand gliding cart with a RFID reader, RFID tags in the panel, and a servo host computer. [Results] Clinical evidence, time taken to achieve a full score, counts of missing the specified spots, and Brunnstrom stage of aided recovery, the proximal part of the upper extremity show that the RFID-based upper extremity training significantly and reduce negative impacts of the disability in daily life and activities. [Conclusion] This study combined a hand-gliding cart with an RFID reader, and when patients moved the cart, the movement could be observed via the activated RFID tags. The training data was collected and quantified for a better understanding of the recovery status of the patients. Each of the participating patients made progress as expected. PMID:27065539

  6. Characterizing coarse bedload transport during floods with RFID and accelerometer tracers, in-stream RFID antennas and HEC-RAS modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinde, L.; Johnson, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    By monitoring the transport timing and distances of tracer grains in a steep mountains stream, we collected data that can constrain numerical bedload transport models considered for these systems. We captured bedload activity during a weeks-spanning snowmelt period in Reynolds Creek, Idaho by deploying Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and accelerometer embedded tracers with in-stream stationary RFID antennas. During transport events, RFID dataloggers recorded the times when tracers passed over stationary antennas. The accelerometer tracers also logged x, y, z-axis accelerations every 10 minutes to identify times of motion and rest. After snowmelt flows receded, we found tracers with mobile antennas and surveyed their positions. We know the timing and tracer locations when accelerometer tracers were initially entrained, passed stationary antennas, and were finally deposited at the surveyed locations. The fraction of moving accelerometers over time correlates well with discharge. Comparisons of the transported tracer fraction between rising and falling limbs over multiple flood peaks suggest that some degree of clockwise hysteresis persisted during the snowmelt period. Additionally, we apply accelerometer transport durations and displacement distances to calculate virtual velocities over full tracer path lengths and over lengths between initial locations to stationary antennas as well as between stationary antennas to final positions. The accelerometer-based virtual velocities are significantly faster than those estimated from traditional tracer methods that estimate bedload transport durations by assuming threshold flow conditions. We also subsample the motion data to calculate how virtual velocities change over the measurement intervals. Regressions of these relations are in turn used to extrapolate virtual velocities at smaller sampling timescales. Minimum hop lengths are also evaluated for each accelerometer tracer. Finally, flow conditions during the

  7. Cognitive distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Hong; Edwards, Geoffrey; Qi, Cuihong

    2001-09-01

    In geographic space, it is well known that spatial behaviors of humans are directly driven by their spatial cognition, rather than by the physical or geometrical reality. The cognitive distance in spatial cognition is fundamental in intelligent pattern recognition. More precisely, the cognitive distance can be used to measure the similarities (or relevance) of cognized geographic objects. In the past work, the physical or Euclidean distances are used very often. In practice, many inconsistencies are found between the cognitive distance and the physical distance. Usually the physical distance is overestimated or underestimated in the process of human spatial behaviors and pattern recognition. These inconsistencies are termed distance distortions. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the conceptions of cognitive distance and distance distortion. And if the cognitive distance is argued to be two-dimensional, it exists in heterogeneous space and the property of quasi-metric is shown. If the cognitive distance is multi-dimensional, it exists in homogeneous space and the property of metric is shown. We argue that distance distortions arise from the transformation of homogeneous to heterogeneous space and from the transformation of the two-dimensional cognitive distance to the multi-dimensional cognitive distance. In some sense, the physical distance is an instance of cognitive distance.

  8. Evaluation of RFID for Information Visibility Based Job-Shop Scheduling in Lean Manufacturing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chongwatpol, Jongsawas

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact of radio frequency identification (RFID) in manufacturing. Two simulation studies of an organization that is considering implementing RFID on a production line are conducted. First, we investigate whether addition of RFID technologies in the manufacturing process can complement Lean initiatives.…

  9. Implications of RFID in Location-Aware Wi-Fi Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhainy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is increasingly common. Its use for specific applications has been mandated by a number of major retailers, as well as by the U.S. government; however, core RFID technologies and networks lack consistent approaches to maximize the efficiency and security of RFID applications. The purpose…

  10. Compact Miniaturized Antenna for 210 MHz RFID

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Chun, Kue

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the design and simulation of a miniaturized square-ring antenna. The miniaturized antenna, with overall dimensions of approximately one tenth of a wavelength (0.1 ), was designed to operate at around 210 MHz, and was intended for radio-frequency identification (RFID) application. One unique feature of the design is the use of a parasitic element to improve the performance and impedance matching of the antenna. The use of parasitic elements to enhance the gain and bandwidth of patch antennas has been demonstrated and reported in the literature, but such use has never been applied to miniaturized antennas. In this work, we will present simulation results and discuss design parameters and their impact on the antenna performance.

  11. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current. PMID:19963595

  12. An RFID-Based Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications.

    PubMed

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    This brief presents a standalone closed-loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either a malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID circuits are often used in an open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 11.2 mW over a range of 0.5 to 2 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 78 mW to 1.1 W. The closed-loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in the load current. PMID:21179391

  13. An RFID tag system-on-chip with wireless ECG monitoring for intelligent healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-Pin; Lee, Shuenn-Yuh; Lai, Wei-Chih

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a low-power wireless ECG acquisition system-on-chip (SoC), including an RF front-end circuit, a power unit, an analog front-end circuit, and a digital circuitry. The proposed RF front-end circuit can provide the amplitude shift keying demodulation and distance to digital conversion to accurately receive the data from the reader. The received data will wake up the power unit to provide the required supply voltages of analog front-end (AFE) and digital circuitry. The AFE, including a pre-amplifier, an analog filter, a post-amplifier, and an analog-to-digital converter, is used for the ECG acquisition. Moreover, the EPC Class I Gen 2 UHF standard is employed in the digital circuitry for the handshaking of communication and the control of the system. The proposed SoC has been implemented in 0.18-µm standard CMOS process and the measured results reveal the communication is compatible to the RFID protocol. The average power consumption for the operating chip is 12 µW. Using a Sony PR44 battery to the supply power (605mAh@1.4V), the RFID tag SoC operates continuously for about 50,000 hours (>5 years), which is appropriate for wireless wearable ECG monitoring systems. PMID:24110979

  14. A Closed Loop Wireless Power Transmission System Using a Commercial RFID Transceiver for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current. PMID:19963595

  15. An RFID-Based Closed-Loop Wireless Power Transmission System for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-01-01

    This brief presents a standalone closed-loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader (TRF7960) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either a malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID circuits are often used in an open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 11.2 mW over a range of 0.5 to 2 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 78 mW to 1.1 W. The closed-loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in the load current. PMID:21179391

  16. Deterministic propagation model for RFID using site-specific and FDTD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunha de Azambuja, Marcelo; Passuelo Hessel, Fabiano; Luís Berz, Everton; Bauermann Porfírio, Leandro; Ruhnke Valério, Paula; De Pieri Baladei, Suely; Jung, Carlos Fernando

    2015-06-01

    The conduction of experiments to evaluate a tag orientation and its readability in a laboratory offers great potential for reducing time and costs for users. This article presents a novel methodology for developing simulation models for RFID (radio-frequency identification) environments. The main challenges in adopting this model are: (1) to find out how the properties of each one of the materials, on which the tag is applied, influence the read range and to determine the necessary power for tag reading and (2) to find out the power of the backscattered signal received by the tag when energised by the RF wave transmitted by the reader. The validation tests, performed in four different kinds of environments, with tags applied to six different kinds of materials, six different distances and with a reader configured with three different powers, showed achievements on the average of 95.3% accuracy in the best scenario and 87.0% in the worst scenario. The methodology can be easily duplicated to generate simulation models to other different RFID environments.

  17. PHASE II VAULT TESTING OF THE ARGONNE RFID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Willoner, T.; Turlington, R.; Koenig, R.

    2012-06-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (Environmental Management [EM], Office of Packaging and Transportation [EM-45]) Packaging and Certification Program (DOE PCP) has developed a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system, called ARG-US, for the management of nuclear materials packages during transportation and storage. The performance of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system has been fully tested in two demonstration projects in April 2008 and August 2009. With the strong support of DOE-SR and DOE PCP, a field testing program was completed in Savannah River Site's K-Area Material Storage (KAMS) Facility, an active Category I Plutonium Storage Facility, in 2010. As the next step (Phase II) of continued vault testing for the ARG-US system, the Savannah River Site K Area Material Storage facility has placed the ARG-US RFIDs into the 910B storage vault for operational testing. This latest version (Mark III) of the Argonne RFID system now has the capability to measure radiation dose and dose rate. This paper will report field testing progress of the ARG-US RFID equipment in KAMS, the operability and reliability trend results associated with the applications of the system, and discuss the potential benefits in enhancing safety, security and materials accountability. The purpose of this Phase II K Area test is to verify the accuracy of the radiation monitoring and proper functionality of the ARG-US RFID equipment and system under a realistic environment in the KAMS facility. Deploying the ARG-US RFID system leads to a reduced need for manned surveillance and increased inventory periods by providing real-time access to status and event history traceability, including environmental condition monitoring and radiation monitoring. The successful completion of the testing program will provide field data to support a future development and testing. This will increase Operation efficiency and cost effectiveness for vault operation. As the next step (Phase

  18. Two-Way Communication Using RFID Equipment and Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedry, Thomas; Archer, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) would be extended, according to a proposal, to enable short-range, two-way communication between electronic products and host computers. In one example of a typical contemplated application, the purpose of the short-range radio communication would be to transfer image data from a user s digital still or video camera to the user s computer for recording and/or processing. The concept is also applicable to consumer electronic products other than digital cameras (for example, cellular telephones, portable computers, or motion sensors in alarm systems), and to a variety of industrial and scientific sensors and other devices that generate data. Until now, RFID has been used to exchange small amounts of mostly static information for identifying and tracking assets. Information pertaining to an asset (typically, an object in inventory to be tracked) is contained in miniature electronic circuitry in an RFID tag attached to the object. Conventional RFID equipment and techniques enable a host computer to read data from and, in some cases, to write data to, RFID tags, but they do not enable such additional functions as sending commands to, or retrieving possibly large quantities of dynamic data from, RFID-tagged devices. The proposal would enable such additional functions. The figure schematically depicts an implementation of the proposal for a sensory device (e.g., a digital camera) that includes circuitry that converts sensory information to digital data. In addition to the basic sensory device, there would be a controller and a memory that would store the sensor data and/or data from the controller. The device would also be equipped with a conventional RFID chipset and antenna, which would communicate with a host computer via an RFID reader. The controller would function partly as a communication interface, implementing two-way communication protocols at all levels (including RFID if needed) between the

  19. 3-D transponder antennas for future SHF RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zichner, R.; Baumann, R. R.

    2011-12-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology is omnipresent since a few years. Some of the most popular fields of application are the use for security tasks, for logistics and for the consumer segment. For example, chip card or key ring sized RFID transponders can allow wireless access to secured rooms. The number of applications for wireless data transmission for the identification and tracking of objects increases every year. There is a large development need for highly functional and inexpensive RFID transponders due to the ever-increasing demand on improved reliability, higher data rates and read and write ranges of the RFID systems. Therefore, research was performed on new 3-D transponder antennas for the Super High Frequency Band around 5.8 GHz. Additionally, wave propagation effects and the influence of different dielectric environments were considered. Parallel to the design of the novel antenna structures, the printing process for inexpensive manufacturing was investigated. The gained results are the basis for prospective RFID applications.

  20. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Rajabzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems have been successfully applied in areas of manufacturing, supply chain, agriculture, transportation, healthcare, and services to name a few. However, the different advantages and disadvantages expressed in various studies of the challenges facing the technology of the use of the RFID technology have been met with skepticism by managers of healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to express and display the role of RFID technology in improving patient safety and increasing the impact of it in healthcare. Materials and Methods: This study was non-systematical review, which the literature search was conducted with the help of libraries, books, conference proceedings, PubMed databases and also search engines available at Google, Google scholar in which published between 2004 and 2013 during Febuary 2013. We employed the following keywords and their combinations; RFID, healthcare, patient safety, medical errors, and medication errors in the searching areas of title, keywords, abstract, and full text. Results: The preliminary search resulted in 68 articles. After a careful analysis of the content of each paper, a total of 33 papers was selected based on their relevancy. Conclusion: We should integrate RFID with hospital information systems (HIS) and electronic health records (EHRs) and support it by clinical decision support systems (CDSS), it facilitates processes and reduce medical, medication and diagnosis errors. PMID:24381626

  1. Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 1998

    1998-01-01

    The American Association of University Professors' government relations committee report on distance learning addresses issues and makes recommendations concerning the political context of the growth of distance learning; definitions, descriptions, and claims of distance learning; academic freedom; intellectual property rights; faculty workload…

  2. Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orey, Michael; Koenecke, Lynne; Snider, Richard C.; Perkins, Ross A.; Holmes, Glen A.; Lockee, Barbara B.; Moller, Leslie A.; Harvey, Douglas; Downs, Margaret; Godshalk, Veronica M.

    2003-01-01

    Contains four articles covering trends and issues on distance learning including: the experience of two learners learning via the Internet; a systematic approach to determining the scalability of a distance education program; identifying factors that affect learning community development and performance in asynchronous distance education; and…

  3. Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ASPBAE Courier, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This publication is devoted to distance education. "The Future of Distance Teaching Universities in a Worldwide Perspectives" (John S. Daniel) examines challenges likely to face the various countries and regions of the world in the next decade. "An Australian University's Approach to Distance Education--Formal and Non-Formal" (Peter M. Grayson)…

  4. Loosely-Bound Diatomic Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses concept of covalent bonding as related to homonuclear diatomic molecules. Article draws attention to the existence of bound rare gas and alkaline earth diatomic molecules. Summarizes their molecular parameters and offers spectroscopic data. Strength and variation with distance of interatomic attractive forces is given. (Author/SA)

  5. Radio frequency identification (RFID) in health care: privacy and security concerns limiting adoption.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P

    2014-03-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been implemented in a wide variety of industries. Health care is no exception. This article explores implementations and limitations of RFID in several health care domains: authentication, medication safety, patient tracking, and blood transfusion medicine. Each domain has seen increasing utilization of unique applications of RFID technology. Given the importance of protecting patient and data privacy, potential privacy and security concerns in each domain are discussed. Such concerns, some of which are inherent to existing RFID hardware and software technology, may limit ubiquitous adoption. In addition, an apparent lack of security standards within the RFID domain and specifically health care may also hinder the growth and utility of RFID within health care for the foreseeable future. Safeguarding the privacy of patient data may be the most important obstacle to overcome to allow the health care industry to take advantage of the numerous benefits RFID technology affords. PMID:24578170

  6. Modifying the ECC-based grouping-proof RFID system to increase inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Ko, Wen-Tsai; Chiou, Shin-Yan; Lu, Erl-Huei; Chang, Henry Ker-Chang

    2014-09-01

    RFID technology is increasingly used in applications that require tracking, identification, and authentication. It attaches RFID-readable tags to objects for identification and execution of specific RFID-enabled applications. Recently, research has focused on the use of grouping-proofs for preserving privacy in RFID applications, wherein a proof of two or more tags must be simultaneously scanned. In 2010, a privacy-preserving grouping proof protocol for RFID based on ECC in public-key cryptosystem was proposed but was shown to be vulnerable to tracking attacks. A proposed enhancement protocol was also shown to have defects which prevented proper execution. In 2012, Lin et al. proposed a more efficient RFID ECC-based grouping proof protocol to promote inpatient medication safety. However, we found this protocol is also vulnerable to tracking and impersonation attacks. We then propose a secure privacy-preserving RFID grouping proof protocol for inpatient medication safety and demonstrate its resistance to such attacks. PMID:24997856

  7. Integrating RFID technique to design mobile handheld inventory management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yo-Ping; Yen, Wei; Chen, Shih-Chung

    2008-04-01

    An RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system is proposed in this paper. Differing from the manual inventory management method, the proposed system works on the personal digital assistant (PDA) with an RFID reader. The system identifies electronic tags on the properties and checks the property information in the back-end database server through a ubiquitous wireless network. The system also provides a set of functions to manage the back-end inventory database and assigns different levels of access privilege according to various user categories. In the back-end database server, to prevent improper or illegal accesses, the server not only stores the inventory database and user privilege information, but also keeps track of the user activities in the server including the login and logout time and location, the records of database accessing, and every modification of the tables. Some experimental results are presented to verify the applicability of the integrated RFID-based mobile handheld inventory management system.

  8. Healthcare in Disasters and the Role of RFID.

    PubMed

    Madanian, Samaneh; Parry, David; Norris, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Disasters either natural or man-made are inevitable, and therefore disaster management has always been an important function of government. Since during a disaster healthcare is often adversely affected, a lot of effort has been made in terms of researching effective responses and ways of improving the quality of delivered care to direct casualties and the rest of the community. In this regard, information technology plays an important role to help healthcare systems achieve this goal. One of these technologies that has become popular recently is Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID). This paper explores the relationship between emergency management and disaster healthcare and examines the role of RFID. It is suggested that RFID will become an integral part of disaster healthcare and a means of improving response performance. PMID:26262309

  9. Performance assessment of an RFID system for automatic surgical sponge detection in a surgery room.

    PubMed

    Dinis, H; Zamith, M; Mendes, P M

    2015-01-01

    A retained surgical instrument is a frequent incident in medical surgery rooms all around the world, despite being considered an avoidable mistake. Hence, an automatic detection solution of the retained surgical instrument is desirable. In this paper, the use of millimeter waves at the 60 GHz band for surgical material RFID purposes is evaluated. An experimental procedure to assess the suitability of this frequency range for short distance communications with multiple obstacles was performed. Furthermore, an antenna suitable to be incorporated in surgical materials, such as sponges, is presented. The antenna's operation characteristics are evaluated as to determine if it is adequate for the studied application over the given frequency range, and under different operating conditions, such as varying sponge water content. PMID:26736960

  10. RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Sonam Devgan; Awasthi, Amit K

    2013-12-01

    Medication errors can cause substantial harm to patients. Automated patient medication system with RFID technology is purposely used to reduce the medication error, to improve the patient safety, to provide personalized patient medication and identification and also to provide counterfeit protection to the patients. In order to enhance medication safety for patients we propose a new dynamic ID based lightweight RFID authentication protocol. Due to low storage capacity and limited computational and communicational capacity of tags, only pseudo random number generator function, one way hash function and bitwise Xor operation are used in our authentication protocol. The proposed protocol is practical, secure and efficient for health care domain. PMID:24122350

  11. Legal Regulation and Consumers: The RFID Industry's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronzani, Daniel

    Many journal articles have presented research on the adoption and diffusion of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from a regulatory or consumer perspective. This research takes a reverse viewpoint. It researches the industry's experience with regulation by law and its experience with consumers. First, semi-structured interviews with RFID industry stakeholders are conducted on the topics of (UHF) frequency law, database law, and privacy law. Second, the industry's experience with (i) regulation by law and (ii) the consumers is collected in a worldwide online survey with companies and organisations that research, produce, sell, and consult on RFID technology. Third, empirical data is evaluated by different territories and industries to discuss four observations about legal regulation and consumers made by the authors with four feedback observations from the online survey. Given the evaluation of the empirical data, this article recommends that the RFID industry engage in better constructive dialogue with the legal regulator , strengthen its knowledge on applicable legislation, and re-evaluate its information policy to the consumer.

  12. Indoor Navigation Design Integrated with Smart Phones and Rfid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortakci, Y.; Demiral, E.; Atila, U.; Karas, I. R.

    2015-10-01

    High rise, complex and huge buildings in the cities are almost like a small city with their tens of floors, hundreds of corridors and rooms and passages. Due to size and complexity of these buildings, people need guidance to find their way to the destination in these buildings. In this study, a mobile application is developed to visualize pedestrian's indoor position as 3D in their smartphone and RFID Technology is used to detect the position of pedestrian. While the pedestrian is walking on his/her way on the route, smartphone will guide the pedestrian by displaying the photos of indoor environment on the route. Along the tour, an RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification) device is integrated to the system. The pedestrian will carry the RFID device during his/her tour in the building. The RFID device will send the position data to the server directly in every two seconds periodically. On the other side, the pedestrian will just select the destination point in the mobile application on smartphone and sent the destination point to the server. The shortest path from the pedestrian position to the destination point is found out by the script on the server. This script also sends the environment photo of the first node on the acquired shortest path to the client as an indoor navigation module.

  13. Traceability System For Agricultural Productsbased on Rfid and Mobile Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Koji

    In agriculture, it is required to establish and integrate food traceability systems and risk management systems in order to improve food safety in the entire food chain. The integrated traceability system for agricultural products was developed, based on innovative technology of RFID and mobile computing. In order to identify individual products on the distribution process efficiently,small RFID tags with unique ID and handy RFID readers were applied. On the distribution process, the RFID tags are checked by using the readers, and transit records of the products are stored to the database via wireless LAN.Regarding agricultural production, the recent issues of pesticides misuse affect consumer confidence in food safety. The Navigation System for Appropriate Pesticide Use (Nouyaku-navi) was developed, which is available in the fields by Internet cell-phones. Based on it, agricultural risk management systems have been developed. These systems collaborate with traceability systems and they can be applied for process control and risk management in agriculture.

  14. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

  15. RFID Technology Implementation in Two Libraries in New Delhi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhusudhan, Margam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and implementation of RFID technology at the Indian Law Institute Library and National Social Science Documentation Centre Library, New Delhi. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted at the two libraries, using a structured questionnaire comprising 20 questions. Findings: It was…

  16. Implementation of RFID Technology in University of Pune Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bansode, Sadanand Y.; Desale, Sanjay K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation of a radio frequency identification (RFID) system in Pune University Library. Design/methodology/approach: The paper provides a brief overview of background of the project, barriers faced and changes that have been experienced after the implementation of the technology. Findings:…

  17. The Future of Hazardous Waste Tracking: Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability and performance of various RFID technologies to track hazardous wastes and materials (HAZMAT) across international borders will be verified in the El Paso, Texas-Ciudad Juarez, Mexico area under EPA's Environmental Technology Verification (ETV)/Environmental and S...

  18. RFID Student Educational Experiences at the UNT College of Engineering: A Sequential Approach to Creating a Project-Based RFID Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidyanathan, V. V.; Varanasi, M. R.; Kougianos, E.; Wang, Shuping; Raman, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes radio frequency identification (RFID) projects, designed and implemented by students in the College of Engineering at the University of North Texas, as part of their senior-design project requirement. The paper also describes an RFID-based project implemented at Rice Middle School in Plano, TX, which went on to win multiple…

  19. A System Implementation for Cooperation between UHF RFID Reader and TCP/IP Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jin, Ik Soo

    This paper presents a system implementation for cooperation between UHF RFID reader and TCP/IP device that can be used as a home gateway. The system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, a RF end-device, a RF coordinator and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1, 2 and ISO18000-6B, operating at the 915MHz. In particular, UHF RFID reader can be combined with a RF end device/coordinator for ZigBee(IEEE 802.15.4) interface which is low power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device is communicated with RFID reader via wired type. On the other hand, it is connected with ZigBee end-device via wireless type. The experimental results show that the developed system can provide the right networking.

  20. Comparison of RFID Systems for Tracking Clinical Interventions at the Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Kumiko; Ota, Sakiko; Ohno-Machado, Lucila; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there have been high expectations for RFID technologies applied in the medical field, particularly for automatic identification and location of patients and medical supplies. However, few studies have measured the applicability of currently available RFID technologies in a medical environment. To determine the technical factors that affect the performance of RFID systems, we examined the performance of different types of tags for medications, medical equipment, nurses, and patients under different experimental conditions. Three kinds of passive RFID tags and one active RFID tag were used in our study. Passive tags were affected by materials such as liquid and metal. Tags based on 13.56MHz were most suited for identifying medications. Tag placement was one of the main factors involved in correct identification of nurses, patients, and medical equipment. The results of this study may help decision makers decide whether (which) RFID technologies are useful for tracking clinical workflow. PMID:18998888

  1. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y. Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  2. Minimal distances between SCFTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buican, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We study lower bounds on the minimal distance in theory space between four-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) connected via broad classes of renormalization group (RG) flows preserving various amounts of supersymmetry (SUSY). For = 1 RG flows, the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) endpoints of the flow can be parametrically close. On the other hand, for RG flows emanating from a maximally supersymmetric SCFT, the distance to the IR theory cannot be arbitrarily small regardless of the amount of (non-trivial) SUSY preserved along the flow. The case of RG flows from =2 UV SCFTs is more subtle. We argue that for RG flows preserving the full =2 SUSY, there are various obstructions to finding examples with parametrically close UV and IR endpoints. Under reasonable assumptions, these obstructions include: unitarity, known bounds on the c central charge derived from associativity of the operator product expansion, and the central charge bounds of Hofman and Maldacena. On the other hand, for RG flows that break = 2 → = 1, it is possible to find IR fixed points that are parametrically close to the UV ones. In this case, we argue that if the UV SCFT possesses a single stress tensor, then such RG flows excite of order all the degrees of freedom of the UV theory. Furthermore, if the UV theory has some flavor symmetry, we argue that the UV central charges should not be too large relative to certain parameters in the theory.

  3. RFID Application Strategy in Agri-Food Supply Chain Based on Safety and Benefit Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Li, Peichong

    Agri-food supply chain management (SCM), a management method to optimize internal costs and productivities, has evolved as an application of e-business technologies. These days, RFID has been widely used in many fields. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of agri-food supply chain. Then the disadvantages of RFID are discussed. After that, we study the application strategies of RFID based on benefit and safety degree.

  4. ECC-based grouping-proof RFID for inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qiping; Zhang, Fangguo

    2012-12-01

    Several papers were proposed in which symmetric cryptography was used to design RFID grouping-proof for medication safety in the Journal of Medical Systems. However, if we want to ensure privacy, authentication and protection against the tracking of RFID-tags without losing system scalability, we must design an asymmetric cryptography-based RFID. This paper will propose a new ECC-based grouping-proof for RFID. Our ECC-based grouping-proof reduces the computation of tags and prevents timeout problems from occurring in n-party grouping-proof protocol. Based on asymmetric cryptography, the proposed scheme is practical, secure and efficient for medication applications. PMID:21785968

  5. Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

  6. Recognition Technique by Tag Selection Using Multi-Reader in RFID Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bong-Im; Kim, Yong-Tae; Park, Gil-Cheol

    The use of RFID(Radio Frequency Identification) is recently increasing for the realization of Ubiquitous computing. Reducing the process time of tag recognition is crucial as RFID system has to recognize multiple objects in a short amount of time. In this manuscript, therefore, an effective scheme is suggested to improve processing speed for tag authentication in RFID system. The suggested scheme retrieves selected tag ID only by using multi-reader in the process of tag authentication and consequently reduces the processing time required for tag authentication in database. The use of the suggested scheme cuts down on the process amount of arithmetic throughput bringing about performance improvement of RFID system.

  7. Array processing for RFID tag localization exploiting multi-frequency signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin; Li, Xin; Amin, Moeness G.

    2009-05-01

    RFID is an increasingly valuable business and technology tool for electronically identifying, locating, and tracking products, assets, and personnel. As a result, precise positioning and tracking of RFID tags and readers have received considerable attention from both academic and industrial communities. Finding the position of RFID tags is considered an important task in various real-time locating systems (RTLS). As such, numerous RFID localization products have been developed for various applications. The majority of RFID positioning systems is based on the fusion of pieces of relevant information, such as the range and the direction-of-arrival (DOA). For example, trilateration can determine the tag position by using the range information of the tag estimated from three or more spatially separated reader antennas. Triangulation is another method to locate RFID tags that use the direction-of-arrival (DOA) information estimated at multiple spatially separated locations. The RFID tag positions can also be determined through hybrid techniques that combine the range and DOA information. The focus of this paper to study the design and performance of the localization of passive RFID tags using array processing techniques in a multipath environment, and exploiting multi-frequency CW signals. The latter are used to decorrelate the coherent multipath signals for effective DOA estimation and for the purpose of accurate range estimation. Accordingly, the spatial and frequency dimensionalities are fully utilized for robust and accurate positioning of RFID tags.

  8. A Proposal of a Novel RFID Tag with Biomedical Signal Sensing Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Akira; Inoue, Takahiro; Tsuneda, Akio

    A novel RFID tag with sensing functions of biomedical signals is proposed in this paper. This RFID tag is developed for sensing heart rate, respiration, and body temperature of a human, which is intended for a secure and intensive health care of humans at hospital or at home. The features of this RFID tag are identification of indivisuals by ID call and collation, on-demand measurement of vital signals, and a medium-range(<8m) data communication. The developed prototype RFID tag works at ±1.5V supply voltage, and it was implemented on a PCB attached to a belt. Its performances were confirmed with experiments.

  9. Quantifying detection performance of a passive low-frequency RFID system in an environmental preference chamber for laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems have been widely used in production livestock systems for identifying, tracing, and registering animals and improving subsidy management. Adaptations have been made to extend RFID technology to animal behavior and welfare research. An RFID system was imp...

  10. Multi-scale Modeling and Analysis of Nano-RFID Systems on HPC Setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Rohit; Joshi, Satyadhar

    In this paper we have worked out on some the complex modeling aspects such as Multi Scale modeling, MATLAB Sugar based modeling and have shown the complexities involved in the analysis of Nano RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems. We have shown the modeling and simulation and demonstrated some novel ideas and library development for Nano RFID. Multi scale modeling plays a very important role in nanotech enabled devices properties of which cannot be explained sometimes by abstraction level theories. Reliability and packaging still remains one the major hindrances in practical implementation of Nano RFID based devices. And to work on them modeling and simulation will play a very important role. CNTs is the future low power material that will replace CMOS and its integration with CMOS, MEMS circuitry will play an important role in realizing the true power in Nano RFID systems. RFID based on innovations in nanotechnology has been shown. MEMS modeling of Antenna, sensors and its integration in the circuitry has been shown. Thus incorporating this we can design a Nano-RFID which can be used in areas like human implantation and complex banking applications. We have proposed modeling of RFID using the concept of multi scale modeling to accurately predict its properties. Also we give the modeling of MEMS devices that are proposed recently that can see possible application in RFID. We have also covered the applications and the advantages of Nano RFID in various areas. RF MEMS has been matured and its devices are being successfully commercialized but taking it to limits of nano domains and integration with singly chip RFID needs a novel approach which is being proposed. We have modeled MEMS based transponder and shown the distribution for multi scale modeling for Nano RFID.

  11. Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feasley, Charles E.

    The magnitude, diversity, and impact of distance education are discussed in this international review of its implementation in economically diverse countries. Uses of the following media are described: (1) print--correspondence study, programmed instruction, modularized instruction, newspaper; (2) audio media--telephone, radio, subsidiary…

  12. A note on the path interval distance.

    PubMed

    Coons, Jane Ivy; Rusinko, Joseph

    2016-06-01

    The path interval distance accounts for global congruence between locally incongruent trees. We show that the path interval distance provides a lower bound for the nearest neighbor interchange distance. In contrast to the Robinson-Foulds distance, random pairs of trees are unlikely to be maximally distant from one another under the path interval distance. These features indicate that the path interval distance should play a role in phylogenomics where the comparison of trees on a fixed set of taxa is becoming increasingly important. PMID:27040521

  13. A hybrid positioning strategy for vehicles in a tunnel based on RFID and in-vehicle sensors.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiang; Li, Xu; Tang, Wencheng; Zhang, Weigong; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle positioning. How to achieve such positioning performance in extended GPS-denied environments such as tunnels is the main challenge for land vehicles. This paper proposes a hybrid multi-sensor fusion strategy for vehicle positioning in tunnels. First, the preliminary positioning algorithm is developed. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is introduced to achieve preliminary positioning in the tunnel. The received signal strength (RSS) is used as an indicator to calculate the distances between the RFID tags and reader, and then a Least Mean Square (LMS) federated filter is designed to provide the preliminary position information for subsequent global fusion. Further, to improve the positioning performance in the tunnel, an interactive multiple model (IMM)-based global fusion algorithm is developed to fuse the data from preliminary positioning results and low-cost in-vehicle sensors, such as electronic compasses and wheel speed sensors. In the actual implementation of IMM, the strong tracking extended Kalman filter (STEKF) algorithm is designed to replace the conventional extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve model individual filtering. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through experiments. The results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy. PMID:25490581

  14. Creating TUIs Using RFID Sensors—A Case Study Based on the Literacy Process of Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jadán-Guerrero, Janio; Guerrero, Luis; López, Gustavo; Cáliz, Doris; Bravo, José

    2015-01-01

    Teaching children with intellectual disabilities is a big challenge for most parents and educators. Special education teachers use learning strategies to develop and enhance motivation for complex learning tasks. Literacy acquisition is an essential and life-long skill for a child with intellectual disabilities. In this context, technology can support specific strategies that will help children learn to read. This paper introduces a Tangible User Interface (TUI) system based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to support literacy for children with Down syndrome. Our proposed system focuses on the integration of RFID tags in 3D printed objects and low cost toys. The paper describes the experience of using some materials covering the tags and the different problems related to the material and distance of radio wave propagation. The results of a preliminary evaluation in a special education institution showed that the system helps to improve the interaction between teachers and children. The use of a TUI seems to give a physical sensory experience to develop literacy skills in children with Down syndrome. PMID:26115455

  15. A Hybrid Positioning Strategy for Vehicles in a Tunnel Based on RFID and In-Vehicle Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiang; Li, Xu; Tang, Wencheng; Zhang, Weigong; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Many intelligent transportation system applications require accurate, reliable, and continuous vehicle positioning. How to achieve such positioning performance in extended GPS-denied environments such as tunnels is the main challenge for land vehicles. This paper proposes a hybrid multi-sensor fusion strategy for vehicle positioning in tunnels. First, the preliminary positioning algorithm is developed. The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is introduced to achieve preliminary positioning in the tunnel. The received signal strength (RSS) is used as an indicator to calculate the distances between the RFID tags and reader, and then a Least Mean Square (LMS) federated filter is designed to provide the preliminary position information for subsequent global fusion. Further, to improve the positioning performance in the tunnel, an interactive multiple model (IMM)-based global fusion algorithm is developed to fuse the data from preliminary positioning results and low-cost in-vehicle sensors, such as electronic compasses and wheel speed sensors. In the actual implementation of IMM, the strong tracking extended Kalman filter (STEKF) algorithm is designed to replace the conventional extended Kalman filter (EKF) to achieve model individual filtering. Finally, the proposed strategy is evaluated through experiments. The results validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed strategy. PMID:25490581

  16. Creating TUIs Using RFID Sensors--A Case Study Based on the Literacy Process of Children with Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jadán-Guerrero, Janio; Guerrero, Luis; López, Gustavo; Cáliz, Doris; Bravo, José

    2015-01-01

    Teaching children with intellectual disabilities is a big challenge for most parents and educators. Special education teachers use learning strategies to develop and enhance motivation for complex learning tasks. Literacy acquisition is an essential and life-long skill for a child with intellectual disabilities. In this context, technology can support specific strategies that will help children learn to read. This paper introduces a Tangible User Interface (TUI) system based on Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to support literacy for children with Down syndrome. Our proposed system focuses on the integration of RFID tags in 3D printed objects and low cost toys. The paper describes the experience of using some materials covering the tags and the different problems related to the material and distance of radio wave propagation. The results of a preliminary evaluation in a special education institution showed that the system helps to improve the interaction between teachers and children. The use of a TUI seems to give a physical sensory experience to develop literacy skills in children with Down syndrome. PMID:26115455

  17. Ultra Wide Band RFID Neutron Tags for Nuclear Materials Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F; Wang, T

    2010-01-27

    Recent advancements in the ultra-wide band Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and solid state pillar type neutron detectors have enabled us to move forward in combining both technologies for advanced neutron monitoring. The LLNL RFID tag is totally passive and will operate indefinitely without the need for batteries. The tag is compact, can be directly mounted on metal, and has high performance in dense and cluttered environments. The LLNL coin-sized pillar solid state neutron detector has achieved a thermal neutron detection efficiency of 20% and neutron/gamma discrimination of 1E5. These performance values are comparable to a fieldable {sup 3}He based detector. In this paper we will discuss features about the two technologies and some potential applications for the advanced safeguarding of nuclear materials.

