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1

Rhinovirus Genome Evolution during Experimental Human Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) evolve rapidly due in part to their error-prone RNA polymerase. Knowledge of the diversity of HRV populations emerging during the course of a natural infection is essential and represents a basis for the design of future potential vaccines and antiviral drugs. To evaluate HRV evolution in humans, nasal wash samples were collected daily for five days from

Samuel Cordey; Thomas Junier; Daniel Gerlach; Francesca Gobbini; Laurent Farinelli; Evgeny M. Zdobnov; Birgit Winther; Caroline Tapparel; Laurent Kaiser; Darren P. Martin

2010-01-01

2

Population Structure and Evolution of Rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses, formerly known as Human rhinoviruses, are the most common cause of air-borne upper respiratory tract infections in humans. Rhinoviruses belong to the family Picornaviridae and are divided into three species namely, Rhinovirus A, -B and -C, which are antigenically diverse. Genetic recombination is found to be one of the important causes for diversification of Rhinovirus species. Although emerging lineages within Rhinoviruses have been reported, their population structure has not been studied yet. The availability of complete genome sequences facilitates study of population structure, genetic diversity and underlying evolutionary forces, such as mutation, recombination and selection pressure. Analysis of complete genomes of Rhinoviruses using a model-based population genetics approach provided a strong evidence for existence of seven genetically distinct subpopulations. As a result of diversification, Rhinovirus A and -C populations are divided into four and two subpopulations, respectively. Genetically, the Rhinovirus B population was found to be homogeneous. Intra-species recombination was observed to be prominent in Rhinovirus A and -C species. Significant evidence of episodic positive selection was obtained for several sites within coding sequences of structural and non-structural proteins. This corroborates well with known phenotypic properties such as antigenicity of structural proteins. Episodic positive selection appears to be responsible for emergence of new lineages especially in Rhinovirus A. In summary, the Rhinovirus population is an ensemble of seven distinct lineages. In case of Rhinovirus A, intra-species recombination and episodic positive selection contribute to its further diversification. In case of Rhinovirus C, intra- and inter-species recombinations are responsible for observed diversity. Population genetics approach was further useful to analyze phylogenetic tree topologies pertaining to recombinant strains, especially when trees are derived using complete genomes. Understanding of population structure serves as a foundation for designing new vaccines and drugs as well as to explain emergence of drug resistance amongst subpopulations. PMID:24586469

Waman, Vaishali P.; Kolekar, Pandurang S.; Kale, Mohan M.; Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila

2014-01-01

3

New complete genome sequences of human rhinoviruses shed light on their phylogeny and genomic features  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRV), the most frequent cause of respiratory infections, include 99 different serotypes segregating into two species, A and B. Rhinoviruses share extensive genomic sequence similarity with enteroviruses and both are part of the picornavirus family. Nevertheless they differ significantly at the phenotypic level. The lack of HRV full-length genome sequences and the absence of analysis comparing picornaviruses

Caroline Tapparel; Thomas Junier; Daniel Gerlach; Samuel Cordey; Sandra Van Belle; Luc Perrin; Evgeny M Zdobnov; Laurent Kaiser

2007-01-01

4

Genome-wide diversity and selective pressure in the human rhinovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the most common and diverse respiratory pathogens of humans. Over 100 distinct HRV serotypes are known, yet only 6 genomes are available. Due to the paucity of HRV genome sequence, little is known about the genetic diversity within HRV or the forces driving this diversity. Previous comparative genome sequence analyses indicate that

Amy L Kistler; Dale R Webster; Silvi Rouskin; Vince Magrini; Joel J Credle; David P Schnurr; Homer A Boushey; Elaine R Mardis; Hao Li; Joseph L DeRisi

2007-01-01

5

RNA-protein interactions directed by the 3' end of human rhinovirus genomic RNA.  

PubMed Central

The replication of a picornavirus genomic RNA is a template-specific process involving the recognition of viral RNAs as target replication templates for the membrane-bound viral replication initiation complex. The virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, 3Dpol, is a major component of the replication complex; however, when supplied with a primed template, 3Dpol is capable of copying polyadenylated RNAs which are not of viral origin. Therefore, there must be some other molecular mechanism to direct the specific assembly of the replication initiation complex at the 3' end of viral genomic RNAs, presumably involving cis-acting binding determinants within the 3' noncoding region (3' NCR). This report describes the use of an in vitro UV cross-linking assay to identify proteins which interact with the 3' NCR of human rhinovirus 14 RNA. A cellular protein(s) was identified in cytoplasmic extracts from human rhinovirus 14-infected cells which had a marked binding preference for RNAs containing the rhinovirus 3' NCR sequence. This protein(s) showed reduced cross-linking efficiency for a 3' NCR with an engineered deletion. Virus recovered from RNA transfections with in vitro transcribed RNA containing the same 3' NCR deletion demonstrated a defective replication phenotype in vivo. Cross-linking experiments with RNAs containing the poliovirus 3' NCR and cytoplasmic extracts from poliovirus-infected cells produced an RNA-protein complex with indistinguishable electrophoretic properties, suggesting that the appearance of the cellular protein(s) may be a common phenomenon of picornavirus infection. We suggest that the observed cellular protein(s) is sequestered or modified as a result of rhinovirus or poliovirus infection and is utilized in viral RNA replication, perhaps by binding to the 3' NCR as a prerequisite for replication complex assembly at the 3' end of the viral genomic RNA. PMID:7745708

Todd, S; Nguyen, J H; Semler, B L

1995-01-01

6

Rhinovirus Infections  

MedlinePLUS

... rhinoviruses (rhin means “nose”) are associated with the common cold. Rhinoviruses may also cause some sore throats, ear ... and Symptoms The signs and symptoms of the common cold are familiar to everyone. Your child’s cold may ...

7

Full-genome sequence and analysis of a novel human rhinovirus strain within a divergent HRV-A clade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome sequences of human rhinoviruses (HRV) have primarily been from stocks collected in the 1960s, with genomes and phylogeny\\u000a of modern HRVs remaining undefined. Here, two modern isolates (hrv-A101 and hrv-A101-v1) collected ~8 years apart were sequenced\\u000a in their entirety. Incorporation into our full-genome HRV alignment with subsequent phylogenetic network inference indicated\\u000a that these represent a unique HRV-A, localized within a

Jennifer A. Rathe; Xinyue Liu; Luke J. Tallon; James E. Gern; Stephen B. Liggett

2010-01-01

8

Complete sequence of the RNA genome of human rhinovirus 16, a clinically useful common cold virus belonging to the ICAM-1 receptor group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted polyprotein sequence of HeLa cell-adapted human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16). This virus is more suitable than human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) for clinical studies, and its growth and physical properties are favorable for biochemical and crystallographic analysis. The complete message-sense RNA genome of HRV16 is composed of 7124 bases, not including the poly(A)

Wai-Ming Lee; Wensheng Wang; Roland R. Rueckert

1995-01-01

9

The Rhinovirus Subviral A-Particle Exposes 3?-Terminal Sequences of Its Genomic RNA  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Enteroviruses, which represent a large genus within the family Picornaviridae, undergo important conformational modifications during infection of the host cell. Once internalized by receptor-mediated endocytosis, receptor binding and/or the acidic endosomal environment triggers the native virion to expand and convert into the subviral (altered) A-particle. The A-particle is lacking the internal capsid protein VP4 and exposes N-terminal amphipathic sequences of VP1, allowing for its direct interaction with a lipid bilayer. The genomic single-stranded (+)RNA then exits through a hole close to a 2-fold axis of icosahedral symmetry and passes through a pore in the endosomal membrane into the cytosol, leaving behind the empty shell. We demonstrate that in vitro acidification of a prototype of the minor receptor group of common cold viruses, human rhinovirus A2 (HRV-A2), also results in egress of the poly(A) tail of the RNA from the A-particle, along with adjacent nucleotides totaling ?700 bases. However, even after hours of incubation at pH 5.2, 5?-proximal sequences remain inside the capsid. In contrast, the entire RNA genome is released within minutes of exposure to the acidic endosomal environment in vivo. This finding suggests that the exposed 3?-poly(A) tail facilitates the positioning of the RNA exit site onto the putative channel in the lipid bilayer, thereby preventing the egress of viral RNA into the endosomal lumen, where it may be degraded. IMPORTANCE For host cell infection, a virus transfers its genome from within the protective capsid into the cytosol; this requires modifications of the viral shell. In common cold viruses, exit of the RNA genome is prepared by the acidic environment in endosomes converting the native virion into the subviral A-particle. We demonstrate that acidification in vitro results in RNA exit starting from the 3?-terminal poly(A). However, the process halts as soon as about 700 bases have left the viral shell. Conversely, inside the cell, RNA egress completes in about 2 min. This suggests the existence of cellular uncoating facilitators. PMID:24672023

Harutyunyan, Shushan; Kowalski, Heinrich

2014-01-01

10

Genome evolution in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélčne Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloďse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnčs Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

2004-01-01

11

Human Rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

12

Rhinovirus chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses (HRV), members of the Picornaviridae family, are comprised of over 100 different virus serotypes. HRV represent the single most important etiological agents of the common cold [Arruda, E., Pitkaranta, A., Witek Jr., T.J., Doyle, C.A., Hayden, F.G., 1997. Frequency and natural history of rhinovirus infections in adults during autumn. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 2864-2868; Couch, R.B., 1990. Rhinoviruses. In: Fields, B.N., Knipe, D.M. (Eds.), Virology. Raven Press, New York, pp. 607-629; Turner, R.B., 2001. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antivir. Res. 49 (1), 1-14]. Although HRV-induced upper respiratory illness is often mild and self-limiting, the socioeconomic impact caused by missed school or work is enormous and the degree of inappropriate antibiotic use is significant. It has been estimated that upper respiratory disease accounts for at least 25 million absences from work and 23 million absences of school annually in the United States [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Rotbart, H.A., 2002. Treatment of picornavirus infections. Antivir. Res. 53, 83-98]. Increasing evidences also describe the link between HRV infection and more serious medical complications. HRV-induced colds are the important predisposing factors to acute otitis media, sinusitis, and are the major factors in the induction of exacerbations of asthma in adults and children. HRV infections are also associated with lower respiratory tract syndromes in individuals with cystic fibrosis, bronchitis, and other underlying respiratory disorders [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Gern, J.E., Busse, W.W., 1999. Association of rhinovirus infections with asthma. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12 (1), 9-18; Pitkaranta, A., Arruda, E., Malmberg, H., Hayden, F.G., 1997. Detection of rhinovirus in sinus brushings of patients with acute community-acquired sinusitis by reverse transcription-PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35, 1791-1793; Pitkaranta, A., Virolainen, A., Jero, J., Arruda, E., Hayden, F.G., 1998. Detection of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus infections in acute otitis media by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Pediatrics 102, 291-295; Rotbart, H.A., 2002. Treatment of picornavirus infections. Antivir. Res. 53, 83-98]. To date, no effective antiviral therapies have been approved for either the prevention or treatment of diseases caused by HRV infection. Thus, there still exists a significant unmet medical need to find agents that can shorten the duration of HRV-induced illness, lessen the severity of symptoms, minimize secondary bacterial infections and exacerbations of underlying disease and reduce virus transmission. Although effective over-the-counter products have been described that alleviate symptoms associated with the common cold [Anzueto, A., Niederman, M.S., 2003. Diagnosis and treatment of rhinovirus respiratory infections. Chest 123 (5), 1664-1672; Gwaltney, J.M., 2002a. Viral respiratory infection therapy: historical perspectives and current trials. Am. J. Med. 22 (112 Suppl. 6A), 33S-41S; Turner, R.B., 2001. The treatment of rhinovirus infections: progress and potential. Antivir. Res. 49 (1), 1-14; Sperber, S.J., Hayden, F.G., 1988. Chemotherapy of rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32, 409-419], this review will primarily focus on the discovery and development of those agents that directly or indirectly impact virus replication specifically highlighting new advances and/or specific challenges with their development. PMID:16675037

Patick, Amy K

2006-09-01

13

The rhinovirus type 14 genome contains an internally located RNA structure that is required for viral replication.  

PubMed

Cis-acting RNA signals are required for replication of positive-strand viruses such as the picornaviruses. Although these generally have been mapped to the 5' and/or 3' termini of the viral genome, RNAs derived from human rhinovirus type 14 are unable to replicate unless they contain an internal cis-acting replication element (cre) located within the genome segment encoding the capsid proteins. Here, we show that the essential cre sequence is 83-96 nt in length and located between nt 2318-2413 of the genome. Using dicistronic RNAs in which translation of the P1 and P2-P3 segments of the polyprotein were functionally dissociated, we further demonstrate that translation of the cre sequence is not required for RNA replication. Thus, although it is located within a protein-coding segment of the genome, the cre functions as an RNA entity. Computer folds suggested that cre sequences could form a stable structure in either positive- or minus-strand RNA. However, an analysis of mutant RNAs containing multiple covariant and non-covariant nucleotide substitutions within these putative structures demonstrated that only the predicted positive-strand structure is essential for efficient RNA replication. The absence of detectable minus-strand synthesis from RNAs that lack the cre suggests that the cre is required for initiation of minus-strand RNA synthesis. Since a lethal 3' noncoding region mutation could be partially rescued by a compensating mutation within the cre, the cre appears to participate in a long-range RNA-RNA interaction required for this process. These data provide novel insight into the mechanisms of replication of a positive-strand RNA virus, as they define the involvement of an internally located RNA structure in the recognition of viral RNA by the viral replicase complex. Since internally located RNA replication signals have been shown to exist in several other positive-strand RNA virus families, these observations are potentially relevant to a wide array of related viruses. PMID:9848654

McKnight, K L; Lemon, S M

1998-12-01

14

Molecular evolution of the VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes in human rhinovirus species C  

PubMed Central

Human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) was recently discovered, and this virus has been associated with various acute respiratory illnesses (ARI). However, the molecular evolution of the major antigens of this virus, including VP1, VP2, and VP3, is unknown. Thus, we performed complete VP1, VP2, and VP3 gene analyses of 139 clinical HRV-C strains using RT-PCR with newly designed primer sets and next-generation sequencing. We assessed the time-scale evolution and evolutionary rate of these genes using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In addition, we calculated the pairwise distance and confirmed the positive/negative selection sites in these genes. The phylogenetic trees showed that the HRV-C strains analyzed using these genes could be dated back approximately 400 to 900 years, and these strains exhibited high evolutionary rates (1.35 to 3.74 × 10?3 substitutions/site/year). Many genotypes (>40) were confirmed in the phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, no positively selected site was found in the VP1, VP2, and VP3 protein. Molecular modeling analysis combined with variation analysis suggested that the exterior surfaces of the VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins are rich in loops and are highly variable. These results suggested that HRV-C may have an old history and unique antigenicity as an agent of various ARI. PMID:25640899

Kuroda, Makoto; Niwa, Shoichi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Masaru; Ryo, Akihide; Sato, Hironori; Kiyota, Naoko; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Shirabe, Komei; Kusaka, Takashi; Shimojo, Naoki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Sugai, Kazuko; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Tashiro, Masato; Oishi, Kazunori; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu

2015-01-01

15

Molecular evolution of the VP1, VP2, and VP3 genes in human rhinovirus species C.  

PubMed

Human rhinovirus species C (HRV-C) was recently discovered, and this virus has been associated with various acute respiratory illnesses (ARI). However, the molecular evolution of the major antigens of this virus, including VP1, VP2, and VP3, is unknown. Thus, we performed complete VP1, VP2, and VP3 gene analyses of 139 clinical HRV-C strains using RT-PCR with newly designed primer sets and next-generation sequencing. We assessed the time-scale evolution and evolutionary rate of these genes using the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method. In addition, we calculated the pairwise distance and confirmed the positive/negative selection sites in these genes. The phylogenetic trees showed that the HRV-C strains analyzed using these genes could be dated back approximately 400 to 900 years, and these strains exhibited high evolutionary rates (1.35 to 3.74 × 10(-3) substitutions/site/year). Many genotypes (>40) were confirmed in the phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, no positively selected site was found in the VP1, VP2, and VP3 protein. Molecular modeling analysis combined with variation analysis suggested that the exterior surfaces of the VP1, VP2 and VP3 proteins are rich in loops and are highly variable. These results suggested that HRV-C may have an old history and unique antigenicity as an agent of various ARI. PMID:25640899

Kuroda, Makoto; Niwa, Shoichi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Masaru; Ryo, Akihide; Sato, Hironori; Kiyota, Naoko; Noda, Masahiro; Kozawa, Kunihisa; Shirabe, Komei; Kusaka, Takashi; Shimojo, Naoki; Hasegawa, Shunji; Sugai, Kazuko; Obuchi, Masatsugu; Tashiro, Masato; Oishi, Kazunori; Ishii, Haruyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu

2015-01-01

16

Hidden magicians of genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) represent genome's dynamic component, causing mutations and genetic variations. Transposable elements can invade eukaryotic genomes in a short span; these are silenced by homology-dependent gene silencing and some functional parts of silenced elements are utilized to perform novel cellular functions. However, during the past two decades, major interest has been focused on the positive contribution of these elements in the evolution of genomes. The interaction between mobile DNAs and their host genomes are quite diverse, ranging from modifications of gene structure to alterations in general genome architecture and can be regarded as hidden magicians in shaping evolution of genomes. Some of the prominent examples that impressively demonstrate the beneficial impact of TEs on host biology over evolutionary time include their role in structure and functions of eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23852286

Kumar, C. Sandeep; Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Ali, Altaf; Satyanarayana, M.L.; Rangaraju, Advithi; Venkateshwari, A.; Nallari, Pratibha

2013-01-01

17

Genome dynamics during experimental evolution  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary changes in organismal traits may occur gradually or suddenly. Until recently, however, there has been little direct information about how phenotypic changes are related to the rate and nature of underlying changes in genotype. Technological advances enabling whole-genome and whole-population sequencing coupled with experiments that watch evolution in action have brought new precision and insights to studies of mutation rates and genome evolution. Here, we discuss the evolutionary forces and ecological processes that govern genome dynamics in various laboratory systems in the context of relevant population genetic theory, and we relate these findings to evolution in natural populations. PMID:24166031

Barrick, Jeffrey E.; Lenski, Richard E.

2014-01-01

18

Integrating sequence, evolution and functional genomics in regulatory genomics  

PubMed Central

With genome analysis expanding from the study of genes to the study of gene regulation, 'regulatory genomics' utilizes sequence information, evolution and functional genomics measurements to unravel how regulatory information is encoded in the genome. PMID:19226437

Vingron, Martin; Brazma, Alvis; Coulson, Richard; van Helden, Jacques; Manke, Thomas; Palin, Kimmo; Sand, Olivier; Ukkonen, Esko

2009-01-01

19

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates  

E-print Network

VIRAL EVOLUTION Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014,12,13 § Robert F. Garry,8 § S. Humarr Khan,3 § Pardis C. Sabeti1,2 § In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78

Napp, Nils

20

Widespread Recurrent Evolution of Genomic Features  

PubMed Central

The recent explosion of genome sequences from all major phylogenetic groups has unveiled an unexpected wealth of cases of recurrent evolution of strikingly similar genomic features in different lineages. Here, we review the diverse known types of recurrent evolution in eukaryotic genomes, with a special focus on metazoans, ranging from reductive genome evolution to origins of splice-leader trans-splicing, from tandem exon duplications to gene family expansions. We first propose a general classification scheme for evolutionary recurrence at the genomic level, based on the type of driving force—mutation or selection—and the environmental and genomic circumstances underlying these forces. We then discuss various cases of recurrent genomic evolution under this scheme. Finally, we provide a broader context for repeated genomic evolution, including the unique relationship of genomic recurrence with the genotype–phenotype map, and the ways in which the study of recurrent genomic evolution can be used to understand fundamental evolutionary processes. PMID:22417916

Maeso, Ignacio; Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

2012-01-01

21

Viral evolution toward change in receptor usage: adaptation of a major group human rhinovirus to grow in ICAM-1-negative cells.  

PubMed

Major receptor group common cold virus HRV89 was adapted to grow in HEp-2 cells, which are permissive for minor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs) but which only marginally support growth of major-group viruses. After 32 blind passages in these cells, each alternating with boosts of the recovered virus in HeLa cells, HRV89 acquired the capacity to effectively replicate in HEp-2 cells, attaining virus titers comparable to those in HeLa cells although no cytopathic effect was observed. Several clones were isolated and shown to replicate in HeLa cells whose ICAM-1 was blocked with monoclonal antibody R6.5 and in COS-7 cells, which are devoid of ICAM-1. Blocking experiments with recombinant very-low-density lipoprotein receptor fragments and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays indicated that the mutants bound a receptor different from that used by minor-group viruses. Determination of the genomic RNA sequence encoding the capsid protein region revealed no changes in amino acid residues at positions equivalent to those involved in the interaction of HRV14 or HRV16 with ICAM-1. One mutation was within the footprint of a very-low-density lipoprotein receptor fragment bound to minor-group virus HRV2. Since ICAM-1 not only functions as a vehicle for cell entry but has also a "catalytic" function in uncoating, the use of other receptors must have important consequences for the entry pathway and demonstrates the plasticity of these viruses. PMID:11533194

Reischl, A; Reithmayer, M; Winsauer, G; Moser, R; Gösler, I; Blaas, D

2001-10-01

22

Labeling of capsid proteins and genomic RNA of human rhinovirus with two different fluorescent dyes for selective detection by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

During uncoating of human rhinoviruses, the innermost capsid protein VP4 and the genomic RNA are released from the viral protein shell. This process gives rise to subviral particles that are composed of the remaining three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. The process is believed to take place in a sequential manner in that first VP4 is expelled resulting in A-particles sedimenting at 135S followed by the RNA resulting in B-particles sedimenting at 80S. Aiming at ultimately analyzing this process in vivo, we introduced two different fluorophores into the RNA and the viral capsid proteins, respectively. Incubation of the virus with RiboGreen resulted in formation of a RNA-dye complex with lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 500/525 nm, whereas subsequent derivatization of the viral protein shell in the same sample with AMCA-S introduced a label with lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 345-350/440-460 nm. In this way, both viral components could be selectively detected via fluorescence in a capillary electrophoresis system. The intact virus delivers two superimposed signals in the electropherogram. Derivatization of the free amino groups of the capsid proteins partially preserved the bioaffinity of the virus toward a synthetic receptor fragment, an artificial recombinant concatemer of repeat number 3 of the very low density lipoprotein receptor. Between 10 and 20% of the infectivity were recovered after labeling when compared to native virus. In addition to analysis of factors influencing the stability of the virus by CE, double-labeled virions might be useful for the investigation of the uncoating process by real-time confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:15595880

Kremser, Leopold; Petsch, Martina; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

2004-12-15

23

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their

Jianying Gu; Jennifer Neary; Hong Cai; Audrey Moshfeghian; Stephen A Rodriguez; Timothy G Lilburn; Yufeng Wang

2009-01-01

24

Grass Genomic Synteny Illuminates Plant Genome Function and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genic colinearity of grass genetic maps, physical maps, and contiguous genomic sequences has been a major contributor\\u000a to almost two decades of study into the structure and evolution of grass genomes. This research has led to the discovery of\\u000a all of the major phenomena responsible for the rapid evolution of flowering plant genomes. These processes include polyploidy,\\u000a transposable element

Jeffrey L. Bennetzen; Mingsheng Chen

2008-01-01

25

Experimental evolution of conflict mediation between genomes  

E-print Network

mediation mechanisms existing in nature: evolution of reduced genomes in symbionts, cotransmissionExperimental evolution of conflict mediation between genomes Joel L. Sachs* and James J. Bull Section of Integrative Biology, Patterson Laboratories, University of Texas, 1 University Station C0930

Sachs, Joel

26

Leading Edge Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution  

E-print Network

Leading Edge Review Bacterial Genomics and Pathogen Evolution David M. Raskin,1 Rekha Seshadri,2 Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA 2 The Institute for Genomic Research, 9712 Medical Center Drive.02.002 The availability of hundreds of bacterial genome sequences has altered the study of bacte- rial pathogenesis

Mekalanos, John

27

Genomics and Evolution of Cellular Organelles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure, functions, and evolution of cellular organelles are reviewed. The mitochondrial genomes of eukaryotes differ considerably in size and structural organization mainly due to the length variation in noncoding regions and the presence of introns. The mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are the largest and most complicated. Gene content in eukaryotic mitochondrial genomes is similar. They usually encode all types

M. S. Odintsova; N. P. Yurina

2005-01-01

28

Recent advances in rhinovirus therapeutics.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses are the major causative agents of the common cold. Because there are greater than 100 viral serotypes, little immunological protection is afforded to humans by prior rhinovirus exposure, which accounts for the high incidence of infection. In most cases, rhinovirus leads to a short self-limiting illness. However, for asthmatics, the elderly and immunocompromised patients, rhinovirus infection can lead to life-threatening complications. This has spurred a consistent effort over recent decades to identify effective treatments and preventions for rhinovirus infection. While some work has focused on alleviating the symptoms induced as a result of inflammatory pathways stimulated by rhinoviruses, the majority of the research has been focused on limiting or preventing viral infection altogether. Various approaches have been taken to halt rhinovirus infection. Prevention of virus-cell interaction has been the aim of research on viral capsid binders and cell receptor blockers. Interference with correct viral protein processing is the goal of the design and testing of protease inhibitors. Current work is attempting to interfere with viral RNA replication by testing silencing RNA molecules. In this review, we will discuss recent advances in the development and testing of human rhinovirus therapeutics. PMID:15578974

Charles, Catherine H; Yelmene, Michele; Luo, Guang X

2004-12-01

29

Genome evolution in trypanosomatid parasites.  

PubMed

SUMMARY A decade of genome sequencing has transformed our understanding of how trypanosomatid parasites have evolved and provided fresh impetus to explaining the origins of parasitism in the Kinetoplastida. In this review, I will consider the many ways in which genome sequences have influenced our view of genomic reduction in trypanosomatids; how species-specific genes, and the genomic domains they occupy, have illuminated the innovations in trypanosomatid genomes; and how comparative genomics has exposed the molecular mechanisms responsible for innovation and adaptation to a parasitic lifestyle. PMID:25068268

Jackson, Andrew P

2015-02-01

30

The Genomic Palimpsest: Genomics in Evolution and Ecology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed resource from Bioscience journal is about the role of genomics in evolution and ecology. Genomics is the discipline that has grown up around the sequencing and analysis of complete genomes. It has typically emphasized questions that involve the biological function of individual organisms, and has been somewhat isolated from the fields of evolutionary biology and ecology. However, genomic approaches also provide powerful tools for studying populations, interactions among organisms, and evolutionary history. Because of the large number of microbial genomes available, the first widespread use of genomic methods in evolution and ecology was in the study of bacteria and archaea, but similar approaches are being applied to eukaryotes. Genomic approaches have revolutionized the study of in situ microbial populations and facilitated the reconstruction of early events in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Fields that have been largely unaffected by genomics will feel its influence in the near future, and greater interaction will benefit all of these historically distinct fields of study.

CHARLES F. DELWICHE (; )

2004-11-01

31

Genome Evolution in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome

James Shapiro

2006-01-01

32

Gene Family Evolution across 12 Drosophila Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and

Matthew W. Hahn; Mira V. Han; Sang-Gook Han

2007-01-01

33

Genome size evolution in macroparasites.  

PubMed

Reduction in genome size has been associated not only with a parasitic lifestyle in intracellular microparasites but also in some macroparasitic insects and nematodes. We collected the available data on genome size for flatworms, annelids, nematodes and arthropods, compared those with available data for the phylogenetically closest free-living taxa and found evidence of smaller genome sizes for parasites in six of nine comparisons. Our results suggest that despite great differences in evolutionary history and life cycles, parasitism as a lifestyle promotes convergent genome size reduction in macroparasites. We discuss factors that could be associated with small genome size in parasites which require further exploration in the future. PMID:25724591

Sundberg, Lotta-Riina; Pulkkinen, Katja

2015-04-01

34

Evolution of small prokaryotic genomes  

PubMed Central

As revealed by genome sequencing, the biology of prokaryotes with reduced genomes is strikingly diverse. These include free-living prokaryotes with ?800 genes as well as endosymbiotic bacteria with as few as ?140 genes. Comparative genomics is revealing the evolutionary mechanisms that led to these small genomes. In the case of free-living prokaryotes, natural selection directly favored genome reduction, while in the case of endosymbiotic prokaryotes neutral processes played a more prominent role. However, new experimental data suggest that selective processes may be at operation as well for endosymbiotic prokaryotes at least during the first stages of genome reduction. Endosymbiotic prokaryotes have evolved diverse strategies for living with reduced gene sets inside a host-defined medium. These include utilization of host-encoded functions (some of them coded by genes acquired by gene transfer from the endosymbiont and/or other bacteria); metabolic complementation between co-symbionts; and forming consortiums with other bacteria within the host. Recent genome sequencing projects of intracellular mutualistic bacteria showed that previously believed universal evolutionary trends like reduced G+C content and conservation of genome synteny are not always present in highly reduced genomes. Finally, the simplified molecular machinery of some of these organisms with small genomes may be used to aid in the design of artificial minimal cells. Here we review recent genomic discoveries of the biology of prokaryotes endowed with small gene sets and discuss the evolutionary mechanisms that have been proposed to explain their peculiar nature. PMID:25610432

Martínez-Cano, David J.; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Partida-Martínez, Laila P.; Latorre, Amparo; Moya, Andrés; Delaye, Luis

2015-01-01

35

BIOL 430 Genome Evolution 2014 -draft syllabus Instructor: Keith Adams  

E-print Network

browsers, genome project sites, gene expression sites and databases, the human and discoveries in genomics and genome evolution to human disease and other applied. Genomics computer projects and write-ups: After the computer labs on web resources

Wood, Spencer

36

Solvable Sequence Evolution Models and Genomic Correlations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a minimal model for genome evolution whose elementary processes are single site mutation, duplication and deletion of sequence regions, and insertion of random segments. These processes are found to generate long-range correlations in the composition of letters as long as the sequence length is growing; i.e., the combined rates of duplications and insertions are higher than the deletion rate. For constant sequence length, on the other hand, all initial correlations decay exponentially. These results are obtained analytically and by simulations. They are compared with the long-range correlations observed in genomic DNA, and the implications for genome evolution are discussed.

Messer, Philipp W.; Arndt, Peter F.; Lässig, Michael

2005-04-01

37

Viral Evolution toward Change in Receptor Usage: Adaptation of a Major Group Human Rhinovirus To Grow in ICAM-1Negative Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major receptor group common cold virus HRV89 was adapted to grow in HEp-2 cells, which are permissive for minor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs) but which only marginally support growth of major-group viruses. After 32 blind passages in these cells, each alternating with boosts of the recovered virus in HeLa cells, HRV89 acquired the capacity to effectively replicate in HEp-2 cells,

ANDREA REISCHL; MANUELA REITHMAYER; GABRIELE WINSAUER; ROSITA MOSER; IRENE GOSLER; DIETER BLAAS

2001-01-01

38

Genomic Diversity and Evolution of the Lyssaviruses  

PubMed Central

Lyssaviruses are RNA viruses with single-strand, negative-sense genomes responsible for rabies-like diseases in mammals. To date, genomic and evolutionary studies have most often utilized partial genome sequences, particularly of the nucleoprotein and glycoprotein genes, with little consideration of genome-scale evolution. Herein, we report the first genomic and evolutionary analysis using complete genome sequences of all recognised lyssavirus genotypes, including 14 new complete genomes of field isolates from 6 genotypes and one genotype that is completely sequenced for the first time. In doing so we significantly increase the extent of genome sequence data available for these important viruses. Our analysis of these genome sequence data reveals that all lyssaviruses have the same genomic organization. A phylogenetic analysis reveals strong geographical structuring, with the greatest genetic diversity in Africa, and an independent origin for the two known genotypes that infect European bats. We also suggest that multiple genotypes may exist within the diversity of viruses currently classified as ‘Lagos Bat’. In sum, we show that rigorous phylogenetic techniques based on full length genome sequence provide the best discriminatory power for genotype classification within the lyssaviruses. PMID:18446239

Delmas, Olivier; Holmes, Edward C.; Talbi, Chiraz; Larrous, Florence; Dacheux, Laurent; Bouchier, Christiane; Bourhy, Hervé

2008-01-01

39

Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants Keith L Adams1  

E-print Network

force in plant evolution. Analyses of whole-genome sequences, exten- sive expressed sequence tag (ESTPolyploidy and genome evolution in plants Keith L Adams1 and Jonathan F Wendel2 Genome doubling (polyploidy) has been and continues to be a pervasive force in plant evolution. Modern plant genomes harbor

Wendel, Jonathan F.

40

Genomic disorders: A window into human gene and genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Gene duplications alter the genetic constitution of organisms and can be a driving force of molecular evolution in humans and the great apes. In this context, the study of genomic disorders has uncovered the essential role played by the genomic architecture, especially low copy repeats (LCRs) or segmental duplications (SDs). In fact, regardless of the mechanism, LCRs can mediate or stimulate rearrangements, inciting genomic instability and generating dynamic and unstable regions prone to rapid molecular evolution. In humans, copy-number variation (CNV) has been implicated in common traits such as neuropathy, hypertension, color blindness, infertility, and behavioral traits including autism and schizophrenia, as well as disease susceptibility to HIV, lupus nephritis, and psoriasis among many other clinical phenotypes. The same mechanisms implicated in the origin of genomic disorders may also play a role in the emergence of segmental duplications and the evolution of new genes by means of genomic and gene duplication and triplication, exon shuffling, exon accretion, and fusion/fission events. PMID:20080665

Carvalho, Claudia M. B.; Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R.

2010-01-01

41

Genome plasticity and systems evolution in Streptomyces  

PubMed Central

Background Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication. Conclusions Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A better understanding of the LSE gene families will, on the other hand, bring a wealth of new insights into the mechanisms underlying strain-specific phenotypes, such as the production of novel antibiotics, pathogenesis, and adaptive response to environmental challenges. PMID:22759432

2012-01-01

42

Punctuated Evolution of Prostate Cancer Genomes  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term “chromoplexy”, frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:23622249

Baca, Sylvan C.; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S.; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y.; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T. David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C.; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W.; Berger, Michael F.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Golub, Todd R.; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S.; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.

2013-01-01

43

Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation  

PubMed Central

Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M.; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F.; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J.; Meredith, Robert W.; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R.; Alfaro-Núńez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T.; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, Joăo Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S.; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Opazo, Juan C.; Hĺstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H.; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W.; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A.; Green, Richard E.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E.; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A.; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R.; Alström, Per; Fjeldsĺ, Jon; Mindell, David P.; Edwards, Scott V.; Braun, Edward L.; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W.; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Wang, Jun

2015-01-01

44

Comparative genomics reveals insights into avian genome evolution and adaptation.  

PubMed

Birds are the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates and have wide relevance across many research fields. We explored bird macroevolution using full genomes from 48 avian species representing all major extant clades. The avian genome is principally characterized by its constrained size, which predominantly arose because of lineage-specific erosion of repetitive elements, large segmental deletions, and gene loss. Avian genomes furthermore show a remarkably high degree of evolutionary stasis at the levels of nucleotide sequence, gene synteny, and chromosomal structure. Despite this pattern of conservation, we detected many non-neutral evolutionary changes in protein-coding genes and noncoding regions. These analyses reveal that pan-avian genomic diversity covaries with adaptations to different lifestyles and convergent evolution of traits. PMID:25504712

Zhang, Guojie; Li, Cai; Li, Qiye; Li, Bo; Larkin, Denis M; Lee, Chul; Storz, Jay F; Antunes, Agostinho; Greenwold, Matthew J; Meredith, Robert W; Ödeen, Anders; Cui, Jie; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Luohao; Pan, Hailin; Wang, Zongji; Jin, Lijun; Zhang, Pei; Hu, Haofu; Yang, Wei; Hu, Jiang; Xiao, Jin; Yang, Zhikai; Liu, Yang; Xie, Qiaolin; Yu, Hao; Lian, Jinmin; Wen, Ping; Zhang, Fang; Li, Hui; Zeng, Yongli; Xiong, Zijun; Liu, Shiping; Zhou, Long; Huang, Zhiyong; An, Na; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Qiumei; Xiong, Yingqi; Wang, Guangbiao; Wang, Bo; Wang, Jingjing; Fan, Yu; da Fonseca, Rute R; Alfaro-Núńez, Alonzo; Schubert, Mikkel; Orlando, Ludovic; Mourier, Tobias; Howard, Jason T; Ganapathy, Ganeshkumar; Pfenning, Andreas; Whitney, Osceola; Rivas, Miriam V; Hara, Erina; Smith, Julia; Farré, Marta; Narayan, Jitendra; Slavov, Gancho; Romanov, Michael N; Borges, Rui; Machado, Joăo Paulo; Khan, Imran; Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C; Hĺstad, Olle; Sawyer, Roger H; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Li, Ning; Huang, Yinhua; Bruford, Michael W; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Dixon, Andrew; Bertelsen, Mads F; Derryberry, Elizabeth; Warren, Wesley; Wilson, Richard K; Li, Shengbin; Ray, David A; Green, Richard E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Griffin, Darren; Johnson, Warren E; Haussler, David; Ryder, Oliver A; Willerslev, Eske; Graves, Gary R; Alström, Per; Fjeldsĺ, Jon; Mindell, David P; Edwards, Scott V; Braun, Edward L; Rahbek, Carsten; Burt, David W; Houde, Peter; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Jarvis, Erich D; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Wang, Jun

2014-12-12

45

Evolution of the chloroplast genome.  

PubMed Central

We discuss the suggestion that differences in the nucleotide composition between plastid and nuclear genomes may provide a selective advantage in the transposition of genes from plastid to nucleus. We show that in the adenine, thymine (AT)-rich genome of Borrelia burgdorferi several genes have an AT-content lower than the average for the genome as a whole. However, genes whose plant homologues have moved from plastid to nucleus are no less AT-rich than genes whose plant homologues have remained in the plastid, indicating that both classes of gene are able to support a high AT-content. We describe the anomalous organization of dinoflagellate plastid genes. These are located on small circles of 2-3 kbp, in contrast to the usual plastid genome organization of a single large circle of 100-200 kbp. Most circles contain a single gene. Some circles contain two genes and some contain none. Dinoflagellate plastids have retained far fewer genes than other plastids. We discuss a similarity between the dinoflagellate minicircles and the bacterial integron system. PMID:12594920

Howe, Christopher J; Barbrook, Adrian C; Koumandou, V Lila; Nisbet, R Ellen R; Symington, Hamish A; Wightman, Tom F

2003-01-01

46

NEWS AND COMMENTARY Genome evolution...............................................................  

E-print Network

population genomics of the mustard Arabidopsis thaliana and its close relative A. lyrata, Moore-B, and GD3-B, at B0.50, 1.20, and 0.24 MY ago, respectively. Since A. thaliana and A. lyrata diverged B5 MY ago, it is expected that the duplicated copies do not exist in A. lyrata, as was confirmed

Zhang, Jianzhi

47

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

PubMed Central

Background The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their life styles; some species are free living, others are symbiotic, and others are human pathogens. This diversity makes this family a useful set of model organisms for studying bacterial evolution. This evolution is driven by several forces, among them gene duplication and lateral gene transfer, which are believed to provide raw material for functional redundancy and novelty. The resultant gene copy increase in one genome is then detected as lineage-specific expansion (LSE). Results Here we present the results of a detailed comparison of the genomes of eleven Vibrionaceae strains that have distinct life styles and distinct phenotypes. The core genome shared by all eleven strains is composed of 1,882 genes, which make up about 31%–50% of the genome repertoire. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been specifically expanded in one unique lineage of the eleven strains. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified in the eleven Vibrionaceae strains, with 1–11% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. These LSEs occurred in two distinct patterns: the first type yields one or more copies of a single gene; we call this a single gene expansion. The second pattern has a high evolutionary impact, as the expansion involves two or more gene copies in a block, with the duplicated block located next to the original block (a contiguous block expansion) or at some distance from the original block (a discontiguous block expansion). We showed that LSEs involve genes that are tied to defense and pathogenesis mechanisms as well as in the fundamental life cycle of Vibrionaceae species. Conclusion Our results provide evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within the family Vibrionaceae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for lineage-specific adaptations of each Vibrionaceae pathogen or nonpathogen strain. Such lineage specific expansions could reveal components in bacterial systems that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can be tied to responses to environmental challenges, interesting phenotypes, or adaptive pathogenic responses to host challenges. PMID:19594870

Gu, Jianying; Neary, Jennifer; Cai, Hong; Moshfeghian, Audrey; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Lilburn, Timothy G; Wang, Yufeng

2009-01-01

48

Evolution of gastropod mitochondrial genome arrangements  

PubMed Central

Background Gastropod mitochondrial genomes exhibit an unusually great variety of gene orders compared to other metazoan mitochondrial genome such as e.g those of vertebrates. Hence, gastropod mitochondrial genomes constitute a good model system to study patterns, rates, and mechanisms of mitochondrial genome rearrangement. However, this kind of evolutionary comparative analysis requires a robust phylogenetic framework of the group under study, which has been elusive so far for gastropods in spite of the efforts carried out during the last two decades. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of five mitochondrial genomes of gastropods (Pyramidella dolabrata, Ascobulla fragilis, Siphonaria pectinata, Onchidella celtica, and Myosotella myosotis), and we analyze them together with another ten complete mitochondrial genomes of gastropods currently available in molecular databases in order to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among the main lineages of gastropods. Results Comparative analyses with other mollusk mitochondrial genomes allowed us to describe molecular features and general trends in the evolution of mitochondrial genome organization in gastropods. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (ME, MP, ML, BI) arrived at a single topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene rearrangements in the group. Conclusion Four main lineages were identified within gastropods: Caenogastropoda, Vetigastropoda, Patellogastropoda, and Heterobranchia. Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda are sister taxa, as well as, Patellogastropoda and Heterobranchia. This result rejects the validity of the derived clade Apogastropoda (Caenogastropoda + Heterobranchia). The position of Patellogastropoda remains unclear likely due to long-branch attraction biases. Within Heterobranchia, the most heterogeneous group of gastropods, neither Euthyneura (because of the inclusion of P. dolabrata) nor Pulmonata (polyphyletic) nor Opisthobranchia (because of the inclusion S. pectinata) were recovered as monophyletic groups. The gene order of the Vetigastropoda might represent the ancestral mitochondrial gene order for Gastropoda and we propose that at least three major rearrangements have taken place in the evolution of gastropods: one in the ancestor of Caenogastropoda, another in the ancestor of Patellogastropoda, and one more in the ancestor of Heterobranchia. PMID:18302768

2008-01-01

49

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

E-print Network

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution Philip C.J. Donoghue1 and Mark A. Purnell2 considered fundamental, and it pervades all discussions of animal biology. With the recognition of incomplete taxonomic sampling. Evolutionary jumps, fossils and extinction A fundamental problem

Brierley, Andrew

50

Molecular evolution meets the genomics revolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in technology in the past decade have had such an impact on the way that molecular evolution research is done that it is difficult now to imagine working in a world without genomics or the Internet. In 1992, GenBank was less than a hundredth of its current size and was updated every three months on a huge spool of

Wen-Hsiung Li; Kenneth H. Wolfe

2003-01-01

51

Genome Evolution Due to Allopolyploidization in Wheat  

PubMed Central

The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed “revolutionary” changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species’ evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed. PMID:23135324

Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.

2012-01-01

52

[Retroposons in modern human genome evolution].  

PubMed

The ascertainment of the rates and driving forces of human genome evolution along with the genetic diversity of populations or separate population groups remains a topical problem of fundamental and applied genomics. According to the results of comparative analysis, the most numerous human genome structure peculiarities are connected with the distribution of mobile genetic retroelements - LTR, LINE1, SVA, and Alu repeats. Due to the wide distribution in different genome loci, conversed retropositional activity, and the retroelements regulatory potential, let us regard them as one of the significant evolutionary driving forces and the source of human genome variability. In the current review, we summarize published data and recent results of our research aimed at the analysis of the evolutionary impact of the young retroelements group on the function and variability of the human genome. We examine modern approaches of the polygenomic identification of polymorphic retroelements inserts. Using an original Internet resource, we analyze special features of the genomic polymorphic inserts of Alu repeats. We thoroughly characterize the strategy of large-scale functional analysis of polymorphic retroelement inserts. The presented results confirm the hypothesis of the roles of retroelements as active cis regulatory elements that are able to modulate surrounding genes. PMID:20208577

Amosova, A L; Komkov, A Iu; Ustiugova, S V; Mamedov, I Z; Lebedev, Iu B

2009-01-01

53

Similar interactions of the poliovirus and rhinovirus 3D polymerases with the 3' untranslated region of rhinovirus 14.  

PubMed

We showed previously that a human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) on a poliovirus genome was able to replicate with nearly wild-type kinetics (J. B. Rohll, D. H. Moon, D. J. Evans, and J. W. Almond, J. Virol 69:7835-7844, 1995). This enabled the HRV14 single 3' UTR stem-loop structure to be studied in combination with a sensitive reporter system, poliovirus FLC/REP, in which the capsid coding region is replaced by an in-frame chloramphemicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. Using such a construct, we identified a mutant (designated mut4), in which the structure and stability of the stem were predicted to be maintained, that replicated very poorly as determined by its level of CAT activity. The effect of this mutant 3' UTR on replication has been further investigated by transferring it onto the full-length cDNAs of both poliovirus type 3 (PV3) and HRV14. Virus was recovered with a parental plaque phenotype at a low frequency, indicating the acquisition of compensating changes, which sequence analysis revealed were, in both poliovirus- and rhinovirus-derived viruses, located in the active-site cleft of 3D polymerase and involved the substitution of Asn18 for Tyr. These results provide further evidence of a specific interaction between the 3' UTR of picornaviruses and the viral polymerase and also indicate similar interactions of the 3' UTR of rhinovirus with both poliovirus and rhinovirus polymerases. PMID:10559308

Meredith, J M; Rohll, J B; Almond, J W; Evans, D J

1999-12-01

54

Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bovine Rhinovirus Type 2 Shows it is Closely Related to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. A nearly full-length cDNA of the BRV2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence from the poly(C) to the ...

55

Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats. PMID:11972343

Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

2002-01-01

56

On some operations suggested by genome evolution  

SciTech Connect

Three operations involved in the genome evolution namely, inversion, transposition and duplication, are considered as operations on strings and languages. We show that, for any pair of these operations, there is a language family which is closed under one of the operations and not closed under the second one; however, under some mild conditions the closure of a language family under one of the operations implies that it also closed with respect to another one. 15 refs.

Dassow, J. [Univ. of Magdeburg (Germany); Mitrana, V. [Univ. of Bucharest (Romania)

1996-12-31

57

Dynamics in genome evolution of Vibrio cholerae.  

PubMed

Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:24462909

Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit

2014-04-01

58

The human rhinovirus internal cis-acting replication element (cre) exhibits disparate properties among serotypes.  

