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1

Recombination in the evolution of human rhinovirus genomes.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are highly prevalent human respiratory pathogens that belong to the genus Enterovirus. Although recombination within the coding region is frequent in other picornavirus groups, most evidence of recombination in HRV has been restricted to the 5' untranslated region. We analysed the occurrence of recombination within published complete genome sequences of members of all three HRV species and additionally compared sequences from HRV strains spanning 14 years. HRV-B and HRV-C showed very little evidence of recombination within the coding region. In contrast, HRV-A sequences appeared to have undergone a large number of recombination events, typically involving whole type groups. This suggests that HRV-A may have been subject to extensive recombination during the period of diversification into types. This study demonstrates the rare and sporadic nature of contemporary recombination of HRV strains and contrasts with evidence of extensive recombination within HRV-A and between members of different species during earlier stages in its evolutionary diversification. PMID:23443931

McIntyre, Chloe L; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Hovi, Tapani; Simmonds, Peter

2013-02-27

2

The genomic signature of human rhinoviruses A, B and C.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses are single stranded positive sense RNA viruses that are presented in more than 50% of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Despite extensive studies on the genetic diversity of the virus, little is known about the forces driving it. In order to explain this diversity, many research groups have focused on protein sequence requirements for viable, functional and transmissible virus but have missed out an important aspect of viral evolution such as the genomic ontology of the virus. This study presents for the first time the genomic signature of 111 fully sequenced HRV strains from all three groups HRV-A, HRV-B and HRV-C. We observed an HRV genome tendency to eliminate CpG and UpA dinucleotides, coupling with over-representation of UpG and CpA. We propose a specific mechanism which describes how rapid changes in the HRV genomic sequence can take place under the strict control of conservation of the polypeptide backbone. Moreover, the distribution of the observed under- and over-represented dinucleotides along the HRV genome is presented. Distance matrice tables based on CpG and UpA odds ratios were constructed and viewed as heatmaps and distance trees. None of the suppressions can be attributed to codon usage or in RNA secondary structure requirements. Since viral recognition is dependent on RNA motifs rich in CpG and UpA, it is possible that the overall described genome evolution mechanism acts in order to protect the virus from host recognition. PMID:23028561

Megremis, Spyridon; Demetriou, Philippos; Makrinioti, Heidi; Manoussaki, Alkistis E; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

2012-09-13

3

Genome-wide diversity and selective pressure in the human rhinovirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the most common and diverse respiratory pathogens of humans. Over 100 distinct HRV serotypes are known, yet only 6 genomes are available. Due to the paucity of HRV genome sequence, little is known about the genetic diversity within HRV or the forces driving this diversity. Previous comparative genome sequence analyses indicate that

Amy L Kistler; Dale R Webster; Silvi Rouskin; Vince Magrini; Joel J Credle; David P Schnurr; Homer A Boushey; Elaine R Mardis; Hao Li; Joseph L DeRisi

2007-01-01

4

Evolution of bacterial genomes.  

PubMed

This review examines evolution of bacterial genomes with an emphasis on RNA based life, the transition to functional DNA and small evolving genomes (possible plasmids) that led to larger, functional bacterial genomes. PMID:9111921

Trevors, J T

1997-03-01

5

Genome evolution in yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the mechanisms of eukaryotic genome evolution by comparative genomics is often complicated by the multiplicity of events that have taken place throughout the history of individual lineages, leaving only distorted and superimposed traces in the genome of each living organism. The hemiascomycete yeasts, with their compact genomes, similar lifestyle and distinct sexual and physiological properties, provide a unique opportunity

Bernard Dujon; David Sherman; Gilles Fischer; Pascal Durrens; Serge Casaregola; Ingrid Lafontaine; Jacky de Montigny; Christian Marck; Cécile Neuvéglise; Emmanuel Talla; Nicolas Goffard; Lionel Frangeul; Michel Aigle; Véronique Anthouard; Anna Babour; Valérie Barbe; Stéphanie Barnay; Sylvie Blanchin; Jean-Marie Beckerich; Emmanuelle Beyne; Claudine Bleykasten; Anita Boisramé; Jeanne Boyer; Laurence Cattolico; Fabrice Confanioleri; Antoine de Daruvar; Laurence Despons; Emmanuelle Fabre; Cécile Fairhead; Hélène Ferry-Dumazet; Alexis Groppi; Florence Hantraye; Christophe Hennequin; Nicolas Jauniaux; Philippe Joyet; Rym Kachouri; Alix Kerrest; Romain Koszul; Marc Lemaire; Isabelle Lesur; Laurence Ma; Héloïse Muller; Jean-Marc Nicaud; Macha Nikolski; Sophie Oztas; Odile Ozier-Kalogeropoulos; Stefan Pellenz; Serge Potier; Guy-Franck Richard; Marie-Laure Straub; Audrey Suleau; Dominique Swennen; Fredj Tekaia; Micheline Wésolowski-Louvel; Eric Westhof; Bénédicte Wirth; Maria Zeniou-Meyer; Ivan Zivanovic; Monique Bolotin-Fukuhara; Agnès Thierry; Christiane Bouchier; Bernard Caudron; Claude Scarpelli; Claude Gaillardin; Jean Weissenbach; Patrick Wincker; Jean-Luc Souciet

2004-01-01

6

Complete sequence of the RNA genome of human rhinovirus 16, a clinically useful common cold virus belonging to the ICAM-1 receptor group  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the complete nucleotide sequence and predicted polyprotein sequence of HeLa cell-adapted human rhinovirus 16 (HRV16). This virus is more suitable than human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) for clinical studies, and its growth and physical properties are favorable for biochemical and crystallographic analysis. The complete message-sense RNA genome of HRV16 is composed of 7124 bases, not including the poly(A)

Wai-Ming Lee; Wensheng Wang; Roland R. Rueckert

1995-01-01

7

Human rhinoviruses.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs. PMID:23297263

Jacobs, Samantha E; Lamson, Daryl M; St George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J

2013-01-01

8

Evolution of the cancer genome  

PubMed Central

Human tumors result from an evolutionary process operating on somatic cells within tissues, whereby natural selection operates on the phenotypic variability generated by the accumulation of genetic, genomic and epigenetic alterations. This somatic evolution leads to adaptations such as increased proliferative, angiogenic, and invasive phenotypes. In this review we outline how cancer genomes are beginning to be investigated from an evolutionary perspective. We describe recent progress in the cataloging of somatic genetic and genomic alterations, and investigate the contributions of germline as well as epigenetic factors to cancer genome evolution. Finally, we outline the challenges facing researchers who investigate the processes driving the evolution of the cancer genome.

Podlaha, Ondrej; Riester, Markus; De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska

2013-01-01

9

Hidden magicians of genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) represent genome's dynamic component, causing mutations and genetic variations. Transposable elements can invade eukaryotic genomes in a short span; these are silenced by homology-dependent gene silencing and some functional parts of silenced elements are utilized to perform novel cellular functions. However, during the past two decades, major interest has been focused on the positive contribution of these elements in the evolution of genomes. The interaction between mobile DNAs and their host genomes are quite diverse, ranging from modifications of gene structure to alterations in general genome architecture and can be regarded as hidden magicians in shaping evolution of genomes. Some of the prominent examples that impressively demonstrate the beneficial impact of TEs on host biology over evolutionary time include their role in structure and functions of eukaryotic genomes.

Kumar, C. Sandeep; Qureshi, Sameera Fatima; Ali, Altaf; Satyanarayana, M.L.; Rangaraju, Advithi; Venkateshwari, A.; Nallari, Pratibha

2013-01-01

10

Rapid Evolution of RNA Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA viruses show high mutation frequencies partly because of a lack of the proofreading enzymes that assure fidelity of DNA replication. This high mutation frequency is coupled with high rates of replication reflected in rates of RNA genome evolution which can be more than a millionfold greater than the rates of the DNA chromosome evolution of their hosts. There are

John Holland; Katherine Spindler; Frank Horodyski; Elizabeth Grabau; Stuart Nichol; Scott Vandepol

1982-01-01

11

Integrating sequence, evolution and functional genomics in regulatory genomics  

PubMed Central

With genome analysis expanding from the study of genes to the study of gene regulation, 'regulatory genomics' utilizes sequence information, evolution and functional genomics measurements to unravel how regulatory information is encoded in the genome.

Vingron, Martin; Brazma, Alvis; Coulson, Richard; van Helden, Jacques; Manke, Thomas; Palin, Kimmo; Sand, Olivier; Ukkonen, Esko

2009-01-01

12

Detection of Human Rhinovirus C Viral Genome in Blood among Children with Severe Respiratory Infections in the Philippines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rhinovirus (HRV) C was recently identified as the third species of HRV using a molecular technique. Infections caused by previously identified HRVs (A and B) are thought to be limited to the respiratory tract; however, pathogenesis of HRVC is still largely unknown. A total of 816 nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized children with severe respiratory infections in the Philippines (May

Naoko Fuji; Akira Suzuki; Socorro Lupisan; Lydia Sombrero; Hazel Galang; Taro Kamigaki; Raita Tamaki; Mariko Saito; Rapunzel Aniceto; Remigio Olveda; Hitoshi Oshitani

2011-01-01

13

Evolution of the cancer genome  

PubMed Central

The advent of massively parallel sequencing technologies has allowed the characterization of cancer genomes at an unprecedented resolution. Investigation of the mutational landscape of tumours is providing new insights into cancer genome evolution, laying bare the interplay of somatic mutation, adaptation of clones to their environment and natural selection. These studies have demonstrated the extent of the heterogeneity of cancer genomes, have allowed inferences to be made about the forces that act on nascent cancer clones as they evolve and have shown insight into the mutational processes that generate genetic variation. Here we review our emerging understanding of the dynamic evolution of the cancer genome and of the implications for basic cancer biology and the development of antitumour therapy.

Yates, Lucy R.; Campbell, Peter J.

2013-01-01

14

GENOME EVOLUTION IN TRITICALE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyploidization-induced genome variation in triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) was investigated using both AFLP and RFLP analyses. The AFLP analyses were implemented with both EcoRI/MseI (E/M) and PstI/MseI (P/M) primer combinations, which, because of the relative differences in sensitivity to c...

15

Genome evolution in enteric bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

For more than a decade, the study of bacterial evolution has been dominated by the comparative analysis of nucleotide sequences within and among species. This approach, combined with the characterization of extensive regions of the chromosome by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, has led to new insights into the dynamics of bacterial genomes.

Howard Ochman; Ulfar Bergthorsson

1995-01-01

16

Genome size evolution: sizing mammalian genomes.  

PubMed

The study of genome size (GS) and its variation is so fascinating to the scientific community because it constitutes the link between the present-day analytical and molecular studies of the genome and the old trunk of the holistic and synthetic view of the genome. The GS of several taxa vary over a broad range and do not correlate with the complexity of the organisms (the C-value paradox). However, the biology of transposable elements has let us reach a satisfactory view of the molecular mechanisms that give rise to GS variation and novelties, providing a less perplexing view of the significance of the GS (C-enigma). The knowledge of the composition and structure of a genome is a pre-requisite for trying to understand the evolution of the main genome signature: its size. The radiation of mammals provides an approximately 180-million-year test case for theories of how GS evolves. It has been found from data-mining GS databases that GS is a useful cyto-taxonomical instrument at the level of orders/superorders, providing genomic signatures characterizing Monotremata, Marsupialia, Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria, and Euarchontoglires. A hypothetical ancestral mammalian-like GS of 2.9-3.7 pg has been suggested. This value appears compatible with the average values calculated for the high systematic levels of the extant Monotremata (?2.97 pg) and Marsupialia (?4.07 pg), suggesting invasion of mobile DNA elements concurrently with the separation of the older clades of Afrotheria (?5.5 pg) and Xenarthra (?4.5 pg) with larger GS, leaving the Euarchontoglires (?3.4 pg) and Laurasiatheria (?2.8 pg) genomes with fewer transposable elements. However, the paucity of GS data (546 mammalian species sized from 5,488 living species) for species, genera, and families calls for caution. Considering that mammalian species may be vanished even before they are known, GS data are sorely needed to phenotype the effects brought about by their variation and to validate any hypotheses on GS evolution in mammals. PMID:22627028

Redi, C A; Capanna, E

2012-05-23

17

Widespread Recurrent Evolution of Genomic Features  

PubMed Central

The recent explosion of genome sequences from all major phylogenetic groups has unveiled an unexpected wealth of cases of recurrent evolution of strikingly similar genomic features in different lineages. Here, we review the diverse known types of recurrent evolution in eukaryotic genomes, with a special focus on metazoans, ranging from reductive genome evolution to origins of splice-leader trans-splicing, from tandem exon duplications to gene family expansions. We first propose a general classification scheme for evolutionary recurrence at the genomic level, based on the type of driving force—mutation or selection—and the environmental and genomic circumstances underlying these forces. We then discuss various cases of recurrent genomic evolution under this scheme. Finally, we provide a broader context for repeated genomic evolution, including the unique relationship of genomic recurrence with the genotype–phenotype map, and the ways in which the study of recurrent genomic evolution can be used to understand fundamental evolutionary processes.

Maeso, Ignacio; Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

2012-01-01

18

Experimental human rhinovirus and enterovirus interspecies recombination.  

PubMed

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) and enteroviruses (HEVs), two important human pathogens, are non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA viruses of the genus Enterovirus within the family Picornaviridae. Intraspecies recombination is known as a driving force for enterovirus and, to a lesser extent, rhinovirus evolution. Interspecies recombination is much less frequent among circulating strains, and supporting evidence for such recombination is limited to ancestral events, as shown by recent phylogenetic analyses reporting ancient HRV-A/HRV-C, HEV-A/HEV-C and HEV-A/HEV-D recombination mainly at the 5'-untranslated region (5' UTR)-polyprotein junction. In this study, chimeric genomes were artificially generated using the 5' UTR from two different clinical HRV-C strains (HRV-Ca and HRV-Cc), an HRV-B strain (HRV-B37) and an HEV-A strain (HEV-A71), and the remaining part of the genome from an HRV-A strain (HRV-A16). Whilst the chimeric viruses were easily propagated in cell culture, the wild-type HRV-A16 retained a replication advantage, both individually and in competition experiments. Assessment of protein synthesis ability did not show a correlation between translation and replication efficiencies. These results reflect the interchangeability of the 5' UTR, including its functional RNA structural elements implicated in both genome translation and replication among different enterovirus species. The 5' UTR-polyprotein junction therefore represents a theoretic interspecies recombination breakpoint. This recombination potential is probably restricted by the need for co-infection opportunities and the requirement for the progeny chimera to outcompete the parental genomes' fitness, explaining the rare occurrence of such events in vivo. PMID:21940413

Schibler, Manuel; Gerlach, Daniel; Martinez, Yannick; Belle, Sandra Van; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

2011-09-21

19

Mutational Equilibrium Model of Genome Size Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a mutational equilibrium model of genome size evolution. This model is different from both adaptive and junk DNA models of genome size evolution in that it does not assume that genome size is maintained either by positive or stabilizing selection for the optimum genome size (as in adaptive theories) or by purifying selection against too much junk

Dmitri A. Petrov

2002-01-01

20

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their

Jianying Gu; Jennifer Neary; Hong Cai; Audrey Moshfeghian; Stephen A Rodriguez; Timothy G Lilburn; Yufeng Wang

2009-01-01

21

Rhinovirus Reference Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present status of the seed stocks for prototype rhinoviruses types 1A-55 is given. To date, a total of 60 candidate prototype rhinoviruses have been received for inclusion in the second phase of the program. The status of these reagents is shown. Resu...

V. V. Hamparian R. M. Conant H. G. Cramblett

1967-01-01

22

Three tiers of genome evolution in reptiles.  

PubMed

Characterization of reptilian genomes is essential for understanding the overall diversity and evolution of amniote genomes, because reptiles, which include birds, constitute a major fraction of the amniote evolutionary tree. To better understand the evolution and diversity of genomic characteristics in Reptilia, we conducted comparative analyses of online sequence data from Alligator mississippiensis (alligator) and Sphenodon punctatus (tuatara) as well as genome size and karyological data from a wide range of reptilian species. At the whole-genome and chromosomal tiers of organization, we find that reptilian genome size distribution is consistent with a model of continuous gradual evolution while genomic compartmentalization, as manifested in the number of microchromosomes and macrochromosomes, appears to have undergone early rapid change. At the sequence level, the third genomic tier, we find that exon size in Alligator is distributed in a pattern matching that of exons in Gallus (chicken), especially in the 101-200 bp size class. A small spike in the fraction of exons in the 301 bp-1 kb size class is also observed for Alligator, but more so for Sphenodon. For introns, we find that members of Reptilia have a larger fraction of introns within the 101 bp-2 kb size class and a lower fraction of introns within the 5-30 kb size class than do mammals. These findings suggest that the mode of reptilian genome evolution varies across three hierarchical levels of the genome, a pattern consistent with a mosaic model of genomic evolution. PMID:21669810

Organ, Chris L; Moreno, Ricardo Godínez; Edwards, Scott V

2008-06-21

23

The Evolution of Genomic Imprinting  

PubMed Central

In some mammalian genes, the paternally and maternally derived alleles are expressed differently: this phenomenon is called genomic imprinting. Here we study the evolution of imprinting using multivariate quantitative genetic models to examine the feasibility of the genetic conflict hypothesis. This hypothesis explains the observed imprinting patterns as an evolutionary outcome of the conflict between the paternal and maternal alleles. We consider the expression of a zygotic gene, which codes for an embryonic growth factor affecting the amount of maternal resources obtained through the placenta. We assume that the gene produces the growth factor in two different amounts depending on its parental origin. We show that genomic imprinting evolves easily if females have some probability of multiple partners. This is in conflict with the observation that not all genes controlling placental development are imprinted and that imprinting in some genes is not conserved between mice and humans. We show however that deleterious mutations in the coding region of the gene create selection against imprinting.

Mochizuki, A.; Takeda, Y.; Iwasa, Y.

1996-01-01

24

Molecular evolution of genes in avian genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Obtaining a draft genome sequence of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), the second bird genome to be sequenced, provides the necessary resource for whole-genome comparative analysis of gene sequence\\u000a evolution in a non-mammalian vertebrate lineage. To analyze basic molecular evolutionary processes during avian evolution,\\u000a and to contrast these with the situation in mammals, we aligned the protein-coding sequences of 8,384

Kiwoong Nam; Carina Mugal; Benoit Nabholz; Holger Schielzeth; Jochen BW Wolf; Niclas Backström; Axel Künstner; Christopher N Balakrishnan; Andreas Heger; Chris P Ponting; David F Clayton; Hans Ellegren

2010-01-01

25

Darwinian evolution in the light of genomics  

PubMed Central

Comparative genomics and systems biology offer unprecedented opportunities for testing central tenets of evolutionary biology formulated by Darwin in the Origin of Species in 1859 and expanded in the Modern Synthesis 100 years later. Evolutionary-genomic studies show that natural selection is only one of the forces that shape genome evolution and is not quantitatively dominant, whereas non-adaptive processes are much more prominent than previously suspected. Major contributions of horizontal gene transfer and diverse selfish genetic elements to genome evolution undermine the Tree of Life concept. An adequate depiction of evolution requires the more complex concept of a network or ‘forest’ of life. There is no consistent tendency of evolution towards increased genomic complexity, and when complexity increases, this appears to be a non-adaptive consequence of evolution under weak purifying selection rather than an adaptation. Several universals of genome evolution were discovered including the invariant distributions of evolutionary rates among orthologous genes from diverse genomes and of paralogous gene family sizes, and the negative correlation between gene expression level and sequence evolution rate. Simple, non-adaptive models of evolution explain some of these universals, suggesting that a new synthesis of evolutionary biology might become feasible in a not so remote future.

Koonin, Eugene V.

2009-01-01

26

Gene Family Evolution across 12 Drosophila Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and

Matthew W. Hahn; Mira V. Han; Sang-Gook Han

2007-01-01

27

Developmental Constraints on Vertebrate Genome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using

Julien Roux; Marc Robinson-Rechavi

2008-01-01

28

Labeling of capsid proteins and genomic RNA of human rhinovirus with two different fluorescent dyes for selective detection by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

During uncoating of human rhinoviruses, the innermost capsid protein VP4 and the genomic RNA are released from the viral protein shell. This process gives rise to subviral particles that are composed of the remaining three capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. The process is believed to take place in a sequential manner in that first VP4 is expelled resulting in A-particles sedimenting at 135S followed by the RNA resulting in B-particles sedimenting at 80S. Aiming at ultimately analyzing this process in vivo, we introduced two different fluorophores into the RNA and the viral capsid proteins, respectively. Incubation of the virus with RiboGreen resulted in formation of a RNA-dye complex with lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 500/525 nm, whereas subsequent derivatization of the viral protein shell in the same sample with AMCA-S introduced a label with lambda(ex)/lambda(em) = 345-350/440-460 nm. In this way, both viral components could be selectively detected via fluorescence in a capillary electrophoresis system. The intact virus delivers two superimposed signals in the electropherogram. Derivatization of the free amino groups of the capsid proteins partially preserved the bioaffinity of the virus toward a synthetic receptor fragment, an artificial recombinant concatemer of repeat number 3 of the very low density lipoprotein receptor. Between 10 and 20% of the infectivity were recovered after labeling when compared to native virus. In addition to analysis of factors influencing the stability of the virus by CE, double-labeled virions might be useful for the investigation of the uncoating process by real-time confocal fluorescence microscopy. PMID:15595880

Kremser, Leopold; Petsch, Martina; Blaas, Dieter; Kenndler, Ernst

2004-12-15

29

MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF BOVINE RHINOVIRUS TYPE 2 SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP TO THE APHTHOVIRUSES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV-2) the causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus Rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. However, previous analysis of the sequence from partial amplicons in the 3D and P1 regions of the genome su...

30

Route of NCLDV evolution: the genomic accordion.  

PubMed

Nucleo cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) superfamily forms a diverse group of viruses that infects a wide range of eukaryotic hosts (e.g. vertebrates, insects, protests, etc.). These viruses are characterized by a huge range in genome size (between 100kb and 1.2Mb), coupled with an extraordinary diverse genomic repertoire. Here I will review some recent results that shed light on the origin and genome evolution of these viruses, introducing the idea that these viruses evolved using a complex process of genomic accordion that imply successive steps of genome expansions (duplication and gene transfers) and genome reduction, in addition to movement and amplification of diverse mobile genetic elements. PMID:23896278

Filée, Jonathan

2013-07-27

31

Evolution of the chloroplast genome.  