  18. A RFID grouping proof protocol for medication safety of inpatient.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsieh-Hong; Ku, Cheng-Yuan

    2009-12-01

    In order to provide enhanced medication safety for inpatients, the medical mechanism which adopts the modified grouping proof protocol is proposed in this paper. By using the grouping proof protocol, the medical staffs could confirm the authentication and integrity of a group of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tags which are embedded on inpatient bracelets and the containers of drugs. This mechanism is designed to be compatible with EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 standard which is the most popular specification of RFID tags. Due to the light-weight computational capacity of passive tags, only the pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) and cyclic redundancy code (CRC) are allowed to be used in the communication protocol. Furthermore, a practical scenario of using this proposed mechanism in hospital to examine the medication safety is also presented. PMID:20052898

  19. Temperature increase in the fetus exposed to UHF RFID readers.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, Serena; Parazzini, Marta; Liorni, Ilaria; Samaras, Theodoros; Ravazzani, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has prominently increased during the last decades due to the rapid development of new technologies. Among the various devices emitting EMFs, those based on Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies are used in all aspects of everyday life, and expose people unselectively. This scenario could pose a potential risk for some groups of the general population, such as pregnant women, who are expected to be possibly more sensitive to the thermal effects produced by EMF exposure. This is the first paper that addresses the estimation of temperature rise in two pregnant women models exposed to ultrahigh frequency RFID by computational techniques. Results show that the maximum temperature increase of the fetus and of the pregnancy-related tissues is relatively high (even about 0.7 °C), not too far from the known threshold of biological effects. However, this increase is confined to a small volume in the tissues. PMID:24956619

  20. Considerations for RFID-Based Indoor Simultaneous Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papapostolou, Apostolia; Chaouchi, Hakima

    Context-aware applications is not just a vision. Advances in wireless communications and mobile capabilities have revolutionized the way services are brought to users, i.e. adapted to their context. Location is a key attribute of the term context and thus, an accurate location determination system is of paramount importance. RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is an emerging technology and recently has been explored for its applicability in location sensing systems. In this paper, we focus on an RFID-based localization approach in an indoor multi-user environment and model its most adverse implicating factors, that is collisions among its main components and interference from indoor characteristics. Extensive simulations are conducted to characterize and evaluate the performance behavior of the proposed scheme in environments with different levels of severity.

  1. Miniaturization design and implementation of magnetic field coupled RFID antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Tiling

    2013-03-01

    The development of internet of things has brought new opportunities and challenges to the application of RFID tags. Moreover, the Miniaturization application trend of tags at present has become the mainstream of development. In this paper, the double-layer design is to reduce the size of HF antenna, and the magnetic null point of magnetic reconnection region between the RLC resonant circuit and the reader provides sufficient energy to the miniaturization of antenna. The calculated and experimental results show that the miniaturization of HF antennas can meet the reading and writing requirement of the international standard ISO/IEC14443 standard. The results of this paper may make a positive contribution to the applications of RFID technology.

  2. A flexible surface wetness sensor using a RFID technique.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hao; Chien, Jui-Hung; Wang, Bo-Yan; Chen, Ping-Hei; Lee, Da-Sheng

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents a flexible wetness sensor whose detection signal, converted to a binary code, is transmitted through radio-frequency (RF) waves from a radio-frequency identification integrated circuit (RFID IC) to a remote reader. The flexible sensor, with a fixed operating frequency of 13.56 MHz, contains a RFID IC and a sensor circuit that is fabricated on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) using a Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) process. The sensor circuit contains a comb-shaped sensing area surrounded by an octagonal antenna with a width of 2.7 cm. The binary code transmitted from the RFIC to the reader changes if the surface conditions of the detector surface changes from dry to wet. This variation in the binary code can be observed on a digital oscilloscope connected to the reader. PMID:17665308

  3. RFID-Based Asset Management for Space Habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2013-01-01

    Remote habitats are often densely packed - items necessary to sustain life - items necessary to conduct work center dot Inhabitant's time is often quite valuable, if not priceless. Resupply shipments can be infrequent and expensive. Inaccurate inventory knowledge can lead to unnecessary overstocking, which can lead to insufficient work and/or living volume. Not being able to find items when they are needed can present: - safety issues - morale issues. RFID technology has the potential solve a lot of these issues.

  4. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  5. A reliable RFID mutual authentication scheme for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Chen, Lichin; Wu, Ju-Chuan

    2013-04-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) applications have the potential to increase the reliability of healthcare environments. However, there are obvious security and privacy concerns with regard to storing personal and medical data in RFID tags, and the lack of secure authentication systems in healthcare environments remains as a challenge the further use of this technology, one that touches on issues of confidentiality, unforgeability, location privacy, and scalability. This study proposes a novel mutual authentication protocol that considers all of these issues and solves the tradeoff between location privacy and scalability in healthcare environments. A formal proof and analysis is demonstrated to prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, and that high reliability has and can be easily deployed and managed. This study also provides a scenario example that applied proposed protocol in the newborn care and management. The result shows that the proposed scheme solves the related tradeoff problem, and is capable of providing both location privacy and scalability. To apply the authentication scheme proposed in this work would be able to increase confidence in future implementations of RFID systems in healthcare environments. PMID:23321974

  6. Using RFID yoking proof protocol to enhance inpatient medication safety.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Ling; Wu, Chun-Yi

    2012-10-01

    The low birth rate has led to an aging society; the burgeoning number of elderly patients may affect the medical quality and result in negative medical incidents. There are many factors that lead to medical errors, such as similar medication names, erroneous labels and packaging, as well as staff shortages, fatigue and carelessness. Determining how to reduce medical errors has become an important issue. As RFID exhibits powerful identification characteristics, it can help nurses to quickly identify patients and their corresponding medicine. Currently, there are numerous practical applications for improving the efficiency of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. In this paper, we use an RFID yoking proof mechanism which conforms to EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 standards to improve patient safety and reduce medical errors. Our scheme can achieve different goals such as resist numerous known attacks, achieve mutual authentication, anonymity and non-repudiation. It also provides a practical medical care and offer higher quality of medical care. The pharmacist cannot deny that this prescription was confirmed for the patient and the nurse cannot also deny he or she dispensed this medicine to the patient for protecting the patients' interests. PMID:21811800

  7. Optimization of RFID network planning using Zigbee and WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasnan, Khalid; Ahmed, Aftab; Badrul-aisham, Bakhsh, Qadir

    2015-05-01

    Everyone wants to be ease in their life. Radio frequency identification (RFID) wireless technology is used to make our life easier. RFID technology increases productivity, accuracy and convenience in delivery of service in supply chain. It is used for various applications such as preventing theft of automobiles, tolls collection without stopping, no checkout lines at grocery stores, managing traffic, hospital management, corporate campuses and airports, mobile asset tracking, warehousing, tracking library books, and to track a wealth of assets in supply chain management. Efficiency of RFID can be enhanced by integrating with wireless sensor network (WSN), zigbee mesh network and internet of things (IOT). The proposed system is used for identifying, sensing and real-time locating system (RTLS) of items in an indoor heterogeneous region. The system gives real-time richer information of object's characteristics, location and their environmental parameters like temperature, noise and humidity etc. RTLS reduce human error, optimize inventory management, increase productivity and information accuracy at indoor heterogeneous network. The power consumption and the data transmission rate of the system can be minimized by using low power hardware design.

  8. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  9. Event Management of RFID Data Streams: Fast Moving Consumer Goods Supply Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, John P. T.; Li, Xue

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless communication technology that uses radio-frequency waves to transfer information between tagged objects and readers without line of sight. This creates tremendous opportunities for linking real world objects into a world of "Internet of things". Application of RFID to Fast Moving Consumer Goods sector will introduce billions of RFID tags in the world. Almost everything is tagged for tracking and identification purposes. This phenomenon will impose a new challenge not only to the network capacity but also to the scalability of processing of RFID events and data. This chapter uses two national demonstrator projects in Australia as case studies to introduce an event managementframework to process high volume RFID data streams in real time and automatically transform physical RFID observations into business-level events. The model handles various temporal event patterns, both simple and complex, with temporal constraints. The model can be implemented in a data management architecture that allows global RFID item tracking and enables fast, large-scale RFID deployment.

  10. Design of a Covert RFID Tag Network for Target Discovery and Target Information Routing

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qihe; Narayanan, Ram M.

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags are small electronic devices working in the radio frequency range. They use wireless radio communications to automatically identify objects or people without the need for line-of-sight or contact, and are widely used in inventory tracking, object location, environmental monitoring. This paper presents a design of a covert RFID tag network for target discovery and target information routing. In the design, a static or very slowly moving target in the field of RFID tags transmits a distinct pseudo-noise signal, and the RFID tags in the network collect the target information and route it to the command center. A map of each RFID tag’s location is saved at command center, which can determine where a RFID tag is located based on each RFID tag’s ID. We propose the target information collection method with target association and clustering, and we also propose the information routing algorithm within the RFID tag network. The design and operation of the proposed algorithms are illustrated through examples. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the design. PMID:22163693

  11. RFID-Based Vehicle Positioning and Its Applications in Connected Vehicles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianqiang; Ni, Daiheng; Li, Keqiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed an RFID-based vehicle positioning approach to facilitate connected vehicles applications. When a vehicle passes over an RFID tag, the vehicle position is given by the accurate position stored in the tag. At locations without RFID coverage, the vehicle position is estimated from the most recent tag location using a kinematics integration algorithm till updates from the next tag. The accuracy of RFID positioning is verified empirically in two independent ways with one using radar and the other a photoelectric switch. The former is designed to verify whether the dynamic position obtained from RFID tags matches the position measured by radar that is regarded as accurate. The latter aims to verify whether the position estimated from the kinematics integration matches the position obtained from RFID tags. Both means supports the accuracy of RFID-based positioning. As a supplement to GPS which suffers from issues such as inaccuracy and loss of signal, RFID positioning is promising in facilitating connected vehicles applications. Two conceptual applications are provided here with one in vehicle operational control and the other in Level IV intersection control. PMID:24599188

  12. RFID-based vehicle positioning and its applications in connected vehicles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianqiang; Ni, Daiheng; Li, Keqiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed an RFID-based vehicle positioning approach to facilitate connected vehicles applications. When a vehicle passes over an RFID tag, the vehicle position is given by the accurate position stored in the tag. At locations without RFID coverage, the vehicle position is estimated from the most recent tag location using a kinematics integration algorithm till updates from the next tag. The accuracy of RFID positioning is verified empirically in two independent ways with one using radar and the other a photoelectric switch. The former is designed to verify whether the dynamic position obtained from RFID tags matches the position measured by radar that is regarded as accurate. The latter aims to verify whether the position estimated from the kinematics integration matches the position obtained from RFID tags. Both means supports the accuracy of RFID-based positioning. As a supplement to GPS which suffers from issues such as inaccuracy and loss of signal, RFID positioning is promising in facilitating connected vehicles applications. Two conceptual applications are provided here with one in vehicle operational control and the other in Level IV intersection control. PMID:24599188

  13. High-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals: an empirical study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hui-Min; Lin, I-Chun; Tseng, Ling-Tzu

    2014-02-01

    Prior researches have indicated that an appropriate adoption of information technology (IT) can help hospitals significantly improve services and operations. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is believed to be the next generation innovation technology for automatic data collection and asset/people tracking. Based on the Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework, this study investigated high-level managers' considerations for RFID adoption in hospitals. This research reviewed literature related IT adoption in business and followed the results of a preliminary survey with 37 practical experts in hospitals to theorize a model for the RFID adoption in hospitals. Through a field survey of 102 hospitals and hypotheses testing, this research identified key factors influencing RFID adoption. Follow-up in-depth interviews with three high-level managers of IS department from three case hospitals respectively also presented an insight into the decision of RFID's adoption. Based on the research findings, cost, ubiquity, compatibility, security and privacy risk, top management support, hospital scale, financial readiness and government policy were concluded to be the key factors influencing RFID adoption in hospitals. For practitioners, this study provided a comprehensive overview of government policies able to promote the technology, while helping the RFID solution providers understand how to reduce the IT barriers in order to enhance hospitals' willingness to adopt RFID. PMID:24445396

  14. Efficient Method of Achieving Agreements between Individuals and Organizations about RFID Privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Shi-Cho

    This work presents novel technical and legal approaches that address privacy concerns for personal data in RFID systems. In recent years, to minimize the conflict between convenience and the privacy risk of RFID systems, organizations have been requested to disclose their policies regarding RFID activities, obtain customer consent, and adopt appropriate mechanisms to enforce these policies. However, current research on RFID typically focuses on enforcement mechanisms to protect personal data stored in RFID tags and prevent organizations from tracking user activity through information emitted by specific RFID tags. A missing piece is how organizations can obtain customers' consent efficiently and flexibly. This study recommends that organizations obtain licenses automatically or semi-automatically before collecting personal data via RFID technologies rather than deal with written consents. Such digitalized and standard licenses can be checked automatically to ensure that collection and use of personal data is based on user consent. While individuals can easily control who has licenses and license content, the proposed framework provides an efficient and flexible way to overcome the deficiencies in current privacy protection technologies for RFID systems.

  15. Impact of RFID on Retail Value Chain: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharya, Mithu

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) mandates by large retailers and various government agencies have driven a large number of organizations to roll out the technology. Despite these commitments the business case for RFID is far from reality and is still at its infancy. This dissertation work aims at providing realistic perspective on the…

  16. Privacy-Preserving RFID Authentication Using Public Exponent Three RSA Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yoonjeong; Ohm, Seongyong; Yi, Kang

    In this letter, we propose a privacy-preserving authentication protocol with RSA cryptosystem in an RFID environment. For both overcoming the resource restriction and strengthening security, our protocol uses only modular exponentiation with exponent three at RFID tag side, with the padded random message whose length is greater than one-sixth of the whole message length.

  17. USE OF RFID TO TRACK HAZARDOUS WASTE SHIPMENTS ACROSS DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL BORDERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radio-frequency identification system (RFID) is an emerging commodity tracking technology that is being tested and implemented in a large number of applications worldwide. RFID is a method of transmitting data using radio waves, usually through communication with a tag. Both ac...

  18. Position Statement in RFID S&P Panel: RFID and the Middleman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross

    Existing bank-card payment systems, such as EMV, have two serious vulnerabilities: the user does not have a trustworthy interface, and the protocols are vulnerable in a number of ways to man-in-the-middle attacks. Moving to RFID payments may, on the one hand, let bank customers use their mobile phones to make payments, which will go a fair way towards fixing the interface problem; on the other hand, protocol vulnerabilities may become worse. By 2011 the NFC vendors hope there will be 500,000,000 NFC-enabled mobile phones in the world. If these devices can act as cards or terminals, can be programmed by their users, and can communicate with each other, then they will provide a platform for deploying all manner of protocol attacks. Designing the security protocols to mitigate such attacks may be difficult. First, it will include most of the hot topics of IT policy over the last ten years (from key escrow through DRM to platform trust and accessory control) as subproblems. Second, the incentives may lead the many players to try to dump the liability on each other, leading to overall system security that is equivalent to the weakest link rather than to sum-of-efforts and is thus suboptimal.

  19. Documentation pckage for the RFID temperature monitoring system (Of Model 9977 packages at NTS).

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2009-02-20

    The technical basis for extending the Model 9977 shipping package periodic maintenance beyond the one-year interval to a maximum of five years is based on the performance of the O-ring seals and the environmental conditions. The DOE Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has tasked Argonne National Laboratory to develop a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) temperature monitoring system for use by the facility personnel at DAF/NTS. The RFID temperature monitoring system, depicted in the figure below, consists of the Mk-1 RFId tags, a reader, and a control computer mounted on a mobile platform that can operate as a stand-alone system, or it can be connected to the local IT network. As part of the Conditions of Approval of the CoC, the user must complete the prescribed training to become qualified and be certified for operation of the RFID temperature monitoring system. The training course will be administered by Argonne National Laboratory on behalf of the Headquarters Certifying Official. This is a complete documentation package for the RFID temperature monitoring system of the Model 9977 packagings at NTS. The documentation package will be used for training and certification. The table of contents are: Acceptance Testing Procedure of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Acceptance Testing Result of MK-1 RFID Tags for DOE/EM Nuclear Materials Management Applications; Performance Test of the Single Bolt Seal Sensor for the Model 9977 Packaging; Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags for Nevada Test Site; Results of Calibration of Built-in Thermistors in RFID Tags; Results of Thermal Calibration of Second Batch of MK-I RFID Tags; Procedure for Installing and Removing MK-1 RFID Tag on Model 9977 Drum; User Guide for RFID Reader and Software for Temperature Monitoring of Model 9977 Drums at NTS; Software Quality Assurance Plan (SQAP) for the ARG-US System; Quality Category for the RFID Temperature Monitoring System; The

  20. General Framework for Animal Food Safety Traceability Using GS1 and RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Weizhu; Zheng, Limin; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Ping

    GS1 is global traceability standard, which is composed by the encoding system (EAN/UCC, EPC), the data carriers identified automatically (bar codes, RFID), electronic data interchange standards (EDI, XML). RFID is a non-contact, multi-objective automatic identification technique. Tracing of source food, standardization of RFID tags, sharing of dynamic data are problems to solve urgently for recent traceability systems. The paper designed general framework for animal food safety traceability using GS1 and RFID. This framework uses RFID tags encoding with EPCglobal tag data standards. Each information server has access tier, business tier and resource tier. These servers are heterogeneous and distributed, providing user access interfaces by SOAP or HTTP protocols. For sharing dynamic data, discovery service and object name service are used to locate dynamic distributed information servers.

  1. Energy efficient in-network RFID data filtering scheme in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Ali Kashif; Lim, Se-Jung; Hussain, Chauhdary Sajjad; Park, Myong-Soon

    2011-01-01

    RFID (Radio frequency identification) and wireless sensor networks are backbone technologies for pervasive environments. In integration of RFID and WSN, RFID data uses WSN protocols for multi-hop communications. Energy is a critical issue in WSNs; however, RFID data contains a lot of duplication. These duplications can be eliminated at the base station, but unnecessary transmissions of duplicate data within the network still occurs, which consumes nodes' energy and affects network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an in-network RFID data filtering scheme that efficiently eliminates the duplicate data. For this we use a clustering mechanism where cluster heads eliminate duplicate data and forward filtered data towards the base station. Simulation results prove that our approach saves considerable amounts of energy in terms of communication and computational cost, compared to existing filtering schemes. PMID:22163999

  2. Energy Efficient In-network RFID Data Filtering Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Ali Kashif; Lim, Se-Jung; Hussain, Chauhdary Sajjad; Park, Myong-Soon

    2011-01-01

    RFID (Radio frequency identification) and wireless sensor networks are backbone technologies for pervasive environments. In integration of RFID and WSN, RFID data uses WSN protocols for multi-hop communications. Energy is a critical issue in WSNs; however, RFID data contains a lot of duplication. These duplications can be eliminated at the base station, but unnecessary transmissions of duplicate data within the network still occurs, which consumes nodes’ energy and affects network lifetime. In this paper, we propose an in-network RFID data filtering scheme that efficiently eliminates the duplicate data. For this we use a clustering mechanism where cluster heads eliminate duplicate data and forward filtered data towards the base station. Simulation results prove that our approach saves considerable amounts of energy in terms of communication and computational cost, compared to existing filtering schemes. PMID:22163999

  3. Lightweight ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol.

    PubMed

    He, Debiao; Kumar, Neeraj; Chilamkurti, Naveen; Lee, Jong-Hyouk

    2014-10-01

    The radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely adopted and being deployed as a dominant identification technology in a health care domain such as medical information authentication, patient tracking, blood transfusion medicine, etc. With more and more stringent security and privacy requirements to RFID based authentication schemes, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) based RFID authentication schemes have been proposed to meet the requirements. However, many recently published ECC based RFID authentication schemes have serious security weaknesses. In this paper, we propose a new ECC based RFID authentication integrated with an ID verifier transfer protocol that overcomes the weaknesses of the existing schemes. A comprehensive security analysis has been conducted to show strong security properties that are provided from the proposed authentication scheme. Moreover, the performance of the proposed authentication scheme is analyzed in terms of computational cost, communicational cost, and storage requirement. PMID:25096968

  4. Cluster-Based Multipolling Sequencing Algorithm for Collecting RFID Data in Wireless LANs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong; Chatterjee, Mainak

    2015-03-01

    With the growing use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), it is becoming important to devise ways to read RFID tags in real time. Access points (APs) of IEEE 802.11-based wireless Local Area Networks (LANs) are being integrated with RFID networks that can efficiently collect real-time RFID data. Several schemes, such as multipolling methods based on the dynamic search algorithm and random sequencing, have been proposed. However, as the number of RFID readers associated with an AP increases, it becomes difficult for the dynamic search algorithm to derive the multipolling sequence in real time. Though multipolling methods can eliminate the polling overhead, we still need to enhance the performance of the multipolling methods based on random sequencing. To that extent, we propose a real-time cluster-based multipolling sequencing algorithm that drastically eliminates more than 90% of the polling overhead, particularly so when the dynamic search algorithm fails to derive the multipolling sequence in real time.

  5. Measuring the drinking behaviour of individual pigs housed in group using radio frequency identification (RFID).

    PubMed

    Maselyne, J; Adriaens, I; Huybrechts, T; De Ketelaere, B; Millet, S; Vangeyte, J; Van Nuffel, A; Saeys, W

    2016-09-01

    Changes in the drinking behaviour of pigs may indicate health, welfare or productivity problems. Automated monitoring and analysis of drinking behaviour could allow problems to be detected, thus improving farm productivity. A high frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) system was designed to register the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. HF RFID antennas were placed around four nipple drinkers and connected to a reader via a multiplexer. A total of 55 growing-finishing pigs were fitted with radio frequency identification (RFID) ear tags, one in each ear. RFID-based drinking visits were created from the RFID registrations using a bout criterion and a minimum and maximum duration criterion. The HF RFID system was successfully validated by comparing RFID-based visits with visual observations and flow meter measurements based on visit overlap. Sensitivity was at least 92%, specificity 93%, precision 90% and accuracy 93%. RFID-based drinking duration had a high correlation with observed drinking duration (R 2=0.88) and water usage (R 2=0.71). The number of registrations after applying the visit criteria had an even higher correlation with the same two variables (R 2=0.90 and 0.75, respectively). There was also a correlation between number of RFID visits and number of observed visits (R 2=0.84). The system provides good quality information about the drinking behaviour of individual pigs. As health or other problems affect the pigs' drinking behaviour, analysis of the RFID data could allow problems to be detected and signalled to the farmer. This information can help to improve the productivity and economics of the farm as well as the health and welfare of the pigs. PMID:25959418

  6. On the Optimal Identification of Tag Sets in Time-Constrained RFID Configurations

    PubMed Central

    Vales-Alonso, Javier; Bueno-Delgado, María Victoria; Egea-López, Esteban; Alcaraz, Juan José; Pérez-Mañogil, Juan Manuel

    2011-01-01

    In Radio Frequency Identification facilities the identification delay of a set of tags is mainly caused by the random access nature of the reading protocol, yielding a random identification time of the set of tags. In this paper, the cumulative distribution function of the identification time is evaluated using a discrete time Markov chain for single-set time-constrained passive RFID systems, namely those ones where a single group of tags is assumed to be in the reading area and only for a bounded time (sojourn time) before leaving. In these scenarios some tags in a set may leave the reader coverage area unidentified. The probability of this event is obtained from the cumulative distribution function of the identification time as a function of the sojourn time. This result provides a suitable criterion to minimize the probability of losing tags. Besides, an identification strategy based on splitting the set of tags in smaller subsets is also considered. Results demonstrate that there are optimal splitting configurations that reduce the overall identification time while keeping the same probability of losing tags. PMID:22163777

  7. Rigorous bounds for optimal dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-07-15

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the optimal dynamical decoupling pulse sequence protecting a quantum bit (qubit) against pure dephasing. Our bounds apply under the assumption of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We show that if the total sequence time is fixed the optimal sequence can be used to make the distance between the protected and unperturbed qubit states arbitrarily small in the number of applied pulses. If, on the other hand, the minimum pulse interval is fixed and the total sequence time is allowed to scale with the number of pulses, then longer sequences need not always be advantageous. The rigorous bound may serve as a testbed for approximate treatments of optimal decoupling in bounded models of decoherence.

  8. Modifications of the Griesmer bound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Solomon, G.

    1991-01-01

    The Griesmer bound is a classical technique (developed in 1960) for estimating the minimum length n required for a binary linear code with a given dimension k and minimum distance d. In this article, a unified derivation of the Griesmer bound and two new variations on it are presented. The first variation deals with linear codes which contain the all-ones vector; such codes are quite common and are useful in practice because of their 'transparent' properties. The second variation deals with codes that are constrained to contain a word of weight greater than or equal to M. In both cases these constraints (the all-ones word or a word of high weight) can increase the minimum length of a code with given k and d.

  9. 18,000 displacement vectors and 44 positions surveys of RFID tracers show a normal diffusion of the bedload in a proglacial stream (Bossons glacier, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, Hervé; Mugnier, Jean-Louis; Buoncristiani, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    distributions were tested against the observed travel distances. Regardless of the time scale, heavy- and light-tailed distributions provide a convincing statistical description of measured data. No single distribution is significantly better than the others. Conversely, the distribution of tracers positions in the system and its time evolution is best described by the normal distribution. Its standard deviation scales with time as σ ∝ t0.45±0.12 which suggests a nearly normal diffusive behaviour. The measured virtual velocities and a simple probabilistic model using the time evolution of the mean (i.e. drift) and standard deviation (i.e diffusion) show that the mean bedload transfer time is greater than 5 years. RFID tracers appear as a promising tool to investigate stochastic characteristics of bedload transport.

  10. Bound states and the Bekenstein bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael

    2003-10-16

    We explore the validity of the generalized Bekenstein bound, S<= pi M a. We define the entropy S as the logarithm of the number of states which have energy eigenvalue below M and are localized to a flat space region of width alpha. If boundary conditions that localize field modes are imposed by fiat, then the bound encounters well-known difficulties with negative Casimir energy and large species number, as well as novel problems arising only in the generalized form. In realistic systems, however, finite-size effects contribute additional energy. We study two different models for estimating such contributions. Our analysis suggests that the bound is both valid and nontrivial if interactions are properly included, so that the entropy S counts the bound states of interacting fields.

  11. Entropy bounds and dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.

    2004-07-01

    Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant Λ finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of Λ is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w≡p/ρ=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, Λ in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

  12. A split-path schema-based RFID data storage model in supply chain management.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products . Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  13. Determinants of RFID adoption in Malaysia's healthcare industry: occupational level as a moderator.

    PubMed

    Zailani, Suhaiza; Iranmanesh, Mohammad; Nikbin, Davoud; Beng, Jameson Khoo Cheong

    2015-01-01

    With today's highly competitive market in the healthcare industry, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that can be applied by hospitals to improve operational efficiency and to gain a competitive advantage over their competitors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that may effect RFID adoption in Malaysia's healthcare industry. In addition, the moderating role of occupational level was tested. Data was collected from 223 managers as well as healthcare and supporting staffs. This data was analyzed using the partial least squares technique. The results show that perceived ease of use and usefulness, government policy, top management support, and security and privacy concerns have an effect on the intent to adopt RFID in hospitals. There is a wide gap between managers and healthcare staff in terms of the factors that influence RFID adoption. The results of this study will help decision makers as well as managers in the healthcare industry to better understand the determinants of RFID adoption. Additionally, it will assist in the process of RFID adoption, and therefore, spread the usage of RFID technology in more hospitals. PMID:25503418

  14. A Split-Path Schema-Based RFID Data Storage Model in Supply Chain Management

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Hua; Wu, Quanyuan; Lin, Yisong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2013-01-01

    In modern supply chain management systems, Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) technology has become an indispensable sensor technology and massive RFID data sets are expected to become commonplace. More and more space and time are needed to store and process such huge amounts of RFID data, and there is an increasing realization that the existing approaches cannot satisfy the requirements of RFID data management. In this paper, we present a split-path schema-based RFID data storage model. With a data separation mechanism, the massive RFID data produced in supply chain management systems can be stored and processed more efficiently. Then a tree structure-based path splitting approach is proposed to intelligently and automatically split the movement paths of products. Furthermore, based on the proposed new storage model, we design the relational schema to store the path information and time information of tags, and some typical query templates and SQL statements are defined. Finally, we conduct various experiments to measure the effect and performance of our model and demonstrate that it performs significantly better than the baseline approach in both the data expression and path-oriented RFID data query performance. PMID:23645112

  15. Security Enhancement Mechanism Based on Contextual Authentication and Role Analysis for 2G-RFID Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system. PMID:22163983

  16. A Framework for Mining Actionable Navigation Patterns from In-Store RFID Datasets via Indoor Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Bin; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen; Xu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    With the quick development of RFID technology and the decreasing prices of RFID devices, RFID is becoming widely used in various intelligent services. Especially in the retail application domain, RFID is increasingly adopted to capture the shopping tracks and behavior of in-store customers. To further enhance the potential of this promising application, in this paper, we propose a unified framework for RFID-based path analytics, which uses both in-store shopping paths and RFID-based purchasing data to mine actionable navigation patterns. Four modules of this framework are discussed, which are: (1) mapping from the physical space to the cyber space, (2) data preprocessing, (3) pattern mining and (4) knowledge understanding and utilization. In the data preprocessing module, the critical problem of how to capture the mainstream shopping path sequences while wiping out unnecessary redundant and repeated details is addressed in detail. To solve this problem, two types of redundant patterns, i.e., loop repeat pattern and palindrome-contained pattern are recognized and the corresponding processing algorithms are proposed. The experimental results show that the redundant pattern filtering functions are effective and scalable. Overall, this work builds a bridge between indoor positioning and advanced data mining technologies, and provides a feasible way to study customers’ shopping behaviors via multi-source RFID data. PMID:25751076

  17. A framework for mining actionable navigation patterns from in-store RFID datasets via indoor mapping.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bin; Zheng, Qiuhua; Li, Xingsen; Xu, Libo

    2015-01-01

    With the quick development of RFID technology and the decreasing prices of RFID devices, RFID is becoming widely used in various intelligent services. Especially in the retail application domain, RFID is increasingly adopted to capture the shopping tracks and behavior of in-store customers. To further enhance the potential of this promising application, in this paper, we propose a unified framework for RFID-based path analytics, which uses both in-store shopping paths and RFID-based purchasing data to mine actionable navigation patterns. Four modules of this framework are discussed, which are: (1) mapping from the physical space to the cyber space, (2) data preprocessing, (3) pattern mining and (4) knowledge understanding and utilization. In the data preprocessing module, the critical problem of how to capture the mainstream shopping path sequences while wiping out unnecessary redundant and repeated details is addressed in detail. To solve this problem, two types of redundant patterns, i.e., loop repeat pattern and palindrome-contained pattern are recognized and the corresponding processing algorithms are proposed. The experimental results show that the redundant pattern filtering functions are effective and scalable. Overall, this work builds a bridge between indoor positioning and advanced data mining technologies, and provides a feasible way to study customers' shopping behaviors via multi-source RFID data. PMID:25751076

  18. An RFID-based luggage and passenger tracking system for airport security control applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vastianos, George E.; Kyriazanos, Dimitris M.; Kountouriotis, Vassilios I.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2014-06-01

    Market analysis studies of recent years have shown a steady and significant increase in the usage of RFID technology. Key factors for this growth were the decreased costs of passive RFIDs and their improved performance compared to the other identification technologies. Besides the benefits of RFID technologies into the supply chains, warehousing, traditional inventory and asset management applications, RFID has proven itself worth exploiting on experimental, as well as on commercial level in other sectors, such as healthcare, transport and security. In security sector, airport security is one of the biggest challenges. Airports are extremely busy public places and thus prime targets for terrorism, with aircraft, passengers, crew and airport infrastructure all subject to terrorist attacks. Inside this labyrinth of security challenges, the long range detection capability of the UHF passive RFID technology can be turned into a very important tracking tool that may outperform all the limitations of the barcode tracking inside the current airport security control chain. The Integrated Systems Lab of NCSR Demokritos has developed an RFID based Luggage and Passenger tracking system within the TASS (FP7-SEC-2010-241905) EU research project. This paper describes application scenarios of the system categorized according to the structured nature of the environment, the system architecture and presents evaluation results extracted from measurements with a group of different massive production GEN2 UHF RFID tags that are widely available in the world market.

  19. Security enhancement mechanism based on contextual authentication and role analysis for 2G-RFID systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan; Chen, Min; Ni, Jin; Yang, Ximin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system, in which the information maintained in tags is passive and static, has no intelligent decision-making ability to suit application and environment dynamics. The Second-Generation RFID (2G-RFID) system, referred as 2G-RFID-sys, is an evolution of the traditional RFID system to ensure better quality of service in future networks. Due to the openness of the active mobile codes in the 2G-RFID system, the realization of conveying intelligence brings a critical issue: how can we make sure the backend system will interpret and execute mobile codes in the right way without misuse so as to avoid malicious attacks? To address this issue, this paper expands the concept of Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) by introducing context-aware computing, and then designs a secure middleware for backend systems, named Two-Level Security Enhancement Mechanism or 2L-SEM, in order to ensure the usability and validity of the mobile code through contextual authentication and role analysis. According to the given contextual restrictions, 2L-SEM can filtrate the illegal and invalid mobile codes contained in tags. Finally, a reference architecture and its typical application are given to illustrate the implementation of 2L-SEM in a 2G-RFID system, along with the simulation results to evaluate how the proposed mechanism can guarantee secure execution of mobile codes for the system. PMID:22163983

  20. Setups for in vitro assessment of RFID interference on pacemakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, E.; Censi, F.; Delogu, A.; Ferrara, A.; Calcagnini, G.