PubMed

It has been reported previously that the Human rhinovirus 14 (HRV-14) RNA genome contains a cis-acting replication element (cre) that maps to the capsid coding (P1) sequence [19]. Further characterization of the HRV-14 cre in the present study established that by moving the cre stem-loop structure downstream, adjacent to the 3'NCR, that its position is not critical for function. When the P1 sequences of two closely related serotypes of HRV-14 were analyzed for the presence of a cre, both HRV-3 and HRV-72 were found to contain similar sequence at the same positions as HRV-14. Moreover, sequence at these positions produced structures from MFOLD analysis that closely resembled the HRV-14 cre. It was also discovered that neither HRV serotypes 1a or 16 harbor replication elements that map to the P1 segments of their genomes. Computer and mutational analyses suggest that the cre in these latter HRV serotypes map instead to the 2A gene, as has been reported for HRV-2. The putative HRV-3 cre was determined to be unable to support replication when placed in an HRV-14 replicon background. Similarly, the previously identified HRV-2 cre was unable to support replication of the HRV-14 genome. This finding is in contrast to the cardiovirus cre, which has been shown to be functionally active between two members of its family, and further suggests that there is a close link between the evolution of the human rhinoviruses and the mechanisms of RNA replication. PMID:14648294

McKnight, K L

2003-12-01

59

Evolution of Genome Size in Brassicaceae  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Brassicaceae, with nearly 340 genera and more than 3350 species, anchors the low range of angiosperm genome sizes. The relatively narrow range of DNA content (0·16 pg < 1C < 1·95 pg) was maintained in spite of extensive chromosomal change. The aim of this study was to erect a cytological and molecular phylogenetic framework for a selected subset of the Brassicacae, and use this as a template to examine genome size evolution in Brassicaceae. • Methods DNA contents were determined by flow cytometry and chromosomes were counted for 34 species of the family Brassicaceae and for ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. The amplified and sequenced ITS region for 23 taxa (plus six other taxa with known ITS sequences) were aligned and used to infer evolutionary relationship by parsimony analysis. • Key Results DNA content in the species studied ranged over 8-fold (1C = 0·16–1·31 pg), and 4·4-fold (1C = 0·16–0·71 pg) excluding allotetraploid Brassica species. The 1C DNA contents of ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes showed little variation, ranging from 0·16 pg to 0·17 pg. • Conclusions The tree roots at an ancestral genome size of approximately 1x = 0·2 pg. Arabidopsis thaliana (1C = 0·16 pg; ?157 Mbp) has the smallest genome size in Brassicaceae studied here and apparently represents an evolutionary decrease in genome size. Two other branches that represent probable evolutionary decreases in genome size terminate in Lepidium virginicum and Brassica rapa. Branches in the phylogenetic tree that represent probable evolutionary increases in genome size terminate in Arabidopsis halleri, A. lyrata, Arabis hirsuta, Capsella rubella, Caulanthus heterophyllus, Crucihimalaya, Lepidium sativum, Sisymbrium and Thlaspi arvense. Branches within one clade containing Brassica were identified that represent two ancient ploidy events (2x to 4x and 4x to 6x) that were predicted from published comparative mapping studies. PMID:15596470

JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER; PEPPER, ALAN E.; HALL, ANNE E.; CHEN, Z. JEFFREY; HODNETT, GEORGE; DRABEK, JANICE; LOPEZ, REBECCA; PRICE, H. JAMES

2005-01-01

60

Genome Evolution in the Genus Sorghum (Poaceae)  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The roles of variation in DNA content in plant evolution and adaptation remain a major biological enigma. Chromosome number and 2C DNA content were determined for 21 of the 25 species of the genus Sorghum and analysed from a phylogenetic perspective. • Methods DNA content was determined by flow cytometry. A Sorghum phylogeny was constructed based on combined nuclear ITS and chloroplast ndhF DNA sequences. • Key Results Chromosome counts (2n = 10, 20, 30, 40) were, with few exceptions, concordant with published numbers. New chromosome numbers were obtained for S. amplum (2n = 30) and S. leiocladum (2n = 10). 2C DNA content varies 8·1-fold (1·27–10·30 pg) among the 21 Sorghum species. 2C DNA content varies 3·6-fold from 1·27 pg to 4·60 pg among the 2n = 10 species and 5·8-fold (1·52–8·79 pg) among the 2n = 20 species. The x = 5 genome size varies over an 8·8-fold range from 0·26 pg to 2·30 pg. The mean 2C DNA content of perennial species (6·20 pg) is significantly greater than the mean (2·92 pg) of the annuals. Among the 21 species studied, the mean x = 5 genome size of annuals (1·15 pg) and of perennials (1·29 pg) is not significantly different. Statistical analysis of Australian species showed: (a) mean 2C DNA content of annual (2·89 pg) and perennial (7·73 pg) species is significantly different; (b) mean x = 5 genome size of perennials (1·66 pg) is significantly greater than that of the annuals (1·09 pg); (c) the mean maximum latitude at which perennial species grow (?25·4 degrees) is significantly greater than the mean maximum latitude (?17·6) at which annual species grow. • Conclusions The DNA sequence phylogeny splits Sorghum into two lineages, one comprising the 2n = 10 species with large genomes and their polyploid relatives, and the other with the 2n = 20, 40 species with relatively small genomes. An apparent phylogenetic reduction in genome size has occurred in the 2n = 10 lineage. Genome size evolution in the genus Sorghum apparently did not involve a ‘one way ticket to genomic obesity’ as has been proposed for the grasses. PMID:15596469

PRICE, H. JAMES; DILLON, SALLY L.; HODNETT, GEORGE; ROONEY, WILLIAM L.; ROSS, LARRY; JOHNSTON, J. SPENCER

2005-01-01

61

; Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny  

E-print Network

ARTICLES ; Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny Drosophila 12 Genomes-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental

Kellis, Manolis

62

Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny Drosophila 12 Genomes-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental

Begun, David

63

Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

Lykidis, Athanasios

2006-12-01

64

Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased ...

65

Characteristic genome rearrangements in experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

E-print Network

Characteristic genome rearrangements in experimental evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Maitreya and Microbiology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL 32610; §Departments of Molecular Contributed by David Botstein, October 15, 2002 Genome rearrangements, especially amplifications and deletions

Botstein, David

66

Examination of Prokaryotic Multipartite Genome Evolution through Experimental Genome Reduction  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria carry two or more chromosome-like replicons. This occurs in pathogens such as Vibrio cholerea and Brucella abortis as well as in many N2-fixing plant symbionts including all isolates of the alfalfa root-nodule bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti. Understanding the evolution and role of this multipartite genome organization will provide significant insight into these important organisms; yet this knowledge remains incomplete, in part, because technical challenges of large-scale genome manipulations have limited experimental analyses. The distinct evolutionary histories and characteristics of the three replicons that constitute the S. meliloti genome (the chromosome (3.65 Mb), pSymA megaplasmid (1.35 Mb), and pSymB chromid (1.68 Mb)) makes this a good model to examine this topic. We transferred essential genes from pSymB into the chromosome, and constructed strains that lack pSymB as well as both pSymA and pSymB. This is the largest reduction (45.4%, 3.04 megabases, 2866 genes) of a prokaryotic genome to date and the first removal of an essential chromid. Strikingly, strains lacking pSymA and pSymB (?pSymAB) lost the ability to utilize 55 of 74 carbon sources and various sources of nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, yet the ?pSymAB strain grew well in minimal salts media and in sterile soil. This suggests that the core chromosome is sufficient for growth in a bulk soil environment and that the pSymA and pSymB replicons carry genes with more specialized functions such as growth in the rhizosphere and interaction with the plant. These experimental data support a generalized evolutionary model, in which non-chromosomal replicons primarily carry genes with more specialized functions. These large secondary replicons increase the organism's niche range, which offsets their metabolic burden on the cell (e.g. pSymA). Subsequent co-evolution with the chromosome then leads to the formation of a chromid through the acquisition of functions core to all niches (e.g. pSymB). PMID:25340565

diCenzo, George C.; MacLean, Allyson M.; Milunovic, Branislava; Golding, G. Brian; Finan, Turlough M.

2014-01-01

67

Examination of prokaryotic multipartite genome evolution through experimental genome reduction.  

PubMed

Many bacteria carry two or more chromosome-like replicons. This occurs in pathogens such as Vibrio cholerea and Brucella abortis as well as in many N2-fixing plant symbionts including all isolates of the alfalfa root-nodule bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti. Understanding the evolution and role of this multipartite genome organization will provide significant insight into these important organisms; yet this knowledge remains incomplete, in part, because technical challenges of large-scale genome manipulations have limited experimental analyses. The distinct evolutionary histories and characteristics of the three replicons that constitute the S. meliloti genome (the chromosome (3.65 Mb), pSymA megaplasmid (1.35 Mb), and pSymB chromid (1.68 Mb)) makes this a good model to examine this topic. We transferred essential genes from pSymB into the chromosome, and constructed strains that lack pSymB as well as both pSymA and pSymB. This is the largest reduction (45.4%, 3.04 megabases, 2866 genes) of a prokaryotic genome to date and the first removal of an essential chromid. Strikingly, strains lacking pSymA and pSymB (?pSymAB) lost the ability to utilize 55 of 74 carbon sources and various sources of nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur, yet the ?pSymAB strain grew well in minimal salts media and in sterile soil. This suggests that the core chromosome is sufficient for growth in a bulk soil environment and that the pSymA and pSymB replicons carry genes with more specialized functions such as growth in the rhizosphere and interaction with the plant. These experimental data support a generalized evolutionary model, in which non-chromosomal replicons primarily carry genes with more specialized functions. These large secondary replicons increase the organism's niche range, which offsets their metabolic burden on the cell (e.g. pSymA). Subsequent co-evolution with the chromosome then leads to the formation of a chromid through the acquisition of functions core to all niches (e.g. pSymB). PMID:25340565

diCenzo, George C; MacLean, Allyson M; Milunovic, Branislava; Golding, G Brian; Finan, Turlough M

2014-10-01

68

Comparative Genomics and Evolution of Molybdenum Utilization  

PubMed Central

The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is the catalytic component of important enzymes involved in global nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon metabolism in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. With the exception of nitrogenase, Mo is complexed by a pterin compound thus forming the biologically active molybdenum cofactor (Moco) at the catalytic sites of molybdoenzymes. The physiological roles and biochemical functions of many molybdoenzymes have been characterized. However, our understanding of the occurrence and evolution of Mo utilization is limited. This article focuses on recent advances in comparative genomics of Mo utilization in the three domains of life. We begin with a brief introduction of Mo transport systems, the Moco biosynthesis pathway, the role of posttranslational modifications, and enzymes that utilize Mo. Then, we proceed to recent computational and comparative genomics studies of Mo utilization, including a discussion on novel Moco-binding proteins that contain the C-terminal domain of the Moco sulfurase and that are suggested to represent a new family of molybdoenzymes. As most molybdoenzymes need additional cofactors for their catalytic activity, we also discuss interactions between Mo metabolism and other trace elements and finish with an analysis of factors that may influence evolution of Mo utilization. PMID:22451726

Zhang, Yan; Rump, Steffen; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2011-01-01

69

Implications of the Plastid Genome Sequence of Typha (Typhaceae, Poales) for Understanding Genome Evolution in Poaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastid genomes of the grasses (Poaceae) are unusual in their organization and rates of sequence evolution. There has been\\u000a a recent surge in the availability of grass plastid genome sequences, but a comprehensive comparative analysis of genome evolution\\u000a has not been performed that includes any related families in the Poales. We report on the plastid genome of Typha latifolia, the

Mary M. GuisingerTimothy; Timothy W. Chumley; Jennifer V. Kuehl; Jeffrey L. Boore; Robert K. Jansen

2010-01-01

70

Thermodynamic Basis for the Emergence of Genomes during Prebiotic Evolution  

E-print Network

Thermodynamic Basis for the Emergence of Genomes during Prebiotic Evolution Hyung-June Woo, Ravi sequences, from which the first genomes that coded for polymerase ribozymes emerged. The quasispecies theory by Eigen predicts the existence of an error threshold limiting genomic stability during such transitions

71

Molecular Evolution in Nonrecombining Regions of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome  

E-print Network

on the Drosophila melanogaster genome, analyzing more than 200 new genes that lack crossing-over and employingMolecular Evolution in Nonrecombining Regions of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome Jose´ L. Campos of selection in all regions of the genome of D. melanogaster that lack crossing-over, as a result

72

Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

Luo, Liao-Fu

2009-06-01

73

An algebraic view of bacterial genome evolution.  

PubMed

Rearrangements of bacterial chromosomes can be studied mathematically at several levels, most prominently at a local, or sequence level, as well as at a topological level. The biological changes involved locally are inversions, deletions, and transpositions, while topologically they are knotting and catenation. These two modelling approaches share some surprising algebraic features related to braid groups and Coxeter groups. The structural approach that is at the core of algebra has long found applications in sciences such as physics and analytical chemistry, but only in a small number of ways so far in biology. And yet there are examples where an algebraic viewpoint may capture a deeper structure behind biological phenomena. This article discusses a family of biological problems in bacterial genome evolution for which this may be the case, and raises the prospect that the tools developed by algebraists over the last century might provide insight to this area of evolutionary biology. PMID:24375264

Francis, Andrew R

2014-12-01

74

Apprehending multicellularity: regulatory networks, genomics and evolution  

PubMed Central

The genomic revolution has provided the first glimpses of the architecture of regulatory networks. Combined with evolutionary information, the “network view” of life processes leads to remarkable insights into how biological systems have been shaped by various forces. This understanding is critical because biological systems, including regulatory networks, are not products of engineering but of historical contingencies. In this light, we attempt a synthetic overview of the natural history of regulatory networks operating in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. We first introduce regulatory networks and their organizational principles as can be deduced using ideas from the graph theory. We then discuss findings from comparative genomics to illustrate the effects of lineage-specific expansions, gene-loss, and non-protein-coding DNA on the architecture of networks. We consider the interaction between expansions of transcription factors, and cis regulatory and more general chromatin state stabilizing elements in the emergence of morphological complexity. Finally, we consider a case study of the Notch sub-network, which is present throughout Metazoa, to examine how such a regulatory system has been pieced together in evolution from new innovations and pre-existing components that were originally functionally distinct. PMID:19530132

Aravind, L.; Anantharaman, Vivek; Venancio, Thiago M.

2009-01-01

75

Reverse genetics system for studying human rhinovirus infections.  

PubMed

Human rhinovirus (HRV) contains a 7.2 kb messenger-sense RNA genome which is the template for reproducing progeny viruses after it enters the cytoplasm of a host cell. Reverse genetics refers to the regeneration of progeny viruses from an artificial cDNA copy of the RNA genome of an RNA virus. It has been a powerful molecular genetic tool for studying HRV and other RNA viruses because the artificial DNA stage makes it practical to introduce specific mutations into the viral RNA genome. This chapter uses HRV-16 as the model virus to illustrate the strategy and methods for constructing and cloning the artificial cDNA copy of a full-length HRV genome, identifying the infectious cDNA clone isolates, and selecting the most vigorous cDNA clone isolate to serve as the standard parental clone for future molecular genetic study of the virus. PMID:25261313

Lee, Wai-Ming; Wang, Wensheng; Bochkov, Yury A; Lee, Iris

2015-01-01

76

The impact of retrotransposons on human genome evolution.  

PubMed

Their ability to move within genomes gives transposable elements an intrinsic propensity to affect genome evolution. Non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons--including LINE-1, Alu and SVA elements--have proliferated over the past 80 million years of primate evolution and now account for approximately one-third of the human genome. In this Review, we focus on this major class of elements and discuss the many ways that they affect the human genome: from generating insertion mutations and genomic instability to altering gene expression and contributing to genetic innovation. Increasingly detailed analyses of human and other primate genomes are revealing the scale and complexity of the past and current contributions of non-LTR retrotransposons to genomic change in the human lineage. PMID:19763152

Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A

2009-10-01

77

The impact of retrotransposons on human genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Non-LTR retrotransposons – including LINE-1 (or L1), Alu and SVA elements – have proliferated during the past 80 million years of primate evolution and now account for approximately one third of the human genome. These transposable elements are now known to affect the human genome in many different ways: generating insertion mutations, genomic instability, alterations in gene expression and also contributing to genetic innovation. As the sequences of human and other primate genomes are analyzed in increasing detail, we are begining to understand the scale and complexity of the past and current contribution of non-LTR retrotransposons to genomic change in the human lineage. PMID:19763152

Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A.

2010-01-01

78

Evolution of genome size and complexity in the rhabdoviridae.  

PubMed

RNA viruses exhibit substantial structural, ecological and genomic diversity. However, genome size in RNA viruses is likely limited by a high mutation rate, resulting in the evolution of various mechanisms to increase complexity while minimising genome expansion. Here we conduct a large-scale analysis of the genome sequences of 99 animal rhabdoviruses, including 45 genomes which we determined de novo, to identify patterns of genome expansion and the evolution of genome complexity. All but seven of the rhabdoviruses clustered into 17 well-supported monophyletic groups, of which eight corresponded to established genera, seven were assigned as new genera, and two were taxonomically ambiguous. We show that the acquisition and loss of new genes appears to have been a central theme of rhabdovirus evolution, and has been associated with the appearance of alternative, overlapping and consecutive ORFs within the major structural protein genes, and the insertion and loss of additional ORFs in each gene junction in a clade-specific manner. Changes in the lengths of gene junctions accounted for as much as 48.5% of the variation in genome size from the smallest to the largest genome, and the frequency with which new ORFs were observed increased in the 3' to 5' direction along the genome. We also identify several new families of accessory genes encoded in these regions, and show that non-canonical expression strategies involving TURBS-like termination-reinitiation, ribosomal frame-shifts and leaky ribosomal scanning appear to be common. We conclude that rhabdoviruses have an unusual capacity for genomic plasticity that may be linked to their discontinuous transcription strategy from the negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, and propose a model that accounts for the regular occurrence of genome expansion and contraction throughout the evolution of the Rhabdoviridae. PMID:25679389

Walker, Peter J; Firth, Cadhla; Widen, Steven G; Blasdell, Kim R; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G; Paradkar, Prasad N; Holmes, Edward C; Tesh, Robert B; Vasilakis, Nikos

2015-02-01

79

Evolution of Genome Size and Complexity in the Rhabdoviridae  

PubMed Central

RNA viruses exhibit substantial structural, ecological and genomic diversity. However, genome size in RNA viruses is likely limited by a high mutation rate, resulting in the evolution of various mechanisms to increase complexity while minimising genome expansion. Here we conduct a large-scale analysis of the genome sequences of 99 animal rhabdoviruses, including 45 genomes which we determined de novo, to identify patterns of genome expansion and the evolution of genome complexity. All but seven of the rhabdoviruses clustered into 17 well-supported monophyletic groups, of which eight corresponded to established genera, seven were assigned as new genera, and two were taxonomically ambiguous. We show that the acquisition and loss of new genes appears to have been a central theme of rhabdovirus evolution, and has been associated with the appearance of alternative, overlapping and consecutive ORFs within the major structural protein genes, and the insertion and loss of additional ORFs in each gene junction in a clade-specific manner. Changes in the lengths of gene junctions accounted for as much as 48.5% of the variation in genome size from the smallest to the largest genome, and the frequency with which new ORFs were observed increased in the 3’ to 5’ direction along the genome. We also identify several new families of accessory genes encoded in these regions, and show that non-canonical expression strategies involving TURBS-like termination-reinitiation, ribosomal frame-shifts and leaky ribosomal scanning appear to be common. We conclude that rhabdoviruses have an unusual capacity for genomic plasticity that may be linked to their discontinuous transcription strategy from the negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, and propose a model that accounts for the regular occurrence of genome expansion and contraction throughout the evolution of the Rhabdoviridae. PMID:25679389

Walker, Peter J.; Firth, Cadhla; Widen, Steven G.; Blasdell, Kim R.; Guzman, Hilda; Wood, Thomas G.; Paradkar, Prasad N.; Holmes, Edward C.; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasilakis, Nikos

2015-01-01

80

The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype  

SciTech Connect

Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian. We describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic {approx}520 million base pair genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyze it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets, and vertebrates), and allow reconstruction of not only the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor, but also a partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.

Putnam, Nicholas H.; Butts, Thomas; Ferrier, David E.K.; Furlong, Rebecca F.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Terry, Astrid; Yu, Jr-Kai; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Dubchak, Inna; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Horton, Amy C.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Kohara, Yuji; Kuroki, Yoko; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Pennacchio, Len A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Satou, Yutaka; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Schmutz [, Jeremy; Shin-I, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Fujiyama, Asao; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Peter W. H.; Satoh, Nori; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2008-04-01

81

Retroelements and their impact on genome evolution and functioning.  

PubMed

Retroelements comprise a considerable fraction of eukaryotic genomes. Since their initial discovery by Barbara McClintock in maize DNA, retroelements have been found in genomes of almost all organisms. First considered as a "junk DNA" or genomic parasites, they were shown to influence genome functioning and to promote genetic innovations. For this reason, they were suggested as an important creative force in the genome evolution and adaptation of an organism to altered environmental conditions. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge of different ways of retroelement involvement in structural and functional evolution of genes and genomes, as well as the mechanisms generated by cells to control their retrotransposition. PMID:19649766

Gogvadze, Elena; Buzdin, Anton

2009-12-01

82

Complete Chloroplast Genome of Sedum sarmentosum and Chloroplast Genome Evolution in Saxifragales  

PubMed Central

Comparative chloroplast genome analyses are mostly carried out at lower taxonomic levels, such as the family and genus levels. At higher taxonomic levels, chloroplast genomes are generally used to reconstruct phylogenies. However, little attention has been paid to chloroplast genome evolution within orders. Here, we present the chloroplast genome of Sedum sarmentosum and take advantage of several available (or elucidated) chloroplast genomes to examine the evolution of chloroplast genomes in Saxifragales. The chloroplast genome of S. sarmentosum is 150,448 bp long and includes 82,212 bp of a large single-copy (LSC) region, 16.670 bp of a small single-copy (SSC) region, and a pair of 25,783 bp sequences of inverted repeats (IRs).The genome contains 131 unique genes, 18 of which are duplicated within the IRs. Based on a comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from four representative Saxifragales families, we observed two gene losses and two pseudogenes in Paeonia obovata, and the loss of an intron was detected in the rps16 gene of Penthorum chinense. Comparisons among the 72 common protein-coding genes confirmed that the chloroplast genomes of S. sarmentosum and Paeonia obovata exhibit accelerated sequence evolution. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between the rates of genome evolution and genome size. The detected genome size variations are predominantly caused by the length of intergenic spacers, rather than losses of genes and introns, gene pseudogenization or IR expansion or contraction. The genome sizes of these species are negatively correlated with nucleotide substitution rates. Species with shorter duration of the life cycle tend to exhibit shorter chloroplast genomes than those with longer life cycles. PMID:24205047

Dong, Wenpan; Xu, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Zhou, Shiliang

2013-01-01

83

Evolution, language and analogy in functional genomics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Almost a century ago, Wittgenstein pointed out that theory in science is intricately connected to language. This connection is not a frequent topic in the genomics literature. But a case can be made that functional genomics is today hindered by the paradoxes that Wittgenstein identified. If this is true, until these paradoxes are recognized and addressed, functional genomics will continue to be limited in its ability to extrapolate information from genomic sequences.

Benner, S. A.; Gaucher, E. A.

2001-01-01

84

The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes.  

PubMed

Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus. PMID:24852848

Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Yumei; Yang, Xinhua; Tong, Chaobo; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A P; Zhao, Meixia; Ma, Jianxin; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiyin; Wang, Junyi; Lu, Kun; Fang, Zhiyuan; Bancroft, Ian; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yue, Zhen; Li, Haojie; Yang, Linfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Wanxin; King, Graham J; Pires, J Chris; Lu, Changxin; Wu, Zhangyan; Sampath, Perumal; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Hui; Pan, Shengkai; Yang, Limei; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Dianchuan; Li, Wanshun; Belcram, Harry; Tu, Jinxing; Guan, Mei; Qi, Cunkou; Du, Dezhi; Li, Jiana; Jiang, Liangcai; Batley, Jacqueline; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Ruperao, Pradeep; Cheng, Feng; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Huang, Yin; Dong, Caihua; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Hu, Zhiyong; Zhuang, Mu; Huang, Yi; Huang, Junyan; Shi, Jiaqin; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Jing; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Huizhe; Li, Zaiyun; Li, Xun; Zhang, Jiefu; Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Yongming; Liu, Zhongsong; Liu, Xuequn; Qin, Rui; Tang, Xu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Yangyong; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Denoeud, France; Xu, Xun; Liang, Xinming; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Jun; Chalhoub, Boulos; Paterson, Andrew H

2014-01-01

85

The Brassica oleracea genome reveals the asymmetrical evolution of polyploid genomes  

PubMed Central

Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus. PMID:24852848

Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Yumei; Yang, Xinhua; Tong, Chaobo; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Zhao, Meixia; Ma, Jianxin; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiyin; Wang, Junyi; Lu, Kun; Fang, Zhiyuan; Bancroft, Ian; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yue, Zhen; Li, Haojie; Yang, Linfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Wanxin; King, Graham J; Pires, J. Chris; Lu, Changxin; Wu, Zhangyan; Sampath, Perumal; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Hui; Pan, Shengkai; Yang, Limei; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Dianchuan; Li, Wanshun; Belcram, Harry; Tu, Jinxing; Guan, Mei; Qi, Cunkou; Du, Dezhi; Li, Jiana; Jiang, Liangcai; Batley, Jacqueline; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Ruperao, Pradeep; Cheng, Feng; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Huang, Yin; Dong, Caihua; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Hu, Zhiyong; Zhuang, Mu; Huang, Yi; Huang, Junyan; Shi, Jiaqin; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Jing; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Huizhe; Li, Zaiyun; Li, Xun; Zhang, Jiefu; Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Yongming; Liu, Zhongsong; Liu, Xuequn; Qin, Rui; Tang, Xu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Yangyong; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Denoeud, France; Xu, Xun; Liang, Xinming; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Jun; Chalhoub, Boulos; Paterson, Andrew H

2014-01-01

86

Nucleomorph genomes: structure, function, origin and evolution  

E-print Network

:147­175) Eukaryotic genome diversity--the big picture The nuclear genome is tremendously diverse in size and structure. Taking into account the full breadth of eukaryotic diversity, nuclear genomes vary in size 200,000 fold(1- similation of eukaryotic endosymbionts. As a result, they possess two distinct cytosolic compartments

Archibald, John

87

Evolution of Genome Size and Complexity in Pinus  

PubMed Central

Background Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea). If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. Conclusions/Significance Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes. PMID:19194510

Morse, Alison M.; Peterson, Daniel G.; Islam-Faridi, M. Nurul; Smith, Katherine E.; Magbanua, Zenaida; Garcia, Saul A.; Kubisiak, Thomas L.; Amerson, Henry V.; Carlson, John E.; Nelson, C. Dana; Davis, John M.

2009-01-01

88

Variation of the Mitochondral Genome in the Evolution of Drosophila  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evidence on mitochondrial genome variation and its role in evolution of the genus Drosophila are reviewed. The mitochondrial genome is represented by a circular double-stranded DNA molecule 16 to 19 kb in length. Mitochondrial genes lack introns and recombination. The entire mitochondrial genome can be arbitrarily divided into three parts: (1) protein-coding genes; (2) genes encoding rRNA and tRNA;

V. G. Mitrofanov; S. Yu. Sorokina; B. V. Andrianov

2002-01-01

89

Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution  

E-print Network

ARTICLES Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution A list of authors and their affiliations appears at the end of the paper We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay

Ray, David

90

Modeling protein network evolution under genome duplication and domain shuffling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Successive whole genome duplications have recently been firmly established in all major eukaryote kingdoms. Such exponential evolutionary processes must have largely contributed to shape the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks by outweighing, in particular, all time-linear network growths modeled so far. RESULTS: We propose and solve a mathematical model of PPI network evolution under successive genome duplications. This

Kirill Evlampiev; Hervé Isambert

2007-01-01

91

Ongoing Evolution of Strand Composition in Bacterial Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tried to identify the substitutions involved in the establishment of replication strand bias, which has been recognized as an important evolutionary factor in the evolution of bacterial genomes. First, we analyzed the com- position asymmetry of 28 complete bacterial genomes and used it to test the possibility that asymmetric deamination of cytosine might be at the origin of the

Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Antoine Danchin

92

The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal  

E-print Network

The Chlamydomonas Genome Reveals the Evolution of Key Animal and Plant Functions Sabeeha S inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land plants. We sequenced the ~120 fluctuations in nutrient availability (9). Genome sequencing and assembly. The 121-megabase (Mb) draft sequence

93

Genome Annotation and Selectional Analysis of Viral Evolution  

E-print Network

Genome Annotation and Selectional Analysis of Viral Evolution Saskia de Groot Under Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 2.4.3 Pairs of HIV2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 2.4.4 HIV1 vs. HIV2 Annotation of Selection Strengths in Viral Genomes 78 3.1 Abstract

Goldschmidt, Christina

94

Rhinoviruses and cells: molecular aspects.  

PubMed

Recent developments in our understanding of the molecular structure and functioning of the human rhinoviruses are briefly reviewed. The determination of virus structure at near atomic resolution has provided a wealth of information that can be used to help interpret dynamic properties of the virus. The mechanisms involved in capsid assembly, attachment to cell surfaces, uncoating, and the initiation of infection and antibody-mediated neutralization of infectivity can all be examined afresh in the light of the structural data. In addition, molecular techniques for manipulating and analyzing the biological properties of nucleic acids and proteins are providing a wealth of information on details of the replication machinery of the viruses. Probably one of the least understood aspects of viral replication is the precise nature of the interactions between host and viral components during infection. Unfortunately, despite all of these impressive scientific advances the cure for the common cold is still elusive. PMID:7551409

Rowlands, D J

1995-10-01

95

21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...rhinovirus infections and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these viruses. Rhinoviruses cause common colds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2012-04-01

96

21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...rhinovirus infections and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these viruses. Rhinoviruses cause common colds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2013-04-01

97

21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...rhinovirus infections and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these viruses. Rhinoviruses cause common colds. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification...

2014-04-01

98

Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes  

PubMed Central

Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1–3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome. PMID:23254933

Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Aerts, Andrea; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2014-01-01

99

Insights into bilaterian evolution from three spiralian genomes  

SciTech Connect

Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1, 2, 3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome.

Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Aerts, Andrea

2012-01-07

100

Reticulate Evolution of the Rye Genome[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (?8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny information of three sequenced model grass genomes (Brachypodium distachyon, rice [Oryza sativa], and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor]). This enabled a genome-wide high-density comparative analysis of rye/barley/model grass genome synteny. Seventeen conserved syntenic linkage blocks making up the rye and barley genomes were defined in comparison to model grass genomes. Six major translocations shaped the modern rye genome in comparison to a putative Triticeae ancestral genome. Strikingly dissimilar conserved syntenic gene content, gene sequence diversity signatures, and phylogenetic networks were found for individual rye syntenic blocks. This indicates that introgressive hybridizations (diploid or polyploidy hybrid speciation) and/or a series of whole-genome or chromosome duplications played a role in rye speciation and genome evolution. PMID:24104565

Martis, Mihaela M.; Zhou, Ruonan; Haseneyer, Grit; Schmutzer, Thomas; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; König, Susanne; Kugler, Karl G.; Scholz, Uwe; Hackauf, Bernd; Korzun, Viktor; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bauer, Eva; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Stein, Nils

2013-01-01

101

An update on the pathophysiology of rhinovirus upper respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

Upper respiratory tract infections are one of the most common infectious diseases in man and are characterized by relatively mild symptoms. However, complications of bacterial super-infection or asthma exacerbations are not seldomly seen. Most upper respiratory tract infections are caused by rhinoviruses. The rhinovirus is a non-enveloped 30 nm RNA-virus with over 100 serotypes that belongs to the Picornaviridae family and only replicates in primates. It is characterized by a single positive stranded genome acting not only as a template for RNA synthesis, but also encoding for a single polypeptide necessary for viral replication. The viral capsid has an icosahedral symmetry and demonstrates deep canyons, with a receptor-binding domain. Rhinoviruses are transmitted mainly via direct- or indirect contact with infected secretions and invade their host by binding to the ICAM-1 receptor on the nasal epithelium. Typical for rhinovirus upper respiratory tract infections are isolated scattered foci of infected epithelium, not showing any striking damage or cytopathic alterations, between large areas of normal epithelium. Today there is still little detailed knowledge on the pathophysiology of common cold, especially on the aspect of cellular migration and defense. A better understanding in mechanisms underlying this cellular response would not only have therapeutical consequences, but may also explain the relationship between viral infectious rhinitis and asthma or atopy. During a rhinovirus infection, a selective neutrophil and monocyte recruitment is observed. In vitro and in vivo data have demonstrated a time-limited, rhinovirus-induced increase in bradykinin, cytokine, chemokine and sICAM-1 concentrations. Epithelial derived proinflammatory cytokines initiate an adhesion cascade and activate T lymphocytes that create a TH1-type cytokine environment within the infected tissue, necessary to eradicate the virus infection. The selective recruitment of neutrophils seems linked to increased concentrations of the chemokine IL-8 and common cold symptoms. It is doubtful that the cytokine-regulated-production of specific neutralising immunoglobulins is necessary for recovery from viral illnesses and presumably only contributes to a late and temporary protection against rhinovirus reinfection. These observations confirm the crucial role that cytokines and mediators play in the pathogenesis of a rhinovirus infection by mediating chemotaxis, transmigration and activation of inflammatory- and immunocompetent cells. PMID:10567986

van Kempen, M; Bachert, C; Van Cauwenberge, P

1999-09-01

102

Convergent evolution of the genomes of marine mammals.  

PubMed

Marine mammals from different mammalian orders share several phenotypic traits adapted to the aquatic environment and therefore represent a classic example of convergent evolution. To investigate convergent evolution at the genomic level, we sequenced and performed de novo assembly of the genomes of three species of marine mammals (the killer whale, walrus and manatee) from three mammalian orders that share independently evolved phenotypic adaptations to a marine existence. Our comparative genomic analyses found that convergent amino acid substitutions were widespread throughout the genome and that a subset of these substitutions were in genes evolving under positive selection and putatively associated with a marine phenotype. However, we found higher levels of convergent amino acid substitutions in a control set of terrestrial sister taxa to the marine mammals. Our results suggest that, whereas convergent molecular evolution is relatively common, adaptive molecular convergence linked to phenotypic convergence is comparatively rare. PMID:25621460

Foote, Andrew D; Liu, Yue; Thomas, Gregg W C; Vina?, Tomáš; Alföldi, Jessica; Deng, Jixin; Dugan, Shannon; van Elk, Cornelis E; Hunter, Margaret E; Joshi, Vandita; Khan, Ziad; Kovar, Christie; Lee, Sandra L; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Mancia, Annalaura; Nielsen, Rasmus; Qin, Xiang; Qu, Jiaxin; Raney, Brian J; Vijay, Nagarjun; Wolf, Jochen B W; Hahn, Matthew W; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Gibbs, Richard A

2015-03-01

103

DNA and RNA editing of retrotransposons accelerate mammalian genome evolution.  

PubMed

Genome evolution is commonly viewed as a gradual process that is driven by random mutations that accumulate over time. However, DNA- and RNA-editing enzymes have been identified that can accelerate evolution by actively modifying the genomically encoded information. The apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzymes, catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBECs) are potent restriction factors that can inhibit retroelements by cytosine-to-uridine editing of retroelement DNA after reverse transcription. In some cases, a retroelement may successfully integrate into the genome despite being hypermutated. Such events introduce unique sequences into the genome and are thus a source of genomic innovation. adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine-to-inosine editing in double-stranded RNA, commonly formed by oppositely oriented retroelements. The RNA editing confers plasticity to the transcriptome by generating many transcript variants from a single genomic locus. If the editing produces a beneficial variant, the genome may maintain the locus that produces the RNA-edited transcript for its novel function. Here, we discuss how these two powerful editing mechanisms, which both target inserted retroelements, facilitate expedited genome evolution. PMID:25722083

Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Levanon, Erez Y

2015-04-01

104

Marsupial Genome Sequences: Providing Insight into Evolution and Disease  

PubMed Central

Marsupials (metatherians), with their position in vertebrate phylogeny and their unique biological features, have been studied for many years by a dedicated group of researchers, but it has only been since the sequencing of the first marsupial genome that their value has been more widely recognised. We now have genome sequences for three distantly related marsupial species (the grey short-tailed opossum, the tammar wallaby, and Tasmanian devil), with the promise of many more genomes to be sequenced in the near future, making this a particularly exciting time in marsupial genomics. The emergence of a transmissible cancer, which is obliterating the Tasmanian devil population, has increased the importance of obtaining and analysing marsupial genome sequence for understanding such diseases as well as for conservation efforts. In addition, these genome sequences have facilitated studies aimed at answering questions regarding gene and genome evolution and provided insight into the evolution of epigenetic mechanisms. Here I highlight the major advances in our understanding of evolution and disease, facilitated by marsupial genome projects, and speculate on the future contributions to be made by such sequences. PMID:24278712

Deakin, Janine E.

2012-01-01

105

Principles of genome evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster species group.  

E-print Network

Principles of Genome Evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group Jose´ M. Ranz1*, Damien Maurin1¤a, Yuk S. Chan1, Marcin von Grotthuss1, LaDeana W. Hillier2, John Roote1, Michael Ashburner1, Casey M. Bergman1¤b 1 Department of Genetics... , with the availability of ‘‘complete’’ genome sequences, can these structural changes in genomes be studied in the molecular detail, as foreseen by Michael White [1] over 30 years ago (e.g., [14–16]). Genomic sequence data are beginning to reveal a remark- able diversity...

Ranz, J M; Maurin, D; Chan, Y S; von Grotthuss, M; Hillier, L W; Roote, John; Ashburner, Michael; Bergman, Casey M

2007-06-05

106

An Inherited Efficiencies Model of Non-Genomic Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model for the evolution of biological systems in the absence of a nucleic acid-like genome is proposed and applied to model the earliest living organisms -- protocells composed of membrane encapsulated peptides. Assuming that the peptides can make and break bonds between amino acids, and bonds in non-functional peptides are more likely to be destroyed than in functional peptides, it is demonstrated that the catalytic capabilities of the system as a whole can increase. This increase is defined to be non-genomic evolution. The relationship between the proposed mechanism for evolution and recent experiments on self-replicating peptides is discussed.

New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew

1999-01-01

107

Non-adaptive evolution of genome complexity  

E-print Network

the tree of life. The difference between genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotesisparticularly striking.Prokaryotes of them in an increasing order from prokaryotes, to unicellular eukaryotes, and to multicellular eukaryotes.(1,4) The distinction between the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes has been considered

Yi, Soojin

108

The Norway spruce genome sequence and conifer genome evolution.  

PubMed

Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200?million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, and there is no evidence of a recent whole-genome duplication in the gymnosperm lineage. Instead, the large genome size seems to result from the slow and steady accumulation of a diverse set of long-terminal repeat transposable elements, possibly owing to the lack of an efficient elimination mechanism. Comparative sequencing of Pinus sylvestris, Abies sibirica, Juniperus communis, Taxus baccata and Gnetum gnemon reveals that the transposable element diversity is shared among extant conifers. Expression of 24-nucleotide small RNAs, previously implicated in transposable element silencing, is tissue-specific and much lower than in other plants. We further identify numerous long (>10,000?base pairs) introns, gene-like fragments, uncharacterized long non-coding RNAs and short RNAs. This opens up new genomic avenues for conifer forestry and breeding. PMID:23698360

Nystedt, Björn; Street, Nathaniel R; Wetterbom, Anna; Zuccolo, Andrea; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Scofield, Douglas G; Vezzi, Francesco; Delhomme, Nicolas; Giacomello, Stefania; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Vicedomini, Riccardo; Sahlin, Kristoffer; Sherwood, Ellen; Elfstrand, Malin; Gramzow, Lydia; Holmberg, Kristina; Hällman, Jimmie; Keech, Olivier; Klasson, Lisa; Koriabine, Maxim; Kucukoglu, Melis; Käller, Max; Luthman, Johannes; Lysholm, Fredrik; Niittylä, Totte; Olson, Ake; Rilakovic, Nemanja; Ritland, Carol; Rosselló, Josep A; Sena, Juliana; Svensson, Thomas; Talavera-López, Carlos; Theißen, Günter; Tuominen, Hannele; Vanneste, Kevin; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Zerbe, Philipp; Arvestad, Lars; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Bohlmann, Joerg; Bousquet, Jean; Garcia Gil, Rosario; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; de Jong, Pieter; MacKay, John; Morgante, Michele; Ritland, Kermit; Sundberg, Björn; Thompson, Stacey Lee; Van de Peer, Yves; Andersson, Björn; Nilsson, Ove; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Lundeberg, Joakim; Jansson, Stefan

2013-05-30

109

Genomic Evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese Rice Wine Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

2014-01-01

110

Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.  

PubMed

Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. PMID:25212861

Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

2014-09-01

111

Evolution of parasitism along convergent lines: from ecology to genomics.  

PubMed

SUMMARY From hundreds of independent transitions from a free-living existence to a parasitic mode of life, separate parasite lineages have converged over evolutionary time to share traits and exploit their hosts in similar ways. Here, we first summarize the evidence that, at a phenotypic level, eukaryotic parasite lineages have all converged toward only six general parasitic strategies: parasitoid, parasitic castrator, directly transmitted parasite, trophically transmitted parasite, vector-transmitted parasite or micropredator. We argue that these strategies represent adaptive peaks, with the similarities among unrelated taxa within any strategy extending to all basic aspects of host exploitation and transmission among hosts and transcending phylogenetic boundaries. Then, we extend our examination of convergent patterns by looking at the evolution of parasite genomes. Despite the limited taxonomic coverage of sequenced parasite genomes currently available, we find some evidence of parallel evolution among unrelated parasite taxa with respect to genome reduction or compaction, and gene losses or gains. Matching such changes in parasite genomes with the broad phenotypic traits that define the convergence of parasites toward only six strategies of host exploitation is not possible at present. Nevertheless, as more parasite genomes become available, we may be able to detect clear trends in the evolution of parasitic genome architectures representing true convergent adaptive peaks, the genomic equivalents of the phenotypic strategies used by all parasites. PMID:24229807

Poulin, Robert; Randhawa, Haseeb S

2015-02-01

112

Evolution of genome size in Carex (Cyperaceae) in relation to chromosome number and genomic base composition  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The genus Carex exhibits karyological peculiarities related to holocentrism, specifically extremely broad and almost continual variation in chromosome number. However, the effect of these peculiarities on the evolution of the genome (genome size, base composition) remains unknown. While in monocentrics, determining the arithmetic relationship between the chromosome numbers of related species is usually sufficient for the detection of particular modes of karyotype evolution (i.e. polyploidy and dysploidy), in holocentrics where chromosomal fission and fusion occur such detection requires knowledge of the DNA content. Methods The genome size and GC content were estimated in 157 taxa using flow cytometry. The exact chromosome numbers were known for 96 measured samples and were taken from the available literature for other taxa. All relationships were tested in a phylogenetic framework using the ITS tree of 105 species. Key Results The 1C genome size varied between 0·24 and 1·64 pg in Carex secalina and C. cuspidata, respectively. The genomic GC content varied from 34·8 % to 40·6 % from C. secalina to C. firma. Both genomic parameters were positively correlated. Seven polyploid and two potentially polyploid taxa were detected in the core Carex clade. A strong negative correlation between genome size and chromosome number was documented in non-polyploid taxa. Non-polyploid taxa of the core Carex clade exhibited a higher rate of genome-size evolution compared with the Vignea clade. Three dioecious taxa exhibited larger genomes, larger chromosomes, and a higher GC content than their hermaphrodite relatives. Conclusions Genomes of Carex are relatively small and very GC-poor compared with other angiosperms. We conclude that the evolution of genome and karyotype in Carex is promoted by frequent chromosomal fissions/fusions, rare polyploidy and common repetitive DNA proliferation/removal. PMID:23175591

Lipnerová, Ivana; Bureš, Petr; Horová, Lucie; Šmarda, Petr

2013-01-01

113

Comparative genomic paleontology across plant kingdom reveals the dynamics of TE-driven genome evolution.  

PubMed

Long terminal repeat-retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant class of transposable elements (TEs) in plants. They strongly impact the structure, function, and evolution of their host genome, and, in particular, their role in genome size variation has been clearly established. However, the dynamics of the process through which LTR-RTs have differentially shaped plant genomes is still poorly understood because of a lack of comparative studies. Using a new robust and automated family classification procedure, we exhaustively characterized the LTR-RTs in eight plant genomes for which a high-quality sequence is available (i.e., Arabidopsis thaliana, A. lyrata, grapevine, soybean, rice, Brachypodium dystachion, sorghum, and maize). This allowed us to perform a comparative genome-wide study of the retrotranspositional landscape in these eight plant lineages from both monocots and dicots. We show that retrotransposition has recurrently occurred in all plant genomes investigated, regardless their size, and through bursts, rather than a continuous process. Moreover, in each genome, only one or few LTR-RT families have been active in the recent past, and the difference in genome size among the species studied could thus mostly be accounted for by the extent of the latest transpositional burst(s). Following these bursts, LTR-RTs are efficiently eliminated from their host genomes through recombination and deletion, but we show that the removal rate is not lineage specific. These new findings lead us to propose a new model of TE-driven genome evolution in plants. PMID:23426643

El Baidouri, Moaine; Panaud, Olivier

2013-01-01

114

Computational comparative genomics : genes, regulation, evolution  

E-print Network

Understanding the biological signals encoded in a genome is a key challenge of computational biology. These signals are encoded in the four-nucleotide alphabet of DNA and are responsible for all molecular processes in the ...

Kamvysselis, Manolis, 1977-

2003-01-01

115

lincRNAs: Genomics, Evolution, and Mechanisms  

E-print Network

Long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcribed from thousands of loci in mammalian genomes and might play widespread roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. This Review outlines the emerging ...

Ulitsky, Igor

116

Insights into Minor Group Rhinovirus Uncoating: The X-ray Structure of the HRV2 Empty Capsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upon attachment to their respective receptor, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are internalized into the host cell via different pathways but undergo similar structural changes. This ultimately results in the delivery of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm for replication. To improve our understanding of the conformational modifications associated with the release of the viral genome, we have determined the X-ray structure

Damiŕ Garriga; Angela Pickl-Herk; Daniel Luque; Jürgen Wruss; José R. Castón; Dieter Blaas; Núria Verdaguer

2012-01-01

117

Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution  

SciTech Connect

Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

Schulman, Al

2009-08-09

118

Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma. PMID:21682739

Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

2011-01-01

119

An Integrative Breakage Model of genome architecture, reshuffling and evolution: The Integrative Breakage Model of genome evolution, a novel multidisciplinary hypothesis for the study of genome plasticity.  