PubMed Central

We discuss the suggestion that differences in the nucleotide composition between plastid and nuclear genomes may provide a selective advantage in the transposition of genes from plastid to nucleus. We show that in the adenine, thymine (AT)-rich genome of Borrelia burgdorferi several genes have an AT-content lower than the average for the genome as a whole. However, genes whose plant homologues have moved from plastid to nucleus are no less AT-rich than genes whose plant homologues have remained in the plastid, indicating that both classes of gene are able to support a high AT-content. We describe the anomalous organization of dinoflagellate plastid genes. These are located on small circles of 2-3 kbp, in contrast to the usual plastid genome organization of a single large circle of 100-200 kbp. Most circles contain a single gene. Some circles contain two genes and some contain none. Dinoflagellate plastids have retained far fewer genes than other plastids. We discuss a similarity between the dinoflagellate minicircles and the bacterial integron system.

Howe, Christopher J; Barbrook, Adrian C; Koumandou, V Lila; Nisbet, R Ellen R; Symington, Hamish A; Wightman, Tom F

2003-01-01

32

Genome plasticity and systems evolution in Streptomyces  

PubMed Central

Background Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication. Conclusions Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A better understanding of the LSE gene families will, on the other hand, bring a wealth of new insights into the mechanisms underlying strain-specific phenotypes, such as the production of novel antibiotics, pathogenesis, and adaptive response to environmental challenges.

2012-01-01

33

Critical Analysis of Rhinovirus RNA Load Quantification by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR  

PubMed Central

Rhinoviruses are the most frequent cause of human respiratory infections, and quantitative rhinovirus diagnostic tools are needed for clinical investigations. Although results obtained by real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays are frequently converted to viral RNA loads, this presents several limitations regarding accurate virus RNA quantification, particularly given the need to reliably quantify all known rhinovirus genotypes with a single assay. Using an internal extraction control and serial dilutions of an in vitro-transcribed rhinovirus RNA reference standard, we validated a quantitative one-step real-time PCR assay. We then used chimeric rhinovirus genomes with 5?-untranslated regions (5?UTRs) originating from the three rhinovirus species and from one enterovirus to estimate the impact of the 5?UTR diversity. Respiratory specimens from infected patients were then also analyzed. The assay quantification ability ranged from 4.10 to 9.10 log RNA copies/ml, with an estimated error margin of ±10%. This variation was mainly linked to target variability and interassay variability. Taken together, our results indicate that our assay can reliably estimate rhinovirus RNA load, provided that the appropriate error margin is used. In contrast, due to the lack of a universal rhinovirus RNA standard and the variability related to sample collection procedures, accurate absolute rhinovirus RNA quantification in respiratory specimens is currently hardly feasible.

Yerly, Sabine; Vieille, Gael; Docquier, Mylene; Turin, Lara; Kaiser, Laurent; Tapparel, Caroline

2012-01-01

34

Genomic and systems evolution in Vibrionaceae species  

PubMed Central

Background The steadily increasing number of prokaryotic genomes has accelerated the study of genome evolution; in particular, the availability of sets of genomes from closely related bacteria has facilitated the exploration of the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity. The family Vibrionaceae is found in the Gammaproteobacteria and is abundant in aquatic environments. Taxa from the family Vibrionaceae are diversified in their life styles; some species are free living, others are symbiotic, and others are human pathogens. This diversity makes this family a useful set of model organisms for studying bacterial evolution. This evolution is driven by several forces, among them gene duplication and lateral gene transfer, which are believed to provide raw material for functional redundancy and novelty. The resultant gene copy increase in one genome is then detected as lineage-specific expansion (LSE). Results Here we present the results of a detailed comparison of the genomes of eleven Vibrionaceae strains that have distinct life styles and distinct phenotypes. The core genome shared by all eleven strains is composed of 1,882 genes, which make up about 31%–50% of the genome repertoire. We further investigated the distribution and features of genes that have been specifically expanded in one unique lineage of the eleven strains. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified in the eleven Vibrionaceae strains, with 1–11% of the whole genomes composed lineage specific radiations. These LSEs occurred in two distinct patterns: the first type yields one or more copies of a single gene; we call this a single gene expansion. The second pattern has a high evolutionary impact, as the expansion involves two or more gene copies in a block, with the duplicated block located next to the original block (a contiguous block expansion) or at some distance from the original block (a discontiguous block expansion). We showed that LSEs involve genes that are tied to defense and pathogenesis mechanisms as well as in the fundamental life cycle of Vibrionaceae species. Conclusion Our results provide evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within the family Vibrionaceae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for lineage-specific adaptations of each Vibrionaceae pathogen or nonpathogen strain. Such lineage specific expansions could reveal components in bacterial systems that, by their enhanced genetic variability, can be tied to responses to environmental challenges, interesting phenotypes, or adaptive pathogenic responses to host challenges.

Gu, Jianying; Neary, Jennifer; Cai, Hong; Moshfeghian, Audrey; Rodriguez, Stephen A; Lilburn, Timothy G; Wang, Yufeng

2009-01-01

35

Insights into Cyanobacterial Evolution from Comparative Genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent high-throughput sequencing has provided DNA sequences at an unprecedented rate, posing considerable analytical challenges, but also offering insight into the genetic mechanisms of adaptation. Here we present a comparative genomics-based approach towards understanding the evolution of these mechanisms in cyanobacteria. Historically, systematic methods of defining morphological traits in cyanobacteria have posed a major barrier in reconstructing their true evolutionary

Wesley D. Swingley; Robert E. Blankenship

36

Genome duplication, extinction and vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertebrate evolution has been punctuated by three episodes of widespread gene or genome duplication, which have been linked with the origin of vertebrates, gnathostomes and teleosts, respectively. These three events coincide with bursts of character acquisition and increases in phenotypic complexity, and many researchers have suggested a causal relationship between the two. However, this pattern is derived from data for

Philip C. J. Donoghue; Mark A. Purnell

2005-01-01

37

Genome evolution during progression to breast cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer evolution involves cycles of genomic damage, epigenetic deregulation, and increased cellular proliferation that eventually culminate in the carcinoma phenotype. Early neoplasias, which are often found concurrently with carcinomas and are histologically distinguishable from normal breast tissue, are less advanced in phenotype than carcinomas and are thought to represent precursor stages. To elucidate their role in cancer evolution we performed comparative whole-genome sequencing of early neoplasias, matched normal tissue, and carcinomas from six patients, for a total of 31 samples. By using somatic mutations as lineage markers we built trees that relate the tissue samples within each patient. On the basis of these lineage trees we inferred the order, timing, and rates of genomic events. In four out of six cases, an early neoplasia and the carcinoma share a mutated common ancestor with recurring aneuploidies, and in all six cases evolution accelerated in the carcinoma lineage. Transition spectra of somatic mutations are stable and consistent across cases, suggesting that accumulation of somatic mutations is a result of increased ancestral cell division rather than specific mutational mechanisms. In contrast to highly advanced tumors that are the focus of much of the current cancer genome sequencing, neither the early neoplasia genomes nor the carcinomas are enriched with potentially functional somatic point mutations. Aneuploidies that occur in common ancestors of neoplastic and tumor cells are the earliest events that affect a large number of genes and may predispose breast tissue to eventual development of invasive carcinoma. PMID:23568837

Newburger, Daniel E; Kashef-Haghighi, Dorna; Weng, Ziming; Salari, Raheleh; Sweeney, Robert T; Brunner, Alayne L; Zhu, Shirley X; Guo, Xiangqian; Varma, Sushama; Troxell, Megan L; West, Robert B; Batzoglou, Serafim; Sidow, Arend

2013-04-08

38

Integrons: natural tools for bacterial genome evolution.  

PubMed

Integrons were first identified as the primary mechanism for antibiotic resistance gene capture and dissemination among Gram-negative bacteria. More recently, their role in genome evolution has been extended with the discovery of larger integron structures, the super-integrons, as genuine components of the genomes of many species throughout the gamma-proteobacterial radiation. The functional platforms of these integrons appear to be sedentary, whereas their gene cassette contents are highly variable. Nevertheless, the gene cassettes for which an activity has been experimentally demonstrated encode proteins related to simple adaptive functions and their recruitment is seen as providing the bacterial host with a selective advantage. The widespread occurrence of the integron system among Gram-negative bacteria is discussed, with special focus on the super-integrons. Some of the adaptive functions encoded by these genes are also reviewed, and implications of integron-mediated genome evolution in the emergence of novel bacterial species are highlighted. PMID:11587934

Rowe-Magnus, D A; Mazel, D

2001-10-01

39

Rhinoviruses infect the lower airways.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses are the major cause of the common cold and a trigger of acute asthma exacerbations. Whether these exacerbations result from direct infection of the lower airway or from indirect mechanisms consequent on infection of the upper airway alone is currently unknown. Lower respiratory infection was investigated in vitro by exposing primary human bronchial epithelial cells to rhinoviruses and in vivo after experimental upper respiratory infection of human volunteers. Bronchial infection was confirmed by both approaches. Furthermore, rhinoviruses induced production of interleukin-6, -8, and -16 and RANTES and were cytotoxic to cultured respiratory epithelium. This evidence strongly supports a direct lower respiratory epithelial reaction as the initial event in the induction of rhinovirus-mediated asthma exacerbations. The frequency of infection and the nature of the inflammatory response observed are similar to those of the upper respiratory tract, suggesting that rhinovirus infections may be one of the most important causes of lower in addition to upper respiratory disease. PMID:10837165

Papadopoulos, N G; Bates, P J; Bardin, P G; Papi, A; Leir, S H; Fraenkel, D J; Meyer, J; Lackie, P M; Sanderson, G; Holgate, S T; Johnston, S L

2000-06-05

40

Genomic repeats, genome plasticity and the dynamics of Mycoplasma evolution  

PubMed Central

Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats.

Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain

2002-01-01

41

Genome Evolution in the 21st Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.

Shapiro, James

2006-03-01

42

Comparative genomics and evolution of eukaryotic phospholipidbiosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.

Lykidis, Athanasios

2006-12-01

43

Genome plasticity as a paradigm of eubacteria evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test the hypotheses that eubacterial genomes leave evolutionarily stable structures and that the variety of genome size\\u000a is brought about through genome doubling during evolution, the genome structures of Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis were compared using the DNA sequences of the entire genome or substantial portions of genome. In these comparisons, the locations\\u000a of

Hidemi Watanabe; Hirotada Mori; Takeshi Itoh; Takashi Gojobori

1997-01-01

44

Microbial genome analysis: insights into virulence, host adaptation and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genome analysis of microbial pathogens has provided unique insights into their virulence, host adaptation and evolution. Common themes have emerged, including lateral gene transfer among enteric pathogens, genome decay among obligate intracellular pathogens and antigenic variation among mucosal pathogens. The advent of post-genomic approaches and the sequencing of the human genome will enable scientists to investigate the complex and dynamic

Brendan W. Wren

2000-01-01

45

Mitochondrial genome evolution in fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased ...

46

Comparative Genomics and Evolution of Molybdenum Utilization  

PubMed Central

The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is the catalytic component of important enzymes involved in global nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon metabolism in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. With the exception of nitrogenase, Mo is complexed by a pterin compound thus forming the biologically active molybdenum cofactor (Moco) at the catalytic sites of molybdoenzymes. The physiological roles and biochemical functions of many molybdoenzymes have been characterized. However, our understanding of the occurrence and evolution of Mo utilization is limited. This article focuses on recent advances in comparative genomics of Mo utilization in the three domains of life. We begin with a brief introduction of Mo transport systems, the Moco biosynthesis pathway, the role of posttranslational modifications, and enzymes that utilize Mo. Then, we proceed to recent computational and comparative genomics studies of Mo utilization, including a discussion on novel Moco-binding proteins that contain the C-terminal domain of the Moco sulfurase and that are suggested to represent a new family of molybdoenzymes. As most molybdoenzymes need additional cofactors for their catalytic activity, we also discuss interactions between Mo metabolism and other trace elements and finish with an analysis of factors that may influence evolution of Mo utilization.

Zhang, Yan; Rump, Steffen; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

2011-01-01

47

Gene family evolution across 12 Drosophila genomes.  

PubMed

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and loss of genes at unprecedented resolution. We find large numbers of both gains and losses, with over 40% of all gene families differing in size among the Drosophila. Approximately 17 genes are estimated to be duplicated and fixed in a genome every million years, a rate on par with that previously found in both yeast and mammals. We find many instances of extreme expansions or contractions in the size of gene families, including the expansion of several sex- and spermatogenesis-related families in D. melanogaster that also evolve under positive selection at the nucleotide level. Newly evolved gene families in our dataset are associated with a class of testes-expressed genes known to have evolved de novo in a number of cases. Gene family comparisons also allow us to identify a number of annotated D. melanogaster genes that are unlikely to encode functional proteins, as well as to identify dozens of previously unannotated D. melanogaster genes with conserved homologs in the other Drosophila. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the apparent stasis in total gene number among species has masked rapid turnover in individual gene gain and loss. It is likely that this genomic revolving door has played a large role in shaping the morphological, physiological, and metabolic differences among species. PMID:17997610

Hahn, Matthew W; Han, Mira V; Han, Sang-Gook

2007-11-01

48

Gene Family Evolution across 12 Drosophila Genomes  

PubMed Central

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed large and frequent changes in the size of gene families. These changes occur because of high rates of both gene gain (via duplication) and loss (via deletion or pseudogenization), as well as the evolution of entirely new genes. Here we use the genomes of 12 fully sequenced Drosophila species to study the gain and loss of genes at unprecedented resolution. We find large numbers of both gains and losses, with over 40% of all gene families differing in size among the Drosophila. Approximately 17 genes are estimated to be duplicated and fixed in a genome every million years, a rate on par with that previously found in both yeast and mammals. We find many instances of extreme expansions or contractions in the size of gene families, including the expansion of several sex- and spermatogenesis-related families in D. melanogaster that also evolve under positive selection at the nucleotide level. Newly evolved gene families in our dataset are associated with a class of testes-expressed genes known to have evolved de novo in a number of cases. Gene family comparisons also allow us to identify a number of annotated D. melanogaster genes that are unlikely to encode functional proteins, as well as to identify dozens of previously unannotated D. melanogaster genes with conserved homologs in the other Drosophila. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the apparent stasis in total gene number among species has masked rapid turnover in individual gene gain and loss. It is likely that this genomic revolving door has played a large role in shaping the morphological, physiological, and metabolic differences among species.

Hahn, Matthew W; Han, Mira V; Han, Sang-Gook

2007-01-01

49

Nucleomorph genomes: structure, function, origin and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes are two unicellularalgallineageswithcomplexcellularstructures and fascinating evolutionary histories. Both groups acquired their photosynthetic abilities through the as- similation of eukaryotic endosymbionts. As a result, they possess two distinct cytosolic compartments and four genomes—two nuclear genomes, an endosymbiont- derived plastid genome and a mitochondrial genome derived from the host cell. Like mitochondrial and plastid genomes, the genome

John M. Archibald

2007-01-01

50

Genome evolution in outcrossing versus selfing versus asexual species.  

PubMed

A major current molecular evolution challenge is to link comparative genomic patterns to species' biology and ecology. Breeding systems are pivotal because they affect many population genetic processes, and thus genome evolution. We review theoretical predictions and empirical evidence about molecular evolutionary processes under three distinct breeding systems-outcrossing, selfing, and asexuality. Breeding systems may have a profound impact on genome evolution, including molecular evolutionary rates, base composition, genomic conflict, and possibly genome size. However, while asexual species essentially conform to theoretical predictions, the situation is less simple in selfing species. We discuss the possible reasons to potentially explain this paradox. In reverse, comparative and population genomic data and approaches help revisiting old questions on the long-term evolution of breeding systems. PMID:22407714

Glémin, Sylvain; Galtier, Nicolas

2012-01-01

51

Evolution of mammalian genome organization inferred from comparative gene mapping  

PubMed Central

Comparative genome analyses, including chromosome painting in over 40 diverse mammalian species, ordered gene maps from several representatives of different mammalian and vertebrate orders, and large-scale sequencing of the human and mouse genomes are beginning to provide insight into the rates and patterns of chromosomal evolution on a whole-genome scale, as well as into the forces that have sculpted the genomes of extant mammalian species.

Murphy, William J; Stanyon, Roscoe; O'Brien, Stephen J

2001-01-01

52

Rhinovirus and asthma.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses (RVs) cause the majority of common colds, which often provoke wheezing in patients with asthma. The precise mechanisms responsible for the RV infection-induced exacerbations of bronchial asthma are still uncertain. However, several reports reveal airway hyperresponsiveness, increases in chemical mediators in airway secretions such as kinin and histamine, and airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma after RV infection. RV infection induces an accumulation of inflammatory cells in airway mucosa and submucosa including neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. RV affects the barrier function of airway epithelial cells, and activates the airway epithelial cells and other cells in the lung to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines, including various kinds of interleukins, GM-CSF and RANTES, and histamine. RV also stimulates the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and low-density lipoprotein receptors in the airway epithelium, receptors for major and minor RVs. On the other hand, RV infection is inhibited by treatment with soluble ICAM-1, and by reduction of ICAM-1 expression in the airway epithelial cells after treatment with erythromycin. Both soluble ICAM-1 and erythromycin were reported to reduce the frequency of common colds. Here, we review the pathogenesis and management of RV infection-induced exacerbation of bronchial asthma. PMID:12828863

Yamaya, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Hidetada

2003-01-01

53

Evolution of Coding Microsatellites in Primate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites (SSRs) are highly susceptible to expansions and contractions. When located in a coding sequence, the insertion or the deletion of a single unit for a mono-, di-, tetra-, or penta(nucleotide)-SSR creates a frameshift. As a consequence, one would expect to find only very few of these SSRs in coding sequences because of their strong deleterious potential. Unexpectedly, genomes contain many coding SSRs of all types. Here, we report on a study of their evolution in a phylogenetic context using the genomes of four primates: human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque. In a set of 5,015 orthologous genes unambiguously aligned among the four species, we show that, except for tri- and hexa-SSRs, for which insertions and deletions are frequently observed, SSRs in coding regions evolve mainly by substitutions. We show that the rate of substitution in all types of coding SSRs is typically two times higher than in the rest of coding sequences. Additionally, we observe that although numerous coding SSRs are created and lost by substitutions in the lineages, their numbers remain constant. This last observation suggests that the coding SSRs have reached equilibrium. We hypothesize that this equilibrium involves a combination of mutation, drift, and selection. We thus estimated the fitness cost of mono-SSRs and show that it increases with the number of units. We finally show that the cost of coding mono-SSRs greatly varies from function to function, suggesting that the strength of the selection that acts against them can be correlated to gene functions.

Loire, Etienne; Higuet, Dominique; Netter, Pierre; Achaz, Guillaume

2013-01-01

54

Genome evolution in bacteria: order beneath chaos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial genomes have been viewed as collections of genes, with each gene and genome evolving more-or-less independently through the acquisition of mutational changes. This historical view has been overturned by the finding that genomes of even closely-related taxa differ widely in gene content. Yet, genomes are more than ever-shuffling collections of genes. Some genes within a genome are more transient

Jeffrey G Lawrence; Heather Hendrickson

2005-01-01

55

Molecular and Phylogenetic Analyses of Bovine Rhinovirus Type 2 Shows it is Closely Related to Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bovine rhinovirus 2 (BRV2), a causative agent of respiratory disease in cattle, is currently an unclassified species tentatively assigned to the genus rhinovirus in the family Picornaviridae. A nearly full-length cDNA of the BRV2 genome was cloned and the nucleotide sequence from the poly(C) to the ...

56

The tomato genome: implications for plant breeding, genomics and evolution  

PubMed Central

The genome sequence of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), one of the most important vegetable crops, has recently been decoded. We address implications of the tomato genome for plant breeding, genomics and evolutionary studies, and its potential to fuel future crop biology research.

2012-01-01

57

Genome size diversity in orchids: consequences and evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The amount of DNA comprising the genome of an organism (its genome size) varies a remarkable 40 000-fold across eukaryotes, yet most groups are characterized by much narrower ranges (e.g. 14-fold in gymnosperms, 3- to 4-fold in mammals). Angiosperms stand out as one of the most variable groups with genome sizes varying nearly 2000-fold. Nevertheless within angiosperms the majority of families are characterized by genomes which are small and vary little. Species with large genomes are mostly restricted to a few monocots families including Orchidaceae. Scope A survey of the literature revealed that genome size data for Orchidaceae are comparatively rare representing just 327 species. Nevertheless they reveal that Orchidaceae are currently the most variable angiosperm family with genome sizes ranging 168-fold (1C = 0·33–55·4 pg). Analysing the data provided insights into the distribution, evolution and possible consequences to the plant of this genome size diversity. Conclusions Superimposing the data onto the increasingly robust phylogenetic tree of Orchidaceae revealed how different subfamilies were characterized by distinct genome size profiles. Epidendroideae possessed the greatest range of genome sizes, although the majority of species had small genomes. In contrast, the largest genomes were found in subfamilies Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. Genome size evolution within this subfamily was analysed as this is the only one with reasonable representation of data. This approach highlighted striking differences in genome size and karyotype evolution between the closely related Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. As to the consequences of genome size diversity, various studies revealed that this has both practical (e.g. application of genetic fingerprinting techniques) and biological consequences (e.g. affecting where and when an orchid may grow) and emphasizes the importance of obtaining further genome size data given the considerable phylogenetic gaps which have been highlighted by the current study.

Leitch, I. J.; Kahandawala, I.; Suda, J.; Hanson, L.; Ingrouille, M. J.; Chase, M. W.; Fay, M. F.

2009-01-01

58

Rapid Genome Evolution Revealed by Comparative Sequence Analysis of Orthologous Regions from Four Triticeae Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid species, consisting of three subgenomes (A, B, and D). To study the molecular evolution of these closely related genomes, we compared the sequence of a 307-kb physical contig covering the high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenin locus from the A genome of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum, AABB) with the orthologous regions from the B genome

Yong Qiang Gu; Devin Coleman-Derr; Xiuying Kong; Olin D. Anderson

2004-01-01

59

The human rhinovirus internal cis-acting replication element (cre) exhibits disparate properties among serotypes.  

PubMed

It has been reported previously that the Human rhinovirus 14 (HRV-14) RNA genome contains a cis-acting replication element (cre) that maps to the capsid coding (P1) sequence [19]. Further characterization of the HRV-14 cre in the present study established that by moving the cre stem-loop structure downstream, adjacent to the 3'NCR, that its position is not critical for function. When the P1 sequences of two closely related serotypes of HRV-14 were analyzed for the presence of a cre, both HRV-3 and HRV-72 were found to contain similar sequence at the same positions as HRV-14. Moreover, sequence at these positions produced structures from MFOLD analysis that closely resembled the HRV-14 cre. It was also discovered that neither HRV serotypes 1a or 16 harbor replication elements that map to the P1 segments of their genomes. Computer and mutational analyses suggest that the cre in these latter HRV serotypes map instead to the 2A gene, as has been reported for HRV-2. The putative HRV-3 cre was determined to be unable to support replication when placed in an HRV-14 replicon background. Similarly, the previously identified HRV-2 cre was unable to support replication of the HRV-14 genome. This finding is in contrast to the cardiovirus cre, which has been shown to be functionally active between two members of its family, and further suggests that there is a close link between the evolution of the human rhinoviruses and the mechanisms of RNA replication. PMID:14648294

McKnight, K L

2003-09-19

60

Rhinovirus infection induces mucus hypersecretion.  