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to propose setups for in vitro assessment of RFID (radiofrequency identification) interference on pacemakers (PM). The voltage induced at the input stage of the PM by low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) RFID transmitters has been used to quantify the amount of the interference. A commercial PM was modified in order to measure the voltage at its input stage when exposed to a sinusoidal signal at 125 kHz and 13.56 MHz. At both frequencies, two antennas with different dimensions (diameter = 10 cm and 30 cm, respectively) were used to generate the interfering field, and the induced voltage was measured between the lead tip and the PM case (unipolar voltage), and between the tip and ring electrodes (bipolar voltage). The typical lead configurations adopted in similar studies or proposed by international standards, as well as lead paths closer to actual physiological implants were tested. At 125 kHz, the worst-case condition differs for the two antennas: the 10 cm antenna induced the highest voltage in the two-loop spiral configuration, whereas the 30 cm antenna in the 225 cm2 loop configuration. At 13.56 MHz, the highest voltage was observed for both the antennas in the 225 cm2 loop configuration. Bipolar voltages were found to be lower than the unipolar voltages induced in the same configurations, this difference being not as high as one could expect from theoretical considerations. The worst-case scenario, in terms of the induced voltage at the PM input stage, has been identified both for LF and HF readers, and for two sizes of transmitting antennas. These findings may provide the basis for the definition of a standard implant configuration and a lead path to test the EMI effects of LF and HF RFID transmitters on active implantable devices.

  1. Interoperation of an UHF RFID Reader and a TCP/IP Device via Wired and Wireless Links

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jin, Ik Soo

    2011-01-01

    A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device. PMID:22346665

  2. Interoperation of an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device via wired and wireless links.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jin, Ik Soo

    2011-01-01

    A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID) sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4) interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device. PMID:22346665

  3. RFID in healthcare environment: electromagnetic compatibility regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Censi, Federica; Calcagnini, Giovanni; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Bartolini, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Several wireless technology applications (RFID, WiFi, GSM, GPRS) have been developed to improve patient care, reaching a significant success and diffusion in healthcare. Given the potential development of such a technology, care must be paid on the potential risks deriving from the use of wireless device in healthcare, among which one of the most important is the electromagnetic interference with medical devices. The analysis of the regulatory issues concerning the electromagnetic compatibility of medical devices is essential to evaluate if and how the application of the current standards allows an effective control of the possible risks associated to the electromagnetic interference on medical devices. PMID:21096973

  4. A Guide Management System Based on RFID and Bluetooth Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Han-Sheng; Wang, Jun-Jun

    The most fundamental and important requirement of the tour guide in the tour process is to ensure the safety of tourists. In this paper, a portable guide management system is designed based on RFID technology, the Android software and blue-tooth communication technology. Through this system, the guide can get real-time information if some tourists are l behind, and send text message or dial to those tourists who are l behind immediately. The system reduces the roll-calling time on the tourists, improves the tour guide work efficiency and service quality.

  5. An Adaptive RFID Anti-Collision Algorithm Based on Dynamic Framed ALOHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Hyeonwoo; Kim, Sang Woo

    The collision of ID signals from a large number of colocated passive RFID tags is a serious problem; to realize a practical RFID systems we need an effective anti-collision algorithm. This letter presents an adaptive algorithm to minimize the total time slots and the number of rounds required for identifying the tags within the RFID reader's interrogation zone. The proposed algorithm is based on the framed ALOHA protocol, and the frame size is adaptively updated each round. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm is more efficient than the conventional algorithms based on the framed ALOHA.

  6. A hash based mutual RFID tag authentication protocol in telecare medicine information system.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Keerti; Awasthi, Amit K; Kaul, Sonam D; Mittal, R C

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology which has multidimensional applications to reduce the complexity of today life. Everywhere, like access control, transportation, real-time inventory, asset management and automated payment systems etc., RFID has its enormous use. Recently, this technology is opening its wings in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, object traceability and drug administration systems etc. In this paper, we propose a secure RFID-based protocol for the medical sector. This protocol is based on hash operation with synchronized secret. The protocol is safe against active and passive attacks such as forgery, traceability, replay and de-synchronization attack. PMID:25491577

  7. Research and design on system of asset management based on RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Peng; Du, HuaiChang; Jing, Hua; Zhang, MengYue; Zhang, Meng; Xu, GuiXian

    2011-10-01

    By analyzing the problems in the current assets management, this thesis proposing RFID technology will be applied to asset management in order to improve the management level of automation and information. This paper designed the equipment identification based on 433MHz RFID tag and reader which was deeply studied on the basis of RFID tag and card reader circuits, and this paper also illustrates the system of asset management. The RS232 converts Ethernet is a innovative technology to transfer data to PC monitor software, and implement system of asset management based on WEB techniques (PHP and MySQL).

  8. A secure RFID mutual authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptography.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Jining

    2015-03-01

    Radio Frequency Identification(RFID) is an automatic identification technology, which can be widely used in healthcare environments to locate and track staff, equipment and patients. However, potential security and privacy problems in RFID system remain a challenge. In this paper, we design a mutual authentication protocol for RFID based on elliptic curve cryptography(ECC). We use pre-computing method within tag's communication, so that our protocol can get better efficiency. In terms of security, our protocol can achieve confidentiality, unforgeability, mutual authentication, tag's anonymity, availability and forward security. Our protocol also can overcome the weakness in the existing protocols. Therefore, our protocol is suitable for healthcare environments. PMID:25666925

  9. Transport of RFID tracers in a glacierized Andean stream (Estero Morales, Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Toro, Matteo; Mao, Luca; Fraccarollo, Luigi; Brardinoni, Francesco; Aristide Lenzi, Mario

    2015-04-01

    A proper quantification of bedload transport is crucial in order to improve the knowledge on the morphology and dynamics of river systems. Unfortunately, bedload surveys in mountain streams are notoriously difficult. Also, equations for predicting the transport capacity often overestimate the actual bedload rates, and field measurement are still rare. An alternative to direct bedload sampling during floods is the use of tracers, which allow to obtain precious data on sediment dynamic and transport due to different conditions of hydraulic forcing, especially in mountain streams. In this work, the results obtained by the employment of passive RFID tracers in a steep Andean channel are presented. The study site is the Estero Morales, a high-gradient stream located in the Metropolitan Region (central Chile). The channel bed exhibits boulder-cascade, step-pool and plane bed morphologies while the average slope is of about 9.5%. The basin (27 km2) hosts the San Francisco glacier (1.8 km2) that strongly affects the hydrological regime. In particular during the melt period (December-March) the glacier ensures daily discharge fluctuations with highly variable associated bedload transport rates. Overall, 429 RFID tracers were installed in the Estero Morales and the displacements over a reach of approximately 700 m were monitored through 15 surveys, performed between January and March 2014. The recovery rate ranges between 19% and 97%. Tracers travel distance were paired to the peaks of stream power per unit area (ω, in W/m2) that occurred during the study period. Due to the wide range of flow magnitude observed, the values of stream power were grouped in three classes: low (650-750 W/m2), moderate (750-800 W/m2), and high (800-900 W/m2). Despite the different conditions of hydraulic forcing, moderate and low classes show mean displacement very similar, equal to 33 m and 24 m, respectively. In either cases a size selective transport was observed. On the other hand, the high

  10. New upper bounds on the rate of a code via the Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H., Jr.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    An upper bound on the rate of a binary code as a function of minimum code distance (using a Hamming code metric) is arrived at from Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities. The upper bound so found is asymptotically less than Levenshtein's bound, and a fortiori less than Elias' bound. Appendices review properties of Krawtchouk polynomials and Q-polynomials utilized in the rigorous proofs.

  11. An Implantable RFID Sensor Tag toward Continuous Glucose Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhibin; Tan, Xi; Chen, Xianliang; Chen, Sizheng; Zhang, Zijian; Zhang, Hualei; Wang, Junyu; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Lirong; Min, Hao

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a wirelessly powered implantable electrochemical sensor tag for continuous blood glucose monitoring. The system is remotely powered by a 13.56-MHz inductive link and utilizes an ISO 15693 radio frequency identification (RFID) standard for communication. This paper provides reliable and accurate measurement for changing glucose level. The sensor tag employs a long-term glucose sensor, a winding ferrite antenna, an RFID front-end, a potentiostat, a 10-bit sigma-delta analog to digital converter, an on-chip temperature sensor, and a digital baseband for protocol processing and control. A high-frequency external reader is used to power, command, and configure the sensor tag. The only off-chip support circuitry required is a tuned antenna and a glucose microsensor. The integrated chip fabricated in SMIC 0.13-μm CMOS process occupies an area of 1.2 mm ×2 mm and consumes 50 μW. The power sensitivity of the whole system is -4 dBm. The sensor tag achieves a measured glucose range of 0-30 mM with a sensitivity of 0.75 nA/mM. PMID:25823049

  12. Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, Michael E; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, Ian; Heikenfeld, Jason C

    2015-06-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive radio-frequency identification (RFID) sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smartphone app with 96% accuracy at 50 mM Na(+) (in vitro tests). All circuitry is solder-reflow integrated on a standard Cu/polyimide flexible-electronic layer including an antenna, but while also allowing electroplating for simple integration of exotic metals for sensing electrodes. Optional paper microfluidics wick sweat from a sweat porous adhesive allowing flow to the sensor, or the sensor can be directly contacted to the skin. The wearability of the patch has been demonstrated for up to seven days, and includes a protective textile which provides a feel and appearance similar to a standard Band-Aid. Applications include hydration monitoring, but the basic capability is extendable to other mM ionic solutes in sweat (Cl(-), K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+), and Zn(2+)). The design and fabrication of the patch are provided in full detail, as the basic components could be useful in the design of other wearable sensors. PMID:25398174

  13. Equipment location in hospitals using RFID-based positioning system.

    PubMed

    Shirehjini, Ali Asghar Nazari; Yassine, Abdulsalam; Shirmohammadi, Shervin

    2012-11-01

    Throughout various complex processes within hospitals, context-aware services and applications can help to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. For example, sensors and radio frequency identification (RFID) technologies for e-health have been deployed to improve the flow of material, equipment, personal, and patient. Bed tracking, patient monitoring, real-time logistic analysis, and critical equipment tracking are famous applications of real-time location systems (RTLS) in hospitals. In fact, existing case studies show that RTLS can improve service quality and safety, and optimize emergency management and time critical processes. In this paper, we propose a robust system for position and orientation determination of equipment. Our system utilizes passive (RFID) technology mounted on flooring plates and several peripherals for sensor data interpretation. The system is implemented and tested through extensive experiments. The results show that our system's average positioning and orientation measurement outperforms existing systems in terms of accuracy. The details of the system as well as the experimental results are presented in this paper. PMID:24218700

  14. ODINS: On-Demand Indoor Navigation System RFID Based.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Federico; Masciadri, Andrea; Salice, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an On-Demand Indoor Navigation System (ODINS) based on RFID technology. ODINS is a distributed infrastructure where a set of information points (Fixed Stations - FS) provides the direction to a user who has to reach the destination point he/she has previously selected. ODINS system is proposed for residencies hosting people with mild cognitive disabilities and elderly but it can be also applied to structures where people could be disoriented. The destination is configured at some reception points or it is a predefined (e.g. the bed room or a selected "safe" point). The destination is associated with a RFID disposable bracelet assigned to her/him. The path is algorithmically computed and spread to all FSs. Every time the user is disoriented, she/he can search for the closest FS that displays the right directition. FSs should be located in strategic positions and provide a user-friendly interface such as bright arrows. The complexity is "system-side" making ODINS usable for everyone. PMID:26294495

  15. 2-SR-based electrically small antenna for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Ferran; Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguilà, Pau; Zamora, Gerard; Martin, Ferran; Bonache, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    In this work, the 2-turn spiral resonator (2-SR) is proposed as an electrically small antenna for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags at the European ultra-high frequency (UHF) band. The radiation properties are studied in order to explore the viability of the 2-SR applied to tag antenna design. Based on analytical calculations, the radiation pattern is found to provide a cancelation of the radiation nulls. This results in a mitigation of the blind spots in the read range, which are present in typical UHF-RFID tags as an undesired feature. As a proof of concept, a passive tag of size 35 mm × 40 mm (λ 0/10 × λ 0/9) based on the 2-SR antenna is designed and fabricated. Good radiation efficiency (75 %) and a quasi-isotropic radiation pattern are obtained. The experimental tag read range for different directions is in good agreement with the simulation results. The measured read range exhibits maximum and minimum values of 6.7 and 3.5 m, respectively.

  16. Investigation of Interference Models for RFID Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linchao; Ferrero, Renato; Gandino, Filippo; Rebaudengo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The reader-to-reader collision in an RFID system is a challenging problem for communications technology. In order to model the interference between RFID readers, different interference models have been proposed, mainly based on two approaches: single and additive interference. The former only considers the interference from one reader within a certain range, whereas the latter takes into account the sum of all of the simultaneous interferences in order to emulate a more realistic behavior. Although the difference between the two approaches has been theoretically analyzed in previous research, their effects on the estimated performance of the reader-to-reader anti-collision protocols have not yet been investigated. In this paper, the influence of the interference model on the anti-collision protocols is studied by simulating a representative state-of-the-art protocol. The results presented in this paper highlight that the use of additive models, although more computationally intensive, is mandatory to improve the performance of anti-collision protocols. PMID:26861326

  17. Physical Uncertainty Bounds (PUB)

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, Diane Elizabeth; Preston, Dean L.

    2015-03-19

    This paper introduces and motivates the need for a new methodology for determining upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulations of engineered systems due to limited fidelity in the composite continuum-level physics models needed to simulate the systems. We show that traditional uncertainty quantification methods provide, at best, a lower bound on this uncertainty. We propose to obtain bounds on the simulation uncertainties by first determining bounds on the physical quantities or processes relevant to system performance. By bounding these physics processes, as opposed to carrying out statistical analyses of the parameter sets of specific physics models or simply switching out the available physics models, one can obtain upper bounds on the uncertainties in simulated quantities of interest.

  18. Benefits and Barriers of Implementation and Utilization of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems in Transfusion Medicine.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Cunningham, Brian; Deslich, Stacie; Willson, Eric; Meadows, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is used by hospital supply chains to track medical products and monitor inventories. Hospitals have also begun incorporating RFID technology as part of their transfusion processes. The purpose of this review was to analyze how healthcare organization supply chains can benefit from the utilization of RFID systems in transfusion service departments. The methodology for this study was a literature review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 52 sources referenced. RFID technology is used to manage and track blood products from the initial donor phlebotomy to final disposition or product transfusion. RFID-enabled transfusion practices have successfully increased provider productivity and product quality through work-time reduction and error reduction. Findings of this research study suggest that RFID has provided improvements in quality of care and efficiency, while initial costs, security, and privacy appear to be the principal barriers to adoption. PMID:26396555

  19. Benefits and Barriers of Implementation and Utilization of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems in Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Coustasse, Alberto; Cunningham, Brian; Deslich, Stacie; Willson, Eric; Meadows, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology is used by hospital supply chains to track medical products and monitor inventories. Hospitals have also begun incorporating RFID technology as part of their transfusion processes. The purpose of this review was to analyze how healthcare organization supply chains can benefit from the utilization of RFID systems in transfusion service departments. The methodology for this study was a literature review following the steps of a systematic review with a total of 52 sources referenced. RFID technology is used to manage and track blood products from the initial donor phlebotomy to final disposition or product transfusion. RFID-enabled transfusion practices have successfully increased provider productivity and product quality through work-time reduction and error reduction. Findings of this research study suggest that RFID has provided improvements in quality of care and efficiency, while initial costs, security, and privacy appear to be the principal barriers to adoption. PMID:26396555

  20. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. PMID:27483279

  1. Asymptotic entropy bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael

    2016-07-01

    We show that known entropy bounds constrain the information carried off by radiation to null infinity. We consider distant, planar null hypersurfaces in asymptotically flat spacetime. Their focusing and area loss can be computed perturbatively on a Minkowski background, yielding entropy bounds in terms of the energy flux of the outgoing radiation. In the asymptotic limit, we obtain boundary versions of the quantum null energy condition, of the generalized Second Law, and of the quantum Bousso bound.

  2. A secure 2G-RFID-Sys mechanism for applying to the medical emergency system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yi; Wang, Yao-Jen; Jan, Jinn-Ke

    2013-06-01

    In the Medical Emergency System, any moment of delay in an emergency such as ambulance dispatch, ambulance diversion and clinical handover communication can significantly reduce a patient's chance of survival. Without the disadvantage of centralized management, a new type of RFID application named 2G-RFID-Sys will be more efficient. It is suitable for the tagged ambulance dispatch management in a huge range. In this article, the prototype of 2G-RFID-Sys and the responsibility of each participant are refined. We take an example of applying the 2G-RFID-Sys to the Medical Emergency System, the traffic condition of the ambulance will be able to ensure. PMID:23519704

  3. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  4. RFID-Based Critical Path Expert System for Agility Manufacture Process Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haifang; Xiang, Yuli

    This paper presents a critical path expert system for the agility manufacture process management based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. The paper explores that the agility manufacture processes can be visible and controllable with RFID. The critical paths or activities can be easily found out and tracked by the RFID tracing technology. And the expert system can optimize the bottle neck of the task process of the agility management with the critical path adjusting and reforming method. Finally, the paper gives a simple application example of the system to discuss how to adjust the critical paths and how to make the process more agility and flexibility with the critical path expert system. With an RFID-based critical path expert system, the agility manufacture process management will be more effective and efficient.

  5. Low-cost RFID-based palm oil monitoring system (PMS): First prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiama, J. W.; Raman, V.; Patrick, T. H. H.

    2014-02-01

    Under collaboration with our local oil palm plantation enterprise, our research focuses on producing proof-of-concept by using RFID technology to monitor palm oil productivity. Passive RFID tags are used in the plantation field to uniquely identify each palm oil tree and their Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB) production is collected and monitored by scanning the passive RFID tags using high frequency RFID scanners. This technology aims to convert the harvest data into digital information which can be processed and analyzed by PMS system and presented as informative outputs such as dynamic charts. This analyzed information is further used as input to a proprietary GIS system where it is mapped as color-coded spatial data which enables an accurate evaluation and monitoring of the overall plantation productivity.

  6. A Secure ECC-based RFID Mutual Authentication Protocol to Enhance Patient Medication Safety.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Xu, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fagen

    2016-01-01

    Patient medication safety is an important issue in patient medication systems. In order to prevent medication errors, integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into automated patient medication systems is required in hospitals. Based on RFID technology, such systems can provide medical evidence for patients' prescriptions and medicine doses, etc. Due to the mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, RFID authentication scheme is the best choice for automated patient medication systems. In this paper, we present a RFID mutual authentication scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) to enhance patient medication safety. Our scheme can achieve security requirements and overcome various attacks existing in other schemes. In addition, our scheme has better performance in terms of computational cost and communication overhead. Therefore, the proposed scheme is well suitable for patient medication systems. PMID:26573649

  7. Indoor localization using pedestrian dead reckoning updated with RFID-based fiducials.

    PubMed

    House, Samuel; Connell, Sean; Milligan, Ian; Austin, Daniel; Hayes, Tamara L; Chiang, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    We describe a low-cost wearable system that tracks the location of individuals indoors using commonly available inertial navigation sensors fused with radio frequency identification (RFID) tags placed around the smart environment. While conventional pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) calculated with an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is susceptible to sensor drift inaccuracies, the proposed wearable prototype fuses the drift-sensitive IMU with a RFID tag reader. Passive RFID tags placed throughout the smart-building then act as fiducial markers that update the physical locations of each user, thereby correcting positional errors and sensor inaccuracy. Experimental measurements taken for a 55 m × 20 m 2D floor space indicate an over 1200% improvement in average error rate of the proposed RFID-fused system over dead reckoning alone. PMID:22256097

  8. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  9. Integrated algorithms for RFID-based multi-sensor indoor/outdoor positioning solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mi.; Retscher, G.; Zhang, K.

    2011-12-01

    Position information is very important as people need it almost everywhere all the time. However, it is a challenging task to provide precise positions indoor/outdoor seamlessly. Outdoor positioning has been widely studied and accurate positions can usually be achieved by well developed GPS techniques but these techniques are difficult to be used indoors since GPS signal reception is limited. The alternative techniques that can be used for indoor positioning include, to name a few, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB) etc.. However, all of these have limitations. The main objectives of this paper are to investigate and develop algorithms for a low-cost and portable indoor personal positioning system using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and its integration with other positioning systems. An RFID system consists of three components, namely a control unit, an interrogator and a transponder that transmits data and communicates with the reader. An RFID tag can be incorporated into a product, animal or person for the purpose of identification and tracking using radio waves. In general, for RFID positioning in urban and indoor environments three different methods can be used, including cellular positioning, trilateration and location fingerprinting. In addition, the integration of RFID with other technologies is also discussed in this paper. A typical combination is to integrate RFID with relative positioning technologies such as MEMS INS to bridge the gaps between RFID tags for continuous positioning applications. Experiments are shown to demonstrate the improvements of integrating multiple sensors with RFID which can be employed successfully for personal positioning.

  10. Design and implementation of a volume conduction based RFID system for smart implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Ogirala, Ajay; Berger, Lee; Mickle, Marlin

    2011-01-01

    As the population ages, knee and hip replacement surgeries are more and more popular, and embedding an RFID (radio frequency identification) tag on these implants for identification becomes an important issue. Traditional operation of an RFID tag by wireless means will not work on the implantable knees or hips which are made of metal because of the interference caused by metallic objects degrading the field strength near the RFID tag. This paper proposes a method of operating an RFID tag using volume conduction while avoiding the RF interference in a metallic environment. To increase the efficiency of power transmission, electrodes in this paper are designed and optimized for a real knee implant. Experiments using saline have been conducted and the results have shown that volume conduction has a better performance than wireless methods in that signal attenuation is far less in metallic environments. Finally, the experiment on reading an implanted RFID tag through pig skin shows that volume conduction is an effective method to operate an RFID tag embedded on a metallic implant. PMID:22254945

  11. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwangcheol; Song, Wonil

    2010-01-01

    At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks. PMID:22315528

  12. A secure RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments using elliptic curve cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenguo

    2014-05-01

    With the fast advancement of the wireless communication technology and the widespread use of medical systems, the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in healthcare environments. As the first important protocol for ensuring secure communication in healthcare environment, the RFID authentication protocols derive more and more attentions. Most of RFID authentication protocols are based on hash function or symmetric cryptography. To get more security properties, elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) has been used in the design of RFID authentication protocol. Recently, Liao and Hsiao proposed a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC and claimed their protocol could withstand various attacks. In this paper, we will show that their protocol suffers from the key compromise problem, i.e. an adversary could get the private key stored in the tag. To enhance the security, we propose a new RFID authentication protocol using ECC. Detailed analysis shows the proposed protocol not only could overcome weaknesses in Liao and Hsiao's protocol but also has the same performance. Therefore, it is more suitable for healthcare environments. PMID:24756871

  13. An Authentication Protocol for Mobile IPTV Users Based on an RFID-USB Convergence Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Yoon-Su; Kim, Yong-Tae

    With the growing trend towards convergence in broadcast and communications media, Internet Protocol television (IPTV) that delivers real-time multimedia content over diverse types of communications networks (e.g., broadband Internet, cable TV, and satellite TV) has become a mainstream technology. Authenticating mobile IPTV subscribers who are continuously on the move is a challenge. A complex authentication process often impairs conditional access security or service quality as increasing illegal users and delaying service. This paper proposes an RFID-USB authentication protocol, for mobile IPTV users, combined with USIM-based personalized authentication and lightweight authentication that utilizes the RFID-USB technology with an implanted agent module (called an "agent tag") which temporarily enhanced user status information. The proposed authentication protocol adopts a plug-and-play security agent module that is placed in both an RFID tag and an RFID-USB. The implanted security agents cooperate in such a way that multiple RFID tags are connected seamlessly to an RFID-USB.

  14. RFID in the blood supply chain--increasing productivity, quality and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Lynne; Davis, Rodeina; Gutierrez, Alfonso; Kopetsky, Matthew; Young, Kassandra; Veeramani, Raj

    2009-01-01

    As part of an overall design of a new, standardized RFID-enabled blood transfusion medicine supply chain, an assessment was conducted for two hospitals: the University of Iowa Hospital and Clinics (UIHC) and Mississippi Baptist Health System (MBHS). The main objectives of the study were to assess RFID technological and economic feasibility, along with possible impacts to productivity, quality and patient safety. A step-by-step process analysis focused on the factors contributing to process "pain points" (errors, inefficiency, product losses). A process re-engineering exercise produced blueprints of RFID-enabled processes to alleviate or eliminate those pain-points. In addition, an innovative model quantifying the potential reduction in adverse patient effects as a result of RFID implementation was created, allowing improvement initiatives to focus on process areas with the greatest potential impact to patient safety. The study concluded that it is feasible to implement RFID-enabled processes, with tangible improvements to productivity and safety expected. Based on a comprehensive cost/benefit model, it is estimated for a large hospital (UIHC) to recover investment from implementation within two to three years, while smaller hospitals may need longer to realize ROI. More importantly, the study estimated that RFID technology could reduce morbidity and mortality effects substantially among patients receiving transfusions. PMID:19894488

  15. Performance Evaluation of a UWB-RFID System for Potential Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Chan T.; Arndt, D.; Ngo, P.; Gross, J.; Ni, Jianjun; Rafford, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    This talk presents a brief overview of the ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID system with emphasis on the performance evaluation of a commercially available UWB-RFID system. There are many RFID systems available today, but many provide just basic identification for auditing and inventory tracking. For applications that require high precision real time tracking, UWB technology has been shown to be a viable solution. The use of extremely short bursts of RF pulses offers high immunity to interference from other RF systems, precise tracking due to sub-nanosecond time resolution, and robust performance in multipath environments. The UWB-RFID system Sapphire DART (Digital Active RFID & Tracking) will be introduced in this talk. Laboratory testing using Sapphire DART is performed to evaluate its capability such as coverage area, accuracy, ease of operation, and robustness. Performance evaluation of this system in an operational environment (a receiving warehouse) for inventory tracking is also conducted. Concepts of using the UWB-RFID technology to track astronauts and assets are being proposed for space exploration.

  16. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  17. Bounding species distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Esaias, W.E.; Morisette, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used. ?? 2011 Current Zoology.

  18. Causality and Tsirelson's bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buhrman, H.; Massar, S.

    2005-11-15

    We study the properties of no-signaling correlations that cannot be reproduced by local measurements on entangled quantum states. We say that such correlations violate Tsirelson bounds. We show that if these correlations are obtained by some reversible unitary quantum evolution U, then U cannot be written in the product form U{sub A}xU{sub B}. This implies that U can be used for signaling and for entanglement generation. This result is completely general and in fact can be viewed as a characterization of Tsirelson bounds. We then show how this result can be used as a tool to study Tsirelson bounds and we illustrate this by rederiving the Tsirelson bound of 2{radical}(2) for the Clauser-Horn-Shimony-Holt inequality, and by deriving a new Tsirelson bound for qutrits.

  19. RFID and Memory Devices Fabricated Integrally on Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, Harry F.

    2004-01-01

    Electronic identification devices containing radio-frequency identification (RFID) circuits and antennas would be fabricated integrally with the objects to be identified, according to a proposal. That is to say, the objects to be identified would serve as substrates for the deposition and patterning of the materials of the devices used to identify them, and each identification device would be bonded to the identified object at the molecular level. Vacuum arc vapor deposition (VAVD) is the NASA derived process for depositing layers of material on the substrate. This proposal stands in contrast to the current practice of fabricating RFID and/or memory devices as wafer-based, self-contained integrated-circuit chips that are subsequently embedded in or attached to plastic cards to make smart account-information cards and identification badges. If one relies on such a chip to store data on the history of an object to be tracked and the chip falls off or out of the object, then one loses both the historical data and the means to track the object and verify its identity electronically. Also, in contrast is the manufacturing philosophy in use today to make many memory devices. Today s methods involve many subtractive processes such as etching. This proposal only uses additive methods, building RFID and memory devices from the substrate up in thin layers. VAVD is capable of spraying silicon, copper, and other materials commonly used in electronic devices. The VAVD process sprays most metals and some ceramics. The material being sprayed has a very strong bond with the substrate, whether that substrate is metal, ceramic, or even wood, rock, glass, PVC, or paper. An object to be tagged with an identification device according to the proposal must be compatible with a vacuum deposition process. Temperature is seldom an issue as the substrate rarely reaches 150 F (66 C) during the deposition process. A portion of the surface of the object would be designated as a substrate for

  20. Cardinality bounds for triangulations with bounded minimum angle

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, S.A.

    1994-05-01

    We consider bounding the cardinality of an arbitrary triangulation with smallest angle {alpha}. We show that if the local feature size (i.e. distance between disjoint vertices or edges) of the triangulation is within a constant factor of the local feature size of the input, then N < O(1/{alpha})M, where N is the cardinality of the triangulation and M is the cardinality of any other triangulation with smallest angle at least {alpha}. Previous results had an O(1/{alpha}{sup 1/{alpha}}) dependence. Our O(1/{alpha}) dependence is tight for input with a large length to height ratio, in which triangles may be oriented along the long dimension.

  1. Bound infragravity waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okihiro, Michele; Guza, R. T.; Seymour, R. J.

    1992-07-01

    Model predictions of bound (i.e., nonlinearly forced by and coupled to wave groups) infragravity wave energy are compared with about 2 years of observations in 8- to 13-m depths at Imperial Beach, California, and Barbers Point, Hawaii. Frequency-directional spectra of free waves at sea and swell frequencies, estimated with a small array of four pressure sensors, are used to predict the bound wave spectra below 0.04 Hz. The predicted total bound wave energy is always less than the observed infragravity energy, and the underprediction increases with increasing water depth and especially with decreasing swell energy. At most half, and usually much less, of the observed infragravity energy is bound. Bound wave spectra are also predicted with data from a single wave gage in 183-m depth at Point Conception, California, and the assumption of unidirectional sea and swell. Even with energetic swell, less than 10% of the total observed infragravity energy in 183-m depth is bound. Free waves, either leaky or edge waves, are more energetic than bound waves at both the shallow and deep sites. The low level of infragravity energy observed in 183-m depth compared with 8- to 13-m depths, with similarly moderate sea and swell energy, suggests that leaky (and very high-mode edge) waves contribute less than 10% of the infragravity energy in 8-13 m. Most of the free infragravity energy in shallow water is refractively trapped and does not reach deep water.

  2. An active UHF RFID localization system for fawn saving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, M.; Lehner, M.; Ascher, A.; Allwang, M.; Biebl, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    We present a localization concept for active UHF RFID transponders which enables mowing machine drivers to detect and localize marked fawns. The whole system design and experimental results with transponders located near the ground in random orientations in a meadow area are shown. The communication flow between reader and transponders is realized as a dynamic master-slave concept. Multiple marked fawns will be localized by processing detected transponders sequentially. With an eight-channel-receiver with integrated calibration method one can estimate the direction-of-arrival by measuring the phases of the transponder signals up to a range of 50 m in all directions. For further troubleshooting array manifolds have been measured. An additional hand-held receiver with a two-channel receiver allows a guided approaching search without endangering the fawn by the mowing machine.

  3. RFID technology for hazardous waste management and tracking.

    PubMed

    Namen, Anderson Amendoeira; Brasil, Felipe da Costa; Abrunhosa, Jorge José Gouveia; Abrunhosa, Glaucia Gomes Silva; Tarré, Ricardo Martinez; Marques, Flávio José Garcia

    2014-09-01

    The illegal dumping of hazardous waste is one of the most concerning occurrences related to illegal waste activities. The waste management process is quite vulnerable, especially when it comes to assuring the right destination for the delivery of the hazardous waste. The purpose of this paper is to present a new system design and prototype for applying the RFID technology so as to guarantee the correct destination for the hazardous waste delivery. The aim of this innovative approach, compared with other studies that employ the same technology to the waste disposal process, is to focus on the certification that the hazardous waste will be delivered to the right destination site and that no inappropriate disposal will occur in the transportation stage. These studies were carried out based on data collected during visits to two hazardous waste producer companies in Brazil, where the material transportation and delivery to a company in charge of the waste disposal were closely monitored. PMID:24879751

  4. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4-2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 [Formula: see text] for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-[Formula: see text] sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  5. Rfid-Based Automatic Bus Ticketing: Features and Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudah, A.

    2016-02-01

    Recent advancements in various technologies have made remarkable developments in various fields for public welfare and public transport is one such area. In the near future public bus transport system with advanced technologies like Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID), GSM, GPS, ZigBee and RF modules will gain spotlight due to their advantage of higher convenience and greater life standards as compared to the conventional bus systems. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all several proposed bus ticketing and bus information methods has been presented in detail. The study brings out improved solution in terms of cost, convenience, user satisfaction and future implementation. The choice of working modules and their efficient performance has been discussed along with the highlighted importance of the need of technology for welfare of common public and visually impaired.

  6. A CMOS Humidity Sensor for Passive RFID Sensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 μW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  7. A CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications.

    PubMed

    Deng, Fangming; He, Yigang; Zhang, Chaolong; Feng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a low-cost low-power CMOS humidity sensor for passive RFID sensing applications. The humidity sensing element is implemented in standard CMOS technology without any further post-processing, which results in low fabrication costs. The interface of this humidity sensor employs a PLL-based architecture transferring sensor signal processing from the voltage domain to the frequency domain. Therefore this architecture allows the use of a fully digital circuit, which can operate on ultra-low supply voltage and thus achieves low-power consumption. The proposed humidity sensor has been fabricated in the TSMC 0.18 μm CMOS process. The measurements show this humidity sensor exhibits excellent linearity and stability within the relative humidity range. The sensor interface circuit consumes only 1.05 µW at 0.5 V supply voltage and reduces it at least by an order of magnitude compared to previous designs. PMID:24841250

  8. Passive UHF RFID tag with multiple sensing capabilities.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Salmerón, José; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; Palma, Alberto J; Carvajal, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a printed radio frequency identification tag in the ultra-high frequency band with multiple sensing capabilities. This passive tag is directly screen printed on a cardboard box with the aim of monitoring the packaging conditions during the different stages of the supply chain. This tag includes a commercial force sensor and a printed opening detector. Hence, the force applied to the package can be measured as well as the opening of the box can be detected. The architecture presented is a passive single-chip RFID tag. An electronic switch has been implemented to be able to measure both sensor magnitudes in the same access without including a microcontroller or battery. Moreover, the chip used here integrates a temperature sensor and, therefore, this tag provides three different parameters in every reading. PMID:26506353

  9. Passive UHF RFID Tag with Multiple Sensing Capabilities

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Salmerón, José; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Martínez-Martí, Fernando; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín; Palma, Alberto J.; Carvajal, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a printed radio frequency identification tag in the ultra-high frequency band with multiple sensing capabilities. This passive tag is directly screen printed on a cardboard box with the aim of monitoring the packaging conditions during the different stages of the supply chain. This tag includes a commercial force sensor and a printed opening detector. Hence, the force applied to the package can be measured as well as the opening of the box can be detected. The architecture presented is a passive single-chip RFID tag. An electronic switch has been implemented to be able to measure both sensor magnitudes in the same access without including a microcontroller or battery. Moreover, the chip used here integrates a temperature sensor and, therefore, this tag provides three different parameters in every reading. PMID:26506353

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A fully integrated UHF RFID reader SoC for handheld applications in the 0.18 μm CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingchao, Wang; Chun, Zhang; Zhihua, Wang

    2010-08-01

    A low cost fully integrated single-chip UHF radio frequency identification (RFID) reader SoC for short distance handheld applications is presented. The SoC integrates all building blocks—including an RF transceiver, a PLL frequency synthesizer, a digital baseband and an MCU—in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. A high-linearity RX front-end is designed to handle the large self-interferer. A class-E power amplifier with high power efficiency is also integrated to fulfill the function of a UHF passive RFID reader. The measured maximum output power of the transmitter is 20.28 dBm and the measured receiver sensitivity is -60 dBm. The digital baseband including MCU core consumes 3.91 mW with a clock of 10 MHz and the analog part including power amplifier consumes 368.4 mW. The chip has a die area of 5.1 × 3.8 mm2 including pads.