PubMed

Our understanding of genomic reorganization, the mechanics of genomic transmission to offspring during germ line formation, and how these structural changes contribute to the speciation process, and genetic disease is far from complete. Earlier attempts to understand the mechanism(s) and constraints that govern genome remodeling suffered from being too narrowly focused, and failed to provide a unified and encompassing view of how genomes are organized and regulated inside cells. Here, we propose a new multidisciplinary Integrative Breakage Model for the study of genome evolution. The analysis of the high-level structural organization of genomes (nucleome), together with the functional constrains that accompany genome reshuffling, provide insights into the origin and plasticity of genome organization that may assist with the detection and isolation of therapeutic targets for the treatment of complex human disorders. PMID:25739389

Farré, Marta; Robinson, Terence J; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora

2015-05-01

120

Localizing recent adaptive evolution in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying genomic locations that have experienced selective sweeps is an important first step toward understanding the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. Using statistical methods that account for the confounding effects of population demography, recombination rate variation, and single-nucleotide polymorphism ascertainment, while also providing fine-scale estimates of the position of the selected site, we analyzed a genomic dataset of 1.2 million

Scott H. Williamson; Melissa J. Hubisz; Andrew G. Clark; Bret A. Payseur; Carlos D. Bustamante; Rasmus Nielsen

2005-01-01

121

The human rhinovirus internal cis -acting replication element ( cre ) exhibits disparate properties among serotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. It has been reported previously that the Human rhinovirus 14 (HRV-14) RNA genome contains a cis-acting replication element ( cre) that maps to the capsid coding (P1) sequence [19]. Further characterization of the HRV-14 cre in the present study established that by moving the cre stem-loop structure downstream, adjacent to the 3'NCR, that its position is not critical for

K. L. McKnight

2003-01-01

122

Rhinovirus-induced modulation of gene expression in bronchial epithelial cells from subjects with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinovirus (RV) infections trigger asthma exacerbations. Genome-wide expression analysis of RV1A-infected primary bronchial epithelial cells from normal and asthmatic donors was performed to determine whether asthma is associated with a unique pattern of RV-induced gene expression. Virus replication rates were similar in cells from normal and asthmatic donors. Overall, RV downregulated 975 and upregulated 69 genes. Comparisons of transcriptional profiles

Y A Bochkov; K M Hanson; S Keles; R A Brockman-Schneider; N N Jarjour; J E Gern

2010-01-01

123

Genome Evolution of a Tertiary Dinoflagellate Plastid  

PubMed Central

The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata. PMID:21541332

Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2011-01-01

124

Polyploidy-associated genome modifications during land plant evolution.  

PubMed

The occurrence of polyploidy in land plant evolution has led to an acceleration of genome modifications relative to other crown eukaryotes and is correlated with key innovations in plant evolution. Extensive genome resources provide for relating genomic changes to the origins of novel morphological and physiological features of plants. Ancestral gene contents for key nodes of the plant family tree are inferred. Pervasive polyploidy in angiosperms appears likely to be the major factor generating novel angiosperm genes and expanding some gene families. However, most gene families lose most duplicated copies in a quasi-neutral process, and a few families are actively selected for single-copy status. One of the great challenges of evolutionary genomics is to link genome modifications to speciation, diversification and the morphological and/or physiological innovations that collectively compose biodiversity. Rapid accumulation of genomic data and its ongoing investigation may greatly improve the resolution at which evolutionary approaches can contribute to the identification of specific genes responsible for particular innovations. The resulting, more 'particulate' understanding of plant evolution, may elevate to a new level fundamental knowledge of botanical diversity, including economically important traits in the crop plants that sustain humanity. PMID:24958928

Jiao, Yuannian; Paterson, Andrew H

2014-08-01

125

Three crocodilian genomes reveal ancestral patterns of evolution among archosaurs.  

PubMed

To provide context for the diversification of archosaurs--the group that includes crocodilians, dinosaurs, and birds--we generated draft genomes of three crocodilians: Alligator mississippiensis (the American alligator), Crocodylus porosus (the saltwater crocodile), and Gavialis gangeticus (the Indian gharial). We observed an exceptionally slow rate of genome evolution within crocodilians at all levels, including nucleotide substitutions, indels, transposable element content and movement, gene family evolution, and chromosomal synteny. When placed within the context of related taxa including birds and turtles, this suggests that the common ancestor of all of these taxa also exhibited slow genome evolution and that the comparatively rapid evolution is derived in birds. The data also provided the opportunity to analyze heterozygosity in crocodilians, which indicates a likely reduction in population size for all three taxa through the Pleistocene. Finally, these data combined with newly published bird genomes allowed us to reconstruct the partial genome of the common ancestor of archosaurs, thereby providing a tool to investigate the genetic starting material of crocodilians, birds, and dinosaurs. PMID:25504731

Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Armstrong, Joel; Earl, Dent; Nguyen, Ngan; Hickey, Glenn; Vandewege, Michael W; St John, John A; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Castoe, Todd A; Kern, Colin; Fujita, Matthew K; Opazo, Juan C; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Hubley, Robert M; Smit, Arian F; Platt, Roy N; Lavoie, Christine A; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Finger, John W; Suh, Alexander; Isberg, Sally R; Miles, Lee; Chong, Amanda Y; Jaratlerdsiri, Weerachai; Gongora, Jaime; Moran, Christopher; Iriarte, Andrés; McCormack, John; Burgess, Shane C; Edwards, Scott V; Lyons, Eric; Williams, Christina; Breen, Matthew; Howard, Jason T; Gresham, Cathy R; Peterson, Daniel G; Schmitz, Jürgen; Pollock, David D; Haussler, David; Triplett, Eric W; Zhang, Guojie; Irie, Naoki; Jarvis, Erich D; Brochu, Christopher A; Schmidt, Carl J; McCarthy, Fiona M; Faircloth, Brant C; Hoffmann, Federico G; Glenn, Travis C; Gabaldón, Toni; Paten, Benedict; Ray, David A

2014-12-12

126

Genome evolution in the eremothecium clade of the Saccharomyces complex revealed by comparative genomics.  

PubMed

We used comparative genomics to elucidate the genome evolution within the pre-whole-genome duplication genus Eremothecium. To this end, we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of Eremothecium cymbalariae, a filamentous ascomycete representing the Eremothecium type strain. Genome annotation indicated 4712 gene models and 143 tRNAs. We compared the E. cymbalariae genome with that of its relative, the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, and the reconstructed yeast ancestor. Decisive changes in the Eremothecium lineage leading to the evolution of the A. gossypii genome include the reduction from eight to seven chromosomes, the downsizing of the genome by removal of 10% or 900 kb of DNA, mostly in intergenic regions, the loss of a TY3-Gypsy-type transposable element, the re-arrangement of mating-type loci, and a massive increase of its GC content. Key species-specific events are the loss of MNN1-family of mannosyltransferases required to add the terminal fourth and fifth ?-1,3-linked mannose residue to O-linked glycans and genes of the Ehrlich pathway in E. cymbalariae and the loss of ZMM-family of meiosis-specific proteins and acquisition of riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii. This reveals that within the Saccharomyces complex genome, evolution is not only based on genome duplication with subsequent gene deletions and chromosomal rearrangements but also on fungi associated with specific environments (e.g. involving fungal-insect interactions as in Eremothecium), which have encountered challenges that may be reflected both in genome streamlining and their biosynthetic potential. PMID:22384365

Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

2011-12-01

127

Genome Evolution in the Eremothecium Clade of the Saccharomyces Complex Revealed by Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

We used comparative genomics to elucidate the genome evolution within the pre–whole-genome duplication genus Eremothecium. To this end, we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of Eremothecium cymbalariae, a filamentous ascomycete representing the Eremothecium type strain. Genome annotation indicated 4712 gene models and 143 tRNAs. We compared the E. cymbalariae genome with that of its relative, the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, and the reconstructed yeast ancestor. Decisive changes in the Eremothecium lineage leading to the evolution of the A. gossypii genome include the reduction from eight to seven chromosomes, the downsizing of the genome by removal of 10% or 900 kb of DNA, mostly in intergenic regions, the loss of a TY3-Gypsy–type transposable element, the re-arrangement of mating-type loci, and a massive increase of its GC content. Key species-specific events are the loss of MNN1-family of mannosyltransferases required to add the terminal fourth and fifth ?-1,3-linked mannose residue to O-linked glycans and genes of the Ehrlich pathway in E. cymbalariae and the loss of ZMM-family of meiosis-specific proteins and acquisition of riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii. This reveals that within the Saccharomyces complex genome, evolution is not only based on genome duplication with subsequent gene deletions and chromosomal rearrangements but also on fungi associated with specific environments (e.g. involving fungal-insect interactions as in Eremothecium), which have encountered challenges that may be reflected both in genome streamlining and their biosynthetic potential. PMID:22384365

Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

2011-01-01

128

Prospects & Overviews Evolution of eukaryotic genome  

E-print Network

tunicate with a conserved fundamental chordate body plan, feeds using a unique gelatinous feature known as `house'. Unique among tunicates, O. dioica has separate sexes, which are genetically determined, phylogenetic analysis using the then available partial genome sequence of O. dioica established tunicates

Babu, M. Madan

129

Implications of the plastid genome sequence of typha (typhaceae, poales) for understanding genome evolution in poaceae.  

PubMed

Plastid genomes of the grasses (Poaceae) are unusual in their organization and rates of sequence evolution. There has been a recent surge in the availability of grass plastid genome sequences, but a comprehensive comparative analysis of genome evolution has not been performed that includes any related families in the Poales. We report on the plastid genome of Typha latifolia, the first non-grass Poales sequenced to date, and we present comparisons of genome organization and sequence evolution within Poales. Our results confirm that grass plastid genomes exhibit acceleration in both genomic rearrangements and nucleotide substitutions. Poaceae have multiple structural rearrangements, including three inversions, three genes losses (accD, ycf1, ycf2), intron losses in two genes (clpP, rpoC1), and expansion of the inverted repeat (IR) into both large and small single-copy regions. These rearrangements are restricted to the Poaceae, and IR expansion into the small single-copy region correlates with the phylogeny of the family. Comparisons of 73 protein-coding genes for 47 angiosperms including nine Poaceae genera confirm that the branch leading to Poaceae has significantly accelerated rates of change relative to other monocots and angiosperms. Furthermore, rates of sequence evolution within grasses are lower, indicating a deceleration during diversification of the family. Overall there is a strong correlation between accelerated rates of genomic rearrangements and nucleotide substitutions in Poaceae, a phenomenon that has been noted recently throughout angiosperms. The cause of the correlation is unknown, but faulty DNA repair has been suggested in other systems including bacterial and animal mitochondrial genomes. PMID:20091301

Guisinger, Mary M; Chumley, Timothy W; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; Jansen, Robert K

2010-02-01

130

Genome Evolution in Maize: From Genomes Back to Genes.  

PubMed

Maize occupies dual roles as both (a) one of the big-three grain species (along with rice and wheat) responsible for providing more than half of the calories consumed around the world, and (b) a model system for plant genetics and cytogenetics dating back to the origin of the field of genetics in the early twentieth century. The long history of genetic investigation in this species combined with modern genomic and quantitative genetic data has provided particular insight into the characteristics of genes linked to phenotypes and how these genes differ from many other sequences in plant genomes that are not easily distinguishable based on molecular data alone. These recent results suggest that the number of genes in plants that make significant contributions to phenotype may be lower than the number of genes defined by current molecular criteria, and also indicate that syntenic conservation has been underemphasized as a marker for gene function. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 66 is April 29, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates. PMID:25494463

Schnable, James C

2014-12-01

131

The importance of genomic novelty in social evolution.  

PubMed

Insect societies dominate the natural world: They mould landscapes, sculpt habitats, pollinate plants, sow seeds and control pests. The secret to their success lies in the evolution of queen (reproductive) and worker (provisioner and carer) castes (Oster & Wilson 1978). A major problem in evolutionary biology is explaining the evolution of insect castes, particularly the workers (Darwin 1859). Next-generation sequencing technologies now make it possible to understand how genomic material is born, lost and reorganized in the evolution of alternative phenotypes. Such analyses are revealing a general role for novel (e.g. taxonomically restricted) genes in phenotypic innovations across the animal kingdom (Chen et al. 2013). In this issue of molecular ecology, Feldmeyer et al. (2014) provide overwhelming evidence for the importance of novel genes in caste evolution in an ant. Feldmeyer et al.'s study is important and exciting because it cements the role of genomic novelty, as well as conservation, firmly into the molecular jigsaw of social evolution. Evolution is eclectic in its exploitation of both old and new genomic material to generate replicated phenotypic innovations across the tree of life. PMID:24372753

Sumner, Seirian

2014-01-01

132

Pigmentation Pathway Evolution after Whole-Genome Duplication in Fish  

PubMed Central

Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have occurred repeatedly in the vertebrate lineage, but their evolutionary significance for phenotypic evolution remains elusive. Here, we have investigated the impact of the fish-specific genome duplication (FSGD) on the evolution of pigmentation pathways in teleost fishes. Pigmentation and color patterning are among the most diverse traits in teleosts, and their pigmentary system is the most complex of all vertebrate groups. Using a comparative genomic approach including phylogenetic and synteny analyses, the evolution of 128 vertebrate pigmentation genes in five teleost genomes following the FSGD has been reconstructed. We show that pigmentation genes have been preferentially retained in duplicate after the FSGD, so that teleosts have 30% more pigmentation genes compared with tetrapods. This is significantly higher than genome-wide estimates of FSGD gene duplicate retention in teleosts. Large parts of the melanocyte regulatory network have been retained in two copies after the FSGD. Duplicated pigmentation genes follow general evolutionary patterns such as the preservation of protein complex stoichiometries and the overrepresentation of developmental genes among retained duplicates. These results suggest that the FSGD has made an important contribution to the evolution of teleost-specific features of pigmentation, which include novel pigment cell types or the division of existing pigment cell types into distinct subtypes. Furthermore, we have observed species-specific differences in duplicate retention and evolution that might contribute to pigmentary diversity among teleosts. Our study therefore strongly supports the hypothesis that WGDs have promoted the increase of complexity and diversity during vertebrate phenotypic evolution. PMID:20333216

Brunet, Frédéric; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Schartl, Manfred

2009-01-01

133

Tolerance whole of genome doubling propagates chromosomal instability and accelerates cancer genome evolution  

PubMed Central

The contribution of whole genome doubling to chromosomal instability (CIN) and tumour evolution is unclear. We use long-term culture of isogenic tetraploid cells from a stable diploid colon cancer progenitor to investigate how a genome-doubling event affects genome stability over time. Rare cells that survive genome doubling demonstrate increased tolerance to chromosome aberrations. Tetraploid cells do not exhibit increased frequencies of structural or numerical CIN per chromosome. However, the tolerant phenotype in tetraploid cells, coupled with a doubling of chromosome aberrations per cell, allows chromosome abnormalities to evolve specifically in tetraploids, recapitulating chromosomal changes in genomically complex colorectal tumours. Finally, a genome-doubling event is independently predictive of poor relapse-free survival in early stage disease in two independent cohorts in multivariate analyses (discovery data: HR=4.70, 95% CI 1.04-21.37, validation data: HR=1.59, 95% CI 1.05-2.42). These data highlight an important role for the tolerance of genome doubling in driving cancer genome evolution. PMID:24436049

Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Grönroos, Eva; Endesfelder, David; Joshi, Tejal; Mouradov, Dmitri; Gibbs, Peter; Ward, Robyn L.; Hawkins, Nicholas J.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Sieber, Oliver M.; Swanton, Charles

2015-01-01

134

Transposable element evolution in Heliconius suggests genome diversity within Lepidoptera  

PubMed Central

Background Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to impact genome structure, function and evolution in profound ways. In order to understand the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to Heliconius melpomene, we queried the H. melpomene draft sequence to identify repetitive sequences. Results We determined that TEs comprise ~25% of the genome. The predominant class of TEs (~12% of the genome) was the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, including a novel SINE family. However, this was only slightly higher than content derived from DNA transposons, which are diverse, with several families having mobilized in the recent past. Compared to the only other well-studied lepidopteran genome, Bombyx mori, H. melpomene exhibits a higher DNA transposon content and a distinct repertoire of retrotransposons. We also found that H. melpomene exhibits a high rate of TE turnover with few older elements accumulating in the genome. Conclusions Our analysis represents the first complete, de novo characterization of TE content in a butterfly genome and suggests that, while TEs are able to invade and multiply, TEs have an overall deleterious effect and/or that maintaining a small genome is advantageous. Our results also hint that analysis of additional lepidopteran genomes will reveal substantial TE diversity within the group. PMID:24088337

2013-01-01

135

The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants  

SciTech Connect

We report the genome sequence of the nonseed vascular plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and by comparative genomics identify genes that likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular plants and their subsequent evolution

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cedric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sorensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theilsen, Gunter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loque, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel

2011-04-28

136

Origin and evolution of photosynthesis: clues from genome comparison Armen Y. Mulkidjanian1,2  

E-print Network

Origin and evolution of photosynthesis: clues from genome comparison Armen Y. Mulkidjanian1 Keywords: origin of photosynthesis, comparative genomics, evolution, cyanobacteria, phototrophic organisms with the recent geological data on the properties of the ancient phototrophs, suggest that photosynthesis has

Steinhoff, Heinz-JĂĽrgen

137

Global Distribution of Novel Rhinovirus Genotype  

PubMed Central

Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years. PMID:18507910

Renwick, Neil; Venter, Marietjie; Jarman, Richard G.; Ghosh, Dhrubaa; Köndgen, Sophie; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Hoegh, A. Mette; Casas, Inmaculada; Adjogoua, Edgard Valerie; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Myint, Khin Saw; Williams, David T.; Chidlow, Glenys; van den Berg, Ria; Calvo, Cristina; Koch, Orienka; Palacios, Gustavo; Kapoor, Vishal; Villari, Joseph; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Harnett, Gerry; Smith, David; Mackenzie, John S.; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Schřnning, Kristian; Chadha, Mandeep S.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Mishra, A.C.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Holmes, Edward C.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2008-01-01

138

The rainbow trout genome provides novel insights into evolution after whole-genome duplication in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Vertebrate evolution has been shaped by several rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that are often suggested to be associated with adaptive radiations and evolutionary innovations. Due to an additional round of WGD, the rainbow trout genome offers a unique opportunity to investigate the early evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome. Here we show that after 100 million years of evolution the two ancestral subgenomes have remained extremely collinear, despite the loss of half of the duplicated protein-coding genes, mostly through pseudogenization. In striking contrast is the fate of miRNA genes that have almost all been retained as duplicated copies. The slow and stepwise rediploidization process characterized here challenges the current hypothesis that WGD is followed by massive and rapid genomic reorganizations and gene deletions. PMID:24755649

Berthelot, Camille; Brunet, Frédéric; Chalopin, Domitille; Juanchich, Amélie; Bernard, Maria; Noël, Benjamin; Bento, Pascal; Da Silva, Corinne; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Aury, Jean-Marc; Louis, Alexandra; Dehais, Patrice; Bardou, Philippe; Montfort, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Cabau, Cédric; Gaspin, Christine; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Boussaha, Mekki; Quillet, Edwige; Guyomard, René; Galiana, Delphine; Bobe, Julien; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Genęt, Carine; Wincker, Patrick; Jaillon, Olivier; Crollius, Hugues Roest; Guiguen, Yann

2014-01-01

139

Decelerated genome evolution in modern vertebrates revealed by analysis of multiple lancelet genomes  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates diverged from other chordates ~500?Myr ago and experienced successful innovations and adaptations, but the genomic basis underlying vertebrate origins are not fully understood. Here we suggest, through comparison with multiple lancelet (amphioxus) genomes, that ancient vertebrates experienced high rates of protein evolution, genome rearrangement and domain shuffling and that these rates greatly slowed down after the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates. Compared with lancelets, modern vertebrates retain, at least relatively, less protein diversity, fewer nucleotide polymorphisms, domain combinations and conserved non-coding elements (CNE). Modern vertebrates also lost substantial transposable element (TE) diversity, whereas lancelets preserve high TE diversity that includes even the long-sought RAG transposon. Lancelets also exhibit rapid gene turnover, pervasive transcription, fastest exon shuffling in metazoans and substantial TE methylation not observed in other invertebrates. These new lancelet genome sequences provide new insights into the chordate ancestral state and the vertebrate evolution. PMID:25523484

Huang, Shengfeng; Chen, Zelin; Yan, Xinyu; Yu, Ting; Huang, Guangrui; Yan, Qingyu; Pontarotti, Pierre Antoine; Zhao, Hongchen; Li, Jie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Ruihua; Li, Rui; Tao, Xin; Deng, Ting; Wang, Yiquan; Li, Guang; Zhang, Qiujin; Zhou, Sisi; You, Leiming; Yuan, Shaochun; Fu, Yonggui; Wu, Fenfang; Dong, Meiling; Chen, Shangwu; Xu, Anlong

2014-01-01

140

Genome Size Variation and Evolution in Veronica  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The amount of DNA per chromosome set is known to be a fairly constant characteristic of a species. Its interspecific variation is enormous, but the biological significance of this variation is little understood. Some of the characters believed to be correlated with DNA amount are alpine habitat, life history and breeding system. In the present study, the aim is to distinguish between direct causal connections and chance correlation of the amount of DNA in the genus Veronica. • Methods Estimates of DNA amount were analysed for 42 members of Veroniceae in connection with results from a phylogenetic analysis of plastid trnL-F DNA sequences and tested correlations using standard statistical tests, phylogenetically independent contrasts and a model-based generalized least squares method to distinguish the phylogenetic effect on the results. • Key Results There appears to be a lower upper limit for DNA amount in annuals than in perennials. Most DNAC-values in Veroniceae are below the mean DNA C-value for annuals in angiosperms as a whole. However, the long-debated correlation of low genome size with annual life history is not significant (P = 0·12) using either standard statistical tests or independent contrasts, but it is significant with the generalized least squares method (P < 0·01). • Conclusions The correlation of annual life history and low genome size found in earlier studies could be due to the association of annual life history and selfing, which is significantly correlated with low genome size using any of the three tests applied. This correlation can be explained by models showing a reduction in transposable elements in selfers. A significant correlation of higher genome sizes with alpine habitats was also detected. PMID:15520022

ALBACH, DIRK C.; GREILHUBER, J.

2004-01-01

141

Programming cells by multiplex genome engineering and accelerated evolution  

E-print Network

and outdated genetic engineering techniques. Whereas in vivo methods such as recombination-based genetic engineering (recombineering) have enabled efficient modification of single genetic targets using singleLETTERS Programming cells by multiplex genome engineering and accelerated evolution Harris H. Wang1

Church, George M.

142

Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We analyzed the DNA sequences of BACs from many wheat libraries containing the Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, to gain understanding of the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Mor...

143

Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches. PMID:20929580

2010-01-01

144

Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence  

PubMed Central

Summary Gorillas are humans’ closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago (Mya). In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution. PMID:22398555

Scally, Aylwyn; Dutheil, Julien Y.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Jordan, Greg E.; Goodhead, Ian; Herrero, Javier; Hobolth, Asger; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Mailund, Thomas; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; McCarthy, Shane; Montgomery, Stephen H.; Schwalie, Petra C.; Tang, Y. Amy; Ward, Michelle C.; Xue, Yali; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Alkan, Can; Andersen, Lars N.; Ayub, Qasim; Ball, Edward V.; Beal, Kathryn; Bradley, Brenda J.; Chen, Yuan; Clee, Chris M.; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Graves, Tina A.; Gu, Yong; Heath, Paul; Heger, Andreas; Karakoc, Emre; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Laird, Gavin K.; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Mort, Matthew; Mullikin, James C.; Munch, Kasper; O’Connor, Timothy D.; Phillips, Andrew D.; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Rogers, Anthony S.; Sajjadian, Saba; Schmidt, Dominic; Shaw, Katy; Simpson, Jared T.; Stenson, Peter D.; Turner, Daniel J.; Vigilant, Linda; Vilella, Albert J.; Whitener, Weldon; Zhu, Baoli; Cooper, David N.; de Jong, Pieter; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Eichler, Evan E.; Flicek, Paul; Goldman, Nick; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Ning, Zemin; Odom, Duncan T.; Ponting, Chris P.; Quail, Michael A.; Ryder, Oliver A.; Searle, Stephen M.; Warren, Wesley C.; Wilson, Richard K.; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Rogers, Jane; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard

2012-01-01

145

Ancient population genomics and the study of evolution.  

PubMed

Recently, the study of ancient DNA (aDNA) has been greatly enhanced by the development of second-generation DNA sequencing technologies and targeted enrichment strategies. These developments have allowed the recovery of several complete ancient genomes, a result that would have been considered virtually impossible only a decade ago. Prior to these developments, aDNA research was largely focused on the recovery of short DNA sequences and their use in the study of phylogenetic relationships, molecular rates, species identification and population structure. However, it is now possible to sequence a large number of modern and ancient complete genomes from a single species and thereby study the genomic patterns of evolutionary change over time. Such a study would herald the beginnings of ancient population genomics and its use in the study of evolution. Species that are amenable to such large-scale studies warrant increased research effort. We report here progress on a population genomic study of the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae). This species is ideally suited to ancient population genomic research because both modern and ancient samples are abundant in the permafrost conditions of Antarctica. This species will enable us to directly address many of the fundamental questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:25487332

Parks, M; Subramanian, S; Baroni, C; Salvatore, M C; Zhang, G; Millar, C D; Lambert, D M

2015-01-19

146

Intralocus sexual conflict can drive the evolution of genomic imprinting.  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon whereby the expression of an allele differs depending upon its parent of origin. There is an increasing number of examples of this form of epigenetic inheritance across a wide range of taxa, and imprinting errors have also been implicated in several human diseases. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of genomic imprinting, but there is not yet a widely accepted general hypothesis for the variety of imprinting patterns observed. Here a new evolutionary hypothesis, based on intralocus sexual conflict, is proposed. This hypothesis provides a potential explanation for much of the currently available empirical data, and it also makes new predictions about patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to evolve but that have not, as of yet, been looked for in nature. This theory also provides a potential mechanism for the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict in sexually selected traits and a novel pathway for the evolution of sexual dimorphism. PMID:15342496

Day, Troy; Bonduriansky, Russell

2004-01-01

147

The influence of the accessory genome on bacterial pathogen evolution  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens exhibit significant variation in their genomic content of virulence factors. This reflects the abundance of strategies pathogens evolved to infect host organisms by suppressing host immunity. Molecular arms-races have been a strong driving force for the evolution of pathogenicity, with pathogens often encoding overlapping or redundant functions, such as type III protein secretion effectors and hosts encoding ever more sophisticated immune systems. The pathogens' frequent exposure to other microbes, either in their host or in the environment, provides opportunities for the acquisition or interchange of mobile genetic elements. These DNA elements accessorize the core genome and can play major roles in shaping genome structure and altering the complement of virulence factors. Here, we review the different mobile genetic elements focusing on the more recent discoveries and highlighting their role in shaping bacterial pathogen evolution. PMID:22016845

Vinatzer, Boris; Arnold, Dawn L; Dorus, Steve; Murillo, Jesús

2011-01-01

148

The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)  

ScienceCinema

Loren Rieseberg from the University of British Columbia on "The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

Rieseberg, Loren [University of British Columbia

2013-01-15

149

Evolution in health and medicine Sackler colloquium: Genomic disorders: a window into human gene and genome evolution.  

PubMed

Gene duplications alter the genetic constitution of organisms and can be a driving force of molecular evolution in humans and the great apes. In this context, the study of genomic disorders has uncovered the essential role played by the genomic architecture, especially low copy repeats (LCRs) or segmental duplications (SDs). In fact, regardless of the mechanism, LCRs can mediate or stimulate rearrangements, inciting genomic instability and generating dynamic and unstable regions prone to rapid molecular evolution. In humans, copy-number variation (CNV) has been implicated in common traits such as neuropathy, hypertension, color blindness, infertility, and behavioral traits including autism and schizophrenia, as well as disease susceptibility to HIV, lupus nephritis, and psoriasis among many other clinical phenotypes. The same mechanisms implicated in the origin of genomic disorders may also play a role in the emergence of segmental duplications and the evolution of new genes by means of genomic and gene duplication and triplication, exon shuffling, exon accretion, and fusion/fission events. PMID:20080665

Carvalho, Claudia M B; Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R

2010-01-26

150

Chloroplast Genome Evolution in Early Diverged Leptosporangiate Ferns  

PubMed Central

In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. cinnamomea. In addition, putative RNA editing sites in the cp genome were rare in O. cinnamomea, even though the sites were frequently predicted to be present in leptosporangiate ferns. The complete cp genome sequence of Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniales) was 151,007 bp and has a 9.7 kb inversion between the trnL-CAA and trnV-GCA genes when compared to O. cinnamomea. Several repeated sequences were detected around the inversion break points. The complete cp genome sequence of Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales) was 157,142 bp and a deletion of the rpoC1 intron was detected. This intron loss was shared by all of the studied species of the genus Lygodium. The GC contents and the effective numbers of co-dons (ENCs) in ferns varied significantly when compared to seed plants. The ENC values of the early diverged leptosporangiate ferns showed intermediate levels between eusporangiate and core leptosporangiate ferns. However, our phylogenetic tree based on all of the cp gene sequences clearly indicated that the cp genome similarity between O. cinnamomea (Osmundales) and eusporangiate ferns are symplesiomorphies, rather than synapomorphies. Therefore, our data is in agreement with the view that Osmundales is a distinct early diverged lineage in the leptosporangiate ferns. PMID:24823358

Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong

2014-01-01

151

Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus  

PubMed Central

The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

2014-01-01

152

Eukaryotic genome evolution: rearrangement and coevolution of compartmentalized genetic information.  

PubMed Central

The plant cell operates with an integrated, compartmentalized genome consisting of nucleus/cytosol, plastids and mitochondria that, in its entirety, is regulated in time, quantitatively, in multicellular organisms and also in space. This genome, as do genomes of eukaryotes in general, originated in endosymbiotic events, with at least three cells, and was shaped phylogenetically by a massive and highly complex restructuring and intermixing of the genetic potentials of the symbiotic partners and by lateral gene transfer. This was accompanied by fundamental changes in expression signals in the entire system at almost all regulatory levels. The gross genome rearrangements contrast with a highly specific compartmental interplay, which becomes apparent in interspecific nuclear-plastid cybrids or hybrids. Organelle exchanges, even between closely related species, can greatly disturb the intracellular genetic balance ("hybrid bleaching"), which is indicative of compartmental coevolution and is of relevance for speciation processes. The photosynthetic machinery of plastids, which is embedded in that genetic machinery, is an appealing model to probe into genomic and organismic evolution and to develop functional molecular genomics. We have studied the reciprocal Atropa belladonna-Nicotiana tabacum cybrids, which differ markedly in their phenotypes, and found that transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes can contribute to genome/plastome incompatibility. Allopolyploidy can influence this phenomenon by providing an increased, cryptic RNA editing potential and the capacity to maintain the integrity of organelles of different taxonomic origins. PMID:12594919

Herrmann, Reinhold G; Maier, Rainer M; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian

2003-01-01

153

Nannochloropsis Genomes Reveal Evolution of Microalgal Oleaginous Traits  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuels, yet the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of oleaginous traits remain largely unknown. Here we present a detailed phylogenomic analysis of five oleaginous Nannochloropsis species (a total of six strains) and one time-series transcriptome dataset for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis on one representative strain. Despite small genome sizes, high coding potential and relative paucity of mobile elements, the genomes feature small cores of ca. 2,700 protein-coding genes and a large pan-genome of >38,000 genes. The six genomes share key oleaginous traits, such as the enrichment of selected lipid biosynthesis genes and certain glycoside hydrolase genes that potentially shift carbon flux from chrysolaminaran to TAG synthesis. The eleven type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes (DGAT-2) in every strain, each expressed during TAG synthesis, likely originated from three ancient genomes, including the secondary endosymbiosis host and the engulfed green and red algae. Horizontal gene transfers were inferred in most lipid synthesis nodes with expanded gene doses and many glycoside hydrolase genes. Thus multiple genome pooling and horizontal genetic exchange, together with selective inheritance of lipid synthesis genes and species-specific gene loss, have led to the enormous genetic apparatus for oleaginousness and the wide genomic divergence among present-day Nannochloropsis. These findings have important implications in the screening and genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels. PMID:24415958

Hu, Jianqiang; Han, Danxiang; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Xiaowei; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Chang, Xingzhi; Wang, Anhui; Wang, Wei; Jia, Jing; Wei, Li; Xin, Yi; Qiao, Yinghe; Huang, Ranran; Chen, Jie; Han, Bo; Yoon, Kangsup; Hill, Russell T.; Zohar, Yonathan; Chen, Feng; Hu, Qiang; Xu, Jian

2014-01-01

154

Genome-wide signatures of convergent evolution in echolocating mammals  

PubMed Central

Evolution is typically thought to proceed through divergence of genes, proteins, and ultimately phenotypes1-3. However, similar traits might also evolve convergently in unrelated taxa due to similar selection pressures4,5. Adaptive phenotypic convergence is widespread in nature, and recent results from a handful of genes have suggested that this phenomenon is powerful enough to also drive recurrent evolution at the sequence level6-9. Where homoplasious substitutions do occur these have long been considered the result of neutral processes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adaptive convergent sequence evolution can be detected in vertebrates using statistical methods that model parallel evolution9,10 although the extent to which sequence convergence between genera occurs across genomes is unknown. Here we analyse genomic sequence data in mammals that have independently evolved echolocation and show for the first time that convergence is not a rare process restricted to a handful of loci but is instead widespread, continuously distributed and commonly driven by natural selection acting on a small number of sites per locus. Systematic analyses of convergent sequence evolution in 805,053 amino acids within 2,326 orthologous coding gene sequences compared across 22 mammals (including four new bat genomes) revealed signatures consistent with convergence in nearly 200 loci. Strong and significant support for convergence among bats and the dolphin was seen in numerous genes linked to hearing or deafness, consistent with an involvement in echolocation. Surprisingly we also found convergence in many genes linked to vision: the convergent signal of many sensory genes was robustly correlated with the strength of natural selection. This first attempt to detect genome-wide convergent sequence evolution across divergent taxa reveals the phenomenon to be much more pervasive than previously recognised. PMID:24005325

Parker, Joe; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Cotton, James A.; Liu, Yuan; Provero, Paolo; Stupka, Elia; Rossiter, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

155

Identification of a Novel Human Rhinovirus C Type by Antibody Capture VIDISCA-454  

PubMed Central

Causative agents for more than 30 percent of respiratory infections remain unidentified, suggesting that unknown respiratory pathogens might be involved. In this study, antibody capture VIDISCA-454 (virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing) resulted in the discovery of a novel type of rhinovirus C (RV-C). The virus has an RNA genome of at least 7054 nt and carries the characteristics of rhinovirus C species. The gene encoding viral protein 1, which is used for typing, has only 81% nucleotide sequence identity with the closest known RV-C type, and, therefore, the virus represents the first member of a novel type, named RV-C54. PMID:25606972

Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Cotten, Matthew; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Verhoeven, Joost; Kellam, Paul; Loens, Katherine; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; van der Hoek, Lia

2015-01-01

156

Identification of a novel human rhinovirus C type by antibody capture VIDISCA-454.  

PubMed

Causative agents for more than 30 percent of respiratory infections remain unidentified, suggesting that unknown respiratory pathogens might be involved. In this study, antibody capture VIDISCA-454 (virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing) resulted in the discovery of a novel type of rhinovirus C (RV-C). The virus has an RNA genome of at least 7054 nt and carries the characteristics of rhinovirus C species. The gene encoding viral protein 1, which is used for typing, has only 81% nucleotide sequence identity with the closest known RV-C type, and, therefore, the virus represents the first member of a novel type, named RV-C54. PMID:25606972

Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; Oude Munnink, Bas B; Canuti, Marta; Deijs, Martin; Cotten, Matthew; Jebbink, Maarten F; Verhoeven, Joost; Kellam, Paul; Loens, Katherine; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; van der Hoek, Lia

2015-01-01

157

Genome-level evolution of resistance genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

Pathogen resistance genes represent some of the most abundant and diverse gene families found within plant genomes. However, evolutionary mechanisms generating resistance gene diversity at the genome level are not well understood. We used the complete Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence to show that most duplication of individual NBS-LRR sequences occurs at close physical proximity to the parent sequence and generates clusters of closely related NBS-LRR sequences. Deploying the statistical strength of phylogeographic approaches and using chromosomal location as a proxy for spatial location, we show that apparent duplication of NBS-LRR genes to ectopic chromosomal locations is largely the consequence of segmental chromosome duplication and rearrangement, rather than the independent duplication of individual sequences. Although accounting for a smaller fraction of NBS-LRR gene duplications, segmental chromosome duplication and rearrangement events have a large impact on the evolution of this multigene family. Intergenic exchange is dramatically lower between NBS-LRR sequences located in different chromosome regions as compared to exchange between sequences within the same chromosome region. Consequently, once translocated to new chromosome locations, NBS-LRR gene copies have a greater likelihood of escaping intergenic exchange and adopting new functions than do gene copies located within the same chromosomal region. We propose an evolutionary model that relates processes of genome evolution to mechanisms of evolution for the large, diverse, NBS-LRR gene family. PMID:14504238

Baumgarten, Andrew; Cannon, Steven; Spangler, Russ; May, Georgiana

2003-01-01

158

ALF—A Simulation Framework for Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

In computational evolutionary biology, verification and benchmarking is a challenging task because the evolutionary history of studied biological entities is usually not known. Computer programs for simulating sequence evolution in silico have shown to be viable test beds for the verification of newly developed methods and to compare different algorithms. However, current simulation packages tend to focus either on gene-level aspects of genome evolution such as character substitutions and insertions and deletions (indels) or on genome-level aspects such as genome rearrangement and speciation events. Here, we introduce Artificial Life Framework (ALF), which aims at simulating the entire range of evolutionary forces that act on genomes: nucleotide, codon, or amino acid substitution (under simple or mixture models), indels, GC-content amelioration, gene duplication, gene loss, gene fusion, gene fission, genome rearrangement, lateral gene transfer (LGT), or speciation. The other distinctive feature of ALF is its user-friendly yet powerful web interface. We illustrate the utility of ALF with two possible applications: 1) we reanalyze data from a study of selection after globin gene duplication and test the statistical significance of the original conclusions and 2) we demonstrate that LGT can dramatically decrease the accuracy of two well-established orthology inference methods. ALF is available as a stand-alone application or via a web interface at http://www.cbrg.ethz.ch/alf. PMID:22160766

Dalquen, Daniel A.; Anisimova, Maria; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Dessimoz, Christophe

2012-01-01

159

A unifying model of genome evolution under parsimony  

PubMed Central

Background Parsimony and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic tree estimation and parsimony methods for genome rearrangements are central to the study of genome evolution yet to date they have largely been pursued in isolation. Results We present a data structure called a history graph that offers a practical basis for the analysis of genome evolution. It conceptually simplifies the study of parsimonious evolutionary histories by representing both substitutions and double cut and join (DCJ) rearrangements in the presence of duplications. The problem of constructing parsimonious history graphs thus subsumes related maximum parsimony problems in the fields of phylogenetic reconstruction and genome rearrangement. We show that tractable functions can be used to define upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of substitutions and DCJ rearrangements needed to explain any history graph. These bounds become tight for a special type of unambiguous history graph called an ancestral variation graph (AVG), which constrains in its combinatorial structure the number of operations required. We finally demonstrate that for a given history graph G, a finite set of AVGs describe all parsimonious interpretations of G, and this set can be explored with a few sampling moves. Conclusion This theoretical study describes a model in which the inference of genome rearrangements and phylogeny can be unified under parsimony. PMID:24946830

2014-01-01

160

21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus serological reagents. (a) Identification....

2011-04-01

161

Genomics and the evolution, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis kills nearly 2 million people annually, and current approaches to tuberculosis control are expensive, have limited efficacy, and are vulnerable to being overcome by extensively drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Determination of the genome sequence of M. tuberculosis has revolutionized tuberculosis research, contributed to major advances in the understanding of the evolution and pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis, and facilitated development of new diagnostic tests with increased specificity for tuberculosis. In this review, we describe some of the major progress in tuberculosis research that has resulted from knowledge of the genome sequence and note some of the problems that remain unsolved. PMID:17607348

Ernst, Joel D.; Trevejo-Nuńez, Giraldina; Banaiee, Niaz

2007-01-01

162

Reduction and Expansion in Microsporidian Genome Evolution: New Insights from Comparative Genomics  

PubMed Central

Microsporidia are an abundant group of obligate intracellular parasites of other eukaryotes, including immunocompromised humans, but the molecular basis of their intracellular lifestyle and pathobiology are poorly understood. New genomes from a taxonomically broad range of microsporidians, complemented by published expression data, provide an opportunity for comparative analyses to identify conserved and lineage-specific patterns of microsporidian genome evolution that have underpinned this success. In this study, we infer that a dramatic bottleneck in the last common microsporidian ancestor (LCMA) left a small conserved core of genes that was subsequently embellished by gene family expansion driven by gene acquisition in different lineages. Novel expressed protein families represent a substantial fraction of sequenced microsporidian genomes and are significantly enriched for signals consistent with secretion or membrane location. Further evidence of selection is inferred from the gain and reciprocal loss of functional domains between paralogous genes, for example, affecting transport proteins. Gene expansions among transporter families preferentially affect those that are located on the plasma membrane of model organisms, consistent with recruitment to plug conserved gaps in microsporidian biosynthesis and metabolism. Core microsporidian genes shared with other eukaryotes are enriched in orthologs that, in yeast, are highly expressed, highly connected, and often essential, consistent with strong negative selection against further reduction of the conserved gene set since the LCMA. Our study reveals that microsporidian genome evolution is a highly dynamic process that has balanced constraint, reductive evolution, and genome expansion during adaptation to an extraordinarily successful obligate intracellular lifestyle. PMID:24259309

Heinz, Eva; Watson, Andrew K.; Foster, Peter G.; Sendra, Kacper M.; Heaps, Sarah E.; Hirt, Robert P.; Martin Embley, T.

2013-01-01

163

Whole-genome sequence of the Tibetan frog Nanorana parkeri and the comparative evolution of tetrapod genomes.  

PubMed

The development of efficient sequencing techniques has resulted in large numbers of genomes being available for evolutionary studies. However, only one genome is available for all amphibians, that of Xenopus tropicalis, which is distantly related from the majority of frogs. More than 96% of frogs belong to the Neobatrachia, and no genome exists for this group. This dearth of amphibian genomes greatly restricts genomic studies of amphibians and, more generally, our understanding of tetrapod genome evolution. To fill this gap, we provide the de novo genome of a Tibetan Plateau frog, Nanorana parkeri, and compare it to that of X. tropicalis and other vertebrates. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, a number similar to that of Xenopus. Although the genome size of Nanorana is considerably larger than that of Xenopus (2.3 vs. 1.5 Gb), most of the difference is due to the respective number of transposable elements in the two genomes. The two frogs exhibit considerable conserved whole-genome synteny despite having diverged approximately 266 Ma, indicating a slow rate of DNA structural evolution in anurans. Multigenome synteny blocks further show that amphibians have fewer interchromosomal rearrangements than mammals but have a comparable rate of intrachromosomal rearrangements. Our analysis also identifies 11 Mb of anuran-specific highly conserved elements that will be useful for comparative genomic analyses of frogs. The Nanorana genome offers an improved understanding of evolution of tetrapod genomes and also provides a genomic reference for other evolutionary studies. PMID:25733869

Sun, Yan-Bo; Xiong, Zi-Jun; Xiang, Xue-Yan; Liu, Shi-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Wei; Tu, Xiao-Long; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Bao-Lin; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Yang, Min-Min; Chen, Hong-Man; Li, Fang; Zhou, Long; Feng, Shao-Hong; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Guo-Jie; Irwin, David; Hillis, David M; Murphy, Robert W; Yang, Huan-Ming; Che, Jing; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2015-03-17

164

Tracing monotreme venom evolution in the genomics era.  

PubMed

The monotremes (platypuses and echidnas) represent one of only four extant venomous mammalian lineages. Until recently, monotreme venom was poorly understood. However, the availability of the platypus genome and increasingly sophisticated genomic tools has allowed us to characterize platypus toxins, and provides a means of reconstructing the evolutionary history of monotreme venom. Here we review the physiology of platypus and echidna crural (venom) systems as well as pharmacological and genomic studies of monotreme toxins. Further, we synthesize current ideas about the evolution of the venom system, which in the platypus is likely to have been retained from a venomous ancestor, whilst being lost in the echidnas. We also outline several research directions and outstanding questions that would be productive to address in future research. An improved characterization of mammalian venoms will not only yield new toxins with potential therapeutic uses, but will also aid in our understanding of the way that this unusual trait evolves. PMID:24699339

Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine

2014-04-01

165

Tracing Monotreme Venom Evolution in the Genomics Era  

PubMed Central

The monotremes (platypuses and echidnas) represent one of only four extant venomous mammalian lineages. Until recently, monotreme venom was poorly understood. However, the availability of the platypus genome and increasingly sophisticated genomic tools has allowed us to characterize platypus toxins, and provides a means of reconstructing the evolutionary history of monotreme venom. Here we review the physiology of platypus and echidna crural (venom) systems as well as pharmacological and genomic studies of monotreme toxins. Further, we synthesize current ideas about the evolution of the venom system, which in the platypus is likely to have been retained from a venomous ancestor, whilst being lost in the echidnas. We also outline several research directions and outstanding questions that would be productive to address in future research. An improved characterization of mammalian venoms will not only yield new toxins with potential therapeutic uses, but will also aid in our understanding of the way that this unusual trait evolves. PMID:24699339

Whittington, Camilla M.; Belov, Katherine

2014-01-01

166

The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity  

SciTech Connect

Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2010-07-01

167

Evolution of genomic structural variation and genomic architecture in the adaptive radiations of African cichlid fishes  

PubMed Central

African cichlid fishes are an ideal system for studying explosive rates of speciation and the origin of diversity in adaptive radiation. Within the last few million years, more than 2000 species have evolved in the Great Lakes of East Africa, the largest adaptive radiation in vertebrates. These young species show spectacular diversity in their coloration, morphology and behavior. However, little is known about the genomic basis of this astonishing diversity. Recently, five African cichlid genomes were sequenced, including that of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a basal and only relatively moderately diversified lineage, and the genomes of four representative endemic species of the adaptive radiations, Neolamprologus brichardi, Astatotilapia burtoni, Metriaclima zebra, and Pundamila nyererei. Using the Tilapia genome as a reference genome, we generated a high-resolution genomic variation map, consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), short insertions and deletions (indels), inversions and deletions. In total, around 18.8, 17.7, 17.0, and 17.0 million SNPs, 2.3, 2.2, 1.4, and 1.9 million indels, 262, 306, 162, and 154 inversions, and 3509, 2705, 2710, and 2634 deletions were inferred to have evolved in N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra, respectively. Many of these variations affected the annotated gene regions in the genome. Different patterns of genetic variation were detected during the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. For SNPs, the highest rate of evolution was detected in the common ancestor of N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra. However, for the evolution of inversions and deletions, we found that the rates at the terminal taxa are substantially higher than the rates at the ancestral lineages. The high-resolution map provides an ideal opportunity to understand the genomic bases of the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. PMID:24917883

Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

2014-01-01

168

Evolution of Prokaryote-Animal Symbiosis from a Genomics Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Symbioses involving prokaryotes living in close relationship with eukaryotic cells have been widely studied from a genomic\\u000a perspective, especially in the case of insects. In the process toward host accommodation, symbionts experience major genetic\\u000a and phenotypic changes that can be detected in comparison with free-living relatives. But, as expected, several scenarios\\u000a allowed the evolution of symbiotic associations, from the first

Rosario Gil; Amparo Latorre; Andrés Moya

169

Genomic and epigenomic co-evolution in follicular lymphomas.  