PubMed

Rhinorrhea is a prominent symptom of the common cold. Although increases in vascular permeability and serous cell secretion have been demonstrated in human nasal mucus during active rhinovirus infections, changes in mucin constituents have not been quantified. Nonallergic (n = 48) and asymptomatic allergic rhinitis (n = 32) subjects were inoculated with rhinovirus type hanks before the spring allergy season. Nasal lavages were performed before inoculation (day 0), then daily for 5 days afterward. The subjects were divided into infected and noninfected groups on the basis of evidence of successful rhinovirus infection (nasal shedding of virus or fourfold increases in specific serum antibodies). Concentrations of interleukin (IL)-8, markers of vascular leak (IgG), seromucous cells (lysozyme), and mucoglycoprotein exocytosis [7F10-immunoreactive mucin (7F10-irm) and Alcian blue staining of acidic mucoglycoproteins] were measured in lavage fluids. The infected subgroup had maximal increases in nasal lavage fluid concentrations of IL-8 (sevenfold), IgG (fourfold), total protein (twofold), and gel-phase 7F10-irm (twofold) on day 3. There were no differences between infected allergic and nonallergic subjects. IL-8 and gel-phase 7F10-irm were significantly higher in infected than in noninfected subjects. In addition to promoting plasma exudation, rhinovirus hanks infection increases IL-8 and gel-phase mucin secretion. These processes may contribute to a progression from watery rhinorrhea to mucoid discharge, with mild neutrophilic infiltration during the common cold. PMID:9609741

Yuta, A; Doyle, W J; Gaumond, E; Ali, M; Tamarkin, L; Baraniuk, J N; Van Deusen, M; Cohen, S; Skoner, D P

1998-06-01

61

Interpreting Mammalian Evolution using Fugu Genome Comparisons  

SciTech Connect

Comparative sequence analysis of the human and the pufferfish Fugu rubripes (fugu) genomes has revealed several novel functional coding and noncoding regions in the human genome. In particular, the fugu genome has been extremely valuable for identifying transcriptional regulatory elements in human loci harboring unusually high levels of evolutionary conservation to rodent genomes. In such regions, the large evolutionary distance between human and fishes provides an additional filter through which functional noncoding elements can be detected with high efficiency.

Stubbs, L; Ovcharenko, I; Loots, G G

2004-04-02

62

The impact of retrotransposons on human genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Non-LTR retrotransposons – including LINE-1 (or L1), Alu and SVA elements – have proliferated during the past 80 million years of primate evolution and now account for approximately one third of the human genome. These transposable elements are now known to affect the human genome in many different ways: generating insertion mutations, genomic instability, alterations in gene expression and also contributing to genetic innovation. As the sequences of human and other primate genomes are analyzed in increasing detail, we are begining to understand the scale and complexity of the past and current contribution of non-LTR retrotransposons to genomic change in the human lineage.

Cordaux, Richard; Batzer, Mark A.

2010-01-01

63

The amphioxus genome and the evolution of the chordate karyotype  

SciTech Connect

Lancelets ('amphioxus') are the modern survivors of an ancient chordate lineage with a fossil record dating back to the Cambrian. We describe the structure and gene content of the highly polymorphic {approx}520 million base pair genome of the Florida lancelet Branchiostoma floridae, and analyze it in the context of chordate evolution. Whole genome comparisons illuminate the murky relationships among the three chordate groups (tunicates, lancelets, and vertebrates), and allow reconstruction of not only the gene complement of the last common chordate ancestor, but also a partial reconstruction of its genomic organization, as well as a description of two genome-wide duplications and subsequent reorganizations in the vertebrate lineage. These genome-scale events shaped the vertebrate genome and provided additional genetic variation for exploitation during vertebrate evolution.

Putnam, Nicholas H.; Butts, Thomas; Ferrier, David E.K.; Furlong, Rebecca F.; Hellsten, Uffe; Kawashima, Takeshi; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Terry, Astrid; Yu, Jr-Kai; Benito-Gutierrez, Elia; Dubchak, Inna; Garcia-Fernandez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Horton, Amy C.; de Jong, Pieter J.; Jurka, Jerzy; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Kohara, Yuji; Kuroki, Yoko; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Pennacchio, Len A.; Salamov, Asaf A.; Satou, Yutaka; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Schmutz [, Jeremy; Shin-I, Tadasu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Fujiyama, Asao; Holland, Linda Z.; Holland, Peter W. H.; Satoh, Nori; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2008-04-01

64

Programming cells by multiplex genome engineering and accelerated evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The breadth of genomic diversity found among organisms in nature allows populations to adapt to diverse environments. However, genomic diversity is difficult to generate in the laboratory and new phenotypes do not easily arise on practical timescales. Although in vitro and directed evolution methods have created genetic variants with usefully altered phenotypes, these methods are limited to laborious and serial

Harris H. Wang; Farren J. Isaacs; Peter A. Carr; Zachary Z. Sun; George Xu; Craig R. Forest; George M. Church

2009-01-01

65

Microsatellite evolution inferred from human- chimpanzee genomic sequence alignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of microsatellite evolution utilize long, highly mutable loci, which are unrepresentative of the majority of simple repeats in the human genome. Here we use an unbiased sample of 2,467 microsatellite loci derived from alignments of 5.1 Mb of genomic sequence from human and chimpanzee to investigate the mutation process of tandemly repetitive DNA. The results indicate that the

Matthew T. Webster; Nick G. C. Smith; Hans Ellegren

2002-01-01

66

Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gorillas are humans’ closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing

Aylwyn Scally; Julien Y. Dutheil; LaDeana W. Hillier; Gregory E. Jordan; Ian Goodhead; Javier Herrero; Asger Hobolth; Tuuli Lappalainen; Thomas Mailund; Tomas Marques-Bonet; Shane McCarthy; Stephen H. Montgomery; Petra C. Schwalie; Y. Amy Tang; Michelle C. Ward; Yali Xue; Bryndis Yngvadottir; Can Alkan; Lars N. Andersen; Qasim Ayub; Edward V. Ball; Kathryn Beal; Brenda J. Bradley; Yuan Chen; Chris M. Clee; Stephen Fitzgerald; Tina A. Graves; Yong Gu; Paul Heath; Andreas Heger; Emre Karakoc; Anja Kolb-Kokocinski; Gavin K. Laird; Gerton Lunter; Stephen Meader; Matthew Mort; James C. Mullikin; Kasper Munch; Timothy D. O’Connor; Andrew D. Phillips; Javier Prado-Martinez; Anthony S. Rogers; Saba Sajjadian; Dominic Schmidt; Katy Shaw; Jared T. Simpson; Peter D. Stenson; Daniel J. Turner; Linda Vigilant; Albert J. Vilella; Weldon Whitener; Baoli Zhu; David N. Cooper; Pieter de Jong; Emmanouil T. Dermitzakis; Evan E. Eichler; Paul Flicek; Nick Goldman; Nicholas I. Mundy; Zemin Ning; Duncan T. Odom; Chris P. Ponting; Michael A. Quail; Oliver A. Ryder; Stephen M. Searle; Wesley C. Warren; Richard K. Wilson; Mikkel H. Schierup; Jane Rogers; Chris Tyler-Smith; Richard Durbin

2012-01-01

67

Lifestyle evolution in symbiotic bacteria: insights from genomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria that live only in eukaryotic cells and tissues, including chronic pathogens and mutualistic bacteriocyte associates, often possess a distinctive set of genomic traits, including reduced genome size, biased nucleotide base composition and fast polypeptide evolution. These phylogenetically diverse bacteria have lost certain functional categories of genes, including DNA repair genes, which affect mutational patterns. However, pathogens and mutualistic symbionts

Nancy A. Moran; Jennifer J. Wernegreen

2000-01-01

68

Ongoing Evolution of Strand Composition in Bacterial Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tried to identify the substitutions involved in the establishment of replication strand bias, which has been recognized as an important evolutionary factor in the evolution of bacterial genomes. First, we analyzed the com- position asymmetry of 28 complete bacterial genomes and used it to test the possibility that asymmetric deamination of cytosine might be at the origin of the

Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Antoine Danchin

69

Modeling protein network evolution under genome duplication and domain shuffling  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Successive whole genome duplications have recently been firmly established in all major eukaryote kingdoms. Such exponential evolutionary processes must have largely contributed to shape the topology of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks by outweighing, in particular, all time-linear network growths modeled so far. RESULTS: We propose and solve a mathematical model of PPI network evolution under successive genome duplications. This

Kirill Evlampiev; Hervé Isambert

2007-01-01

70

Segmental duplications and the evolution of the primate genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial human genome sequence analysis has revealed large segments of nearly identical sequence in particular chromosomal regions. The recent origin of these segments and their abundance (?5%) has challenged investigators to elucidate their underlying mechanism and role in primate genome evolution. Although the precise fraction is unknown, some of these duplicated segments have recently been shown to be associated with

Rhea Vallente Samonte; Evan E. Eichler

2001-01-01

71

Dynamics of Pseudomonas aeruginosa genome evolution  

PubMed Central

One of the hallmarks of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its ability to thrive in diverse environments that includes humans with a variety of debilitating diseases or immune deficiencies. Here we report the complete sequence and comparative analysis of the genomes of two representative P. aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients whose genetic disorder predisposes them to infections by this pathogen. The comparison of the genomes of the two CF strains with those of other P. aeruginosa presents a picture of a mosaic genome, consisting of a conserved core component, interrupted in each strain by combinations of specific blocks of genes. These strain-specific segments of the genome are found in limited chromosomal locations, referred to as regions of genomic plasticity. The ability of P. aeruginosa to shape its genomic composition to favor survival in the widest range of environmental reservoirs, with corresponding enhancement of its metabolic capacity is supported by the identification of a genomic island in one of the sequenced CF isolates, encoding enzymes capable of degrading terpenoids produced by trees. This work suggests that niche adaptation is a major evolutionary force influencing the composition of bacterial genomes. Unlike genome reduction seen in host-adapted bacterial pathogens, the genetic capacity of P. aeruginosa is determined by the ability of individual strains to acquire or discard genomic segments, giving rise to strains with customized genomic repertoires. Consequently, this organism can survive in a wide range of environmental reservoirs that can serve as sources of the infecting organisms.

Mathee, Kalai; Narasimhan, Giri; Valdes, Camilo; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Matewish, Jody M.; Koehrsen, Michael; Rokas, Antonis; Yandava, Chandri N.; Engels, Reinhard; Zeng, Erliang; Olavarietta, Raquel; Doud, Melissa; Smith, Roger S.; Montgomery, Philip; White, Jared R.; Godfrey, Paul A.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Birren, Bruce; Galagan, James E.; Lory, Stephen

2008-01-01

72

Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome),

D. Chalupska; H. Y. Lee; J. D. Faris; A. Evrard; B. Chalhoub; R. Haselkorn; P. Gornicki

2008-01-01

73

The Nucleotide Sequence of Human Rhinovirus 1B: Molecular Relationships within the Rhinovirus Genus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of human rhinovirus 1B and made comparisons with other rhinoviruses. Extensive homology was found with serotypes 2 and 89 but the similarity to serotype 14 was considerably less. Rhinovirus- specific characteristics have been noted, in particular the length of the 5' non-coding region and the pattern of codon usage, and these may

PAMELA J. HUGHES; CHRISTINE NORTH; CHRISTOPHER H. JELLIS; PHILIP D. MINOR; GLYN STANWAY

1988-01-01

74

THE EVOLUTION OF GENOMIC BASE COMPOSITION IN BACTERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Guanine plus cytosine (GC) content ranges broadly among bacterial genomes. In this study, we explore the use of a Brownian-motion model for the evolution of GC content over time. This model assumes that GC content varies over time in a continuous and homogeneous manner. Using this model and a maximum-likelihood approach, we analyzed the evolution of GC content across several

Eric Haywood-Farmer; Sarah P. Otto

2003-01-01

75

Evolution and diversity of fish genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ray-finned fishes (‘fishes’) vary widely in genome size, morphology and adaptations. Teleosts, which comprise ?23,600 species, constitute >99% of living fishes. The radiation of teleosts has been attributed to a genome duplication event, which is proposed to have occurred in an ancient teleost. But more evidence is required to support the genome-duplication hypothesis and to establish a causal relationship

Byrappa Venkatesh

2003-01-01

76

Consequences of reproductive mode on genome evolution in fungi.  

PubMed

An organism's reproductive mode is believed to be a major factor driving its genome evolution. In theory, sexual inbreeding and asexuality are associated with lower effective recombination levels and smaller effective population sizes than sexual outbreeding, giving rise to reduced selection efficiency and genetic hitchhiking. This, in turn, is predicted to result in the accumulation of deleterious mutations and other genomic changes, for example the accumulation of repetitive elements. Empirical data from plants and animals supporting/refuting these theories are sparse and have yielded few conclusive results. A growing body of data from the fungal kingdom, wherein reproductive behavior varies extensively within and among taxonomic groups, has provided new insights into the role of mating systems (e.g., homothallism, heterothallism, pseudohomothallism) and asexuality, on genome evolution. Herein, we briefly review the theoretical relationships between reproductive mode and genome evolution and give examples of empirical data on the topic derived to date from plants and animals. We subsequently focus on the available data from fungi, which suggest that reproductive mode alters the rates and patterns of genome evolution in these organisms, e.g., protein evolution, mutation rate, codon usage, frequency of genome rearrangements and repetitive elements, and variation in chromosome size. PMID:21362492

Whittle, C A; Nygren, K; Johannesson, H

2011-03-06

77

The genomic basis of adaptive evolution in threespine sticklebacks  

PubMed Central

Summary Marine stickleback fish have colonized and adapted to innumerable streams and lakes formed since the last ice age, providing an exceptional opportunity to characterize genomic mechanisms underlying repeated ecological adaptation in nature. Here we develop a high quality reference genome assembly for threespine sticklebacks. By sequencing the genomes of 20 additional individuals from a global set of marine and freshwater populations, we identify a genome-wide set of loci that are consistently associated with marine-freshwater divergence. Our results suggest that reuse of globally-shared standing genetic variation, including chromosomal inversions, plays an important role in repeated evolution of distinct marine and freshwater sticklebacks, and in the maintenance of divergent ecotypes during early stages of reproductive isolation. Both coding and regulatory changes occur in the set of loci underlying marine-freshwater evolution, with regulatory changes likely predominating in this classic example of repeated adaptive evolution in nature.

Jones, Felicity C; Grabherr, Manfred G; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Russell, Pamela; Mauceli, Evan; Johnson, Jeremy; Swofford, Ross; Pirun, Mono; Zody, Michael C; White, Simon; Birney, Ewan; Searle, Stephen; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Dickson, Mark C; Myers, Richard M; Miller, Craig T; Summers, Brian R; Knecht, Anne K; Brady, Shannon D; Zhang, Haili; Pollen, Alex A; Howes, Timothy; Amemiya, Chris; Lander, Eric S; Di Palma, Federica

2012-01-01

78

Structure, Function, and Evolution of the Thiomonas spp. Genome  

PubMed Central

Bacteria of the Thiomonas genus are ubiquitous in extreme environments, such as arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). The genome of one of these strains, Thiomonas sp. 3As, was sequenced, annotated, and examined, revealing specific adaptations allowing this bacterium to survive and grow in its highly toxic environment. In order to explore genomic diversity as well as genetic evolution in Thiomonas spp., a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) approach was used on eight different strains of the Thiomonas genus, including five strains of the same species. Our results suggest that the Thiomonas genome has evolved through the gain or loss of genomic islands and that this evolution is influenced by the specific environmental conditions in which the strains live.

Arsene-Ploetze, Florence; Koechler, Sandrine; Marchal, Marie; Coppee, Jean-Yves; Chandler, Michael; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Brochier-Armanet, Celine; Barakat, Mohamed; Barbe, Valerie; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Bruneel, Odile; Bryan, Christopher G.; Cleiss-Arnold, Jessica; Cruveiller, Stephane; Erhardt, Mathieu; Heinrich-Salmeron, Audrey; Hommais, Florence; Joulian, Catherine; Krin, Evelyne; Lieutaud, Aurelie; Lievremont, Didier; Michel, Caroline; Muller, Daniel; Ortet, Philippe; Proux, Caroline; Siguier, Patricia; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoe; Salvignol, Gregory; Slyemi, Djamila; Talla, Emmanuel; Weiss, Stephanie; Weissenbach, Jean; Medigue, Claudine; Bertin, Philippe N.

2010-01-01

79

Structure, function, and evolution of the Thiomonas spp. genome.  

PubMed

Bacteria of the Thiomonas genus are ubiquitous in extreme environments, such as arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). The genome of one of these strains, Thiomonas sp. 3As, was sequenced, annotated, and examined, revealing specific adaptations allowing this bacterium to survive and grow in its highly toxic environment. In order to explore genomic diversity as well as genetic evolution in Thiomonas spp., a comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) approach was used on eight different strains of the Thiomonas genus, including five strains of the same species. Our results suggest that the Thiomonas genome has evolved through the gain or loss of genomic islands and that this evolution is influenced by the specific environmental conditions in which the strains live. PMID:20195515

Arsène-Ploetze, Florence; Koechler, Sandrine; Marchal, Marie; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Chandler, Michael; Bonnefoy, Violaine; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Barakat, Mohamed; Barbe, Valérie; Battaglia-Brunet, Fabienne; Bruneel, Odile; Bryan, Christopher G; Cleiss-Arnold, Jessica; Cruveiller, Stéphane; Erhardt, Mathieu; Heinrich-Salmeron, Audrey; Hommais, Florence; Joulian, Catherine; Krin, Evelyne; Lieutaud, Aurélie; Lièvremont, Didier; Michel, Caroline; Muller, Daniel; Ortet, Philippe; Proux, Caroline; Siguier, Patricia; Roche, David; Rouy, Zoé; Salvignol, Grégory; Slyemi, Djamila; Talla, Emmanuel; Weiss, Stéphanie; Weissenbach, Jean; Médigue, Claudine; Bertin, Philippe N

2010-02-26

80

The evolution of genome size in ants  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae) remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta), and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7 Mb (0.15 pg). Results Here, we report the genome size for 40 species of ants distributed across 10 of the 20 currently recognized subfamilies, thus making Formicidae the 4th most surveyed insect family and elevating the Hymenoptera to the 5th most surveyed insect order. Our analysis spans much of the ant phylogeny, from the less derived Amblyoponinae and Ponerinae to the more derived Myrmicinae, Formicinae and Dolichoderinae. We include a number of interesting and important taxa, including the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), Neotropical army ants (genera Eciton and Labidus), trapjaw ants (Odontomachus), fungus-growing ants (Apterostigma, Atta and Sericomyrmex), harvester ants (Messor, Pheidole and Pogonomyrmex), carpenter ants (Camponotus), a fire ant (Solenopsis), and a bulldog ant (Myrmecia). Our results show that ants possess small genomes relative to most other insects, yet genome size varies three-fold across this insect family. Moreover, our data suggest that two whole-genome duplications may have occurred in the ancestors of the modern Ectatomma and Apterostigma. Although some previous studies of other taxa have revealed a relationship between genome size and body size, our phylogenetically-controlled analysis of this correlation did not reveal a significant relationship. Conclusion This is the first analysis of genome size in ants (Formicidae) and the first across multiple species of social insects. We show that genome size is a variable trait that can evolve gradually over long time spans, as well as rapidly, through processes that may include occasional whole-genome duplication. The small genome sizes of ants, combined with their ecological, evolutionary and agricultural importance, suggest that some of these species may be good candidates for future whole-genome sequencing projects.

2008-01-01

81

The Norway spruce genome sequence and conifer genome evolution.  

PubMed

Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200?million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, and there is no evidence of a recent whole-genome duplication in the gymnosperm lineage. Instead, the large genome size seems to result from the slow and steady accumulation of a diverse set of long-terminal repeat transposable elements, possibly owing to the lack of an efficient elimination mechanism. Comparative sequencing of Pinus sylvestris, Abies sibirica, Juniperus communis, Taxus baccata and Gnetum gnemon reveals that the transposable element diversity is shared among extant conifers. Expression of 24-nucleotide small RNAs, previously implicated in transposable element silencing, is tissue-specific and much lower than in other plants. We further identify numerous long (>10,000?base pairs) introns, gene-like fragments, uncharacterized long non-coding RNAs and short RNAs. This opens up new genomic avenues for conifer forestry and breeding. PMID:23698360

Nystedt, Björn; Street, Nathaniel R; Wetterbom, Anna; Zuccolo, Andrea; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Scofield, Douglas G; Vezzi, Francesco; Delhomme, Nicolas; Giacomello, Stefania; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Vicedomini, Riccardo; Sahlin, Kristoffer; Sherwood, Ellen; Elfstrand, Malin; Gramzow, Lydia; Holmberg, Kristina; Hällman, Jimmie; Keech, Olivier; Klasson, Lisa; Koriabine, Maxim; Kucukoglu, Melis; Käller, Max; Luthman, Johannes; Lysholm, Fredrik; Niittylä, Totte; Olson, Ake; Rilakovic, Nemanja; Ritland, Carol; Rosselló, Josep A; Sena, Juliana; Svensson, Thomas; Talavera-López, Carlos; Theißen, Günter; Tuominen, Hannele; Vanneste, Kevin; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Zerbe, Philipp; Arvestad, Lars; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Bohlmann, Joerg; Bousquet, Jean; Garcia Gil, Rosario; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; de Jong, Pieter; MacKay, John; Morgante, Michele; Ritland, Kermit; Sundberg, Björn; Thompson, Stacey Lee; Van de Peer, Yves; Andersson, Björn; Nilsson, Ove; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Lundeberg, Joakim; Jansson, Stefan

2013-05-22

82

Rapid genome evolution as revealed by comparative sequence analysis of orthologous regions from four triticeae genomes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a hexaploid species, consisting of three subgenomes (A, B, and D). To study the molecular evolution of these closely related genomes, we compared the sequence of a 307-kb physical contig covering the HMW-glutenin locus from the A genome of durum wheat Triticum turg...