  11. Defining Distance Learning and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Frederick B.; Young, Michael F.; Drivere-Richmond, Kelly; Schrader, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    This paper offers precise definitions of distance learning and distance education, and their interrelationship. First, a single definition of learning is proposed, and then the concept of learning is broken down into three subcategories: instruction, exploration, and serendipity. Each is defined and the concepts of distance learning and distance…

  12. Energy efficient cooperation in underlay RFID cognitive networks for a water smart home.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Adnan; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Soong, Boon-Hee; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Shrinking water resources all over the world and increasing costs of water consumption have prompted water users and distribution companies to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment, there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones, Bluetooth devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices. In order to reduce the interference from our proposed RFID network for these primary devices, we have proposed a cooperating underlay RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water. These underlay RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2]. This work is an extension of our previous ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing a new system model and RFIDs. Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation, this scheme performs better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model's (HMM) multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed. This approach has been applied to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes. PMID:25271565

  13. Energy Efficient Cooperation in Underlay RFID Cognitive Networks for a Water Smart Home

    PubMed Central

    Nasir, Adnan; Hussain, Syed Imtiaz; Soong, Boon-Hee; Qaraqe, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Shrinking water resources all over the world and increasing costs of water consumption have prompted water users and distribution companies to come up with water conserving strategies. We have proposed an energy-efficient smart water monitoring application in [1], using low power RFIDs. In the home environment, there exist many primary interferences within a room, such as cell-phones, Bluetooth devices, TV signals, cordless phones and WiFi devices. In order to reduce the interference from our proposed RFID network for these primary devices, we have proposed a cooperating underlay RFID cognitive network for our smart application on water. These underlay RFIDs should strictly adhere to the interference thresholds to work in parallel with the primary wireless devices [2]. This work is an extension of our previous ventures proposed in [2,3], and we enhanced the previous efforts by introducing a new system model and RFIDs. Our proposed scheme is mutually energy efficient and maximizes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the RFID link, while keeping the interference levels for the primary network below a certain threshold. A closed form expression for the probability density function (pdf) of the SNR at the destination reader/writer and outage probability are derived. Analytical results are verified through simulations. It is also shown that in comparison to non-cognitive selective cooperation, this scheme performs better in the low SNR region for cognitive networks. Moreover, the hidden Markov model’s (HMM) multi-level variant hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) approach is used for pattern recognition and event detection for the data received for this system [4]. Using this model, a feedback and decision algorithm is also developed. This approach has been applied to simulated water pressure data from RFID motes, which were embedded in metallic water pipes. PMID:25271565

  14. Essays on the Effect of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) on the Management of Healthcare Supply Chain Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakici, Ozden Engin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines three issues on the effect of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) on the management of healthcare supply chain performance within the context of inventory management. Motivated by a case study conducted in a radiology practice, the second chapter analyzes the incremental benefits of RFID over barcodes for managing…

  15. Comparison of Phase-Based 3D Near-Field Source Localization Techniques for UHF RFID.

    PubMed

    Parr, Andreas; Miesen, Robert; Vossiek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present multiple techniques for phase-based narrowband backscatter tag localization in three-dimensional space with planar antenna arrays or synthetic apertures. Beamformer and MUSIC localization algorithms, known from near-field source localization and direction-of-arrival estimation, are applied to the 3D backscatter scenario and their performance in terms of localization accuracy is evaluated. We discuss the impact of different transceiver modes known from the literature, which evaluate different send and receive antenna path combinations for a single localization, as in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. Furthermore, we propose a new Singledimensional-MIMO (S-MIMO) transceiver mode, which is especially suited for use with mobile robot systems. Monte-Carlo simulations based on a realistic multipath error model ensure spatial correlation of the simulated signals, and serve to critically appraise the accuracies of the different localization approaches. A synthetic uniform rectangular array created by a robotic arm is used to evaluate selected localization techniques. We use an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) setup to compare measurements with the theory and simulation. The results show how a mean localization accuracy of less than 30 cm can be reached in an indoor environment. Further simulations demonstrate how the distance between aperture and tag affects the localization accuracy and how the size and grid spacing of the rectangular array need to be adapted to improve the localization accuracy down to orders of magnitude in the centimeter range, and to maximize array efficiency in terms of localization accuracy per number of elements. PMID:27347976

  16. Comparison of Phase-Based 3D Near-Field Source Localization Techniques for UHF RFID

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Andreas; Miesen, Robert; Vossiek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present multiple techniques for phase-based narrowband backscatter tag localization in three-dimensional space with planar antenna arrays or synthetic apertures. Beamformer and MUSIC localization algorithms, known from near-field source localization and direction-of-arrival estimation, are applied to the 3D backscatter scenario and their performance in terms of localization accuracy is evaluated. We discuss the impact of different transceiver modes known from the literature, which evaluate different send and receive antenna path combinations for a single localization, as in multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems. Furthermore, we propose a new Singledimensional-MIMO (S-MIMO) transceiver mode, which is especially suited for use with mobile robot systems. Monte-Carlo simulations based on a realistic multipath error model ensure spatial correlation of the simulated signals, and serve to critically appraise the accuracies of the different localization approaches. A synthetic uniform rectangular array created by a robotic arm is used to evaluate selected localization techniques. We use an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) setup to compare measurements with the theory and simulation. The results show how a mean localization accuracy of less than 30 cm can be reached in an indoor environment. Further simulations demonstrate how the distance between aperture and tag affects the localization accuracy and how the size and grid spacing of the rectangular array need to be adapted to improve the localization accuracy down to orders of magnitude in the centimeter range, and to maximize array efficiency in terms of localization accuracy per number of elements. PMID:27347976

  17. Effects of radiation from a radiofrequency identification (RFID) microchip on human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lai, Henry C; Chan, Ho Wing; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-03-01

    Purpose Radiofrequency identification (RFID) microchips are used to remotely identify objects, e.g. an animal in which a chip is implanted. A passive RFID microchip absorbs energy from an external source and emits a radiofrequency identification signal which is then decoded by a detector. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the radiofrequency energy emitted by a RFID microchip on human cancer cells. Materials and methods Molt-4 leukemia, BT474 breast cancer, and HepG2 hepatic cancer cells were exposed in vitro to RFID microchip-emitted radiofrequency field for 1 h. Cells were counted before and after exposure. Effects of pretreatment with the spin-trap compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone or the iron-chelator deferoxamine were also investigated. Results We found that the energy effectively killed/retarded the growth of the three different types of cancer cells, and the effect was blocked by the spin-trap compound or the iron-chelator, whereas an inactive microchip and energy from the external source had no significant effect on the cells. Conclusions Data of the present study suggest that radiofrequency field from the microchip affects cancer cells via the Fenton Reaction. Implantation of RFID microchips in tumors may provide a new method for cancer treatment. PMID:26872622

  18. Battery-free radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for food quality and safety

    PubMed Central

    Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Nagraj, Nandini; Tang, Zhexiong; Mondello, Frank J.; Surman, Cheryl; Morris, William

    2012-01-01

    The market demands for new sensors for food quality and safety stimulate the development of new sensing technologies that can provide an unobtrusive sensor form factor, battery-free operation, and minimal sensor cost. Intelligent labeling of food products to indicate and report their freshness and other conditions is one of important possible applications of such new sensors. We have applied passive (battery-free) radio frequency identification (RFID) sensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of food freshness and bacterial growth. In these sensors, the electric field generated in the RFID sensor antenna extends out from the plane of the RFID sensor and is affected by the ambient environment providing the opportunity for sensing. This environment may be in the form of a food sample within the electric field of the sensing region or a sensing film deposited onto the sensor antenna. Examples of applications include monitoring of freshness of milk, freshness of fish, and bacterial growth in a solution. Unlike other food freshness monitoring approaches that require a thin film battery for operation of an RFID sensor and fabrication of custom-made sensors, our developed passive RFID sensing approach combines advantages of both battery-free and cost-effective sensor design and offers response selectivity that is impossible to achieve with other individual sensors. PMID:22881825

  19. Next Generation RFID-Based Medical Service Management System Architecture in Wireless Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolentino, Randy S.; Lee, Kijeong; Kim, Yong-Tae; Park, Gil-Cheol

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) are two important wireless technologies that have wide variety of applications and provide unlimited future potentials most especially in healthcare systems. RFID is used to detect presence and location of objects while WSN is used to sense and monitor the environment. Integrating RFID with WSN not only provides identity and location of an object but also provides information regarding the condition of the object carrying the sensors enabled RFID tag. However, there isn't any flexible and robust communication infrastructure to integrate these devices into an emergency care setting. An efficient wireless communication substrate for medical devices that addresses ad hoc or fixed network formation, naming and discovery, transmission efficiency of data, data security and authentication, as well as filtration and aggregation of vital sign data need to be study and analyze. This paper proposed an efficient next generation architecture for RFID-based medical service management system in WSN that possesses the essential elements of each future medical application that are integrated with existing medical practices and technologies in real-time, remote monitoring, in giving medication, and patient status tracking assisted by embedded wearable wireless sensors which are integrated in wireless sensor network.

  20. Impact of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies on the hospital supply chain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Coustasse, Alberto; Tomblin, Shane; Slack, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Supply costs account for more than one-third of the average operating budget and constitute the second largest expenditure in hospitals. As hospitals have sought to reduce these costs, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a solution. This study reviews existing literature to gauge the recent and potential impact and direction of the implementation of RFID in the hospital supply chain to determine current benefits and barriers of adoption. Findings show that the application of RFID to medical equipment and supplies tracking has resulted in efficiency increases in hospitals with lower costs and increased service quality. RFID technology can reduce costs, improve patient safety, and improve supply chain management effectiveness by increasing the ability to track and locate equipment, as well as monitoring theft prevention, distribution management, and patient billing. Despite ongoing RFID implementation in the hospital supply chain, barriers to widespread and rapid adoption include significant total expenditures, unclear return on investment, and competition with other strategic imperatives. PMID:24159272

  1. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach

    PubMed Central

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  2. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi® Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops. PMID:26633418

  3. Impact of Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) Technologies on the Hospital Supply Chain: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Coustasse, Alberto; Tomblin, Shane; Slack, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Supply costs account for more than one-third of the average operating budget and constitute the second largest expenditure in hospitals. As hospitals have sought to reduce these costs, radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology has emerged as a solution. This study reviews existing literature to gauge the recent and potential impact and direction of the implementation of RFID in the hospital supply chain to determine current benefits and barriers of adoption. Findings show that the application of RFID to medical equipment and supplies tracking has resulted in efficiency increases in hospitals with lower costs and increased service quality. RFID technology can reduce costs, improve patient safety, and improve supply chain management effectiveness by increasing the ability to track and locate equipment, as well as monitoring theft prevention, distribution management, and patient billing. Despite ongoing RFID implementation in the hospital supply chain, barriers to widespread and rapid adoption include significant total expenditures, unclear return on investment, and competition with other strategic imperatives. PMID:24159272

  4. A Novel RFID-Based Sensing Method for Low-Cost Bolt Loosening Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Cui, Xingmei; Xu, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    In coal mines, bolt loosening in the cage guide is affected by the harsh environmental factors and cage hoist vibration, leading to significant threats to work safety. It is crucial, to this effect, to successfully detect the status of multipoint bolts of guide structures. This paper proposes a system to monitor bolt status in harsh environments established based on the RFID technique. A proof-of-concept model was demonstrated consisting of a bolt gearing system, passive UHF RFID tags, a reader, and monitoring software. A tinfoil metal film is fixed on the retaining plate and an RFID tag bonded to a large gear, with the bolt to be detected fixed in the center of a smaller gear. The radio-frequency signal cannot be received by the reader if the tag is completely obscured by the tinfoil, and if the bolt is loose, the tag’s antenna is exposed when the gear revolves. A radio-frequency signal that carries corresponding bolt’s information is transmitted by the RFID tag to the RFID reader due to coil coupling, identifying loose bolt location and reporting them in the software. Confirmatory test results revealed that the system indeed successfully detects bolt loosening and comparative test results (based on a reed switch multipoint bolt loosening monitor system) provided valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed system. PMID:26828498

  5. Accurate Vehicle Location System Using RFID, an Internet of Things Approach.

    PubMed

    Prinsloo, Jaco; Malekian, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure, such as dense urban areas and underground tunnels, can effectively block all GPS signals, which implies that effective position triangulation will not be achieved. The main problem that is addressed in this project is the design and implementation of an accurate vehicle location system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology in combination with GPS and the Global system for Mobile communication (GSM) technology, in order to provide a solution to the limitation discussed above. In essence, autonomous vehicle tracking will be facilitated with the use of RFID technology where GPS signals are non-existent. The design of the system and the results are reflected in this paper. An extensive literature study was done on the field known as the Internet of Things, as well as various topics that covered the integration of independent technology in order to address a specific challenge. The proposed system is then designed and implemented. An RFID transponder was successfully designed and a read range of approximately 31 cm was obtained in the low frequency communication range (125 kHz to 134 kHz). The proposed system was designed, implemented, and field tested and it was found that a vehicle could be accurately located and tracked. It is also found that the antenna size of both the RFID reader unit and RFID transponder plays a critical role in the maximum communication range that can be achieved. PMID:27271638

  6. Abnormal Condition Monitoring of Workpieces Based on RFID for Wisdom Manufacturing Workshops.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cunji; Yao, Xifan; Zhang, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in many fields. However, previous studies have mainly focused on product life cycle tracking, and there are few studies on real-time status monitoring of workpieces in manufacturing workshops. In this paper, a wisdom manufacturing model is introduced, a sensing-aware environment for a wisdom manufacturing workshop is constructed, and RFID event models are defined. A synthetic data cleaning method is applied to clean the raw RFID data. The Complex Event Processing (CEP) technology is adopted to monitor abnormal conditions of workpieces in real time. The RFID data cleaning method and data mining technology are examined by simulation and physical experiments. The results show that the synthetic data cleaning method preprocesses data well. The CEP based on the Rifidi(®) Edge Server technology completed abnormal condition monitoring of workpieces in real time. This paper reveals the importance of RFID spatial and temporal data analysis in real-time status monitoring of workpieces in wisdom manufacturing workshops. PMID:26633418

  7. A Novel RFID-Based Sensing Method for Low-Cost Bolt Loosening Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian; Cui, Xingmei; Xu, Yunpeng

    2016-01-01

    In coal mines, bolt loosening in the cage guide is affected by the harsh environmental factors and cage hoist vibration, leading to significant threats to work safety. It is crucial, to this effect, to successfully detect the status of multipoint bolts of guide structures. This paper proposes a system to monitor bolt status in harsh environments established based on the RFID technique. A proof-of-concept model was demonstrated consisting of a bolt gearing system, passive UHF RFID tags, a reader, and monitoring software. A tinfoil metal film is fixed on the retaining plate and an RFID tag bonded to a large gear, with the bolt to be detected fixed in the center of a smaller gear. The radio-frequency signal cannot be received by the reader if the tag is completely obscured by the tinfoil, and if the bolt is loose, the tag's antenna is exposed when the gear revolves. A radio-frequency signal that carries corresponding bolt's information is transmitted by the RFID tag to the RFID reader due to coil coupling, identifying loose bolt location and reporting them in the software. Confirmatory test results revealed that the system indeed successfully detects bolt loosening and comparative test results (based on a reed switch multipoint bolt loosening monitor system) provided valuable information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed system. PMID:26828498

  8. Adding intelligence to mobile asset management in hospitals: the true value of RFID.

    PubMed

    Castro, Linda; Lefebvre, Elisabeth; Lefebvre, Louis A

    2013-10-01

    RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology is expected to play a vital role in the healthcare arena, especially in times when cost containments are at the top of the priorities of healthcare management authorities. Medical equipment represents a significant share of yearly healthcare operational costs; hence, ensuring an effective and efficient management of such key assets is critical to promptly and reliably deliver a diversity of clinical services at the patient bedside. Empirical evidence from a phased-out RFID implementation in one European hospital demonstrates that RFID has the potential to transform asset management by improving inventory management, enhancing asset utilization, increasing staff productivity, improving care services, enhancing maintenance compliance, and increasing information visibility. Most importantly, RFID allows the emergence of intelligent asset management processes, which is, undoubtedly, the most important benefit that could be derived from the RFID system. Results show that the added intelligence can be rather basic (auto-status change) or a bit more advanced (personalized automatic triggers). More importantly, adding intelligence improves planning and decision-making processes. PMID:23943057

  9. Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt

    2008-11-15

    While over the last century or more considerable effort has been put into the problem of finding approximate solutions for wave equations in general, and quantum mechanical problems in particular, it appears that as yet relatively little work seems to have been put into the complementary problem of establishing rigourous bounds on the exact solutions. We have in mind either bounds on parametric amplification and the related quantum phenomenon of particle production (as encoded in the Bogoliubov coefficients), or bounds on transmission and reflection coefficients. Modifying and streamlining an approach developed by one of the present authors [M. Visser, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 427-438, (arXiv:quant-ph/9901030)], we investigate this question by developing a formal but exact solution for the appropriate second-order linear ODE in terms of a time-ordered exponential of 2x2 matrices, then relating the Bogoliubov coefficients to certain invariants of this matrix. By bounding the matrix in an appropriate manner, we can thereby bound the Bogoliubov coefficients.

  10. Validation of EMP bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, L.K.; Merewether, K.O.; Chen, K.C.; Jorgenson, R.E.; Morris, M.E.; Solberg, J.E.; Lewis, J.G.; Derr, W.

    1996-07-01

    Test data on canonical weapon-like fixtures are used to validate previously developed analytical bounding results. The test fixtures were constructed to simulate (but be slightly worse than) weapon ports of entry but have known geometries (and electrical points of contact). The exterior of the test fixtures exhibited exterior resonant enhancement of the incident fields at the ports of entry with magnitudes equal to those of weapon geometries. The interior consisted of loaded transmission lines adjusted to maximize received energy or voltage but incorporating practical weapon geometrical constraints. New analytical results are also presented for bounding the energies associated with multiple bolt joints and for bounding the exterior resonant enhancement of the exciting fields.

  11. An upper bound for codes in a two-access binary erasure channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Tilborg, H. C. A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for determining an upper bound for the size of a code for a two-access binary erasure channel is presented. For uniquely decodable codes, this bound gives a combinatorial proof of a result by Liao. Examples of the bound are given for codes with minimum distance 4.

  12. A Movement Account of Long-Distance Reflexives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rebecca Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines reflexive pronouns, such as Icelandic "sig" (Cf. Thrainsson 2007), which may be bound from outside of an infinitive clause (which I call MD "medium distance" binding) in addition to being bound locally. I propose that such reflexives are linked to their antecedents via sisterhood followed by movement: the…

  13. An efficient RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zezhong; Qi, Qingqing

    2014-05-01

    Medication errors are very dangerous even fatal since it could cause serious even fatal harm to patients. In order to reduce medication errors, automated patient medication systems using the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology have been used in many hospitals. The data transmitted in those medication systems is very important and sensitive. In the past decade, many security protocols have been proposed to ensure its secure transition attracted wide attention. Due to providing mutual authentication between the medication server and the tag, the RFID authentication protocol is considered as the most important security protocols in those systems. In this paper, we propose a RFID authentication protocol to enhance patient medication safety using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). The analysis shows the proposed protocol could overcome security weaknesses in previous protocols and has better performance. Therefore, the proposed protocol is very suitable for automated patient medication systems. PMID:24733525

  14. A Provably Secure RFID Authentication Protocol Based on Elliptic Curve for Healthcare Environments.

    PubMed

    Farash, Mohammad Sabzinejad; Nawaz, Omer; Mahmood, Khalid; Chaudhry, Shehzad Ashraf; Khan, Muhammad Khurram

    2016-07-01

    To enhance the quality of healthcare in the management of chronic disease, telecare medical information systems have increasingly been used. Very recently, Zhang and Qi (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):47, 32), and Zhao (J. Med. Syst. 38(5):46, 33) separately proposed two authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems using radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. They claimed that their protocols achieve all security requirements including forward secrecy. However, this paper demonstrates that both Zhang and Qi's scheme, and Zhao's scheme could not provide forward secrecy. To augment the security, we propose an efficient RFID authentication scheme using elliptic curves for healthcare environments. The proposed RFID scheme is secure under common random oracle model. PMID:27221283

  15. A novel sensor-assisted RFID-based indoor tracking system for the elderly living alone.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2011-01-01

    The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly in many developed nations. Providing safe and comfortable care to aging people is an important social goal. Moreover, obtaining correct activity and location information for an elderly person is an important research goal. This work proposes a novel intelligent RFID-based indoor tracking system for elderly people living alone. The proposed system uses environment information for inhabitants and received signal strength of an RFID reader to estimate the probable location of an inhabitant. The proposed system then coordinates with the wireless sensor node of a three-axis accelerometer and uses a genetic algorithm to compute the location of the inhabitant. The proposed system also uses context and gait information to improve inhabitant-tracking accuracy. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed system is better than that of existing RFID-based systems. PMID:22346631

  16. A Novel Sensor-Assisted RFID-Based Indoor Tracking System for the Elderly Living Alone

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Chang; Chen, Jun-Hao

    2011-01-01

    The population of elderly people is increasing rapidly in many developed nations. Providing safe and comfortable care to aging people is an important social goal. Moreover, obtaining correct activity and location information for an elderly person is an important research goal. This work proposes a novel intelligent RFID-based indoor tracking system for elderly people living alone. The proposed system uses environment information for inhabitants and received signal strength of an RFID reader to estimate the probable location of an inhabitant. The proposed system then coordinates with the wireless sensor node of a three-axis accelerometer and uses a genetic algorithm to compute the location of the inhabitant. The proposed system also uses context and gait information to improve inhabitant-tracking accuracy. Experiment results show that the accuracy of the proposed system is better than that of existing RFID-based systems. PMID:22346631

  17. A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range.

    PubMed

    Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguila, Pau; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Martin, Ferran; Bonache, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm). The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902-928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags. PMID:27455274

  18. A High-Gain Passive UHF-RFID Tag with Increased Read Range

    PubMed Central

    Zuffanelli, Simone; Aguila, Pau; Zamora, Gerard; Paredes, Ferran; Martin, Ferran; Bonache, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a passive ultra-high frequency radio-frequency identification UHF-RFID tag based on a 1.25 wavelengths thin dipole antenna is presented for the first time. The length of the antenna is properly chosen in order to maximize the tag read range, while maintaining a reasonable tag size and radiation pattern. The antenna is matched to the RFID chip by means of a very simple matching network based on a shunt inductance. A tag prototype, based on the Alien Higgs-3 chip, is designed and fabricated. The overall dimensions are 400 mm × 14.6 mm, but the tag width for most of its length is delimited by the wire diameter (0.8 mm). The measured read range exhibits a maximum value of 17.5 m at the 902–928 MHz frequency band. This represents an important improvement over state-of-the-art passive UHF-RFID tags. PMID:27455274

  19. An RFID-Based Manufacturing Control Framework for Loosely Coupled Distributed Manufacturing System Supporting Mass Customization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ruey-Shun; Tsai, Yung-Shun; Tu, Arthur

    In this study we propose a manufacturing control framework based on radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology and a distributed information system to construct a mass-customization production process in a loosely coupled shop-floor control environment. On the basis of this framework, we developed RFID middleware and an integrated information system for tracking and controlling the manufacturing process flow. A bicycle manufacturer was used to demonstrate the prototype system. The findings of this study were that the proposed framework can improve the visibility and traceability of the manufacturing process as well as enhance process quality control and real-time production pedigree access. Using this framework, an enterprise can easily integrate an RFID-based system into its manufacturing environment to facilitate mass customization and a just-in-time production model.

  20. Monitoring Activity of Taking Medicine by Incorporating RFID and Video Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Faiz M.; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, YingLi; Liu, Qingshan; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new framework to monitor medication intake for elderly individuals by incorporating a video camera and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sensors. The proposed framework can provide a key function for monitoring activities of daily living (ADLs) of elderly people at their own home. In an assistive environment, RFID tags are applied on medicine bottles located in a medicine cabinet so that each medicine bottle will have a unique ID. The description of the medicine data for each tag is manually input to a database. RFID readers will detect if any of these bottles are taken away from the medicine cabinet and identify the tag attached on the medicine bottle. A video camera is installed to continue monitoring the activity of taking medicine by integrating face detection and tracking, mouth detection, background subtraction, and activity detection. The preliminary results demonstrate that 100% detection accuracy for identifying medicine bottles and promising results for monitoring activity of taking medicine. PMID:23914344

  1. Ultra-low-power electronics and devices for a multisensing RFID tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampolli, Stefano; Elmi, Ivan; Cardinali, Gian Carlo; Scorzoni, Andrea; Cicioni, Michele; Marco, Santiago; Palacio, Francisco; Gómez-Cama, Jose M.; Sayhan, Ilker; Becker, Thomas

    2007-05-01

    A multisensing flexible Tag microlab (FTM) with RFID communication capabilities and integrated physical and chemical sensors for logistic datalogging applications is being developed. For this very specific scenario, several constraints must be considered: power consumption must be limited for long-term operation, reliable ISO compliant RFID communication must be implemented, and special encapsulation issues must be faced for reliable sensor integration. In this work, the developments on application specific electronic interfaces and on ultra-low-power MOX gas sensors in the framework of the GoodFood FP6 Integrated Project will be reported. The electronics for sensor control and readout as well as for RFID communication are based on an ultra-low-power MSP430 microcontroller from Texas Instruments together with a custom RFID front-end based on analog circuitry and a CPLD digital device, and are designed to guarantee a passive ISO15693 compliant RFID communication in a range up to 6 cm. A thin film battery for sensor operation is included, allowing data acquisition and storage when no reader field is present. This design allows the user to access both the traceability and sensor information even when the on-board battery is exhausted. The physical sensors for light, temperature and humidity are commercially available devices, while for chemical gas sensing innovative MOX sensors are developed, based on ultra-low-power micromachined hotplate arrays specifically designed for flexible Tag integration purposes. A single MOX sensor requires only 8.9 mW for continuous operation, while temperature modulation and discontinuous sensor operation modes are implemented to further reduce the overall power consumption. The development of the custom control and RFID electronics, together with innovative ultra-low-power MOX sensor arrays with flexible circuit encapsulation techniques will be reported in this work.

  2. Particle tracking via RFID technology to monitor bedload sediment dynamics in mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, Matteo; Fraccarollo, Luigi; Corbo, Simona; Maggioni, Alberto; Brardinoni, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we present preliminary results on the monitoring of bedload entrainment and transport in two mountain streams, the Grigno Creek (90 km2) and its tributary, the Tolvà Creek (14 km2), located in Valsugana, Autonomous Province of Trento. In particular, we monitor bedload by means of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in conjunction with Passive Integrated Transponders (PIT) (e.g., Lamarre et al., 2005) injected into pebble-to-cobble sized tracer stones (b-axis ranging from 30 to 130 mm). In the Grigno Creek 120 PITs were released in December 2013 along a 100-m channel reach and have been surveyed 10 times. In the Tolvà Creek 100 PITs were released in July 2013 along a 100-m channel reach, and the site has been surveyed 4 times. Particle tracking is conducted by integrating two complementary antenna types: (i) a portable one, which enables to estimate travel distances of tagged clasts; and (ii) a set of four fixed antennas (25m apart from each other), which allows detecting motion/rest periods of particles, entrainment thresholds and transport velocities. Particle tracking is combined with on-site high-frequency (i.e., 10 minutes) water stage monitoring. Salt dilution method is monthly applied to relate flow discharge to water stage. The analyzed river reaches extend over different morphologic units (steps, pools, glides and boulder-cascades). We are looking to estimate (i) the channel forming discharge; (ii) a quantitative evaluation of specific bedload transport. These information will be associated to the surficial bed texture and bed morphology. Data collected from fixed and mobile antennas will enable to infer statistical information of the trajectories run by tracer ensemble, in particular the step lengths, the total travel distances and the rest periods. Lamarre H., MacVicar B., Roy A.G. 2005 Using Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to investigate sediment transport in gravel-bed rivers. Journal of Sedimentary Research

  3. Computing Graphical Confidence Bounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Approximation for graphical confidence bounds is simple enough to run on programmable calculator. Approximation is used in lieu of numerical tables not always available, and exact calculations, which often require rather sizable computer resources. Approximation verified for collection of up to 50 data points. Method used to analyze tile-strength data on Space Shuttle thermal-protection system.

  4. Investigation on an RFID planar coil for a wireless communicative aortic stent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talleb, Hakeim; Faci, Salim; Lautru, David; Hanna, Victor Fouad; Wiart, Joe

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an investigation on a potential biomedical RFID planar coil operating at 13.56 MHz for measuring the blood pressure level, mounted inside an abdominal aortic aneurysm. The results show that a wireless communication is achieved in a perimeter of 60 cm, while respecting the ISO 15693 standard for vicinity contactless cards. Measurement and electromagnetic simulation results show that the inductive coupling is deteriorating if the planar coil is in direct contact with water without correctly encapsulating this coil. An electric model is given for our proposed RFID planar coil immersed in water.

  5. A Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA Algorithm Using Collision Factor for RFID Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung Sik; Kim, Sangkyung

    In RFID systems, collision resolution is a significant issue in fast tag identification. This letter presents a dynamic frame-slotted ALOHA algorithm that uses a collision factor (DFSA-CF). This method enables fast tag identification by estimating the next frame size with the collision factor in the current frame. Simulation results show that the proposed method reduces slot times Required for RFID identification. When the number of tags is larger than the frame size, the efficiency of the proposed method is greater than those of conventional algorithms.

  6. System-level design of an RFID sweat electrolyte sensor patch.

    PubMed

    Rose, Daniel P; Ratterman, M; Griffin, Daniel K; Hou, Linlin; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh K; Hagen, Joshua A; Papautsky, I; Heikenfeld, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Wearable digital health devices are dominantly found in rigid form factors such as bracelets and pucks. An adhesive RFID sensor bandage (patch) is reported, which can be made completely intimate with human skin, a distinct advantage for chronological monitoring of biomarkers in sweat. In this demonstration, a commercial RFID chip is adapted with minimum components to allow potentiometric sensing of mM ionic solutes in sweat, and surface temperature, as read by an Android smart-phone app (in-vitro tests). PMID:25570878

  7. Towards a single-chip, implantable RFID system: is a single-cell radio possible?

    PubMed Central

    Rutherglen, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    We present an overview of progress towards single-chip RFID solutions. To date heterogeneous integration has been appropriate for non-biological systems. However, for in-vivo sensors and even drug delivery systems, a small form factor is required. We discuss fundamental limits on the size of the form factor, the effect of the antenna, and propose a unified single-chip RFID solution appropriate for a broad range of biomedical in-vivo device applications, both current and future. Fundamental issues regarding the possibility of single cell RF radios to interface with biological function are discussed. PMID:19169827

  8. Secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor with external power source and data logging

    DOEpatents

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Reynolds, Matthew; Lefton, Scott; Dowla, Farid; Twogood, Richard

    2016-05-31

    A secure optionally passive RFID tag or sensor system comprises a passive RFID tag having means for receiving radio signals from at least one base station and for transmitting radio signals to at least one base station, where the tag is capable of being powered exclusively by received radio energy, and an external power and data logging device having at least one battery and electronic circuitry including a digital memory configured for storing and recalling data. The external power and data logging device has a means for powering the tag, and also has a means.

  9. Using Kalman filters to reduce noise from RFID location system.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Pedro Henriques; Xavier, José; Silva, Daniel Castro; Reis, Luís Paulo; Petry, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many technologies that support location systems involving intrusive and nonintrusive equipment and also varying in terms of precision, range, and cost. However, the developers some time neglect the noise introduced by these systems, which prevents these systems from reaching their full potential. Focused on this problem, in this research work a comparison study between three different filters was performed in order to reduce the noise introduced by a location system based on RFID UWB technology with an associated error of approximately 18 cm. To achieve this goal, a set of experiments was devised and executed using a miniature train moving at constant velocity in a scenario with two distinct shapes-linear and oval. Also, this train was equipped with a varying number of active tags. The obtained results proved that the Kalman Filter achieved better results when compared to the other two filters. Also, this filter increases the performance of the location system by 15% and 12% for the linear and oval paths respectively, when using one tag. For a multiple tags and oval shape similar results were obtained (11-13% of improvement). PMID:24592186

  10. Using Kalman Filters to Reduce Noise from RFID Location System

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, José; Reis, Luís Paulo; Petry, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, there are many technologies that support location systems involving intrusive and nonintrusive equipment and also varying in terms of precision, range, and cost. However, the developers some time neglect the noise introduced by these systems, which prevents these systems from reaching their full potential. Focused on this problem, in this research work a comparison study between three different filters was performed in order to reduce the noise introduced by a location system based on RFID UWB technology with an associated error of approximately 18 cm. To achieve this goal, a set of experiments was devised and executed using a miniature train moving at constant velocity in a scenario with two distinct shapes—linear and oval. Also, this train was equipped with a varying number of active tags. The obtained results proved that the Kalman Filter achieved better results when compared to the other two filters. Also, this filter increases the performance of the location system by 15% and 12% for the linear and oval paths respectively, when using one tag. For a multiple tags and oval shape similar results were obtained (11–13% of improvement). PMID:24592186

  11. A secure RFID-based WBAN for healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Alamri, Atif

    2013-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) allows the seamless integration of small and intelligent invasive or non-invasive sensor nodes in, on or around a human body for continuous health monitoring. These nodes are expected to use different power-efficient protocols in order to extend the WBAN lifetime. This paper highlights the power consumption and security issues of WBAN for healthcare applications. Numerous power saving mechanisms are discussed and a secure RFID-based protocol for WBAN is proposed. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed and compared with that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols using extensive simulations. It is shown that the proposed protocol is power-efficient and protects patients' data from adversaries. It is less vulnerable to different attacks compared to that of IEEE 802.15.6-based CSMA/CA and preamble-based TDMA protocols. For a low traffic load and a single alkaline battery of capacity 2.6 Ah, the proposed protocol could extend the WBAN lifetime, when deployed on patients in hospitals or at homes, to approximately five years. PMID:24061704

  12. RFID Tag Helix Antenna Sensors for Wireless Drug Dosage Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyu; Zhao, Peisen; Chen, Pai-Yen; Ren, Yong; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Hu, Ye; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    Miniaturized helix antennas are integrated with drug reservoirs to function as RFID wireless tag sensors for real-time drug dosage monitoring. The general design procedure of this type of biomedical antenna sensors is proposed based on electromagnetic theory and finite element simulation. A cost effective fabrication process is utilized to encapsulate the antenna sensor within a biocompatible package layer using PDMS material, and at the same time form a drug storage or drug delivery unit inside the sensor. The in vitro experiment on two prototypes of antenna sensor-drug reservoir assembly have shown the ability to monitor the drug dosage by tracking antenna resonant frequency shift from 2.4–2.5-GHz ISM band with realized sensitivity of 1.27 \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} for transdermal drug delivery monitoring and 2.76-\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$\\mu~{\\rm l}/{\\rm MHz}$\\end{document} sensitivity for implanted drug delivery monitoring. PMID:27170865

  13. Generalised time functions and finiteness of the Lorentzian distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rennie, Adam; Whale, Ben E.