PubMed

Follicular lymphoma (FL) with a t(14;18) is a B-cell neoplasm clinically characterized by multiple recurrencies. In order to investigate the clonal evolution of this lymphoma, we studied paired primary and relapse tumor samples from 33 patients with recurrent non-transformed t(14;18)-positive FL. We reconstructed phylogenetic trees of the evolution by taking advantage of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-mediated somatic hypermutation (SHM) active in the germinal center reaction using sequences of the clonal VHDHJH rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus. Mutational analysis of the IGH locus showed evidence for ongoing somatic mutation and for counter-selection of mutations affecting the BCR conformation during tumor evolution. We further followed evolutionary divergence by targeted sequencing of gene loci affected by aberrant SHM as well as of known driver genes of lymphomagenesis, and by array-based genome-wide chromosomal imbalance and DNA methylation analysis. We observed a wide spectrum of evolutionary patterns ranging from almost no evolution to divergent evolution within recurrent non-transformed t(14;18) FL. Remarkably, we observed a correlation of the magnitude of evolutionary divergence across all genetic and epigenetic levels suggesting co-evolution. The distribution of coding mutations in driver genes and the correlation with SHM suggest CREBBP and AID to be potential modifiers of genetic and epigenetic co-evolution in FL. PMID:25027518

Loeffler, M; Kreuz, M; Haake, A; Hasenclever, D; Trautmann, H; Arnold, C; Winter, K; Koch, K; Klapper, W; Scholtysik, R; Rosolowski, M; Hoffmann, S; Ammerpohl, O; Szczepanowski, M; Herrmann, D; Küppers, R; Pott, C; Siebert, R

2015-02-01

170

Modeling of the human rhinovirus C capsid suggests possible causes for antiviral drug resistance  

E-print Network

Modeling of the human rhinovirus C capsid suggests possible causes for antiviral drug resistance: Rhinovirus Capsid structure Model Rhinovirus C Pleconaril Antiviral therapy Drug-binding pocket Pore Drug resistance a b s t r a c t Human rhinoviruses of the RV-C species are recently discovered pathogens

171

Evolution of the Genomic Recombination Rate in Murid Rodents  

PubMed Central

Although very closely related species can differ in their fine-scale patterns of recombination hotspots, variation in the average genomic recombination rate among recently diverged taxa has rarely been surveyed. We measured recombination rates in eight species that collectively represent several temporal scales of divergence within a single rodent family, Muridae. We used a cytological approach that enables in situ visualization of crossovers at meiosis to quantify recombination rates in multiple males from each rodent group. We uncovered large differences in genomic recombination rate between rodent species, which were independent of karyotypic variation. The divergence in genomic recombination rate that we document is not proportional to DNA sequence divergence, suggesting that recombination has evolved at variable rates along the murid phylogeny. Additionally, we document significant variation in genomic recombination rate both within and between subspecies of house mice. Recombination rates estimated in F1 hybrids reveal evidence for sex-linked loci contributing to the evolution of recombination in house mice. Our results provide one of the first detailed portraits of genomic-scale recombination rate variation within a single mammalian family and demonstrate that the low recombination rates in laboratory mice and rats reflect a more general reduction in recombination rate across murid rodents. PMID:21149647

Dumont, Beth L.; Payseur, Bret A.

2011-01-01

172

The Population Genomics of Sunflowers and Genomic Determinants of Protein Evolution Revealed by RNAseq  

PubMed Central

Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs) in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis), with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha) and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio) and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi). We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the determinants of rates of protein evolution and the impact of selection on patterns of polymorphism and divergence. PMID:24832509

Renaut, Sébastien; Grassa, Christopher J.; Moyers, Brook T.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

2012-01-01

173

Evolution of Weediness and Invasiveness: Charting the Course for Weed Genomics  

E-print Network

Evolution of Weediness and Invasiveness: Charting the Course for Weed Genomics C. Neal Stewart, Jr and their evolution remain poorly understood, but genomic approaches offer tremendous promise for elucidating these important features of weed biology. However, the genomic tools and resources available for weed research

Rieseberg, Loren

174

Reconstructing Ancestral Genomic Sequences by Co-Evolution: Formal Definitions, Computational  

E-print Network

Reconstructing Ancestral Genomic Sequences by Co-Evolution: Formal Definitions, Computational,5 ABSTRACT The inference of ancestral genomes is a fundamental problem in molecular evolution. Due to the statistical nature of this problem, the most likely or the most parsimonious ancestral genomes usually include

Ruppin, Eytan

175

Genome Sequence and Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus casei: Insights into Their Niche-Associated Evolution  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is remarkably adaptable to diverse habitats and widely used in the food industry. To reveal the genomic features that contribute to its broad ecological adaptability and examine the evolution of the species, the genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 is analyzed and compared with other sequenced lactobacilli. This analysis reveals that ATCC 334 contains a high number of coding sequences involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation, reflecting its requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. A comparison of the genome sequences of ATCC 334 to L. casei BL23 reveals 12 and 19 genomic islands, respectively. For a broader assessment of the genetic variability within L. casei, gene content of 21 L. casei strains isolated from various habitats (cheeses, n = 7; plant materials, n = 8; and human sources, n = 6) was examined by comparative genome hybridization with an ATCC 334-based microarray. This analysis resulted in identification of 25 hypervariable regions. One of these regions contains an overrepresentation of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation and was thus proposed as a lifestyle adaptation island. Differences in L. casei genome inventory reveal both gene gain and gene decay. Gene gain, via acquisition of genomic islands, likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats. Gene decay, that is, loss of unnecessary ancestral traits, is observed in the cheese isolates and likely results in enhanced fitness in the dairy niche. This study gives the first picture of the stable versus variable regions in L. casei and provides valuable insights into evolution, lifestyle adaptation, and metabolic diversity of L. casei. PMID:20333194

Cai, Hui; Thompson, Rebecca; Budinich, Mateo F.; Broadbent, Jeff R.

2009-01-01

176

Reconstructing the Evolution of Brachypodium Genomes Using Comparative Chromosome Painting  

PubMed Central

Brachypodium distachyon is a model for the temperate cereals and grasses and has a biology, genomics infrastructure and cytogenetic platform fit for purpose. It is a member of a genus with fewer than 20 species, which have different genome sizes, basic chromosome numbers and ploidy levels. The phylogeny and interspecific relationships of this group have not to date been resolved by sequence comparisons and karyotypical studies. The aims of this study are not only to reconstruct the evolution of Brachypodium karyotypes to resolve the phylogeny, but also to highlight the mechanisms that shape the evolution of grass genomes. This was achieved through the use of comparative chromosome painting (CCP) which hybridises fluorescent, chromosome-specific probes derived from B. distachyon to homoeologous meiotic chromosomes of its close relatives. The study included five diploids (B. distachyon 2n?=?10, B. sylvaticum 2n?=?18, B. pinnatum 2n?=?16; 2n?=?18, B. arbuscula 2n?=?18 and B. stacei 2n?=?20) three allotetraploids (B. pinnatum 2n?=?28, B. phoenicoides 2n?=?28 and B. hybridum 2n?=?30), and two species of unknown ploidy (B. retusum 2n?=?38 and B. mexicanum 2n?=?40). On the basis of the patterns of hybridisation and incorporating published data, we propose two alternative, but similar, models of karyotype evolution in the genus Brachypodium. According to the first model, the extant genome of B. distachyon derives from B. mexicanum or B. stacei by several rounds of descending dysploidy, and the other diploids evolve from B. distachyon via ascending dysploidy. The allotetraploids arise by interspecific hybridisation and chromosome doubling between B. distachyon and other diploids. The second model differs from the first insofar as it incorporates an intermediate 2n?=?18 species between the B. mexicanum or B. stacei progenitors and the dysploidic B. distachyon. PMID:25493646

Betekhtin, Alexander; Jenkins, Glyn; Hasterok, Robert

2014-01-01

177

The genome diversity and karyotype evolution of mammals  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed an explosion of genome sequencing and mapping in evolutionary diverse species. While full genome sequencing of mammals is rapidly progressing, the ability to assemble and align orthologous whole chromosome regions from more than a few species is still not possible. The intense focus on building of comparative maps for companion (dog and cat), laboratory (mice and rat) and agricultural (cattle, pig, and horse) animals has traditionally been used as a means to understand the underlying basis of disease-related or economically important phenotypes. However, these maps also provide an unprecedented opportunity to use multispecies analysis as a tool for inferring karyotype evolution. Comparative chromosome painting and related techniques are now considered to be the most powerful approaches in comparative genome studies. Homologies can be identified with high accuracy using molecularly defined DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on chromosomes of different species. Chromosome painting data are now available for members of nearly all mammalian orders. In most orders, there are species with rates of chromosome evolution that can be considered as 'default' rates. The number of rearrangements that have become fixed in evolutionary history seems comparatively low, bearing in mind the 180 million years of the mammalian radiation. Comparative chromosome maps record the history of karyotype changes that have occurred during evolution. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these recent advances in our endeavor to decipher the karyotype evolution of mammals by integrating the published results together with some of our latest unpublished results. PMID:21992653

2011-01-01

178

Genome duplication and the evolution of conspecific pollen precedence.  

PubMed

Conspecific pollen precedence can be a strong reproductive barrier between polyploid and diploid species, but the role of genome multiplication in the evolution of this barrier has not been investigated. Here, we examine the direct effect of genome duplication on the evolution of pollen siring success in tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. To separate the effects of genome duplication from selection after duplication, we compared pollen siring success of synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids) with that of naturally occurring tetraploids by applying 2x, 4x (neo or established) or 2x + 4x pollen to diploid and tetraploid flowers. Seed set increased in diploids and decreased in both types of tetraploids as the proportion of pollen from diploid plants increased. Based on offspring ploidy from mixed-ploidy pollinations, pollen of the maternal ploidy always sired the majority of offspring but was strongest in established tetraploids and weakest in neotetraploids. Pollen from established tetraploids had significantly higher siring rates than neotetraploids when deposited on diploid (4x(est) = 47.2%, 4x(neo) = 27.1%) and on tetraploid recipients (4x(est) = 91.9%, 4x(neo) = 56.0%). Siring success of established tetraploids exceeded that of neotetraploids despite having similar pollen production per anther and pollen diameter. Our results suggest that, while pollen precedence can arise in association with the duplication event, the strength of polyploid siring success evolves after the duplication event. PMID:21123263

Baldwin, Sarah J; Husband, Brian C

2011-07-01

179

Genome duplication and the evolution of conspecific pollen precedence  

PubMed Central

Conspecific pollen precedence can be a strong reproductive barrier between polyploid and diploid species, but the role of genome multiplication in the evolution of this barrier has not been investigated. Here, we examine the direct effect of genome duplication on the evolution of pollen siring success in tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium. To separate the effects of genome duplication from selection after duplication, we compared pollen siring success of synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids) with that of naturally occurring tetraploids by applying 2x, 4x (neo or established) or 2x + 4x pollen to diploid and tetraploid flowers. Seed set increased in diploids and decreased in both types of tetraploids as the proportion of pollen from diploid plants increased. Based on offspring ploidy from mixed-ploidy pollinations, pollen of the maternal ploidy always sired the majority of offspring but was strongest in established tetraploids and weakest in neotetraploids. Pollen from established tetraploids had significantly higher siring rates than neotetraploids when deposited on diploid (4xest = 47.2%, 4xneo = 27.1%) and on tetraploid recipients (4xest = 91.9%, 4xneo = 56.0%). Siring success of established tetraploids exceeded that of neotetraploids despite having similar pollen production per anther and pollen diameter. Our results suggest that, while pollen precedence can arise in association with the duplication event, the strength of polyploid siring success evolves after the duplication event. PMID:21123263

Baldwin, Sarah J.; Husband, Brian C.

2011-01-01

180

Thermodynamic Basis for the Emergence of Genomes during Prebiotic Evolution  

PubMed Central

The RNA world hypothesis views modern organisms as descendants of RNA molecules. The earliest RNA molecules must have been random sequences, from which the first genomes that coded for polymerase ribozymes emerged. The quasispecies theory by Eigen predicts the existence of an error threshold limiting genomic stability during such transitions, but does not address the spontaneity of changes. Following a recent theoretical approach, we applied the quasispecies theory combined with kinetic/thermodynamic descriptions of RNA replication to analyze the collective behavior of RNA replicators based on known experimental kinetics data. We find that, with increasing fidelity (relative rate of base-extension for Watson-Crick versus mismatched base pairs), replications without enzymes, with ribozymes, and with protein-based polymerases are above, near, and below a critical point, respectively. The prebiotic evolution therefore must have crossed this critical region. Over large regions of the phase diagram, fitness increases with increasing fidelity, biasing random drifts in sequence space toward ‘crystallization.’ This region encloses the experimental nonenzymatic fidelity value, favoring evolutions toward polymerase sequences with ever higher fidelity, despite error rates above the error catastrophe threshold. Our work shows that experimentally characterized kinetics and thermodynamics of RNA replication allow us to determine the physicochemical conditions required for the spontaneous crystallization of biological information. Our findings also suggest that among many potential oligomers capable of templated replication, RNAs may have evolved to form prebiotic genomes due to the value of their nonenzymatic fidelity. PMID:22693440

Woo, Hyung-June; Vijaya Satya, Ravi; Reifman, Jaques

2012-01-01

181

Genome Size, Karyotype Polymorphism and Chromosomal Evolution in Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Background The Trypanosoma cruzi genome was sequenced from a hybrid strain (CL Brener). However, high allelic variation and the repetitive nature of the genome have prevented the complete linear sequence of chromosomes being determined. Determining the full complement of chromosomes and establishing syntenic groups will be important in defining the structure of T. cruzi chromosomes. A large amount of information is now available for T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, providing the opportunity to compare and describe the overall patterns of chromosomal evolution in these parasites. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome sizes, repetitive DNA contents, and the numbers and sizes of chromosomes of nine strains of T. cruzi from four lineages (TcI, TcII, TcV and TcVI) were determined. The genome of the TcI group was statistically smaller than other lineages, with the exception of the TcI isolate Tc1161 (José-IMT). Satellite DNA content was correlated with genome size for all isolates, but this was not accompanied by simultaneous amplification of retrotransposons. Regardless of chromosomal polymorphism, large syntenic groups are conserved among T. cruzi lineages. Duplicated chromosome-sized regions were identified and could be retained as paralogous loci, increasing the dosage of several genes. By comparing T. cruzi and T. brucei chromosomes, homologous chromosomal regions in T. brucei were identified. Chromosomes Tb9 and Tb11 of T. brucei share regions of syntenic homology with three and six T. cruzi chromosomal bands, respectively. Conclusions Despite genome size variation and karyotype polymorphism, T. cruzi lineages exhibit conservation of chromosome structure. Several syntenic groups are conserved among all isolates analyzed in this study. The syntenic regions are larger than expected if rearrangements occur randomly, suggesting that they are conserved owing to positive selection. Mapping of the syntenic regions on T. cruzi chromosomal bands provides evidence for the occurrence of fusion and split events involving T. brucei and T. cruzi chromosomes. PMID:21857989

Barros, Roberto Moraes; Cortez, Danielle R.; Santos, Michele F.; Cordero, Esteban M.; Ruiz, Jeronimo Conceiçao; Goldenberg, Samuel; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; da Silveira, José Franco

2011-01-01

182

Rates of phenotypic and genomic evolution during the Cambrian explosion.  

PubMed

The near-simultaneous appearance of most modern animal body plans (phyla) ~530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion is strong evidence for a brief interval of rapid phenotypic and genetic innovation, yet the exact speed and nature of this grand adaptive radiation remain debated. Crucially, rates of morphological evolution in the past (i.e., in ancestral lineages) can be inferred from phenotypic differences among living organisms-just as molecular evolutionary rates in ancestral lineages can be inferred from genetic divergences. We here employed Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic clock methods on an extensive anatomical and genomic data set for arthropods, the most diverse phylum in the Cambrian and today. Assuming an Ediacaran origin for arthropods, phenotypic evolution was ~4 times faster, and molecular evolution ~5.5 times faster, during the Cambrian explosion compared to all subsequent parts of the Phanerozoic. These rapid evolutionary rates are robust to assumptions about the precise age of arthropods. Surprisingly, these fast early rates do not change substantially even if the radiation of arthropods is compressed entirely into the Cambrian (~542 mega-annum [Ma]) or telescoped into the Cryogenian (~650 Ma). The fastest inferred rates are still consistent with evolution by natural selection and with data from living organisms, potentially resolving "Darwin's dilemma." However, evolution during the Cambrian explosion was unusual (compared to the subsequent Phanerozoic) in that fast rates were present across many lineages. PMID:24035543

Lee, Michael S Y; Soubrier, Julien; Edgecombe, Gregory D

2013-10-01

183

Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.  

PubMed

Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments. PMID:25333821

Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

2014-01-01

184

Whole genome comparative studies between chicken and turkey and their implications for avian genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics is a powerful means of establishing inter-specific relationships between gene function/location and allows insight into genomic rearrangements, conservation and evolutionary phylogeny. The availability of the complete sequence of the chicken genome has initiated the development of detailed genomic information in other birds including turkey, an agriculturally important species where mapping has hitherto focused on linkage with limited physical information. No molecular study has yet examined conservation of avian microchromosomes, nor differences in copy number variants (CNVs) between birds. Results We present a detailed comparative cytogenetic map between chicken and turkey based on reciprocal chromosome painting and mapping of 338 chicken BACs to turkey metaphases. Two inter-chromosomal changes (both involving centromeres) and three pericentric inversions have been identified between chicken and turkey; and array CGH identified 16 inter-specific CNVs. Conclusion This is the first study to combine the modalities of zoo-FISH and array CGH between different avian species. The first insight into the conservation of microchromosomes, the first comparative cytogenetic map of any bird and the first appraisal of CNVs between birds is provided. Results suggest that avian genomes have remained relatively stable during evolution compared to mammalian equivalents. PMID:18410676

Griffin, Darren K; Robertson, Lindsay B; Tempest, Helen G; Vignal, Alain; Fillon, Valérie; Crooijmans, Richard PMA; Groenen, Martien AM; Deryusheva, Svetlana; Gaginskaya, Elena; Carré, Wilfrid; Waddington, David; Talbot, Richard; Völker, Martin; Masabanda, Julio S; Burt, Dave W

2008-01-01

185

Reductive Genome Evolution from the Mother of Rickettsia  

PubMed Central

The Rickettsia genus is a group of obligate intracellular ?-proteobacteria representing a paradigm of reductive evolution. Here, we investigate the evolutionary processes that shaped the genomes of the genus. The reconstruction of ancestral genomes indicates that their last common ancestor contained more genes, but already possessed most traits associated with cellular parasitism. The differences in gene repertoires across modern Rickettsia are mainly the result of differential gene losses from the ancestor. We demonstrate using computer simulation that the propensity of loss was variable across genes during this process. We also analyzed the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous changes (Ka/Ks) calculated as an average over large sets of genes to assay the strength of selection acting on the genomes of Rickettsia, Anaplasmataceae, and free-living ?-proteobacteria. As a general trend, Ka/Ks were found to decrease with increasing divergence between genomes. The high Ka/Ks for closely related genomes are probably due to a lag in the removal of slightly deleterious nonsynonymous mutations by natural selection. Interestingly, we also observed a decrease of the rate of gene loss with increasing divergence, suggesting a similar lag in the removal of slightly deleterious pseudogene alleles. For larger divergence (Ks > 0.2), Ka/Ks converge toward similar values indicating that the levels of selection are roughly equivalent between intracellular ?-proteobacteria and their free-living relatives. This contrasts with the view that obligate endocellular microorganisms tend to evolve faster as a consequence of reduced effectiveness of selection, and suggests a major role of enhanced background mutation rates on the fast protein divergence in the obligate intracellular ?-proteobacteria. PMID:17238289

Robert, Catherine; Audic, Stéphane; Suhre, Karsten; Vestris, Guy; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Raoult, Didier

2007-01-01

186

Evolution in an oncogenic bacterial species with extreme genome plasticity: Helicobacter pylori East Asian genomes  

PubMed Central

Background The genome of Helicobacter pylori, an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, rapidly evolves and shows wide geographical divergence. The high incidence of stomach cancer in East Asia might be related to bacterial genotype. We used newly developed comparative methods to follow the evolution of East Asian H. pylori genomes using 20 complete genome sequences from Japanese, Korean, Amerind, European, and West African strains. Results A phylogenetic tree of concatenated well-defined core genes supported divergence of the East Asian lineage (hspEAsia; Japanese and Korean) from the European lineage ancestor, and then from the Amerind lineage ancestor. Phylogenetic profiling revealed a large difference in the repertoire of outer membrane proteins (including oipA, hopMN, babABC, sabAB and vacA-2) through gene loss, gain, and mutation. All known functions associated with molybdenum, a rare element essential to nearly all organisms that catalyzes two-electron-transfer oxidation-reduction reactions, appeared to be inactivated. Two pathways linking acetyl~CoA and acetate appeared intact in some Japanese strains. Phylogenetic analysis revealed greater divergence between the East Asian (hspEAsia) and the European (hpEurope) genomes in proteins in host interaction, specifically virulence factors (tip?), outer membrane proteins, and lipopolysaccharide synthesis (human Lewis antigen mimicry) enzymes. Divergence was also seen in proteins in electron transfer and translation fidelity (miaA, tilS), a DNA recombinase/exonuclease that recognizes genome identity (addA), and DNA/RNA hybrid nucleases (rnhAB). Positively selected amino acid changes between hspEAsia and hpEurope were mapped to products of cagA, vacA, homC (outer membrane protein), sotB (sugar transport), and a translation fidelity factor (miaA). Large divergence was seen in genes related to antibiotics: frxA (metronidazole resistance), def (peptide deformylase, drug target), and ftsA (actin-like, drug target). Conclusions These results demonstrate dramatic genome evolution within a species, especially in likely host interaction genes. The East Asian strains appear to differ greatly from the European strains in electron transfer and redox reactions. These findings also suggest a model of adaptive evolution through proteome diversification and selection through modulation of translational fidelity. The results define H. pylori East Asian lineages and provide essential information for understanding their pathogenesis and designing drugs and therapies that target them. PMID:21575176

2011-01-01

187

Rhinovirus Associated Severe Respiratory Failure in Immunocompetent Adult Patient  

PubMed Central

Rhinovirus infection is typically associated with the common cold and has rarely been reported as a cause of severe pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. A 55-year-old previous healthy woman, who consumed half a bottle of alcohol daily, presented with respiratory failure after one week of upper respiratory infection symptoms. Radiography revealed bilateral, diffuse ground glass opacity with patchy consolidation in the whole lung field; bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis indicated that rhinovirus was the causative organism. After five days of conservative support, the symptoms and radiographic findings began to improve. We report this rare case of rhinovirus pneumonia in an otherwise healthy host along with a review of references. PMID:25309608

Kim, Kiwook; Song, Yeon Han; Park, Joo-Hyun; Park, Hye Kyeong; Kim, Su Young; Jung, Hun; Lee, Sung-Soon

2014-01-01

188

Insights into the genome evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons to available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveals 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 new pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive IS-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of pre-existing gene expression pathways appear to be more important than acquisition of new genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

Souza, B; Stoutland, P; Derbise, A; Georgescu, A; Elliott, J; Land, M; Marceau, M; Motin, V; Hinnebusch, J; Simonet, M; Medigue, C; Dacheux, D; Chenal-Francisque, V; Regala, W; Brubaker, R R; Carniel, E; Chain, P; Verguez, L; Fowler, J; Garcia, E; Lamerdin, J; Hauser, L; Larimer, F

2004-01-24

189

Comparative Genomics Provide Insights into Evolution of Trichoderma Nutrition Style  

PubMed Central

Saprotrophy on plant biomass is a recently developed nutrition strategy for Trichoderma. However, the physiology and evolution of this new nutrition strategy is still elusive. We report the deep sequencing and analysis of the genome of Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an efficient cellulase producer. The 31.7-Mb genome, smallest among the sequenced Trichoderma species, encodes fewer nutrition-related genes than saprotrophic T. reesei (Tr), including glycoside hydrolases and nonribosomal peptide synthetase–polyketide synthase. Homology and phylogenetic analyses suggest that a large number of nutrition-related genes, including GH18 chitinases, ?-1,3/1,6-glucanases, cellulolytic enzymes, and hemicellulolytic enzymes, were lost in the common ancestor of T. longibrachiatum (Tl) and Tr. dN/dS (?) calculation indicates that all the nutrition-related genes analyzed are under purifying selection. Cellulolytic enzymes, the key enzymes for saprotrophy on plant biomass, are under stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr than in mycoparasitic species, suggesting that development of the nutrition strategy of saprotrophy on plant biomass has increased the selection pressure. In addition, aspartic proteases, serine proteases, and metalloproteases are subject to stronger purifying selection pressure in Tl and Tr, suggesting that these enzymes may also play important roles in the nutrition. This study provides insights into the physiology and evolution of the nutrition strategy of Trichoderma. PMID:24482532

Xie, Bin-Bin; Qin, Qi-Long; Shi, Mei; Chen, Lei-Lei; Shu, Yan-Li; Luo, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Rong, Jin-Cheng; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Dan; Sun, Cai-Yun; Liu, Gui-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Wei; Pang, Xiu-Hua; Huang, Feng; Liu, Weifeng; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Zhou, Bai-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

2014-01-01

190

Tracing the Evolution of Streptophyte Algae and Their Mitochondrial Genome  

PubMed Central

Six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae are recognized within the Streptophyta. Although incongruent with earlier studies based on genes from three cellular compartments, chloroplast and nuclear phylogenomic analyses have resolved identical relationships among these groups, placing the Zygnematales or the Zygnematales + Coleochaetales as sister to land plants. The present investigation aimed at determining whether this consensus view is supported by the mitochondrial genome and at gaining insight into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution within and across streptophyte algal lineages and during the transition toward the first land plants. We present here the newly sequenced mtDNAs of representatives of the Klebsormidiales (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium spec.) and Zygnematales (Closterium baillyanum and Roya obtusa) and compare them with their homologs in other charophycean lineages as well as in selected embryophyte and chlorophyte lineages. Our results indicate that important changes occurred at the levels of genome size, gene order, and intron content within the Zygnematales. Although the representatives of the Klebsormidiales display more similarity in genome size and intron content, gene order seems more fluid and gene losses more frequent than in other charophycean lineages. In contrast, the two members of the Charales display an extremely conservative pattern of mtDNA evolution. Collectively, our analyses of gene order and gene content and the phylogenies we inferred from 40 mtDNA-encoded proteins failed to resolve the relationships among the Zygnematales, Coleochaetales, and Charales; however, they are consistent with previous phylogenomic studies in favoring that the morphologically complex Charales are not sister to land plants. PMID:24022472

Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

2013-01-01

191

Tracing the evolution of streptophyte algae and their mitochondrial genome.  

PubMed

Six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae are recognized within the Streptophyta. Although incongruent with earlier studies based on genes from three cellular compartments, chloroplast and nuclear phylogenomic analyses have resolved identical relationships among these groups, placing the Zygnematales or the Zygnematales + Coleochaetales as sister to land plants. The present investigation aimed at determining whether this consensus view is supported by the mitochondrial genome and at gaining insight into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution within and across streptophyte algal lineages and during the transition toward the first land plants. We present here the newly sequenced mtDNAs of representatives of the Klebsormidiales (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium spec.) and Zygnematales (Closterium baillyanum and Roya obtusa) and compare them with their homologs in other charophycean lineages as well as in selected embryophyte and chlorophyte lineages. Our results indicate that important changes occurred at the levels of genome size, gene order, and intron content within the Zygnematales. Although the representatives of the Klebsormidiales display more similarity in genome size and intron content, gene order seems more fluid and gene losses more frequent than in other charophycean lineages. In contrast, the two members of the Charales display an extremely conservative pattern of mtDNA evolution. Collectively, our analyses of gene order and gene content and the phylogenies we inferred from 40 mtDNA-encoded proteins failed to resolve the relationships among the Zygnematales, Coleochaetales, and Charales; however, they are consistent with previous phylogenomic studies in favoring that the morphologically complex Charales are not sister to land plants. PMID:24022472

Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

2013-01-01

192

Molecular evolution and genome divergence at RPB2 gene of the St and H genome in Elymus species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular evolution of the second largest subunit of low copy nuclear RNA polymerase II (RPB2) in allotetrploid StH genomic species of Elymus is characterized here. Our study first reported a 39-bp MITE stowaway element insertion in the genic region of RPB2 gene for all tetraploid Elymus St genome and diploid Pseudoroegneria spicata and P. stipifolia St genome. The sequences on

Genlou Sun; Tracy Daley; Yan Ni

2007-01-01

193

Genome Size, Quantitative Genetics and the Genomic Basis for Flower Size Evolution in Silene latifolia  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims The overall goal of this paper is to construct an overview of the genetic basis for flower size evolution in Silene latifolia. It aims to examine the relationship between the molecular bases for flower size and the underlying assumption of quantitative genetics theory that quantitative variation is ultimately due to the impact of a number of structural genes. • Scope Previous work is reviewed on the quantitative genetics and potential for response to selection on flower size, and the relationship between flower size and nuclear DNA content in S. latifolia. These earlier findings provide a framework within which to consider more recent analyses of a joint quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of flower size and DNA content in this species. • Key Results Flower size is a character that fits the classical quantitative genetics model of inheritance very nicely. However, an earlier finding that flower size is correlated with nuclear DNA content suggested that quantitative aspects of genome composition rather than allelic substitution at structural loci might play a major role in the evolution of flower size. The present results reported here show that QTL for flower size are correlated with QTL for DNA content, further corroborating an earlier result and providing additional support for the conclusion that localized variations in DNA content underlie evolutionary changes in flower size. • Conclusions The search image for QTL should be broadened to include overall aspects of genome regulation. As we prepare to enter the much-heralded post-genomic era, we also need to revisit our overall models of the relationship between genotype and phenotype to encompass aspects of genome structure and composition beyond structural genes. PMID:15596472

MEAGHER, THOMAS R.; GILLIES, AMANDA C. M.; COSTICH, DENISE E.

2005-01-01

194

Genome Sequences of Three Agrobacterium Biovars Help Elucidate the Evolution of Multichromosome Genomes in Bacteria? †  

PubMed Central

The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids each strain harbors. Members of the Rhizobiaceae also have diverse genome architectures that include single chromosomes, multiple chromosomes, and plasmids of various sizes. Agrobacterium strains have been divided into three biovars, based on physiological and biochemical properties. The genome of a biovar I strain, A. tumefaciens C58, has been previously sequenced. In this study, the genomes of the biovar II strain A. radiobacter K84, a commercially available biological control strain that inhibits certain pathogenic agrobacteria, and the biovar III strain A. vitis S4, a narrow-host-range strain that infects grapes and invokes a hypersensitive response on nonhost plants, were fully sequenced and annotated. Comparison with other sequenced members of the Alphaproteobacteria provides new data on the evolution of multipartite bacterial genomes. Primary chromosomes show extensive conservation of both gene content and order. In contrast, secondary chromosomes share smaller percentages of genes, and conserved gene order is restricted to short blocks. We propose that secondary chromosomes originated from an ancestral plasmid to which genes have been transferred from a progenitor primary chromosome. Similar patterns are observed in select Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species. Together, these results define the evolution of chromosome architecture and gene content among the Rhizobiaceae and support a generalized mechanism for second-chromosome formation among bacteria. PMID:19251847

Slater, Steven C.; Goldman, Barry S.; Goodner, Brad; Setubal, Joăo C.; Farrand, Stephen K.; Nester, Eugene W.; Burr, Thomas J.; Banta, Lois; Dickerman, Allan W.; Paulsen, Ian; Otten, Leon; Suen, Garret; Welch, Roy; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Arnold, Frank; Burton, Oliver T.; Du, Zijin; Ewing, Adam; Godsy, Eric; Heisel, Sara; Houmiel, Kathryn L.; Jhaveri, Jinal; Lu, Jing; Miller, Nancy M.; Norton, Stacie; Chen, Qiang; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Ohlin, Victoria; Ondrusek, Dan; Pride, Nicole; Stricklin, Shawn L.; Sun, Jian; Wheeler, Cathy; Wilson, Lindsey; Zhu, Huijun; Wood, Derek W.

2009-01-01

195

The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the liverwort Pleurozia purpurea reveals extremely conservative mitochondrial genome evolution in liverworts.  

PubMed

Plant mitochondrial genomes have been known to be highly unusual in their large sizes, frequent intra-genomic rearrangement, and generally conservative sequence evolution. Recent studies show that in early land plants the mitochondrial genomes exhibit a mixed mode of conservative yet dynamic evolution. Here, we report the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the liverwort Pleurozia purpurea. The circular genome has a size of 168,526 base pairs, containing 43 protein-coding genes, 3 rRNA genes, 25 tRNA genes, and 31 group I or II introns. It differs from the Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial genome, the only other liverwort chondriome that has been sequenced, in lacking two genes (trnRucg and trnTggu) and one intron (rrn18i1065gII). The two genomes have identical gene orders and highly similar sequences in exons, introns, and intergenic spacers. Finally, a comparative analysis of duplicated trnRucu and other trnR genes from the two liverworts and several other organisms identified the recent lateral origin of trnRucg in Marchantia mtDNA through modification of a duplicated trnRucu. This study shows that the mitochondrial genomes evolve extremely slowly in liverworts, the earliest-diverging lineage of extant land plants, in stark contrast to what is known of highly dynamic evolution of mitochondrial genomes in seed plants. PMID:19756627

Wang, Bin; Xue, Jiayu; Li, Libo; Liu, Yang; Qiu, Yin-Long

2009-12-01

196

Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While increasing data on bacterial evolution in controlled environments are available, our understanding of bacterial genome evolution in natural environments is limited. We thus performed full genome analyses on four Listeria monocytogenes, including human and food isolates from both a 1988 case of sporadic listeriosis and a 2000 listeriosis outbreak, which had been linked to contaminated food from a

Renato H Orsi; Mark L Borowsky; Peter Lauer; Sarah K Young; Chad Nusbaum; James E Galagan; Bruce W Birren; Reid A Ivy; Qi Sun; Lewis M Graves; Bala Swaminathan; Martin Wiedmann

2008-01-01

197

Genomics-Bioinformatics Day on "Pathogens, Molecular Evolution and Bionformatics" October Thursday 9th 2003  

E-print Network

Genomics-Bioinformatics Day on "Pathogens, Molecular Evolution and Bionformatics" October Thursday Evolution and Bioinformatics. It is our intention to have such a half day beginning of each term. The day will be dedicated to an interesting topic and will also be used to announce Genomics/Bioinformatics in the following

Goldschmidt, Christina

198

The evolution of modularity in genome architecture John W. Pepper 1  

E-print Network

The evolution of modularity in genome architecture John W. Pepper 1 1 Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe evolved faster than did populations with non­modular genomes. Moreover, in long runs that started with non. This demonstrates that over long time periods, evolvability can itself evolve through reorganization of the genome

Nehaniv, Chrystopher

199

The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a major step toward understanding the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to ~7x coverage using a combined whole genome shotgun and BAC skim approach. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs found in seven mammalian...

200

Genome Evolution Following Host Jumps in the Irish Potato Famine Pathogen Lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many plant pathogens, including those in the lineage of the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, evolve by host jumps followed by specialization. However, how host jumps affect genome evolution remains largely unknown. To determine the patterns of sequence variation in the P. infestans lineage, we resequenced six genomes of four sister species. This revealed uneven evolutionary rates across genomes

Sylvain Raffaele; Rhys A. Farrer; Liliana M. Cano; David J. Studholme; Daniel MacLean; Marco Thines; Rays H. Y. Jiang; Michael C. Zody; Sridhara G. Kunjeti; Nicole M. Donofrio; Blake C. Meyers; Chad Nusbaum; Sophien Kamoun

2010-01-01

201

The Mitochondrial Genome of Soybean Reveals Complex Genome Structures and Gene Evolution at Intercellular and Phylogenetic Levels  

PubMed Central

Determining mitochondrial genomes is important for elucidating vital activities of seed plants. Mitochondrial genomes are specific to each plant species because of their variable size, complex structures and patterns of gene losses and gains during evolution. This complexity has made research on the soybean mitochondrial genome difficult compared with its nuclear and chloroplast genomes. The present study helps to solve a 30-year mystery regarding the most complex mitochondrial genome structure, showing that pairwise rearrangements among the many large repeats may produce an enriched molecular pool of 760 circles in seed plants. The soybean mitochondrial genome harbors 58 genes of known function in addition to 52 predicted open reading frames of unknown function. The genome contains sequences of multiple identifiable origins, including 6.8 kb and 7.1 kb DNA fragments that have been transferred from the nuclear and chloroplast genomes, respectively, and some horizontal DNA transfers. The soybean mitochondrial genome has lost 16 genes, including nine protein-coding genes and seven tRNA genes; however, it has acquired five chloroplast-derived genes during evolution. Four tRNA genes, common among the three genomes, are derived from the chloroplast. Sizeable DNA transfers to the nucleus, with pericentromeric regions as hotspots, are observed, including DNA transfers of 125.0 kb and 151.6 kb identified unambiguously from the soybean mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, respectively. The soybean nuclear genome has acquired five genes from its mitochondrial genome. These results provide biological insights into the mitochondrial genome of seed plants, and are especially helpful for deciphering vital activities in soybean. PMID:23431381

Chang, Shengxin; Wang, Yankun; Lu, Jiangjie; Gai, Junyi; Li, Jijie; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhao, Tuanjie

2013-01-01

202

Gene Frequency Distributions Reject a Neutral Model of Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Evolution of prokaryotes involves extensive loss and gain of genes, which lead to substantial differences in the gene repertoires even among closely related organisms. Through a wide range of phylogenetic depths, gene frequency distributions in prokaryotic pangenomes bear a characteristic, asymmetrical U-shape, with a core of (nearly) universal genes, a “shell” of moderately common genes, and a “cloud” of rare genes. We employ mathematical modeling to investigate evolutionary processes that might underlie this universal pattern. Gene frequency distributions for almost 400 groups of 10 bacterial or archaeal species each over a broad range of evolutionary distances were fit to steady-state, infinite allele models based on the distribution of gene replacement rates and the phylogenetic tree relating the species in each group. The fits of the theoretical frequency distributions to the empirical ones yield model parameters and estimates of the goodness of fit. Using the Akaike Information Criterion, we show that the neutral model of genome evolution, with the same replacement rate for all genes, can be confidently rejected. Of the three tested models with purifying selection, the one in which the distribution of replacement rates is derived from a stochastic population model with additive per-gene fitness yields the best fits to the data. The selection strength estimated from the fits declines with evolutionary divergence while staying well outside the neutral regime. These findings indicate that, unlike some other universal distributions of genomic variables, for example, the distribution of paralogous gene family membership, the gene frequency distribution is substantially affected by selection. PMID:23315380

Lobkovsky, Alexander E.; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

2013-01-01

203

Retrocopy contributions to the evolution of the human genome  

PubMed Central

Background Evolution via point mutations is a relatively slow process and is unlikely to completely explain the differences between primates and other mammals. By contrast, 45% of the human genome is composed of retroposed elements, many of which were inserted in the primate lineage. A subset of retroposed mRNAs (retrocopies) shows strong evidence of expression in primates, often yielding functional retrogenes. Results To identify and analyze the relatively recently evolved retrogenes, we carried out BLASTZ alignments of all human mRNAs against the human genome and scored a set of features indicative of retroposition. Of over 12,000 putative retrocopy-derived genes that arose mainly in the primate lineage, 726 with strong evidence of transcript expression were examined in detail. These mRNA retroposition events fall into three categories: I) 34 retrocopies and antisense retrocopies that added potential protein coding space and UTRs to existing genes; II) 682 complete retrocopy duplications inserted into new loci; and III) an unexpected set of 13 retrocopies that contributed out-of-frame, or antisense sequences in combination with other types of transposed elements (SINEs, LINEs, LTRs), even unannotated sequence to form potentially novel genes with no homologs outside primates. In addition to their presence in human, several of the gene candidates also had potentially viable ORFs in chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus macaque, underscoring their potential of function. Conclusion mRNA-derived retrocopies provide raw material for the evolution of genes in a wide variety of ways, duplicating and amending the protein coding region of existing genes as well as generating the potential for new protein coding space, or non-protein coding RNAs, by unexpected contributions out of frame, in reverse orientation, or from previously non-protein coding sequence. PMID:18842134

Baertsch, Robert; Diekhans, Mark; Kent, W James; Haussler, David; Brosius, Jürgen

2008-01-01

204

Diversity and evolution of centromere repeats in the maize genome.  

PubMed

Centromere repeats are found in most eukaryotes and play a critical role in kinetochore formation. Though centromere repeats exhibit considerable diversity both within and among species, little is understood about the mechanisms that drive centromere repeat evolution. Here, we use maize as a model to investigate how a complex history involving polyploidy, fractionation, and recent domestication has impacted the diversity of the maize centromeric repeat CentC. We first validate the existence of long tandem arrays of repeats in maize and other taxa in the genus Zea. Although we find considerable sequence diversity among CentC copies genome-wide, genetic similarity among repeats is highest within these arrays, suggesting that tandem duplications are the primary mechanism for the generation of new copies. Nonetheless, clustering analyses identify similar sequences among distant repeats, and simulations suggest that this pattern may be due to homoplasious mutation. Although the two ancestral subgenomes of maize have contributed nearly equal numbers of centromeres, our analysis shows that the majority of all CentC repeats derive from one of the parental genomes, with an even stronger bias when examining the largest assembled contiguous clusters. Finally, by comparing maize with its wild progenitor teosinte, we find that the abundance of CentC likely decreased after domestication, while the pericentromeric repeat Cent4 has drastically increased. PMID:25190528

Bilinski, Paul; Distor, Kevin; Gutierrez-Lopez, Jose; Mendoza, Gabriela Mendoza; Shi, Jinghua; Dawe, R Kelly; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

2015-03-01

205

Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome-composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes-provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution,

LaDeana W. Hillier; Webb Miller; Ewan Birney; Wesley Warren; Ross C. Hardison; Chris P. Ponting; Peer Bork; David W. Burt; Martien A. M. Groenen; Mary E. Delany; Jerry B. Dodgson; Genome assembly; Asif T. Chinwalla; Paul F. Cliften; Sandra W. Clifton; Kimberly D. Delehaunty; Catrina Fronick; Robert S. Fulton; Tina A. Graves; Colin Kremitzki; Dan Layman; Vincent Magrini; John D. McPherson; Tracie L. Miner; Patrick Minx; William E. Nash; Michael N. Nhan; Joanne O. Nelson; Lachlan G. Oddy; Craig S. Pohl; Jennifer Randall-Maher; Scott M. Smith; John W. Wallis; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; Michael N. Romanov; Catherine M. Rondelli; Bob Paton; Jacqueline Smith; David Morrice; Laura Daniels; Helen G. Tempest; Lindsay Robertson; Julio S. Masabanda; Darren K. Griffin; Alain Vignal; Valerie Fillon; Susanne Kerje; Leif Andersson; Richard P. M. Crooijmans; Jan Aerts; Jan J. van der Poel; Hans Ellegren; cDNA sequencing; Randolph B. Caldwell; Simon J. Hubbard; Darren V. Grafham; Andrzej M. Kierzek; Stuart R. McLaren; Ian M. Overton; Hiroshi Arakawa; Kevin J. Beattie; Yuri Bezzubov; Paul E. Boardman; James K. Bonfield; Michael D. R. Croning; Robert M. Davies; Matthew D. Francis; Sean J. Humphray; Carol E. Scott; Ruth G. Taylor; Cheryll Tickle; William R. A. Brown; Jane Rogers; Jean-Marie Buerstedde; Stuart A. Wilson; Ivan Ovcharenko; Laurie Gordon; Susan Lucas; Marcia M. Miller; Hidetoshi Inoko; Takashi Shiina; Jim Kaufman; Jan Salomonsen; Karsten Skjoedt; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Jun Wang; Bin Liu; Jian Wang; Jun Yu; Huanming Yang; Mikhail Nefedov; Maxim Koriabine; Pieter J. deJong; Leo Goodstadt; Caleb Webber; Nicholas J. Dickens; Ivica Letunic; Mikita Suyama; David Torrents; Christian von Mering; Evgeny M. Zdobnov; Kateryna Makova; Laura Elnitski; Pallavi Eswara; David C. King; Shan Yang; Svitlana Tyekucheva; Anusha Radakrishnan; Robert S. Harris; Francesca Chiaromonte; James Taylor; Jianbin He; Monique Rijnkels; Sam Griffiths-Jones; Michael M. Hoffman; Jessica Severin; Stephen M. J. Searle; Andy S. Law; David Speed; Dave Waddington; Ze Cheng; Eray Tuzun; Zhirong Bao; Paul Flicek; David D. Shteynberg; Michael R. Brent; Jacqueline M. Bye; Elizabeth J. Huckle; Sourav Chatterji; Colin Dewey; Lior Pachter; Andrei Kouranov; Zissimos Mourelatos; Artemis G. Hatzigeorgiou; Andrew H. Paterson; Robert Ivarie; Mikael Brandstrom; Erik Axelsson; Niclas Backstrom; Matthew T. Webster; Olivier Pourquie; Alexandre Reymond; Catherine Ucla; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Manyuan Long; J. J. Emerson; Esther Betrán; Isabelle Dupanloup; Henrik Kaessmann; Angie S. Hinrichs; Gill Bejerano; Terrence S. Furey; Rachel A. Harte; Brian Raney; Adam Siepel; W. James Kent; David Haussler; Eduardo Eyras; Robert Castelo; Josep F. Abril; Sergi Castellano; Francisco Camara; Genis Parra; Roderic Guigo; Guillaume Bourque; Glenn Tesler; Pavel A. Pevzner; Arian Smit; Lucinda A. Fulton; Elaine R. Mardis; Richard K. Wilson

2004-01-01

206

Developing a vaccine for human rhinoviruses  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses (RV’s) are common human pathogens of the respiratory tract being the most frequent cause of mild diseases of the upper respiratory tract (common cold) but more importantly they are a major initiator of acute exacerbations of chronic airway diseases. Infections can be life threatening in the latter context however RV -induced common colds have an associated economic cost from loss of productivity due to absence from work or school. There are no appropriate antiviral therapies available and vaccine strategies have failed because of the large number of viral serotypes and the lack of cross-serotype protection generated. Here, approaches past and present for development of a vaccine to these widespread human pathogens are highlighted. PMID:25593706

McLean, Gary R

2014-01-01

207

Convergence of ion channel genome content in early animal evolution.  