83

Evolution in an oncogenic bacterial species with extreme genome plasticity: Helicobacter pylori East Asian genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The genome of Helicobacter pylori, an oncogenic bacterium in the human stomach, rapidly evolves and shows wide geographical divergence. The high incidence\\u000a of stomach cancer in East Asia might be related to bacterial genotype. We used newly developed comparative methods to follow\\u000a the evolution of East Asian H. pylori genomes using 20 complete genome sequences from Japanese, Korean, Amerind, European,

Mikihiko Kawai; Yoshikazu Furuta; Koji Yahara; Takeshi Tsuru; Kenshiro Oshima; Naofumi Handa; Noriko Takahashi; Masaru Yoshida; Takeshi Azuma; Masahira Hattori; Ikuo Uchiyama; Ichizo Kobayashi

2011-01-01

84

The fungal mitochondrial genome project: evolution of fungal mitochondrial genomes and their gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the fungal mitochondrial genome project (FMGP) is to sequence complete mitochondrial genomes for a representative\\u000a sample of the major fungal lineages; to analyze the genome structure, gene content, and conserved sequence elements of these\\u000a sequences; and to study the evolution of gene expression in fungal mitochondria. By using our new sequence data for evolutionary\\u000a studies, we were

Bruno Paquin; Marie-Josée Laforest; Lise Forget; Ingeborg Roewer; Zhang Wang; Joyce Longcore; B. Franz Lang

1997-01-01

85

Mitochondrial genome evolution and the origin of eukaryotes.  

PubMed

Recent results from ancestral (minimally derived) protists testify to the tremendous diversity of the mitochondrial genome in various eukaryotic lineages, but also reinforce the view that mitochondria, descendants of an endosymbiotic alpha-Proteobacterium, arose only once in evolution. The serial endosymbiosis theory, currently the most popular hypothesis to explain the origin of mitochondria, postulates the capture of an alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont by a nucleus-containing eukaryotic host resembling extant amitochondriate protists. New sequence data have challenged this scenario, instead raising the possibility that the origin of the mitochondrion was coincident with, and contributed substantially to, the origin of the nuclear genome of the eukaryotic cell. Defining more precisely the alpha-proteobacterial ancestry of the mitochondrial genome, and the contribution of the endosymbiotic event to the nuclear genome, will be essential for a full understanding of the origin and evolution of the eukaryotic cell as a whole. PMID:10690412

Lang, B F; Gray, M W; Burger, G

1999-01-01

86

Parallel genomic evolution and metabolic interdependence in an ancient symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Obligate symbioses with nutrient-provisioning bacteria have originated often during animal evolution and have been key to the ecological diversification of many invertebrate groups. To date, genome sequences of insect nutritional symbionts have been restricted to a related cluster within Gammaproteobacteria and have revealed distinctive features, including extreme reduction, rapid evolution, and biased nucleotide composition. Using recently developed sequencing technologies, we show that Sulcia muelleri, a member of the Bacteroidetes, underwent similar genomic changes during coevolution with its sap-feeding insect host (sharpshooters) and the coresident symbiont Baumannia cicadellinicola (Gammaproteobacteria). At 245 kilobases, Sulcia's genome is approximately one tenth of the smallest known Bacteroidetes genome and among the smallest for any cellular organism. Analysis of the coding capacities of Sulcia and Baumannia reveals striking complementarity in metabolic capabilities.

McCutcheon, John P.; Moran, Nancy A.

2007-01-01

87

Genome Evolution of a Tertiary Dinoflagellate Plastid  

PubMed Central

The dinoflagellates have repeatedly replaced their ancestral peridinin-plastid by plastids derived from a variety of algal lineages ranging from green algae to diatoms. Here, we have characterized the genome of a dinoflagellate plastid of tertiary origin in order to understand the evolutionary processes that have shaped the organelle since it was acquired as a symbiont cell. To address this, the genome of the haptophyte-derived plastid in Karlodinium veneficum was analyzed by Sanger sequencing of library clones and 454 pyrosequencing of plastid enriched DNA fractions. The sequences were assembled into a single contig of 143 kb, encoding 70 proteins, 3 rRNAs and a nearly full set of tRNAs. Comparative genomics revealed massive rearrangements and gene losses compared to the haptophyte plastid; only a small fraction of the gene clusters usually found in haptophytes as well as other types of plastids are present in K. veneficum. Despite the reduced number of genes, the K. veneficum plastid genome has retained a large size due to expanded intergenic regions. Some of the plastid genes are highly diverged and may be pseudogenes or subject to RNA editing. Gene losses and rearrangements are also features of the genomes of the peridinin-containing plastids, apicomplexa and Chromera, suggesting that the evolutionary processes that once shaped these plastids have occurred at multiple independent occasions over the history of the Alveolata.

Espelund, Mari; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Patil, Vishwanath; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Lemieux, Claude; Jakobsen, Kjetill S.

2011-01-01

88

Localizing recent adaptive evolution in the human genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying genomic locations that have experienced selective sweeps is an important first step toward understanding the molecular basis of adaptive evolution. Using statistical methods that account for the confounding effects of population demography, recombination rate variation, and single-nucleotide polymorphism ascertainment, while also providing fine-scale estimates of the position of the selected site, we analyzed a genomic dataset of 1.2 million

Scott H. Williamson; Melissa J. Hubisz; Andrew G. Clark; Bret A. Payseur; Carlos D. Bustamante; Rasmus Nielsen

2005-01-01

89

Stability along with extreme variability in core genome evolution.  

PubMed

The shape of the distribution of evolutionary distances between orthologous genes in pairs of closely related genomes is universal throughout the entire range of cellular life forms. The near invariance of this distribution across billions of years of evolution can be accounted for by the Universal Pace Maker (UPM) model of genome evolution that yields a significantly better fit to the phylogenetic data than the Molecular Clock (MC) model. Unlike the MC, the UPM model does not assume constant gene-specific evolutionary rates but rather postulates that, in each evolving lineage, the evolutionary rates of all genes change (approximately) in unison although the pacemakers of different lineages are not necessarily synchronized. Here, we dissect the nearly constant evolutionary rate distribution by comparing the genome-wide relative rates of evolution of individual genes in pairs or triplets of closely related genomes from diverse bacterial and archaeal taxa. We show that, although the gene-specific relative rate is an important feature of genome evolution that explains more than half of the variance of the evolutionary distances, the ranges of relative rate variability are extremely broad even for universal genes. Because of this high variance, the gene-specific rate is a poor predictor of the conservation rank for any gene in any particular lineage. PMID:23821522

Wolf, Yuri I; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V

2013-07-01

90

Stability along with Extreme Variability in Core Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

The shape of the distribution of evolutionary distances between orthologous genes in pairs of closely related genomes is universal throughout the entire range of cellular life forms. The near invariance of this distribution across billions of years of evolution can be accounted for by the Universal Pace Maker (UPM) model of genome evolution that yields a significantly better fit to the phylogenetic data than the Molecular Clock (MC) model. Unlike the MC, the UPM model does not assume constant gene-specific evolutionary rates but rather postulates that, in each evolving lineage, the evolutionary rates of all genes change (approximately) in unison although the pacemakers of different lineages are not necessarily synchronized. Here, we dissect the nearly constant evolutionary rate distribution by comparing the genome-wide relative rates of evolution of individual genes in pairs or triplets of closely related genomes from diverse bacterial and archaeal taxa. We show that, although the gene-specific relative rate is an important feature of genome evolution that explains more than half of the variance of the evolutionary distances, the ranges of relative rate variability are extremely broad even for universal genes. Because of this high variance, the gene-specific rate is a poor predictor of the conservation rank for any gene in any particular lineage.

Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.

2013-01-01

91

Genomic hotspots of adaptation in butterfly wing pattern evolution.  

PubMed

What is the genetic architecture of morphological evolution? Is there uniform potential for novelty across a genome or, on the contrary, can a small number of large-effect genes explain the phenotypic variation observed within and between species? Here we highlight recent work on butterfly wing pattern genetics showing that a small set of loci can be repeatedly involved in the evolution of complex traits. These loci behave as genomic hotspots for diversification because they underlie adaptive variation within and between species with both convergent and highly divergent wing patterns. These findings suggest that certain loci may be more likely than others to facilitate rapid evolutionary change. PMID:19135357

Papa, Riccardo; Martin, Arnaud; Reed, Robert D

2009-01-08

92

Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny.  

PubMed

Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of sequence divergence across taxa can illuminate evolutionary processes on a genomic scale. These genome sequences augment the formidable genetic tools that have made Drosophila melanogaster a pre-eminent model for animal genetics, and will further catalyse fundamental research on mechanisms of development, cell biology, genetics, disease, neurobiology, behaviour, physiology and evolution. Despite remarkable similarities among these Drosophila species, we identified many putatively non-neutral changes in protein-coding genes, non-coding RNA genes, and cis-regulatory regions. These may prove to underlie differences in the ecology and behaviour of these diverse species. PMID:17994087

Clark, Andrew G; Eisen, Michael B; Smith, Douglas R; Bergman, Casey M; Oliver, Brian; Markow, Therese A; Kaufman, Thomas C; Kellis, Manolis; Gelbart, William; Iyer, Venky N; Pollard, Daniel A; Sackton, Timothy B; Larracuente, Amanda M; Singh, Nadia D; Abad, Jose P; Abt, Dawn N; Adryan, Boris; Aguade, Montserrat; Akashi, Hiroshi; Anderson, Wyatt W; Aquadro, Charles F; Ardell, David H; Arguello, Roman; Artieri, Carlo G; Barbash, Daniel A; Barker, Daniel; Barsanti, Paolo; Batterham, Phil; Batzoglou, Serafim; Begun, Dave; Bhutkar, Arjun; Blanco, Enrico; Bosak, Stephanie A; Bradley, Robert K; Brand, Adrianne D; Brent, Michael R; Brooks, Angela N; Brown, Randall H; Butlin, Roger K; Caggese, Corrado; Calvi, Brian R; Bernardo de Carvalho, A; Caspi, Anat; Castrezana, Sergio; Celniker, Susan E; Chang, Jean L; Chapple, Charles; Chatterji, Sourav; Chinwalla, Asif; Civetta, Alberto; Clifton, Sandra W; Comeron, Josep M; Costello, James C; Coyne, Jerry A; Daub, Jennifer; David, Robert G; Delcher, Arthur L; Delehaunty, Kim; Do, Chuong B; Ebling, Heather; Edwards, Kevin; Eickbush, Thomas; Evans, Jay D; Filipski, Alan; Findeiss, Sven; Freyhult, Eva; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Garcia, Ana C L; Gardiner, Anastasia; Garfield, David A; Garvin, Barry E; Gibson, Greg; Gilbert, Don; Gnerre, Sante; Godfrey, Jennifer; Good, Robert; Gotea, Valer; Gravely, Brenton; Greenberg, Anthony J; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Gross, Samuel; Guigo, Roderic; Gustafson, Erik A; Haerty, Wilfried; Hahn, Matthew W; Halligan, Daniel L; Halpern, Aaron L; Halter, Gillian M; Han, Mira V; Heger, Andreas; Hillier, LaDeana; Hinrichs, Angie S; Holmes, Ian; Hoskins, Roger A; Hubisz, Melissa J; Hultmark, Dan; Huntley, Melanie A; Jaffe, David B; Jagadeeshan, Santosh; Jeck, William R; Johnson, Justin; Jones, Corbin D; Jordan, William C; Karpen, Gary H; Kataoka, Eiko; Keightley, Peter D; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kirkness, Ewen F; Koerich, Leonardo B; Kristiansen, Karsten; Kudrna, Dave; Kulathinal, Rob J; Kumar, Sudhir; Kwok, Roberta; Lander, Eric; Langley, Charles H; Lapoint, Richard; Lazzaro, Brian P; Lee, So-Jeong; Levesque, Lisa; Li, Ruiqiang; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lin, Michael F; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Llopart, Ana; Long, Manyuan; Low, Lloyd; Lozovsky, Elena; Lu, Jian; Luo, Meizhong; Machado, Carlos A; Makalowski, Wojciech; Marzo, Mar; Matsuda, Muneo; Matzkin, Luciano; McAllister, Bryant; McBride, Carolyn S; McKernan, Brendan; McKernan, Kevin; Mendez-Lago, Maria; Minx, Patrick; Mollenhauer, Michael U; Montooth, Kristi; Mount, Stephen M; Mu, Xu; Myers, Eugene; Negre, Barbara; Newfeld, Stuart; Nielsen, Rasmus; Noor, Mohamed A F; O'Grady, Patrick; Pachter, Lior; Papaceit, Montserrat; Parisi, Matthew J; Parisi, Michael; Parts, Leopold; Pedersen, Jakob S; Pesole, Graziano; Phillippy, Adam M; Ponting, Chris P; Pop, Mihai; Porcelli, Damiano; Powell, Jeffrey R; Prohaska, Sonja; Pruitt, Kim; Puig, Marta; Quesneville, Hadi; Ram, Kristipati Ravi; Rand, David; Rasmussen, Matthew D; Reed, Laura K; Reenan, Robert; Reily, Amy; Remington, Karin A; Rieger, Tania T; Ritchie, Michael G; Robin, Charles; Rogers, Yu-Hui; Rohde, Claudia; Rozas, Julio; Rubenfield, Marc J; Ruiz, Alfredo; Russo, Susan; Salzberg, Steven L; Sanchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Saranga, David J; Sato, Hajime; Schaeffer, Stephen W; Schatz, Michael C; Schlenke, Todd; Schwartz, Russell; Segarra, Carmen; Singh, Rama S; Sirot, Laura; Sirota, Marina; Sisneros, Nicholas B; Smith, Chris D; Smith, Temple F; Spieth, John; Stage, Deborah E; Stark, Alexander; Stephan, Wolfgang; Strausberg, Robert L; Strempel, Sebastian; Sturgill, David; Sutton, Granger; Sutton, Granger G; Tao, Wei; Teichmann, Sarah; Tobari, Yoshiko N; Tomimura, Yoshihiko; Tsolas, Jason M; Valente, Vera L S; Venter, Eli; Venter, J Craig; Vicario, Saverio; Vieira, Filipe G; Vilella, Albert J; Villasante, Alfredo; Walenz, Brian; Wang, Jun; Wasserman, Marvin; Watts, Thomas; Wilson, Derek; Wilson, Richard K; Wing, Rod A; Wolfner, Mariana F; Wong, Alex; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wu, Chung-I; Wu, Gabriel; Yamamoto, Daisuke; Yang, Hsiao-Pei; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Yorke, James A; Yoshida, Kiyohito; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Zhang, Peili; Zhang, Yu; Zimin, Aleksey V; Baldwin, Jennifer; Abdouelleil, Amr; Abdulkadir, Jamal; Abebe, Adal; Abera, Brikti; Abreu, Justin; Acer, St Christophe; Aftuck, Lynne; Alexander, Allen; An, Peter; Anderson, Erica; Anderson, Scott; Arachi, Harindra; Azer, Marc; Bachantsang, Pasang; Barry, Andrew; Bayul, Tashi; Berlin, Aaron; Bessette, Daniel; Bloom, Toby; Blye, Jason; Boguslavskiy, Leonid; Bonnet, Claude; Boukhgalter, Boris; Bourzgui, Imane; Brown, Adam; Cahill, Patrick; Channer, Sheridon; Cheshatsang, Yama

2007-11-01

93

Human Rhinovirus Subviral A Particle Binds to Lipid Membranes over a Twofold Axis of Icosahedral Symmetry.  

PubMed

Minor group human rhinoviruses bind low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors for endocytosis. Once they are inside endosomes, the acidic pH triggers their dissociation from the receptors and conversion into hydrophobic subviral A particles; these attach to the membrane and transfer their single-strand, positive-sense RNA genome into the cytosol. Here, we allowed human rhinovirus 2 (HRV2) A particles, produced in vitro by incubation at pH 5.4, to attach to liposomes; cryo-electron microscopy 3-dimensional single-particle image reconstruction revealed that they bind to the membrane around a 2-fold icosahedral symmetry axis. PMID:23946453

Kumar, Mohit; Blaas, Dieter

2013-08-14

94

Dynamic evolution of rht-1 homologous regions in grass genomes.  

PubMed

Hexaploid bread wheat contains A, B, and D three subgenomes with its well-characterized ancestral genomes existed at diploid and tetraploid levels, making the wheat act as a good model species for studying evolutionary genomic dynamics. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and related grass genomes to examine the dynamics of homologous regions surrounding Rht-1, a well-known "green revolution" gene. Our results showed that the divergence of the two A genomes in the Rht-1 region from the diploid and tetraploid species is greater than that from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The divergence of D genome between diploid and hexaploid is lower than those of A genome, suggesting that D genome diverged latter than others. The divergence among the A, B and D subgenomes was larger than that among different ploidy levels for each subgenome which mainly resulted from genomic structural variation of insertions and, perhaps deletions, of the repetitive sequences. Meanwhile, the repetitive sequences caused genome expansion further after the divergence of the three subgenomes. However, several conserved non-coding sequences were identified to be shared among the three subgenomes of wheat, suggesting that they may have played an important role to maintain the homolog of three subgenomes. This is a pilot study on evolutionary dynamics across the wheat ploids, subgenomes and differently related grasses. Our results gained new insights into evolutionary dynamics of Rht-1 region at sequence level as well as the evolution of wheat during the plolyploidization process. PMID:24086561

Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Shi, Chao; Gu, Yongqiang; Jin, Cuiyun; Gao, Lizhi; Jia, Jizeng

2013-09-24

95

Dynamic Evolution of Rht-1 Homologous Regions in Grass Genomes  

PubMed Central

Hexaploid bread wheat contains A, B, and D three subgenomes with its well-characterized ancestral genomes existed at diploid and tetraploid levels, making the wheat act as a good model species for studying evolutionary genomic dynamics. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and related grass genomes to examine the dynamics of homologous regions surrounding Rht-1, a well-known “green revolution” gene. Our results showed that the divergence of the two A genomes in the Rht-1 region from the diploid and tetraploid species is greater than that from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The divergence of D genome between diploid and hexaploid is lower than those of A genome, suggesting that D genome diverged latter than others. The divergence among the A, B and D subgenomes was larger than that among different ploidy levels for each subgenome which mainly resulted from genomic structural variation of insertions and, perhaps deletions, of the repetitive sequences. Meanwhile, the repetitive sequences caused genome expansion further after the divergence of the three subgenomes. However, several conserved non-coding sequences were identified to be shared among the three subgenomes of wheat, suggesting that they may have played an important role to maintain the homolog of three subgenomes. This is a pilot study on evolutionary dynamics across the wheat ploids, subgenomes and differently related grasses. Our results gained new insights into evolutionary dynamics of Rht-1 region at sequence level as well as the evolution of wheat during the plolyploidization process.

Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Shi, Chao; Gu, Yongqiang; Jin, Cuiyun; Gao, Lizhi; Jia, Jizeng

2013-01-01

96

Evolution of genome-phenome diversity under environmental stress  

PubMed Central

The genomic era revolutionized evolutionary biology. The enigma of genotypic-phenotypic diversity and biodiversity evolution of genes, genomes, phenomes, and biomes, reviewed here, was central in the research program of the Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, since 1975. We explored the following questions. (i) How much of the genomic and phenomic diversity in nature is adaptive and processed by natural selection? (ii) What is the origin and evolution of adaptation and speciation processes under spatiotemporal variables and stressful macrogeographic and microgeographic environments? We advanced ecological genetics into ecological genomics and analyzed globally ecological, demographic, and life history variables in 1,200 diverse species across life, thousands of populations, and tens of thousands of individuals tested mostly for allozyme and partly for DNA diversity. Likewise, we tested thermal, chemical, climatic, and biotic stresses in several model organisms. Recently, we introduced genetic maps and quantitative trait loci to elucidate the genetic basis of adaptation and speciation. The genome–phenome holistic model was deciphered by the global regressive, progressive, and convergent evolution of subterranean mammals. Our results indicate abundant genotypic and phenotypic diversity in nature. The organization and evolution of molecular and organismal diversity in nature at global, regional, and local scales are nonrandom and structured; display regularities across life; and are positively correlated with, and partly predictable by, abiotic and biotic environmental heterogeneity and stress. Biodiversity evolution, even in small isolated populations, is primarily driven by natural selection, including diversifying, balancing, cyclical, and purifying selective regimes, interacting with, but ultimately overriding, the effects of mutation, migration, and stochasticity.

Nevo, Eviatar

2001-01-01

97

Evolution of Metabolic Pathways and Evolution of Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bacteria can be considered as the interface between geochemical cycles and the superior forms of life. Therefore, how the\\u000a origin of life has been constructing metabolic complexity from earth geochemistry and how bacterial evolution is continuously\\u000a modifying it represent major issues cross-linking both geochemical and evolutionary viewpoints.

Giovanni Emiliani; Marco Fondi; Pietro Liò; Renato Fani

98

Genome evolution and biodiversity in teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teleost fish, which roughly make up half of the extant vertebrate species, exhibit an amazing level of biodiversity affecting their morphology, ecology and behaviour as well as many other aspects of their biology. This huge variability makes fish extremely attractive for the study of many biological questions, particularly of those related to evolution. New insights gained from different teleost species

J-N Volff

2005-01-01

99

Genetic aspects of mitochondrial genome evolution.  

PubMed

Many years of extensive studies of metazoan mitochondrial genomes have established differences in gene arrangements and genetic codes as valuable phylogenetic markers. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of replication, transcription and the role of the control regions which cause e.g. different gene orders is important to assess the phylogenetic signal of such events. This review summarises and discusses, for the Metazoa, the general aspects of mitochondrial transcription and replication with respect to control regions as well as several proposed models of gene rearrangements. As whole genome sequencing projects accumulate, more and more observations about mitochondrial gene transfer to the nucleus are reported. Thus occurrence and phylogenetic aspects concerning nuclear mitochondrial-like sequences (NUMTS) is another aspect of this review. PMID:23142697

Bernt, Matthias; Braband, Anke; Schierwater, Bernd; Stadler, Peter F

2012-11-07

100

The Tarenaya hassleriana Genome Provides Insight into Reproductive Trait and Genome Evolution of Crucifers.  

PubMed

The Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, is unmatched among plants in its wealth of genomic and functional molecular data and has long served as a model for understanding gene, genome, and trait evolution. However, genome information from a phylogenetic outgroup that is essential for inferring directionality of evolutionary change has been lacking. We therefore sequenced the genome of the spider flower (Tarenaya hassleriana) from the Brassicaceae sister family, the Cleomaceae. By comparative analysis of the two lineages, we show that genome evolution following ancient polyploidy and gene duplication events affect reproductively important traits. We found an ancient genome triplication in Tarenaya (Th-?) that is independent of the Brassicaceae-specific duplication (At-?) and nested Brassica (Br-?) triplication. To showcase the potential of sister lineage genome analysis, we investigated the state of floral developmental genes and show Brassica retains twice as many floral MADS (for MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR) genes as Tarenaya that likely contribute to morphological diversity in Brassica. We also performed synteny analysis of gene families that confer self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae and found that the critical SERINE RECEPTOR KINASE receptor gene is derived from a lineage-specific tandem duplication. The T. hassleriana genome will facilitate future research toward elucidating the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae genomes. PMID:23983221

Cheng, Shifeng; van den Bergh, Erik; Zeng, Peng; Zhong, Xiao; Xu, Jiajia; Liu, Xin; Hofberger, Johannes; de Bruijn, Suzanne; Bhide, Amey S; Kuelahoglu, Canan; Bian, Chao; Chen, Jing; Fan, Guangyi; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Hall, Jocelyn C; Becker, Annette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M; Shi, Chengcheng; Zheng, Zhijun; Li, Wujiao; Lv, Mingju; Tao, Yimin; Wang, Junyi; Zou, Hongfeng; Quan, Zhiwu; Hibberd, Julian M; Zhang, Gengyun; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Xu, Xun; Schranz, M Eric

2013-08-27

101

Genome evolution in the eremothecium clade of the Saccharomyces complex revealed by comparative genomics.  