    2016-08-01

    We show that finiteness of the Lorentzian distance is equivalent to the existence of generalised time functions with gradient uniformly bounded away from light cones. To derive this result we introduce new techniques to construct and manipulate achronal sets. As a consequence of these techniques we obtain a functional description of the Lorentzian distance extending the work of Franco (2010) and Moretti (2003).

  14. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials. PMID:24938656

  15. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew C.; Wilks, Scott C.; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen B.; Baring, Matthew G.

    2014-06-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top particle accelerators, ultrafast imaging systems and laser fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. Here using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show for the first time that f exhibits a theoretical maximum and minimum. These bounds constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

  16. On Defining Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond J.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of four definitions of distance education from which are chosen six main components for a comprehensive definition. The article delineates the field of distance education and recommends some unanimity regarding terminology. (EAO)

  17. Long Distance Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Long Distance Caregiving Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of ... distance to help him? Caregiving is often a long-term task. What begins with an occasional phone ...

  18. A Secure RFID Tag Authentication Protocol with Privacy Preserving in Telecare Medicine Information System.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi

    2015-08-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) based solutions are widely used for providing many healthcare applications include patient monitoring, object traceability, drug administration system and telecare medicine information system (TMIS) etc. In order to reduce malpractices and ensure patient privacy, in 2015, Srivastava et al. proposed a hash based RFID tag authentication protocol in TMIS. Their protocol uses lightweight hash operation and synchronized secret value shared between back-end server and tag, which is more secure and efficient than other related RFID authentication protocols. Unfortunately, in this paper, we demonstrate that Srivastava et al.'s tag authentication protocol has a serious security problem in that an adversary may use the stolen/lost reader to connect to the medical back-end server that store information associated with tagged objects and this privacy damage causing the adversary could reveal medical data obtained from stolen/lost readers in a malicious way. Therefore, we propose a secure and efficient RFID tag authentication protocol to overcome security flaws and improve the system efficiency. Compared with Srivastava et al.'s protocol, the proposed protocol not only inherits the advantages of Srivastava et al.'s authentication protocol for TMIS but also provides better security with high system efficiency. PMID:26084587

  19. Application of RFID to High-Reliability Nuclear Power Plant Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Kenji Akagi; Masayuki Ishiwata; Kenji Araki; Jun-ichi Kawahata

    2006-07-01

    In nuclear power plant construction, countless variety of parts, products, and jigs more than one million are treated under construction. Furthermore, strict traceability to the history of material, manufacturing, and installation is required for all products from the start to finish of the construction, which enforce much workforce and many costs at every project. In an addition, the operational efficiency improvement is absolutely essential for the effective construction to reduce the initial investment for construction. As one solution, RFID (Radio Frequent Identification) application technology, one of the fundamental technologies to realize a ubiquitous society, currently expands its functionality and general versatility at an accelerating pace in mass-production industry. Hitachi believes RFID technology can be useful of one of the key solutions for the issues in non-mass production industry as well. Under this situation, Hitachi initiated the development of next generation plant concept (ubiquitous plant construction technology) which utilizes information and RFID technologies. In this paper, our application plans of RFID technology to nuclear power is described. (authors)

  20. User Resistance and Trust in a Clinical RFID Employee Location Tracking Information System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Wilson

    2013-01-01

    User resistance has been identified as a factor in information systems implementation failures in the health care industry. RFID, radio frequency identification, is being incorporated into new health care information systems in order to effect cost reductions by tracking, identifying and monitoring individuals and medical items. This is the first…

  1. Outdoor Education Support System with Location Awareness Using RFID and Symbology Tags

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osawa, Noritaka; Noda, Katsuji; Tsukagoshi, Satoru; Noma, Yutaka; Ando, Akikazu; Shibuya, Tomoharu; Kondo, Kimio

    2007-01-01

    A support system for outdoor learning using exploratory observation was developed. The system uses radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and two-dimensional (2D) symbology tags to locate positions on a horticultural farm and its surrounding forests. Students were able to get a location-dependent description and an educational hint for…

  2. [Central sterile supply department management system design and implementation based on RFID technology].

    PubMed

    Li, Lei

    2012-03-01

    With the analysis of the requirements of sterilization and supply center of hospital(referred to as "supply room"), the management system of supply room was developed and integrated into the RFID technology. The?system has achieve disinfection materials circulation process traceability to improve the quality management of disinfection materials and reduce the management costs. PMID:22737889

  3. Improved Kalman Filter Method for Measurement Noise Reduction in Multi Sensor RFID Systems

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Kyung, Yeo Sun; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Min Chul; Jung, Kyung Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the range of available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less Mean Squared Error (MSE) than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments. PMID:22346641

  4. Locatable-body temperature monitoring based on semi-active UHF RFID tags.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program. PMID:24675759

  5. Design and testing of RFID sensor tag fabricated using inkjet-printing and electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien Dang, Mau; Son Nguyen, Dat; Dung Dang, Thi My; Tedjini, Smail; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric

    2014-06-01

    The passive RFID tag with an added sensing function is of interest to many applications. In particular, applications where RFID tagging is already considered to be the next step, such as food items, are a specific target. This paper demonstrates a flexible RFID tag sensor fabricated using a low cost technique with an added zero-cost sensing function. It is more specifically applied to the sensing of degradable food, in particular beef meat in our demonstrated example. To reach this, the antenna is designed in such a way to be sensitive to the variation of the dielectric permittivity of the meat over time. The design of the sensing tag as well as its fabrication process are described. The fabrication involves inkjet printing of a silver nanoparticle based ink on a commercial low cost PET film to create a seed layer. It is followed by a copper electrodeposition step on top of the silver pattern to complete the tag to obtain the desired thickness and conductivity of the tag antenna. The results of the electrical tests showed that with the inkjet printing-electrodeposition combination it is possible to produce flexible electrically conductive patterns for practical RFID applications. The tag was then tested in close-to-real-world conditions and it is demonstrated that it can provide a sensing function to detect the consumption limit of the packaged beef.

  6. An Adoption Diffusion Model of RFID-Based Livestock Management System in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Mohammad Alamgir; Quaddus, Mohammed

    Many countries, like Australia, have introduced a radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) based livestock identification and management system,which can be used for condition monitoring and fault prognosis during an outbreak situation. This paper examines the adoption process and its subsequent diffusion and extended usage of RFID in Australian livestock management practices, and proposes a research model. The model is primarily built on Rogers' innovation-diffusion theory and Oliver's expectation-confirmation theory, with some logical modifications. It posits that while adoption of RFID may be the result of legislative pressure, its further diffusion is an evaluative process, which is judged against "satisfaction" and "performance" derived from RFID systems. The implications of these and other related concepts are also discussed. Hypotheses are developed which can be tested via empirical study. The proposed model has both theoretical and practical implications. Although it is developed on the basis of the Australian livestock industry, it can be used in other countries and also in other applications with some industry-specific modifications.

  7. Design of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography processor for RFID tag chips.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Dongsheng; Zou, Xuecheng; Lin, Hui; Cheng, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an important technique for wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things. Recently, considerable research has been performed in the combination of public key cryptography and RFID. In this paper, an efficient architecture of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Processor for RFID tag chip is presented. We adopt a new inversion algorithm which requires fewer registers to store variables than the traditional schemes. A new method for coordinate swapping is proposed, which can reduce the complexity of the controller and shorten the time of iterative calculation effectively. A modified circular shift register architecture is presented in this paper, which is an effective way to reduce the area of register files. Clock gating and asynchronous counter are exploited to reduce the power consumption. The simulation and synthesis results show that the time needed for one elliptic curve scalar point multiplication over GF(2163) is 176.7 K clock cycles and the gate area is 13.8 K with UMC 0.13 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Moreover, the low power and low cost consumption make the Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor (ECP) a prospective candidate for application in the RFID tag chip. PMID:25264952

  8. Optimization of meander line antennas for RFID applications by using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucuci, Stefania C.; Anchidin, Liliana; Dumitrascu, Ana; Danisor, Alin; Berescu, Serban; Tamas, Razvan D.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach of optimization of meander line antennas by using genetic algorithm. Such antennas are used in RFID applications. As opposed to other approaches for meander antennas, we propose the use of only two optimization objectives, i.e. gain and size. As an example, we have optimized a single meander dipole antenna, resonating at 869 MHz.

  9. Locatable-Body Temperature Monitoring Based on Semi-Active UHF RFID Tags

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guangwei; Mao, Luhong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the use of radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology for the real-time remote monitoring of body temperature, while an associated program can determine the location of the body carrying the respective sensor. The RFID chip's internal integrated temperature sensor is used for both the human-body temperature detection and as a measurement device, while using radio-frequency communication to broadcast the temperature information. The adopted RFID location technology makes use of reference tags together with a nearest neighbor localization algorithm and a multiple-antenna time-division multiplexing location system. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed for collecting temperature and location data for the data fusion by using RFID protocols. With a puppy as test object, temperature detection and localization experiments were carried out. The measured results show that the applied method, when using a mercury thermometer for comparison in terms of measuring the temperature of the dog, has a good consistency, with an average temperature error of 0.283 °C. When using the associated program over the area of 12.25 m2, the average location error is of 0.461 m, which verifies the feasibility of the sensor-carrier location by using the proposed program. PMID:24675759

  10. Improving the Quality and Cost of Healthcare Delivery: The Potential of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated whether an upcoming class of health information technology (HIT) can be used to address currently outstanding issues in the quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Expert interviews and a literature review were used to describe the 2009 universe of in- and outpatient healthcare RFID applications and to identify those…

  11. Design of an Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor for RFID Tag Chips

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zilong; Liu, Dongsheng; Zou, Xuecheng; Lin, Hui; Cheng, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an important technique for wireless sensor networks and the Internet of Things. Recently, considerable research has been performed in the combination of public key cryptography and RFID. In this paper, an efficient architecture of Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) Processor for RFID tag chip is presented. We adopt a new inversion algorithm which requires fewer registers to store variables than the traditional schemes. A new method for coordinate swapping is proposed, which can reduce the complexity of the controller and shorten the time of iterative calculation effectively. A modified circular shift register architecture is presented in this paper, which is an effective way to reduce the area of register files. Clock gating and asynchronous counter are exploited to reduce the power consumption. The simulation and synthesis results show that the time needed for one elliptic curve scalar point multiplication over GF(2163) is 176.7 K clock cycles and the gate area is 13.8 K with UMC 0.13 μm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Moreover, the low power and low cost consumption make the Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor (ECP) a prospective candidate for application in the RFID tag chip. PMID:25264952

  12. RFID in the Apparel Retail Industry: A Case Study from Galeria Kaufhof

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kassab, Jasser; Blome, Philipp; Wolfram, Gerd; Thiesse, Frédéric; Fleisch, Elgar

    This contribution deals with the business valueof radio frequency identification (RFID) technology in the apparel retail industry. We present a case study of an RFID project at Galeria Kaufhof, a subsidiary of Metro Group and one of the largest department store chains in Europe. The trial shows that operational efficiency gains through the automation of logistical in-store processes, such as inventory counting or goods receipt, are possible. Moreover, RFID enables new customer applications on the sales floor, which allow for a redesign of the customer interface, and thus an improvement of the service processes and the service quality. In addition, the analyses of the gathered data on the sales floor help to close the "data void" between the goods receipt and the point of sales of the department store, thus offering the opportunity to directly observe and analyze physical in-store processes. The RFID data analyses allow for deriving valuable information for the department store management in the areas of inventory management, category management, store layout management, and department store processes.

  13. Displacement of RFID tracers in a steep mountain stream (Rio Cordon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainato, Riccardo; Mao, Luca; Aristide Lenzi, Mario; Picco, Lorenzo

    2015-04-01

    The bedload transport plays a fundamental role in the mountain streams affecting several aspects as morphology and ecological status of the fluvial system, influencing fields as engineering, natural hazard and river management. The monitoring, assessment and quantification of this type of transport is not simple due to impulsive nature that distinguishes it. Moreover, in mountain streams the particle motion is strongly affected by the bed structures as well as by the highly heterogeneous bed material, acting especially through the hiding/exposure, consolidation and embedding effects. Thanks to the assumption that bedload transport may be understood as the result of random individual particle displacements, the sediment tracing method was widely employed in the last years. Such method allow to obtain precious data concerning sediment dynamic in mountain streams, improving the results obtainable by samplers, traps and permanent monitoring stations. In this work, the results obtained by two years of RFID tracers monitoring are presented. This typology of tracers was employed in a steep mountain stream in order to investigate the displacement due to different conditions of hydraulic forcing. The Rio Cordon (northeast Italy) is a typical alpine channel characterized by step-pool and riffle-pool morphology and by a mean slope equal to 13%. The catchment extended 5 km2 exhibits a nivo-pluvial runoff regime. Overall, 250 tracers were seeded in the channel bed, monitoring the travel distance along a study reach 318 m long. For this purpose a mobile antenna in combination with a laser rangefinder were used. The measurement campaign was carried out from 2013 to 2014, performing a survey every 2 months as well as after every flood event occurred. Following such approach 7 tracers monitoring were performed, reaching a mean tracers recovery rate of roughly 65%. During the study period the peak of flood discharges is ranged between 0.85 to 2.10 m3 s-1, therefore allowing to

  14. Making Distance Education Borderless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srisa-An, Wichit

    1997-01-01

    Begins with a tribute to Professor G. Ram Reddy (founder of Indira Gandhi National Open University), then focuses on enhancing the role of open universities in providing borderless distance education. Highlights include the need for open distance-education; philosophy and vision; the distance teaching system; the role of information technology;…

  15. Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Whoever said "Distance education begins in the 10th row" was taking a jab at the comatose kids at the back of his classroom, but the comment also taps into the old image of distance learners as disengaged themselves. That was then. Today, distance-learning programs are booming, in part due to demographic realities but also because recent advances…

  16. Theme: Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, M. Susie, Ed.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Next Best Thing to Being There" (Whittington); "Taking the Distance out of Distance Education" (Miller, King); "Preparing a Course for Distance Delivery" (Newcomb); "Team Teaching via Two-Way Interactive Video" (Nichols, Trout); "Using the Ag Ed Network" (Peal); "Student's Perspective" (Schoellhorn); "Need for Instruction in Agriculture…

  17. Rigorous performance bounds for quadratic and nested dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Yuhou; Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2011-12-15

    We present rigorous performance bounds for the quadratic dynamical decoupling pulse sequence which protects a qubit from general decoherence, and for its nested generalization to an arbitrary number of qubits. Our bounds apply under the assumptions of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We prove that if the total sequence time is fixed then the trace-norm distance between the unperturbed and protected system states can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of applied pulses.

  18. Universal bounds on current fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietzonka, Patrick; Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2016-05-01

    For current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states of Markovian processes, we derive four different universal bounds valid beyond the Gaussian regime. Different variants of these bounds apply to either the entropy change or any individual current, e.g., the rate of substrate consumption in a chemical reaction or the electron current in an electronic device. The bounds vary with respect to their degree of universality and tightness. A universal parabolic bound on the generating function of an arbitrary current depends solely on the average entropy production. A second, stronger bound requires knowledge both of the thermodynamic forces that drive the system and of the topology of the network of states. These two bounds are conjectures based on extensive numerics. An exponential bound that depends only on the average entropy production and the average number of transitions per time is rigorously proved. This bound has no obvious relation to the parabolic bound but it is typically tighter further away from equilibrium. An asymptotic bound that depends on the specific transition rates and becomes tight for large fluctuations is also derived. This bound allows for the prediction of the asymptotic growth of the generating function. Even though our results are restricted to networks with a finite number of states, we show that the parabolic bound is also valid for three paradigmatic examples of driven diffusive systems for which the generating function can be calculated using the additivity principle. Our bounds provide a general class of constraints for nonequilibrium systems.

  19. Integration of RFID and web service for assisted living.

    PubMed

    Unluturk, Mehmet S; Kurtel, Kaan

    2012-08-01

    The number of people over 65 years old throughout most stable and prosperous countries in the world is increasing. Availability of their care in their own homes is imperative because of the economic reasons and their choices where to live (World Health Organization, Definition of an older or elderly person. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/ ; EQUIP-European Framework for Qualifications in Home Care Services for Older People, http://www.equip-project.com ; Salonen, 2009). "Recent advancement in wireless communications and electronics has enabled the development of low-cost sensor networks. The sensor networks can be utilized in various application areas." (Akyildiz, et al. 2002) These two statements show that there is a great promise in wireless technology and utilizing it in assisted living might be very beneficial to the elderly people. In this paper, we propose software architecture called Location Windows Service (LWS) which integrates the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology and the web service to build an assisted living system for elderly people at home. This architecture monitors the location of elderly people without interfering in their daily activities. Location information messages that are generated as the elderly move from room to room indicate that the elderly person is fit and healthy and going about their normal life. The communication must be timely enough to follow elderly people as they move from room to room without missing a location. Unacknowledged publishing, subscription filtering and short location change messages are also included in this software model to reduce the network traffic in large homes. We propose some defense schemes being applied to the network environment of the assisted living system to prevent any external attacks. PMID:21537853

  20. Cosmological parallax-distance formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Ashok K.

    2015-09-01

    The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.

  1. Phonological Distance Measures

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Nathan C; Chin, Steven B

    2010-01-01

    Phonological distance can be measured computationally using formally specified algorithms. This work investigates two such measures, one developed by Nerbonne and Heeringa (1997) based on Levenshtein distance (Levenshtein, 1965) and the other an adaptation of Dunning’s (1994) language classifier that uses maximum likelihood distance. These two measures are compared against naïve transcriptions of the speech of pediatric cochlear implant users. The new measure, maximum likelihood distance, correlates highly with Levenshtein distance and naïve transcriptions; results from this corpus are easier to obtain since cochlear implant speech has a lower intelligibility than the usually high intelligibility of the speech of a different dialect. PMID:20407614

  2. The extragalactic distance scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowan-Robinson, Michael

    1988-03-01

    Recent advances in the determination of the extragalactic distance scale are discussed, reviewing the results of observational and theoretical investigations from the period 1983-1987. Consideration is given to the galactic calibration of the Cepheids, the extension of the nova method to the Virgo cluster, improvements in the supernova distance method, the reasons why the Tully-Fisher method gives distances shorter than those of other techniques, and a modified Faber-Jackson distance method for elliptical galaxies. Numerical results are compiled in extensive tables and graphs, and it is concluded that only minor corrections to the cosmological distance ladder of Rowan-Robinson (1985) are required.

  3. Bound charges and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herczyński, Andrzej

    2013-03-01

    Bound charges and currents are among the conceptually challenging topics in advanced courses on electricity and magnetism. It may be tempting for students to believe that they are merely computational tools for calculating electric and magnetic fields in matter, particularly because they are usually introduced through abstract manipulation of integral identities, with the physical interpretation provided a posteriori. Yet these charges and currents are no less real than free charges and currents and can be measured experimentally. A simpler and more direct approach to introducing this topic, suggested by the ideas in the classic book by Purcell and emphasizing the physical origin of these phenomena, is proposed.

  4. Validation of cleaning evaluation of surgical instruments with RFID tags attached based on cleaning appraisal judgment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Kusuda, Kaori; Tokuda, Yoko; Onishi, Akiko; Tanaka, Kiyohito; Shimizu, Masatake; Kanda, Ryohei; Honda, Hiroshi; Komino, Masaru; Iwakami, Yumi; Ohta, Yuji; Okubo, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In medical institutions, the threat of infection is closely focused, in particular, inspections regarding surgical site infections (SSI) are carried out. In this study, development of the application of Radio frequency identification (RFID) tags for surgical instrument has been promoted. It enables traceability and individual management of surgical instruments. An experiment was carried out following the cleaning Appraisal guidelines, which contaminated surgical instruments, and using the washer-disinfector (WD) as the main cleaner for surgical instruments with developed RFID tags attached to them. As a result, all of the instruments with RFID tags, the amount of residual protein was less than the recommended acceptable level of 100µg. If WD is used correctly, a sufficient cleaning effect can be expected. From this result, it became evident that the secondary infection risk is low from surgical instrument with RFID tags attached. PMID:24109840

  5. Lazy checkpoint coordination for bounding rollback propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1992-01-01

    Independent checkpointing allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from potential domino effects. Coordinated checkpointing eliminates the domino effect by sacrificing a certain degree of process autonomy. In this paper, we propose the technique of lazy checkpoint coordination which preserves process autonomy while employing communication-induced checkpoint coordination for bounding rollback propagation. The introduction of the notion of laziness allows a flexible trade-off between the cost for checkpoint coordination and the average rollback distance. Worst-case overhead analysis provides a means for estimating the extra checkpoint overhead. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the benefits of the proposed scheme for real applications.

  6. Remote Monitoring and Tracking of UF6 Cylinders Using Long-Range Passive Ultra-wideband (UWB) RFID Tags

    SciTech Connect

    Nekoogar, F; Dowla, F

    2007-06-06

    An IAEA Technical Meeting on Techniques for IAEA Verification of Enrichment Activities identified 'smart tags' as a technology that should be assessed for tracking and locating UF6 cylinders. Although there is vast commercial industry working on RFID systems, the vulnerabilities of commercial products are only beginning to emerge. Most of the commercially off-the-shelf (COTS) RFID systems operate in very narrow frequency bands, making them vulnerable to detection, jamming and tampering and also presenting difficulties when used around metals (i.e. UF6 cylinders). Commercial passive RFID tags have short range, while active RFID tags that provide long ranges have limited lifetimes. There are also some concerns with the introduction of strong (narrowband) radio frequency signals around radioactive and nuclear materials. Considering the shortcomings of commercial RFID systems, in their current form, they do not offer a promising solution for continuous monitoring and tracking of UF6 cylinders. In this paper, we identify the key challenges faced by commercial RFID systems for monitoring UF6 cylinders, and introduce an ultra-wideband approach for tag/reader communications that addresses most of the identified challenges for IAEA safeguards applications.

  7. An Operator Perspective from a Facility Evaluation of an RFID-Based UF6 Cylinder Accounting and Tracking System

    SciTech Connect

    Martyn, Rose; Fitzgerald, Peter; Stehle, Nicholas D; Rowe, Nathan C; Younkin, James R

    2011-01-01

    An operational field test of a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) system for tracking and accounting UF6 cylinders was conducted at the Global Nuclear Fuel Americas (GNF) fuel fabrication plant in 2009. The Cylinder Accountability and Tracking System (CATS) was designed and deployed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and evaluated in cooperation with GNF. The system required that passive RFID be attached to several UF6 30B cylinders as they were received at the site; then the cylinders were tracked as they proceeded to interim storage, to processing in an autoclave, and eventually to disposition from the site. This CATS deployment also provided a direct integration of scale data from the site accountability scales. The integration of this information into the tracking data provided an attribute for additional safeguards for evaluation. The field test provided insight into the advantages and challenges of using RFID at an operating nuclear facility. The RFID system allowed operators to interact with the technology and demonstrated the survivability of the tags and reader equipment in the process environment. This paper will provide the operator perspective on utilizing RFID technology for locating cylinders within the facility, thereby tracking the cylinders for process and for Material Control & Accounting functions. The paper also will present the operator viewpoint on RFID implemented as an independent safeguards system.

  8. On Properties of the Generalized Wasserstein Distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccoli, Benedetto; Rossi, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    The Wasserstein distances W p (p {≥q} 1), defined in terms of a solution to the Monge-Kantorovich problem, are known to be a useful tool to investigate transport equations. In particular, the Benamou-Brenier formula characterizes the square of the Wasserstein distance W 2 as the infimum of the kinetic energy, or action functional, of all vector fields transporting one measure to the other. Another important property of the Wasserstein distances is the Kantorovich-Rubinstein duality, stating the equality between the distance W 1(μ, ν) of two probability measures μ, ν and the supremum of the integrals in d(μ - ν) of Lipschitz continuous functions with Lipschitz constant bounded by one. An intrinsic limitation of Wasserstein distances is the fact that they are defined only between measures having the same mass. To overcome such a limitation, we recently introduced the generalized Wasserstein distances {W_p^{a,b}} , defined in terms of both the classical Wasserstein distance W p and the total variation (or L 1) distance, see (Piccoli and Rossi in Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis 211(1):335-358, 2014). Here p plays the same role as for the classic Wasserstein distance, while a and b are weights for the transport and the total variation term. In this paper we prove two important properties of the generalized Wasserstein distances: (1) a generalized Benamou-Brenier formula providing the equality between {W_2^{a,b}} and the supremum of an action functional, which includes a transport term (kinetic energy) and a source term; (2) a duality à la Kantorovich-Rubinstein establishing the equality between {W_1^{1,1}} and the flat metric.

  9. Traversing psychological distance.

    PubMed

    Liberman, Nira; Trope, Yaacov

    2014-07-01

    Traversing psychological distance involves going beyond direct experience, and includes planning, perspective taking, and contemplating counterfactuals. Consistent with this view, temporal, spatial, and social distances as well as hypotheticality are associated, affect each other, and are inferred from one another. Moreover, traversing all distances involves the use of abstraction, which we define as forming a belief about the substitutability for a specific purpose of subjectively distinct objects. Indeed, across many instances of both abstraction and psychological distancing, more abstract constructs are used for more distal objects. Here, we describe the implications of this relation for prediction, choice, communication, negotiation, and self-control. We ask whether traversing distance is a general mental ability and whether distance should replace expectancy in expected-utility theories. PMID:24726527

  10. The Extragalactic Distance Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Donahue, Megan; Panagia, Nino

    1997-07-01

    Participants; Preface; Foreword; Early history of the distance scale problem, S. van den Bergh; Cosmology: From Hubble to HST, M. S. Turner; Age constraints nucleocosmochronology, J. Truran; The ages of globular clusters, P. Demarque; The linearity of the Hubble flow M. Postman; Gravitational lensing and the extragalactic distance scale, R. D. Blandford andT . Kundic; Using the cosmic microwave background to constrain the Hubble constant A. Lasenby and T M. Jones; Cepheids as distance indicators, N. R. Tanvir; The I-band Tully-Fisher relation and the Hubble constant, R. Giovanell; The calibration of type 1a supernovae as standard candles, A. Saha; Focusing in on the Hubble constant, G. A. Tammann & M. Federspiel; Interim report on the calibration of the Tully-Fisher relation in the HST Key Project to measure the Hubble constant, J. Mould et al.; Hubble Space Telescope Key Project on the extragalactic distance scale, W. L. Freedman, B. F. Madore and T R. C. Kennicutt; Novae as distance indicators, M. Livio; Verifying the planetary nebula luminosity function method, G. H. Jacoby; On the possible use of radio supernovae for distance determinations, K. W. Weiler et al.; Post-AGB stars as standard candles, H. Bond; Helium core flash at the tip of the red giant branch: a population II distance indicator, B. F. Madore, W. L. Freedman and T S. Sakai; Globular clusters as distance indicators, B. C. Whitmore; Detached eclipsing binaries as primary distance and age indicators, B. Paczynski; Light echoes: geometric measurement of galaxy distances, W. B. Sparks; The SBF survey of galaxy distances J. L. Tonry; Extragalactic distance scales: The long and short of it, V. Trimble.

  11. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  12. Education at a Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maffett, Sheryl Price

    2007-01-01

    Distance learning has been around since the old "course in a box" correspondence classes, but with the advent of sophisticated online course management systems, learning at a distance is contributing to a major paradigm shift in higher education. That shift includes applying corporate concepts to education--students, for example, are "consumers,"…

  13. Gender and Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Cornelia

    This article examines distance learning from a gender perspective. In any new area of enterprise, expectations have an important effect on planning, implementation, and evaluation. When it comes to distance learning, a variety of images of what this exciting new technology will look like and what it can empower us to achieve will determine how we…

  14. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  15. Petawatt laser absorption bounded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Matthew; Wilks, Scott; Tabak, Max; Libby, Stephen; Baring, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    The interaction of petawatt (1015 W) lasers with solid matter forms the basis for advanced scientific applications such as table-top relativistic particle accelerators, ultrafast charged particle imaging systems and fast ignition inertial confinement fusion. Key metrics for these applications relate to absorption, yet conditions in this regime are so nonlinear that it is often impossible to know the fraction of absorbed light f, and even the range of f is unknown. In this presentation, using a relativistic Rankine-Hugoniot-like analysis, we show how to derive the theoretical maximum and minimum of f. These boundaries constrain nonlinear absorption mechanisms across the petawatt regime, forbidding high absorption values at low laser power and low absorption values at high laser power. Close agreement is shown with several dozens of published experimental data points and simulation results, helping to confirm the theory. For applications needing to circumvent the absorption bounds, these results will accelerate a shift from solid targets, towards structured and multilayer targets, and lead the development of new materials.

  16. A Proposed Collaborative Framework for Prefabricated Housing Construction Using RFID Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charnwasununth, Phatsaphan; Yabuki, Nobuyoshi; Tongthong, Tanit

    Despite the popularity of prefabricated housing construction in Thailand and many other countries, due to the lack of collaboration in current practice, undesired low productivity and a number of mistakes are identified. This research proposes a framework to raise the collaborative level for improving productivity and reducing mistake occurrences at sites. In this framework, RFID system bridges the gap between the real situation and the design, and the proposed system can cope with the unexpected construction conditions by generating proper alternatives. This system is composed of PDAs, RFID readers, laptop PCs, and a desktop PC. Six main modules and a database system are implemented in laptop PCs for recording actual site conditions, generating working alternatives, providing related information, and evaluating the work.

  17. Bedside patient data viewer using RFID and e-Ink technology.

    PubMed

    Nikodijevic, Aleksandar; Pichler, Patrick; Forjan, Mathias; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the daily routine of hospitals, which work with paper based medical records, the staff has to find the appropriate patient file if it needs information about the patient. With the introduction of ELGA the Austrian hospitals have to use specific standards for their clinical documentation. These structured documents can be used to feed an e-Ink reader with information about every patient in a hospital. Combined with RFID and security measures, the clinical staff is supported during the patient file searching process. The developed experimental setup of the Bedside Patient Data Viewer demonstrates a prototype of such a system. An Amazon Kindle Paperwhite is used to display processed data, supplied by a Raspberry Pi with an attached RFID module for identification purposes. Results show that such a system can be implemented, however a lot of organizational and technical issues remain to be solved. PMID:24825678

  18. J3Gen: A PRNG for Low-Cost Passive RFID

    PubMed Central

    Melià-Seguí, Joan; Garcia-Alfaro, Joaquin; Herrera-Joancomartí, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Pseudorandom number generation (PRNG) is the main security tool in low-cost passive radio-frequency identification (RFID) technologies, such as EPC Gen2. We present a lightweight PRNG design for low-cost passive RFID tags, named J3Gen. J3Gen is based on a linear feedback shift register (LFSR) configured with multiple feedback polynomials. The polynomials are alternated during the generation of sequences via a physical source of randomness. J3Gen successfully handles the inherent linearity of LFSR based PRNGs and satisfies the statistical requirements imposed by the EPC Gen2 standard. A hardware implementation of J3Gen is presented and evaluated with regard to different design parameters, defining the key-equivalence security and nonlinearity of the design. The results of a SPICE simulation confirm the power-consumption suitability of the proposal. PMID:23519344

  19. Method of remote powering and detecting multiple UWB passive tags in an RFID system

    SciTech Connect

    Dowla, Farid U.; Nekoogar, Faranak; Benzel, David M.; Dallum, Gregory E.; Spiridon, Alex

    2012-05-29

    A new Radio Frequency Identification (RFID), tracking, powering apparatus/system and method using coded Ultra-wideband (UWB) signaling is introduced. The proposed hardware and techniques disclosed herein utilize a plurality of passive UWB transponders in a field of an RFID-radar system. The radar system itself enables multiple passive tags to be remotely powered (activated) at about the same time frame via predetermined frequency UWB pulsed formats. Once such tags are in an activated state, an UWB radar transmits specific "interrogating codes" to put predetermined tags in an awakened status. Such predetermined tags can then communicate by a unique "response code" so as to be detected by an UWB system using radar methods.

  20. Collision Arbitration Based on Different Slot Times for Slotted-Aloha RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Kwon, Dae-Ken; Kim, Hyoung-Nam

    Tag collision is a major problem in the field of multi-tag identification in RFID systems. To solve this problem, many RFID systems adopt their own collision arbitration algorithms based on framed-structure slotted Aloha (FSSA) due to the simplicity of implementation. The frame size, meaning the number of slots in a frame, is a very important factor to inventory tags' responses in the FSSA. How to assign the frame size is therefore crucial to the collision arbitration performance. Since the existing collision arbitration methods do not consider the slot times of each slot when assigning frame size, they may increase overall identification time. By involving the slot times, we improve the collision arbitration performance of the conventional methods. Simulation results show that collision arbitration based on the proposed method is superior to that based on the conventional methods, irrespective of the number of tags.

  1. An Analysis of the Effects of RFID Tags on Narrowband Navigation and Communication Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBerge, E. F. Charles

    2007-01-01

    The simulated effects of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tag emissions on ILS Localizer and ILS Glide Slope functions match the analytical models developed in support of DO-294B provided that the measured peak power levels are adjusted for 1) peak-to-average power ratio, 2) effective duty cycle, and 3) spectrum analyzer measurement bandwidth. When these adjustments are made, simulated and theoretical results are in extraordinarily good agreement. The relationships hold over a large range of potential interference-to-desired signal power ratios, provided that the adjusted interference power is significantly higher than the sum of the receiver noise floor and the noise-like contributions of all other interference sources. When the duty-factor adjusted power spectral densities are applied in the evaluation process described in Section 6 of DO-294B, most narrowband guidance and communications radios performance parameters are unaffected by moderate levels of RFID interference. Specific conclusions and recommendations are provided.