PubMed

Multicellularity has evolved multiple times, but animals are the only multicellular lineage with nervous systems. This fact implies that the origin of nervous systems was an unlikely event, yet recent comparisons among extant taxa suggest that animal nervous systems may have evolved multiple times independently. Here, we use ancestral gene content reconstruction to track the timing of gene family expansions for the major families of ion-channel proteins that drive nervous system function. We find that animals with nervous systems have broadly similar complements of ion-channel types but that these complements likely evolved independently. We also find that ion-channel gene family evolution has included large loss events, two of which were immediately followed by rounds of duplication. Ctenophores, cnidarians, and bilaterians underwent independent bouts of gene expansion in channel families involved in synaptic transmission and action potential shaping. We suggest that expansions of these family types may represent a genomic signature of expanding nervous system complexity. Ancestral nodes in which nervous systems are currently hypothesized to have originated did not experience large expansions, making it difficult to distinguish among competing hypotheses of nervous system origins and suggesting that the origin of nerves was not attended by an immediate burst of complexity. Rather, the evolution of nervous system complexity appears to resemble a slow fuse in stem animals followed by many independent bouts of gene gain and loss. PMID:25675537

Liebeskind, Benjamin J; Hillis, David M; Zakon, Harold H

2015-02-24

208

GenomicusPlants: A Web Resource to Study Genome Evolution in Flowering Plants  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics combined with phylogenetic reconstructions are powerful approaches to study the evolution of genes and genomes. However, the current rapid expansion of the volume of genomic information makes it increasingly difficult to interrogate, integrate and synthesize comparative genome data while taking into account the maximum breadth of information available. GenomicusPlants (http://www.genomicus.biologie.ens.fr/genomicus-plants) is an extension of the Genomicus webserver that addresses this issue by allowing users to explore flowering plant genomes in an intuitive way, across the broadest evolutionary scales. Extant genomes of 26 flowering plants can be analyzed, as well as 23 ancestral reconstructed genomes. Ancestral gene order provides a long-term chronological view of gene order evolution, greatly facilitating comparative genomics and evolutionary studies. Four main interfaces (‘views’) are available where: (i) PhyloView combines phylogenetic trees with comparisons of genomic loci across any number of genomes; (ii) AlignView projects loci of interest against all other genomes to visualize its topological conservation; (iii) MatrixView compares two genomes in a classical dotplot representation; and (iv) Karyoview visualizes chromosome karyotypes ‘painted’ with colours of another genome of interest. All four views are interconnected and benefit from many customizable features. PMID:25432975

Louis, Alexandra; Murat, Florent; Salse, Jérôme; Roest Crollius, Hugues

2015-01-01

209

Multiple Lineages of Ancient CR1 Retroposons Shaped the Early Genome Evolution of Amniotes  

PubMed Central

Chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retroposons are long interspersed elements (LINEs) that are ubiquitous within amniote genomes and constitute the most abundant family of transposed elements in birds, crocodilians, turtles, and snakes. They are also present in mammalian genomes, where they reside as numerous relics of ancient retroposition events. Yet, despite their relevance for understanding amniote genome evolution, the diversity and evolution of CR1 elements has never been studied on an amniote-wide level. We reconstruct the temporal and quantitative activity of CR1 subfamilies via presence/absence analyses across crocodilian phylogeny and comparative analyses of 12 crocodilian genomes, revealing relative genomic stasis of retroposition during genome evolution of extant Crocodylia. Our large-scale phylogenetic analysis of amniote CR1 subfamilies suggests the presence of at least seven ancient CR1 lineages in the amniote ancestor; and amniote-wide analyses of CR1 successions and quantities reveal differential retention (presence of ancient relics or recent activity) of these CR1 lineages across amniote genome evolution. Interestingly, birds and lepidosaurs retained the fewest ancient CR1 lineages among amniotes and also exhibit smaller genome sizes. Our study is the first to analyze CR1 evolution in a genome-wide and amniote-wide context and the data strongly suggest that the ancestral amniote genome contained myriad CR1 elements from multiple ancient lineages, and remnants of these are still detectable in the relatively stable genomes of crocodilians and turtles. Early mammalian genome evolution was thus characterized by a drastic shift from CR1 prevalence to dominance and hyperactivity of L2 LINEs in monotremes and L1 LINEs in therians. PMID:25503085

Suh, Alexander; Churakov, Gennady; Ramakodi, Meganathan P.; Platt, Roy N.; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K.; Caballero, Juan; Smit, Arian F.; Vliet, Kent A.; Hoffmann, Federico G.; Brosius, Jürgen; Green, Richard E.; Braun, Edward L.; Ray, David A.; Schmitz, Jürgen

2015-01-01

210

Multiple lineages of ancient CR1 retroposons shaped the early genome evolution of amniotes.  

PubMed

Chicken repeat 1 (CR1) retroposons are long interspersed elements (LINEs) that are ubiquitous within amniote genomes and constitute the most abundant family of transposed elements in birds, crocodilians, turtles, and snakes. They are also present in mammalian genomes, where they reside as numerous relics of ancient retroposition events. Yet, despite their relevance for understanding amniote genome evolution, the diversity and evolution of CR1 elements has never been studied on an amniote-wide level. We reconstruct the temporal and quantitative activity of CR1 subfamilies via presence/absence analyses across crocodilian phylogeny and comparative analyses of 12 crocodilian genomes, revealing relative genomic stasis of retroposition during genome evolution of extant Crocodylia. Our large-scale phylogenetic analysis of amniote CR1 subfamilies suggests the presence of at least seven ancient CR1 lineages in the amniote ancestor; and amniote-wide analyses of CR1 successions and quantities reveal differential retention (presence of ancient relics or recent activity) of these CR1 lineages across amniote genome evolution. Interestingly, birds and lepidosaurs retained the fewest ancient CR1 lineages among amniotes and also exhibit smaller genome sizes. Our study is the first to analyze CR1 evolution in a genome-wide and amniote-wide context and the data strongly suggest that the ancestral amniote genome contained myriad CR1 elements from multiple ancient lineages, and remnants of these are still detectable in the relatively stable genomes of crocodilians and turtles. Early mammalian genome evolution was thus characterized by a drastic shift from CR1 prevalence to dominance and hyperactivity of L2 LINEs in monotremes and L1 LINEs in therians. PMID:25503085

Suh, Alexander; Churakov, Gennady; Ramakodi, Meganathan P; Platt, Roy N; Jurka, Jerzy; Kojima, Kenji K; Caballero, Juan; Smit, Arian F; Vliet, Kent A; Hoffmann, Federico G; Brosius, Jürgen; Green, Richard E; Braun, Edward L; Ray, David A; Schmitz, Jürgen

2015-01-01

211

Structural studies on the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of human rhinovirus  

E-print Network

Structural studies on the mechanisms of antibody-mediated neutralization of human rhinovirus Thomas details of antibody-mediated neutralization of human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) using a combination bivalently across icosahedral two-fold axes. Key words: antibodies / neutralization / rhinovirus ©1995

Baker, Timothy S.

212

Sequence analysis of a bovine rhinovirus type 1 strain RS3x  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine rhinoviruses, known to cause clinical and subclinical upper respiratory infections in bovines worldwide, include three serotypes. Bovine rhinovirus (BRV) 1, 2 and 3 were originally classified as tentative members of the genus Rhinovirus (family Picornaviridae), however, in 2008 this genus was...

213

Tracking Marsupial Evolution Using Archaic Genomic Retroposon Insertions  

PubMed Central

The Australasian and South American marsupial mammals, such as kangaroos and opossums, are the closest living relatives to placental mammals, having shared a common ancestor around 130 million years ago. The evolutionary relationships among the seven marsupial orders have, however, so far eluded resolution. In particular, the relationships between the four Australasian and three South American marsupial orders have been intensively debated since the South American order Microbiotheria was taxonomically moved into the group Australidelphia. Australidelphia is significantly supported by both molecular and morphological data and comprises the four Australasian marsupial orders and the South American order Microbiotheria, indicating a complex, ancient, biogeographic history of marsupials. However, the exact phylogenetic position of Microbiotheria within Australidelphia has yet to be resolved using either sequence or morphological data analysis. Here, we provide evidence from newly established and virtually homoplasy-free retroposon insertion markers for the basal relationships among marsupial orders. Fifty-three phylogenetically informative markers were retrieved after in silico and experimental screening of ?217,000 retroposon-containing loci from opossum and kangaroo. The four Australasian orders share a single origin with Microbiotheria as their closest sister group, supporting a clear divergence between South American and Australasian marsupials. In addition, the new data place the South American opossums (Didelphimorphia) as the first branch of the marsupial tree. The exhaustive computational and experimental evidence provides important insight into the evolution of retroposable elements in the marsupial genome. Placing the retroposon insertion pattern in a paleobiogeographic context indicates a single marsupial migration from South America to Australia. The now firmly established phylogeny can be used to determine the direction of genomic changes and morphological transitions within marsupials. PMID:20668664

Nilsson, Maria A.; Churakov, Gennady; Sommer, Mirjam; Tran, Ngoc Van; Zemann, Anja; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

2010-01-01

214

Evolution of Linear Mitochondrial Genomes in Medusozoan Cnidarians  

PubMed Central

In nearly all animals, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) consists of a single circular molecule that encodes several subunits of the protein complexes involved in oxidative phosphorylation as well as part of the machinery for their expression. By contrast, mtDNA in species belonging to Medusozoa (one of the two major lineages in the phylum Cnidaria) comprises one to several linear molecules. Many questions remain on the ubiquity of linear mtDNA in medusozoans and the mechanisms responsible for its evolution, replication, and transcription. To address some of these questions, we determined the sequences of nearly complete linear mtDNA from 24 species representing all four medusozoan classes: Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa, and Staurozoa. All newly determined medusozoan mitochondrial genomes harbor the 17 genes typical for cnidarians and map as linear molecules with a high degree of gene order conservation relative to the anthozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs), polB and ORF314, are identified in cubozoan, schyphozoan, staurozoan, and trachyline hydrozoan mtDNA. polB belongs to the B-type DNA polymerase gene family, while the product of ORF314 may act as a terminal protein that binds telomeres. We posit that these two ORFs are remnants of a linear plasmid that invaded the mitochondrial genomes of the last common ancestor of Medusozoa and are responsible for its linearity. Hydroidolinan hydrozoans have lost the two ORFs and instead have duplicated cox1 at each end of their mitochondrial chromosome(s). Fragmentation of mtDNA occurred independently in Cubozoa and Hydridae (Hydrozoa, Hydroidolina). Our broad sampling allows us to reconstruct the evolutionary history of linear mtDNA in medusozoans. PMID:22113796

Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Collins, Allen G.; Pirro, Stacy; Lavrov, Dennis V.

2012-01-01

215

The Genome of the Obligate Intracellular Parasite Trachipleistophora hominis: New Insights into Microsporidian Genome Dynamics and Reductive Evolution  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of reductive genome evolution for eukaryotes living inside other eukaryotic cells are poorly understood compared to well-studied model systems involving obligate intracellular bacteria. Here we present 8.5 Mb of sequence from the genome of the microsporidian Trachipleistophora hominis, isolated from an HIV/AIDS patient, which is an outgroup to the smaller compacted-genome species that primarily inform ideas of evolutionary mode for these enormously successful obligate intracellular parasites. Our data provide detailed information on the gene content, genome architecture and intergenic regions of a larger microsporidian genome, while comparative analyses allowed us to infer genomic features and metabolism of the common ancestor of the species investigated. Gene length reduction and massive loss of metabolic capacity in the common ancestor was accompanied by the evolution of novel microsporidian-specific protein families, whose conservation among microsporidians, against a background of reductive evolution, suggests they may have important functions in their parasitic lifestyle. The ancestor had already lost many metabolic pathways but retained glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway to provide cytosolic ATP and reduced coenzymes, and it had a minimal mitochondrion (mitosome) making Fe-S clusters but not ATP. It possessed bacterial-like nucleotide transport proteins as a key innovation for stealing host-generated ATP, the machinery for RNAi, key elements of the early secretory pathway, canonical eukaryotic as well as microsporidian-specific regulatory elements, a diversity of repetitive and transposable elements, and relatively low average gene density. Microsporidian genome evolution thus appears to have proceeded in at least two major steps: an ancestral remodelling of the proteome upon transition to intracellular parasitism that involved reduction but also selective expansion, followed by a secondary compaction of genome architecture in some, but not all, lineages. PMID:23133373

Heinz, Eva; Williams, Tom A.; Nakjang, Sirintra; Noël, Christophe J.; Swan, Daniel C.; Goldberg, Alina V.; Harris, Simon R.; Weinmaier, Thomas; Markert, Stephanie; Becher, Dörte; Bernhardt, Jörg; Dagan, Tal; Hacker, Christian; Lucocq, John M.; Schweder, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Hall, Neil; Hirt, Robert P.; Embley, T. Martin

2012-01-01

216

Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Listeria: Genome evolution is characterized by limited gene acquisition and limited gene loss  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterial genus Listeria contains pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, including the pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, both of which carry homologous virulence gene clusters such as the prfA cluster and clusters of internalin genes. Initial evidence for multiple deletions of the prfA cluster during the evolution of Listeria indicates that this genus provides an interesting model for studying the evolution of virulence and also presents practical challenges with regard to definition of pathogenic strains. Results To better understand genome evolution and evolution of virulence characteristics in Listeria, we used a next generation sequencing approach to generate draft genomes for seven strains representing Listeria species or clades for which genome sequences were not available. Comparative analyses of these draft genomes and six publicly available genomes, which together represent the main Listeria species, showed evidence for (i) a pangenome with 2,032 core and 2,918 accessory genes identified to date, (ii) a critical role of gene loss events in transition of Listeria species from facultative pathogen to saprotroph, even though a consistent pattern of gene loss seemed to be absent, and a number of isolates representing non-pathogenic species still carried some virulence associated genes, and (iii) divergence of modern pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species and strains, most likely circa 47 million years ago, from a pathogenic common ancestor that contained key virulence genes. Conclusions Genome evolution in Listeria involved limited gene loss and acquisition as supported by (i) a relatively high coverage of the predicted pan-genome by the observed pan-genome, (ii) conserved genome size (between 2.8 and 3.2 Mb), and (iii) a highly syntenic genome. Limited gene loss in Listeria did include loss of virulence associated genes, likely associated with multiple transitions to a saprotrophic lifestyle. The genus Listeria thus provides an example of a group of bacteria that appears to evolve through a loss of virulence rather than acquisition of virulence characteristics. While Listeria includes a number of species-like clades, many of these putative species include clades or strains with atypical virulence associated characteristics. This information will allow for the development of genetic and genomic criteria for pathogenic strains, including development of assays that specifically detect pathogenic Listeria strains. PMID:21126366

2010-01-01

217

Orthopoxvirus Genome Evolution: The Role of Gene Loss  

PubMed Central

Poxviruses are highly successful pathogens, known to infect a variety of hosts. The family Poxviridae includes Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, which has been eradicated as a public health threat but could potentially reemerge as a bioterrorist threat. The risk scenario includes other animal poxviruses and genetically engineered manipulations of poxviruses. Studies of orthologous gene sets have established the evolutionary relationships of members within the Poxviridae family. It is not clear, however, how variations between family members arose in the past, an important issue in understanding how these viruses may vary and possibly produce future threats. Using a newly developed poxvirus-specific tool, we predicted accurate gene sets for viruses with completely sequenced genomes in the genus Orthopoxvirus. Employing sensitive sequence comparison techniques together with comparison of syntenic gene maps, we established the relationships between all viral gene sets. These techniques allowed us to unambiguously identify the gene loss/gain events that have occurred over the course of orthopoxvirus evolution. It is clear that for all existing Orthopoxvirus species, no individual species has acquired protein-coding genes unique to that species. All existing species contain genes that are all present in members of the species Cowpox virus and that cowpox virus strains contain every gene present in any other orthopoxvirus strain. These results support a theory of reductive evolution in which the reduction in size of the core gene set of a putative ancestral virus played a critical role in speciation and confining any newly emerging virus species to a particular environmental (host or tissue) niche. PMID:21994715

Hendrickson, Robert Curtis; Wang, Chunlin; Hatcher, Eneida L.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.

2010-01-01

218

Reductive genome evolution at both ends of the bacterial population size spectrum.  

PubMed

Bacterial genomes show substantial variations in size. The smallest bacterial genomes are those of endocellular symbionts of eukaryotic hosts, which have undergone massive genome reduction and show patterns that are consistent with the degenerative processes that are predicted to occur in species with small effective population sizes. However, similar genome reduction is found in some free-living marine cyanobacteria that are characterized by extremely large populations. In this Opinion article, we discuss the different hypotheses that have been proposed to account for this reductive genome evolution at both ends of the bacterial population size spectrum. PMID:25220308

Batut, Bérénice; Knibbe, Carole; Marais, Gabriel; Daubin, Vincent

2014-12-01

219

The scope and strength of sex-specific selection in genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Males and females share the vast majority of their genomes and yet are often subject to different, even conflicting, selection. Genomic and transcriptomic developments have made it possible to assess sex-specific selection at the molecular level, and it is clear that sex-specific selection shapes the evolutionary properties of several genomic characteristics, including transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, imprinting, genome structure and gene sequence. Sex-specific selection is strongly influenced by mating system, which also causes neutral evolutionary changes that affect different regions of the genome in different ways. Here, we synthesize theoretical and molecular work in order to provide a cohesive view of the role of sex-specific selection and mating system in genome evolution. We also highlight the need for a combined approach, incorporating both genomic data and experimental phenotypic studies, in order to understand precisely how sex-specific selection drives evolutionary change across the genome. PMID:23848139

Wright, A E; Mank, J E

2013-01-01

220

Genome evolution following host jumps in the Irish potato famine pathogen lineage.  

PubMed

Many plant pathogens, including those in the lineage of the Irish potato famine organism Phytophthora infestans, evolve by host jumps followed by specialization. However, how host jumps affect genome evolution remains largely unknown. To determine the patterns of sequence variation in the P. infestans lineage, we resequenced six genomes of four sister species. This revealed uneven evolutionary rates across genomes with genes in repeat-rich regions showing higher rates of structural polymorphisms and positive selection. These loci are enriched in genes induced in planta, implicating host adaptation in genome evolution. Unexpectedly, genes involved in epigenetic processes formed another class of rapidly evolving residents of the gene-sparse regions. These results demonstrate that dynamic repeat-rich genome compartments underpin accelerated gene evolution following host jumps in this pathogen lineage. PMID:21148391

Raffaele, Sylvain; Farrer, Rhys A; Cano, Liliana M; Studholme, David J; MacLean, Daniel; Thines, Marco; Jiang, Rays H Y; Zody, Michael C; Kunjeti, Sridhara G; Donofrio, Nicole M; Meyers, Blake C; Nusbaum, Chad; Kamoun, Sophien

2010-12-10

221

Stability domains of actin genes and genomic evolution  

E-print Network

In eukaryotic genes the protein coding sequence is split into several fragments, the exons, separated by non-coding DNA stretches, the introns. Prokaryotes do not have introns in their genome. We report the calculations of stability domains of actin genes for various organisms in the animal, plant and fungi kingdoms. Actin genes have been chosen because they have been highly conserved during evolution. In these genes all introns were removed so as to mimic ancient genes at the time of the early eukaryotic development, i.e. before introns insertion. Common stability boundaries are found in evolutionary distant organisms, which implies that these boundaries date from the early origin of eukaryotes. In general boundaries correspond with introns positions of vertebrates and other animals actins, but not much for plants and fungi. The sharpest boundary is found in a locus where fungi, algae and animals have introns in positions separated by one nucleotide only, which identifies a hot-spot for insertion. These resu...

Carlon, E; Malki, M Lejard; Blossey, R; 10.1103/PhysRevE.76.051916

2011-01-01

222

Host Genetic Variation Influences Gene Expression Response to Rhinovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

Rhinovirus (RV) is the most prevalent human respiratory virus and is responsible for at least half of all common colds. RV infections may result in a broad spectrum of effects that range from asymptomatic infections to severe lower respiratory illnesses. The basis for inter-individual variation in the response to RV infection is not well understood. In this study, we explored whether host genetic variation is associated with variation in gene expression response to RV infections between individuals. To do so, we obtained genome-wide genotype and gene expression data in uninfected and RV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 98 individuals. We mapped local and distant genetic variation that is associated with inter-individual differences in gene expression levels (eQTLs) in both uninfected and RV-infected cells. We focused specifically on response eQTLs (reQTLs), namely, genetic associations with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV infection. We identified local reQTLs for 38 genes, including genes with known functions in viral response (UBA7, OAS1, IRF5) and genes that have been associated with immune and RV-related diseases (e.g., ITGA2, MSR1, GSTM3). The putative regulatory regions of genes with reQTLs were enriched for binding sites of virus-activated STAT2, highlighting the role of condition-specific transcription factors in genotype-by-environment interactions. Overall, we suggest that the 38 loci associated with inter-individual variation in gene expression response to RV-infection represent promising candidates for affecting immune and RV-related respiratory diseases. PMID:25874939

Çal??kan, Minal; Baker, Samuel W.; Gilad, Yoav; Ober, Carole

2015-01-01

223

Evolution of nucleosome positioning and gene regulation in yeasts : a genomic and computational approach  

E-print Network

Chromatin organization plays a major role in gene regulation and can affect the function and evolution of new transcriptional programs. Here, we present the first multi-species comparative genomic analysis of the relationship ...

Tsankov, Alex

2010-01-01

224

The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

Knapp, Steve

2010-03-24

225

Methods and analysis of genome-scale gene family evolution across multiple species  

E-print Network

The fields of genomics and evolution have continually benefited from one another in their common goal of understanding the biological world. This partnership has been accelerated by ever increasing sequencing and high-throughput ...

Rasmussen, Matthew D. (Matthew David)

2010-01-01

226

How evolution of genomes is reflected in exact DNA sequence match statistics.  

PubMed

Genome evolution is shaped by a multitude of mutational processes, including point mutations, insertions, and deletions of DNA sequences, as well as segmental duplications. These mutational processes can leave distinctive qualitative marks in the statistical features of genomic DNA sequences. One such feature is the match length distribution (MLD) of exactly matching sequence segments within an individual genome or between the genomes of related species. These have been observed to exhibit characteristic power law decays in many species. Here, we show that simple dynamical models consisting solely of duplication and mutation processes can already explain the characteristic features of MLDs observed in genomic sequences. Surprisingly, we find that these features are largely insensitive to details of the underlying mutational processes and do not necessarily rely on the action of natural selection. Our results demonstrate how analyzing statistical features of DNA sequences can help us reveal and quantify the different mutational processes that underlie genome evolution. PMID:25398628

Massip, Florian; Sheinman, Michael; Schbath, Sophie; Arndt, Peter F

2015-02-01

227

Eukaryotic genome evolution: rearrangement and coevolution of compartmentalized genetic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant cell operates with an integrated, compartmentalized genome consisting of nucleus\\/cytosol, plas- tids and mitochondria that, in its entirety, is regulated in time, quantitatively, in multicellular organisms and also in space. This genome, as do genomes of eukaryotes in general, originated in endosymbiotic events, with at least three cells, and was shaped phylogenetically by a massive and highly complex

Reinhold G. Herrmann; Rainer M. Maier; Christian Schmitz-Linneweber

2003-01-01

228

Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of

Andrew G. Clark; Michael B. Eisen; Douglas R. Smith; Brian Oliver; Therese A. Markow; Thomas C. Kaufman; Manolis Kellis; William Gelbart; Venky N. Iyer; Daniel A. Pollard; Timothy B. Sackton; Amanda M. Larracuente; Nadia D. Singh; Jose P. Abad; Dawn N. Abt; Boris Adryan; Montserrat Aguade; Hiroshi Akashi; Wyatt W. Anderson; Charles F. Aquadro; David H. Ardell; Roman Arguello; Carlo G. Artieri; Daniel A. Barbash; Daniel Barker; Paolo Barsanti; Phil Batterham; Serafim Batzoglou; Dave Begun; Arjun Bhutkar; Enrico Blanco; Stephanie A. Bosak; Robert K. Bradley; Adrianne D. Brand; Michael R. Brent; Angela N. Brooks; Randall H. Brown; Roger K. Butlin; Corrado Caggese; Brian R. Calvi; A. Bernardo de Carvalho; Anat Caspi; Sergio Castrezana; Susan E. Celniker; Jean L. Chang; Charles Chapple; Sourav Chatterji; Asif Chinwalla; Alberto Civetta; Sandra W. Clifton; Josep M. Comeron; James C. Costello; Jerry A. Coyne; Jennifer Daub; Robert G. David; Arthur L. Delcher; Kim Delehaunty; Chuong B. Do; Heather Ebling; Kevin Edwards; Thomas Eickbush; Jay D. Evans; Alan Filipski; Sven Findeiß; Eva Freyhult; Lucinda Fulton; Robert Fulton; Ana C. L. Garcia; Anastasia Gardiner; David A. Garfield; Barry E. Garvin; Greg Gibson; Don Gilbert; Sante Gnerre; Jennifer Godfrey; Robert Good; Valer Gotea; Brenton Gravely; Anthony J. Greenberg; Sam Griffiths-Jones; Samuel Gross; Roderic Guigo; Erik A. Gustafson; Wilfried Haerty; Matthew W. Hahn; Daniel L. Halligan; Aaron L. Halpern; Gillian M. Halter; Mira V. Han; Andreas Heger; Ladeana Hillier; Angie S. Hinrichs; Ian Holmes; Roger A. Hoskins; Melissa J. Hubisz; Dan Hultmark; Melanie A. Huntley; David B. Jaffe; Santosh Jagadeeshan; William R. Jeck; Justin Johnson; Corbin D. Jones; William C. Jordan; Gary H. Karpen; Eiko Kataoka; Peter D. Keightley; Pouya Kheradpour; Ewen F. Kirkness; Leonardo B. Koerich; Karsten Kristiansen; Dave Kudrna; Rob J. Kulathinal; Sudhir Kumar; Roberta Kwok; Eric Lander; Charles H. Langley; Richard Lapoint; Brian P. Lazzaro; So-Jeong Lee; Lisa Levesque; Ruiqiang Li; Chiao-Feng Lin; Michael F. Lin; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Ana Llopart; Manyuan Long; Lloyd Low; Elena Lozovsky; Jian Lu; Meizhong Luo; Carlos A. Machado; Wojciech Makalowski; Mar Marzo; Muneo Matsuda; Luciano Matzkin; Bryant McAllister; Carolyn S. McBride; Brendan McKernan; Kevin McKernan; Maria Mendez-Lago; Patrick Minx; Michael U. Mollenhauer; Kristi Montooth; Stephen M. Mount; Xu Mu; Eugene Myers; Barbara Negre; Stuart Newfeld; Rasmus Nielsen; Mohamed A. F. Noor; Patrick O'Grady; Lior Pachter; Montserrat Papaceit; Matthew J. Parisi; Michael Parisi; Leopold Parts; Jakob S. Pedersen; Graziano Pesole; Adam M. Phillippy; Chris P. Ponting; Mihai Pop; Damiano Porcelli; Jeffrey R. Powell; Sonja Prohaska; Kim Pruitt; Marta Puig; Hadi Quesneville; Kristipati Ravi Ram; David Rand; Matthew D. Rasmussen; Laura K. Reed; Robert Reenan; Amy Reily; Karin A. Remington; Tania T. Rieger; Michael G. Ritchie; Charles Robin; Yu-Hui Rogers; Claudia Rohde; Julio Rozas; Marc J. Rubenfield; Alfredo Ruiz; Susan Russo; Steven L. Salzberg; Alejandro Sanchez-Gracia; David J. Saranga; Hajime Sato; Stephen W. Schaeffer; Michael C. Schatz; Todd Schlenke; Russell Schwartz; Carmen Segarra; Rama S. Singh; Laura Sirot; Marina Sirota; Nicholas B. Sisneros; Chris D. Smith; Temple F. Smith; John Spieth; Deborah E. Stage; Alexander Stark; Wolfgang Stephan; Robert L. Strausberg; Sebastian Strempel; David Sturgill; Granger Sutton; Wei Tao; Sarah Teichmann; Yoshiko N. Tobari; Yoshihiko Tomimura; Jason M. Tsolas; Vera L. S. Valente; Eli Venter; J. Craig Venter; Saverio Vicario; Filipe G. Vieira; Albert J. Vilella; Alfredo Villasante; Brian Walenz; Jun Wang; Marvin Wasserman; Thomas Watts; Derek Wilson; Richard K. Wilson; Rod A. Wing; Mariana F. Wolfner; Alex Wong; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Chung-I. Wu; Gabriel Wu; Daisuke Yamamoto; Hsiao-Pei Yang; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; James A. Yorke; Kiyohito Yoshida; Evgeny Zdobnov; Peili Zhang; Yu Zhang; Aleksey V. Zimin; Jennifer Baldwin; Amr Abdouelleil; Jamal Abdulkadir; Adal Abebe; Brikti Abera; Justin Abreu; St Christophe Acer; Lynne Aftuck; Allen Alexander; Peter An; Erica Anderson; Scott Anderson; Harindra Arachi; Marc Azer; Pasang Bachantsang; Andrew Barry; Tashi Bayul; Aaron Berlin; Daniel Bessette; Toby Bloom; Jason Blye; Leonid Boguslavskiy; Claude Bonnet; Boris Boukhgalter; Imane Bourzgui; Adam Brown; Patrick Cahill; Sheridon Channer; Yama Cheshatsang; Lisa Chuda; Mieke Citroen; Alville Collymore; Patrick Cooke; Maura Costello; Katie D'Aco; Riza Daza; Georgius de Haan; Stuart Degray; Christina Demaso; Norbu Dhargay; Kimberly Dooley; Erin Dooley; Missole Doricent; Passang Dorje

2007-01-01

229

Compositional Evolution of Noncoding DNA in the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the compositional evolution of noncoding DNA in the primate genome by comparison of lineage- specific substitutions observed in 1.8 Mb of genomic alignments of human, chimpanzee, and baboon with 6542 human single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rooted using chimpanzee sequence. The pattern of compositional evolution, measured in terms of the numbers of GCfiAT and ATfiGC changes, differs significantly between

Matthew T. Webster; Nick G. C. Smith; Hans Ellegren

230

The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher

Christine G Elsik; Ross L Tellam; Richard A Gibbs; Kim C Worley; Donna M Muzny; George M Weinstock; David L Adelson; Evan E Eichler; Laura Elnitski; Roderic Guig'o; Debora L Hamernik; Harris A Lewin; Steve M Kappes; David J Lynn; Frank W Nicholas; Alexandre Reymond; Monique Rijnkels; Loren C Skow; Evgeny M Zdobnov; Lawrence Schook; James Womack; Tyler Alioto; Stylianos E Antonarakis; Alex Astashyn; Charles E Chapple; Hsiu-Chuan Chen; Jacqueline Chrast; Francisco Câmara; Olga Ermolaeva; Charlotte N Henrichsen; Wratko Hlavina; Yuri Kapustin; Boris Kiryutin; Paul Kitts; Felix Kokocinski; Melissa Landrum; Donna Maglott; Kim Pruitt; Victor Sapojnikov; Stephen M Searle; Victor Solovyev; Alexandre Souvorov; Catherine Ucla; Carine Wyss; Juan M Anzola; Daniel Gerlach; Eran Elhaik; Dan Graur; Justin T Reese; Robert C Edgar; John C McEwan; Gemma M Payne; Joy M Raison; Thomas Junier; Evgenia V Kriventseva; Eduardo Eyras; Mireya Plass; Ravikiran Donthu; Denis M Larkin; James Reecy; Mary Q Yang; Lin Chen; Ze Cheng; Carol G Chitko-mckown; George E Liu; Lakshmi K Matukumalli; Jiuzhou Song; Bin Zhu; Daniel G Bradley; Fiona S L Brinkman; Lilian P L Lau; Matthew D Whiteside; Angela Walker; Thomas T Wheeler; Theresa Casey; J Bruce German; Danielle G Lemay; Nauman J Maqbool; Adrian J Molenaar; Seongwon Seo; Paul Stothard; Cynthia L Baldwin; Rebecca Baxter; Candice L Brinkmeyer-Langford; Wendy C Brown; Christopher P Childers; Shirley A Ellis; Timothy Connelley; Krista Fritz; Elizabeth J Glass; Carolyn T A Herzig; Antti Iivanainen; Kevin K Lahmers; Anna K Bennett; C Michael Dickens; James G R Gilbert; Darren E Hagen; Hanni Salih; Alexandre R Caetano; Brian Dalrymple; Clare A Gill; Jose Fernando Garcia; Stefan G Hiendleder; Erdogan Memili; Diane Spurlock; John L Williams; Lee Alexander; Michael J Brownstein; Leluo Guan; Marco A Marra; Steven J M Jones; Richard Moore; Stephen S Moore; Andy Roberts; Masaaki Taniguchi; Richard C Waterman; Joseph Chacko; Mimi M Chandrabose; Andy Cree; Marvin Diep Dao; Huyen H Dinh; Ramatu Ayiesha Gabisi; Sandra Hines; Jennifer Hume; Shalini N Jhangiani; Vandita Joshi; Christie L Kovar; Lora R Lewis; Yih-Shin Liu; John Lopez; Margaret B Morgan; Ngoc Bich Nguyen; Geoffrey O Okwuonu; San Juana Ruiz; Rita A Wright; Jireh Santibanez; Christian Buhay; Yan Ding; Shannon Dugan-rocha; Judith Herdandez; Michael Holder; Aniko Sabo; Amy Egan; Jason Goodell; Katarzyna Wilczek-Boney; Gerald R Fowler; Matthew Edward Hitchens; Ryan J Lozado; Charles Moen; David Steffen; James T Warren; JingKun Zhang; Readman Chiu; Jacqueline E Schein; K James Durbin; Paul Havlak; Huaiyang Jiang; Yue Liu; Xiang Qin; Yanru Ren; Yufeng Shen; Henry Song; Stephanie Nicole Bell; Clay Davis; Angela Jolivet Johnson; Sandra Lee; Lynne V Nazareth; Bella Mayurkumar Patel; Ling-Ling Pu; Selina Vattathil; Rex Lee Williams; Stacey Curry; Cerissa Hamilton; Erica Sodergren; David A Wheeler; Wes Barris; Gary L Bennett; Andr'e Eggen; Ronnie D Green; Gregory P Harhay; Matthew Hobbs; Oliver Jann; John W Keele; Matthew P Kent; Sigbjo rn Lien; Stephanie D McKay; Sean Mcwilliam; Abhirami Ratnakumar; Robert D Schnabel; Timothy Smith; Warren M Snelling; Tad S Sonstegard; Roger T Stone; Yoshikazu Sugimoto; Akiko Takasuga; Jeremy F Taylor; Curtis P Van Tassell; Michael D Macneil; Colette A Abbey; Antonio R R Abatepaulo; Virpi Ahola; Iassudara G Almeida; Ariel F Amadio; Elen Anatriello; Suria M Bahadue; Fernando H Biase; Jeffery A Carroll; Clayton R Boldt; Wanessa A Carvalho; Eliane P Cervelatti; Elsa Chacko; Jennifer E Chapin; Ye Cheng; Jungwoo Choi; Adam J Colley; Tatiana A de Campos; Marcos De Donato; Isabel K F De Miranda Santos; Carlo J F de Oliveira; Heather Deobald; Eve Devinoy; Kaitlin E Donohue; Peter Dovc; Annett Eberlein; Carolyn J Fitzsimmons; Alessandra M Franzin; Gustavo R Garcia; Sem Genini; Cody J Gladney; Jason R Grant; Marion L Greaser; Jonathan A Green; Darryl L Hadsell; Hatam A Hakimov; Rob Halgren; Jennifer L Harrow; Elizabeth A Hart; Nicola Hastings; Marta Hern'andez; Zhi-Liang Hu; Aaron Ingham; Terhi Iso-Touru; Catherine Jamis; Kirsty Jensen; Dimos Kapetis; Tovah Kerr; Sari S Khalil; Hasan Khatib; Davood Kolbehdari; Charu G Kumar; Dinesh Kumar; Richard Leach; Justin C-M Lee; Changxi Li; Krystin M Logan; Roberto Malinverni; Elisa Marques; William F Martin; Natalia F Martins; Sandra R Maruyama; Raffaele Mazza; Kim L McLean; Juan F Medrano; Barbara T Moreno; Daniela D Mor'e; Carl T Muntean; Hari P Nandakumar; Marcelo F G Nogueira; Ingrid Olsaker; Sameer D Pant; Francesca Panzitta; Rosemeire C P Pastor; Mario A Poli; Nathan Poslusny; Satyanarayana Rachagani; Shoba Ranganathan; Andrej Razpet

2009-01-01

231

Rapid Genome Change in Synthetic Polyploids of Brassica and Its Implications for Polyploid Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the evolutionary success of polyploidy in higher plants has been widely recognized, there is virtually no information on how polyploid genomes have evolved after their formation. In this report, we used synthetic polyploids of Brassica as a model system to study genome evolution in the early generations after polyploidization. The initial polyploids we developed were completely homozygous, and thus,

Keming Song; Ping Lu; Keliang Tang; Thomas C. Osborn

1995-01-01

232

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: A window to ruminant biology and evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (ma...

233

Microcolinearity and genome evolution in the AdhA region of diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium)  

E-print Network

Microcolinearity and genome evolution in the AdhA region of diploid and polyploid cotton (Gossypium. Prior analysis of the CesA region in two cotton genomes that diverged 5­10 million years ago (Ma to include BAC sequences surrounding the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase A (AdhA) from four cotton

Wendel, Jonathan F.

234

Evolution of Weediness and Invasiveness: Charting the Course for Weed Genomics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genetic bases of weedy and invasive traits and their evolution remain poorly understood, but genomic approaches offer tremendous promise for elucidating these important features of weed biology. However, the genomic tools and resources available for weeds are currently relatively meager compared...

235

Comparative genomics reveals birth and death of fragile regions in mammalian evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An important question in genome evolution is whether there exist fragile regions (rearrangement hotspots) where chromosomal rearrangements are happening over and over again. Although nearly all recent studies supported the existence of fragile regions in mammalian genomes, the most comprehensive phylogenomic study of mammals raised some doubts about their existence. RESULTS: Here we demonstrate that fragile regions are subject

Max A Alekseyev; Pavel A Pevzner

2010-01-01

236

Single-Gene and Whole-Genome Duplications and the Evolution  

E-print Network

Chapter 19 Single-Gene and Whole-Genome Duplications and the Evolution of Protein­Protein.3 SINGLE-GENE DUPLICATIONS 19.4 WHOLE-GENOME DUPLICATIONS 19.5 DIPLOIDIZATION PHASE 19.6 DOSAGE BALANCE.13 CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES 19.1 INTRODUCTION Proteins within a cell do not function in isolation, but instead

Gent, Universiteit

237

Simulating Genomes and Populations in the Mutation Space: An example with the evolution of HIV drug  

E-print Network

- 1 - Simulating Genomes and Populations in the Mutation Space: An example with the evolution of HIV drug resistance. Antonio Carvajal-Rodríguez Departamento de Bioquímica, Genética e Inmunología/or genomes is proposed. The basic idea considers an individual as the differences (mutations) between

Carvajal-Rodríguez, Antonio

238

Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes  

E-print Network

Evolution and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes of Medicine, Bronx, New York, United States of America Abstract Background: Human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16 and Taxonomic Classification of Human Papillomavirus 16 (HPV16)-Related Variant Genomes: HPV31, HPV33, HPV35

DeSalle, Rob

239

Rhinovirus-Induced Exacerbations of Asthma and COPD  

PubMed Central

Over the past two decades, increasing evidence has shown that, in patients with chronic airways disease, viral infection is the most common cause of exacerbation. This review will examine the evidence for viral-induced exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease and the potential mechanisms by which viruses cause exacerbations. Attention will be focused on rhinovirus, the most common cause of respiratory exacerbations. Exacerbations due to rhinovirus, which infects relatively few cells in the airway and does not cause the cytotoxicity of other viruses such as influenza or respiratory syncytial virus, are particularly poorly understood. While the innate immune response likely plays a role in rhinovirus-induced exacerbations, its precise role, either adaptive or maladaptive, is debated. Because current treatment strategies are only partially effective, further research examining the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying viral-induced exacerbations of chronic airways diseases is warranted. PMID:24278777

Hershenson, Marc B.

2013-01-01

240

Evaluation of Isoprinosine in Experimental Human Rhinovirus Infection  

PubMed Central

The prophylactic efficacy of isoprinosine was evaluated in a double-blind fashion in volunteers challenged with two types of rhinovirus. In the rhinovirus 44 and 32 trials, each of 9 men received a placebo, and eight and 11 men received the drug, respectively. Oral isoprinosine, 6 g a day, was given for 2 days prior to intranasal challenge with 100 mean tissue culture infective doses of the virus and for 7 postchallenge days. In both trials the occurrence and severity of colds were greater in the placebo group, but the difference between the two groups was not significant. Higher antibody titers for both viruses and a greater number of rhinovirus 32 isolations were demonstrated in the drug group but without statistically significant differences. The prophylactic isoprinosine treatment may suppress the cold syndrome, but its effect was not convincingly apparent. PMID:15825396

Pachuta, Donald M.; Togo, Yasushi; Hornick, Richard B.; Schwarts, Andrew R.; Tominaga, Suketami

1974-01-01

241

LEGUME GENOME EVOLUTION VIEWED THROUGH THE MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA AND LOTUS JAPONICUS GENOMES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genome sequencing of two model legumes, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, provides one of the first opportunities for genome-scale and sequence-based comparisons of multiple genomes in the same family. Sequence comparisons show no evidence for recent large-scale genome duplications in either ...

242

Hand contamination with human rhinovirus in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

As one step in developing a measure of hand contamination with respiratory viruses, this study assessed if human rhinovirus (HRV) was detectable on hands in a low income non-temperate community where respiratory disease is a leading cause of child death. Research assistants observed residents in a low income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. When they observed a resident sneeze or pick their nose, they collected a hand rinse and anterior nare sample from the resident. Samples were first tested for HRV RNA by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR). A subset of rRT-PCR positive samples were cultured into MRC-5 and HeLa Ohio cells. Among 177 hand samples tested for HRV by real-time RT-PCR, 52 (29%) were positive. Among 15 RT-PCR positive hand samples that were cultured, two grew HRV. HRV was detected in each of the sampling months (January, February, June, July, November, and December). This study demonstrates in the natural setting that, at least after sneezing or nasal cleaning, hands were contaminated commonly with potentially infectious HRV. Future research could explore if HRV RNA is present consistently and is associated sufficiently with the incidence of respiratory illness in communities that it may provide a proxy measure of respiratory viral hand contamination. PMID:24760731

Luby, Stephen P; Lu, Xiaoyan; Cromeans, Theresa; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Kadir, Mohammad Abdul; Erdman, Dean D

2014-12-01

243

Rapid Evolution of Enormous, Multichromosomal Genomes in Flowering Plant Mitochondria with Exceptionally High Mutation Rates  

PubMed Central

Genome size and complexity vary tremendously among eukaryotic species and their organelles. Comparisons across deeply divergent eukaryotic lineages have suggested that variation in mutation rates may explain this diversity, with increased mutational burdens favoring reduced genome size and complexity. The discovery that mitochondrial mutation rates can differ by orders of magnitude among closely related angiosperm species presents a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from two species in the angiosperm genus Silene with recent and dramatic accelerations in their mitochondrial mutation rates. Contrary to theoretical predictions, these genomes have experienced a massive proliferation of noncoding content. At 6.7 and 11.3 Mb, they are by far the largest known mitochondrial genomes, larger than most bacterial genomes and even some nuclear genomes. In contrast, two slowly evolving Silene mitochondrial genomes are smaller than average for angiosperms. Consequently, this genus captures approximately 98% of known variation in organelle genome size. The expanded genomes reveal several architectural changes, including the evolution of complex multichromosomal structures (with 59 and 128 circular-mapping chromosomes, ranging in size from 44 to 192 kb). They also exhibit a substantial reduction in recombination and gene conversion activity as measured by the relative frequency of alternative genome conformations and the level of sequence divergence between repeat copies. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and chromosome structure can therefore be extremely rapid and interrelated in ways not predicted by current evolutionary theories. Our results raise the hypothesis that changes in recombinational processes, including gene conversion, may be a central force driving the evolution of both mutation rate and genome structure. PMID:22272183

Sloan, Daniel B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Chuckalovcak, John P.; Wu, Martin; McCauley, David E.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Taylor, Douglas R.

2012-01-01

244

Genomic Evolution of 11 Type Strains within Family Planctomycetaceae  

PubMed Central

The species in family Planctomycetaceae are ideal groups for investigating the origin of eukaryotes. Their cells are divided by a lipidic intracytoplasmic membrane and they share a number of eukaryote-like molecular characteristics. However, their genomic structures, potential abilities, and evolutionary status are still unknown. In this study, we searched for common protein families and a core genome/pan genome based on 11 sequenced species in family Planctomycetaceae. Then, we constructed phylogenetic tree based on their 832 common protein families. We also annotated the 11 genomes using the Clusters of Orthologous Groups database. Moreover, we predicted and reconstructed their core/pan metabolic pathways using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) orthology system. Subsequently, we identified genomic islands (GIs) and structural variations (SVs) among the five complete genomes and we specifically investigated the integration of two Planctomycetaceae plasmids in all 11 genomes. The results indicate that Planctomycetaceae species share diverse genomic variations and unique genomic characteristics, as well as have huge potential for human applications. PMID:24489782

Zhou, Yizhuang; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Tianxiang; Yang, Jinlong; Chen, Yanling; Su, Longxiang; Xu, Jin; Chen, Jing; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jiapeng; Dai, Wenkui; Ni, Peixiang; Fang, Chengxiang; Yang, Ruifu

2014-01-01

245

Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies  

PubMed Central

Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae. PMID:22475018

2012-01-01

246

Insights from the Complete Chloroplast Genome into the Evolution of Sesamum indicum L  

PubMed Central

Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is one of the oldest oilseed crops. In order to investigate the evolutionary characters according to the Sesame Genome Project, apart from sequencing its nuclear genome, we sequenced the complete chloroplast genome of S. indicum cv. Yuzhi 11 (white seeded) using Illumina and 454 sequencing. Comparisons of chloroplast genomes between S. indicum and the 18 other higher plants were then analyzed. The chloroplast genome of cv. Yuzhi 11 contains 153,338 bp and a total of 114 unique genes (KC569603). The number of chloroplast genes in sesame is the same as that in Nicotiana tabacum, Vitis vinifera and Platanus occidentalis. The variation in the length of the large single-copy (LSC) regions and inverted repeats (IR) in sesame compared to 18 other higher plant species was the main contributor to size variation in the cp genome in these species. The 77 functional chloroplast genes, except for ycf1 and ycf2, were highly conserved. The deletion of the cp ycf1 gene sequence in cp genomes may be due either to its transfer to the nuclear genome, as has occurred in sesame, or direct deletion, as has occurred in Panax ginseng and Cucumis sativus. The sesame ycf2 gene is only 5,721 bp in length and has lost about 1,179 bp. Nucleotides 1–585 of ycf2 when queried in BLAST had hits in the sesame draft genome. Five repeats (R10, R12, R13, R14 and R17) were unique to the sesame chloroplast genome. We also found that IR contraction/expansion in the cp genome alters its rate of evolution. Chloroplast genes and repeats display the signature of convergent evolution in sesame and other species. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Sesamum and other higher plants. PMID:24303020

Zhang, Haiyang; Li, Chun; Miao, Hongmei; Xiong, Songjin

2013-01-01

247

The evolution of lineage-specific clusters of single nucleotide substitutions in the human genome.  