PubMed

We used comparative genomics to elucidate the genome evolution within the pre-whole-genome duplication genus Eremothecium. To this end, we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of Eremothecium cymbalariae, a filamentous ascomycete representing the Eremothecium type strain. Genome annotation indicated 4712 gene models and 143 tRNAs. We compared the E. cymbalariae genome with that of its relative, the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, and the reconstructed yeast ancestor. Decisive changes in the Eremothecium lineage leading to the evolution of the A. gossypii genome include the reduction from eight to seven chromosomes, the downsizing of the genome by removal of 10% or 900 kb of DNA, mostly in intergenic regions, the loss of a TY3-Gypsy-type transposable element, the re-arrangement of mating-type loci, and a massive increase of its GC content. Key species-specific events are the loss of MNN1-family of mannosyltransferases required to add the terminal fourth and fifth ?-1,3-linked mannose residue to O-linked glycans and genes of the Ehrlich pathway in E. cymbalariae and the loss of ZMM-family of meiosis-specific proteins and acquisition of riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii. This reveals that within the Saccharomyces complex genome, evolution is not only based on genome duplication with subsequent gene deletions and chromosomal rearrangements but also on fungi associated with specific environments (e.g. involving fungal-insect interactions as in Eremothecium), which have encountered challenges that may be reflected both in genome streamlining and their biosynthetic potential. PMID:22384365

Wendland, Jürgen; Walther, Andrea

2011-12-01

102

Evolution of Genomic Structures on Mammalian Sex Chromosomes  

PubMed Central

Throughout mammalian evolution, recombination between the two sex chromosomes was suppressed in a stepwise manner. It is thought that the suppression of recombination led to an accumulation of deleterious mutations and frequent genomic rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In this article, we review three evolutionary aspects related to genomic rearrangements and structures, such as inverted repeats (IRs) and palindromes (PDs), on the mammalian sex chromosomes. First, we describe the stepwise manner in which recombination between the X and Y chromosomes was suppressed in placental mammals and discuss a genomic rearrangement that might have led to the formation of present pseudoautosomal boundaries (PAB). Second, we describe ectopic gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes, and propose possible molecular causes. Third, we focus on the evolutionary mode and timing of PD formation on the X and Y chromosomes. The sequence of the chimpanzee Y chromosome was recently published by two groups. Both groups suggest that rapid evolution of genomic structure occurred on the Y chromosome. Our re-analysis of the sequences confirmed the species-specific mode of human and chimpanzee Y chromosomal evolution. Finally, we present a general outlook regarding the rapid evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes.

Katsura, Yukako; Iwase, Mineyo; Satta, Yoko

2012-01-01

103

Consequences of reproductive mode on genome evolution in fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

An organism’s reproductive mode is believed to be a major factor driving its genome evolution. In theory, sexual inbreeding and asexuality are associated with lower effective recombination levels and smaller effective population sizes than sexual outbreeding, giving rise to reduced selection efficiency and genetic hitchhiking. This, in turn, is predicted to result in the accumulation of deleterious mutations and other

C. A. Whittle; K. Nygren; H. Johannesson

2011-01-01

104

Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence.  

PubMed

Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution. PMID:22398555

Scally, Aylwyn; Dutheil, Julien Y; Hillier, LaDeana W; Jordan, Gregory E; Goodhead, Ian; Herrero, Javier; Hobolth, Asger; Lappalainen, Tuuli; Mailund, Thomas; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; McCarthy, Shane; Montgomery, Stephen H; Schwalie, Petra C; Tang, Y Amy; Ward, Michelle C; Xue, Yali; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Alkan, Can; Andersen, Lars N; Ayub, Qasim; Ball, Edward V; Beal, Kathryn; Bradley, Brenda J; Chen, Yuan; Clee, Chris M; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Graves, Tina A; Gu, Yong; Heath, Paul; Heger, Andreas; Karakoc, Emre; Kolb-Kokocinski, Anja; Laird, Gavin K; Lunter, Gerton; Meader, Stephen; Mort, Matthew; Mullikin, James C; Munch, Kasper; O'Connor, Timothy D; Phillips, Andrew D; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Rogers, Anthony S; Sajjadian, Saba; Schmidt, Dominic; Shaw, Katy; Simpson, Jared T; Stenson, Peter D; Turner, Daniel J; Vigilant, Linda; Vilella, Albert J; Whitener, Weldon; Zhu, Baoli; Cooper, David N; de Jong, Pieter; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Eichler, Evan E; Flicek, Paul; Goldman, Nick; Mundy, Nicholas I; Ning, Zemin; Odom, Duncan T; Ponting, Chris P; Quail, Michael A; Ryder, Oliver A; Searle, Stephen M; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Schierup, Mikkel H; Rogers, Jane; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Durbin, Richard

2012-03-07

105

Compositional patterns in vertebrate genomes: Conservation and change in evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The evolution of vertebrate genomes can be investigated by analyzing their regional compositional patterns, namely the compositional distributions of large DNA fragments (in the 30–100-kb size range), of coding sequences, and of their different codon positions. This approach has shown the existence of two evolutionary modes. In the conservative mode, compositional patterns are maintained over long times (many million

Giorgio Bernardi; Dominique Mouchiroud; Christian Gautier; Giacomo Bernardi

1988-01-01

106

Inherited Efficiencies Model of Non-Genomic Evolution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A model for the evolution of biological systems in the absence of a nucleic acid-like genome is proposed and applied to model the earliest living organisms -- protocells composed of membrane encapsulated peptides. Assuming that the peptides can make and b...

M. H. New A. Pohorille

1999-01-01

107

Recombination: an underappreciated factor in the evolution of plant genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our knowledge of recombination rates and patterns in plants is far from being comprehensive. However, compelling evidence indicates a central role for recombination, through its influences on mutation and selection, in the evolution of plant genomes. Furthermore, recombination seems to be generally higher and more variable in plants than in animals, which could be one of the primary reasons for

Stephen I. Wright; Carène Rizzon; Jan Dvorak; Lorinda K. Anderson; Brandon S. Gaut

2007-01-01

108

The influence of the accessory genome on bacterial pathogen evolution  

PubMed Central

Bacterial pathogens exhibit significant variation in their genomic content of virulence factors. This reflects the abundance of strategies pathogens evolved to infect host organisms by suppressing host immunity. Molecular arms-races have been a strong driving force for the evolution of pathogenicity, with pathogens often encoding overlapping or redundant functions, such as type III protein secretion effectors and hosts encoding ever more sophisticated immune systems. The pathogens' frequent exposure to other microbes, either in their host or in the environment, provides opportunities for the acquisition or interchange of mobile genetic elements. These DNA elements accessorize the core genome and can play major roles in shaping genome structure and altering the complement of virulence factors. Here, we review the different mobile genetic elements focusing on the more recent discoveries and highlighting their role in shaping bacterial pathogen evolution.

Vinatzer, Boris; Arnold, Dawn L; Dorus, Steve; Murillo, Jesus

2011-01-01

109

Intralocus sexual conflict can drive the evolution of genomic imprinting.  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is a phenomenon whereby the expression of an allele differs depending upon its parent of origin. There is an increasing number of examples of this form of epigenetic inheritance across a wide range of taxa, and imprinting errors have also been implicated in several human diseases. Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain the evolution of genomic imprinting, but there is not yet a widely accepted general hypothesis for the variety of imprinting patterns observed. Here a new evolutionary hypothesis, based on intralocus sexual conflict, is proposed. This hypothesis provides a potential explanation for much of the currently available empirical data, and it also makes new predictions about patterns of genomic imprinting that are expected to evolve but that have not, as of yet, been looked for in nature. This theory also provides a potential mechanism for the resolution of intralocus sexual conflict in sexually selected traits and a novel pathway for the evolution of sexual dimorphism.

Day, Troy; Bonduriansky, Russell

2004-01-01

110

Human evolution and the mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) continues to dominate studies of human genetic variation and evolution. Recent work has re-affirmed the strict maternal inheritance of mtDNA, yielded new insights into the extent and nature of intra-individual variation, supported a recent African origin of human mtDNA, and amply demonstrated the utility of mtDNA in tracing population history and in analyses of

Mark Stoneking; Himla Soodyall

1996-01-01

111

The compact Selaginella genome identifies changes in gene content associated with the evolution of vascular plants  

SciTech Connect

We report the genome sequence of the nonseed vascular plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and by comparative genomics identify genes that likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular plants and their subsequent evolution

Grigoriev, Igor V.; Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cedric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sorensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theilsen, Gunter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loque, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel

2011-04-28

112

Genome-wide signatures of convergent evolution in echolocating mammals.  

PubMed

Evolution is typically thought to proceed through divergence of genes, proteins and ultimately phenotypes. However, similar traits might also evolve convergently in unrelated taxa owing to similar selection pressures. Adaptive phenotypic convergence is widespread in nature, and recent results from several genes have suggested that this phenomenon is powerful enough to also drive recurrent evolution at the sequence level. Where homoplasious substitutions do occur these have long been considered the result of neutral processes. However, recent studies have demonstrated that adaptive convergent sequence evolution can be detected in vertebrates using statistical methods that model parallel evolution, although the extent to which sequence convergence between genera occurs across genomes is unknown. Here we analyse genomic sequence data in mammals that have independently evolved echolocation and show that convergence is not a rare process restricted to several loci but is instead widespread, continuously distributed and commonly driven by natural selection acting on a small number of sites per locus. Systematic analyses of convergent sequence evolution in 805,053 amino acids within 2,326 orthologous coding gene sequences compared across 22 mammals (including four newly sequenced bat genomes) revealed signatures consistent with convergence in nearly 200 loci. Strong and significant support for convergence among bats and the bottlenose dolphin was seen in numerous genes linked to hearing or deafness, consistent with an involvement in echolocation. Unexpectedly, we also found convergence in many genes linked to vision: the convergent signal of many sensory genes was robustly correlated with the strength of natural selection. This first attempt to detect genome-wide convergent sequence evolution across divergent taxa reveals the phenomenon to be much more pervasive than previously recognized. PMID:24005325

Parker, Joe; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Cotton, James A; Liu, Yuan; Provero, Paolo; Stupka, Elia; Rossiter, Stephen J

2013-09-04

113

The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity  

PubMed Central

Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sequencing of the sponge genome reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signalling pathway and structural genes. This diverse ‘toolkit’ of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic- and germ-cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E. A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2011-01-01

114

[Adaptive evolution of the Homo mitochondrial genome].  

PubMed

Adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in members of genus Homo (Denisova hominin (H. sp. Altai), Neandertals (H. neanderthalensis) and modern humans (H. sapiens)) has been evaluated by assessing the pattern of changes in the physicochemical properties of amino acid replacements during the primate evolution. It has been found that in the Homo molecular adaptation (positive destabilizing selection) become apparent in the form of 12 radical amino acid replacements accompanied by statistically significant (P < 0.001) changes of physicochemical properties that probably had the functional consequences. These replacements have occurred on the stage of a common ancestor of the Homo (in CO2 and CytB genes) as well as with the appearance of the common ancestor of Neandertals and modern humans (in CO1 and ND5 genes). Radical amino acid replacements were mainly revealed in the cytochrome c oxidase complex IV and cytochrome bc1 complex III, thus coinciding with general trend of increasing of non-synonymous changes in mtDNA genes coding subunits of complexes III and IV proteins in anthropoid primates. PMID:22393781

Maliarchuk, B A

115

Dynamic Evolution of Oryza Genomes Is Revealed by Comparative Genomic Analysis of a Genus-Wide Vertical Data Set  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryza (23 species; 10 genome types) contains the world's most important food crop — rice. Although the rice genome serves as an essential tool for biological research, little is known about the evolution of the other Oryza genome types. They contain a historical record of genomic changes that led to diversification of this genus around the world as well as

Jetty S. S. Ammiraju; Fei Lu; Abhijit Sanyal; Yeisoo Yu; X. Song; N. Jiang; A. C. Pontaroli; T. Rambo; J. Currie; K. Collura; J. Talag; C. Fan; J. L. Goicoechea; A. Zuccolo; J. Chen; J. L. Bennetzen; M. Chen; S. Jackson; R. A. Wing

2008-01-01

116

Genome-level evolution of resistance genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed Central

Pathogen resistance genes represent some of the most abundant and diverse gene families found within plant genomes. However, evolutionary mechanisms generating resistance gene diversity at the genome level are not well understood. We used the complete Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence to show that most duplication of individual NBS-LRR sequences occurs at close physical proximity to the parent sequence and generates clusters of closely related NBS-LRR sequences. Deploying the statistical strength of phylogeographic approaches and using chromosomal location as a proxy for spatial location, we show that apparent duplication of NBS-LRR genes to ectopic chromosomal locations is largely the consequence of segmental chromosome duplication and rearrangement, rather than the independent duplication of individual sequences. Although accounting for a smaller fraction of NBS-LRR gene duplications, segmental chromosome duplication and rearrangement events have a large impact on the evolution of this multigene family. Intergenic exchange is dramatically lower between NBS-LRR sequences located in different chromosome regions as compared to exchange between sequences within the same chromosome region. Consequently, once translocated to new chromosome locations, NBS-LRR gene copies have a greater likelihood of escaping intergenic exchange and adopting new functions than do gene copies located within the same chromosomal region. We propose an evolutionary model that relates processes of genome evolution to mechanisms of evolution for the large, diverse, NBS-LRR gene family.

Baumgarten, Andrew; Cannon, Steven; Spangler, Russ; May, Georgiana

2003-01-01

117

Global Distribution of Novel Rhinovirus Genotype  

PubMed Central

Global surveillance for a novel rhinovirus genotype indicated its association with community outbreaks and pediatric respiratory disease in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America. Molecular dating indicates that these viruses have been circulating for at least 250 years.

Renwick, Neil; Venter, Marietjie; Jarman, Richard G.; Ghosh, Dhrubaa; Kondgen, Sophie; Shrestha, Sanjaya K.; Hoegh, A. Mette; Casas, Inmaculada; Adjogoua, Edgard Valerie; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Myint, Khin Saw; Williams, David T.; Chidlow, Glenys; van den Berg, Ria; Calvo, Cristina; Koch, Orienka; Palacios, Gustavo; Kapoor, Vishal; Villari, Joseph; Dominguez, Samuel R.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Harnett, Gerry; Smith, David; Mackenzie, John S.; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Sch?nning, Kristian; Chadha, Mandeep S.; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Mishra, A.C.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Holmes, Edward C.; Lipkin, W. Ian

2008-01-01

118

On the evolution rate in mammalian mitochondrial genomes.  

PubMed

The methods of phylogenetic inference have become more and more realistic and effective since the evolution rate was taken into account. In order to study the evolution rate more comprehensively, all 13 protein coding genes in 123 mammalian mitochondrial genomes are analyzed. The evolution rates of different codon position are analyzed as well. The evolution rate is estimated by Shannon entropy. We find that the distribution of 3rd codon position doesn't follow gamma distribution and the results suggest that it follows a mixed distribution of gamma distribution and normal distribution. The relationship between different codon positions is also studied. We find that there are significant positive correlation between three codon positions. Especially between 1st codon position and 2nd codon position, there is strong linear relationship. PMID:21704259

Hu, Gang; Shen, Shiyi; Wang, Kui

2011-04-27

119

Polydnavirus-wasp associations: evolution, genome organization, and function.  

PubMed

Viruses replicate to produce virions that transfer the viral genome among hosts, while endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are DNA sequences derived from viruses that integrate into the germline of multicellular organisms and are thereafter inherited like host alleles. Viruses in the family Polydnaviridae are specifically associated with insects called parasitoid wasps and exhibit many traits associated with other viruses. Polydnavirus genomes also persist as EVEs. In this short review we discuss polydnavirus evolution, compare polydnaviruses to other known EVEs of ancient origin, and examine some of the functional similarities polydnaviruses share with phage-like gene transfer agents (GTAs) from prokaryotes. PMID:23816391

Strand, Michael R; Burke, Gaelen R

2013-06-29

120

Fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus provides replication membranes for human rhinovirus 1A  

Microsoft Academic Search

All viruses with a positive-stranded RNA genome replicate their genomic RNA in association with membranes from the host cell. Here we demonstrate a novel organelle source of replication membranes for human rhinovirus 1A (HRV-1A). HRV-1A infection induces fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus, and Golgi membranes are rearranged into vesicles of approximately 250–500nm diameter. The newly distributed Golgi membranes co-localize with

Claire A. Quiner; William T. Jackson

2010-01-01

121

Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Evolution of Microvirid Coliphage Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriophage genomic evolution has been largely characterized by rampant, promiscuous horizontal gene transfer involving both homologous and nonhomologous source DNA. This pattern has emerged through study of the tailed double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) phages and is based upon a sparse sampling of the enormous diversity of these phages. The single-stranded DNA phages of the family Microviridae, including X174, appear to evolve

D. R. Rokyta; C. L. Burch; S. B. Caudle; H. A. Wichman

2006-01-01

122

Addressing chromosome evolution in the whole-genome sequence era  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of karyotypes has been the subject of intensive study since the middle of the 20th century. This was motivated\\u000a by the observation that the karyotypes of related species showed remarkable conservation. The recent emergence of whole-genome\\u000a sequencing projects gives the opportunity to complement the cytogenetic approaches by addressing the conservation of karyotypes\\u000a using chromosome sequence comparison. In this

Thomas Faraut

2008-01-01

123

The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity  

SciTech Connect

Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2010-07-01

124

Genome variation and evolution of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum result in more than 1 million deaths each year worldwide. Deciphering the evolutionary history and genetic variation of P. falciparum is critical for understanding the evolution of drug resistance, identifying potential vaccine candidates and appreciating the effect of parasite variation on prevalence and severity of malaria in humans. Most studies of natural variation in P. falciparum have been either in depth over small genomic regions (up to the size of a small chromosome) or genome wide but only at low resolution. In an effort to complement these studies with genome-wide data, we undertook shotgun sequencing of a Ghanaian clinical isolate (with fivefold coverage), the IT laboratory isolate (with onefold coverage) and the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi (with twofold coverage). We compared these sequences with the fully sequenced P. falciparum 3D7 isolate genome. We describe the most salient features of P. falciparum polymorphism and adaptive evolution with relation to gene function, transcript and protein expression and cellular localization. This analysis uncovers the primary evolutionary changes that have occurred since the P. falciparum-P. reichenowi speciation and changes that are occurring within P. falciparum. PMID:17159978

Jeffares, Daniel C; Pain, Arnab; Berry, Andrew; Cox, Anthony V; Stalker, James; Ingle, Catherine E; Thomas, Alan; Quail, Michael A; Siebenthall, Kyle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Kyes, Sue; Krishna, Sanjeev; Newbold, Chris; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Berriman, Matthew

2006-12-10

125

Genome variation and evolution of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum result in more than one million deaths each year worldwide1. The evolutionary history and genetic variation of P. falciparum is of critical importance to the understanding of the evolution of drug resistance, the identification of potential vaccine candidates and an appreciation of the effect of parasite variation upon prevalence and severity of malaria in humans. Most studies of natural variation in P. falciparum have been either in depth over small genomic regions (up to the size of a small chromosome2) or genome-wide but only at low resolution3. In an effort to complement these studies with genome-wide data, we undertook shotgun sequencing of a Ghanaian clinical isolate (5x coverage), the IT laboratory isolate (1x) and the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi (2x). These genomes were compared to the fully sequenced clone4. We describe the most salient features of P. falciparum polymorphism and adaptive evolution with relation to gene function, transcript and protein expression and cellular localisation. This analysis reveals the primary evolutionary changes that have occurred since the P. falciparum – P. reichenowi speciation, and those that are occurring within P. falciparum.

Jeffares, Daniel C.; Pain, Arnab; Berry, Andrew; Cox, Anthony V.; Stalker, James; Ingle, Catherine E.; Thomas, Alan; Quail, Michael A.; Siebenthall, Kyle; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Kyes, Sue; Krishna, Sanjeev; Newbold, Chris; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Berriman, Matthew

2008-01-01

126

Photosynthetic evolution in parasitic plants: insight from the chloroplast genome.  

PubMed

Despite the enormous diversity in plant form, structure and growth environment across the seed-bearing plants (angiosperms and gymnosperms), the chloroplast genome has, with few exceptions, remained remarkably conserved. This conservation suggests the existence of universal evolutionary selection pressures associated with photosynthesis-the primary function of chloroplasts. The stark exceptions to this conservation occur in parasitic angiosperms, which have escaped the dominant model by evolving the capacity to obtain some or all of their carbon (and nutrients) from their plant hosts. The consequence of this evolution to parasitism is a relaxation of the evolutionary constraints associated with the need to maintain photosynthetic function, the very function that drove early stages of the ancient symbiotic relationship that produced the contemporary chloroplast. Extreme examples of reductionism among parasitic angiosperms reveals major alterations in chloroplast function with the loss of photosynthetic capacity and, with that, massive alterations in chloroplast genome content. This review highlights emerging patterns in reported gene loss and gene retention in the chloroplast genomes of parasitic plants. Some gene losses appear to occur in the early stages of parasitic evolution, even before the loss of photosynthetic capacity, like the chlororespiratory (ndh) genes. This contrasts with unexpected gene retentions, like that of the rbcL gene responsible for photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation, and belies current understanding of gene function. The review relates gene retention to current knowledge of protein function and gene processing that has implications to broader aspects of genome conservation in organelles. PMID:14988925

Bungard, Ralph A

2004-03-01

127

The complete nucleotide sequence of a common cold virus: human rhinovirus 14.  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequence of the single-stranded RNA genome of human rhinovirus 14, one of the causative agents of the common cold, has been determined from cDNA cloned in E. coli. The genome is typical of the picornaviridae family, comprising a 5' non-coding region of 624 nucleotides, a long open reading frame of 6537 nucleotides (90.8% of the genome) and a 3' non-coding region of 47 nucleotides. Comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the predicted amino acid sequence with those of the polioviruses reveals a surprising degree of homology which may allow recognition of regions of antigenic importance and prediction of the virus polyprotein cleavage sites. The results presented here imply a closer genetic relationship between the rhinovirus and enterovirus genera than previously suspected.