  2. Radio Frequency Compatibility of an RFID Tag on Glideslope Navigation Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2008-01-01

    A process is demonstrated to show compatibility between a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and an aircraft glideslope (GS) radio r eceiver. The particular tag chosen was previously shown to have significant spurious emission levels that exceeded the emission limit in th e GS aeronautical band. The spurious emissions are emulated in the study by capturing the RFID fundamental transmission and playing back th e signal in the GS band. The signal capturing and playback are achiev ed with a vector signal generator and a spectrum analyzer that can output the in-phase and quadrature components (IQ). The simulated interf erence signal is combined with a GS signal before being injected into a GS receiver#s antenna port for interference threshold determination . Minimum desired propagation loss values to avoid interference are then computed and compared against actual propagation losses for severa l aircraft.

  3. The Potential of RFID Technology in the Textile and Clothing Industry: Opportunities, Requirements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legnani, Elena; Cavalieri, Sergio; Pinto, Roberto; Dotti, Stefano

    In the current competitive environment, companies need to extensively exploit the use of advanced technologies in order to develop a sustainable advantage, enhance their operational efficiency and better serve customers. In this context, RFID technology has emerged as a valid support for the company progress and its value is becoming more and more apparent. In particular, the textile and clothing industry, characterised by short life-cycles , quick response production , fast distribution, erratic customer preferences and impulsive purchasing, is one of the sectors which can extensively benefit from the RFID technology. However, actual applications are still very limited, especially in the upstream side of the supply network. This chapter provides an insight into the main benefits and potentials of this technology and highlights the main issues which are currently inhibiting its large scale development in the textile and clothing industry. The experience of two industry-academia projects and the relative fallouts are reported.

  4. Radio Frequency Compatibility of an RFID Tag on Glideslope Navigation Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Mielnik, John J.

    2008-01-01

    A process is demonstrated to show compatibility between a radio frequency identification (RFID) tag and an aircraft glideslope (GS) radio receiver. The particular tag chosen was previously shown to have significant peak spurious emission levels that far exceeded the emission limits in the GS aeronautical band. The spurious emissions are emulated in the study by capturing the RFID fundamental transmission and playing back the signal in the GS band. The signal capturing and playback are achieved with a vector signal generator and a spectrum analyzer that can output the in-phase and quadrature components (IQ). The simulated interference signal is combined with a desired GS signal before being injected into a GS receiver s antenna port for interference threshold determination. Minimum desired propagation loss values to avoid interference are then computed and compared against actual propagation losses for several aircraft.

  5. INSIGHT: RFID and Bluetooth enabled automated space for the blind and visually impaired.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Aura; Gandhi, Siddhesh Rajan; Wilson, Carole; Mullett, Gary

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce INSIGHT, an indoor location tracking and navigation system to help the blind and visually impaired to easily navigate to their chosen destination in a public building. INSIGHT makes use of RFID and Bluetooth technology deployed within the building to locate and track the users. The PDA based user device interacts with INSIGHT server and provides the user navigation instructions in an audio form. The proposed system provides multi-resolution localization of the users, facilitating the provision of accurate navigation instructions when the user is in the vicinity of the RFID tags as well as accommodating a PANIC button which provides navigation instructions when the user is anywhere in the building. Moreover, the system will continuously monitor the zone in which the user walks. This will enable the system to identify if the user is located in the wrong zone of the building which may not lead to the desired destination. PMID:21096968

  6. Flexible printed chipless RFID tag using metamaterial-split ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalil, M. E.; Rahim, M. K. A.; Samsuri, N. A.; Dewan, R.

    2016-04-01

    An 8-bit passive chipless RFID using metamaterial structure with dimension of 25 × 50 mm which operates between 3.4 and 7.4 GHz is proposed. The chipless RFID is designed using complementary split ring resonator (SRR) with a transmission line feeding network of 50 Ω. The modified complementary split ring resonator (MCSRR) is located at the backside of the substrate. The MCSRR has narrow bandwidth which can maximize the amount of bit capacity. To enhance the bit capacity, the frequency shifting is introduced by the allocation of bit conditions (00, 01, 10 and 11) at the specific resonance frequency. The polyethylene terephthalate material with ɛ r = 3.0 and tan δ = 0.002 is a suitable candidate for body identification due to the flexibility and the robustness of the material.

  7. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  8. Design and Optimization of Passive UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Mounting on or inside Material Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Shuai

    There is great desire to employ passive UHF RFID tags for inventory tracking and sensing in a diversity of applications and environments. Owing to its battery-free operation, non-line-of sight detection, low cost, long read range and small form factor, each year billions of RFID tags are being deployed in retail, logistics, manufacturing, biomedical inventories, among many other applications. However, the performance of these RFID systems has not met expectations. This is because a tag's performance deteriorates significantly when mounted on or inside arbitrary materials. The tag antenna is optimized only for a given type of material at a certain location of placement, and detuning takes place when attached to or embedded in materials with dielectric properties outside the design range. Thereby, different customized tags may be needed for identifying objects even within the same class of products. This increases the overall cost of the system. Furthermore, conventional copper foil-based RFID tag antennas are prone to metal fatigue and wear, and cannot survive hostile environments where antennas could be deformed by external forces and failures occur. Therefore, it is essential to understand the interaction between the antenna and the material in the vicinity of the tag, and design general purpose RFID tag antennas possessing excellent electrical performance as well as robust mechanical structure. A particularly challenging application addressed here is designing passive RFID tag antennas for automotive tires. Tires are composed of multiple layers of rubber with different dielectric properties and thicknesses. Furthermore, metallic plies are embedded in the sidewalls and steel belts lie beneath the tread to enforce mechanical integrity. To complicate matters even more, a typical tire experiences a 10% stretching during the construction process. This dissertation focuses on intuitively understanding the interaction between the antenna and the material in the

  9. Characterization of inkjet-printing HF and UHF antennas for RFID applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Paczesny, Daniel; Kawecki, Krzysztof

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a set of RFID antennas on flexible plastic substrates designed for range of HF and UHF band. The samples was fabricated using inkjet printing technology and conductive material base on silver nanopartilces ink. Fabricated antennas have been characterized, and the results were compared with the parameters of antennas made with usage of classical PCB technology on FR4 laminate with copper metallization. The paper presents studies on the impact of elastic substrates and conductive materials on antennas electrical parameters, as well as the communication range of the resulting RFID tags. During the experiment two patterns of HF and three patterns of UHF antennas was examined and the antennas was realized on different types of substrates, such as PET, Kapton® and FR4.

  10. Dynamical networks of person to person interactions from RFID sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isella, Lorenzo; Cattuto, Ciro; Barrat, Alain

    2010-03-01

    We present a scalable experimental framework for gathering real-time data on face-to-face social interactions with tunable spatial and temporal resolution. We use active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) devices that assess mutual proximity in a distributed fashion by exchanging low-power radio packets. We show results on the analysis of the dynamical networks of person-to-person interaction obtained in four high- resolution experiments carried out at different orders of magnitude in community size.

  11. RFID Transponders' RF Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen Sandra V.; Fersch, Mariatheresa S.

    2008-01-01

    Radiated emission data in aircraft communication and navigation bands are presented for several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design, operation and transmitting frequencies. The process for measuring the tags emissions in a reverberation chamber is discussed. Measurement issues dealing with tag interrogation, low level measurement in the presence of strong transmissions, and tags low duty factors are discussed. The results show strong emissions, far exceeding aircraft emission limits and can be of potential interference risks.

  12. Demonstration (DEMO) of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system for tracking and monitoring of nuclear materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, H. C.; Chen, K.; Liu, Y. Y.; Shuler, J.

    2010-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) [Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-45)] Packaging Certification Program (PCP) has developed a radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking and monitoring system for the management of nuclear materials packages during storage and transportation. The system, developed by the PCP team at Argonne National Laboratory, involves hardware modification, application software development, secured database and web server development, and irradiation experiments. In April 2008, Argonne tested key features of the RFID tracking and monitoring system in a weeklong, 1700 mile (2736 km) demonstration employing 14 empty type B fissile material drums of three designs (models 9975, 9977 and ES-3100) that have been certified for shipment by the DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The demonstration successfully integrated global positioning system (GPS) technology for vehicle tracking, satellite/cellular (general packet radio service, or GPRS) technologies for wireless communication, and active RFID tags with multiple sensors (seal integrity, shock, temperature, humidity and battery status) on drums. In addition, the demonstration integrated geographic information system (GIS) technology with automatic alarm notifications of incidents and generated buffer zone reports for emergency response and management of staged incidents. The demonstration was sponsored by EM and the US National Nuclear Security Administration, with the participation of Argonne, Savannah River and Oak Ridge National Laboratories. Over 50 authorised stakeholders across the country observed the demonstration via secured Internet access. The DOE PCP and national laboratories are working on several RFID system implementation projects at selected DOE sites, as well as continuing device and systems development and widening applications beyond DOE sites and possibly beyond nuclear materials to include other radioactive materials.

  13. Performance Comparison of Binary Search Tree and Framed ALOHA Algorithms for RFID Anti-Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen-Tzu

    Binary search tree and framed ALOHA algorithms are commonly adopted to solve the anti-collision problem in RFID systems. In this letter, the read efficiency of these two anti-collision algorithms is compared through computer simulations. Simulation results indicate the framed ALOHA algorithm requires less total read time than the binary search tree algorithm. The initial frame length strongly affects the uplink throughput for the framed ALOHA algorithm.

  14. An Integrated RFID and Sensor System for Emergency Handling in Underground Coal Mines Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Lingxia; Lou, Guohuan; Chen, Min

    Mobile communication system for underground coal mines is far more behind the one on surface for the unique underground tunnel environment and safety requirements. Though our previous CDMA System V1.0 can solve the problems of coal mine communication well in regular environments, it still remains a challenging issue for emergency handling. In this paper, we propose a novel integrated RFID and sensor system for emergency handling in underground coal mines environments.

  15. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  16. Estimating Distances from Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Astrometric surveys such as Gaia and LSST will measure parallaxes for hundreds of millions of stars. Yet they will not measure a single distance. Rather, a distance must be estimated from a parallax. In this didactic article, I show that doing this is not trivial once the fractional parallax error is larger than about 20%, which will be the case for about 80% of stars in the Gaia catalog. Estimating distances is an inference problem in which the use of prior assumptions is unavoidable. I investigate the properties and performance of various priors and examine their implications. A supposed uninformative uniform prior in distance is shown to give very poor distance estimates (large bias and variance). Any prior with a sharp cut-off at some distance has similar problems. The choice of prior depends on the information one has available—and is willing to use—concerning, e.g., the survey and the Galaxy. I demonstrate that a simple prior which decreases asymptotically to zero at infinite distance has good performance, accommodates nonpositive parallaxes, and does not require a bias correction.

  17. Improving the range of UHF RFID transponders using solar energy harvesting under low light conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascher, A.; Lehner, M.; Eberhardt, M.; Biebl, E.

    2015-11-01

    The sensitivity of passive UHF RFID transponders (Radio Frequency Identification) is the key issue, which determines the maximum read range of an UHF RFID system. During this work the ability of improving the sensitivity using solar energy harvesting, especially for low light conditions, is shown. To use the additional energy harvested from the examined silicon and organic solar cells, the passive RFID system is changed into a semi-active one. This needs no changes on the reader hardware itself, only the used RFIC (Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit) of the transponder has to possess an additional input pin for an external supply voltage. The silicon and organic cells are evaluated and compared to each other regarding their low light performance. The different cells are examined in a shielded box, which is protected from the environmental lighting. Additionally, a demonstrator is shown, which makes the measurement of the extended read range with respect to the lighting conditions possible. If the cells are completely darkened, the sensitivity gain is ascertained using high capacity super caps. Due to the measurements an enhancement in range up to 70 % could be guaranteed even under low light conditions.

  18. 3D-Web-GIS RFID Location Sensing System for Construction Objects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency. PMID:23864821

  19. A chipless sensor tag-based RFID technology for cyber-oriented environmental sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sudhir; Agarwal, Mangilal; Phoha, Vir V.; Varahramyan, Kody

    2009-05-01

    A chipless sensor tag-based radio frequency identification (RFID) technology that allows wireless collection of information from the environment, and the monitoring and accessing of the given information through cyberspace is presented. The developed system consists of a cyber enabled RFID reader and passive chipless RFID sensor tags. The reader is comprised of an analog part that wirelessly communicates with the sensor tags, and a single board computer (SBC) part. Each passive chipless sensor tag consists of a microstrip antenna and a sensor. The sensor information is amplitude modulated in the backscattered signal of the tag. The analog reader part receives the backscattered signal and feeds it to the SBC, which computes the sensor information into a 96 bit serialized global trade item number (SGTIN-96) electronic product code (EPC). Moreover, the SBC makes the information available on a cyberspace-accessible secure user interface. The reported system has been applied for temperature sensing, where the change in temperature at the tag ranging from 27°C to 140°C resulted in a 28% amplitude change at the analog part of the reader. The temperature at the tag has been monitored by accessing the reader through cyberspace using a web-based user interfaces developed for the SBC.

  20. Anti-collision protocols for RFID systems exploiting multi-antenna readers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yimin; Amin, Moeness G.

    2009-05-01

    In conventional RFID systems, only one tag can be identified at a time. Tag collisions occur if more than one tag simultaneously occupies the shared RF channel, resulting in low identification efficiency and long delay, particularly when the population of tags is large. In this paper, we propose two RFID anti-collision protocols, both are based on framed slotted ALOHA (FSA), to concurrently identify multiple tags by using a multi-antenna reader. The first one is Blind Identification Protocol, which relies on blind estimation of the channel between the activated tags and the reader and, as such, does not require redesign of the existing RFID tags. The second one is Orthogonal ID-aided Identification Protocol which estimates the channels with the use of temporary orthogonal IDs, which are randomly selected by the tags and are inserted at the head of each tag's reply signal. The use of orthogonal IDs facilitates both the detection of activated tags and the channel estimation. Unlike code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques which rely on the use of excessive bandwidth and require redesign of tags, the proposed protocols use multiple antennas at the reader to support concurrent identification of multiple tags without the requirement of additional bandwidth and no or minimal modifications to the existing tags. As a result, the proposed techniques yield significant improvement of the identification efficiency and reduction of the identification delay. We analyze, in an analytical framework, the identification efficiency of the proposed protocols, and the optimum frame size is derived.

  1. Refrigerated fruit storage monitoring combining two different wireless sensing technologies: RFID and WSN.

    PubMed

    Badia-Melis, Ricardo; Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Garcia-Hierro, Javier; Villalba, Jose I Robla

    2015-01-01

    Every day, millions of tons of temperature-sensitive goods are produced, transported, stored or distributed worldwide, thus making their temperature and humidity control essential. Quality control and monitoring of goods during the cold chain is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, logistic decision makers and consumers. In this paper we present the results of a combination of RFID and WSN devices in a set of studies performed in three commercial wholesale chambers of 1848 m3 with different set points and products. Up to 90 semi-passive RFID temperature loggers were installed simultaneously together with seven motes, during one week in each chamber. 3D temperature mapping charts were obtained and also the psychrometric data model from ASABE was implemented for the calculation of enthalpy changes and the absolute water content of air. Thus thank to the feedback of data, between RFID and WSN it is possible to estimate energy consumption in the cold room, water loss from the products and detect any condensation over the stored commodities. PMID:25730482

  2. Accuracy of patient's turnover time prediction using RFID technology in an academic ambulatory surgery center.

    PubMed

    Marchand-Maillet, Florence; Debes, Claire; Garnier, Fanny; Dufeu, Nicolas; Sciard, Didier; Beaussier, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Patients flow in outpatient surgical unit is a major issue with regards to resource utilization, overall case load and patient satisfaction. An electronic Radio Frequency Identification Device (RFID) was used to document the overall time spent by the patients between their admission and discharge from the unit. The objective of this study was to evaluate how a RFID-based data collection system could provide an accurate prediction of the actual time for the patient to be discharged from the ambulatory surgical unit after surgery. This is an observational prospective evaluation carried out in an academic ambulatory surgery center (ASC). Data on length of stay at each step of the patient care, from admission to discharge, were recorded by a RFID device and analyzed according to the type of surgical procedure, the surgeon and the anesthetic technique. Based on these initial data (n = 1520), patients were scheduled in a sequential manner according to the expected duration of the previous case. The primary endpoint was the difference between actual and predicted time of discharge from the unit. A total of 414 consecutive patients were prospectively evaluated. One hundred seventy four patients (42%) were discharged at the predicted time ± 30 min. Only 24% were discharged behind predicted schedule. Using an automatic record of patient's length of stay would allow an accurate prediction of the discharge time according to the type of surgery, the surgeon and the anesthetic procedure. PMID:25637542

  3. A touch probe method of operating an implantable RFID tag for orthopedic implant identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Berger, J Lee; Ogirala, Ajay; Mickle, Marlin H

    2013-06-01

    The major problem in operating an implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag embedded on an orthopedic implant is low efficiency because of metallic interference. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a method of operating an implantable passive RFID tag using a touch probe at 13.56 MHz. This technology relies on the electric field interaction between two pairs of electrodes, one being a part of the touch probe placed on the surface of tissue and the other being a part of the tag installed under the tissue. Compared with using a conventional RFID antenna such as a loop antenna, this method has a better performance in the near field operation range to reduce interference with the orthopedic implant. Properly matching the touch probe and the tag to the tissue and the implant reduces signal attenuation and increases the overall system efficiency. The experiments have shown that this method has a great performance in the near field transcutaneous operation and can be used for orthopedic implant identification. PMID:23853323

  4. Applied patent RFID systems for building reacting HEPA air ventilation system in hospital operation rooms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2012-12-01

    RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented. PMID:22081235

  5. Location-based tracking using long-range passive RFID and ultrawideband communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekoogar, Faranak; Dowla, Farid

    2013-03-01

    Reliable positioning capability is a crucial need for first responders in emergency and disaster situations. Lack of a dependable positioning system can result in disruptions in the situational awareness between the local responders in the field and the emergency command and control centers. Indoor localization and navigation poses many challenges for search and rescue teams (i.e. firefighters) such as inability to determine their exact location and communicate with the incident commander outside the building. Although RF navigation and tracking systems have many advantages over other technologies, the harsh indoor RF environment demands new ways of developing and using RF sensor and communication systems. A new approach, proposed recently [1-4], employs passive RFID for geo-location and tracking of a first responder. However, because conventional passive RFID tags have limited communications ranges, a very large number of these tags will be required to fully cover a large multi-storied building without any dead spots. Another technical challenge for conventional RF communications is the transmission of data from the mobile RFID platform (the tag reader) to the outside command and control node, as the buildings walls impose challenges such as attenuation and multipath. In this paper, we introduce a mobile platform architecture that makes optimal use of long-range passive tags, and takes advantage of the frequency diversity of Ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems for a reliable, robust and yet low-cost infrastructure.

  6. LS Channel Estimation and Signal Separation for UHF RFID Tag Collision Recovery on the Physical Layer.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hanjun; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu; Chen, Yuebin

    2016-01-01

    In a passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) system, tag collision is generally resolved on a medium access control (MAC) layer. However, some of collided tag signals could be recovered on a physical (PHY) layer and, thus, enhance the identification efficiency of the RFID system. For the recovery on the PHY layer, channel estimation is a critical issue. Good channel estimation will help to recover the collided signals. Existing channel estimates work well for two collided tags. When the number of collided tags is beyond two, however, the existing estimates have more estimation errors. In this paper, we propose a novel channel estimate for the UHF RFID system. It adopts an orthogonal matrix based on the information of preambles which is known for a reader and applies a minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion to estimate channels. From the estimated channel, we could accurately separate the collided signals and recover them. By means of numerical results, we show that the proposed estimate has lower estimation errors and higher separation efficiency than the existing estimates. PMID:27023560

  7. Using RFID Positioning Technology to Construct an Automatic Rehabilitation Scheduling Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Sheng; Hung, Lun-Ping; Yen, Neil Y

    2016-01-01

    Accurately and efficiently identifying the location of patients during the course of rehabilitation is an important issue. Wireless transmission technology can reach this goal. Tracking technologies such as RFID (Radio frequency identification) can support process improvement and improve efficiencies of rehabilitation. There are few published models or methods to solve the problem of positioning and apply this technology in the rehabilitation center. We propose a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of positioning technology and provide information about turns and obstacles on the path; and user-centered services based on location-aware to enhanced quality care in rehabilitation environment. This paper outlines the requirements and the role of RFID in assisting rehabilitation environment. A prototype RFID hospital support tool is established. It is designed to provide assistance for monitoring rehabilitation patients. It can simultaneously calculate the rehabilitant's location and the duration of treatment, and automatically record the rehabilitation course of the rehabilitant, so as to improve the management efficiency of the rehabilitation program. PMID:26573641

  8. RFID: The missing link to comprehensive automated refuse collection and recycling

    SciTech Connect

    McAdams, C.L.

    1994-04-01

    Variable-rate and pay-by-weight programs are gaining momentum across the country. Over 1,000 communities are expected to adopt a variable rate program in 1994. Hundreds have already implemented programs and have seen reported reductions of up to 40% in disposal tonnage. In any variable-rate or pay-by-weight system, the ability to track refuse and/or recyclables at the point of collection is imperative. The use of a radio frequency identification system (RFID) is one way of assuring such accountability. In an automated collection program using RFID technology, each resident or customer'' has one or more roll-out carts installed with a transponder or tag'' that contains a unique identification number. This number correlates with a customer profile'', which is usually found in the city data base. An RFID customer'' profile may contain such information as name, address, size and color of cart, rate, collection day, and a chronological history of collection and cart maintenance over a designated period of time. In most cases, the database and software can be customized to meed individual municipal needs as well as specific needs of refuse hauling companies.

  9. Refrigerated Fruit Storage Monitoring Combining Two Different Wireless Sensing Technologies: RFID and WSN

    PubMed Central

    Badia-Melis, Ricardo; Ruiz-Garcia, Luis; Garcia-Hierro, Javier; Villalba, Jose I. Robla

    2015-01-01

    Every day, millions of tons of temperature-sensitive goods are produced, transported, stored or distributed worldwide, thus making their temperature and humidity control essential. Quality control and monitoring of goods during the cold chain is an increasing concern for producers, suppliers, logistic decision makers and consumers. In this paper we present the results of a combination of RFID and WSN devices in a set of studies performed in three commercial wholesale chambers of 1848 m3 with different set points and products. Up to 90 semi-passive RFID temperature loggers were installed simultaneously together with seven motes, during one week in each chamber. 3D temperature mapping charts were obtained and also the psychrometric data model from ASABE was implemented for the calculation of enthalpy changes and the absolute water content of air. Thus thank to the feedback of data, between RFID and WSN it is possible to estimate energy consumption in the cold room, water loss from the products and detect any condensation over the stored commodities. PMID:25730482

  10. LS Channel Estimation and Signal Separation for UHF RFID Tag Collision Recovery on the Physical Layer

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Hanjun; Wu, Haifeng; Zeng, Yu; Chen, Yuebin

    2016-01-01

    In a passive ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) system, tag collision is generally resolved on a medium access control (MAC) layer. However, some of collided tag signals could be recovered on a physical (PHY) layer and, thus, enhance the identification efficiency of the RFID system. For the recovery on the PHY layer, channel estimation is a critical issue. Good channel estimation will help to recover the collided signals. Existing channel estimates work well for two collided tags. When the number of collided tags is beyond two, however, the existing estimates have more estimation errors. In this paper, we propose a novel channel estimate for the UHF RFID system. It adopts an orthogonal matrix based on the information of preambles which is known for a reader and applies a minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) criterion to estimate channels. From the estimated channel, we could accurately separate the collided signals and recover them. By means of numerical results, we show that the proposed estimate has lower estimation errors and higher separation efficiency than the existing estimates. PMID:27023560

  11. On the inversion-indel distance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The inversion distance, that is the distance between two unichromosomal genomes with the same content allowing only inversions of DNA segments, can be computed thanks to a pioneering approach of Hannenhalli and Pevzner in 1995. In 2000, El-Mabrouk extended the inversion model to allow the comparison of unichromosomal genomes with unequal contents, thus insertions and deletions of DNA segments besides inversions. However, an exact algorithm was presented only for the case in which we have insertions alone and no deletion (or vice versa), while a heuristic was provided for the symmetric case, that allows both insertions and deletions and is called the inversion-indel distance. In 2005, Yancopoulos, Attie and Friedberg started a new branch of research by introducing the generic double cut and join (DCJ) operation, that can represent several genome rearrangements (including inversions). Among others, the DCJ model gave rise to two important results. First, it has been shown that the inversion distance can be computed in a simpler way with the help of the DCJ operation. Second, the DCJ operation originated the DCJ-indel distance, that allows the comparison of genomes with unequal contents, considering DCJ, insertions and deletions, and can be computed in linear time. Results In the present work we put these two results together to solve an open problem, showing that, when the graph that represents the relation between the two compared genomes has no bad components, the inversion-indel distance is equal to the DCJ-indel distance. We also give a lower and an upper bound for the inversion-indel distance in the presence of bad components. PMID:24564182

  12. Long Distance Caregiving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Senior Living Long Distance Caregiving Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... when a crisis occurs. Get a directory of senior resources and services from the local library or ...

  13. Automobile Stopping Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the effect of vehicle mass on stopping distances. Analyzes an example of a sample vehicle and tire, and calculates the braking acceleration showing the effect of different factors on the stopping performance of the tires. (GA)

  14. Distance learning perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pandza, Haris; Masic, Izet

    2013-01-01

    The development of modern technology and the Internet has enabled the explosive growth of distance learning. distance learning is a process that is increasingly present in the world. This is the field of education focused on educating students who are not physically present in the traditional classrooms or student's campus. described as a process where the source of information is separated from the students in space and time. If there are situations that require the physical presence of students, such as when a student is required to physically attend the exam, this is called a hybrid form of distance learning. This technology is increasingly used worldwide. The Internet has become the main communication channel for the development of distance learning. PMID:24222934

  15. Northwest Outward Bound Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Outward Bound School, Portland, OR.

    Instructor responsibilities, procedures for completing activities safely, and instructional methods and techniques are outlined to assist instructors in the Northwest Outward Bound School (Portland, Oregon) as they strive for teaching excellence. Information is organized into six chapters addressing: history and philosophy of Outward Bound; course…

  16. Fractional diffusion on bounded domains

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Defterli, Ozlem; D'Elia, Marta; Du, Qiang; Gunzburger, Max Donald; Lehoucq, Richard B.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2015-03-13

    We found that the mathematically correct specification of a fractional differential equation on a bounded domain requires specification of appropriate boundary conditions, or their fractional analogue. In this paper we discuss the application of nonlocal diffusion theory to specify well-posed fractional diffusion equations on bounded domains.

  17. Bounds for Asian basket options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  18. Enhanced TDMA Based Anti-Collision Algorithm with a Dynamic Frame Size Adjustment Strategy for Mobile RFID Readers.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kwang Cheol; Park, Seung Bo; Jo, Geun Sik

    2009-01-01

    In the fields of production, manufacturing and supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as one of the most important technologies. Nowadays, Mobile RFID, which is often installed in carts or forklift trucks, is increasingly being applied to the search for and checkout of items in warehouses, supermarkets, libraries and other industrial fields. In using Mobile RFID, since the readers are continuously moving, they can interfere with each other when they attempt to read the tags. In this study, we suggest a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based anti-collision algorithm for Mobile RFID readers. Our algorithm automatically adjusts the frame size of each reader without using manual parameters by adopting the dynamic frame size adjustment strategy when collisions occur at a reader. Through experiments on a simulated environment for Mobile RFID readers, we show that the proposed method improves the number of successful transmissions by about 228% on average, compared with Colorwave, a representative TDMA based anti-collision algorithm. PMID:22399942

  19. Enhanced TDMA Based Anti-Collision Algorithm with a Dynamic Frame Size Adjustment Strategy for Mobile RFID Readers

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Kwang Cheol; Park, Seung Bo; Jo, Geun Sik

    2009-01-01

    In the fields of production, manufacturing and supply chain management, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is regarded as one of the most important technologies. Nowadays, Mobile RFID, which is often installed in carts or forklift trucks, is increasingly being applied to the search for and checkout of items in warehouses, supermarkets, libraries and other industrial fields. In using Mobile RFID, since the readers are continuously moving, they can interfere with each other when they attempt to read the tags. In this study, we suggest a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) based anti-collision algorithm for Mobile RFID readers. Our algorithm automatically adjusts the frame size of each reader without using manual parameters by adopting the dynamic frame size adjustment strategy when collisions occur at a reader. Through experiments on a simulated environment for Mobile RFID readers, we show that the proposed method improves the number of successful transmissions by about 228% on average, compared with Colorwave, a representative TDMA based anti-collision algorithm. PMID:22399942

  20. Achievable Performance and Effective Interrogator Design for SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    For many NASA missions, remote sensing is a critical application that supports activities such as environmental monitoring, planetary science, structural shape and health monitoring, non-destructive evaluation, etc. The utility of the remote sensing devices themselves is greatly increased if they are passive V that is, they do not require any on-board power supply such as batteries V and if they can be identified uniquely during the sensor interrogation process. Additional passive sensor characteristics that enable greater utilization in space applications are small size and weight, long read ranges with low interrogator power, ruggedness, and operability in extreme environments (vacuum, extreme high/low temperature, high radiation, etc.) In this paper, we consider one very promising passive sensor technology, called surface acoustic wave (SAW) radio-frequency identification (RFID), that satisfies all of these criteria. In general, RFID is a method of identifying items using radio waves to interrogate tags encoded with a unique identifier that are affixed to the items of interest. In the case of passive tags, only the interrogator, which transmits power to the tags in the form of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation, requires access to a power supply. Passive RFID technologies are used today in many applications, including asset tracking and management, security and access control, and remote sensing. To date, most of the development and application in RFID technology has focused on either asset/inventory tracking and control or security and access control because these are the largest commercial application areas. Recently however, there has been growing interest in using passive RFID technology for remote sensing applications, and SAW devices are at the forefront of RFID sensing technology development. Although SAW RFID tags have great potential for use in numerous space-based remote sensing applications, the limited collision resolution capability of

  1. Raft and floating radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna systems for detecting and estimating abundance of PIT-tagged fish in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fetherman, Eric R.; Avila, Brian W.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2016-01-01

    Portable radio frequency identification (RFID) PIT tag antenna systems are increasingly being used in studies examining aquatic animal movement, survival, and habitat use, and their design flexibility permits application in a wide variety of settings. We describe the construction, use, and performance of two portable floating RFID PIT tag antenna systems designed to detect fish that were unavailable for recapture using stationary antennas or electrofishing. A raft antenna system was designed to detect and locate PIT-tagged fish in relatively long (i.e., ≥10 km) river reaches, and consisted of two antennas: (1) a horizontal antenna (4 × 1.2 m) installed on the bottom of the raft and used to detect fish in shallower river reaches (<1 m), and (2) a vertical antenna (2.7 × 1.2 m) for detecting fish in deeper pools (≥1 m). Detection distances of the horizontal antenna were between 0.7 and 1.0 m, and detection probability was 0.32 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) in a field test using rocks marked with 32-mm PIT tags. Detection probability of PIT-tagged fish in the Cache la Poudre River, Colorado, using the raft antenna system, which covered 21% of the wetted area, was 0.14 ± 0.14. A shore-deployed floating antenna (14.6 × 0.6 m), which covered 100% of the wetted area, was designed for use by two operators for detecting and locating PIT-tagged fish in shorter (i.e., <2 km) river reaches. Detection distances of the shore-deployed floating antenna were between 0.7 and 0.8 m, and detection probabilities during field deployment in the St. Vrain River exceeded 0.52. The shore-deployed floating antenna was also used to estimate abundance of PIT-tagged fish. Results suggest that the shore-deployed floating antenna could be used as an alternative to estimating abundance using traditional sampling methods such as electrofishing.

  2. Presence at a distance.

    PubMed

    Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays in the context of the cyberculture, computer-mediated inter-subjective relationships are part of our everyday lives, in both the professional and personal spheres, and for all age groups. In the clinical field, many applications have been developed to facilitate the exchange of informations and mediate the relationship between patient and therapist. In psychology, more or less immersive technologies are used, to encourage the feeling of presence among the users, and to trigger certain psychological processes. In our research, we have explored the remote clinical interview through videoconferencing, with the development and utilisation of the iPSY platform, totally focused on this objective. In this context, we have considered the notion of intersubjectivity, despite the physical absence. This research is leading us today to envision the notions of distance and presence, and possibly to redefine them. Thus, can we still oppose physical distance to psychological distance? Can we still affirm that the physical absence does not permit a psychological co-presence in certain interactions, like this observed in video interviews? The results show that the psychological processes, activated in this context, are similar to those observed in "traditional" clinical consults between the patient and the therapist. However, certain specifics have led us to consider the concept of distance, here influenced by the framework, and to observe its effects. This distance could possibly constitute a therapeutic lever for some patients, notably for those who have difficulties establishing the right psychological distance in their relationships with others. According to these results, can "distance" still be opposed to "presence", or could it be re-defined? This also opens up questions on the more general concept of digital relationships, and the definition of their specificities. PMID:26799909

  3. Closeness to spheres of hypersurfaces with normal curvature bounded below

    SciTech Connect

    Borisenko, A A; Drach, K D

    2013-11-30

    For a Riemannian manifold M{sup n+1} and a compact domain Ω⊂ M{sup n+1} bounded by a hypersurface ∂Ω with normal curvature bounded below, estimates are obtained in terms of the distance from O to ∂Ω for the angle between the geodesic line joining a fixed interior point O in Ω to a point on ∂Ω and the outward normal to the surface. Estimates for the width of a spherical shell containing such a hypersurface are also presented. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  4. Saturating the holographic entropy bound

    SciTech Connect

    Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Leichenauer, Stefan

    2010-10-15

    The covariant entropy bound states that the entropy, S, of matter on a light sheet cannot exceed a quarter of its initial area, A, in Planck units. The gravitational entropy of black holes saturates this inequality. The entropy of matter systems, however, falls short of saturating the bound in known examples. This puzzling gap has led to speculation that a much stronger bound, S < or approx. A{sup 3/4}, may hold true. In this note, we exhibit light sheets whose entropy exceeds A{sup 3/4} by arbitrarily large factors. In open Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes, such light sheets contain the entropy visible in the sky; in the limit of early curvature domination, the covariant bound can be saturated but not violated. As a corollary, we find that the maximum observable matter and radiation entropy in universes with positive (negative) cosmological constant is of order {Lambda}{sup -1} ({Lambda}{sup -2}), and not |{Lambda}|{sup -3/4} as had hitherto been believed. Our results strengthen the evidence for the covariant entropy bound, while showing that the stronger bound S < or approx. A{sup 3/4} is not universally valid. We conjecture that the stronger bound does hold for static, weakly gravitating systems.