PubMed

Genomic regions harboring large numbers of human-specific single nucleotide substitutions are of significant interest since they are potential genomic foci underlying the evolution of human-specific traits as well as human adaptive evolution. Previous studies aimed to identify such regions either used pre-defined genomic locations such as coding sequences and conserved genomic elements or employed sliding window methods. Such approaches may miss clusters of substitutions occurring in regions other than those pre-defined locations, or not be able to distinguish human-specific clusters of substitutions from regions of generally high substitution rates. Here, we conduct a 'maximal segment' analysis to scan the whole human genome to identify clusters of human-specific substitutions that occurred since the divergence of the human and the chimpanzee genomes. This method can identify species-specific clusters of substitutions while not relying on pre-defined regions. We thus identify thousands of clusters of human-specific single nucleotide substitutions. The evolution of such clusters is driven by a combination of several different evolutionary processes including increased regional mutation rate, recombination-associated processes, and positive selection. These newly identified regions of human-specific substitution clusters include large numbers of previously identified human accelerated regions, and exhibit significant enrichments of genes involved in several developmental processes. Our study provides a useful tool to study the evolution of the human genome. PMID:23770436

Xu, Ke; Wang, Jianrong; Elango, Navin; Yi, Soojin V

2013-10-01

248

Genome dynamics and its impact on evolution of Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Escherichia coli genome consists of a conserved part, the so-called core genome, which encodes essential cellular functions and of a flexible,\\u000a strain-specific part. Genes that belong to the flexible genome code for factors involved in bacterial fitness and adaptation\\u000a to different environments. Adaptation includes increase in fitness and colonization capacity. Pathogenic as well as non-pathogenic\\u000a bacteria carry mobile and

Ulrich DobrindtM; M. Geddam Chowdary; G. Krumbholz; J. Hacker

2010-01-01

249

Life History Evolution and Genome Size in Subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae)  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Within Oncidiinae, there are several groups of species that are effectively annuals, and we wished to see if these species had smaller genome sizes than average for the subtribe. • Methods Fifty-four genome size estimates (50 of which are new) for species in subtribe Oncidiinae (Orchidaceae) were examined for the first time in a phylogenetic context to evaluate hypotheses concerning genome sizes and life history traits. • Results and Conclusions Within the limits of still relatively sparse sampling, the species that are effectively annuals do appear to have smaller genome sizes than average. However, the genome sizes of their immediate sister group are also small, indicating that changes in genome size preceded the change in life history traits. Genome sizes and chromosome numbers also do not correlate; some slowly growing species have lower chromosome numbers but large genomes and vice versa. Based on a survey of the literature on orchids, it is also clear that epiphytic species have smaller genome sizes than do terrestrial species, which could be an effect of different water relations or the fact that most terrestrial orchids are geophytic or have distinct growth and dormancy phases. PMID:15596466

CHASE, MARK W.; HANSON, LYNDA; ALBERT, VICTOR A.; WHITTEN, W. MARK; WILLIAMS, NORRIS H.

2005-01-01

250

Acceleration of genomic evolution caused by enhanced mutation rate in  

E-print Network

the complete genome sequences of two different endosymbionts, Buchnera and a protist mitochondrion Buchnera sp. APS and Reclinomonas americana mitochondrion (mt) with their closest relatives Escherichia

Nei, Masatoshi

251

Genome sequence of the brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution  

SciTech Connect

The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90 percent of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete mammalian genome to be deciphered, and three-way comparisons with the human and mouse genomes resolve details of mammalian evolution. This first comprehensive analysis includes genes and proteins and their relation to human disease, repeated sequences, comparative genome-wide studies of mammalian orthologous chromosomal regions and rearrangement breakpoints, reconstruction of ancestral karyotypes and the events leading to existing species, rates of variation, and lineage-specific and lineage-independent evolutionary events such as expansion of gene families, orthology relations and protein evolution.

Gibbs, Richard A.; Weinstock, George M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Sodergren, Erica J.; Scherer, Steven; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Worley, Kim C.; Burch, Paula E.; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Hines, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; DeRamo, Christine; Delgado, Oliver; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Miner, George; Morgan, Margaret; Hawes, Alicia; Gill, Rachel; Holt, Robert A.; Adams, Mark D.; Amanatides, Peter G.; Baden-Tillson, Holly; Barnstead, Mary; Chin, Soo; Evans, Cheryl A.; Ferriera, Steven; Fosler, Carl; Glodek, Anna; Gu, Zhiping; Jennings, Don; Kraft, Cheryl L.; Nguyen, Trixie; Pfannkoch, Cynthia M.; Sitter, Cynthia; Sutton, Granger G.; Venter, J. Craig; Woodage, Trevor; Smith, Douglas; Lee, Hong-Maei; Gustafson, Erik; Cahill, Patrick; Kana, Arnold; Doucette-Stamm, Lynn; Weinstock, Keith; Fechtel, Kim; Weiss, Robert B.; Dunn, Diane M.; Green, Eric D.; Blakesley, Robert W.; Bouffard, Gerard G.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Zhu, Baoli; Marra, Marco; Schein, Jacqueline; Bosdet, Ian; Fjell, Chris; Jones, Steven; Krzywinski, Martin; Mathewson, Carrie; Siddiqui, Asim; Wye, Natasja; McPherson, John; Zhao, Shaying; Fraser, Claire M.; Shetty, Jyoti; Shatsman, Sofiya; Geer, Keita; Chen, Yixin; Abramzon, Sofyia; Nierman, William C.; Havlak, Paul H.; Chen, Rui; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Ren, Yanru; Song, Xing-Zhi; Li, Bingshan; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Cawley, Simon; Cooney, A.J.; D'Souza, Lisa M.; Martin, Kirt; Wu, Jia Qian; Gonzalez-Garay, Manuel L.; Jackson, Andrew R.; Kalafus, Kenneth J.; McLeod, Michael P.; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar; Virk, Davinder; Volkov, Andrei; Wheeler, David A.; Zhang, Zhengdong; Bailey, Jeffrey A.; Eichler, Evan E.; Tuzun, Eray; Birney, Ewan; Mongin, Emmanuel; Ureta-Vidal, Abel; Woodwark, Cara; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Bork, Peer; Suyama, Mikita; Torrents, David; Alexandersson, Marina; Trask, Barbara J.; Young, Janet M.; et al.

2004-02-02

252

Networks of lexical borrowing and lateral gene transfer in language and genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Like biological species, languages change over time. As noted by Darwin, there are many parallels between language evolution and biological evolution. Insights into these parallels have also undergone change in the past 150 years. Just like genes, words change over time, and language evolution can be likened to genome evolution accordingly, but what kind of evolution? There are fundamental differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic evolution. In the former, natural variation entails the gradual accumulation of minor mutations in alleles. In the latter, lateral gene transfer is an integral mechanism of natural variation. The study of language evolution using biological methods has attracted much interest of late, most approaches focusing on language tree construction. These approaches may underestimate the important role that borrowing plays in language evolution. Network approaches that were originally designed to study lateral gene transfer may provide more realistic insights into the complexities of language evolution. PMID:24375688

List, Johann-Mattis; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Geisler, Hans; Martin, William

2014-01-01

253

Networks of lexical borrowing and lateral gene transfer in language and genome evolution.  

PubMed

Like biological species, languages change over time. As noted by Darwin, there are many parallels between language evolution and biological evolution. Insights into these parallels have also undergone change in the past 150 years. Just like genes, words change over time, and language evolution can be likened to genome evolution accordingly, but what kind of evolution? There are fundamental differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic evolution. In the former, natural variation entails the gradual accumulation of minor mutations in alleles. In the latter, lateral gene transfer is an integral mechanism of natural variation. The study of language evolution using biological methods has attracted much interest of late, most approaches focusing on language tree construction. These approaches may underestimate the important role that borrowing plays in language evolution. Network approaches that were originally designed to study lateral gene transfer may provide more realistic insights into the complexities of language evolution. PMID:24375688

List, Johann-Mattis; Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Geisler, Hans; Martin, William

2014-02-01

254

The Sex Chromosomes of Frogs: Variability and Tolerance Offer Clues to Genome Evolution and Function  

PubMed Central

Frog sex chromosomes offer an ideal system for advancing our understanding of genome evolution and function because of the variety of sex determination systems in the group, the diversity of sex chromosome maturation states, the ease of experimental manipulation during early development. After briefly reviewing sex chromosome biology generally, we focus on what is known about frog sex determination, sex chromosome evolution, and recent, genomics-facilitated advances in the field. In closing we highlight gaps in our current knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and suggest priorities for future research that can advance broad knowledge of gene dose and sex chromosome evolution. PMID:25031658

Malcom, Jacob W.; Kudra, Randal S.; Malone, John H.

2014-01-01

255

Evolution of Genome Size in Drosophila. Is the Invader's Genome Being Invaded by Transposable Elements?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome size varies considerably between species, and transposable elements (TEs) are known to play an important role in this variability. However, it is far from clear whether TEs are involved in genome size differences between populations within a given species. We show here that in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans the size of the genome varies among populations and is

Cristina Vieira; Christiane Nardon; Christophe Arpin; David Lepetit; Christian Biemont

256

Genomics on a phylogeny: Evolution of genes and genomes in the genus Drosophila  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of inferences in evolutionary genomics. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, nine of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimili...

257

Genome analysis of the platypus reveals unique signatures of evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these

Wesley C. Warren; Ladeana W. Hillier; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves; Ewan Birney; Chris P. Ponting; Frank Grützner; Katherine Belov; Webb Miller; Laura Clarke; Asif T. Chinwalla; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; Andreas Heger; Devin P. Locke; Pat Miethke; Paul D. Waters; Frédéric Veyrunes; Lucinda Fulton; Bob Fulton; Tina Graves; John Wallis; Xose S. Puente; Carlos López-Otín; Gonzalo R. Ordóńez; Evan E. Eichler; Lin Chen; Ze Cheng; Janine E. Deakin; Amber Alsop; Katherine Thompson; Patrick Kirby; Anthony T. Papenfuss; Matthew J. Wakefield; Tsviya Olender; Doron Lancet; Gavin A. Huttley; Arian F. A. Smit; Andrew Pask; Peter Temple-Smith; Mark A. Batzer; Jerilyn A. Walker; Miriam K. Konkel; Robert S. Harris; Camilla M. Whittington; Emily S. W. Wong; Neil J. Gemmell; Emmanuel Buschiazzo; Iris M. Vargas Jentzsch; Angelika Merkel; Juergen Schmitz; Anja Zemann; Gennady Churakov; Jan Ole Kriegs; Juergen Brosius; Elizabeth P. Murchison; Ravi Sachidanandam; Carly Smith; Gregory J. Hannon; Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush; Daniel McMillan; Rosalind Attenborough; Willem Rens; Malcolm Ferguson-Smith; Christophe M. Lefčvre; Julie A. Sharp; Kevin R. Nicholas; David A. Ray; Michael Kube; Richard Reinhardt; Thomas H. Pringle; James Taylor; Russell C. Jones; Brett Nixon; Jean-Louis Dacheux; Hitoshi Niwa; Yoko Sekita; Xiaoqiu Huang; Alexander Stark; Pouya Kheradpour; Manolis Kellis; Paul Flicek; Yuan Chen; Caleb Webber; Ross Hardison; Joanne Nelson; Kym Hallsworth-Pepin; Kim Delehaunty; Chris Markovic; Pat Minx; Yucheng Feng; Colin Kremitzki; Makedonka Mitreva; Jarret Glasscock; Todd Wylie; Patricia Wohldmann; Prathapan Thiru; Michael N. Nhan; Craig S. Pohl; Scott M. Smith; Shunfeng Hou; Marilyn B. Renfree; Elaine R. Mardis; Richard K. Wilson

2008-01-01

258

Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Here we report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and non-pathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly

Geraldine Butler; Matthew D. Rasmussen; Michael F. Lin; Manuel A. S. Santos; Sharadha Sakthikumar; Carol A. Munro; Esther Rheinbay; Manfred Grabherr; Anja Forche; Jennifer L. Reedy; Ino Agrafioti; Martha B. Arnaud; Steven Bates; Alistair J. P. Brown; Sascha Brunke; Maria C. Costanzo; David A. Fitzpatrick; Piet W. J. de Groot; David Harris; Lois L. Hoyer; Bernhard Hube; Frans M. Klis; Chinnappa Kodira; Nicola Lennard; Mary E. Logue; Ronny Martin; Aaron M. Neiman; Elissavet Nikolaou; Michael A. Quail; Janet Quinn; Maria C. Santos; Florian F. Schmitzberger; Gavin Sherlock; Prachi Shah; Kevin A. T. Silverstein; Marek S. Skrzypek; David Soll; Rodney Staggs; Ian Stansfield; Michael P. H. Stumpf; Peter E. Sudbery; Thyagarajan Srikantha; Qiandong Zeng; Judith Berman; Matthew Berriman; Joseph Heitman; Neil A. R. Gow; Michael C. Lorenz; Bruce W. Birren; Manolis Kellis; Christina A. Cuomo

2009-01-01

259

The tomato genome sequence provides insight into fleshy fruit evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genome of the inbred tomato cultivar ‘Heinz 1706’ was sequenced and assembled using a combination of Sanger and “next generation” technologies. The predicted genome size is ~900 Mb, consistent with prior estimates, of which 760 Mb were assembled in 91 scaffolds aligned to the 12 tomato chromosom...

260

Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.  

PubMed

Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family. PMID:25102288

Panjwani, Anusha; Strauss, Mike; Gold, Sarah; Wenham, Hannah; Jackson, Terry; Chou, James J; Rowlands, David J; Stonehouse, Nicola J; Hogle, James M; Tuthill, Tobias J

2014-08-01

261

Capsid Protein VP4 of Human Rhinovirus Induces Membrane Permeability by the Formation of a Size-Selective Multimeric Pore  

PubMed Central

Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family. PMID:25102288

Panjwani, Anusha; Strauss, Mike; Gold, Sarah; Wenham, Hannah; Jackson, Terry; Chou, James J.; Rowlands, David J.; Stonehouse, Nicola J.; Hogle, James M.; Tuthill, Tobias J.

2014-01-01

262

DNA Transposons and the Evolution of Eukaryotic Genomes  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class of elements is distinguished from other types of mobile elements in terms of their structure, amplification dynamics, and genomic effect. We provide an up-to-date outlook on the diversity and taxonomic distribution of all major types of DNA transposons in eukaryotes, including Helitrons and Mavericks. We discuss some of the evolutionary forces that influence their maintenance and diversification in various genomic environments. Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages. PMID:18076328

Feschotte, Cédric; Pritham, Ellen J.

2007-01-01

263

A genomic view of 500 million years of cnidarian evolution  

PubMed Central

Cnidarians (corals, anemones, jellyfish, and hydras) are a diverse group of animals of interest to evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and developmental biologists. With the publication of the genome sequences of Hydra and Nematostella, whose last common ancestor was the stem cnidarian, we are beginning to see the genomic underpinnings of cnidarian biology. Cnidarians are known for the remarkable plasticity of their morphology and life cycles. This plasticity is reflected in the Hydra and Nematostella genomes, which differ to an exceptional degree in size, base composition, transposable element content, and gene conservation. We now know what cnidarian genomes are capable of doing given 500 million years; the next challenge is to understand how this genomic history has led to the striking diversity we see in cnidarians. PMID:21047698

Steele, Robert E.; David, Charles N.; Technau, Ulrich

2010-01-01

264

Project 1: Microbial Genomes: A Genomic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence. Project 2: From Genomes to Life: Drosophilia Development in Space and Time  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.

Robert DeSalle

2004-09-10

265

Molecular Diagnosis of Human Rhinovirus Infections: Comparison with Virus Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR with that of virus isolation in the detection of human rhinoviruses, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates from 200 patients on the 1st and 7th days after the onset of the common cold. An assay utilizing a short amplicon in the conserved 5* noncoding region was found highly sensitive. Of 192 positive samples altogether,

TIMO HYYPIA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MIKA MAKELA; ANITA AROLA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

266

Ineffectiveness of Echinacea for Prevention of Experimental Rhinovirus Colds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of echinacea for the prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Infection occurred in 44 and 57% and illness occurred in 36 and 43% of the echinacea- and placebo-treated subjects, respectively. This preparation of echinacea had no significant effect on either the occurrence of infection or the severity of illness. Since the

RONALD B. TURNER; DONALD K. RIKER; J. DAVID GANGEMI

2000-01-01

267

Antiviral Effect of Hyperthermic Treatment in Rhinovirus Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are recognized as the major etiologic agents of the common cold. Starting from the observation that local hyperthermic treatment is beneficial in patients with natural and experimental common colds, we have studied the effect of brief hyperthermic treatment (HT) on HRV replication in HeLa cells. We report that a 20-min HT at 45°C is effective in suppressing

C. CONTI; A. DE MARCO; P. MASTROMARINO; P. TOMAO; M. G. SANTORO

1999-01-01

268

An Evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in Experimental Rhinovirus Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Echinacea has been widely used as an herbal remedy for the common cold, but efficacy studies have produced conflicting results, and there are a variety of echinacea products on the market with different phytochemical compositions. We evaluated the effect of chemically defined extracts from Echinacea angustifolia roots on rhinovirus infection. Methods Three preparations of echinacea, with distinct phytochemical profiles,

Ronald B. Turner; Rudolf Bauer; Karin Woelkart; Thomas C. Hulsey; J. David Gangemi

2005-01-01

269

An Exercise in Molecular Epidemiology: Human Rhinovirus Prevalence and Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common human respiratory pathogens and is responsible for the majority of upper respiratory illnesses. Recently, a phylogeny was constructed from all known American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) HRV sequences. From this study, three HRV classifications (HRVA, HRVB, and HRVC) were determined and techniques…

Albright, Catherine J.; Hall, David J.

2011-01-01

270

Molecular Dynamics of Coat Proteins of the Human Rhinovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the oxazole antiviral WIN 52084 on the thermal vibrations of the coat proteins of the human rhinovirus were studied by means of a comparison of two molecular dynamics simulations. One simulation involved only a protomeric unit (cluster of four proteins) of the viral coat, while the other included the antiviral drug bound to the protein cluster. Analysis

Wan F. Lau; B. Montgomery Pettitt; Terry P. Lybrand

1988-01-01

271

Reductive evolution of bacterial genome in insect gut environment.  

PubMed

Obligate endocellular symbiotic bacteria of insects and other organisms generally exhibit drastic genome reduction. Recently, it was shown that symbiotic gut bacteria of some stinkbugs also have remarkably reduced genomes. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of such a gut bacterium Ishikawaella capsulata of the plataspid stinkbug Megacopta punctatissima. Gene repertoire and evolutionary patterns, including AT richness and elevated evolutionary rate, of the 745,590 bp genome were strikingly similar to those of obligate ?-proteobacterial endocellular insect symbionts like Buchnera in aphids and Wigglesworthia in tsetse flies. Ishikawaella was suggested to supply essential amino acids for the plant-sucking stinkbug as Buchnera does for the host aphid. Although Buchnera is phylogenetically closer to Wigglesworthia than to Ishikawaella, in terms of gene repertoire Buchnera was similar to Ishikawaella rather than to Wigglesworthia, providing a possible case of genome-level convergence of gene content. Meanwhile, several notable differences were identified between the genomes of Ishikawaella and Buchnera, including retention of TCA cycle genes and lack of flagellum-related genes in Ishikawaella, which may reflect their adaptation to distinct symbiotic habitats. Unexpectedly, Ishikawaella retained fewer genes related to cell wall synthesis and lipid metabolism than many endocellular insect symbionts. The plasmid of Ishikawaella encoded genes for arginine metabolism and oxalate detoxification, suggesting the possibility of additional Ishikawaella roles similar to those of human gut bacteria. Our data highlight strikingly similar evolutionary patterns that are shared between the extracellular and endocellular insect symbiont genomes. PMID:21737395

Nikoh, Naruo; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Fukatsu, Takema

2011-01-01

272

RNAi-Assisted Genome Evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Complex Phenotype Engineering.  

PubMed

A fundamental challenge in basic and applied biology is to reprogram cells with improved or novel traits on a genomic scale. However, the current ability to reprogram a cell on the genome scale is limited to bacterial cells. Here, we report RNA interference (RNAi)-assisted genome evolution (RAGE) as a generally applicable method for genome-scale engineering in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Through iterative cycles of creating a library of RNAi induced reduction-of-function mutants coupled with high throughput screening or selection, RAGE can continuously improve target trait(s) by accumulating multiplex beneficial genetic modifications in an evolving yeast genome. To validate the RNAi library constructed with yeast genomic DNA and convergent-promoter expression cassette, we demonstrated RNAi screening in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the first time by identifying two known and three novel suppressors of a telomerase-deficient mutation yku70?. We then showed the application of RAGE for improved acetic acid tolerance, a key trait for microbial production of chemicals and fuels. Three rounds of iterative RNAi screening led to the identification of three gene knockdown targets that acted synergistically to confer an engineered yeast strain with substantially improved acetic acid tolerance. RAGE should greatly accelerate the design and evolution of organisms with desired traits and provide new insights on genome structure, function, and evolution. PMID:24758359

Si, Tong; Luo, Yunzi; Bao, Zehua; Zhao, Huimin

2015-03-20

273

This Déjŕ vu feeling--analysis of multidomain protein evolution in eukaryotic genomes.  

PubMed

Evolutionary innovation in eukaryotes and especially animals is at least partially driven by genome rearrangements and the resulting emergence of proteins with new domain combinations, and thus potentially novel functionality. Given the random nature of such rearrangements, one could expect that proteins with particularly useful multidomain combinations may have been rediscovered multiple times by parallel evolution. However, existing reports suggest a minimal role of this phenomenon in the overall evolution of eukaryotic proteomes. We assembled a collection of 172 complete eukaryotic genomes that is not only the largest, but also the most phylogenetically complete set of genomes analyzed so far. By employing a maximum parsimony approach to compare repertoires of Pfam domains and their combinations, we show that independent evolution of domain combinations is significantly more prevalent than previously thought. Our results indicate that about 25% of all currently observed domain combinations have evolved multiple times. Interestingly, this percentage is even higher for sets of domain combinations in individual species, with, for instance, 70% of the domain combinations found in the human genome having evolved independently at least once in other species. We also show that previous, much lower estimates of this rate are most likely due to the small number and biased phylogenetic distribution of the genomes analyzed. The process of independent emergence of identical domain combination is widespread, not limited to domains with specific functional categories. Besides data from large-scale analyses, we also present individual examples of independent domain combination evolution. The surprisingly large contribution of parallel evolution to the development of the domain combination repertoire in extant genomes has profound consequences for our understanding of the evolution of pathways and cellular processes in eukaryotes and for comparative functional genomics. PMID:23166479

Zmasek, Christian M; Godzik, Adam

2012-01-01

274

Distinguishing Molecular Features and Clinical Characteristics of a Putative New Rhinovirus Species, Human Rhinovirus C (HRV C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundHuman rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most frequently detected pathogens in acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) and yet little is known about the prevalence, recurrence, structure and clinical impact of individual members. During 2007, the complete coding sequences of six previously unknown and highly divergent HRV strains were reported. To catalogue the molecular and clinical features distinguishing the divergent HRV strains,

Peter McErlean; Laura A. Shackelton; Emily Andrews; Dale R. Webster; Stephen B. Lambert; Michael D. Nissen; Theo P. Sloots; Ian M. Mackay; Dong-Yan Jin

2008-01-01

275

Small regulatory RNAs in mammals : genomics, function and evolution  

E-print Network

This thesis explores two aspects of small regulatory RNAs in mammals: (1) the genomic origin of mammalian piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), (2) the evolutionary and functional implication of the seed-based target recognition ...

Kim, Jin-Kuk

2011-01-01

276

Evolution of linear chromosomes and multipartite genomes in yeast mitochondria  

E-print Network

, we determined the complete mitochondrial DNA se- quences of eight Candida species and analyzed ABSTRACT Mitochondrial genome diversity in closely related species provides an excellent platform. For example, mitochondria of Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae contain polydisperse linear DNA

Brejova, Brona

277

When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses.  

PubMed

The Polydnaviridae (PDV), including the Bracovirus (BV) and Ichnovirus genera, originated from the integration of unrelated viruses in the genomes of two parasitoid wasp lineages, in a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Functionally active PDVs represent the most compelling evolutionary success among endogenous viral elements (EVEs). BV evolved from the domestication by braconid wasps of a nudivirus 100 Ma. The nudivirus genome has become an EVE involved in BV particle production but is not encapsidated. Instead, BV genomes have co-opted virulence genes, used by the wasps to control the immunity and development of their hosts. Gene transfers and duplications have shaped BV genomes, now encoding hundreds of genes. Phylogenomic studies suggest that BVs contribute largely to wasp diversification and adaptation to their hosts. A genome evolution model explains how multidirectional wasp adaptation to different host species could have fostered PDV genome extension. Integrative studies linking ecological data on the wasp to genomic analyses should provide new insights into the adaptive role of particular BV genes. Forthcoming genomic advances should also indicate if the associations between endoparasitoid wasps and symbiotic viruses evolved because of their particularly intimate interactions with their hosts, or if similar domesticated EVEs could be uncovered in other parasites. PMID:23938758

Herniou, Elisabeth A; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel

2013-09-19

278

When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses: genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses  

PubMed Central

The Polydnaviridae (PDV), including the Bracovirus (BV) and Ichnovirus genera, originated from the integration of unrelated viruses in the genomes of two parasitoid wasp lineages, in a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Functionally active PDVs represent the most compelling evolutionary success among endogenous viral elements (EVEs). BV evolved from the domestication by braconid wasps of a nudivirus 100 Ma. The nudivirus genome has become an EVE involved in BV particle production but is not encapsidated. Instead, BV genomes have co-opted virulence genes, used by the wasps to control the immunity and development of their hosts. Gene transfers and duplications have shaped BV genomes, now encoding hundreds of genes. Phylogenomic studies suggest that BVs contribute largely to wasp diversification and adaptation to their hosts. A genome evolution model explains how multidirectional wasp adaptation to different host species could have fostered PDV genome extension. Integrative studies linking ecological data on the wasp to genomic analyses should provide new insights into the adaptive role of particular BV genes. Forthcoming genomic advances should also indicate if the associations between endoparasitoid wasps and symbiotic viruses evolved because of their particularly intimate interactions with their hosts, or if similar domesticated EVEs could be uncovered in other parasites. PMID:23938758

Herniou, Elisabeth A.; Huguet, Elisabeth; Thézé, Julien; Bézier, Annie; Periquet, Georges; Drezen, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

279

Association of intron loss with high mutation rate in Arabidopsis: implications for genome size evolution.  

PubMed

Despite the prevalence of intron losses during eukaryotic evolution, the selective forces acting on them have not been extensively explored. Arabidopsis thaliana lost half of its genome and experienced an elevated rate of intron loss after diverging from A. lyrata. The selective force for genome reduction was suggested to have driven the intron loss. However, the evolutionary mechanism of genome reduction is still a matter of debate. In this study, we found that intron-lost genes have high synonymous substitution rates. Assuming that differences in mutability among different introns are conserved among closely related species, we used the nucleotide substitution rate between orthologous introns in other species as the proxy of the mutation rate of Arabidopsis introns, either lost or extant. The lost introns were found to have higher mutation rates than extant introns. At the genome-wide level, A. thaliana has a higher mutation rate than A. lyrata, which correlates with the higher rate of intron loss and rapid genome reduction of A. thaliana. Our results indicate that selection to minimize mutational hazards might be the selective force for intron loss, and possibly also for genome reduction, in the evolution of A. thaliana. Small genome size and lower genome-wide intron density were widely reported to be correlated with phenotypic features, such as high metabolic rates and rapid growth. We argue that the mutational-hazard hypothesis is compatible with these correlations, by suggesting that selection for rapid growth might indirectly increase mutational hazards. PMID:23516254

Yang, Yu-Fei; Zhu, Tao; Niu, Deng-Ke

2013-01-01

280

The evolution of isochore patterns in vertebrate genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous work from our laboratory showed that (i) vertebrate genomes are mosaics of isochores, typically megabase-size DNA segments that are fairly homogeneous in base composition; (ii) isochores belong to a small number of families (five in the human genome) characterized by different GC levels; (iii) isochore family patterns are different in fishes\\/amphibians and mammals\\/birds, the latter showing GC-rich isochore

Maria Costantini; Rosalia Cammarano; Giorgio Bernardi

2009-01-01

281

Mitochondrial Genome Evolution in a Single Protoploid Yeast Species  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are organelles, which play a key role in some essential functions, including respiration, metabolite biosynthesis, ion homeostasis, and apoptosis. The vast numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of various yeast species, which have recently been published, have also helped to elucidate the structural diversity of these genomes. Although a large corpus of data are now available on the diversity of yeast species, little is known so far about the mtDNA diversity in single yeast species. To study the genetic variations occurring in the mtDNA of wild yeast isolates, we performed a genome-wide polymorphism survey on the mtDNA of 18 Lachancea kluyveri (formerly Saccharomyces kluyveri) strains. We determined the complete mt genome sequences of strains isolated from various geographical locations (in North America, Asia, and Europe) and ecological niches (Drosophila, tree exudates, soil). The mt genome of the NCYC 543 reference strain is 51,525 bp long. It contains the same core of genes as Lachancea thermotolerans, the nearest relative to L. kluyveri. To explore the mt genome variations in a single yeast species, we compared the mtDNAs of the 18 isolates. The phylogeny and population structure of L. kluyveri provide clear-cut evidence for the existence of well-defined geographically isolated lineages. Although these genomes are completely syntenic, their size and the intron content were found to vary among the isolates studied. These genomes are highly polymorphic, showing an average diversity of 28.5 SNPs/kb and 6.6 indels/kb. Analysis of the SNP and indel patterns showed the existence of a particularly high overall level of polymorphism in the intergenic regions. The dN/dS ratios obtained are consistent with purifying selection in all these genes, with the noteworthy exception of the VAR1 gene, which gave a very high ratio. These data suggest that the intergenic regions have evolved very fast in yeast mitochondrial genomes. PMID:22973548

Jung, Paul P.; Friedrich, Anne; Reisser, Cyrielle; Hou, Jing; Schacherer, Joseph

2012-01-01

282

Assessing Tumor Heterogeneity and Tracking Clonal Evolution Using Whole Genome or Exome Sequencing - Christopher Miller, TCGA Scientific Symposium 2012  

Cancer.gov

Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Assessing Tumor Heterogeneity and Tracking Clonal Evolution - Christopher Miller Assessing Tumor Heterogeneity and Tracking Clonal Evolution Using Whole Genome or Exome Sequencing - Christopher Miller,

283

The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A window to ruminant biology and evolution  

PubMed Central

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to ?7× coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1,217 are absent or undetected in non-eutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides an enabling resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production. PMID:19390049

Elsik, Christine G.; Tellam, Ross L.; Worley, Kim C.

2010-01-01

284

Capsid coding sequence is required for efficient replication of human rhinovirus 14 RNA.  

PubMed

Mechanisms by which the plus-sense RNA genomes of picornaviruses are replicated remain poorly defined, but existing models do not suggest a role for sequences encoding the capsid proteins. However, candidate RNA replicons (delta P1 beta gal and delta P1Luc), representing the sequence of human rhinovirus 14 virus (HRV-14) with reporter protein sequences (beta-galactosidase or luciferase, respectively) replacing most of the P1 capsid-coding region, failed to replicate in transfected H1-HeLa cells despite efficient primary cleavage of the polyprotein. To determine which P1 sequences might be required for RNA replication, HRV-14 mutants in which segments of the P1 region were removed to frame from the genome were constructed. Mutants with deletions involving the 5'proximal 1,489 nucleotides of the P1 region replicated efficiently, while those with deletions involving the 3' 1,079 nucleotides did not. Reintroduction of the 3' P1 sequence into the nonreplicating delta P1Luc construct resulted in a new candidate replicon, delta P1Luc/VP3, which replicated well and expressed luciferase efficiently. Capsid proteins provided in trans by helper virus failed to rescue the nonreplicating delta P1Luc genome but were able to package the larger-than-genome-length delta P1Luc/VP3 replicon. Thus, a 3'-distal P1 capsid-coding sequence has a previously unrecognized cis-active function related to replication of HRV-14 RNA. PMID:8627720

McKnight, K L; Lemon, S M

1996-03-01

285

Retrogene movement within- and between-chromosomes in the evolution of Drosophila genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent genomic analyses in Drosophila and mammals of inter-chromosomal retroposition have revealed that during evolution the retroposed genes that show male-biased expression tend to leave the X chromosome and opt for autosomal positions. Such a phenomenon may be a process of general, genomic and evolutionary relevance. It contributed to the unexpected overrepresentation of male-biased genes on the autosomes recently observed

Hongzheng Dai; Toshio F. Yoshimatsu; Manyuan Long

2006-01-01

286

Genome comparisons reveal a dominant mechanism of chromosome number reduction in grasses and accelerated genome evolution in Triticeae  

PubMed Central

Single-nucleotide polymorphism was used in the construction of an expressed sequence tag map of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. Comparisons of the map with the rice and sorghum genome sequences revealed 50 inversions and translocations; 2, 8, and 40 were assigned respectively to the rice, sorghum, and Ae. tauschii lineages, showing greatly accelerated genome evolution in the large Triticeae genomes. The reduction of the basic chromosome number from 12 to 7 in the Triticeae has taken place by a process during which an entire chromosome is inserted by its telomeres into a break in the centromeric region of another chromosome. The original centromere–telomere polarity of the chromosome arms is maintained in the new chromosome. An intrachromosomal telomere–telomere fusion resulting in a pericentric translocation of a chromosome segment or an entire arm accompanied or preceded the chromosome insertion in some instances. Insertional dysploidy has been recorded in three grass subfamilies and appears to be the dominant mechanism of basic chromosome number reduction in grasses. A total of 64% and 66% of Ae. tauschii genes were syntenic with sorghum and rice genes, respectively. Synteny was reduced in the vicinity of the termini of modern Ae. tauschii chromosomes but not in the vicinity of the ancient termini embedded in the Ae. tauschii chromosomes, suggesting that the dependence of synteny erosion on gene location along the centromere–telomere axis either evolved recently in the Triticeae phylogenetic lineage or its evolution was recently accelerated. PMID:19717446

Luo, M. C.; Deal, K. R.; Akhunov, E. D.; Akhunova, A. R.; Anderson, O. D.; Anderson, J. A.; Blake, N.; Clegg, M. T.; Coleman-Derr, D.; Conley, E. J.; Crossman, C. C.; Dubcovsky, J.; Gill, B. S.; Gu, Y. Q.; Hadam, J.; Heo, H. Y.; Huo, N.; Lazo, G.; Ma, Y.; Matthews, D. E.; McGuire, P. E.; Morrell, P. L.; Qualset, C. O.; Renfro, J.; Tabanao, D.; Talbert, L. E.; Tian, C.; Toleno, D. M.; Warburton, M. L.; You, F. M.; Zhang, W.; Dvorak, J.

2009-01-01

287

Distribution and Evolution of Repeated Sequences in Genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) Inferred from Genomic In Situ Hybridization  

PubMed Central

The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily. PMID:25478792

Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Francisco; Sánchez, Antonio; Panzera, Yanina; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

2014-01-01

288

Distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) inferred from genomic in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily. PMID:25478792

Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Francisco; Sánchez, Antonio; Panzera, Yanina; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

2014-01-01

289

Genome size reduction can trigger rapid phenotypic evolution in invasive plants  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The study of rapid evolution in invasive species has highlighted the fundamental role played by founder events, emergence of genetic novelties through recombination and rapid response to new selective pressures. However, whether rapid adaptation of introduced species can be driven by punctual changes in genome organization has received little attention. In plants, variation in genome size, i.e. variation in the amount of DNA per monoploid set of chromosomes through loss or gain of repeated DNA sequences, is known to influence a number of physiological, phenological and life-history features. The present study investigated whether change in genome size has contributed to the evolution of greater potential of vegetative growth in invasive populations of an introduced grass. Methods The study was based on the recent demonstration that invasive genotypes of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea) occurring in North America have emerged from recombination between introduced European strains. The genome sizes of more than 200 invasive and native genotypes were measured and their genome size was related to their phenotypic traits measured in a common glasshouse environment. Population genetics data were used to infer phylogeographical relationships between study populations, and the evolutionary history of genome size within the study species was inferred. Key Results Invasive genotypes had a smaller genome than European native genotypes from which they are derived. This smaller genome size had phenotypic effects that increased the species' invasive potential, including a higher early growth rate, due to a negative relationship between genome size and rate of stem elongation. Based on inferred phylogeographical relationships of invasive and native populations, evolutionary models were consistent with a scenario of genome reduction by natural selection during the invasion process, rather than a scenario of stochastic change. Conclusions Punctual reduction in genome size could cause rapid changes in key phenotypic traits that enhance invasive ability. Although the generality of genome size variation leading to phenotypic evolution and the specific genomic mechanisms involved are not known, change in genome size may constitute an important but previously under-appreciated mechanism of rapid evolutionary change that may promote evolutionary novelties over short time scales. PMID:19887472

Lavergne, Sébastien; Muenke, Nikolas J.; Molofsky, Jane

2010-01-01

290

Genomic composition and evolution of Aedes aegypti chromosomes revealed by the analysis of physically mapped supercontigs  

PubMed Central

Background An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposable elements between the two species. However, the chromosome arms homology between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, as well as the distribution of genes and repetitive elements in chromosomes of Ae. aegypti, remained largely unexplored because of the lack of a detailed physical genome map for the yellow fever mosquito. Results Using a molecular landmark-guided fluorescent in situ hybridization approach, we mapped 624 Mb of the Ae. aegypti genome to mitotic chromosomes. We used this map to analyze the distribution of genes, tandem repeats and transposable elements along the chromosomes and to explore the patterns of chromosome homology and rearrangements between Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. The study demonstrated that the q arm of the sex-determining chromosome 1 had the lowest gene content and the highest density of minisatellites. A comparative genomic analysis with An. gambiae determined that the previously proposed whole-arm synteny is not fully preserved; a number of pericentric inversions have occurred between the two species. The sex-determining chromosome 1 had a higher rate of genome rearrangements than observed in autosomes 2 and 3 of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions The study developed a physical map of 45% of the Ae. aegypti genome and provided new insights into genomic composition and evolution of Ae. aegypti chromosomes. Our data suggest that minisatellites rather than transposable elements played a major role in rapid evolution of chromosome 1 in the Aedes lineage. The research tools and information generated by this study contribute to a more complete understanding of the genome organization and evolution in mosquitoes. PMID:24731704

2014-01-01

291

Dynamics of genome evolution in facultative symbionts of aphids  

PubMed Central

Aphids are sap-feeding insects that host a range of bacterial endosymbionts including the obligate, nutritional mutualist Buchnera plus several bacteria that are not required for host survival. Among the latter, ‘Candidatus Regiella insecticola’ and ‘Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa’ are found in pea aphids and other hosts and have been shown to protect aphids from natural enemies. We have sequenced almost the entire genome of R. insecticola (2.07 Mbp) and compared it with the recently published genome of H. defensa (2.11 Mbp). Despite being sister species the two genomes are highly rearranged and the genomes only have ?55% of genes in common. The functions encoded by the shared genes imply that the bacteria have similar metabolic capabilities, including only two essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways and active uptake mechanisms for the remaining eight, and similar capacities for host cell toxicity and invasion (type 3 secretion systems and RTX toxins). These observations, combined with high sequence divergence of orthologues, strongly suggest an ancient divergence after establishment of a symbiotic lifestyle. The divergence in gene sets and in genome architecture implies a history of rampant recombination and gene inactivation and the ongoing integration of mobile DNA (insertion sequence elements, prophage and plasmids). PMID:21966902

Degnan, Patrick H; Leonardo, Teresa E; Cass, Bodil N; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Stern, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Moran, Nancy A

2010-01-01

292

Dynamics of genome evolution in facultative symbionts of aphids.  

PubMed

Aphids are sap-feeding insects that host a range of bacterial endosymbionts including the obligate, nutritional mutualist Buchnera plus several bacteria that are not required for host survival. Among the latter, 'Candidatus Regiella insecticola' and 'Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa' are found in pea aphids and other hosts and have been shown to protect aphids from natural enemies. We have sequenced almost the entire genome of R. insecticola (2.07 Mbp) and compared it with the recently published genome of H.?defensa (2.11 Mbp). Despite being sister species the two genomes are highly rearranged and the genomes only have ?55% of genes in common. The functions encoded by the shared genes imply that the bacteria have similar metabolic capabilities, including only two essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways and active uptake mechanisms for the remaining eight, and similar capacities for host cell toxicity and invasion (type 3 secretion systems and RTX toxins). These observations, combined with high sequence divergence of orthologues, strongly suggest an ancient divergence after establishment of a symbiotic lifestyle. The divergence in gene sets and in genome architecture implies a history of rampant recombination and gene inactivation and the ongoing integration of mobile DNA (insertion sequence elements, prophage and plasmids). PMID:21966902

Degnan, Patrick H; Leonardo, Teresa E; Cass, Bodil N; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Stern, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Moran, Nancy A

2010-08-01

293

DNA secondary structures and epigenetic determinants of cancer genome evolution  

PubMed Central

An unstable genome is a hallmark of many cancers. It is unclear, however, whether some mutagenic features driving somatic alterations in cancer are encoded in the genome sequence and whether they can operate in a tissue-specific manner. We performed a genome-wide analysis of 663,446 DNA breakpoints associated with somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) from 2,792 cancer samples classified into 26 cancer types. Many SCNA breakpoints are spatially clustered in cancer genomes. We observed a significant enrichment for G-quadruplex sequences (G4s) in the vicinity of SCNA breakpoints and established that SCNAs show a strand bias consistent with G4-mediated structural alterations. Notably, abnormal hypomethylation near G4s-rich regions is a common signature for many SCNA breakpoint hotspots. We propose a mechanistic hypothesis that abnormal hypomethylation in genomic regions enriched for G4s acts as a mutagenic factor driving tissue-specific mutational landscapes in cancer. PMID:21725294

De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska

2014-01-01

294

Human rhinoviruses and severe respiratory infections: is it possible to identify at-risk patients early?  

PubMed

Molecular methods of viral screening have demonstrated that human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia), exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease and the development of asthma. Patients with severe chronic diseases are at greater risk of developing major clinical problems when infected by HRVs, particularly if they are immunocompromised or have a chronic lung disease. Analysing the characteristics of HRVs does not provide any certainty concerning the risk of a poor prognosis and, although viremia seems to be associated with an increased risk of severe HRV infection, the available data are too scanty to be considered conclusive. However, a chest x-ray showing alveolar involvement suggests the potentially negative evolution of a bacterial superinfection. There is therefore an urgent need for more effective diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic measures in order to prevent HRV infection, and identify and treat the patients at highest risk. PMID:24559383

Principi, Nicola; Daleno, Cristina; Esposito, Susanna

2014-04-01

295

Replicon-Dependent Bacterial Genome Evolution: The Case of Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Many bacterial species, such as the alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, are characterized by open pangenomes and contain multipartite genomes consisting of a chromosome and other large-sized replicons, such as chromids, megaplasmids, and plasmids. The evolutionary forces in both functional and structural aspects that shape the pangenome of species with multipartite genomes are still poorly understood. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 10 new S. meliloti strains, analyzed with four publicly available additional genomic sequences. Results indicated that the three main replicons present in these strains (a chromosome, a chromid, and a megaplasmid) partly show replicon-specific behaviors related to strain differentiation. In particular, the pSymB chromid was shown to be a hot spot for positively selected genes, and, unexpectedly, genes resident in the pSymB chromid were also found to be more widespread in distant taxa than those located in the other replicons. Moreover, through the exploitation of a DNA proximity network, a series of conserved “DNA backbones” were found to shape the evolution of the genome structure, with the rest of the genome experiencing rearrangements. The presented data allow depicting a scenario where the pSymB chromid has a distinctive role in intraspecies differentiation and in evolution through positive selection, whereas the pSymA megaplasmid mostly contributes to structural fluidity and to the emergence of new functions, indicating a specific evolutionary role for each replicon in the pangenome evolution. PMID:23431003

Galardini, Marco; Pini, Francesco; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Biondi, Emanuele G.; Mengoni, Alessio

2013-01-01

296

Intrachromosomal rearrangements in avian genome evolution: evidence for regions prone to breakpoints.  

PubMed

It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intrachromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intrachromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genome it has become possible to describe intrachromosomal rearrangements between these three important avian species, gain insight into the direction of evolutionary change and assess whether breakpoint regions are reused in birds. To this end, we aligned entire chromosomes between chicken, turkey and zebra finch, identifying syntenic blocks of at least 250?kb. Potential optimal pathways of rearrangements between each of the three genomes were determined, as was a potential Galliform ancestral organization. From this, our data suggest that around one-third of chromosomal breakpoint regions may recur during avian evolution, with 10% of breakpoints apparently recurring in different lineages. This agrees with our previous hypothesis that mechanisms of genome evolution are driven by hotspots of non-allelic homologous recombination. PMID:22045382

Skinner, B M; Griffin, D K

2012-01-01

297

Genomic Science in Understanding Cholera Outbreaks and Evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a Human Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX–? prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core- and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

Mekalanos, John J.

2014-01-01

298

Genomic science in understanding cholera outbreaks and evolution of Vibrio cholerae as a human pathogen.  