Stanway, G; Hughes, P J; Mountford, R C; Minor, P D; Almond, J W

1984-01-01

128

Interactions among genomic structure, function, and evolution revealed by comprehensive analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome.  

PubMed

The genome in a higher organism consists of a number of types of nucleotide sequence-specialized components, with each having tens of thousands of members or elements. It is crucial for our understanding of how a genome as an entity is organized, functions, and evolves to determine how these components are organized in the genome and how they relate with each other; however, no such knowledge is available. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the organization and interaction of all 40 components constituting the genome of the plant model species, Arabidopsis thaliana, at the whole-genome and chromosome levels. The 40 components include (i) 6 genome structural components consisting of GC%, genes, retrotransposons, DNA transposons, simple repeats, and low complex repeats; (ii) 3 evolutionarily critical features consisting of recombination rate, nucleotide substitutions, and nucleotide insertions/deletions; and (iii) 31 categories of genes with different functions and numbers of functions. We show that the distributions of 39 of the 40 components of the genome (excepting GC%) deviate significantly from the random distribution model and different types of the genome components are significantly correlated. These results remained to be true even when the genomic regions, such as centromeric regions, where transposable and repeat elements are abundant were excluded from the analyses. These findings suggest that DNA molecules contained in the Arabidopsis genome are each organized and structured from their constituting components in an unambiguous manner and that different types of the components that constitute or characterize the genome interact. The analysis also showed that each chromosome consists of a similar set of the components at similar densities, suggesting that the unique organization and interaction pattern of the components in each chromosome may represent, at least in part, the identity of a chromosome or a genome at the genome level, thus partly accounting for the phenotypic variation among different species. The data also provide comprehensive and new insights into many phenomena significant in genome biology, with which we particularly discuss the variation of genetic recombination. The variation of genetic recombination rate along a chromosomal arm is shaped, not only by the distribution of simple repeats, retrotransposons, DNA transposons, and nucleotide substitutions, but also by the functions of genes contained, especially those with multiple functions, suggesting that variation of genetic recombination along a chromosomal arm is the result of interactions among the components constituting local genome structure, function, and evolution. PMID:16806804

Wu, Chengcang; Wang, Suojin; Zhang, Hong-Bin

2006-06-27

129

Molecular cytogenetic and genomic insights into chromosomal evolution.  

PubMed

This review summarizes aspects of the extensive literature on the patterns and processes underpinning chromosomal evolution in vertebrates and especially placental mammals. It highlights the growing synergy between molecular cytogenetics and comparative genomics, particularly with respect to fully or partially sequenced genomes, and provides novel insights into changes in chromosome number and structure across deep division of the vertebrate tree of life. The examination of basal numbers in the deeper branches of the vertebrate tree suggest a haploid (n) chromosome number of 10-13 in an ancestral vertebrate, with modest increases in tetrapods and amniotes most probably by chromosomal fissioning. Information drawn largely from cross-species chromosome painting in the data-dense Placentalia permits the confident reconstruction of an ancestral karyotype comprising n=23 chromosomes that is similarly retained in Boreoeutheria. Using in silico genome-wide scans that include the newly released frog genome we show that of the nine ancient syntenies detected in conserved karyotypes of extant placentals (thought likely to reflect the structure of ancestral chromosomes), the human syntenic segmental associations 3p/21, 4pq/8p, 7a/16p, 14/15, 12qt/22q and 12pq/22qt predate the divergence of tetrapods. These findings underscore the enhanced quality of ancestral reconstructions based on the integrative molecular cytogenetic and comparative genomic approaches that collectively highlight a pattern of conserved syntenic associations that extends back ?360 million years ago. PMID:22108627

Ruiz-Herrera, A; Farré, M; Robinson, T J

2011-11-23

130

Pan-Genomic Analysis Provides Insights into the Genomic Variation and Evolution of Salmonella Paratyphi A  

PubMed Central

Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is a highly adapted, human-specific pathogen that causes paratyphoid fever. Cases of paratyphoid fever have recently been increasing, and the disease is becoming a major public health concern, especially in Eastern and Southern Asia. To investigate the genomic variation and evolution of S. Paratyphi A, a pan-genomic analysis was performed on five newly sequenced S. Paratyphi A strains and two other reference strains. A whole genome comparison revealed that the seven genomes are collinear and that their organization is highly conserved. The high rate of substitutions in part of the core genome indicates that there are frequent homologous recombination events. Based on the changes in the pan-genome size and cluster number (both in the core functional genes and core pseudogenes), it can be inferred that the sharply increasing number of pseudogene clusters may have strong correlation with the inactivation of functional genes, and indicates that the S. Paratyphi A genome is being degraded.

Chen, Chunxia; Cui, Xiaoying; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Kan, Biao

2012-01-01

131

Massive comparative genomic analysis reveals convergent evolution of specialized bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background Genome size and gene content in bacteria are associated with their lifestyles. Obligate intracellular bacteria (i.e., mutualists and parasites) have small genomes that derived from larger free-living bacterial ancestors; however, the different steps of bacterial specialization from free-living to intracellular lifestyle have not been studied comprehensively. The growing number of available sequenced genomes makes it possible to perform a statistical comparative analysis of 317 genomes from bacteria with different lifestyles. Results Compared to free-living bacteria, host-dependent bacteria exhibit fewer rRNA genes, more split rRNA operons and fewer transcriptional regulators, linked to slower growth rates. We found a function-dependent and non-random loss of the same 100 orthologous genes in all obligate intracellular bacteria. Thus, we showed that obligate intracellular bacteria from different phyla are converging according to their lifestyle. Their specialization is an irreversible phenomenon characterized by translation modification and massive gene loss, including the loss of transcriptional regulators. Although both mutualists and parasites converge by genome reduction, these obligate intracellular bacteria have lost distinct sets of genes in the context of their specific host associations: mutualists have significantly more genes that enable nutrient provisioning whereas parasites have genes that encode Types II, IV, and VI secretion pathways. Conclusion Our findings suggest that gene loss, rather than acquisition of virulence factors, has been a driving force in the adaptation of parasites to eukaryotic cells. This comparative genomic analysis helps to explore the strategies by which obligate intracellular genomes specialize to particular host-associations and contributes to advance our knowledge about the mechanisms of bacterial evolution. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V. Koonin, Nicolas Galtier, and Jeremy Selengut.

Merhej, Vicky; Royer-Carenzi, Manuela; Pontarotti, Pierre; Raoult, Didier

2009-01-01

132

Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes.  

PubMed

The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3-2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450

Chalupska, D; Lee, H Y; Faris, J D; Evrard, A; Chalhoub, B; Haselkorn, R; Gornicki, P

2008-07-03

133

The genome diversity and karyotype evolution of mammals  

PubMed Central

The past decade has witnessed an explosion of genome sequencing and mapping in evolutionary diverse species. While full genome sequencing of mammals is rapidly progressing, the ability to assemble and align orthologous whole chromosome regions from more than a few species is still not possible. The intense focus on building of comparative maps for companion (dog and cat), laboratory (mice and rat) and agricultural (cattle, pig, and horse) animals has traditionally been used as a means to understand the underlying basis of disease-related or economically important phenotypes. However, these maps also provide an unprecedented opportunity to use multispecies analysis as a tool for inferring karyotype evolution. Comparative chromosome painting and related techniques are now considered to be the most powerful approaches in comparative genome studies. Homologies can be identified with high accuracy using molecularly defined DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on chromosomes of different species. Chromosome painting data are now available for members of nearly all mammalian orders. In most orders, there are species with rates of chromosome evolution that can be considered as 'default' rates. The number of rearrangements that have become fixed in evolutionary history seems comparatively low, bearing in mind the 180 million years of the mammalian radiation. Comparative chromosome maps record the history of karyotype changes that have occurred during evolution. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these recent advances in our endeavor to decipher the karyotype evolution of mammals by integrating the published results together with some of our latest unpublished results.

2011-01-01

134

Rates of Phenotypic and Genomic Evolution during the Cambrian Explosion.  

PubMed

The near-simultaneous appearance of most modern animal body plans (phyla) ?530 million years ago during the Cambrian explosion is strong evidence for a brief interval of rapid phenotypic and genetic innovation, yet the exact speed and nature of this grand adaptive radiation remain debated [1-12]. Crucially, rates of morphological evolution in the past (i.e., in ancestral lineages) can be inferred from phenotypic differences among living organisms-just as molecular evolutionary rates in ancestral lineages can be inferred from genetic divergences [13]. We here employed Bayesian [14] and maximum likelihood [15] phylogenetic clock methods on an extensive anatomical [16] and genomic [17] data set for arthropods, the most diverse phylum in the Cambrian and today. Assuming an Ediacaran origin for arthropods, phenotypic evolution was ?4 times faster, and molecular evolution ?5.5 times faster, during the Cambrian explosion compared to all subsequent parts of the Phanerozoic. These rapid evolutionary rates are robust to assumptions about the precise age of arthropods. Surprisingly, these fast early rates do not change substantially even if the radiation of arthropods is compressed entirely into the Cambrian (?542 mega-annum [Ma]) or telescoped into the Cryogenian (?650 Ma). The fastest inferred rates are still consistent with evolution by natural selection and with data from living organisms, potentially resolving "Darwin's dilemma." However, evolution during the Cambrian explosion was unusual (compared to the subsequent Phanerozoic) in that fast rates were present across many lineages. PMID:24035543

Lee, Michael S Y; Soubrier, Julien; Edgecombe, Gregory D

2013-09-12

135

Thermodynamic basis for the emergence of genomes during prebiotic evolution.  

PubMed

The RNA world hypothesis views modern organisms as descendants of RNA molecules. The earliest RNA molecules must have been random sequences, from which the first genomes that coded for polymerase ribozymes emerged. The quasispecies theory by Eigen predicts the existence of an error threshold limiting genomic stability during such transitions, but does not address the spontaneity of changes. Following a recent theoretical approach, we applied the quasispecies theory combined with kinetic/thermodynamic descriptions of RNA replication to analyze the collective behavior of RNA replicators based on known experimental kinetics data. We find that, with increasing fidelity (relative rate of base-extension for Watson-Crick versus mismatched base pairs), replications without enzymes, with ribozymes, and with protein-based polymerases are above, near, and below a critical point, respectively. The prebiotic evolution therefore must have crossed this critical region. Over large regions of the phase diagram, fitness increases with increasing fidelity, biasing random drifts in sequence space toward 'crystallization.' This region encloses the experimental nonenzymatic fidelity value, favoring evolutions toward polymerase sequences with ever higher fidelity, despite error rates above the error catastrophe threshold. Our work shows that experimentally characterized kinetics and thermodynamics of RNA replication allow us to determine the physicochemical conditions required for the spontaneous crystallization of biological information. Our findings also suggest that among many potential oligomers capable of templated replication, RNAs may have evolved to form prebiotic genomes due to the value of their nonenzymatic fidelity. PMID:22693440

Woo, Hyung-June; Vijaya Satya, Ravi; Reifman, Jaques

2012-05-31

136

Genome Sequence and Comparative Genome Analysis of Lactobacillus casei: Insights into Their Niche-Associated Evolution  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus casei is remarkably adaptable to diverse habitats and widely used in the food industry. To reveal the genomic features that contribute to its broad ecological adaptability and examine the evolution of the species, the genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 is analyzed and compared with other sequenced lactobacilli. This analysis reveals that ATCC 334 contains a high number of coding sequences involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation, reflecting its requirement for dealing with diverse environmental conditions. A comparison of the genome sequences of ATCC 334 to L. casei BL23 reveals 12 and 19 genomic islands, respectively. For a broader assessment of the genetic variability within L. casei, gene content of 21 L. casei strains isolated from various habitats (cheeses, n = 7; plant materials, n = 8; and human sources, n = 6) was examined by comparative genome hybridization with an ATCC 334-based microarray. This analysis resulted in identification of 25 hypervariable regions. One of these regions contains an overrepresentation of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and transcriptional regulation and was thus proposed as a lifestyle adaptation island. Differences in L. casei genome inventory reveal both gene gain and gene decay. Gene gain, via acquisition of genomic islands, likely confers a fitness benefit in specific habitats. Gene decay, that is, loss of unnecessary ancestral traits, is observed in the cheese isolates and likely results in enhanced fitness in the dairy niche. This study gives the first picture of the stable versus variable regions in L. casei and provides valuable insights into evolution, lifestyle adaptation, and metabolic diversity of L. casei.

Cai, Hui; Thompson, Rebecca; Budinich, Mateo F.; Broadbent, Jeff R.

2009-01-01

137

Genomes of the T4-related bacteriophages as windows on microbial genome evolution  

PubMed Central

The T4-related bacteriophages are a group of bacterial viruses that share morphological similarities and genetic homologies with the well-studied Escherichia coli phage T4, but that diverge from T4 and each other by a number of genetically determined characteristics including the bacterial hosts they infect, the sizes of their linear double-stranded (ds) DNA genomes and the predicted compositions of their proteomes. The genomes of about 40 of these phages have been sequenced and annotated over the last several years and are compared here in the context of the factors that have determined their diversity and the diversity of other microbial genomes in evolution. The genomes of the T4 relatives analyzed so far range in size between ~160,000 and ~250,000 base pairs (bp) and are mosaics of one another, consisting of clusters of homology between them that are interspersed with segments that vary considerably in genetic composition between the different phage lineages. Based on the known biological and biochemical properties of phage T4 and the proteins encoded by the T4 genome, the T4 relatives reviewed here are predicted to share a genetic core, or "Core Genome" that determines the structural design of their dsDNA chromosomes, their distinctive morphology and the process of their assembly into infectious agents (phage morphogenesis). The Core Genome appears to be the most ancient genetic component of this phage group and constitutes a mere 12-15% of the total protein encoding potential of the typical T4-related phage genome. The high degree of genetic heterogeneity that exists outside of this shared core suggests that horizontal DNA transfer involving many genetic sources has played a major role in diversification of the T4-related phages and their spread to a wide spectrum of bacterial species domains in evolution. We discuss some of the factors and pathways that might have shaped the evolution of these phages and point out several parallels between their diversity and the diversity generally observed within all groups of interrelated dsDNA microbial genomes in nature.

2010-01-01

138

Genome Size, Karyotype Polymorphism and Chromosomal Evolution in Trypanosoma cruzi  

PubMed Central

Background The Trypanosoma cruzi genome was sequenced from a hybrid strain (CL Brener). However, high allelic variation and the repetitive nature of the genome have prevented the complete linear sequence of chromosomes being determined. Determining the full complement of chromosomes and establishing syntenic groups will be important in defining the structure of T. cruzi chromosomes. A large amount of information is now available for T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei, providing the opportunity to compare and describe the overall patterns of chromosomal evolution in these parasites. Methodology/Principal Findings The genome sizes, repetitive DNA contents, and the numbers and sizes of chromosomes of nine strains of T. cruzi from four lineages (TcI, TcII, TcV and TcVI) were determined. The genome of the TcI group was statistically smaller than other lineages, with the exception of the TcI isolate Tc1161 (José-IMT). Satellite DNA content was correlated with genome size for all isolates, but this was not accompanied by simultaneous amplification of retrotransposons. Regardless of chromosomal polymorphism, large syntenic groups are conserved among T. cruzi lineages. Duplicated chromosome-sized regions were identified and could be retained as paralogous loci, increasing the dosage of several genes. By comparing T. cruzi and T. brucei chromosomes, homologous chromosomal regions in T. brucei were identified. Chromosomes Tb9 and Tb11 of T. brucei share regions of syntenic homology with three and six T. cruzi chromosomal bands, respectively. Conclusions Despite genome size variation and karyotype polymorphism, T. cruzi lineages exhibit conservation of chromosome structure. Several syntenic groups are conserved among all isolates analyzed in this study. The syntenic regions are larger than expected if rearrangements occur randomly, suggesting that they are conserved owing to positive selection. Mapping of the syntenic regions on T. cruzi chromosomal bands provides evidence for the occurrence of fusion and split events involving T. brucei and T. cruzi chromosomes.

Barros, Roberto Moraes; Cortez, Danielle R.; Santos, Michele F.; Cordero, Esteban M.; Ruiz, Jeronimo Conceicao; Goldenberg, Samuel; Teixeira, Marta M. G.; da Silveira, Jose Franco

2011-01-01

139

Genomic view of the evolution of the complement system  

PubMed Central

The recent accumulation of genomic information of many representative animals has made it possible to trace the evolution of the complement system based on the presence or absence of each complement gene in the analyzed genomes. Genome information from a few mammals, chicken, clawed frog, a few bony fish, sea squirt, fruit fly, nematoda and sea anemone indicate that bony fish and higher vertebrates share practically the same set of complement genes. This suggests that most of the gene duplications that played an essential role in establishing the mammalian complement system had occurred by the time of the teleost/mammalian divergence around 500 million years ago (MYA). Members of most complement gene families are also present in ascidians, although they do not show a one-to-one correspondence to their counterparts in higher vertebrates, indicating that the gene duplications of each gene family occurred independently in vertebrates and ascidians. The C3 and factor B genes, but probably not the other complement genes, are present in the genome of the cnidaria and some protostomes, indicating that the origin of the central part of the complement system was established more than 1,000 MYA.

Kimura, Ayuko

2006-01-01

140

Genomic Fossils Calibrate the Long-Term Evolution of Hepadnaviruses  

PubMed Central

Because most extant viruses mutate rapidly and lack a true fossil record, their deep evolution and long-term substitution rates remain poorly understood. In addition to retroviruses, which rely on chromosomal integration for their replication, many other viruses replicate in the nucleus of their host's cells and are therefore prone to endogenization, a process that involves integration of viral DNA into the host's germline genome followed by long-term vertical inheritance. Such endogenous viruses are highly valuable as they provide a molecular fossil record of past viral invasions, which may be used to decipher the origins and long-term evolutionary characteristics of modern pathogenic viruses. Hepadnaviruses (Hepadnaviridae) are a family of small, partially double-stranded DNA viruses that include hepatitis B viruses. Here we report the discovery of endogenous hepadnaviruses in the genome of the zebra finch. We used a combination of cross-species analysis of orthologous insertions, molecular dating, and phylogenetic analyses to demonstrate that hepadnaviruses infiltrated repeatedly the germline genome of passerine birds. We provide evidence that some of the avian hepadnavirus integration events are at least 19 My old, which reveals a much deeper ancestry of Hepadnaviridae than could be inferred based on the coalescence times of modern hepadnaviruses. Furthermore, the remarkable sequence similarity between endogenous and extant avian hepadnaviruses (up to 75% identity) suggests that long-term substitution rates for these viruses are on the order of 10?8 substitutions per site per year, which is a 1,000-fold slower than short-term rates estimated based on the sequences of circulating hepadnaviruses. Together, these results imply a drastic shift in our understanding of the time scale of hepadnavirus evolution, and suggest that the rapid evolutionary dynamics characterizing modern avian hepadnaviruses do not reflect their mode of evolution on a deep time scale.

Gilbert, Clement; Feschotte, Cedric

2010-01-01

141

The Capsella rubella genome and the genomic consequences of rapid mating system evolution.  

PubMed

The shift from outcrossing to selfing is common in flowering plants, but the genomic consequences and the speed at which they emerge remain poorly understood. An excellent model for understanding the evolution of self fertilization is provided by Capsella rubella, which became self compatible <200,000 years ago. We report a C. rubella reference genome sequence and compare RNA expression and polymorphism patterns between C. rubella and its outcrossing progenitor Capsella grandiflora. We found a clear shift in the expression of genes associated with flowering phenotypes, similar to that seen in Arabidopsis, in which self fertilization evolved about 1 million years ago. Comparisons of the two Capsella species showed evidence of rapid genome-wide relaxation of purifying selection in C. rubella without a concomitant change in transposable element abundance. Overall we document that the transition to selfing may be typified by parallel shifts in gene expression, along with a measurable reduction of purifying selection. PMID:23749190

Slotte, Tanja; Hazzouri, Khaled M; Ågren, J Arvid; Koenig, Daniel; Maumus, Florian; Guo, Ya-Long; Steige, Kim; Platts, Adrian E; Escobar, Juan S; Newman, L Killian; Wang, Wei; Mandáková, Terezie; Vello, Emilio; Smith, Lisa M; Henz, Stefan R; Steffen, Joshua; Takuno, Shohei; Brandvain, Yaniv; Coop, Graham; Andolfatto, Peter; Hu, Tina T; Blanchette, Mathieu; Clark, Richard M; Quesneville, Hadi; Nordborg, Magnus; Gaut, Brandon S; Lysak, Martin A; Jenkins, Jerry; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod; Prochnik, Simon; Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Daniel; Schmutz, Jeremy; Weigel, Detlef; Wright, Stephen I

2013-06-09

142

Rhinoviruses, Allergic Inflammation, and Asthma  

PubMed Central

Summary Viral infections affect wheezing and asthma in children and adults of all ages. In infancy, wheezing illnesses are usually viral in origin, and children with more severe wheezing episodes are more likely to develop recurrent episodes of asthma and to develop asthma later in childhood. Children who develop allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (allergic sensitization), and those who wheeze with rhinoviruses (HRV) are at especially high risk for asthma. In older children and adults, HRV infections generally cause relatively mild respiratory illnesses and yet contribute to acute and potentially severe exacerbations in patients with asthma. These findings underline the importance of understanding the synergistic nature of allergic sensitization and infections with HRV in infants relative to the onset of asthma and in children and adults with respect to exacerbations of asthma. This review discusses clinical and experimental evidence of virus/allergen interactions and evaluates theories which relate immunologic responses to respiratory viruses and allergens to the pathogenesis and disease activity of asthma. Greater understanding of the relationship between viral respiratory infections, allergic inflammation, and asthma is likely to suggest new strategies for the prevention and treatment of asthma.

Gavala, Monica; Bertics, Paul J.; Gern, James E.

2011-01-01

143

The Complete Chloroplast and Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Boea hygrometrica: Insights into the Evolution of Plant Organellar Genomes  

PubMed Central

The complete nucleotide sequences of the chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) genomes of resurrection plant Boea hygrometrica (Bh, Gesneriaceae) have been determined with the lengths of 153,493 bp and 510,519 bp, respectively. The smaller chloroplast genome contains more genes (147) with a 72% coding sequence, and the larger mitochondrial genome have less genes (65) with a coding faction of 12%. Similar to other seed plants, the Bh cp genome has a typical quadripartite organization with a conserved gene in each region. The Bh mt genome has three recombinant sequence repeats of 222 bp, 843 bp, and 1474 bp in length, which divide the genome into a single master circle (MC) and four isomeric molecules. Compared to other angiosperms, one remarkable feature of the Bh mt genome is the frequent transfer of genetic material from the cp genome during recent Bh evolution. We also analyzed organellar genome evolution in general regarding genome features as well as compositional dynamics of sequence and gene structure/organization, providing clues for the understanding of the evolution of organellar genomes in plants. The cp-derived sequences including tRNAs found in angiosperm mt genomes support the conclusion that frequent gene transfer events may have begun early in the land plant lineage.