  5. RFID-enabled traceability system for consignment and high value products: a case study in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Bendavid, Ygal; Boeck, Harold; Philippe, Richard

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of a hospital operating room that evaluated a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID)-enabled traceability system for the management of consignment and high value products requiring item level traceability. Results indicate that the traceability system in conjunction with the redesign of replenishment processes facilitates item level traceability, improves financial controls and case costing, upgrades service levels and reduces inventory shrinkage. Other benefits include time saved from non-value-added activities that can be transferred to patient care activities. The solution can be considered (i) as an alternative to RFID-enabled cabinets used in the replenishment of consignment and high value supplies in certain operating rooms, cardiac catheterization laboratories and interventional radiology departments, or (ii) as a complementary solution facilitating the tracking of medical devices removed from RFID-enabled cabinets. In short, the end-to-end traceability of medical products in the healthcare supply chain can be significantly enhanced. PMID:22105627

  6. Stereoscopic distance perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Limited cue, open-loop tasks in which a human observer indicates distances or relations among distances are discussed. By open-loop tasks, it is meant tasks in which the observer gets no feedback as to the accuracy of the responses. What happens when cues are added and when the loop is closed are considered. The implications of this research for the effectiveness of visual displays is discussed. Errors in visual distance tasks do not necessarily mean that the percept is in error. The error could arise in transformations that intervene between the percept and the response. It is argued that the percept is in error. It is also argued that there exist post-perceptual transformations that may contribute to the error or be modified by feedback to correct for the error.

  7. Bounding the elliptic Mahler measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinner, Christopher

    1998-11-01

    We give a simple inequality relating the elliptic Mahler measure of a polynomial to the traditional Mahler measure (via the length of the polynomial). These bounds are essentially sharp. We also give the corresponding result for polynomials in several variables.

  8. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  9. Copyright and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKnight, Carol B.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on three workshops offering copyright education for library and computer services staff and administrators. Topics covered included: copyright (e.g., the Copyright Act of 1976 and classroom teaching); digital distance education issues (application of fair use to on-line teaching); and compliance (under the Digital Millennium Copyright…

  10. Distance Learning Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Jesus Ricardo; And Others

    This resource guide for distance learning information, courses, and programming covers: (1) audiographics programming by the Pennsylvania Teleteaching Project; (2) cable programming, including the Cable Alliance for Education's Cable in the Classroom projects, Consumer News and Business Channel, Nostalgia Television, PENNARAMA Channel, Silent…

  11. Prospect of Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Monsurur; Karim, Reza; Byramjee, Framarz

    2015-01-01

    Many educational institutions in the United States are currently offering programs through distance learning, and that trend is rising. In almost all spheres of education a developing country like Bangladesh needs to make available the expertise of the most qualified faculty to her distant people. But the fundamental question remains as to whether…

  12. Personalizing Distance Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs-Richardson, Rita

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how a personal approach to online learning can yield a successful experience for adults earning advanced degrees or certification in teaching. Distance learning has become increasingly popular among learners with family and work obligations. Degree-seeking adult learners appreciate the flexibility and convenience of learning…

  13. Focus on Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grenzky, Janet; Maitland, Christine

    2001-01-01

    As a followup to a survey of distance education faculty, the National Education Association conducted two 3-hour focus groups with 12 higher education faculty members in June 2000. The purpose of the groups was to gain more understanding of the complexity of feelings and opinions expressed in a telephone survey conducted in March 2000. The…

  14. Going the Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barack, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Sixty years ago, distance education probably involved a pen, paper, and secretarial classes conducted via snail mail. Today, students in ever-increasing numbers are more likely to link to the Internet to learn how to conjugate French verbs or dissect frogs in Advanced Placement courses, according to a new landmark study from the U. S. Department…

  15. Training Distance Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingesman, Lars

    1993-01-01

    Outlines a course designed to enable distance teachers to develop and teach courses using computer-mediated communication and emphasizing basic pedagogy. The teaching strategies and learning points of each module, as well as the organizational and technical set-up, are described. (Contains seven references.) (EAM)

  16. Distance education in nursing.

    PubMed

    Billings, D M

    1996-01-01

    Although not for everyone, distance education is a "connecting point" for faculty and students who are separated by time and space. As technology becomes increasingly available to nurse educators, the instructional and public relations advantages become significant benefits to nurse educators. PMID:8718839

  17. Distance Learning's Growing Reach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, John; Reese, Bob

    1995-01-01

    Examines the use of videoconferencing and video broadcasts for distance learning and presents examples: the Georgia Statewide Academic and Medical System, California State University System, Kansas City Education Network, Impact North Carolina, the School of Visual Arts in Manhattan, National Technological University, GALAXY Classroom, and…

  18. Misconceptions of Astronomical Distances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Brian W.; Brewer, William F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies using multiple-choice procedures have suggested that there are misconceptions about the scale of astronomical distances. The present study provides a quantitative estimate of the nature of this misconception among US university students by asking them, in an open-ended response format, to make estimates of the distances…

  19. Rapport in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Rapport has been recognized as important in learning in general but little is known about its importance in distance education (DE). The study we report on in this paper provides insights into the importance of rapport in DE as well as challenges to and indicators of rapport-building in DE. The study relied on interviews with 42 Canadian…

  20. Equity and Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Elaine; Waghid, Yusef

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how distance education can solve South Africa's problems of access to quality higher education, noting the need for radical shifts in perspective and sophisticated understanding of academic literacy. Explores key features of proposals by the Council on Higher Education (developing human capital and reducing high levels of structural…

  1. Interacting quantum walkers: two-body bosonic and fermionic bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Luck, J. M.; Mallick, K.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the dynamics of bound states of two interacting particles, either bosons or fermions, performing a continuous-time quantum walk on a one-dimensional lattice. We consider the situation where the distance between both particles has a hard bound, and the richer situation where the particles are bound by a smooth confining potential. The main emphasis is on the velocity characterizing the ballistic spreading of these bound states, and on the structure of the asymptotic distribution profile of their center-of-mass coordinate. The latter profile generically exhibits many internal fronts.

  2. Distance approximating dimension reduction of Riemannian manifolds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Changyou; Zhang, Junping; Fleischer, Rudolf

    2010-02-01

    We study the problem of projecting high-dimensional tensor data on an unspecified Riemannian manifold onto some lower dimensional subspace We note that, technically, the low-dimensional space we compute may not be a subspace of the original high-dimensional space. However, it is convenient to envision it as a subspace when explaining the algorithms. without much distorting the pairwise geodesic distances between data points on the Riemannian manifold while preserving discrimination ability. Existing algorithms, e.g., ISOMAP, that try to learn an isometric embedding of data points on a manifold have a nonsatisfactory discrimination ability in practical applications such as face and gait recognition. In this paper, we propose a two-stage algorithm named tensor-based Riemannian manifold distance-approximating projection (TRIMAP), which can quickly compute an approximately optimal projection for a given tensor data set. In the first stage, we construct a graph from labeled or unlabeled data, which correspond to the supervised and unsupervised scenario, respectively, such that we can use the graph distance to obtain an upper bound on an objective function that preserves pairwise geodesic distances. Then, we perform some tensor-based optimization of this upper bound to obtain a projection onto a low-dimensional subspace. In the second stage, we propose three different strategies to enhance the discrimination ability, i.e., make data points from different classes easier to separate and make data points in the same class more compact. Experimental results on two benchmark data sets from the University of South Florida human gait database and the Face Recognition Technology face database show that the discrimination ability of TRIMAP exceeds that of other popular algorithms. We theoretically show that TRIMAP converges. We demonstrate, through experiments on six synthetic data sets, its potential ability to unfold nonlinear manifolds in the first stage. PMID:19622439

  3. A RFID specific participatory design approach to support design and implementation of real-time location systems in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Guédon, A C P; Wauben, L S G L; de Korne, D F; Overvelde, M; Dankelman, J; van den Dobbelsteen, J J

    2015-01-01

    Information technology, such as real-time location (RTL) systems using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) may contribute to overcome patient safety issues and high costs in healthcare. The aim of this work is to study if a RFID specific Participatory Design (PD) approach supports the design and the implementation of RTL systems in the Operating Room (OR). A RFID specific PD approach was used to design and implement two RFID based modules. The Device Module monitors the safety status of OR devices and the Patient Module tracks the patients' locations during their hospital stay. The PD principles 'multidisciplinary team', 'participation users (active involvement)' and 'early adopters' were used to include users from the RFID company, the university and the hospital. The design and implementation process consisted of two 'structured cycles' ('iterations'). The effectiveness of this approach was assessed by the acceptance in terms of level of use, continuity of the project and purchase. The Device Module included eight strategic and twelve tactical actions and the Patient Module included six strategic and twelve tactical actions. Both modules are now used on a daily basis and are purchased by the hospitals for continued use. The RFID specific PD approach was effective in guiding and supporting the design and implementation process of RFID technology in the OR. The multidisciplinary teams and their active participation provided insights in the social and the organizational context of the hospitals making it possible to better fit the technology to the hospitals' (future) needs. PMID:25503417

  4. Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Y.-Y.; Rawal, A.; Schmidt-Rohr, K.

    2010-10-12

    Nanocrystals of apatitic calcium phosphate impart the organic-inorganic nanocomposite in bone with favorable mechanical properties. So far, the factors preventing crystal growth beyond the favorable thickness of ca. 3 nm have not been identified. Here we show that the apatite surfaces are studded with strongly bound citrate molecules, whose signals have been identified unambiguously by multinuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. NMR reveals that bound citrate accounts for 5.5 wt% of the organic matter in bone and covers apatite at a density of about 1 molecule per (2 nm){sup 2}, with its three carboxylate groups at distances of 0.3 to 0.45 nm from the apatite surface. Bound citrate is highly conserved, being found in fish, avian, and mammalian bone, which indicates its critical role in interfering with crystal thickening and stabilizing the apatite nanocrystals in bone

  5. Distance Training as Part of a Distance Consulting Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulantelli, Giovanni; Chiazzese, Giuseppe; Allegra, Mario

    "Distance Training" models, when integrated in a more complex framework, such as a "Distance Consulting" model, present specific features and impose a revision of the strategies commonly adopted in distance training experiences. This paper reports on the distance training strategies adopted in a European funded project aimed at defining and…

  6. Celebrating Distance Teaching Innovations: The Certificate in Distance Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Colin; Tuovinen, Juhani

    Charles Sturt University (Riverina, Australia) has initiated the Certificate in Distance Teaching course for rural teachers working in a distance education setting to extend their understandings about rural and distance education topics. Two semester-long subjects constitute the course: pedagogy of distance teaching and organization of distance…

  7. Effect of Geographic Distance on Distance Education: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Heng; Robinson, Anthony C.; Detwiler, Jim

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of geographic distance on students' distance learning experience with the aim to provide tentative answers to a fundamental question--does geographic distance matter in distance education? Using educational outcome data collected from an online master's program in Geographic Information Systems, this…

  8. Development of an ease-of-use remote healthcare system architecture using RFID and networking technologies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Sung; Hung, Min-Hsiung; Tsai, Chang-Lung; Chou, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The study aims to provide an ease-of-use approach for senior patients to utilize remote healthcare systems. An ease-of-use remote healthcare system (RHS) architecture using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) and networking technologies is developed. Specifically, the codes in RFID tags are used for authenticating the patients' ID to secure and ease the login process. The patient needs only to take one action, i.e. placing a RFID tag onto the reader, to automatically login and start the RHS and then acquire automatic medical services. An ease-of-use emergency monitoring and reporting mechanism is developed as well to monitor and protect the safety of the senior patients who have to be left alone at home. By just pressing a single button, the RHS can automatically report the patient's emergency information to the clinic side so that the responsible medical personnel can take proper urgent actions for the patient. Besides, Web services technology is used to build the Internet communication scheme of the RHS so that the interoperability and data transmission security between the home server and the clinical server can be enhanced. A prototype RHS is constructed to validate the effectiveness of our designs. Testing results show that the proposed RHS architecture possesses the characteristics of ease to use, simplicity to operate, promptness in login, and no need to preserve identity information. The proposed RHS architecture can effectively increase the willingness of senior patients who act slowly or are unfamiliar with computer operations to use the RHS. The research results can be used as an add-on for developing future remote healthcare systems. PMID:22382524

  9. An Integrated RFID and Barcode Tagged Item Inventory System for Deployment at New Brunswick Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; Kuhn, Michael J; Gradle, Colleen; Preston, Lynne; Thomas, Brigham B.; Laymance, Leesa K; Kuziel, Ron

    2012-01-01

    New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) has a numerous inventory containing thousands of plutonium and uranium certified reference materials. The current manual inventory process is well established but is a lengthy process which requires significant oversight and double checking to ensure correctness. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has worked with NBL to develop and deploy a new inventory system which utilizes handheld computers with barcode scanners and radio frequency identification (RFID) readers termed the Tagged Item Inventory System (TIIS). Certified reference materials are identified by labels which incorporate RFID tags and barcodes. The label printing process and RFID tag association process are integrated into the main desktop software application. Software on the handheld computers syncs with software on designated desktop machines and the NBL inventory database to provide a seamless inventory process. This process includes: 1) identifying items to be inventoried, 2) downloading the current inventory information to the handheld computer, 3) using the handheld to read item and location labels, and 4) syncing the handheld computer with a designated desktop machine to analyze the results, print reports, etc. The security of this inventory software has been a major concern. Designated roles linked to authenticated logins are used to control access to the desktop software while password protection and badge verification are used to control access to the handheld computers. The overall system design and deployment at NBL will be presented. The performance of the system will also be discussed with respect to a small piece of the overall inventory. Future work includes performing a full inventory at NBL with the Tagged Item Inventory System and comparing performance, cost, and radiation exposures to the current manual inventory process.

  10. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Yuval R.; Wallman, Joel J.; Sanders, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.

  11. Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Yuval; Wallman, Joel; Sanders, Barry

    Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli-distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli-distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.

  12. Quantum state discrimination bounds for finite sample size

    SciTech Connect

    Audenaert, Koenraad M. R.; Mosonyi, Milan; Verstraete, Frank

    2012-12-15

    In the problem of quantum state discrimination, one has to determine by measurements the state of a quantum system, based on the a priori side information that the true state is one of the two given and completely known states, {rho} or {sigma}. In general, it is not possible to decide the identity of the true state with certainty, and the optimal measurement strategy depends on whether the two possible errors (mistaking {rho} for {sigma}, or the other way around) are treated as of equal importance or not. Results on the quantum Chernoff and Hoeffding bounds and the quantum Stein's lemma show that, if several copies of the system are available then the optimal error probabilities decay exponentially in the number of copies, and the decay rate is given by a certain statistical distance between {rho} and {sigma} (the Chernoff distance, the Hoeffding distances, and the relative entropy, respectively). While these results provide a complete solution to the asymptotic problem, they are not completely satisfying from a practical point of view. Indeed, in realistic scenarios one has access only to finitely many copies of a system, and therefore it is desirable to have bounds on the error probabilities for finite sample size. In this paper we provide finite-size bounds on the so-called Stein errors, the Chernoff errors, the Hoeffding errors, and the mixed error probabilities related to the Chernoff and the Hoeffding errors.

  13. RFID Based Context Information Security System Architecture for Securing Personal Information under Ubiquitous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jae-Gu; Park, Gil-Cheol; Kim, Seoksoo

    2007-12-01

    In this study, framework for securing personal information among various contexts collected and utilized under ubiquitous environment is proposed. The proposed framework will analyze relativity among information used to determine the exposure of personal information according to circumstances where personal information is used. In addition, the study will define the definition of role-based structure and propose a structure applying password security system according to access level. Furthermore, the study will propose a method for building information security system using RFID tag information which generates context information.

  14. Detection, Identification, Location, and Remote Sensing Using SAW RFID Sensor Tags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Kennedy, Timothy F.; Williams, Robert M.; Fink, Patrick W.; Ngo, Phong H.

    2009-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) of the Avionic Systems Division at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX is studying the utility of surface acoustic wave (SAW) radiofrequency identification (RFID) tags for multiple wireless applications including detection, identification, tracking, and remote sensing of objects on the lunar surface, monitoring of environmental test facilities, structural shape and health monitoring, and nondestructive test and evaluation of assets. For all of these applications, it is anticipated that the system utilized to interrogate the SAW RFID tags may need to operate at fairly long range and in the presence of considerable multipath and multiple-access interference. Towards that end, EV4 is developing a prototype SAW RFID wireless interrogation system for use in such environments called the Passive Adaptive RFID Sensor Equipment (PARSED) system. The system utilizes a digitally beam-formed planar receiving antenna array to extend range and provide direction-of-arrival information coupled with an approximate maximum-likelihood signal processing algorithm to provide near-optimal estimation of both range and temperature. The system is capable of forming a large number of beams within the field of view and resolving the information from several tags within each beam. The combination of both spatial and waveform discrimination provides the capability to track and monitor telemetry from a large number of objects appearing simultaneously within the field of view of the receiving array. In this paper, we will consider the application of the PARSEQ system to the problem of simultaneous detection, identification, localization, and temperature estimation for multiple objects. We will summarize the overall design of the PARSEQ system and present a detailed description of the design and performance of the signal detection and estimation algorithms incorporated in the system. The system is currently configured only to measure temperature

  15. Geodetic distance measuring apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A mode locked laser system including a laser device and its peripheral components is utilized for deriving two mutually phase locked optical wavelength signals and one phase locked microwave CW signal which respectively traverse the same distance measurement path. Preferably the optical signals are comprised of pulse type signals. Phase comparison of the two optical wavelength pulse signals is used to provide a measure of the dry air density while phase comparison of one of the optical wavelength pulse signals and the microwave CW signal is used to provide a measure of the wet or water vapor density of the air. From these measurements is computed in means of the distance to be measured corrected for the atmospheric dry and water vapor densities in the measurement path.

  16. The sound of distance.

    PubMed

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. PMID:27062226

  17. Theoretical Principles of Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Desmond, Ed.

    This book contains the following papers examining the didactic, academic, analytic, philosophical, and technological underpinnings of distance education: "Introduction"; "Quality and Access in Distance Education: Theoretical Considerations" (D. Randy Garrison); "Theory of Transactional Distance" (Michael G. Moore); "Distance Education in a…

  18. Novae as distance indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, Holland C.; Ciardullo, Robin

    1988-01-01

    Nova shells are characteristically prolate with equatorial bands and polar caps. Failure to account for the geometry can lead to large errors in expansion parallaxes for individual novae. When simple prescriptions are used for deriving expansion parallaxes from an ensemble of randomly oriented prolate spheroids, the average distance will be too small by factors of 10 to 15 percent. The absolute magnitudes of the novae will be underestimated and the resulting distance scale will be too small by the same factors. If observations of partially resolved nova shells select for large inclinations, the systematic error in the resulting distance scale could easily be 20 to 30 percent. Extinction by dust in the bulge of M31 may broaden and shift the intrinsic distribution of maximum nova magnitudes versus decay rates. We investigated this possibility by projecting Arp's and Rosino's novae onto a composite B - 6200A color map of M31's bulge. Thirty two of the 86 novae projected onto a smooth background with no underlying structure due to the presence of a dust cloud along the line of sight. The distribution of maximum magnitudes versus fade rates for these unreddened novae is indistinguishable from the distribution for the entire set of novae. It is concluded that novae suffer very little extinction from the filamentary and patchy distribution of dust seen in the bulge of M31. Time average B and H alpha nova luminosity functions are potentially powerful new ways to use novae as standard candles. Modern CCD observations and the photographic light curves of M31 novae found during the last 60 years were analyzed to show that these functions are power laws. Consequently, unless the eruption times for novae are known, the data cannot be used to obtain distances.

  19. Nutrition for distance events.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Millet, Gregoire; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to optimize their performance during training sessions and to recover quickly afterwards. Carbohydrate and fluid intake before, during, and after a workout may help to reduce fatigue and enhance performance. Recovery eating should also consider issues for adaptation and the immune system that may involve intakes of protein and some micronutrients. Race preparation strategies should include preparation of adequate fuel stores, including carbohydrate loading for prolonged events such as the marathon or 50-km walk. Fluid and carbohydrate intake during races lasting an hour or more should also be considered. Sports foods and supplements of value to distance athletes include sports drinks and liquid meal supplements to allow nutrition goals to be achieved when normal foods are not practical. While caffeine is an ergogenic aid of possible value to distance athletes, most other supplements are of minimal benefit. PMID:18049981

  20. Bound polarons in semiconductor nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woggon, U.; Miller, D.; Kalina, F.; Gerlach, B.; Kayser, D.; Leonardi, K.; Hommel, D.

    2003-01-01

    Bound polarons are discrete, confined electronic states, spatially localized due to a local potential V(r) but sharing a common phonon state of the surrounding crystal. We study the energy states of polarons bound in a potential and determine the local optical absorption spectrum up to first-order time-dependent perturbation theory with respect to the electron-photon interaction. The model is applied to describe the optical properties of submonolayer CdSe insertions epitaxially grown between ZnSe layers. As a typical signature of bound polarons we found excited-state energies equidistantly separated by the LO phonon energy and with optical transition probabilities determined by the anisotropies in V(r).

  1. Unitarity bound for gluon shadowing

    SciTech Connect

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Levin, E.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2009-06-15

    Although at small Bjorken x gluons originated from different nucleons in a nucleus overlap in the longitudinal direction, most of them are still well separated in the transverse plane and therefore cannot fuse. For this reason the gluon density in nuclei cannot drop at small x below a certain bottom bound, which we evaluated in a model independent manner assuming the maximal strength of gluon fusion. We also calculated gluon shadowing in the saturated regime using the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation and found the nuclear ratio to be well above the unitarity bound. The recently updated analysis of parton distributions in nuclei, including BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) data on high-p{sub T} hadron production at forward rapidities, led to strong gluon shadowing. Such strong shadowing and therefore the interpretation of the nuclear modification of the p{sub T} spectra in dA collisions at RHIC seem to be inconsistent with this unitarity bound.

  2. Using RFID Tagging in a Mining Industry Maintenance, Repair, and Operating (MRO) Supply Warehouse: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, George D.

    2008-01-01

    The use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has been shown to be successful by reducing operating costs in the retail and manufacturing industries, but has never been considered in the literature for a mining industry maintenance, repair, and operating (MRO) supply chain. This field study was conducted to determine whether or not…

  3. Accuracy of a radiofrequency identification (RFID) badge system to monitor hand hygiene behavior during routine clinical activities

    PubMed Central

    Pineles, Lisa L.; Morgan, Daniel J.; Limper, Heather M.; Weber, Stephen G.; Thom, Kerri A.; Perencevich, Eli N.; Harris, Anthony D.; Landon, Emily M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene (HH) is a critical part of infection prevention in healthcare settings. Hospitals around the world continuously struggle to improve healthcare personnel (HCP) HH compliance. The current gold standard for monitoring compliance is direct observation; however this method is time consuming and costly. One emerging area of interest involves automated systems for monitoring HH behavior such as radiofrequency identification (RFID) tracking systems. Methods To assess the accuracy of a commercially available RFID system in detecting HCP HH behavior, we compared direct observation to data collected by the RFID system in a simulated validation setting and to a real-life clinical setting over two hospitals. Results A total of 1554 HH events were observed. Accuracy for identifying HH events was high in the simulated validation setting (88.5%) but relatively low in the real-life clinical setting (52.4%). This difference was significant (p<0.01). Accuracy for detecting HCP movement into and out of patient rooms was also high in the simulated setting but not in the real-life clinical setting (100% on entry and exit in simulated setting vs. 54.3% entry and 49.5% exit in real-life clinical setting, p<.01). Conclusions In this validation study of an RFID system, almost half of the HH events were missed. More research is necessary to further develop these systems and improve accuracy prior to widespread adoption. PMID:24355492

  4. Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Manuel

    2011-06-15

    Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

  5. Distance to Dark Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Using the unique orbit of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and a depth-perceiving trick called parallax, astronomers have determined the distance to an invisible Milky Way object called OGLE-2005-SMC-001. This artist's concept illustrates how this trick works: different views from both Spitzer and telescopes on Earth are combined to give depth perception.

    Our Milky Way galaxy is heavier than it looks, and scientists use the term 'dark matter' to describe all the 'heavy stuff' in the universe that seems to be present but invisible to our telescopes. While much of this dark matter is likely made up of exotic materials, different from the ordinary particles that make up the world around us, some may consist of dark celestial bodies -- like planets, black holes, or failed stars -- that do not produce light or are too faint to detect from Earth. OGLE-2005-SMC-001 is one of these dark celestial bodies.

    Although astronomers cannot see a dark body, they can sense its presence from the way light acts around it. When a dark body like OGLE-2005-SMC-001 passes in front of a bright star, its gravity causes the background starlight to bend and brighten, a process called gravitational microlensing. When the observing telescope, dark body, and star system are closely aligned, the microlensing event reaches maximum, or peak, brightness.

    A team of astronomers first sensed OGLE-2005-SMC-001's presence when it passed in front of a star in a neighboring satellite galaxy called the Small Magellanic Cloud. In this artist's rendering, the satellite galaxy is depicted as the fuzzy structure sitting to the left of Earth. Once they detected this microlensing event, the scientists used Spitzer and the principle of parallax to figure out its distance. Humans naturally use parallax to determine distance. Each eye sees the distance of an object differently. The brain takes each eye's perspective and instantaneously calculates how far away the object is.

    To determine OGLE

  6. Autonomous sensor-transponder RFID with supply energy conditioning for object navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, M.; Kamuda, K.; Jankowski-Mihułowicz, P.; Kalita, W.; Weglarski, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    The properties of energy conditioning electrical circuits that are developed for powering additional functional blocks of autonomous RFID transponders working in the HF band have been analyzed and presented in the paper. The concept of autonomy is realized by implementing extra functions in the typical transponder. First of all, the autonomous system should harvest energy, e.g. from the electromagnetic field of read/write devices but also the possibility of gathering information about environment should be available, e.g. by measuring different kind of physical quantities. In such an electrical device, the crucial problem consists in energy conditioning because the output voltage-current characteristic of an front-end (antenna with matching and harvesting circuit) as well as the total and instantaneous power load generated by internal circuits are strongly dependent on a realized function but also on energy and communication conditions in the RFID interface. The properly designed solution should improve harvesting efficiency, current leakage of supply storage, matching between antenna and input circuits, in order to save energy and increase operating time in such a battery-free system. The authors present methods how to increase the autonomous operation time even at advanced measuring algorithms. The measuring system with wide spectrum of sensors dedicated for different quantities (physical, chemical, etc.) has also been presented. The results of model calculations and experimental verifications have been also discussed on the basis of investigations conducted in the unique laboratory stand of object navigation systems.

  7. "Security Theater" in the Pediatric Wing: The Case for RFID Protection for Infants in Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyld, David C.

    In a typical year, five infants are abducted by strangers from hospitals. These are devastating events for the families involved and for the health care facilities' staff and executives. This article looks at the nature of newborn and infant abductions, analyzing data on these kidnappings from the FBI and from the National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. Then, the article examines the potential for RFID (radio frequency identification) based systems to improve security in the pediatric area of hospitals, providing an overview of the technology on the market today for infant protection. The article concludes with an analysis of the ROI (return on investment) equation for health care administrators to consider in weighing their options on how to prevent a statistically unlikely, but potentially cataclysmic occurrence, at their facility. In the end, RFID-based infant protection systems can be seen as a form of "security theater," serving as a "palliative countermeasure" that will indeed work - both substantively and psychologically - to promote a more secure hospital environment for moms and their newborns.

  8. Design and Implementation of a RF Powering Circuit for RFID Tags or Other Batteryless Embedded Devices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongsheng; Wang, Rencai; Yao, Ke; Zou, Xuecheng; Guo, Liang

    2014-01-01

    A RF powering circuit used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and other batteryless embedded devices is presented in this paper. The RF powering circuit harvests energy from electromagnetic waves and converts the RF energy to a stable voltage source. Analysis of a NMOS gate-cross connected bridge rectifier is conducted to demonstrate relationship between device sizes and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier. A rectifier with 38.54% PCE under normal working conditions is designed. Moreover, a stable voltage regulator with a temperature and voltage optimizing strategy including adoption of a combination resistor is developed, which is able to accommodate a large input range of 4 V to 12 V and be immune to temperature variations. Latch-up prevention and noise isolation methods in layout design are also presented. Designed with the HJTC 0.25 μm process, this regulator achieves 0.04 mV/°C temperature rejection ratio (TRR) and 2.5 mV/V voltage rejection ratio (VRR). The RF powering circuit is also fabricated in the HJTC 0.25 μm process. The area of the RF powering circuit is 0.23 × 0.24 mm2. The RF powering circuit is successfully integrated with ISO/IEC 15693-compatible and ISO/IEC 14443-compatible RFID tag chips. PMID:25123466

  9. Design and implementation of a RF powering circuit for RFID tags or other batteryless embedded devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongsheng; Wang, Rencai; Yao, Ke; Zou, Xuecheng; Guo, Liang

    2014-01-01

    A RF powering circuit used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and other batteryless embedded devices is presented in this paper. The RF powering circuit harvests energy from electromagnetic waves and converts the RF energy to a stable voltage source. Analysis of a NMOS gate-cross connected bridge rectifier is conducted to demonstrate relationship between device sizes and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier. A rectifier with 38.54% PCE under normal working conditions is designed. Moreover, a stable voltage regulator with a temperature and voltage optimizing strategy including adoption of a combination resistor is developed, which is able to accommodate a large input range of 4 V to 12 V and be immune to temperature variations. Latch-up prevention and noise isolation methods in layout design are also presented. Designed with the HJTC 0.25 μm process, this regulator achieves 0.04 mV/°C temperature rejection ratio (TRR) and 2.5 mV/V voltage rejection ratio (VRR). The RF powering circuit is also fabricated in the HJTC 0.25 μm process. The area of the RF powering circuit is 0.23 × 0.24 mm². The RF powering circuit is successfully integrated with ISO/IEC 15693-compatible and ISO/IEC 14443-compatible RFID tag chips. PMID:25123466

  10. Evaluation of thermal and non-thermal effects of UHF RFID exposure on biological drugs.

    PubMed

    Calcagnini, Giovanni; Censi, Federica; Maffia, Michele; Mainetti, Luca; Mattei, Eugenio; Patrono, Luigi; Urso, Emanuela

    2012-11-01

    The Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology promises to improve several processes in the healthcare scenario, especially those related to traceability of people and things. Unfortunately, there are still some barriers limiting the large-scale deployment of these innovative technologies in the healthcare field. Among these, the evaluation of potential thermal and non-thermal effects due to the exposure of biopharmaceutical products to electromagnetic fields is very challenging, but still slightly investigated. This paper aims to setup a controlled RF exposure environment, in order to reproduce a worst-case exposure of pharmaceutical products to the electromagnetic fields generated by the UHF RFID devices placed along the supply chain. Radiated powers several times higher than recommended by current normative limits were applied (10 W and 20 W). The electric field strength at the exposed sample location, used in tests, was as high as 100 V/m. Non-thermal effects were evaluated by chromatography techniques and in vitro assays. The results obtained for a particular case study, the ActrapidTM human insulin preparation, showed temperature increases lower than 0.5 °C and no significant changes in the structure and performance of the considered drug. PMID:22717524

  11. Advanced hierarchical distance sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, Andy

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we cover a number of important extensions of the basic hierarchical distance-sampling (HDS) framework from Chapter 8. First, we discuss the inclusion of “individual covariates,” such as group size, in the HDS model. This is important in many surveys where animals form natural groups that are the primary observation unit, with the size of the group expected to have some influence on detectability. We also discuss HDS integrated with time-removal and double-observer or capture-recapture sampling. These “combined protocols” can be formulated as HDS models with individual covariates, and thus they have a commonality with HDS models involving group structure (group size being just another individual covariate). We cover several varieties of open-population HDS models that accommodate population dynamics. On one end of the spectrum, we cover models that allow replicate distance sampling surveys within a year, which estimate abundance relative to availability and temporary emigration through time. We consider a robust design version of that model. We then consider models with explicit dynamics based on the Dail and Madsen (2011) model and the work of Sollmann et al. (2015). The final major theme of this chapter is relatively newly developed spatial distance sampling models that accommodate explicit models describing the spatial distribution of individuals known as Point Process models. We provide novel formulations of spatial DS and HDS models in this chapter, including implementations of those models in the unmarked package using a hack of the pcount function for N-mixture models.

  12. Wronskian Method for Bound States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Francisco M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method based on Wronskians for the calculation of bound-state energies and wavefunctions of one-dimensional quantum-mechanical problems. We explicitly discuss the asymptotic behaviour of the wavefunction and show that the allowed energies make the divergent part vanish. As illustrative examples we consider…

  13. Teacher Education in Outward Bound.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Richard A.

    A series of Outward Bound programs and experiences was planned for El Paso County, Colorado, school teachers to increase their awareness of their personal characteristics, especially those that might enhance learning on the part of their students. Part of the planning for the program involved a survey of county high school teachers, counselors,…

  14. Inkjet-Printed Paper-Based RFID and Nanotechnology-Based Ultrasensitive Sensors: The "Green" Ultimate Solution for an Ever Improving Life Quality and Safety?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tentzeris, Manos; Yang, Li

    The paper introduces the integration of conformal paper-based RFID's with a Single Walled Carbon Nanotube (SW-CNT) composite for the development of a chipless RFID-enabled wireless sensor node for toxic gas detection and breathing-gas-content estimation. The electrical performance of the inkjet-printed SWCNT-based ultra-sensitive sensor if reported up to 1GHz. The whole module is realized by inkjet-printing on a low-cost "green" paper-based substrate designed to operate in the European UHF RFID band. The electrical conductivity of the SWCNT film changes in the presence of ultra-small quantities of gases like ammonia and nitrogen dioxide, resulting in the variation of the backscattered power level which can be easily detected by the RFID reader to realize reliable early-warning toxic gas detection or breathing monitoring with potentially profound effects on ubiquitous low-cost "green" quality-of-life applications.

  15. Titania bound sodium titanate ion exchanger

    DOEpatents

    DeFilippi, Irene C. G.; Yates, Stephen Frederic; Shen, Jian-Kun; Gaita, Romulus; Sedath, Robert Henry; Seminara, Gary Joseph; Straszewski, Michael Peter; Anderson, David Joseph

    1999-03-23

    This invention is method for preparing a titania bound ion exchange composition comprising admixing crystalline sodium titanate and a hydrolyzable titanium compound and, thereafter drying the titania bound crystalline sodium titanate and subjecting the dried titania bound ion exchange composition to optional compaction and calcination steps to improve the physical strength of the titania bound composition.

  16. Distance collaborations with industry

    SciTech Connect

    Peskin, A.; Swyler, K.