PubMed

Modern genomic and bioinformatic approaches have been applied to interrogate the V. cholerae genome, the role of genomic elements in cholera disease, and the origin, relatedness, and dissemination of epidemic strains. A universal attribute of choleragenic strains includes a repertoire of pathogenicity islands and virulence genes, namely the CTX? prophage and Toxin Co-regulated Pilus (TCP) in addition to other virulent genetic elements including those referred to as Seventh Pandemic Islands. During the last decade, the advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has provided highly resolved and often complete genomic sequences of epidemic isolates in addition to both clinical and environmental strains isolated from geographically unconnected regions. Genomic comparisons of these strains, as was completed during and following the Haitian outbreak in 2010, reveals that most epidemic strains appear closely related, regardless of region of origin. Non-O1 clinical or environmental strains may also possess some virulence islands, but phylogenic analysis of the core genome suggests they are more diverse and distantly related than those isolated during epidemics. Like Haiti, genomic studies that examine both the Vibrio core and pan-genome in addition to Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) conclude that a number of epidemics are caused by strains that closely resemble those in Asia, and often appear to originate there and then spread globally. The accumulation of SNPs in the epidemic strains over time can then be applied to better understand the evolution of the V. cholerae genome as an etiological agent. PMID:24590676

Robins, William P; Mekalanos, John J

2014-01-01

299

Large-Scale Trends in the Evolution of Gene Structures within 11 Animal Genomes  

PubMed Central

We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans) together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales—from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for “Comparative Genomics Library”). Our results demonstrate that change in intron–exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities. PMID:16518452

Yandell, Mark; Mungall, Chris J; Smith, Chris; Prochnik, Simon; Kaminker, Joshua; Hartzell, George; Lewis, Suzanna; Rubin, Gerald M

2006-01-01

300

The Global Genome Question: Microbes as the Key to Understanding Evolution and Ecology  

SciTech Connect

A colloquium was convened in Longboat Key, Florida, in October 2002, by the American Academy of Microbiology to discuss the role of genomic techniques in microbiology research. Research professionals from both academia and industry met to discuss the current state of knowledge in microbial genomics. Unanswered questions that should drive future studies, technical challenges for applying genomics in microbial systems, and infrastructure and educational needs were discussed. Particular attention was focused on the great potential of genomic approaches to advance our understanding of microbial communities and ecosystems. Recommendations for activities that might promote and accelerate microbial genome science were identified and discussed. Microbiology has always advanced in tandem with new technologies. Beginning with the first observations of microscopic organisms with early microscopes in the 17th century, the tools and methods for studying microbes have continually evolved. Slowly at first, and now with startling speed, scientists have developed increasingly complex and informative tools for analyzing the functions, interactions, and diversity of microorganisms. Today, genomic technologies are revolutionizing microbiology. Genomics employs all or part of the genome to answer questions about an organism and represents a generic tool that can be used to dissect any or all living cells. In this report, the term ''genomics'' includes structural genomic methods that focus on the determination of genomic sequence and higher order structural features, as well as functional genomic methods, which focus on the activities and products encoded by the genome. To date, microbial genomics has largely been applied to individual, isolated microbial strains, with the results extrapolated to the wider world of microbial diversity. We are now presented with an opportune moment to move beyond studies of single isolates and to apply genome sciences directly to the study of microbial communities. It is now possible to adapt genomic tools and approaches to more realistic models of genome evolution and ecology involving natural microbial communities. Microbial communities are formed by organized groups of microbial species, each having different, often complementary functions or activities. In aggregate, the microbial community has emergent properties greater than the sum of its individual members. Outside the laboratory, virtually all microorganisms exist in complex assemblages, in which they exchange genetic material, nutrients, and biochemical signals with one another. While analysis of individual strains has been a highly profitable enterprise, greater strides can now be made by focusing attention on microbial communities. These are the entities that encompass the bulk of microbial interactions, evolutionary processes, and biogeochemical activities, with resulting immense impacts on human health and the entire planetary biosphere. The natural microbial world can be viewed as a landscape of genes and genome ecology, in which organisms exchange genetic information and co-evolve with one another, shaping themselves and the biosphere over time.

Merry R. Buckley

2004-04-04

301

Identification of host miRNAs that may limit human rhinovirus replication  

PubMed Central

AIM: To test whether the replication of human rhinovirus (HRV) is regulated by microRNAs in human bronchial epithelial cells. METHODS: For the present study, the human cell line BEAS-2B (derived from normal human bronchial epithelial cells) was adopted. DICER knock-down, by siRNA transfection in BEAS-2B cells, was performed in order to inhibit microRNA maturation globally. Alternatively, antisense oligonucleotides (anti-miRs) were transfected to inhibit the activity of specific microRNAs. Cells were infected with HRV-1B. Viral replication was assessed by measuring the genomic viral RNA by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Association between microRNA-induced-silencing-complex and viral RNA was detected by Ago2 co-immunoprecipitation followed by RT-qPCR. Targetscan v.6 was used to predict microRNA target sites on several HRV strains. RESULTS: Here, we show that microRNAs affect replication of HRV-1B. DICER knock-down significantly reduced the expression of mature microRNAs in a bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and in turn, increased the synthesis of HRV-1B RNA. Additionally, HRV-1B RNA co-immunoprecipitated with argonaute 2 protein, an important effector for microRNA activity suggesting that microRNAs bind to viral RNA during infection. In order to identify specific microRNAs involved in this interaction, we employed bioinformatics analysis, and selected a group of microRNAs that have been reported to be under-expressed in asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells and were predicted to target different strains of rhinoviruses (HRV-1B, -16, -14, -27). Our results suggest that, out of this group of microRNAs, miR-128 and miR-155 contribute to the innate defense against HRV-1B: transfection of specific anti-miRs increased viral replication, as anticipated in-silico. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that pathological changes in microRNA expression, as already reported for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have the potential to affect Rhinovirus replication and therefore may play a role in virus-induced exacerbations. PMID:25426267

Bondanese, Victor Paky; Francisco-Garcia, Ana; Bedke, Nicole; Davies, Donna E; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

2014-01-01

302

Rapid Evolution of the Mitochondrial Genome in Chalcidoid Wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) Driven by Parasitic Lifestyles  

PubMed Central

Among the Chalcidoids, hymenopteran parasitic wasps that have diversified lifestyles, a partial mitochondrial genome has been reported only from Nasonia. This genome had many unusual features, especially a dramatic reorganization and a high rate of evolution. Comparisons based on more mitochondrial genomic data from the same superfamily were required to reveal weather these unusual features are peculiar to Nasonia or not. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from the species Philotrypesis. pilosa and Philotrypesis sp., both of which were associated with Ficus hispida. The acquired data included all of the protein-coding genes, rRNAs, and most of the tRNAs, and in P. pilosa the control region. High levels of nucleotide divergence separated the two species. A comparison of all available hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes (including a submitted partial genome from Ceratosolen solmsi) revealed that the Chalcidoids had dramatic mitochondrial gene rearrangments, involved not only the tRNAs, but also several protein-coding genes. The AT-rich control region was translocated and inverted in Philotrypesis. The mitochondrial genomes also exhibited rapid rates of evolution involving elevated nonsynonymous mutations. PMID:22073180

Murphy, Robert W.; Huang, Da-Wei

2011-01-01

303

Evolution of genomic imprinting as a coordinator of coadapted gene expression  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which the expression of a gene copy inherited from the mother differs from that of the copy inherited from the father. Many imprinted genes appear to be highly interconnected through interactions mediated by proteins, RNA, and DNA. These kinds of interactions often favor the evolution of genetic coadaptation, where beneficially interacting alleles evolve to become coinherited. Here I demonstrate theoretically that the presence of gene interactions that favor coadaptation can also favor the evolution of genomic imprinting. Selection favors genomic imprinting because it coordinates the coexpression of positively interacting alleles at different loci. Evolution is expected to proceed through a scenario where selection builds associations between beneficial combinations of alleles and, if one locus evolves to become imprinted, it leads to selection for its interacting partners to match its pattern of imprinting. This process should favor the evolution of physical linkage between interacting genes and therefore may help explain why imprinted genes tend to be found in clusters. The model suggests that, whereas some genes are expected to evolve their imprinting status because selection directly favors a specific pattern of parent-of-origin-dependent expression, other genes may evolve imprinting as a coevolutionary response to match the expression pattern of their interacting partners. As a result, some genes will show phenotypic effects consistent with the predictions of models for the evolution of genomic imprinting (e.g., conflict models), but other genes may not, having simply evolved imprinting to follow the lead of their interacting partners. PMID:23479614

Wolf, Jason B.

2013-01-01

304

Evolution Along the Mutation Gradient in the Dynamic Mitochondrial Genome of Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are intracellular organelles where oxidative phosphorylation is carried out to complete ATP synthesis. Mitochondria have their own genome; in metazoans, this is a small, circular molecule encoding 13 electron transport proteins, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. In invertebrates, mitochondrial gene rearrangement is common, and it is correlated with increased substitution rates. In vertebrates, mitochondrial gene rearrangement is rare, and its relationship to substitution rate remains unexplored. Mitochondrial genes can also show spatial variation in substitution rates around the genome due to the mechanism of mtDNA replication, which produces a mutation gradient. To date, however, the strength of the mutation gradient and whether movement along the gradient in rearranged (or otherwise modified) genomes impacts genic substitution rates remain unexplored in the majority of vertebrates. Salamanders include both normal mitochondrial genomes and independently derived rearrangements and expansions, providing a rare opportunity to test the effects of large-scale changes to genome architecture on vertebrate mitochondrial gene sequence evolution. We show that: 1) rearranged/expanded genomes have higher substitution rates; 2) most genes in rearranged/expanded genomes maintain their position along the mutation gradient, substitution rates of the genes that do move are unaffected by their new position, and the gradient in salamanders is weak; and 3) genomic rearrangements/expansions occur independent of levels of selective constraint on genes. Together, our results demonstrate that large-scale changes to genome architecture impact mitochondrial gene evolution in predictable ways; however, despite these impacts, the same functional constraints act on mitochondrial protein-coding genes in both modified and normal genomes. PMID:23918809

Chong, Rebecca A.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2013-01-01

305

Genome Reduction and Co-evolution between the Primary and Secondary Bacterial Symbionts of Psyllids  

PubMed Central

Genome reduction in obligately intracellular bacteria is one of the most well-established patterns in the field of molecular evolution. In the extreme, many sap-feeding insects harbor nutritional symbionts with genomes that are so reduced that it is not clear how they perform basic cellular functions. For example, the primary symbiont of psyllids (Carsonella) maintains one of the smallest and most AT-rich bacterial genomes ever identified and has surprisingly lost many genes that are thought to be essential for its role in provisioning its host with amino acids. However, our understanding of this extreme case of genome reduction is limited, as genomic data for Carsonella are available from only a single host species, and little is known about the functional role of “secondary” bacterial symbionts in psyllids. To address these limitations, we analyzed complete Carsonella genomes from pairs of congeneric hosts in three divergent genera within the Psyllidae (Ctenarytaina, Heteropsylla, and Pachypsylla) as well as complete secondary symbiont genomes from two of these host species (Ctenarytaina eucalypti and Heteropsylla cubana). Although the Carsonella genomes are generally conserved in size, structure, and GC content and exhibit genome-wide signatures of purifying selection, we found that gene loss has remained active since the divergence of the host species and had a particularly large impact on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways that define the symbiotic role of Carsonella. In some cases, the presence of additional bacterial symbionts may compensate for gene loss in Carsonella, as functional gene content indicates a high degree of metabolic complementarity between co-occurring symbionts. The genomes of the secondary symbionts also show signatures of long-term evolution as vertically transmitted, intracellular bacteria, including more extensive genome reduction than typically observed in facultative symbionts. Therefore, a history of co-evolution with secondary bacterial symbionts can partially explain the ongoing genome reduction in Carsonella. However, the absence of these secondary symbionts in other host lineages indicates that the relationships are dynamic and that other mechanisms, such as changes in host diet or functional coordination with the host genome, must also be at play. PMID:22821013

Sloan, Daniel B.; Moran, Nancy A.

2012-01-01

306

12 Gray, M.W. et al. (2001) The origin and early evolution of mitochondria. Genome Biol. 2, 1018  

E-print Network

12 Gray, M.W. et al. (2001) The origin and early evolution of mitochondria. Genome Biol. 2, 1018 13) A comparative genomics approach to the evolution of eukaryotes and their mitochondria. J. Eukaryot. Micro- biol al. (1997) Evidence for loss of mitochondria in Microsporidia from a mitochondrial-type HSP70

Eisenberg, Eli

307

Phylogenomics of the Zygomycete lineages: Exploring phylogeny and genome evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Zygomycete lineages mark the major transition from zoosporic life histories of the common ancestors of Fungi and the earliest diverging chytrid lineages (Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota). Genome comparisons from these lineages may reveal gene content changes that reflect the transition to...

308

The medicago genome provides insight into evolution of rhizobial symbiosis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Medicago truncatula is an excellent model for the study of legume-specific biology, especially endosymbiotic interactions with bacteria and fungi. This paper describes the sequence of the euchromatic portion of the M. truncatula genome based on a recently completed BAC-based assembly supplemented by...

309

A simulation test bed for hypotheses of genome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: Microbial genomes undergo evolutionary processes such as gene family expansion and contraction, variable rates and patterns of sequence substitution and lateral genetic transfer. Simulation tools are essential for both the generation of data under different evolutionary models and the validation of analytical methods on such data. However, meaningful investigation of phenomena such as lateral genetic transfer requires the simulta-

Robert G. Beiko; Robert L. Charlebois

2007-01-01

310

Evolution of Developmentally Regulated Genome Rearrangements in Eukaryotes  

E-print Network

will yield evidence of homologous epigenetic mechanisms underlying genome processing among diverse eukaryotes in many eukaryotic lineages, either in specific cells or life cycle phases. To elucidate the origin). The presence of diverse forms of DRGR in multiple lineages in the eukaryotic tree of life suggests that some

Katz, Laura

311

Evolution of olfactory receptor genes in the human genome  

E-print Network

tandem arrays of OR genes that are phylogenetically closely related. These genes appear to have been generated by tandem gene duplication. However, the relationships between genomic clusters and phylo- genetic a signaling cascade. Mammalian OR genes are expressed mainly in sensory neurons of olfactory epithelium

Nei, Masatoshi

312

Transposable elements and the evolution of genome size in eukaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that the wide variation in genome size observed among eukaryotic species is more closely correlated with the amount of repetitive DNA than with the number of coding genes. Major types of repetitive DNA include transposable elements, satellite DNAs, simple sequences and tandem repeats, but reliable estimates of the relative contributions of these various types to total

Margaret G. Kidwell

2002-01-01

313

Elephant shark genome provides unique insights into gnathostome evolution  

PubMed Central

The emergence of jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) from jawless vertebrates was accompanied by major morphological and physiological innovations, such as hinged jaws, paired fins and immunoglobulin-based adaptive immunity. Gnathostomes subsequently diverged into two groups, the cartilaginous fishes and the bony vertebrates. Here we report the whole-genome analysis of a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii). We find that the C. milii genome is the slowest evolving of all known vertebrates, including the ‘living fossil’ coelacanth, and features extensive synteny conservation with tetrapod genomes, making it a good model for comparative analyses of gnathostome genomes. Our functional studies suggest that the lack of genes encoding secreted calcium-binding phosphoproteins in cartilaginous fishes explains the absence of bone in their endoskeleton. Furthermore, the adaptive immune system of cartilaginous fishes is unusual: it lacks the canonical CD4 co-receptor and most transcription factors, cytokines and cytokine receptors related to the CD4 lineage, despite the presence of polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class II molecules. It thus presents a new model for understanding the origin of adaptive immunity. PMID:24402279

Venkatesh, Byrappa; Lee, Alison P.; Ravi, Vydianathan; Maurya, Ashish K.; Lian, Michelle M.; Swann, Jeremy B.; Ohta, Yuko; Flajnik, Martin F.; Sutoh, Yoichi; Kasahara, Masanori; Hoon, Shawn; Gangu, Vamshidhar; Roy, Scott W.; Irimia, Manuel; Korzh, Vladimir; Kondrychyn, Igor; Lim, Zhi Wei; Tay, Boon-Hui; Tohari, Sumanty; Kong, Kiat Whye; Ho, Shufen; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Quilez, Javier; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Raney, Brian J.; Ingham, Philip W.; Tay, Alice; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Minx, Patrick; Boehm, Thomas; Wilson, Richard K.; Brenner, Sydney; Warren, Wesley C.

2014-01-01

314

Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

315

Evolution: ctenophore genomes and the origin of neurons.  

PubMed

Recent sequencing of ctenophore genomes opens a new era in the study of this unique and phylogenetically distant group. The presence of neurodevelopmental genes, pre- and postsynaptic modules, and transmitter molecules is consistent with a single origin of neurons. PMID:25137591

Marlow, Heather; Arendt, Detlev

2014-08-18

316

What helminth genomes have taught us about parasite evolution.  

PubMed

SUMMARY The genomes of more than 20 helminths have now been sequenced. Here we perform a meta-analysis of all sequenced genomes of nematodes and Platyhelminthes, and attempt to address the question of what are the defining characteristics of helminth genomes. We find that parasitic worms lack systems for surface antigenic variation, instead maintaining infections using their surfaces as the first line of defence against the host immune system, with several expanded gene families of genes associated with the surface and tegument. Parasite excretory/secretory products evolve rapidly, and proteases even more so, with each parasite exhibiting unique modifications of its protease repertoire. Endoparasitic flatworms show striking losses of metabolic capabilities, not matched by nematodes. All helminths do however exhibit an overall reduction in auxiliary metabolism (biogenesis of co-factors and vitamins). Overall, the prevailing pattern is that there are few commonalities between the genomes of independently evolved parasitic worms, with each parasite having undergone specific adaptations for their particular niche. PMID:25482650

Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Berriman, Matt

2015-02-01

317

Evolution of Linear Mitochondrial Genomes in Medusozoan Cnidarians  

E-print Network

determined medusozoan mitochondrial genomes harbor the 17 genes typical for cnidarians and map as linear molecules with a high degree of gene order conservation relative to the anthozoans. In addition, two open reading frames (ORFs), polB and ORF314...

Kayal, Ehsan; Bentlage, Bastian; Collins, Allen G.; Kayal, Mohsen; Pirro, Stacy; Lavrov, Dennis V.

2011-11-22

318

Genomic diversity and evolution within the species Streptococcus agalactiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus agalactiae is a leading cause of invasive infections in neonates, and responsible for bovine mastitis. It is also a commensal bacterium adapted to asymptomatic colonization of the mammalian gut and of the genitourinary tract. Here, we report the analysis of a collection of 75 strains of human and animal origin by using serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, whole genome DNA-array

Mathieu Brochet; Elisabeth Couvé; Mohamed Zouine; Tatiana Vallaeys; Christophe Rusniok; Marie-Cécile Lamy; Carmen Buchrieser; Patrick Trieu-Cuot; Frank Kunst; Claire Poyart; Philippe Glaser

2006-01-01

319

Insights into the evolution of cotton diploids and polyploids from whole-genome re-1 sequencing2  

E-print Network

of the Gossypium16 genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, 84602, USA20 21 Keywords: cotton fiber, comparative genomics1 Insights into the evolution of cotton diploids and polyploids from whole-genome re-1 sequencing2

Wendel, Jonathan F.

320

Phenotypic Responses of Differentiated Asthmatic Human Airway Epithelial Cultures to Rhinovirus  

PubMed Central

Objectives Human airway epithelial cells are the principal target of human rhinovirus (HRV), a common cold pathogen that triggers the majority of asthma exacerbations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate an in vitro air liquid interface cultured human airway epithelial cell model for HRV infection, and 2) to identify gene expression patterns associated with asthma intrinsically and/or after HRV infection using this model. Methods Air-liquid interface (ALI) human airway epithelial cell cultures were prepared from 6 asthmatic and 6 non-asthmatic donors. The effects of rhinovirus RV-A16 on ALI cultures were compared. Genome-wide gene expression changes in ALI cultures following HRV infection at 24 hours post exposure were further analyzed using RNA-seq technology. Cellular gene expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion were further evaluated by qPCR and a Luminex-based protein assay, respectively. Main Results ALI cultures were readily infected by HRV. RNA-seq analysis of HRV infected ALI cultures identified sets of genes associated with asthma specific viral responses. These genes are related to inflammatory pathways, epithelial structure and remodeling and cilium assembly and function, including those described previously (e.g. CCL5, CXCL10 and CX3CL1, MUC5AC, CDHR3), and novel ones that were identified for the first time in this study (e.g. CCRL1). Conclusions ALI-cultured human airway epithelial cells challenged with HRV are a useful translational model for the study of HRV-induced responses in airway epithelial cells, given that gene expression profile using this model largely recapitulates some important patterns of gene responses in patients during clinical HRV infection. Furthermore, our data emphasize that both abnormal airway epithelial structure and inflammatory signaling are two important asthma signatures, which can be further exacerbated by HRV infection. PMID:25706956

Bai, Jianwu; Smock, Steven L.; Jackson, George R.; MacIsaac, Kenzie D.; Huang, Yongsheng; Mankus, Courtney; Oldach, Jonathan; Roberts, Brian; Ma, Yu-Lu; Klappenbach, Joel A.; Crackower, Michael A.; Alves, Stephen E.; Hayden, Patrick J.

2015-01-01

321

Genome increase as a clock for the origin and evolution of life  

PubMed Central

Background The size of non-redundant functional genome can be an indicator of biological complexity of living organisms. Several positive feedback mechanisms including gene cooperation and duplication with subsequent specialization may result in the exponential growth of biological complexity in macro-evolution. Results I propose a hypothesis that biological complexity increased exponentially during evolution. Regression of the logarithm of functional non-redundant genome size versus time of origin in major groups of organisms showed a 7.8-fold increase per 1 billion years, and hence the increase of complexity can be viewed as a clock of macro-evolution. A strong version of the exponential hypothesis is that the rate of complexity increase in early (pre-prokaryotic) evolution of life was at most the same (or even slower) than observed in the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Conclusion The increase of functional non-redundant genome size in macro-evolution was consistent with the exponential hypothesis. If the strong exponential hypothesis is true, then the origin of life should be dated 10 billion years ago. Thus, the possibility of panspermia as a source of life on earth should be discussed on equal basis with alternative hypotheses of de-novo life origin. Panspermia may be proven if bacteria similar to terrestrial ones are found on other planets or satellites in the solar system. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V. Koonin, Chris Adami and Arcady Mushegian. PMID:16768805

Sharov, Alexei A

2006-01-01

322

Retrotransposons - a major driving force in plant genome evolution and a useful tool for genome analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a major part of most plant genomes, retrotransposons are distributed throughout the plant genome ubiquitously with high\\u000a copy number and extensive heterogeneity. Various retrotransposon families with distinct structures differ in their distribution\\u000a and roles among divergent plant species, due to unforeseen transposition activities. Regulation of transposition is relatively\\u000a complex and three factors such as maintaining structure for none- or

Jun Zou; Huihui Gong; Tae-Jin Yang; Jinling Meng

2009-01-01

323

The Impact of Genome Triplication on Tandem Gene Evolution in Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) are both important modes of gene expansion. However, how WGD influences tandemly duplicated genes is not well studied. We used Brassica rapa, which has undergone an additional genome triplication (WGT) and shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Thellungiella parvula, to investigate the impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution. We identified 2,137, 1,569, 1,751, and 1,135 tandem gene arrays in B. rapa, A. thaliana, A. lyrata, and T. parvula respectively. Among them, 414 conserved tandem arrays are shared by the three species without WGT, which were also considered as existing in the diploid ancestor of B. rapa. Thus, after genome triplication, B. rapa should have 1,242 tandem arrays according to the 414 conserved tandems. Here, we found 400 out of the 414 tandems had at least one syntenic ortholog in the genome of B. rapa. Furthermore, 294 out of the 400 shared syntenic orthologs maintain tandem arrays (more than one gene for each syntenic hit) in B. rapa. For the 294 tandem arrays, we obtained 426 copies of syntenic paralogous tandems in the triplicated genome of B. rapa. In this study, we demonstrated that tandem arrays in B. rapa were dramatically fractionated after WGT when compared either to non-tandem genes in the B. rapa genome or to the tandem arrays in closely related species that have not experienced a recent whole genome polyploidization event. PMID:23226149

Fang, Lu; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

2012-01-01

324

Rhinovirus-induced basic fibroblast growth factor release mediates airway remodeling features  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinoviruses, major precipitants of asthma exacerbations, induce lower airway inflammation and mediate angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility that rhinoviruses may also contribute to the fibrotic component of airway remodeling. Methods Levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA and protein were measured following rhinovirus infection of bronchial epithelial cells. The profibrotic effect of epithelial products was assessed by DNA synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase activity assays. Moreover, epithelial cells were exposed to supernatants from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained from healthy donors or atopic asthmatic subjects and subsequently infected by rhinovirus and bFGF release was estimated. bFGF was also measured in respiratory secretions from atopic asthmatic patients before and during rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Results Rhinovirus epithelial infection stimulated mRNA expression and release of bFGF, the latter being positively correlated with cell death under conditions promoting rhinovirus-induced cytotoxicity. Supernatants from infected cultures induced lung fibroblast proliferation, which was inhibited by anti-bFGF antibody, and demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Rhinovirus-mediated bFGF release was significantly higher in an in vitro simulation of atopic asthmatic environment and, importantly, during rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations. Conclusions Rhinovirus infection induces bFGF release by airway epithelium, and stimulates stroma cell proliferation contributing to airway remodeling in asthma. Repeated rhinovirus infections may promote asthma persistence, particularly in the context of atopy; prevention of such infections may influence the natural history of asthma. PMID:22908984

2012-01-01

325

Evolution of an endofungal Lifestyle: Deductions from the Burkholderia rhizoxinica Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia rhizoxinica is an intracellular symbiont of the phytopathogenic zygomycete Rhizopus microsporus, the causative agent of rice seedling blight. The endosymbiont produces the antimitotic macrolide rhizoxin for its host. It is vertically transmitted within vegetative spores and is essential for spore formation of the fungus. To shed light on the evolution and genetic potential of this model organism, we analysed the whole genome of B. rhizoxinica HKI 0454 - a type strain of endofungal Burkholderia species. Results The genome consists of a structurally conserved chromosome and two plasmids. Compared to free-living Burkholderia species, the genome is smaller in size and harbors less transcriptional regulator genes. Instead, we observed accumulation of transposons over the genome. Prediction of primary metabolic pathways and transporters suggests that endosymbionts consume host metabolites like citrate, but might deliver some amino acids and cofactors to the host. The rhizoxin biosynthesis gene cluster shows evolutionary traces of horizontal gene transfer. Furthermore, we analysed gene clusters coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Notably, B. rhizoxinica lacks common genes which are dedicated to quorum sensing systems, but is equipped with a large number of virulence-related factors and putative type III effectors. Conclusions B. rhizoxinica is the first endofungal bacterium, whose genome has been sequenced. Here, we present models of evolution, metabolism and tools for host-symbiont interaction of the endofungal bacterium deduced from whole genome analyses. Genome size and structure suggest that B. rhizoxinica is in an early phase of adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle (genome in transition). By analysis of tranporters and metabolic pathways we predict how metabolites might be exchanged between the symbiont and its host. Gene clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites represent novel targets for genomic mining of cryptic natural products. In silico analyses of virulence-associated genes, secreted proteins and effectors might inspire future studies on molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial-fungal interaction. PMID:21539752

2011-01-01

326

Small inverted repeats drive mitochondrial genome evolution in Lake Baikal sponges.  

PubMed

Demosponges, the largest and most diverse class in the phylum Porifera, possess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markedly different from that in other animals. Although several studies investigated evolution of demosponge mtDNA among major lineages of the group, the changes within these groups remain largely unexplored. Recently we determined mitochondrial genomic sequence of the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis and described proliferation of small inverted repeats (hairpins) that occurred in it since the divergence between L. baicalensis and the most closely related cosmopolitan freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri. Here we report mitochondrial genomes of three additional species of Lake Baikal sponges: Swartschewskia papyracea, Rezinkovia echinata and Baikalospongia intermedia morpha profundalis (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Lubomirskiidae) and from a more distantly related freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia sp. (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Metaniidae). We use these additional sequences to explore mtDNA evolution in Baikalian sponges, paying particular attention to the variation in the rates of nucleotide substitutions and the distribution of hairpins, abundant in these genomes. We show that most of the changes in Lubomirskiidae mitochondrial genomes are due to insertion/deletion/duplication of these elements rather than single nucleotide substitutions. Thus inverted repeats can act as an important force in evolution of mitochondrial genome architecture and be a valuable marker for population- and species-level studies in this group. In addition, we infer (((Rezinkovia+Lubomirskia)+Swartschewskia)+Baikalospongia) phylogeny for the family Lubomirskiidae based on the analysis of mitochondrial coding sequences from freshwater sponges. PMID:22669046

Lavrov, Dennis V; Maikova, Olga O; Pett, Walker; Belikov, Sergey I

2012-08-15

327

Iota-Carrageenan is a potent inhibitor of rhinovirus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. RESULTS: In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red

Andreas Grassauer; Regina Weinmuellner; Christiane Meier; Alexander Pretsch; Eva Prieschl-Grassauer; Hermann Unger

2008-01-01

328

Solution Structure of the 2A Protease from a Common Cold Agent, Human Rhinovirus C2, Strain W12  

E-print Network

Solution Structure of the 2A Protease from a Common Cold Agent, Human Rhinovirus C2, Strain W12 Human rhinovirus strains differ greatly in their virulence, and this has been correlated with the differing substrate specificity of the respective 2A protease (2Apro ). Rhinoviruses use their 2Apro

329

Evolution of pathogenicity and sexual reproduction in eight Candida genomes  

PubMed Central

Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. We report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and nonpathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted, and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the Mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/alpha2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine to serine genetic code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the C. albicans gene catalog, identifying many new genes. PMID:19465905

Butler, Geraldine; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Lin, Michael F.; Santos, Manuel A.S.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Munro, Carol A.; Rheinbay, Esther; Grabherr, Manfred; Forche, Anja; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Agrafioti, Ino; Arnaud, Martha B.; Bates, Steven; Brown, Alistair J.P.; Brunke, Sascha; Costanzo, Maria C.; Fitzpatrick, David A.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Harris, David; Hoyer, Lois L.; Hube, Bernhard; Klis, Frans M.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Lennard, Nicola; Logue, Mary E.; Martin, Ronny; Neiman, Aaron M.; Nikolaou, Elissavet; Quail, Michael A.; Quinn, Janet; Santos, Maria C.; Schmitzberger, Florian F.; Sherlock, Gavin; Shah, Prachi; Silverstein, Kevin; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Soll, David; Staggs, Rodney; Stansfield, Ian; Stumpf, Michael P H; Sudbery, Peter E.; Thyagarajan, Srikantha; Zeng, Qiandong; Berman, Judith; Berriman, Matthew; Heitman, Joseph; Gow, Neil A. R.; Lorenz, Michael C.; Birren, Bruce W.; Kellis, Manolis; Cuomo, Christina A.

2009-01-01

330

Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes.  

PubMed

Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation ?5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat. PMID:25209798

Carbone, Lucia; Harris, R Alan; Gnerre, Sante; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Huddleston, John; Meyer, Thomas J; Herrero, Javier; Roos, Christian; Aken, Bronwen; Anaclerio, Fabio; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Baker, Carl; Barrell, Daniel; Batzer, Mark A; Beal, Kathryn; Blancher, Antoine; Bohrson, Craig L; Brameier, Markus; Campbell, Michael S; Capozzi, Oronzo; Casola, Claudio; Chiatante, Giorgia; Cree, Andrew; Damert, Annette; de Jong, Pieter J; Dumas, Laura; Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos; Flicek, Paul; Fuchs, Nina V; Gut, Ivo; Gut, Marta; Hahn, Matthew W; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Hillier, LaDeana W; Hubley, Robert; Ianc, Bianca; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Jablonski, Nina G; Johnstone, Laurel M; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Konkel, Miriam K; Kostka, Dennis; Lazar, Nathan H; Lee, Sandra L; Lewis, Lora R; Liu, Yue; Locke, Devin P; Mallick, Swapan; Mendez, Fernando L; Muffato, Matthieu; Nazareth, Lynne V; Nevonen, Kimberly A; O'Bleness, Majesta; Ochis, Cornelia; Odom, Duncan T; Pollard, Katherine S; Quilez, Javier; Reich, David; Rocchi, Mariano; Schumann, Gerald G; Searle, Stephen; Sikela, James M; Skollar, Gabriella; Smit, Arian; Sonmez, Kemal; ten Hallers, Boudewijn; Terhune, Elizabeth; Thomas, Gregg W C; Ullmer, Brygg; Ventura, Mario; Walker, Jerilyn A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Walter, Lutz; Ward, Michelle C; Wheelan, Sarah J; Whelan, Christopher W; White, Simon; Wilhelm, Larry J; Woerner, August E; Yandell, Mark; Zhu, Baoli; Hammer, Michael F; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E; Fulton, Lucinda; Fronick, Catrina; Muzny, Donna M; Warren, Wesley C; Worley, Kim C; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wilson, Richard K; Gibbs, Richard A

2014-09-11

331

Gibbon genome and the fast karyotype evolution of small apes  

PubMed Central

Gibbons are small arboreal apes that display an accelerated rate of evolutionary chromosomal rearrangement and occupy a key node in the primate phylogeny between Old World monkeys and great apes. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a northern white-cheeked gibbon (Nomascus leucogenys) genome. We describe the propensity for a gibbon-specific retrotransposon (LAVA) to insert into chromosome segregation genes and alter transcription by providing a premature termination site, suggesting a possible molecular mechanism for the genome plasticity of the gibbon lineage. We further show that the gibbon genera (Nomascus, Hylobates, Hoolock and Symphalangus) experienced a near-instantaneous radiation ~5 million years ago, coincident with major geographical changes in Southeast Asia that caused cycles of habitat compression and expansion. Finally, we identify signatures of positive selection in genes important for forelimb development (TBX5) and connective tissues (COL1A1) that may have been involved in the adaptation of gibbons to their arboreal habitat. PMID:25209798

Carbone, Lucia; Harris, R. Alan; Gnerre, Sante; Veeramah, Krishna R.; Lorente-Galdos, Belen; Huddleston, John; Meyer, Thomas J.; Herrero, Javier; Roos, Christian; Aken, Bronwen; Anaclerio, Fabio; Archidiacono, Nicoletta; Baker, Carl; Barrell, Daniel; Batzer, Mark A.; Beal, Kathryn; Blancher, Antoine; Bohrson, Craig L.; Brameier, Markus; Campbell, Michael S.; Capozzi, Oronzo; Casola, Claudio; Chiatante, Giorgia; Cree, Andrew; Damert, Annette; de Jong, Pieter J.; Dumas, Laura; Fernandez-Callejo, Marcos; Flicek, Paul; Fuchs, Nina V.; Gut, Marta; Gut, Ivo; Hahn, Matthew W.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Hubley, Robert; Ianc, Bianca; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Jablonski, Nina G.; Johnstone, Laurel M.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Konkel, Miriam K.; Kostka, Dennis; Lazar, Nathan H.; Lee, Sandra L.; Lewis, Lora R.; Liu, Yue; Locke, Devin P.; Mallick, Swapan; Mendez, Fernando L.; Muffato, Matthieu; Nazareth, Lynne V.; Nevonen, Kimberly A.; O,Bleness, Majesta; Ochis, Cornelia; Odom, Duncan T.; Pollard, Katherine S.; Quilez, Javier; Reich, David; Rocchi, Mariano; Schumann, Gerald G.; Searle, Stephen; Sikela, James M.; Skollar, Gabriella; Smit, Arian; Sonmez, Kemal; Hallers, Boudewijn ten; Terhune, Elizabeth; Thomas, Gregg W.C.; Ullmer, Brygg; Ventura, Mario; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Walter, Lutz; Ward, Michelle C.; Wheelan, Sarah J.; Whelan, Christopher W.; White, Simon; Wilhelm, Larry J.; Woerner, August E.; Yandell, Mark; Zhu, Baoli; Hammer, Michael F.; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E.; Fulton, Lucinda; Fronick, Catrina; Muzny, Donna M.; Warren, Wesley C.; Worley, Kim C.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Wilson, Richard K.; Gibbs, Richard A.

2014-01-01

332

The structure and evolution of breast cancer genomes  

E-print Network

-CGH. 196 xi Abbreviations API application programming interface ATCC American Type Culture Collection BAC bacterial artificial chromosome BSA bovine serum albumin BWA Burrows Wheeler alignment CGH comparative genomic hybridisation DAPI 4'6-diamidino-2... -penylindole DMEM Dulbecco's Modified Eagle medium DMSO dimethyl sulphoxide DOP-PCR degenerate oligonucleotide polymerase chain reaction DSMZ Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen FBS foetal bovine serum FISH fluorescence in-situ hybridisation...

Newman, Scott

2011-07-12

333

Phylogeny, Genome, and Karyotype Evolution of Crucifers (Brassicaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Brassicaceae (crucifers or the mustard family) is a large plant family comprising over 330 genera and about 3,700 species,\\u000a including several important crop plants (e.g. Brassica species), ornamentals as well as model organisms in the plant sciences (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In recent years, the wealth of Arabidopsis and Brassica genomic resources along with newly established tools and techniques fostered the

Martin A. Lysak; Marcus A. Koch

334

Genome organization and polyploid evolution in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Eleusine (Poaceae) includes six diploid and three polyploid species and has three basic chromosome numbers, x=8, 9 and 10. The species\\u000a are annual as well as perennial and all are wild except E. coracana, which is cultivated for grain and fodder in Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Eleusine coracana and E. africana have the same genome and chromosome number (2n=36).

M. S. Bisht; Y. Mukai

2002-01-01

335

The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system  

E-print Network

The king cobra genome reveals dynamic gene evolution and adaptation in the snake venom system Freek, and approved October 22, 2013 (received for review August 2, 2013) Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein

Dalang, Robert C.

336

Gene order data from a model amphibian (Ambystoma): new perspectives on vertebrate genome structure and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Because amphibians arise from a branch of the vertebrate evolutionary tree that is juxtaposed between fishes and amniotes, they provide important comparative perspective for reconstructing character changes that have occurred during vertebrate evolution. Here, we report the first comparative study of vertebrate genome structure that includes a representative amphibian. We used 491 transcribed sequences from a salamander (Ambystoma) genetic

Jeramiah J Smith; S Randal Voss

2006-01-01

337

Complexity of genome evolution by segmental rearrangement in Brassica rapa revealed by sequence-level analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Brassica species, related to Arabidopsis thaliana, include an important group of crops and represent an excellent system for studying the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Previous studies have led to a proposed structure for an ancestral karyotype and models for the evolution of the B. rapa genome by triplication and segmental rearrangement, but these have not been validated at

Martin Trick; Soo-Jin Kwon; Su Ryun Choi; Fiona Fraser; Eleni Soumpourou; Nizar Drou; Zhi Wang; Seo Yeon Lee; Tae-Jin Yang; Jeong-Hwan Mun; Andrew H Paterson; Christopher D Town; J Chris Pires; Yong Pyo Lim; Beom-Seok Park; Ian Bancroft

2009-01-01

338

Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes  

E-print Network

microalgal species need the vitamin as a growth supplement, but there is no phylogenetic relationship betweenInsights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Auxotrophy from Sequenced Algal Genomes Katherine E Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a dietary requirement for humans because it is an essential cofactor

Goldstein, Raymond E.

339

Coordinated Genome-Wide Modifications within Proximal Promoter Cis-regulatory Elements during Vertebrate Evolution  

PubMed Central

There often exists a “one-to-many” relationship between a transcription factor and a multitude of binding sites throughout the genome. It is commonly assumed that transcription factor binding motifs remain largely static over the course of evolution because changes in binding specificity can alter the interactions with potentially hundreds of sites across the genome. Focusing on regulatory motifs overrepresented at specific locations within or near the promoter, we find that a surprisingly large number of cis-regulatory elements have been subject to coordinated genome-wide modifications during vertebrate evolution, such that the motif frequency changes on a single branch of vertebrate phylogeny. This was found to be the case even between closely related mammal species, with nearly a third of all location-specific consensus motifs exhibiting significant modifications within the human or mouse lineage since their divergence. Many of these modifications are likely to be compensatory changes throughout the genome following changes in protein factor binding affinities, whereas others may be due to changes in mutation rates or effective population size. The likelihood that this happened many times during vertebrate evolution highlights the need to examine additional taxa and to understand the evolutionary and molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of protein–DNA interactions. PMID:21118975

Yokoyama, Ken Daigoro; Thorne, Jeffrey L.; Wray, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

340

The Compositional Evolution of the Murid Genome Nick G.C. Smith,1  

E-print Network

The Compositional Evolution of the Murid Genome Nick G.C. Smith,1 Adam Eyre-Walker2 1 Department-Walker 1999; Smith and Eyre- Walker 2001). Given that the GC content of protein- coding genes is highly polymorphism data fromCorrespondence to: Nick Smith; email: nick.smith@ebc.uu.se J Mol Evol (2002) 55

Eyre-Walker, Adam

341

A framework physical map of Drosophila virilis based on P1 clones: applications in genome evolution  

E-print Network

blocks of closely linked genes whose synteny is possibly under selective constraint. We have used in situ chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster between the markers crn (2F1) and omb (4C5-6). In this region, whichA framework physical map of Drosophila virilis based on P1 clones: applications in genome evolution

Hartl, Daniel L.

342

Genomic demography: a life-history analysis of transposable element evolution  

E-print Network

Genomic demography: a life-history analysis of transposable element evolution Daniel E. L, Box 454004, LasVegas, NV 89154-4004, USA Retrotransposons are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements^transposon coevolution. Evolutionary change in Ty elements depends on their replication and excision rates, which have

Jordan, King

343

Evolution and comparative genomics of subcellular specializations: EST sequencing of Torpedo electric organ  

E-print Network

Evolution and comparative genomics of subcellular specializations: EST sequencing of Torpedo February 2011 Keywords: Electric organ Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) Proteome Torpedo californica Novel gene muscle fibers. The electric Torpedo ray has evolved to expand the NMJ structure to the size of a large

Vertes, Akos

344

A Genomic Approach to Examine the Complex Evolution of Laurasiatherian Mammals  

PubMed Central

Recent phylogenomic studies have failed to conclusively resolve certain branches of the placental mammalian tree, despite the evolutionary analysis of genomic data from 32 species. Previous analyses of single genes and retroposon insertion data yielded support for different phylogenetic scenarios for the most basal divergences. The results indicated that some mammalian divergences were best interpreted not as a single bifurcating tree, but as an evolutionary network. In these studies the relationships among some orders of the super-clade Laurasiatheria were poorly supported, albeit not studied in detail. Therefore, 4775 protein-coding genes (6,196,263 nucleotides) were collected and aligned in order to analyze the evolution of this clade. Additionally, over 200,000 introns were screened in silico, resulting in 32 phylogenetically informative long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE) insertion events. The present study shows that the genome evolution of Laurasiatheria may best be understood as an evolutionary network. Thus, contrary to the common expectation to resolve major evolutionary events as a bifurcating tree, genome analyses unveil complex speciation processes even in deep mammalian divergences. We exemplify this on a subset of 1159 suitable genes that have individual histories, most likely due to incomplete lineage sorting or introgression, processes that can make the genealogy of mammalian genomes complex. These unexpected results have major implications for the understanding of evolution in general, because the evolution of even some higher level taxa such as mammalian orders may sometimes not be interpreted as a simple bifurcating pattern. PMID:22164244

Hallström, Björn M.; Schneider, Adrian; Zoller, Stefan; Janke, Axel

2011-01-01

345

Analysis of the Complete Human mtDNA Genome: Methodology and Inferences for Human Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences has been a potent tool in our understanding of human evolution. However, almost all studies of human evo- lution based on mtDNA sequencing have focused on the control region, which constitutes less than 7% of the mitochondrial genome. The rapid development of technology for automated DNA sequencing has made it possible to study

M. Ingman; U. Gyllensten

2001-01-01

346

EVOLUTION AND REGULATION OF THE CASEIN GENE CLUSTER REGION: A GENOMICS APPROACH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Multi-species sequence analysis and other genomics based approaches are being used in our studies of the evolution and regulation of milk protein genes. Multi-species sequence analyses were performed on sequences from Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones isolated and sequenced for this purpo...

347

The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests.  

PubMed

The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal-offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal-offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted. PMID:24755983

Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B

2014-08-01

348

The evolution of genomic imprinting: theories, predictions and empirical tests  

PubMed Central

The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal–offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal–offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted. PMID:24755983

Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B

2014-01-01

349

Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 by NimbleGen tiling arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies revealed that a new disease form of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is associated with specific Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) strains. To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of SS2 at the whole-genome level, comparative genomic analysis of 18 SS2 strains, selected on the basis of virulence and geographic origin, was performed using NimbleGen tiling arrays. Results Our results demonstrate that SS2 isolates have highly divergent genomes. The 89K pathogenicity island (PAI), which has been previously recognized as unique to the Chinese epidemic strains causing STSS, was partially included in some other virulent and avirulent strains. The ABC-type transport systems, encoded by 89K, were hypothesized to greatly contribute to the catastrophic features of STSS. Moreover, we identified many polymorphisms in genes encoding candidate or known virulence factors, such as PlcR, lipase, sortases, the pilus-associated proteins, and the response regulator RevS and CtsR. On the basis of analysis of regions of differences (RDs) across the entire genome for the 18 selected SS2 strains, a model of microevolution for these strains is proposed, which provides clues into Streptococcus pathogenicity and evolution. Conclusions Our deep comparative genomic analysis of the 89K PAI present in the genome of SS2 strains revealed details into how some virulent strains acquired genes that may contribute to STSS, which may lead to better environmental monitoring of epidemic SS2 strains. PMID:21554741

2011-01-01

350

Population Genomics Reveals Chromosome-Scale Heterogeneous Evolution in a Protoploid Yeast  

PubMed Central

Yeast species represent an ideal model system for population genomic studies but large-scale polymorphism surveys have only been reported for species of the Saccharomyces genus so far. Hence, little is known about intraspecific diversity and evolution in yeast. To obtain a new insight into the evolutionary forces shaping natural populations, we sequenced the genomes of an expansive worldwide collection of isolates from a species distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Lachancea kluyveri (formerly S. kluyveri). We identified 6.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and showed that a large introgression event of 1 Mb of GC-rich sequence in the chromosomal arm probably occurred in the last common ancestor of all L. kluyveri strains. Our population genomic data clearly revealed that this 1-Mb region underwent a molecular evolution pattern very different from the rest of the genome. It is characterized by a higher recombination rate, with a dramatically elevated A:T ? G:C substitution rate, which is the signature of an increased GC-biased gene conversion. In addition, the predicted base composition at equilibrium demonstrates that the chromosome-scale compositional heterogeneity will persist after the genome has reached mutational equilibrium. Altogether, the data presented herein clearly show that distinct recombination and substitution regimes can coexist and lead to different evolutionary patterns within a single genome. PMID:25349286

Friedrich, Anne; Jung, Paul; Reisser, Cyrielle; Fischer, Gilles; Schacherer, Joseph

2015-01-01

351

Picornaviral capsid assembly: similarity of rhinovirus and enterovirus precursor subunits.  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic extracts of rhinovirus 1A-infected HeLa cells, pulsed 15 min with [3H]leucine, contained a 13S subunit which was rich in the capsid precursor, peptide 92. After a 30-min chase, most of the capsid-related protein sedimented in a 14S peak that contained equimolar amounts of the capsid peptides epsilon, alpha, and gamma, and some residual chain 92. The 14S subunit could be dissociated at pH 4.8 into 6S subunits containing only epsilon, alpha, and gamma chains in equal proportions, indicating that the 14S subunit is an oligomer of (epsilon gamma alpha) protomers. These subunits resemble subunits previously identified in the assembly of enteroviruses. These observations support the idea that rhinovirus assembly is basically similar to that of enteroviruses. Comparative studies on the peptide stoichiometry of the virion and the capsid precursor subunits indicate that rhinovirus 1A can contain as many as 11 immature protomers per virion. PMID:189086

McGregor, S; Rueckert, R R

1977-02-01

352

Adaptive Evolution of an Artificial RNA Genome to a Reduced Ribosome Environment.  