Wang, Xumin; Deng, Xin; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Songnian; Yu, Jun

2012-01-01

144

The evolution of isochore patterns in vertebrate genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Previous work from our laboratory showed that (i) vertebrate genomes are mosaics of isochores, typically megabase-size DNA segments that are fairly homogeneous in base composition; (ii) isochores belong to a small number of families (five in the human genome) characterized by different GC levels; (iii) isochore family patterns are different in fishes/amphibians and mammals/birds, the latter showing GC-rich isochore families that are absent or very scarce in the former; (iv) there are two modes of genome evolution, a conservative one in which isochore patterns basically do not change (e.g., among mammalian orders), and a transitional one, in which they do change (e.g., between amphibians and mammals); and (v) isochores are tightly linked to a number of basic biological properties, such as gene density, gene expression, replication timing and recombination. Results The present availability of a number of fully sequenced genomes ranging from fishes to mammals allowed us to carry out investigations that (i) more precisely quantified our previous conclusions; (ii) showed that the different isochore families of vertebrate genomes are largely conserved in GC levels and dinucleotide frequencies, as well as in isochore size; and (iii) isochore family patterns can be either conserved or change within both warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates. Conclusion On the basis of the results presented, we propose that (i) the large conservation of GC levels and dinucleotide frequencies may reflect the conservation of chromatin structures; (ii) the conservation of isochore size may be linked to the role played by isochores in chromosome structure and replication; (iii) the formation, the maintainance and the changes of isochore patterns are due to natural selection.

Costantini, Maria; Cammarano, Rosalia; Bernardi, Giorgio

2009-01-01

145

Major and Minor Receptor Group Human Rhinoviruses Penetrate from Endosomes by Different Mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and the low-density lipoprotein receptor are used for cell entry by major and minor receptor group human rhinoviruses (HRVs), respectively. Whereas minor-group viruses, exempli- fied by HRV2, transfer their genomic RNA to the cytoplasm through a pore in the endosomal membrane (E. Prchla, C. Plank, E. Wagner, D. Blaas, and R. Fuchs, J. Cell Biol. 131:111-123,

DANIELA SCHOBER; PETER KRONENBERGER; ELISABETH PRCHLA; DIETER BLAAS

1998-01-01

146

Evolution of recombination and genome structure in eusocial insects.  

PubMed

Eusocial Hymenoptera, such as the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, have the highest recombination rates of multicellular animals.(1) Recently, we showed(2) that a side-effect of recombination in the honey bee, GC biased gene conversion (bGC), helps maintain the unusual bimodal GC-content distribution of the bee genome by increasing GC-content in high recombination areas while low recombination areas are losing GC-content because of biased AT mutations and low rates of bGC. Although the very high recombination rate of A. mellifera makes GC-content evolution easier to study, the pattern is consistent with results found in many other species including mammals and yeast.(3) Also consistent across phyla is the association of higher genetic diversity and divergence with high GC and high recombination areas.(4) (,) (5) Finally, we showed that genes overexpressed in the brains of workers cluster in GC-rich genomic areas with the highest rates of recombination and molecular evolution.(2) In this Addendum we present a conceptual model of how eusociality and high recombination rates may co-evolve. PMID:23748924

Kent, Clement F; Zayed, Amro

2013-03-01

147

Evolution of recombination and genome structure in eusocial insects  

PubMed Central

Eusocial Hymenoptera, such as the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, have the highest recombination rates of multicellular animals.1 Recently, we showed2 that a side-effect of recombination in the honey bee, GC biased gene conversion (bGC), helps maintain the unusual bimodal GC-content distribution of the bee genome by increasing GC-content in high recombination areas while low recombination areas are losing GC-content because of biased AT mutations and low rates of bGC. Although the very high recombination rate of A. mellifera makes GC-content evolution easier to study, the pattern is consistent with results found in many other species including mammals and yeast.3 Also consistent across phyla is the association of higher genetic diversity and divergence with high GC and high recombination areas.4,5 Finally, we showed that genes overexpressed in the brains of workers cluster in GC-rich genomic areas with the highest rates of recombination and molecular evolution.2 In this Addendum we present a conceptual model of how eusociality and high recombination rates may co-evolve.

Kent, Clement F.; Zayed, Amro

2013-01-01

148

Rapid Sequencing of the Bamboo Mitochondrial Genome Using Illumina Technology and Parallel Episodic Evolution of Organelle Genomes in Grasses  

PubMed Central

Background Compared to their counterparts in animals, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of angiosperms exhibit a number of unique features. However, unravelling their evolution is hindered by the few completed genomes, of which are essentially Sanger sequenced. While next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized chloroplast genome sequencing, they are just beginning to be applied to angiosperm mt genomes. Chloroplast genomes of grasses (Poaceae) have undergone episodic evolution and the evolutionary rate was suggested to be correlated between chloroplast and mt genomes in Poaceae. It is interesting to investigate whether correlated rate change also occurred in grass mt genomes as expected under lineage effects. A time-calibrated phylogenetic tree is needed to examine rate change. Methodology/Principal Findings We determined a largely completed mt genome from a bamboo, Ferrocalamus rimosivaginus (Poaceae), through Illumina sequencing of total DNA. With combination of de novo and reference-guided assembly, 39.5-fold coverage Illumina reads were finally assembled into scaffolds totalling 432,839 bp. The assembled genome contains nearly the same genes as the completed mt genomes in Poaceae. For examining evolutionary rate in grass mt genomes, we reconstructed a phylogenetic tree including 22 taxa based on 31 mt genes. The topology of the well-resolved tree was almost identical to that inferred from chloroplast genome with only minor difference. The inconsistency possibly derived from long branch attraction in mtDNA tree. By calculating absolute substitution rates, we found significant rate change (?4-fold) in mt genome before and after the diversification of Poaceae both in synonymous and nonsynonymous terms. Furthermore, the rate change was correlated with that of chloroplast genomes in grasses. Conclusions/Significance Our result demonstrates that it is a rapid and efficient approach to obtain angiosperm mt genome sequences using Illumina sequencing technology. The parallel episodic evolution of mt and chloroplast genomes in grasses is consistent with lineage effects.

Ma, Peng-Fei; Guo, Zhen-Hua; Li, De-Zhu

2012-01-01

149

The African coelacanth genome provides insights into tetrapod evolution.  

PubMed

The discovery of a living coelacanth specimen in 1938 was remarkable, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have become extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features. Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues show the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution. PMID:23598338

Amemiya, Chris T; Alföldi, Jessica; Lee, Alison P; Fan, Shaohua; Philippe, Hervé; Maccallum, Iain; Braasch, Ingo; Manousaki, Tereza; Schneider, Igor; Rohner, Nicolas; Organ, Chris; Chalopin, Domitille; Smith, Jeramiah J; Robinson, Mark; Dorrington, Rosemary A; Gerdol, Marco; Aken, Bronwen; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco; Baurain, Denis; Berlin, Aaron M; Blatch, Gregory L; Buonocore, Francesco; Burmester, Thorsten; Campbell, Michael S; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John P; Christoffels, Alan; De Moro, Gianluca; Edkins, Adrienne L; Fan, Lin; Fausto, Anna Maria; Feiner, Nathalie; Forconi, Mariko; Gamieldien, Junaid; Gnerre, Sante; Gnirke, Andreas; Goldstone, Jared V; Haerty, Wilfried; Hahn, Mark E; Hesse, Uljana; Hoffmann, Steve; Johnson, Jeremy; Karchner, Sibel I; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Lara, Marcia; Levin, Joshua Z; Litman, Gary W; Mauceli, Evan; Miyake, Tsutomu; Mueller, M Gail; Nelson, David R; Nitsche, Anne; Olmo, Ettore; Ota, Tatsuya; Pallavicini, Alberto; Panji, Sumir; Picone, Barbara; Ponting, Chris P; Prohaska, Sonja J; Przybylski, Dariusz; Saha, Nil Ratan; Ravi, Vydianathan; Ribeiro, Filipe J; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Searle, Stephen M J; Sharpe, Ted; Simakov, Oleg; Stadler, Peter F; Stegeman, John J; Sumiyama, Kenta; Tabbaa, Diana; Tafer, Hakim; Turner-Maier, Jason; van Heusden, Peter; White, Simon; Williams, Louise; Yandell, Mark; Brinkmann, Henner; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Tabin, Clifford J; Shubin, Neil; Schartl, Manfred; Jaffe, David B; Postlethwait, John H; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Di Palma, Federica; Lander, Eric S; Meyer, Axel; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2013-04-18

150

Tracing the Evolution of Streptophyte Algae and Their Mitochondrial Genome  

PubMed Central

Six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae are recognized within the Streptophyta. Although incongruent with earlier studies based on genes from three cellular compartments, chloroplast and nuclear phylogenomic analyses have resolved identical relationships among these groups, placing the Zygnematales or the Zygnematales + Coleochaetales as sister to land plants. The present investigation aimed at determining whether this consensus view is supported by the mitochondrial genome and at gaining insight into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution within and across streptophyte algal lineages and during the transition toward the first land plants. We present here the newly sequenced mtDNAs of representatives of the Klebsormidiales (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium spec.) and Zygnematales (Closterium baillyanum and Roya obtusa) and compare them with their homologs in other charophycean lineages as well as in selected embryophyte and chlorophyte lineages. Our results indicate that important changes occurred at the levels of genome size, gene order, and intron content within the Zygnematales. Although the representatives of the Klebsormidiales display more similarity in genome size and intron content, gene order seems more fluid and gene losses more frequent than in other charophycean lineages. In contrast, the two members of the Charales display an extremely conservative pattern of mtDNA evolution. Collectively, our analyses of gene order and gene content and the phylogenies we inferred from 40 mtDNA-encoded proteins failed to resolve the relationships among the Zygnematales, Coleochaetales, and Charales; however, they are consistent with previous phylogenomic studies in favoring that the morphologically complex Charales are not sister to land plants.

Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

2013-01-01

151

Impact of Small Repeat Sequences on Bacterial Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Intergenic regions of prokaryotic genomes carry multiple copies of terminal inverted repeat (TIR) sequences, the nonautonomous miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE). In addition, there are the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences that fold into a small stem loop rich in G–C bonding. And the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) display similar small stem loops but are an integral part of a complex genetic element. Other classes of repeats such as the REP2 element do not have TIRs but show other signatures. With the current availability of a large number of whole-genome sequences, many new repeat elements have been discovered. These sequences display diverse properties. Some show an intimate linkage to integrons, and at least one encodes a small RNA. Many repeats are found fused with chromosomal open reading frames, and some are located within protein coding sequences. Small repeat units appear to work hand in hand with the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional apparatus of the cell. Functionally, they are multifaceted, and this can range from the control of gene expression, the facilitation of host/pathogen interactions, or stimulation of the mammalian immune system. The CRISPR complex displays dramatic functions such as an acquired immune system that defends against invading viruses and plasmids. Evolutionarily, mobile repeat elements may have influenced a cycle of active versus inactive genes in ancestral organisms, and some repeats are concentrated in regions of the chromosome where there is significant genomic plasticity. Changes in the abundance of genomic repeats during the evolution of an organism may have resulted in a benefit to the cell or posed a disadvantage, and some present day species may reflect a purification process. The diverse structure, eclectic functions, and evolutionary aspects of repeat elements are described.

Delihas, Nicholas

2011-01-01

152

Do rhinoviruses cause pneumonia in children?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoviruses are the most common precipitants of the common cold and have been associated with different infections of the respiratory tract, such as otitis media and sinusitis. They have also been implicated in the induction of acute asthma exacerbations, most of which are preceded by a common cold. Although in several occasions, mainly in immunocompromised hosts, severe lower respiratory tract

Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos

2004-01-01

153

Genome Sequences of Three Agrobacterium Biovars Help Elucidate the Evolution of Multichromosome Genomes in Bacteria? †  

PubMed Central

The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids each strain harbors. Members of the Rhizobiaceae also have diverse genome architectures that include single chromosomes, multiple chromosomes, and plasmids of various sizes. Agrobacterium strains have been divided into three biovars, based on physiological and biochemical properties. The genome of a biovar I strain, A. tumefaciens C58, has been previously sequenced. In this study, the genomes of the biovar II strain A. radiobacter K84, a commercially available biological control strain that inhibits certain pathogenic agrobacteria, and the biovar III strain A. vitis S4, a narrow-host-range strain that infects grapes and invokes a hypersensitive response on nonhost plants, were fully sequenced and annotated. Comparison with other sequenced members of the Alphaproteobacteria provides new data on the evolution of multipartite bacterial genomes. Primary chromosomes show extensive conservation of both gene content and order. In contrast, secondary chromosomes share smaller percentages of genes, and conserved gene order is restricted to short blocks. We propose that secondary chromosomes originated from an ancestral plasmid to which genes have been transferred from a progenitor primary chromosome. Similar patterns are observed in select Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria species. Together, these results define the evolution of chromosome architecture and gene content among the Rhizobiaceae and support a generalized mechanism for second-chromosome formation among bacteria.

Slater, Steven C.; Goldman, Barry S.; Goodner, Brad; Setubal, Joao C.; Farrand, Stephen K.; Nester, Eugene W.; Burr, Thomas J.; Banta, Lois; Dickerman, Allan W.; Paulsen, Ian; Otten, Leon; Suen, Garret; Welch, Roy; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Arnold, Frank; Burton, Oliver T.; Du, Zijin; Ewing, Adam; Godsy, Eric; Heisel, Sara; Houmiel, Kathryn L.; Jhaveri, Jinal; Lu, Jing; Miller, Nancy M.; Norton, Stacie; Chen, Qiang; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Ohlin, Victoria; Ondrusek, Dan; Pride, Nicole; Stricklin, Shawn L.; Sun, Jian; Wheeler, Cathy; Wilson, Lindsey; Zhu, Huijun; Wood, Derek W.

2009-01-01

154

Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While increasing data on bacterial evolution in controlled environments are available, our understanding of bacterial genome evolution in natural environments is limited. We thus performed full genome analyses on four Listeria monocytogenes, including human and food isolates from both a 1988 case of sporadic listeriosis and a 2000 listeriosis outbreak, which had been linked to contaminated food from a

Renato H Orsi; Mark L Borowsky; Peter Lauer; Sarah K Young; Chad Nusbaum; James E Galagan; Bruce W Birren; Reid A Ivy; Qi Sun; Lewis M Graves; Bala Swaminathan; Martin Wiedmann

2008-01-01

155

Major transitions in evolution by genome fusions: from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, metazoans, bilaterians and vertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major transitions in human evolution from prokaryotes toeukaryotes, from protozoans to metazoans, from the first animals tobilaterians and finally from a primitive chordate to vertebrates wereall accompanied by increases in genome complexity. Rare fusion ofdivergent genomes rather than continuous single gene duplications couldexplain these jumps in evolution. The origin of eukaryotes was proposedto be due to a symbiosis of

Jürg Spring

2003-01-01

156

Fugu Genome Analysis Provides Evidence for a Whole-Genome Duplication Early During the Evolution of Ray-Finned Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With about 24,000 extant species, teleosts are the largest group of vertebrates. They constitute more than 99% of the ray- finned fishes (Actinopterygii) that diverged from the lobe-finned fish lineage (Sarcopterygii) about 450 MYA. Although the role of genome duplication in the evolution of vertebrates is now established, its role in structuring the teleost genomes has been controversial. At least

Alan Christoffels; Esther G. L. Koh; Jer-ming Chia; Sydney Brenner; Samuel Aparicio; Byrappa Venkatesh

2004-01-01

157

Stability domains of actin genes and genomic evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In eukaryotic genes, the protein coding sequence is split into several fragments, the exons, separated by noncoding DNA stretches, the introns. Prokaryotes do not have introns in their genomes. We report calculations of the stability domains of actin genes for various organisms in the animal, plant, and fungi kingdoms. Actin genes have been chosen because they have been highly conserved during evolution. In these genes, all introns were removed so as to mimic ancient genes at the time of the early eukaryotic development, i.e., before intron insertion. Common stability boundaries are found in evolutionarily distant organisms, which implies that these boundaries date from the early origin of eukaryotes. In general, the boundaries correspond with intron positions in the actins of vertebrates and other animals, but not much for plants and fungi. The sharpest boundary is found in a locus where fungi, algae, and animals have introns in positions separated by one nucleotide only, which identifies a hot spot for insertion. These results suggest that some introns may have been incorporated into the genomes through a thermodynamically driven mechanism, in agreement with previous observations on human genes. They also suggest a different mechanism for intron insertion in plants and animals.

Carlon, E.; Dkhissi, A.; Malki, M. Lejard; Blossey, R.

2007-11-01

158

Reassortment and Concerted Evolution in Banana Bunchy Top Virus Genomes?  

PubMed Central

The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 102 major common regions (CR-Ms) from all six components showed a possible concerted evolution within the Pacific group, which is likely due to recombination in this region. The CR-M of additional Rep genes is close to that of DNA 1 and 2. Comparison of tree topologies constructed with DNA 1 and DNA 3 coding sequences of 14 BBTV isolates showed distinct phylogenetic histories based on Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The results of principal component analysis of amino acid and codon usages indicate that DNA 1 and 3 have a codon bias different from that of all other genes of nanoviruses, including all currently known additional Rep genes of BBTV, which suggests a possible ancient genome reassortment event between distinctive nanoviruses.

Hu, Jer-Ming; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hua; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

2007-01-01

159

Reassortment and concerted evolution in banana bunchy top virus genomes.  

PubMed

The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 102 major common regions (CR-Ms) from all six components showed a possible concerted evolution within the Pacific group, which is likely due to recombination in this region. The CR-M of additional Rep genes is close to that of DNA 1 and 2. Comparison of tree topologies constructed with DNA 1 and DNA 3 coding sequences of 14 BBTV isolates showed distinct phylogenetic histories based on Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The results of principal component analysis of amino acid and codon usages indicate that DNA 1 and 3 have a codon bias different from that of all other genes of nanoviruses, including all currently known additional Rep genes of BBTV, which suggests a possible ancient genome reassortment event between distinctive nanoviruses. PMID:17135318

Hu, Jer-Ming; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hua; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung

2006-11-29

160

Gene Order Comparisons for Phylogenetic Inference: Evolution of the Mitochondrial Genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed knowledge of gene maps or even complete nucleotide sequences for small genomes leads to the feasibility of evolutionary inference based on the macrostructure of entire genomes, rather than on the traditional comparison of homologous versions of a single gene in different organisms. The mathematical modeling of evolution at the genomic level, however, and the associated inferential apparatus are qualitatively

David Sankoff; Guillaume Leduc; Natalie Antoine; Bruno Paquin; B. Franz Lang; Robert Cedergren

1992-01-01

161

The evolution of human influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006: A complete genome study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Knowledge about the complete genome constellation of seasonal influenza A viruses from different countries is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the evolution and migration of strains. Few complete genome sequences of influenza A viruses from Europe are publicly available at the present time and there have been few longitudinal genome studies of human influenza A viruses. We have

Karoline Bragstad; Lars P Nielsen; Anders Fomsgaard

2008-01-01

162

Genome Evolution of the Cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia under Sharp Microclimatic Divergence at "Evolution Canyon," Israel.  

PubMed

We describe the genomic DNA diversity and divergence of the cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia from "Evolution Canyon," a microsite consisting of ecologically contrasting slopes, south-facing slope (SFS) and north-facing slope (NFS), at lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel. The opposing slopes share their limestone lithology but vary greatly in their ecology, primarily because of different levels of solar radiation (which is six times higher on the SFS than on the NFS). The warm and xeric SFS displays a tropical African savanna, whereas the cool and mesic NFS displays a temperate South European Mediterranean live-oak maquis shrub forest. The cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia tested here is a sessile microorganism, growing as a carpet on rock surfaces and constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations of solar radiation, temperature, and desiccation. We demonstrate remarkable interslope and intraslope genetic divergence of the genome (including both coding and noncoding regions) of Nostoc linckia, by using 211 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) DNA molecular marker loci. Genetic polymorphism of N. linckia subpopulations on the ecologically harsher SFS was significantly (p <0.05) higher (p = 99.53%) than was that of the subpopulations on the climatically milder nfs (p = 85.78%). genetic polymorphism (p) and gene diversity (he) were significantly correlated with variables influencing aridity stress: solar radiation (sr) (rp = 0.956; p = 0.046), temperature (tm) (rp = 0.993; p = 0.0068), and day-night temperature difference (tdd) (rp = 0.975; p = 0.025). as in other tested organisms from "evolution canyon", but even more exceptionally because of its completely sedentary nature, we suggest that the climatically stressed sfs environment is responsible for this marked increase of genetic polymorphism, which is maintained by the combined evolutionary forces of diversifying and balancing selection. This could highlight the importance of ecological stress and selection in evolution and its remarkable effect on the genetic system across the prokaryotic genome. PMID:12024256

Satish, N.; Krugman, T.; Vinogradova, O.N.; Nevo, E.; Kashi, Y.

2001-10-01

163

Vascular endothelial growth factor induction by rhinovirus infection.  

PubMed

Vascular participation manifested by a runny nose (rhinorrhea) is a prominent feature of the acute consequences of rhinovirus infection. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic factor that also induces potent increases in vascular permeability; it is a candidate mediator of rhinorrhea in response to rhinovirus infection as well as contributing to enhanced vascular leakage in rhinovirus-linked asthma exacerbations. It has been shown that rhinovirus induces significant increases in both VEGF protein and mRNA in primary airway fibroblasts [Ghildyal et al. (2005): J Med Virol 75:608-615]. The current studies assessed VEGF responses to rhinovirus in primary culture airway epithelium, in epithelial and fibroblast cell lines and in rhinovirus-infected nasal secretions. Epithelial and fibroblast cells were infected with rhinovirus serotype 16 and VEGF protein and isoforms assessed by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively. VEGF protein was released by both epithelial and fibroblast cell lines and primary airway epithelial cells in culture but was not increased following rhinovirus infection. PCR products coding for four or five of the six known VEGF isoforms were produced (121, 145, 165 and 183, and/or 189 amino acids) in cell lines and primary culture cells, but no specific isoform was linked to rhinovirus infection. Nasal VEGF was also measured in a cohort of asthmatics with verified rhinovirus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. VEGF was not raised following rhinovirus infection alone, but was increased significantly if concomitant RSV infection was present. The data suggest that fibroblasts rather than the epithelium may play a key role in VEGF mediated vascular responses after rhinovirus infection. This may aid recruitment of inflammatory cells and contribute to airway inflammation and bronchial obstruction. PMID:16555282

De Silva, Dinesha; Dagher, Hayat; Ghildyal, Reena; Lindsay, Mandy; Li, Xun; Freezer, Nicholas J; Wilson, John W; Bardin, Philip G

2006-05-01

164

Human brain evolution: harnessing the genomics (r)evolution to link genes, cognition, and behavior.  