    1998-06-01

    The college industry relationship has been identified as a key policy issue in Engineering Education. Collaborations between academic institutions and the industrial sector have a long history and a bright future. For Engineering and Engineering Technology programs in particular, industry has played a crucial role in many areas including advisement, financial support, and practical training of both faculty and students. Among the most important and intimate interactions are collaborative projects and formal cooperative education arrangements. Most recently, such collaborations have taken on a new dimension, as advances in technology have made possible meaningful technical collaboration at a distance. There are several obvious technology areas that have contributed significantly to this trend. Foremost is the ubiquitous presence of the Internet. Perhaps almost as important are advances in computer based imaging. Because visual images offer a compelling user experience, it affords greater knowledge transfer efficiency than other modes of delivery. Furthermore, the quality of the image appears to have a strongly correlated effect on insight. A good visualization facility offers both a means for communication and a shared information space for the subjects, which are among the essential features of both peer collaboration and distance learning.

  17. Time-Distance Helioseismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Time-distance helioseismology is a method of ambient noise imaging using the solar oscillations. The basic realization that led to time-distance helioseismology was that the temporal cross correlation of the signals at two 'surface' (or photospheric) locations should show a feature at the time lag corresponding to the subsurface travel time between the locations. The temporal cross correlation, as a function of the location separation, is the Fourier transform of the spatio-temporal power spectrum of the solar oscillations, a commonly used function in helioseismology. It is therefore likely the characteristic ridge structure of the correlation function had been seen before without appreciation of its significance. Travel times are measured from the cross correlations. The times are sensitive to a number of important subsurface solar phenomena. These include sound speed variations, flows, and magnetic fields. There has been much interesting progress in the 17 years since the first paper on this subject (Duvall et al., Nature, 1993, 362, 430-432). This progress will be reviewed in this paper.

  18. Transversely bounded DFB lasers. [bounded distributed-feedback lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.; Evans, G.; Yeh, C.

    1975-01-01

    Bounded distributed-feedback (DFB) lasers are studied in detail. Threshold gain and field distribution for a number of configurations are derived and analyzed. More specifically, the thin-film guide, fiber, diffusion guide, and hollow channel with inhomogeneous-cladding DFB lasers are considered. Optimum points exist and must be used in DFB laser design. Different-modes feedback and the effects of the transverse boundaries are included. A number of applications are also discussed.

  19. Efficient Localization Bounds in a Continuous N-Particle Anderson Model with Long-Range Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulaevsky, Victor

    2016-04-01

    We establish strong dynamical and exponential spectral localization for a class of multi-particle Anderson models in a Euclidean space with an alloy-type random potential and a sub-exponentially decaying interaction of infinite range. For the first time in the mathematical literature, the uniform decay bounds on the eigenfunction correlators (EFCs) at low energies are proved, in the multi-particle continuous configuration space, in the (symmetrized) norm-distance, which is a natural distance in the multi-particle configuration space, and not in the Hausdorff distance. This results in uniform bounds on the EFCs in arbitrarily large but bounded domains in the physical configuration space, and not only in the actually infinite space, as in prior works on multi-particle localization in Euclidean spaces.

  20. Long-distance measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution with coherent-state superpositions.

    PubMed

    Yin, H-L; Cao, W-F; Fu, Y; Tang, Y-L; Liu, Y; Chen, T-Y; Chen, Z-B

    2014-09-15

    Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) with decoy-state method is believed to be securely applied to defeat various hacking attacks in practical quantum key distribution systems. Recently, the coherent-state superpositions (CSS) have emerged as an alternative to single-photon qubits for quantum information processing and metrology. Here, in this Letter, CSS are exploited as the source in MDI-QKD. We present an analytical method that gives two tight formulas to estimate the lower bound of yield and the upper bound of bit error rate. We exploit the standard statistical analysis and Chernoff bound to perform the parameter estimation. Chernoff bound can provide good bounds in the long-distance MDI-QKD. Our results show that with CSS, both the security transmission distance and secure key rate are significantly improved compared with those of the weak coherent states in the finite-data case. PMID:26466295

  1. Binaries and distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbaix, D.; Arenou, F.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Siopis, C.

    2013-02-01

    Gaia's five-year observation baseline might naively lead to the expectation that it will be possible to fit the parallax of any sufficiently nearby object with the default five-parameter model (position at a reference epoch, parallax and proper motion). However, simulated Gaia observations of a `model Universe' composed of nearly 107 objects, 50% of which turn out to be multiple stars, show that the single-star hypothesis can severely affect parallax estimation and that more sophisticated models must be adopted. In principle, screening these spurious single-star solutions is rather straightforward, for example by evaluating the quality of the fits. However, the simulated Gaia observations also reveal that some seemingly acceptable single-star solutions can nonetheless lead to erroneous distances. These solutions turn out to be binaries with an orbital period close to one year. Without auxiliary (e.g., spectroscopic) data, they will remain unnoticed.

  2. Algebraic distance on graphs.

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Safro, I.

    2011-01-01

    Measuring the connection strength between a pair of vertices in a graph is one of the most important concerns in many graph applications. Simple measures such as edge weights may not be sufficient for capturing the effects associated with short paths of lengths greater than one. In this paper, we consider an iterative process that smooths an associated value for nearby vertices, and we present a measure of the local connection strength (called the algebraic distance; see [D. Ron, I. Safro, and A. Brandt, Multiscale Model. Simul., 9 (2011), pp. 407-423]) based on this process. The proposed measure is attractive in that the process is simple, linear, and easily parallelized. An analysis of the convergence property of the process reveals that the local neighborhoods play an important role in determining the connectivity between vertices. We demonstrate the practical effectiveness of the proposed measure through several combinatorial optimization problems on graphs and hypergraphs.

  3. Distance Education at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    A number of issues in contemporary distance education are reviewed from the perspectives of distance education as practice and as a field of study. In the practice of distance education, government agendas are supplanted by institutional agendas, the clientele shifts from undergraduate second-chance learners to fee-paying postgraduates, and the…

  4. Verifying Success in Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, William D.; Clark, Heather M.; McIntyre, M. Elaine

    Appalachian State University (ASU) is a participating institution in the North Carolina Consortium for Distance Education in Communication Sciences and Disorders (CSD). This Consortium initiated a successful distance education masters program in 1997. The distance education program at ASU is actually a hybrid program, providing the opportunity for…

  5. Distance Teacher Education in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jumani, Nabi Bux; Zai, Zafar Iqbal Yousuf

    2009-01-01

    Distance education means instruction in which the instructor and student are separated by distance and interact through the assistance of communication technology. Distance education changes the learning relationship from the common, centralized school model to a more decentralized, flexible model. It also reverses social dynamics by bringing…

  6. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  7. Interactive Distance Learning in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Jesse John; Murphy, Robert J.

    This paper provides an overview of distance learning activities in Connecticut and addresses the feasibility of such activities. Distance education programs have evolved from the one dimensional electronic mail systems to the use of sophisticated digital fiber networks. The Middlesex Distance Learning Consortium has developed a long-range plan to…

  8. DISTANCES TO DARK CLOUDS: COMPARING EXTINCTION DISTANCES TO MASER PARALLAX DISTANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Jonathan B.; Jackson, James M.; Stead, Joseph J.; Hoare, Melvin G.; Benjamin, Robert A. E-mail: jackson@bu.edu E-mail: mgh@ast.leeds.ac.uk

    2012-06-01

    We test two different methods of using near-infrared extinction to estimate distances to dark clouds in the first quadrant of the Galaxy using large near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey) surveys. Very long baseline interferometry parallax measurements of masers around massive young stars provide the most direct and bias-free measurement of the distance to these dark clouds. We compare the extinction distance estimates to these maser parallax distances. We also compare these distances to kinematic distances, including recent re-calibrations of the Galactic rotation curve. The extinction distance methods agree with the maser parallax distances (within the errors) between 66% and 100% of the time (depending on method and input survey) and between 85% and 100% of the time outside of the crowded Galactic center. Although the sample size is small, extinction distance methods reproduce maser parallax distances better than kinematic distances; furthermore, extinction distance methods do not suffer from the kinematic distance ambiguity. This validation gives us confidence that these extinction methods may be extended to additional dark clouds where maser parallaxes are not available.

  9. Galaxy Cluster Smashes Distance Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-10-01

    he most distant galaxy cluster yet has been discovered by combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical and infrared telescopes. The cluster is located about 10.2 billion light years away, and is observed as it was when the Universe was only about a quarter of its present age. The galaxy cluster, known as JKCS041, beats the previous record holder by about a billion light years. Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound objects in the Universe. Finding such a large structure at this very early epoch can reveal important information about how the Universe evolved at this crucial stage. JKCS041 is found at the cusp of when scientists think galaxy clusters can exist in the early Universe based on how long it should take for them to assemble. Therefore, studying its characteristics - such as composition, mass, and temperature - will reveal more about how the Universe took shape. "This object is close to the distance limit expected for a galaxy cluster," said Stefano Andreon of the National Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) in Milan, Italy. "We don't think gravity can work fast enough to make galaxy clusters much earlier." Distant galaxy clusters are often detected first with optical and infrared observations that reveal their component galaxies dominated by old, red stars. JKCS041 was originally detected in 2006 in a survey from the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT). The distance to the cluster was then determined from optical and infrared observations from UKIRT, the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope in Hawaii and NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. Infrared observations are important because the optical light from the galaxies at large distances is shifted into infrared wavelengths because of the expansion of the universe. The Chandra data were the final - but crucial - piece of evidence as they showed that JKCS041 was, indeed, a genuine galaxy cluster. The extended X-ray emission seen by Chandra shows that hot gas has been detected

  10. Semiclassical bounds in magnetic bottles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barseghyan, Diana; Exner, Pavel; Kovařík, Hynek; Weidl, Timo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the paper is to derive spectral estimates into several classes of magnetic systems. They include three-dimensional regions with Dirichlet boundary as well as a particle in ℝ3 confined by a local change of the magnetic field. We establish two-dimensional Berezin-Li-Yau and Lieb-Thirring-type bounds in the presence of magnetic fields and, using them, get three-dimensional estimates for the eigenvalue moments of the corresponding magnetic Laplacians.

  11. 78 FR 18326 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Upward Bound and Upward Bound Math Science... Upward Bound Math Science Annual Performance Report. OMB Control Number: 1840-NEW. Type of Review: New... under the regular Upward Bound (UB) and Upward Bound Math and Science (UBMS) Programs. The Department...

  12. Hunting η-bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machner, H.

    2010-09-01

    The η meson can be bound to atomic nuclei. Experimental search is discussed in the form of final state interaction for the reactions dp → 3Heη and dd → 4Heη. For the latter case tensor polarized deuterons were used in order to extract the s-wave strength. For both reactions complex scattering lengths are deduced: a3Heη = [± (10.7 ± 0.8+0.1-0.5) + i. (1.5 ± 2.6 +1.0-0.9)] fm and a4Heη = [±(3.1 ±0.5) + i. (0 ±0.5)] fm. In a two-nucleon transfer reaction under quasi-free conditions, p27 Al → 3HeX, was investigated. The system X can be the bound 25Mgotimesη at rest. When a possible decay of an intermediate N* (1535) is required, a highly significant bump shows up in the missing mass spectrum. The data give for a bound state a binding energy of 13.3 ±1.6 MeV and a width of σ = 4.4±1.3 MeV.

  13. Comparison theory of Lorentzian distance with applications to spacelike hypersurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Alias, Luis J.; Hurtado, Ana; Palmer, Vicente

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we summarize some comparison results for the Lorentzian distance function in spacetimes, with applications to the study of the geometric analysis of the Lorentzian distance on spacelike hypersurfaces. In particular, we will consider spacelike hypersufaces whose image under the immersion is bounded in the ambient spacetime and derive sharp estimates for the mean curvature of such hypersurfaces under appropriate hypotheses on the curvature of the ambient spacetime. The results in this paper are part of our recent work, where complete details and further related results may be found.

  14. Gradient Bounds for Elliptic Problems Singular at the Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonori, Tommaso; Porretta, Alessio

    2011-11-01

    Let Ω be a bounded smooth domain in {{R}^N, N ≥q 2}, and let us denote by d( x) the distance function d( x, ∂Ω). We study a class of singular Hamilton-Jacobi equations, arising from stochastic control problems, whose simplest model is - α Δ u+ u + nabla u \\cdot B (x)/d (x)+ c(x) |nabla u|^2=f (x) quad in Ω, where f belongs to {W^{1,infty}_loc (Ω)} and is (possibly) singular at {partial Ω, cin W^{1,infty} (Ω)} (with no sign condition) and the field {Bin W^{1,infty} (Ω)^N} has an outward direction and satisfies {B\\cdot ν≥q α} at ∂Ω ( ν is the outward normal). Despite the singularity in the equation, we prove gradient bounds up to the boundary and the existence of a (globally) Lipschitz solution. We show that in some cases this is the unique bounded solution. We also discuss the stability of such estimates with respect to α, as α vanishes, obtaining Lipschitz solutions for first order problems with similar features. The main tool is a refined weighted version of the classical Bernstein method to get gradient bounds; the key role is played here by the orthogonal transport component of the Hamiltonian.

  15. Lower bounds for randomized Exclusive Write PRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, P.D.

    1995-05-02

    In this paper we study the question: How useful is randomization in speeding up Exclusive Write PRAM computations? Our results give further evidence that randomization is of limited use in these types of computations. First we examine a compaction problem on both the CREW and EREW PRAM models, and we present randomized lower bounds which match the best deterministic lower bounds known. (For the CREW PRAM model, the lower bound is asymptotically optimal.) These are the first non-trivial randomized lower bounds known for the compaction problem on these models. We show that our lower bounds also apply to the problem of approximate compaction. Next we examine the problem of computing boolean functions on the CREW PRAM model, and we present a randomized lower bound, which improves on the previous best randomized lower bound for many boolean functions, including the OR function. (The previous lower bounds for these functions were asymptotically optimal, but we improve the constant multiplicative factor.) We also give an alternate proof for the randomized lower bound on PARITY, which was already optimal to within a constant additive factor. Lastly, we give a randomized lower bound for integer merging on an EREW PRAM which matches the best deterministic lower bound known. In all our proofs, we use the Random Adversary method, which has previously only been used for proving lower bounds on models with Concurrent Write capabilities. Thus this paper also serves to illustrate the power and generality of this method for proving parallel randomized lower bounds.

  16. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  17. Using RFID to Enhance Security in Off-Site Data Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Carmona, Miguel A.; Marsa-Maestre, Ivan; de la Hoz, Enrique; Velasco, Juan R.

    2010-01-01

    Off-site data storage is one of the most widely used strategies in enterprises of all sizes to improve business continuity. In medium-to-large size enterprises, the off-site data storage processes are usually outsourced to specialized providers. However, outsourcing the storage of critical business information assets raises serious security considerations, some of which are usually either disregarded or incorrectly addressed by service providers. This article reviews these security considerations and presents a radio frequency identification (RFID)-based, off-site, data storage management system specifically designed to address security issues. The system relies on a set of security mechanisms or controls that are arranged in security layers or tiers to balance security requirements with usability and costs. The system has been successfully implemented, deployed and put into production. In addition, an experimental comparison with classical bar-code-based systems is provided, demonstrating the system’s benefits in terms of efficiency and failure prevention. PMID:22163638

  18. An Analysis of the Impact of RFID Technology on Inventory Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekik, Yacine

    Nowadays, most enterprises undertake large investments in order to implement information systems that support decision making for managing inventories. Nevertheless, if data collected from the physical processes used to feed these systems are not correct, there will be severe impacts on business performance. Inventory inaccuracy occurs when the inventory level in the Information System is not in agreement with the physically available inventory. In this chapter, we first describe the major factors generating inventory inaccuracy. Then, we provide situations permitting to manage an inventory system subject to errors. We provide a framework to model the inventory inaccuracy issue and focus on the impact of advanced identification systems, such as that provided by RFID technology, in improving the performance of a supply chain subject to inventory inaccuracies.

  19. Novel Dynamic Framed-Slotted ALOHA Using Litmus Slots in RFID Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Soon-Bin; Park, Jongho; Lee, Tae-Jin

    Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA (DFSA) is one of the most popular protocols to resolve tag collisions in RFID systems. In DFSA, it is widely known that the optimal performance is achieved when the frame size is equal to the number of tags. So, a reader dynamically adjusts the next frame size according to the current number of tags. Thus it is important to estimate the number of tags exactly. In this paper, we propose a novel tag estimation and identification method using litmus (test) slots for DFSA. We compare the performance of the proposed method with those of existing methods by analysis. We conduct simulations and show that our scheme improves the speed of tag identification.

  20. SAW RFID-Tags for Mass-Sensitive Detection of Humidity and Vapors

    PubMed Central

    Lieberzeit, Peter A.; Palfinger, Christian; Dickert, Franz L.; Fischerauer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    One-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with defined reflector patterns give characteristic signal patterns in the time domain making them identifiable and leading to so-called RFID-Tags. Each sensor responds with a burst of signals, their timed positions giving the identification code, while the amplitudes can be related to the analyte concentration. This paper presents the first combination of such a transducer with chemically sensitive layer materials. These include crosslinked polyvinyl alcohol for determining relative humidity and tert-butylcalix[4]arene for detecting solvent vapors coated on the free space between the reflectors. In going from the time domain to the frequency domain by Fourier transformation, changes in frequency and phase lead to sensor responses. Hence, it is possible to measure the concentration of tetrachloroethene in air down to 50 ppm, as well as 1% changes in relative humidity. PMID:22303149

  1. Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags.

    PubMed

    Rokunuzzaman, Md; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina; Jit Singh, Mandeep; Misran, Norbahiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network. The square loop dimensions are modified to reach a conjugate impedance matching. A gap is fixed between the feed-lines to link the chip. To achieve impedance matching, the structures of the feed-line are optimized accordingly. In addition, the antenna consists of a straightforward geometry. An 11.9-meter maximum read range is achieved using a compact size of 80 × 44 mm2 and 3.2 W for the effective isotropic radiated power. Additional findings reveal that the proposed tag antenna is able to provide a stable resonance response in the near field of a large metallic surface. PMID:26177376

  2. The State and Trends of Barcode, RFID, Biometric and Pharmacy Automation Technologies in US Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Uy, Raymonde Charles Y; Kury, Fabricio P; Fontelo, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    The standard of safe medication practice requires strict observance of the five rights of medication administration: the right patient, drug, time, dose, and route. Despite adherence to these guidelines, medication errors remain a public health concern that has generated health policies and hospital processes that leverage automation and computerization to reduce these errors. Bar code, RFID, biometrics and pharmacy automation technologies have been demonstrated in literature to decrease the incidence of medication errors by minimizing human factors involved in the process. Despite evidence suggesting the effectivity of these technologies, adoption rates and trends vary across hospital systems. The objective of study is to examine the state and adoption trends of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) methods and pharmacy automation technologies in U.S. hospitals. A retrospective descriptive analysis of survey data from the HIMSS Analytics® Database was done, demonstrating an optimistic growth in the adoption of these patient safety solutions. PMID:26958264

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF ROADSIDE TREES USING RFID AND ONTOLOGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuki, Nobuyoshi; Kikushige, Yuki; Fukuda, Tomohiro; Ebashi, Yumeka

    It is necessary to make scientific and systematic diagnosis for roadside trees, which are essential for comfortable urban environment, in order to keep them in healthy conditions because they may not be planted adequately. Therefore, in this research, a Roadside Tree Diagnosis Support System (RTDSS) was developed using Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to facilitate diagnosis based on the Visual Tree Assessment (VTA) method. The system was used on a trial basis to real roadside trees by tree surgeons and was highly evaluated. Since governmental or municipal agencies, which develop and maintain the databases of roadside trees, tend to use different terminologies, units and tree registration systems, it is difficult to compare or combine two or more roadside tree databases. Thus, the ontology of roadside tree management was developed to compare and analyze various roadside tree databases. Two different databases were developed and testing of the developed ontology system successfully showed proper searching result over different terminologies.

  4. Low modulation index RF signal detection for a passive UHF RFID transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhongqi, Liu; Chun, Zhang; Yongming, Li; Zhihua, Wang

    2009-09-01

    In a typical RFID system the reader transmits modulated RF power to provide both data and energy for the passive transponder. Low modulation index RF energy is preferable for an adequate tag power supply and increase in communication range but gives rise to difficulties for near-field conventional demodulation. Therefore, a novel ASK demodulator for minimum 20% modulation index RF signal detection over a range of 23 dB is presented. Thanks to the proposed innovative divisional linear conversion from the power into voltage signal, the detection sensitivity is ensured over a wide power range with low power consumption of 8.6 μW. The chip is implemented in UMC 0.18 μm mix-mode CMOS technology, and the chip area is 0.06 mm2.

  5. Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags

    PubMed Central

    Rokunuzzaman, Md.; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina; Jit Singh, Mandeep; Misran, Norbahiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network. The square loop dimensions are modified to reach a conjugate impedance matching. A gap is fixed between the feed-lines to link the chip. To achieve impedance matching, the structures of the feed-line are optimized accordingly. In addition, the antenna consists of a straightforward geometry. An 11.9-meter maximum read range is achieved using a compact size of 80 × 44 mm2 and 3.2 W for the effective isotropic radiated power. Additional findings reveal that the proposed tag antenna is able to provide a stable resonance response in the near field of a large metallic surface. PMID:26177376

  6. The State and Trends of Barcode, RFID, Biometric and Pharmacy Automation Technologies in US Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Uy, Raymonde Charles Y.; Kury, Fabricio P.; Fontelo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The standard of safe medication practice requires strict observance of the five rights of medication administration: the right patient, drug, time, dose, and route. Despite adherence to these guidelines, medication errors remain a public health concern that has generated health policies and hospital processes that leverage automation and computerization to reduce these errors. Bar code, RFID, biometrics and pharmacy automation technologies have been demonstrated in literature to decrease the incidence of medication errors by minimizing human factors involved in the process. Despite evidence suggesting the effectivity of these technologies, adoption rates and trends vary across hospital systems. The objective of study is to examine the state and adoption trends of automatic identification and data capture (AIDC) methods and pharmacy automation technologies in U.S. hospitals. A retrospective descriptive analysis of survey data from the HIMSS Analytics® Database was done, demonstrating an optimistic growth in the adoption of these patient safety solutions. PMID:26958264

  7. Generalization Bounds Derived IPM-Based Regularization for Domain Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Meng, Juan; Hu, Guyu; Li, Dong; Zhang, Yanyan; Pan, Zhisong

    2016-01-01

    Domain adaptation has received much attention as a major form of transfer learning. One issue that should be considered in domain adaptation is the gap between source domain and target domain. In order to improve the generalization ability of domain adaption methods, we proposed a framework for domain adaptation combining source and target data, with a new regularizer which takes generalization bounds into account. This regularization term considers integral probability metric (IPM) as the distance between the source domain and the target domain and thus can bound up the testing error of an existing predictor from the formula. Since the computation of IPM only involves two distributions, this generalization term is independent with specific classifiers. With popular learning models, the empirical risk minimization is expressed as a general convex optimization problem and thus can be solved effectively by existing tools. Empirical studies on synthetic data for regression and real-world data for classification show the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26819589

  8. Effective Hamiltonian for bound states in Yukawa theory

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Axel

    2013-07-15

    A generalization of the Gell-Mann–Low theorem is applied to lowest nontrivial order to determine an effective Hamiltonian for two-fermion states in relativistic Yukawa theory. The consistency of the corresponding effective Schrödinger equation is thoroughly investigated in various aspects, among others the nonrelativistic and one-body limits, and the small-distance or large-momentum regime of the bound state solutions is discussed in detail. -- Highlights: •A generalization of the Gell-Mann–Low theorem is applied to Yukawa theory. •The effective Hamiltonian for two-fermion states is derived to lowest order. •The nonrelativistic and one-body limits are consistent. •The large-momentum behavior of the bound-state solutions is analyzed. •A critical value for the coupling constant is determined.

  9. Thermodynamic Lower Bounds of Deviation from Instantaneous Canonical State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnai, Takaaki

    2016-04-01

    We address the issue of the characterization of the nonequilibrium states for the time-dependent processes of a system interacting with a large reservoir, which is initially prepared in an equilibrium state. During the time evolution, we apply an external force to the system so that the actual density matrix is quantitatively different from the canonical state specified by the time-dependent system Hamiltonian. To express how the external forcing causes the deviation from equilibrium, we give a class of thermodynamic expressions for the lower bounds of the distance between the actual nonequilibrium state and the corresponding canonical state. The lower bounds are thermodynamically expressed only in terms of the strength of the forcing and its consequent entropy production rate.

  10. Generalization Bounds Derived IPM-Based Regularization for Domain Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Juan; Hu, Guyu; Zhang, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Domain adaptation has received much attention as a major form of transfer learning. One issue that should be considered in domain adaptation is the gap between source domain and target domain. In order to improve the generalization ability of domain adaption methods, we proposed a framework for domain adaptation combining source and target data, with a new regularizer which takes generalization bounds into account. This regularization term considers integral probability metric (IPM) as the distance between the source domain and the target domain and thus can bound up the testing error of an existing predictor from the formula. Since the computation of IPM only involves two distributions, this generalization term is independent with specific classifiers. With popular learning models, the empirical risk minimization is expressed as a general convex optimization problem and thus can be solved effectively by existing tools. Empirical studies on synthetic data for regression and real-world data for classification show the effectiveness of this method. PMID:26819589

  11. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology applied to the definition of underwater and subaerial coarse sediment movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoni, Duccio; Sarti, Giovanni; Benelli, Giuliano; Pozzebon, Alessandro; Raguseo, Gianluca

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, Radio Frequency Identification technology has been applied to track both underwater and subaerial displacement of pebbles along an artificial coarse beach at Marina di Pisa, Italy. Several preliminary laboratory tests have been performed to adapt the RFID technique for underwater use, which has been the primary impediment to this promising approach to the study of coarse sediment transport and movement. Tests showed the reliability of low frequencies for this kind of work, since they enable good signal transmission and reception through water. Passive ABS plastic transponders were inserted into about 100 pebbles and released onto the beach in March, 2009. A CORE-125 reader was chosen as the operating antenna to continuously transmit low frequency (125 kHz) signals. An acoustic signal toned whenever a pebble was detected while the unambiguous identification code of the pebble is shown immediately on the screen of a laptop connected to the reader. The positions of the pebbles were recorded with a total station. After two months (May, 2009), 74 marked pebbles were retrieved, 77% of the total. The positions of the retrieved pebbles were also recorded with the total station, thus allowing calculation of the coarse sediment transport tendency. About 60% of the recovered pebbles (44 out of 74) were found on the upper shoreface. The analysis of the marked pebble trajectories revealed a divergent transport movement in the northernmost sector of the beach. This movement was probably triggered by an irregularity of the submerged breakwater fronting the shoreline. The southern sector is characterised by chaotic pathways related to the formation and evolution of beach cusps. This outcome highlights and confirms the importance of a complete definition of the beach system, with no separation between the underwater and the subaerial portion of the shore when it comes to sediment transport and movement. This successful application of RFID technology to the underwater

  12. Tracking log displacement during floods in the Tagliamento River using RFID and GPS tracker devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Large pieces of in-channel wood can exert an important role on the ecological and morphological properties of gravel-bed rivers. On the other side, when transported during flood events, large wood can become a source of risk for sensitive structures such as bridges. However, wood displacement and velocity in river systems are still poorly understood, especially in large gravel-bed rivers. This study focuses on log transport in a valley reach of Tagliamento River (Italy). Log displacement during flood events of different magnitudes recorded from June 2010 to October 2011 has been analysed thanks to the installation of 113 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and 42 GPS tracker devices in logs of different dimensions. Recovery rates of logs equipped with RFID and GPS trackers were about 43% and 42%, respectively. The GPS devices allowed us to analyse in details the log displacement and transport overtime, indicating a higher log entrainment during rising limb of hydrographs. The threshold for the entrainment of logs from low bars is around 40% of bankfull water stage. No clear relationship was found between the peak of flood and log displacement length and velocity. However, log displacement length and velocity appear significantly correlated to the ratio between the peak of flow and the water stage exceeding the flow duration curve for 25% of time (i.e. the ratio hmax/h25 ratio). Log deposition was observed to occur at the peak flow, and logs transported during ordinary events are preferably deposited on low bars. This study reveals the potentials of GPS tracker devices to monitor the entrainment and movements of logs in large gravel-bed rivers during floods. These observations could be useful for better planning of river management practices and strategies involving the use of large wood pieces and could help for calibrating wood budgets at the reach scale.

  13. RFID Tracking of Sublethal Effects of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides on the Foraging Behavior of Apis mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Christof W.; Tautz, Jürgen; Grünewald, Bernd; Fuchs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The development of insecticides requires valid risk assessment procedures to avoid causing harm to beneficial insects and especially to pollinators such as the honeybee Apis mellifera. In addition to testing according to current guidelines designed to detect bee mortality, tests are needed to determine possible sublethal effects interfering with the animal's vitality and behavioral performance. Several methods have been used to detect sublethal effects of different insecticides under laboratory conditions using olfactory conditioning. Furthermore, studies have been conducted on the influence insecticides have on foraging activity and homing ability which require time-consuming visual observation. We tested an experimental design using the radiofrequency identification (RFID) method to monitor the influence of sublethal doses of insecticides on individual honeybee foragers on an automated basis. With electronic readers positioned at the hive entrance and at an artificial food source, we obtained quantifiable data on honeybee foraging behavior. This enabled us to efficiently retrieve detailed information on flight parameters. We compared several groups of bees, fed simultaneously with different dosages of a tested substance. With this experimental approach we monitored the acute effects of sublethal doses of the neonicotinoids imidacloprid (0.15–6 ng/bee) and clothianidin (0.05–2 ng/bee) under field-like circumstances. At field-relevant doses for nectar and pollen no adverse effects were observed for either substance. Both substances led to a significant reduction of foraging activity and to longer foraging flights at doses of ≥0.5 ng/bee (clothianidin) and ≥1.5 ng/bee (imidacloprid) during the first three hours after treatment. This study demonstrates that the RFID-method is an effective way to record short-term alterations in foraging activity after insecticides have been administered once, orally, to individual bees. We contribute further information on

  14. Bound potassium in muscle II.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Z

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were performed to decide between the alternatives a) the ionized K+ is in a dissolved state in the muscle water, or b) a part of the muscle potassium is in a "bound' state. Sartorius muscles of Rana esculenta were put into glicerol for about one hour at 0-2 degrees C. Most of muscle water came out, but most of muscle potassium remained in the muscles. In contrast to this: from muscle in heat rigor more potassium was released due to glicerol treating than from the intact ones. 1. Supposition a) is experimentally refuted. 2. Supposition b) corresponds to the experimental results. PMID:6969511

  15. Automatic Construction of 3D Basic-Semantic Models of Inhabited Interiors Using Laser Scanners and RFID Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Enrique; Adan, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the automatic construction of 3D basic-semantic models of inhabited interiors using laser scanners with the help of RFID technologies. This is an innovative approach, in whose field scarce publications exist. The general strategy consists of carrying out a selective and sequential segmentation from the cloud of points by means of different algorithms which depend on the information that the RFID tags provide. The identification of basic elements of the scene, such as walls, floor, ceiling, windows, doors, tables, chairs and cabinets, and the positioning of their corresponding models can then be calculated. The fusion of both technologies thus allows a simplified 3D semantic indoor model to be obtained. This method has been tested in real scenes under difficult clutter and occlusion conditions, and has yielded promising results. PMID:22778609

  16. Performance Evaluation of UHF RFID Technologies for Real-Time Bus Recognition in the Taipei Bus Station

    PubMed Central

    Own, Chung-Ming; Lee, Da-Sheng; Wang, Ti-Ho; Wang, De-Jun; Ting, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    Transport stations such as airports, ports, and railways have adopted blocked-type pathway management to process and control travel systems in a one-directional manner. However, this excludes highway transportation where large buses have great variability and mobility; thus, an instant influx of numerous buses increases risks and complicates station management. Focusing on Taipei Bus Station, this study employed RFID technology to develop a system platform integrated with modern information technology that has numerous characteristics. This modern information technology comprised the following systems: ultra-high frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID), ultrasound and license number identification, and backstage graphic controls. In conclusion, the system enabled management, bus companies, and passengers to experience the national bus station's new generation technology, which provides diverse information and synchronization functions. Furthermore, this technology reached a new milestone in the energy-saving and efficiency-increasing performance of Taiwan's buses. PMID:23778192

  17. Consistent Tolerance Bounds for Statistical Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mezzacappa, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Assumption that sample comes from population with particular distribution is made with confidence C if data lie between certain bounds. These "confidence bounds" depend on C and assumption about distribution of sampling errors around regression line. Graphical test criteria using tolerance bounds are applied in industry where statistical analysis influences product development and use. Applied to evaluate equipment life.

  18. Lower bound of concurrence for qubit systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xue-Na; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2013-11-01

    We study the concurrence of four-qubit quantum states and provide analytical lower bounds of concurrence in terms of the monogamy inequality of concurrence for qubit systems. It is shown that these lower bounds are able to improve the existing bounds and detect entanglement better. The approach is generalized to arbitrary qubit systems.

  19. Quantum correlations beyond Tsirelson's bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Dominic; Ringbauer, Martin; Fedrizzi, Alessandro; White, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Violations of Bell inequalities show that there are correlations that cannot explained by any classical theory. Further violation, beyond Tsirelson's bound, shows that there are correlations that are not explained by quantum mechanics. Such super-quantum correlations would enable violation of information causality, where communication of one bit provides more than one bit of information [Nature 461, 1101 (2009)]. An unavoidable feature of all realistic Bell inequality experiments is loss. If one postselects on successful measurements, unentangled states can violate Bell inequalities. On the other hand, loss can be used to enhance the violation of Bell inequalities for entangled states. This can improve the ability to distinguish between entangled and unentangled states, despite loss. Here we report an optical experiment providing maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality with entangled states. Due to loss and postselection, Tsirelson's bound is also violated. This enables us to more easily distinguish between entangled and unentangled states. In addition, it provides violation of information causality for the postselected data.

  20. Endurance bounds of aerial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Aaron M.; Kroninger, Christopher M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the past few years micro aerial vehicles (MAVs) have received much more attention and are starting to proliferate into military as well as civilian roles. However, one of the major drawbacks for this technology currently, has been their poor endurance, usually below 10 minutes. This is a direct result of the inefficiencies inherent in their design. Often times, designers do not consider the various components in the vehicle design and match their performance to the desired mission for the vehicle. These vehicles lack a prescribed set of design guidelines or empirically derived design equations which often limits their design to selection of commercial off-the-shelf components without proper consideration of their affect on vehicle performance. In the current study, the design space for different vehicle configurations has been examined including insect flapping, avian flapping, rotary wing, and fixed wing, and their performance bounds are established. The propulsion system typical of a rotary wing vehicle is analyzed to establish current baselines for efficiency of vehicles at this scale. The power draw from communications is analyzed to determine its impact on vehicle performance. Finally, a representative fixed wing MAV is examined and the effects of adaptive structures as a means for increasing vehicle endurance and range are examined. This paper seeks to establish the performance bounds for micro air vehicles and establish a path forward for future designs so that efficiency may be maximized.