PubMed

The reconstitution of an artificial system that has the same evolutionary ability as a living thing is a major challenge in the in vitro synthetic biology. In this study, we tested the adaptive evolutionary ability of an artificial RNA genome replication system, termed the translation-coupled RNA replication (TcRR) system. In a previous work, we performed a study of the long-term evolution of the genome with an excess amount of ribosome. In this study, we continued the evolution experiment in a reduced-ribosome environment and observed that the mutant genome compensated for the reduced ribosome concentration. This result demonstrated the ability of the TcRR system to adapt and may be a step toward generating living things with evolutionary ability. PMID:24933578

Mizuuchi, Ryo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Usui, Kimihito; Kazuta, Yasuaki; Yomo, Tetsuya

2014-06-24

353

Spatial and temporal diversity in genomic instability processes defines lung cancer evolution.  

PubMed

Spatial and temporal dissection of the genomic changes occurring during the evolution of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may help elucidate the basis for its dismal prognosis. We sequenced 25 spatially distinct regions from seven operable NSCLCs and found evidence of branched evolution, with driver mutations arising before and after subclonal diversification. There was pronounced intratumor heterogeneity in copy number alterations, translocations, and mutations associated with APOBEC cytidine deaminase activity. Despite maintained carcinogen exposure, tumors from smokers showed a relative decrease in smoking-related mutations over time, accompanied by an increase in APOBEC-associated mutations. In tumors from former smokers, genome-doubling occurred within a smoking-signature context before subclonal diversification, which suggested that a long period of tumor latency had preceded clinical detection. The regionally separated driver mutations, coupled with the relentless and heterogeneous nature of the genome instability processes, are likely to confound treatment success in NSCLC. PMID:25301630

de Bruin, Elza C; McGranahan, Nicholas; Mitter, Richard; Salm, Max; Wedge, David C; Yates, Lucy; Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Shafi, Seema; Murugaesu, Nirupa; Rowan, Andrew J; Grönroos, Eva; Muhammad, Madiha A; Horswell, Stuart; Gerlinger, Marco; Varela, Ignacio; Jones, David; Marshall, John; Voet, Thierry; Van Loo, Peter; Rassl, Doris M; Rintoul, Robert C; Janes, Sam M; Lee, Siow-Ming; Forster, Martin; Ahmad, Tanya; Lawrence, David; Falzon, Mary; Capitanio, Arrigo; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Teefe, Enock; Chen, Shann-Ching; Begum, Sharmin; Rabinowitz, Adam; Phillimore, Benjamin; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Stamp, Gordon; Szallasi, Zoltan; Matthews, Nik; Stewart, Aengus; Campbell, Peter; Swanton, Charles

2014-10-10

354

Analysis of Complete Nucleotide Sequences of 12 Gossypium Chloroplast Genomes: Origin and Evolution of Allotetraploids  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is a model system for the analysis of polyploidization. Although ascertaining the donor species of allotetraploid cotton has been intensively studied, sequence comparison of Gossypium chloroplast genomes is still of interest to understand the mechanisms underlining the evolution of Gossypium allotetraploids, while it is generally accepted that the parents were A- and D-genome containing species. Here we performed a comparative analysis of 13 Gossypium chloroplast genomes, twelve of which are presented here for the first time. Methodology/Principal Findings The size of 12 chloroplast genomes under study varied from 159,959 bp to 160,433 bp. The chromosomes were highly similar having >98% sequence identity. They encoded the same set of 112 unique genes which occurred in a uniform order with only slightly different boundary junctions. Divergence due to indels as well as substitutions was examined separately for genome, coding and noncoding sequences. The genome divergence was estimated as 0.374% to 0.583% between allotetraploid species and A-genome, and 0.159% to 0.454% within allotetraploids. Forty protein-coding genes were completely identical at the protein level, and 20 intergenic sequences were completely conserved. The 9 allotetraploids shared 5 insertions and 9 deletions in whole genome, and 7-bp substitutions in protein-coding genes. The phylogenetic tree confirmed a close relationship between allotetraploids and the ancestor of A-genome, and the allotetraploids were divided into four separate groups. Progenitor allotetraploid cotton originated 0.43–0.68 million years ago (MYA). Conclusion Despite high degree of conservation between the Gossypium chloroplast genomes, sequence variations among species could still be detected. Gossypium chloroplast genomes preferred for 5-bp indels and 1–3-bp indels are mainly attributed to the SSR polymorphisms. This study supports that the common ancestor of diploid A-genome species in Gossypium is the maternal source of extant allotetraploid species and allotetraploids have a monophyletic origin. G. hirsutum AD1 lineages have experienced more sequence variations than other allotetraploids in intergenic regions. The available complete nucleotide sequences of 12 Gossypium chloroplast genomes should facilitate studies to uncover the molecular mechanisms of compartmental co-evolution and speciation of Gossypium allotetraploids. PMID:22876273

Xu, Qin; Xiong, Guanjun; Li, Pengbo; He, Fei; Huang, Yi; Wang, Kunbo; Li, Zhaohu; Hua, Jinping

2012-01-01

355

Genome Size and GC Content Evolution of Festuca: Ancestral Expansion and Subsequent Reduction  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant evolution is well known to be frequently associated with remarkable changes in genome size and composition; however, the knowledge of long-term evolutionary dynamics of these processes still remains very limited. Here a study is made of the fine dynamics of quantitative genome evolution in Festuca (fescue), the largest genus in Poaceae (grasses). Methods Using flow cytometry (PI, DAPI), measurements were made of DNA content (2C-value), monoploid genome size (Cx-value), average chromosome size (C/n-value) and cytosine + guanine (GC) content of 101 Festuca taxa and 14 of their close relatives. The results were compared with the existing phylogeny based on ITS and trnL-F sequences. Key Results The divergence of the fescue lineage from related Poeae was predated by about a 2-fold monoploid genome and chromosome size enlargement, and apparent GC content enrichment. The backward reduction of these parameters, running parallel in both main evolutionary lineages of fine-leaved and broad-leaved fescues, appears to diverge among the existing species groups. The most dramatic reductions are associated with the most recently and rapidly evolving groups which, in combination with recent intraspecific genome size variability, indicate that the reduction process is probably ongoing and evolutionarily young. This dynamics may be a consequence of GC-rich retrotransposon proliferation and removal. Polyploids derived from parents with a large genome size and high GC content (mostly allopolyploids) had smaller Cx- and C/n-values and only slightly deviated from parental GC content, whereas polyploids derived from parents with small genome and low GC content (mostly autopolyploids) generally had a markedly increased GC content and slightly higher Cx- and C/n-values. Conclusions The present study indicates the high potential of general quantitative characters of the genome for understanding the long-term processes of genome evolution, testing evolutionary hypotheses and their usefulness for large-scale genomic projects. Taken together, the results suggest that there is an evolutionary advantage for small genomes in Festuca. PMID:18158307

Šmarda, Petr; Bureš, Petr; Horová, Lucie; Foggi, Bruno; Rossi, Graziano

2008-01-01

356

The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution  

PubMed Central

Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ?13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

2013-01-01

357

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Hornwort Megaceros aenigmaticus Shows a Mixed Mode of Conservative Yet Dynamic Evolution in Early Land Plant Mitochondrial Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land plants possess some of the most unusual mitochondrial genomes among eukaryotes. However, in early land plants these genomes\\u000a resemble those of green and red algae or early eukaryotes. The question of when during land plant evolution the dramatic change\\u000a in mtDNAs occurred remains unanswered. Here we report the first completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of the hornwort,\\u000a Megaceros aenigmaticus, a

Libo Li; Bin Wang; Yang Liu; Yin-Long Qiu

2009-01-01

358

What can whole genome expression data tell us about the ecology and evolution of personality?  

PubMed Central

Consistent individual differences in behaviour, aka personality, pose several evolutionary questions. For example, it is difficult to explain within-individual consistency in behaviour because behavioural plasticity is often advantageous. In addition, selection erodes heritable behavioural variation that is related to fitness, therefore we wish to know the mechanisms that can maintain between-individual variation in behaviour. In this paper, we argue that whole genome expression data can reveal new insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying personality, as well as its evolutionary consequences. After introducing the basics of whole genome expression analysis, we show how whole genome expression data can be used to understand whether behaviours in different contexts are affected by the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest strategies for using the power of genomics to understand what maintains behavioural variation, to study the evolution of behavioural correlations and to compare personality traits across diverse organisms. PMID:21078652

Bell, Alison M.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2010-01-01

359

The Common Marmoset Genome Provides Insight into Primate Biology and Evolution  

PubMed Central

A first analysis of the genome sequence of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), assembled using traditional Sanger methods and Ensembl annotation, has permitted genomic comparison with apes and old world monkeys and the identification of specific molecular features that may contribute to the unique biology of this diminutive primate. The common marmoset has a rapid reproductive capacity partly due to prevalence of dizygotic twins. Remarkably, these twins share placental circulation and exchange hematopoietic stem cells in utero, resulting in adults that are hematopoietic chimeras. We observed positive selection or non-synonymous substitutions for genes encoding growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor (growth pathways), respiratory complex I (metabolic pathways), immunobiology, and proteases (reproductive and immunity pathways). In addition, both protein-coding and microRNA genes related to reproduction exhibit rapid sequence evolution. This New World monkey genome sequence enables significantly increased power for comparative analyses among available primate genomes and facilitates biomedical research application. PMID:25038751

2014-01-01

360

Spider genomes provide insight into composition and evolution of venom and silk  

PubMed Central

Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk. PMID:24801114

Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Bechsgaard, Jesper S.; Fang, Xiaodong; Duan, Jinjie; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Gupta, Vikas; Jiang, Xuanting; Cheng, Ling; Fan, Dingding; Feng, Yue; Han, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Wu, Zongze; Liao, Li; Settepani, Virginia; Thřgersen, Ida B.; Vanthournout, Bram; Wang, Tobias; Zhu, Yabing; Funch, Peter; Enghild, Jan J.; Schauser, Leif; Andersen, Stig U.; Villesen, Palle; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bilde, Trine; Wang, Jun

2014-01-01

361

Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species.  

PubMed

Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J; Jackson, Scott A; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K; Lee, Suk-Ha

2014-01-01

362

Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species  

PubMed Central

Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K.; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Jackson, Scott A.; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Lee, Suk-Ha

2014-01-01

363

The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring

Rute R da Fonseca; Warren E Johnson; Stephen J O'Brien; Maria Joăo Ramos; Agostinho Antunes

2008-01-01

364

Genomic Fossils Calibrate the Long-Term Evolution of Hepadnaviruses  

E-print Network

Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record

Feschotte, Cedric

365

Optimality models in the age of experimental evolution and genomics  

PubMed Central

Optimality models have been used to predict evolution of many properties of organisms. They typically neglect genetic details, whether by necessity or design. This omission is a common source of criticism, and although this limitation of optimality is widely acknowledged, it has mostly been defended rather than evaluated for its impact. Experimental adaptation of model organisms provides a new arena for testing optimality models and for simultaneously integrating genetics. First, an experimental context with a well-researched organism allows dissection of the evolutionary process to identify causes of model failure – whether the model is wrong about genetics or selection. Second, optimality models provide a meaningful context for the process and mechanics of evolution, and thus may be used to elicit realistic genetic bases of adaptation – an especially useful augmentation to well-researched genetic systems. A few studies of microbes have begun to pioneer this new direction. Incompatibility between the assumed and actual genetics has been demonstrated to be the cause of model failure in some cases. More interestingly, evolution at the phenotypic level has sometimes matched prediction even though the adaptive mutations defy mechanisms established by decades of classic genetic studies. Integration of experimental evolutionary tests with genetics heralds a new wave for optimality models and their extensions that does not merely emphasize the forces driving evolution. PMID:20646132

Bull, J. J.; Wang, I.-N.

2010-01-01

366

Comparison of rhinovirus A infection in human primary epithelial and HeLa cells  

E-print Network

). But it should not be forgotten that HeLa cells at their origin are transformed, cancer-derived cells of cell-culture relevance has became especially important to the field of human rhinovirus (HRV) researchComparison of rhinovirus A infection in human primary epithelial and HeLa cells S. P. Amineva,1,2 A

367

Detection of Airborne Rhinovirus and Its Relation to Outdoor Air Supply in Office Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoviruses are major causes of morbidity in patients with respira- tory diseases; however, their modes of transmission are controver- sial. We investigated detection of airborne rhinovirus in office envi- ronments by polymerase chain reaction technology and related detection to outdoor air supply rates. We sampled air from 9 A.M. to 5 P.M. each workday, with each sample run for 1

Theodore A. Myatt; Sebastian L. Johnston; Zhengfa Zuo; Matthew Wand; Tatiana Kebadze; Stephen Rudnick; Donald K. Milton

2004-01-01

368

Multiple Genomic Recombination Events in the Evolution of Saffold Cardiovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) is a new human cardiovirus with 11 identified genotypes. Little is known about the natural history and pathogenicity of SAFVs. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the genome of five SAFV-1 strains which were identified from fecal samples taken from children with viral diarrhea in Beijing, China between March 2006 and November 2007, and analyzed the phylogenetic and phylodynamic properties of SAFVs using the genome sequences of every known SAFV genotypes. We identified multiple recombination events in our SAFV-1 strains, specifically recombination between SAFV-2, -3, -4, -9, -10 and the prototype SAFV-1 strain in the VP4 region and recombination between SAFV-4, -6, -8, -10, -11 and prototype SAFV-1 in the VP1/2A region. Notably, recombination in the structural gene VP4 is a rare event in Cardiovirus. The ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions to synonymous substitutions indicates a purifying selection of the SAFV genome. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis indicates the existence of at least two subclades of SAFV-1 with different origins. Subclade 1 includes two strains isolated from Pakistan, whereas subclade 2 includes the prototype strain and strains isolated in China, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The most recent common ancestor of all SAFV genotypes dates to the 1710s, and SAFV-1, -2, and -3 to the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, respectively. No obvious relationship between variation and pathogenicity exists in the critical domains of the CD and EF loops of viral capsid proteins or the multi-functional proteins L based on animo acid sequence identity comparison between SAFV genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that intertypic recombination plays an important role in the diversity of SAFVs, highlighting the diversity of the five strains with the previously described SAFV-1 strains. PMID:24086404

Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Chen, Lan; Zhang, Jing; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei

2013-01-01

369

The origin and evolution of genomic imprinting and viviparity in mammals  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is widespread in eutherian mammals. Marsupial mammals also have genomic imprinting, but in fewer loci. It has long been thought that genomic imprinting is somehow related to placentation and/or viviparity in mammals, although neither is restricted to mammals. Most imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta. There is no evidence for genomic imprinting in the egg-laying monotreme mammals, despite their short-lived placenta that transfers nutrients from mother to embryo. Post natal genomic imprinting also occurs, especially in the brain. However, little attention has been paid to the primary source of nutrition in the neonate in all mammals, the mammary gland. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) play an important role as imprinting control centres in each imprinted region which usually comprises both paternally and maternally expressed genes (PEGs and MEGs). The DMR is established in the male or female germline (the gDMR). Comprehensive comparative genome studies demonstrated that two imprinted regions, PEG10 and IGF2-H19, are conserved in both marsupials and eutherians and that PEG10 and H19 DMRs emerged in the therian ancestor at least 160 Ma, indicating the ancestral origin of genomic imprinting during therian mammal evolution. Importantly, these regions are known to be deeply involved in placental and embryonic growth. It appears that most maternal gDMRs are always associated with imprinting in eutherian mammals, but emerged at differing times during mammalian evolution. Thus, genomic imprinting could evolve from a defence mechanism against transposable elements that depended on DNA methylation established in germ cells. PMID:23166401

Renfree, Marilyn B.; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko

2013-01-01

370

Shewanella spp. Genomic Evolution for a Cold Marine Lifestyle and In-Situ Explosive Biodegradation  

PubMed Central

Shewanella halifaxensis and Shewanella sediminis were among a few aquatic ?-proteobacteria that were psychrophiles and the first anaerobic bacteria that degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although many mesophilic or psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and ?-proteobacteria were sequenced for their genomes, the genomic evolution pathways for temperature adaptation were poorly understood. On the other hand, the genes responsible for anaerobic RDX mineralization pathways remain unknown. To determine the unique genomic properties of bacteria responsible for both cold-adaptation and RDX degradation, the genomes of S. halifaxensis and S. sediminis were sequenced and compared with 108 other ?-proteobacteria including Shewanella that differ in temperature and Na+ requirements, as well as RDX degradation capability. Results showed that for coping with marine environments their genomes had extensively exchanged with deep sea bacterial genomes. Many genes for Na+-dependent nutrient transporters were recruited to use the high Na+ content as an energy source. For coping with low temperatures, these two strains as well as other psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and ?-proteobacteria were found to decrease their genome G+C content and proteome alanine, proline and arginine content (p-value <0.01) to increase protein structural flexibility. Compared to poorer RDX-degrading strains, S. halifaxensis and S. sediminis have more number of genes for cytochromes and other enzymes related to RDX metabolic pathways. Experimentally, one cytochrome was found induced in S. halifaxensis by RDX when the chemical was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The isolated protein degraded RDX by mono-denitration and was identified as a multiheme 52 kDa cytochrome using a proteomic approach. The present analyses provided the first insight into divergent genomic evolution of bacterial strains for adaptation to the specific cold marine conditions and to the degradation of the pollutant RDX. The present study also provided the first evidence for the involvement of a specific c-type cytochrome in anaerobic RDX metabolism. PMID:20174598

Zhao, Jian-Shen; Deng, Yinghai; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

2010-01-01

371

Microbial laboratory evolution in the era of genome-scale science  

PubMed Central

Laboratory evolution studies provide fundamental biological insight through direct observation of the evolution process. They not only enable testing of evolutionary theory and principles, but also have applications to metabolic engineering and human health. Genome-scale tools are revolutionizing studies of laboratory evolution by providing complete determination of the genetic basis of adaptation and the changes in the organism's gene expression state. Here, we review studies centered on four central themes of laboratory evolution studies: (1) the genetic basis of adaptation; (2) the importance of mutations to genes that encode regulatory hubs; (3) the view of adaptive evolution as an optimization process; and (4) the dynamics with which laboratory populations evolve. PMID:21734648

Conrad, Tom M; Lewis, Nathan E; Palsson, Bernhard Ř

2011-01-01

372

The Evolution and Functional Impact of Human Deletion Variants Shared with Archaic Hominin Genomes  

PubMed Central

Allele sharing between modern and archaic hominin genomes has been variously interpreted to have originated from ancestral genetic structure or through non-African introgression from archaic hominins. However, evolution of polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes has yet to be studied. We identified 427 polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, approximately 87% of which originated before the Human–Neandertal divergence (ancient) and only approximately 9% of which have been introgressed from Neandertals (introgressed). Recurrence, incomplete lineage sorting between human and chimp lineages, and hominid-specific insertions constitute the remaining approximately 4% of allele sharing between humans and archaic hominins. We observed that ancient deletions correspond to more than 13% of all common (>5% allele frequency) deletion variation among modern humans. Our analyses indicate that the genomic landscapes of both ancient and introgressed deletion variants were primarily shaped by purifying selection, eliminating large and exonic variants. We found 17 exonic deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, including those leading to three fusion transcripts. The affected genes are involved in metabolism of external and internal compounds, growth and sperm formation, as well as susceptibility to psoriasis and Crohn’s disease. Our analyses suggest that these “exonic” deletion variants have evolved through different adaptive forces, including balancing and population-specific positive selection. Our findings reveal that genomic structural variants that are shared between humans and archaic hominin genomes are common among modern humans and can influence biomedically and evolutionarily important phenotypes. PMID:25556237

Lin, Yen-Lung; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakoc, Emre; Ajay, Jerry; Gokcumen, Omer

2015-01-01

373

The evolution and functional impact of human deletion variants shared with archaic hominin genomes.  

PubMed

Allele sharing between modern and archaic hominin genomes has been variously interpreted to have originated from ancestral genetic structure or through non-African introgression from archaic hominins. However, evolution of polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes has yet to be studied. We identified 427 polymorphic human deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, approximately 87% of which originated before the Human-Neandertal divergence (ancient) and only approximately 9% of which have been introgressed from Neandertals (introgressed). Recurrence, incomplete lineage sorting between human and chimp lineages, and hominid-specific insertions constitute the remaining approximately 4% of allele sharing between humans and archaic hominins. We observed that ancient deletions correspond to more than 13% of all common (>5% allele frequency) deletion variation among modern humans. Our analyses indicate that the genomic landscapes of both ancient and introgressed deletion variants were primarily shaped by purifying selection, eliminating large and exonic variants. We found 17 exonic deletions that are shared with archaic hominin genomes, including those leading to three fusion transcripts. The affected genes are involved in metabolism of external and internal compounds, growth and sperm formation, as well as susceptibility to psoriasis and Crohn's disease. Our analyses suggest that these "exonic" deletion variants have evolved through different adaptive forces, including balancing and population-specific positive selection. Our findings reveal that genomic structural variants that are shared between humans and archaic hominin genomes are common among modern humans and can influence biomedically and evolutionarily important phenotypes. PMID:25556237

Lin, Yen-Lung; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakoc, Emre; Ajay, Jerry; Gokcumen, Omer

2015-04-01

374

Chromosome variation, genomics, speciation and evolution in Sceloporus lizards.  

PubMed

The clade of the North American lizard genus Sceloporus and its relatives comprising the subfamily Phrynosomatinae (Iguanidae) includes perhaps 150 evolutionary lineages. The work reviewed here begins with the discovery of the concentration of Robertsonian chromosomal variability in Sceloporus more than 40 years ago and cytogenetic and genomic evidence of remarkable chromosomal variation within the S. grammicus complex associated with narrow zones of hybridization between different chromosomal races. These discoveries led to hypotheses about hybrid zones involving negative heterosis, possible modes of chromosomal speciation, and the potential roles of such speciation in phylogenesis. The radiation of Sceloporus has now been studied by many different workers extending and mapping the geographic distribution of cytogenetic and genomic variation to understand the biology of the chromosomal variation and to establish the phyletic relationships of the various lineages. The result is a robust phylogeny and a large and still growing database of genic, cytogenetic and other biological parameters. These materials provide a rich series of natural experiments to support both synthetic-comparative and analytical studies of the roles of chromosomal variation, hybrid zones and modes of speciation in phylogenesis and evolutionary success. PMID:20339293

Hall, W P

2009-01-01

375

[FeFe] hydrogenases and their evolution: a genomic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Most hydrogenases (H2ases), the enzymes that produce or oxidize dihydrogen, possess dimetallic active sites and belong to either one of two phylogenetically\\u000a distinct classes, the [NiFe] and the [FeFe] H2ases. These families of H2ases share a number of similarities regarding active site structure and reaction mechanism, as a result of convergent evolution.\\u000a They are otherwise alien to each other, in

J. Meyer

2007-01-01

376

Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

2013-01-01

377

Insights into minor group rhinovirus uncoating: the X-ray structure of the HRV2 empty capsid.  

PubMed

Upon attachment to their respective receptor, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are internalized into the host cell via different pathways but undergo similar structural changes. This ultimately results in the delivery of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm for replication. To improve our understanding of the conformational modifications associated with the release of the viral genome, we have determined the X-ray structure at 3.0 Ĺ resolution of the end-stage of HRV2 uncoating, the empty capsid. The structure shows important conformational changes in the capsid protomer. In particular, a hinge movement around the hydrophobic pocket of VP1 allows a coordinated shift of VP2 and VP3. This overall displacement forces a reorganization of the inter-protomer interfaces, resulting in a particle expansion and in the opening of new channels in the capsid core. These new breaches in the capsid, opening one at the base of the canyon and the second at the particle two-fold axes, might act as gates for the externalization of the VP1 N-terminus and the extrusion of the viral RNA, respectively. The structural comparison between native and empty HRV2 particles unveils a number of pH-sensitive amino acid residues, conserved in rhinoviruses, which participate in the structural rearrangements involved in the uncoating process. PMID:22241997

Garriga, Damiŕ; Pickl-Herk, Angela; Luque, Daniel; Wruss, Jürgen; Castón, José R; Blaas, Dieter; Verdaguer, Núria

2012-01-01

378

Insights into Minor Group Rhinovirus Uncoating: The X-ray Structure of the HRV2 Empty Capsid  

PubMed Central

Upon attachment to their respective receptor, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are internalized into the host cell via different pathways but undergo similar structural changes. This ultimately results in the delivery of the viral RNA into the cytoplasm for replication. To improve our understanding of the conformational modifications associated with the release of the viral genome, we have determined the X-ray structure at 3.0 Ĺ resolution of the end-stage of HRV2 uncoating, the empty capsid. The structure shows important conformational changes in the capsid protomer. In particular, a hinge movement around the hydrophobic pocket of VP1 allows a coordinated shift of VP2 and VP3. This overall displacement forces a reorganization of the inter-protomer interfaces, resulting in a particle expansion and in the opening of new channels in the capsid core. These new breaches in the capsid, opening one at the base of the canyon and the second at the particle two-fold axes, might act as gates for the externalization of the VP1 N-terminus and the extrusion of the viral RNA, respectively. The structural comparison between native and empty HRV2 particles unveils a number of pH-sensitive amino acid residues, conserved in rhinoviruses, which participate in the structural rearrangements involved in the uncoating process. PMID:22241997

Garriga, Damiŕ; Pickl-Herk, Angela; Luque, Daniel; Wruss, Jürgen; Castón, José R.; Blaas, Dieter; Verdaguer, Núria

2012-01-01

379

Complete HOX cluster characterization of the coelacanth provides further evidence for slow evolution of its genome  

PubMed Central

The living coelacanth is a lobe-finned fish that represents an early evolutionary departure from the lineage that led to land vertebrates, and is of extreme interest scientifically. It has changed very little in appearance from fossilized coelacanths of the Cretaceous (150 to 65 million years ago), and is often referred to as a “living fossil.” An important general question is whether long-term stasis in morphological evolution is associated with stasis in genome evolution. To this end we have used targeted genome sequencing for acquiring 1,612,752 bp of high quality finished sequence encompassing the four HOX clusters of the Indonesian coelacanth Latimeria menadoensis. Detailed analyses were carried out on genomic structure, gene and repeat contents, conserved noncoding regions, and relative rates of sequence evolution in both coding and noncoding tracts. Our results demonstrate conclusively that the coelacanth HOX clusters are evolving comparatively slowly and that this taxon should serve as a viable outgroup for interpretation of the genomes of tetrapod species. PMID:20139301

Amemiya, Chris T.; Powers, Thomas P.; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Grimwood, Jane; Schmutz, Jeremy; Dickson, Mark; Miyake, Tsutomu; Schoenborn, Michael A.; Myers, Richard M.; Ruddle, Francis H.; Stadler, Peter F.

2010-01-01

380

Evolution of a morphological novelty occurred before genome compaction in a lineage of extreme parasites.  

PubMed

Intracellular parasitism results in extreme adaptations, whose evolutionary history is difficult to understand, because the parasites and their known free-living relatives are so divergent from one another. Microsporidia are intracellular parasites of humans and other animals, which evolved highly specialized morphological structures, but also extreme physiologic and genomic simplification. They are suggested to be an early-diverging branch on the fungal tree, but comparisons to other species are difficult because their rates of molecular evolution are exceptionally high. Mitochondria in microsporidia have degenerated into organelles called mitosomes, which have lost a genome and the ability to produce ATP. Here we describe a gut parasite of the crustacean Daphnia that despite having remarkable morphological similarity to the microsporidia, has retained genomic features of its fungal ancestors. This parasite, which we name Mitosporidium daphniae gen. et sp. nov., possesses a mitochondrial genome including genes for oxidative phosphorylation, yet a spore stage with a highly specialized infection apparatus--the polar tube--uniquely known only from microsporidia. Phylogenomics places M. daphniae at the root of the microsporidia. A comparative genomic analysis suggests that the reduction in energy metabolism, a prominent feature of microsporidian evolution, was preceded by a reduction in the machinery controlling cell cycle, DNA recombination, repair, and gene expression. These data show that the morphological features unique to M. daphniae and other microsporidia were already present before the lineage evolved the extreme host metabolic dependence and loss of mitochondrial respiration for which microsporidia are well known. PMID:25313038

Haag, Karen L; James, Timothy Y; Pombert, Jean-François; Larsson, Ronny; Schaer, Tobias M M; Refardt, Dominik; Ebert, Dieter

2014-10-28

381

Fossil rhabdoviral sequences integrated into arthropod genomes: ontogeny, evolution, and potential functionality.  

PubMed

Retroelements represent a considerable fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and are considered major drives for adaptive genetic innovations. Recent discoveries showed that despite not normally using DNA intermediates like retroviruses do, Mononegaviruses (i.e., viruses with nonsegmented, negative-sense RNA genomes) can integrate gene fragments into the genomes of their hosts. This was shown for Bornaviridae and Filoviridae, the sequences of which have been found integrated into the germ line cells of many vertebrate hosts. Here, we show that Rhabdoviridae sequences, the major Mononegavirales family, have integrated only into the genomes of arthropod species. We identified 185 integrated rhabdoviral elements (IREs) coding for nucleoproteins, glycoproteins, or RNA-dependent RNA polymerases; they were mostly found in the genomes of the mosquito Aedes aegypti and the blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis. Phylogenetic analyses showed that most IREs in A. aegypti derived from multiple independent integration events. Since RNA viruses are submitted to much higher substitution rates as compared with their hosts, IREs thus represent fossil traces of the diversity of extinct Rhabdoviruses. Furthermore, analyses of orthologous IREs in A. aegypti field mosquitoes sampled worldwide identified an integrated polymerase IRE fragment that appeared under purifying selection within several million years, which supports a functional role in the host's biology. These results show that A. aegypti was subjected to repeated Rhabdovirus infectious episodes during its evolution history, which led to the accumulation of many integrated sequences. They also suggest that like retroviruses, integrated rhabdoviral sequences may participate actively in the evolution of their hosts. PMID:21917725

Fort, Philippe; Albertini, Aurélie; Van-Hua, Aurélie; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Roche, Stéphane; Delsuc, Frédéric; Pasteur, Nicole; Capy, Pierre; Gaudin, Yves; Weill, Mylčne

2012-01-01

382

Sequencing the genome of Marssonina brunnea reveals fungus-poplar co-evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The fungus Marssonina brunnea is a causal pathogen of Marssonina leaf spot that devastates poplar plantations by defoliating susceptible trees before normal fall leaf drop. Results We sequence the genome of M. brunnea with a size of 52 Mb assembled into 89 scaffolds, representing the first sequenced Dermateaceae genome. By inoculating this fungus onto a poplar hybrid clone, we investigate how M. brunnea interacts and co-evolves with its host to colonize poplar leaves. While a handful of virulence genes in M. brunnea, mostly from the LysM family, are detected to up-regulate during infection, the poplar down-regulates its resistance genes, such as nucleotide binding site domains and leucine rich repeats, in response to infection. From 10,027 predicted proteins of M. brunnea in a comparison with those from poplar, we identify four poplar transferases that stimulate the host to resist M. brunnea. These transferas-encoding genes may have driven the co-evolution of M. brunnea and Populus during the process of infection and anti-infection. Conclusions Our results from the draft sequence of the M. brunnea genome provide evidence for genome-genome interactions that play an important role in poplar-pathogen co-evolution. This knowledge could help to design effective strategies for controlling Marssonina leaf spot in poplar. PMID:22876864

2012-01-01

383

Comparative analyses of DNA methylation and sequence evolution using Nasonia genomes.  

PubMed

The functional and evolutionary significance of DNA methylation in insect genomes remains to be resolved. Nasonia is well situated for comparative analyses of DNA methylation and genome evolution, since the genomes of a moderately distant outgroup species as well as closely related sibling species are available. Using direct sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA, we uncovered a substantial level of DNA methylation in 17 of 18 Nasonia vitripennis genes and a strong correlation between methylation level and CpG depletion. Notably, in the sex-determining locus transformer, the exon that is alternatively spliced between the sexes is heavily methylated in both males and females, whereas other exons are only sparsely methylated. Orthologous genes of the honeybee and Nasonia show highly similar relative levels of CpG depletion, despite ~190 My divergence. Densely and sparsely methylated genes in these species also exhibit similar functional enrichments. We found that the degree of CpG depletion is negatively correlated with substitution rates between closely related Nasonia species for synonymous, nonsynonymous, and intron sites. This suggests that mutation rates increase with decreasing levels of germ line methylation. Thus, DNA methylation is prevalent in the Nasonia genome, may participate in regulatory processes such as sex determination and alternative splicing, and is correlated with several aspects of genome and sequence evolution. PMID:21693438

Park, Jungsun; Peng, Zuogang; Zeng, Jia; Elango, Navin; Park, Taesung; Wheeler, Dave; Werren, John H; Yi, Soojin V

2011-12-01

384

Comparative Analyses of DNA Methylation and Sequence Evolution Using Nasonia Genomes  

PubMed Central

The functional and evolutionary significance of DNA methylation in insect genomes remains to be resolved. Nasonia is well situated for comparative analyses of DNA methylation and genome evolution, since the genomes of a moderately distant outgroup species as well as closely related sibling species are available. Using direct sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA, we uncovered a substantial level of DNA methylation in 17 of 18 Nasonia vitripennis genes and a strong correlation between methylation level and CpG depletion. Notably, in the sex-determining locus transformer, the exon that is alternatively spliced between the sexes is heavily methylated in both males and females, whereas other exons are only sparsely methylated. Orthologous genes of the honeybee and Nasonia show highly similar relative levels of CpG depletion, despite ?190 My divergence. Densely and sparsely methylated genes in these species also exhibit similar functional enrichments. We found that the degree of CpG depletion is negatively correlated with substitution rates between closely related Nasonia species for synonymous, nonsynonymous, and intron sites. This suggests that mutation rates increase with decreasing levels of germ line methylation. Thus, DNA methylation is prevalent in the Nasonia genome, may participate in regulatory processes such as sex determination and alternative splicing, and is correlated with several aspects of genome and sequence evolution. PMID:21693438

Park, Jungsun; Peng, Zuogang; Zeng, Jia; Elango, Navin; Park, Taesung; Wheeler, Dave; Werren, John H.; Yi, Soojin V.

2011-01-01

385

Massively Convergent Evolution for Ribosomal Protein Gene Content in Plastid and Mitochondrial Genomes  

PubMed Central

Plastid and mitochondrial genomes have undergone parallel evolution to encode the same functional set of genes. These encode conserved protein components of the electron transport chain in their respective bioenergetic membranes and genes for the ribosomes that express them. This highly convergent aspect of organelle genome evolution is partly explained by the redox regulation hypothesis, which predicts a separate plastid or mitochondrial location for genes encoding bioenergetic membrane proteins of either photosynthesis or respiration. Here we show that convergence in organelle genome evolution is far stronger than previously recognized, because the same set of genes for ribosomal proteins is independently retained by both plastid and mitochondrial genomes. A hitherto unrecognized selective pressure retains genes for the same ribosomal proteins in both organelles. On the Escherichia coli ribosome assembly map, the retained proteins are implicated in 30S and 50S ribosomal subunit assembly and initial rRNA binding. We suggest that ribosomal assembly imposes functional constraints that govern the retention of ribosomal protein coding genes in organelles. These constraints are subordinate to redox regulation for electron transport chain components, which anchor the ribosome to the organelle genome in the first place. As organelle genomes undergo reduction, the rRNAs also become smaller. Below size thresholds of approximately 1,300 nucleotides (16S rRNA) and 2,100 nucleotides (26S rRNA), all ribosomal protein coding genes are lost from organelles, while electron transport chain components remain organelle encoded as long as the organelles use redox chemistry to generate a proton motive force. PMID:24259312

Maier, Uwe-G; Zauner, Stefan; Woehle, Christian; Bolte, Kathrin; Hempel, Franziska; Allen, John F.; Martin, William F.

2013-01-01

386

Correlated evolution of LTR retrotransposons and genome size in the genus eleocharis  

PubMed Central

Background Transposable elements (TEs) are considered to be an important source of genome size variation and genetic and phenotypic plasticity in eukaryotes. Most of our knowledge about TEs comes from large genomic projects and studies focused on model organisms. However, TE dynamics among related taxa from natural populations and the role of TEs at the species or supra-species level, where genome size and karyotype evolution are modulated in concert with polyploidy and chromosomal rearrangements, remain poorly understood. We focused on the holokinetic genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae), which displays large variation in genome size and the occurrence of polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy. We analyzed and quantified the long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy in relation to changes in both genome size and karyotype in Eleocharis. We also examined how this relationship is reflected in the phylogeny of Eleocharis. Results Using flow cytometry, we measured the genome sizes of members of the genus Eleocharis (Cyperaceae). We found positive correlation between the independent phylogenetic contrasts of genome size and chromosome number in Eleocharis. We analyzed PCR-amplified sequences of various reverse transcriptases of the LTR retrotransposons Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy (762 sequences in total). Using real-time PCR and dot blot approaches, we quantified the densities of Ty1-copia and Ty3-gypsy within the genomes of the analyzed species. We detected an increasing density of Ty1-copia elements in evolutionarily younger Eleocharis species and found a positive correlation between Ty1-copia densities and C/n-values (an alternative measure of monoploid genome size) in the genus phylogeny. In addition, our analysis of Ty1-copia sequences identified a novel retrotransposon family named Helos1, which is responsible for the increasing density of Ty1-copia. The transition:transversion ratio of Helos1 sequences suggests that Helos1 recently transposed in later-diverging Eleocharis species. Conclusions Using several different approaches, we were able to distinguish between the roles of LTR retrotransposons, polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy in shaping Eleocharis genomes and karyotypes. Our results confirm the occurrence of both polyploidy and agmatoploidy/symploidy in Eleocharis. Additionally, we introduce a new player in the process of genome evolution in holokinetic plants: LTR retrotransposons. PMID:21118487

2010-01-01

387

Polyploidy in fungi: evolution after whole-genome duplication  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy is a major evolutionary process in eukaryotes—particularly in plants and, to a less extent, in animals, wherein several past and recent whole-genome duplication events have been described. Surprisingly, the incidence of polyploidy in other eukaryote kingdoms, particularly within fungi, remained largely disregarded by the scientific community working on the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Recent studies have significantly increased our knowledge of the occurrence and evolutionary significance of fungal polyploidy. The ecological, structural and functional consequences of polyploidy in fungi are reviewed here and compared with the knowledge acquired with conventional plant and animal models. In particular, the genus Saccharomyces emerges as a relevant model for polyploid studies, in addition to plant and animal models. PMID:22492065

Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe

2012-01-01

388

Analysis of Adaptive Evolution in Lyssavirus Genomes Reveals Pervasive Diversifying Selection during Species Diversification  

PubMed Central

Lyssavirus is a diverse genus of viruses that infect a variety of mammalian hosts, typically causing encephalitis. The evolution of this lineage, particularly the rabies virus, has been a focus of research because of the extensive occurrence of cross-species transmission, and the distinctive geographical patterns present throughout the diversification of these viruses. Although numerous studies have examined pattern-related questions concerning Lyssavirus evolution, analyses of the evolutionary processes acting on Lyssavirus diversification are scarce. To clarify the relevance of positive natural selection in Lyssavirus diversification, we conducted a comprehensive scan for episodic diversifying selection across all lineages and codon sites of the five coding regions in lyssavirus genomes. Although the genomes of these viruses are generally conserved, the glycoprotein (G), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L) and polymerase (P) genes were frequently targets of adaptive evolution during the diversification of the genus. Adaptive evolution is particularly manifest in the glycoprotein gene, which was inferred to have experienced the highest density of positively selected codon sites along branches. Substitutions in the L gene were found to be associated with the early diversification of phylogroups. A comparison between the number of positively selected sites inferred along the branches of RABV population branches and Lyssavirus intespecies branches suggested that the occurrence of positive selection was similar on the five coding regions of the genome in both groups. PMID:25415197

Voloch, Carolina M.; Capellăo, Renata T.; Mello, Beatriz; Schrago, Carlos G.

2014-01-01

389

Close Encounters of the Third Domain: The Emerging Genomic View of Archaeal Diversity and Evolution  

PubMed Central

The Archaea represent the so-called Third Domain of life, which has evolved in parallel with the Bacteria and which is implicated to have played a pivotal role in the emergence of the eukaryotic domain of life. Recent progress in genomic sequencing technologies and cultivation-independent methods has started to unearth a plethora of data of novel, uncultivated archaeal lineages. Here, we review how the availability of such genomic data has revealed several important insights into the diversity, ecological relevance, metabolic capacity, and the origin and evolution of the archaeal domain of life. PMID:24348093

Spang, Anja; Saw, Jimmy H.; Lind, Anders E.; Ettema, Thijs J. G.

2013-01-01

390

Atomic force microscopy studies of human rhinovirus topology and molecular forces.  

PubMed

Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) allows for imaging of the structure and assessment of the function of biological specimens in their physiological environment. In DFM, the cantilever is oscillated at a given frequency and touches the sample only at the end of its downward movement. Accordingly, the problem of lateral forces displacing or even destroying biomolecules is virtually inexistent as the contact time and friction forces are greatly reduced. Here, we describe the use of DFM in studies of human rhinovirus serotype 2 (HRV2). The capsid of HRV2 was reproducibly imaged without any displacement of the virus. Release of the genomic RNA from the virions was initiated by exposure to low-pH buffer and snapshots of the extrusion process were obtained. DFM of the single-stranded RNA genome of an HRV showed loops protruding from a condensed RNA core, 20-50 nm in height. The mechanical rigidity of the RNA was determined by single molecule pulling experiments. From fitting RNA stretching curves to the worm-like-chain (WLC) model a persistence length of 1.0+/-0.17 nm was obtained. PMID:20627169

Kienberger, Ferry; Zhu, Rong; Rankl, Christian; Gruber, Hermann J; Blaas, Dieter; Hinterdorfer, Peter

2010-01-01

391

The evolution of multicellularity and early animal genomes.  

PubMed

Several independent molecular datasets, including complete mtDNA sequence, indicate that Choanozoa are most closely related to multicellular animals. There is still confusion concerning basal animal phylogeny, although recent data indicate that Placozoa are not degenerate cnidarians and hence (along with sponges) occupy a pivotal position. The transition in evolution from diploblast to bilaterian animals is becoming better understood, with gene expression data arguing that cnidarians have forerunners of the anteroposterior and dorsoventral body axes, and even a putative homologue of mesoderm. The homeobox and kinase gene families have been further analysed in basal animals, although more data are required to enable detailed comparison with Bilateria. PMID:14638321

Brooke, Nina M; Holland, Peter W H

2003-12-01

392

The sacred lotus genome provides insights into the evolution of flowering plants.  

PubMed

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36,385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis. PMID:23952714

Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong

2013-11-01

393

Genome evolution and speciation: toward quantitative descriptions of pattern and process.  

PubMed

Studies of patterns of differentiation across genomes are accumulating, yet integrative work that combines approaches and fully capitalizes on new technologies to test explicit hypotheses is still rare. Thus, debates persist about the rate, magnitude, and causes of genomic change. This special section is devoted to helping resolve these debates. The eight studies contained within demonstrate how we can begin to move away from vague metaphors toward quantitative and more precise descriptors of patterns of genetic architecture and divergence. However, a particular genomic pattern can often arise via different combinations of various processes such as selection, gene flow, recombination, mutation, genetic drift, and demographic variability. Thus, substantial challenges remain in elucidating which evolutionary processes generated observed genomic patterns. Nonetheless, the studies in this section demonstrate ways forward toward bridging pattern and process, including experimental work, genetic mapping, increased knowledge of natural history and demography, and comparative studies spanning taxa at different points in the speciation continuum. Such collective work will lead to more powerful hypothesis testing. Future work can also help better integrate the contributions of ecology, genome structure (e.g., inversions and translocations), and genetic conflict to genome evolution. PMID:24033160

Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L

2013-09-01

394

Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress.  

PubMed

We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1-3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g.liter-1 total dissolved salts, approximately 10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the "rise and fall" pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P; Nevo, Eviatar

2003-12-01

395

Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: Fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress  

PubMed Central

We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ?10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar

2003-01-01

396

Principles of Genome Evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group  

PubMed Central

That closely related species often differ by chromosomal inversions was discovered by Sturtevant and Plunkett in 1926. Our knowledge of how these inversions originate is still very limited, although a prevailing view is that they are facilitated by ectopic recombination events between inverted repetitive sequences. The availability of genome sequences of related species now allows us to study in detail the mechanisms that generate interspecific inversions. We have analyzed the breakpoint regions of the 29 inversions that differentiate the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and two closely related species, D. simulans and D. yakuba, and reconstructed the molecular events that underlie their origin. Experimental and computational analysis revealed that the breakpoint regions of 59% of the inversions (17/29) are associated with inverted duplications of genes or other nonrepetitive sequences. In only two cases do we find evidence for inverted repetitive sequences in inversion breakpoints. We propose that the presence of inverted duplications associated with inversion breakpoint regions is the result of staggered breaks, either isochromatid or chromatid, and that this, rather than ectopic exchange between inverted repetitive sequences, is the prevalent mechanism for the generation of inversions in the melanogaster species group. Outgroup analysis also revealed evidence for widespread breakpoint recycling. Lastly, we have found that expression domains in D. melanogaster may be disrupted in D. yakuba, bringing into question their potential adaptive significance. PMID:17550304

Ranz, José M; Maurin, Damien; Chan, Yuk S; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Hillier, LaDeana W; Roote, John; Ashburner, Michael; Bergman, Casey M

2007-01-01

397