PubMed

The evolution of the human brain has resulted in numerous specialized features including higher cognitive processes such as language. Knowledge of whole-genome sequence and structural variation via high-throughput sequencing technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to view human evolution at high resolution. However, phenotype discovery is a critical component of these endeavors and the use of nontraditional model organisms will also be critical for piecing together a complete picture. Ultimately, the union of developmental studies of the brain with studies of unique phenotypes in a myriad of species will result in a more thorough model of the groundwork the human brain was built upon. Furthermore, these integrative approaches should provide important insights into human diseases. PMID:20955931

Konopka, Genevieve; Geschwind, Daniel H

2010-10-21

165

The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation to low energy diet or large body size, such as in elephant, dugong, sloth, and pangolin, and adaptation to unusual oxygen requirements, for example diving in cetaceans, flying in bats, and living at high altitudes in alpacas). Signatures of adaptive variation in the NADH dehydrogenase complex were restricted to the loop regions of the transmembrane units which likely function as protons pumps. Evidence of adaptive variation in the cytochrome c oxidase complex was observed mostly at the interface between the mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits, perhaps evidence of co-evolution. The ATP8 subunit, which has an important role in the assembly of F0, exhibited the highest signal of adaptive variation. ATP6, which has an essential role in rotor performance, showed a high adaptive variation in predicted loop areas. Conclusion Our study provides insight into the adaptive evolution of the mtDNA genome in mammals and its implications for the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. We present a framework for future experimental characterization of the impact of specific mutations in the function, physiology, and interactions of the mtDNA encoded proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation.

da Fonseca, Rute R; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ramos, Maria Joao; Antunes, Agostinho

2008-01-01

166

Comparative genomics reveals conservative evolution of the xylem transcriptome in vascular plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Wood is a valuable natural resource and a major carbon sink. Wood formation is an important developmental process in vascular plants which played a crucial role in plant evolution. Although genes involved in xylem formation have been investigated, the molecular mechanisms of xylem evolution are not well understood. We use comparative genomics to examine evolution of the xylem transcriptome

Xinguo Li; Harry X Wu; Simon G Southerton

2010-01-01

167

Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome-composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes-provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution,

LaDeana W. Hillier; Webb Miller; Ewan Birney; Wesley Warren; Ross C. Hardison; Chris P. Ponting; Peer Bork; David W. Burt; Martien A. M. Groenen; Mary E. Delany; Jerry B. Dodgson; Genome assembly; Asif T. Chinwalla; Paul F. Cliften; Sandra W. Clifton; Kimberly D. Delehaunty; Catrina Fronick; Robert S. Fulton; Tina A. Graves; Colin Kremitzki; Dan Layman; Vincent Magrini; John D. McPherson; Tracie L. Miner; Patrick Minx; William E. Nash; Michael N. Nhan; Joanne O. Nelson; Lachlan G. Oddy; Craig S. Pohl; Jennifer Randall-Maher; Scott M. Smith; John W. Wallis; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; Michael N. Romanov; Catherine M. Rondelli; Bob Paton; Jacqueline Smith; David Morrice; Laura Daniels; Helen G. Tempest; Lindsay Robertson; Julio S. Masabanda; Darren K. Griffin; Alain Vignal; Valerie Fillon; Susanne Kerje; Leif Andersson; Richard P. M. Crooijmans; Jan Aerts; Jan J. van der Poel; Hans Ellegren; cDNA sequencing; Randolph B. Caldwell; Simon J. Hubbard; Darren V. Grafham; Andrzej M. Kierzek; Stuart R. McLaren; Ian M. Overton; Hiroshi Arakawa; Kevin J. Beattie; Yuri Bezzubov; Paul E. Boardman; James K. Bonfield; Michael D. R. Croning; Robert M. Davies; Matthew D. Francis; Sean J. Humphray; Carol E. Scott; Ruth G. Taylor; Cheryll Tickle; William R. A. Brown; Jane Rogers; Jean-Marie Buerstedde; Stuart A. Wilson; Ivan Ovcharenko; Laurie Gordon; Susan Lucas; Marcia M. Miller; Hidetoshi Inoko; Takashi Shiina; Jim Kaufman; Jan Salomonsen; Karsten Skjoedt; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Jun Wang; Bin Liu; Jian Wang; Jun Yu; Huanming Yang; Mikhail Nefedov; Maxim Koriabine; Pieter J. deJong; Leo Goodstadt; Caleb Webber; Nicholas J. Dickens; Ivica Letunic; Mikita Suyama; David Torrents; Christian von Mering; Evgeny M. Zdobnov; Kateryna Makova; Laura Elnitski; Pallavi Eswara; David C. King; Shan Yang; Svitlana Tyekucheva; Anusha Radakrishnan; Robert S. Harris; Francesca Chiaromonte; James Taylor; Jianbin He; Monique Rijnkels; Sam Griffiths-Jones; Michael M. Hoffman; Jessica Severin; Stephen M. J. Searle; Andy S. Law; David Speed; Dave Waddington; Ze Cheng; Eray Tuzun; Zhirong Bao; Paul Flicek; David D. Shteynberg; Michael R. Brent; Jacqueline M. Bye; Elizabeth J. Huckle; Sourav Chatterji; Colin Dewey; Lior Pachter; Andrei Kouranov; Zissimos Mourelatos; Artemis G. Hatzigeorgiou; Andrew H. Paterson; Robert Ivarie; Mikael Brandstrom; Erik Axelsson; Niclas Backstrom; Matthew T. Webster; Olivier Pourquie; Alexandre Reymond; Catherine Ucla; Stylianos E. Antonarakis; Manyuan Long; J. J. Emerson; Esther Betrán; Isabelle Dupanloup; Henrik Kaessmann; Angie S. Hinrichs; Gill Bejerano; Terrence S. Furey; Rachel A. Harte; Brian Raney; Adam Siepel; W. James Kent; David Haussler; Eduardo Eyras; Robert Castelo; Josep F. Abril; Sergi Castellano; Francisco Camara; Genis Parra; Roderic Guigo; Guillaume Bourque; Glenn Tesler; Pavel A. Pevzner; Arian Smit; Lucinda A. Fulton; Elaine R. Mardis; Richard K. Wilson

2004-01-01

168

Evolution of electron transfer out of the cell: comparative genomics of six Geobacter genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Geobacter species grow by transferring electrons out of the cell - either to Fe(III)-oxides or to man-made substances like energy-harvesting electrodes. Study of Geobacter sulfurreducens has shown that TCA cycle enzymes, inner-membrane respiratory enzymes, and periplasmic and outer-membrane cytochromes are required. Here we present comparative analysis of six Geobacter genomes, including species from the clade that predominates in the subsurface. Conservation of proteins across the genomes was determined to better understand the evolution of Geobacter species and to create a metabolic model applicable to subsurface environments. Results The results showed that enzymes for acetate transport and oxidation, and for proton transport across the inner membrane were well conserved. An NADH dehydrogenase, the ATP synthase, and several TCA cycle enzymes were among the best conserved in the genomes. However, most of the cytochromes required for Fe(III)-reduction were not, including many of the outer-membrane cytochromes. While conservation of cytochromes was poor, an abundance and diversity of cytochromes were found in every genome, with duplications apparent in several species. Conclusions These results indicate there is a common pathway for acetate oxidation and energy generation across the family and in the last common ancestor. They also suggest that while cytochromes are important for extracellular electron transport, the path of electrons across the periplasm and outer membrane is variable. This combination of abundant cytochromes with weak sequence conservation suggests they may not be specific terminal reductases, but rather may be important in their heme-bearing capacity, as sinks for electrons between the inner-membrane electron transport chain and the extracellular acceptor.

2010-01-01

169

The Tarenaya hassleriana Genome Provides Insight into Reproductive Trait and Genome Evolution of Crucifers[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

The Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, is unmatched among plants in its wealth of genomic and functional molecular data and has long served as a model for understanding gene, genome, and trait evolution. However, genome information from a phylogenetic outgroup that is essential for inferring directionality of evolutionary change has been lacking. We therefore sequenced the genome of the spider flower (Tarenaya hassleriana) from the Brassicaceae sister family, the Cleomaceae. By comparative analysis of the two lineages, we show that genome evolution following ancient polyploidy and gene duplication events affect reproductively important traits. We found an ancient genome triplication in Tarenaya (Th-?) that is independent of the Brassicaceae-specific duplication (At-?) and nested Brassica (Br-?) triplication. To showcase the potential of sister lineage genome analysis, we investigated the state of floral developmental genes and show Brassica retains twice as many floral MADS (for MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR) genes as Tarenaya that likely contribute to morphological diversity in Brassica. We also performed synteny analysis of gene families that confer self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae and found that the critical SERINE RECEPTOR KINASE receptor gene is derived from a lineage-specific tandem duplication. The T. hassleriana genome will facilitate future research toward elucidating the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae genomes.

Cheng, Shifeng; van den Bergh, Erik; Zeng, Peng; Zhong, Xiao; Xu, Jiajia; Liu, Xin; Hofberger, Johannes; de Bruijn, Suzanne; Bhide, Amey S.; Kuelahoglu, Canan; Bian, Chao; Chen, Jing; Fan, Guangyi; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Hall, Jocelyn C.; Becker, Annette; Brautigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Shi, Chengcheng; Zheng, Zhijun; Li, Wujiao; Lv, Mingju; Tao, Yimin; Wang, Junyi; Zou, Hongfeng; Quan, Zhiwu; Hibberd, Julian M.; Zhang, Gengyun; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Xu, Xun; Schranz, M. Eric

2013-01-01

170

Rhinoviruses in the pathogenesis of asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using sensitive diagnostic methodologies, epidemiologic studies during the past decade have allowed the identification of\\u000a human rhinoviruses (RVs), generally recognized as “common cold viruses,” as major asthma precipitants. This association was\\u000a further established by evaluating the impact of RV infection in airway obstruction and inflammation during naturally acquired\\u000a or experimentally induced RV colds. There is now strong evidence that RVs

Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos; Stelios Psarras

2003-01-01

171

Comparative genomics and evolution of proteins involved in RNA metabolism  

PubMed Central

RNA metabolism, broadly defined as the compendium of all processes that involve RNA, including transcription, processing and modification of transcripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regulation, is the central and most evolutionarily conserved part of cell physiology. A comprehensive, genome-wide census of all enzymatic and non-enzymatic protein domains involved in RNA metabolism was conducted by using sequence profile analysis and structural comparisons. Proteins related to RNA metabolism comprise from 3 to 11% of the complete protein repertoire in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, with the greatest fraction seen in parasitic bacteria with small genomes. Approximately one-half of protein domains involved in RNA metabolism are present in most, if not all, species from all three primary kingdoms and are traceable to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). The principal features of LUCA’s RNA metabolism system were reconstructed by parsimony-based evolutionary analysis of all relevant groups of orthologous proteins. This reconstruction shows that LUCA possessed not only the basal translation system, but also the principal forms of RNA modification, such as methylation, pseudouridylation and thiouridylation, as well as simple mechanisms for polyadenylation and RNA degradation. Some of these ancient domains form paralogous groups whose evolution can be traced back in time beyond LUCA, towards low-specificity proteins, which probably functioned as cofactors for ribozymes within the RNA world framework. The main lineage-specific innovations of RNA metabolism systems were identified. The most notable phase of innovation in RNA metabolism coincides with the advent of eukaryotes and was brought about by the merge of the archaeal and bacterial systems via mitochondrial endosymbiosis, but also involved emergence of several new, eukaryote-specific RNA-binding domains. Subsequent, vast expansions of these domains mark the origin of alternative splicing in animals and probably in plants. In addition to the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of RNA metabolism, this analysis produced numerous functional predictions, e.g. of previously undetected enzymes of RNA modification.

Anantharaman, Vivek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Aravind, L.

2002-01-01

172

Early penguin fossils, plus mitochondrial genomes, calibrate avian evolution.  

PubMed

Testing models of macroevolution, and especially the sufficiency of microevolutionary processes, requires good collaboration between molecular biologists and paleontologists. We report such a test for events around the Late Cretaceous by describing the earliest penguin fossils, analyzing complete mitochondrial genomes from an albatross, a petrel, and a loon, and describe the gradual decline of pterosaurs at the same time modern birds radiate. The penguin fossils comprise four naturally associated skeletons from the New Zealand Waipara Greensand, a Paleocene (early Tertiary) formation just above a well-known Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary site. The fossils, in a new genus (Waimanu), provide a lower estimate of 61-62 Ma for the divergence between penguins and other birds and thus establish a reliable calibration point for avian evolution. Combining fossil calibration points, DNA sequences, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis, the penguin calibrations imply a radiation of modern (crown group) birds in the Late Cretaceous. This includes a conservative estimate that modern sea and shorebird lineages diverged at least by the Late Cretaceous about 74 +/- 3 Ma (Campanian). It is clear that modern birds from at least the latest Cretaceous lived at the same time as archaic birds including Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and the diverse Enantiornithiformes. Pterosaurs, which also coexisted with early crown birds, show notable changes through the Late Cretaceous. There was a decrease in taxonomic diversity, and small- to medium-sized species disappeared well before the end of the Cretaceous. A simple reading of the fossil record might suggest competitive interactions with birds, but much more needs to be understood about pterosaur life histories. Additional fossils and molecular data are still required to help understand the role of biotic interactions in the evolution of Late Cretaceous birds and thus to test that the mechanisms of microevolution are sufficient to explain macroevolution. PMID:16533822

Slack, Kerryn E; Jones, Craig M; Ando, Tatsuro; Harrison, G L Abby; Fordyce, R Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur; Penny, David

2006-03-13

173

Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing.  

PubMed

Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton. PMID:23979935

Page, Justin T; Huynh, Mark D; Liechty, Zach S; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F; Udall, Joshua A

2013-10-03

174

Insights into the Evolution of Cotton Diploids and Polyploids from Whole-Genome Re-sequencing  

PubMed Central

Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton.

Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D.; Liechty, Zach S.; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.

2013-01-01

175

GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES DURING IN VIVO HUMAN RHINOVIRUS INFECTION: INSIGHTS INTO THE HOST RESPONSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Human rhinovirus infections cause colds and trigger exacerbations of lower airway diseases. Objectives: To define changes in gene expression profiles during in vivo rhinovirus infections. Methods: Nasal epithelial scrapings were obtained before and during experimental rhinovirus infection, and gene expression was evalu- ated by microarray. Naturally acquired rhinovirus infections, cultured human epithelial cells, and short interfering RNA knockdown were

David Proud; Ronald B. Turner; Birgit Winther; Shahina Wiehler; Jay P. Tiesman; Tim D. Reichling; Kenton D. Juhlin; Andy W. Fulmer; Begonia Y. Ho; Amy A. Walanski; Cathy L. Poore; Haruko Mizoguchi; Lynn Jump; Marsha L. Moore; Claudine K. Zukowski; Jeffrey W. Clymer

176

Chronic rhinovirus infection in an adult with cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed

Rhinovirus is a common cause of exacerbations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and is usually considered a self-limiting infection. We report a case of chronic infection with rhinovirus A type 33 in a 43-year-old male with CF which has persisted for over 2 years. PMID:23966488

Flight, William G; Bright-Thomas, Rowland J; Tilston, Peter; Mutton, Kenneth J; Guiver, Malcolm; Webb, A Kevin; Jones, Andrew M

2013-08-21

177

The Cambrian explosion triggered by critical turning point in genome size evolution.  

PubMed

The Cambrian explosion is a grand challenge to science today and involves multidisciplinary study. This event is generally believed as a result of genetic innovations, environmental factors and ecological interactions, even though there are many conflicts on nature and timing of metazoan origins. The crux of the matter is that an entire roadmap of the evolution is missing to discern the biological complexity transition and to evaluate the critical role of the Cambrian explosion in the overall evolutionary context. Here, we calculate the time of the Cambrian explosion by a "C-value clock"; our result quite fits the fossil records. We clarify that the intrinsic reason of genome evolution determined the Cambrian explosion. A general formula for evaluating genome size of different species has been found, by which the genome size evolution can be illustrated. The Cambrian explosion, as a major transition of biological complexity, essentially corresponds to a critical turning point in genome size evolution. PMID:20074549

Li, Dirson Jian; Zhang, Shengli

2010-01-13

178

The Laccaria and Tuber Genomes Reveal Unique Signatures of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Evolution (2010 JGI User Meeting)  

SciTech Connect

Francis Martin from the French agricultural research institute INRA talks on how "The Laccaria and Tuber genomes reveal unique signatures of mycorrhizal symbiosis evolution" on March 24, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

Knapp, Steve

2010-03-24

179

Oxytricha as a modern analog of ancient genome evolution.  

PubMed

Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the modern genetic system was preceded by the 'RNA world' in which RNA genes encoded RNA catalysts. Current gaps in our conceptual framework of early genetic systems make it difficult to imagine how a stable RNA genome may have functioned and how the transition to a DNA genome could have taken place. Here we use the single-celled ciliate, Oxytricha, as an analog to some of the genetic and genomic traits that may have been present in organisms before and during the establishment of a DNA genome. Oxytricha and its close relatives have a unique genome architecture involving two differentiated nuclei, one of which encodes the genome on small, linear nanochromosomes. While its unique genomic characteristics are relatively modern, some physiological processes related to the genomes and nuclei of Oxytricha may exemplify primitive states of the developing genetic system. PMID:22622227

Goldman, Aaron David; Landweber, Laura F

2012-05-21

180

Research on Attenuation of Rhinoviruses and Methods for Measuring Antibody Response to Rhinovirus Infection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sera from five medical students from whom Rhinovirus 14 had been isolated were tested for antibody by tube neutralization tests in WI38 and HeLa, and by plaque reduction in HeLa with the prototype strain and with a wild strain. The plaque reduction test w...

D. Hamre

1967-01-01

181

The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sequencing of the sponge genome

Mansi Srivastava; Oleg Simakov; Jarrod Chapman; Bryony Fahey; Marie E. A. Gauthier; Therese Mitros; Gemma S. Richards; Cecilia Conaco; Michael Dacre; Uffe Hellsten; Claire Larroux; Nicholas H. Putnam; Mario Stanke; Maja Adamska; Aaron Darling; Sandie M. Degnan; Todd H. Oakley; David C. Plachetzki; Yufeng Zhai; Marcin Adamski; Andrew Calcino; Scott F. Cummins; David M. Goodstein; Christina Harris; Daniel J. Jackson; Sally P. Leys; Shengqiang Shu; Ben J. Woodcroft; Michel Vervoort; Kenneth S. Kosik; Gerard Manning; Bernard M. Degnan; Daniel S. Rokhsar

2010-01-01

182

The evolution of mitochondrial genome and proteome in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria, found in nearly all eukaryotes, are indispensable double membrane organelles that play pivotal roles in several cellular processes. While diversity of mitochondrial genomes among eukaryotes has been recognized, it was thought that animal mitochondrial genomes are small circular molecules with little variation in size and gene content. However this picturing of animal mitochondrial genomes was based on a biased

Xiujuan Wang

2010-01-01

183

AMBYSTOMA: PERSPECTIVES ON ADAPTATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF VERTEBRATE GENOMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tiger salamanders, and especially the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), are important model organisms in biological research. This dissertation describes new genomic resources and scientific results that greatly extend the utility of tiger salamanders. With respect to new resources, this dissertation describes the development of expressed sequence tags and assembled contigs, a comparative genome map, a web-portal that makes genomic information

Jeramiah James Smith

2007-01-01

184

Evolution of genes and genomes on the Drosophila phylogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of multiple genomes in a phylogenetic framework dramatically improves the precision and sensitivity of evolutionary inference, producing more robust results than single-genome analyses can provide. The genomes of 12 Drosophila species, ten of which are presented here for the first time (sechellia, simulans, yakuba, erecta, ananassae, persimilis, willistoni, mojavensis, virilis and grimshawi), illustrate how rates and patterns of

Andrew G. Clark; Michael B. Eisen; Douglas R. Smith; Brian Oliver; Therese A. Markow; Thomas C. Kaufman; Manolis Kellis; William Gelbart; Venky N. Iyer; Daniel A. Pollard; Timothy B. Sackton; Amanda M. Larracuente; Nadia D. Singh; Jose P. Abad; Dawn N. Abt; Boris Adryan; Montserrat Aguade; Hiroshi Akashi; Wyatt W. Anderson; Charles F. Aquadro; David H. Ardell; Roman Arguello; Carlo G. Artieri; Daniel A. Barbash; Daniel Barker; Paolo Barsanti; Phil Batterham; Serafim Batzoglou; Dave Begun; Arjun Bhutkar; Enrico Blanco; Stephanie A. Bosak; Robert K. Bradley; Adrianne D. Brand; Michael R. Brent; Angela N. Brooks; Randall H. Brown; Roger K. Butlin; Corrado Caggese; Brian R. Calvi; A. Bernardo de Carvalho; Anat Caspi; Sergio Castrezana; Susan E. Celniker; Jean L. Chang; Charles Chapple; Sourav Chatterji; Asif Chinwalla; Alberto Civetta; Sandra W. Clifton; Josep M. Comeron; James C. Costello; Jerry A. Coyne; Jennifer Daub; Robert G. David; Arthur L. Delcher; Kim Delehaunty; Chuong B. Do; Heather Ebling; Kevin Edwards; Thomas Eickbush; Jay D. Evans; Alan Filipski; Sven Findeiß; Eva Freyhult; Lucinda Fulton; Robert Fulton; Ana C. L. Garcia; Anastasia Gardiner; David A. Garfield; Barry E. Garvin; Greg Gibson; Don Gilbert; Sante Gnerre; Jennifer Godfrey; Robert Good; Valer Gotea; Brenton Gravely; Anthony J. Greenberg; Sam Griffiths-Jones; Samuel Gross; Roderic Guigo; Erik A. Gustafson; Wilfried Haerty; Matthew W. Hahn; Daniel L. Halligan; Aaron L. Halpern; Gillian M. Halter; Mira V. Han; Andreas Heger; Ladeana Hillier; Angie S. Hinrichs; Ian Holmes; Roger A. Hoskins; Melissa J. Hubisz; Dan Hultmark; Melanie A. Huntley; David B. Jaffe; Santosh Jagadeeshan; William R. Jeck; Justin Johnson; Corbin D. Jones; William C. Jordan; Gary H. Karpen; Eiko Kataoka; Peter D. Keightley; Pouya Kheradpour; Ewen F. Kirkness; Leonardo B. Koerich; Karsten Kristiansen; Dave Kudrna; Rob J. Kulathinal; Sudhir Kumar; Roberta Kwok; Eric Lander; Charles H. Langley; Richard Lapoint; Brian P. Lazzaro; So-Jeong Lee; Lisa Levesque; Ruiqiang Li; Chiao-Feng Lin; Michael F. Lin; Kerstin Lindblad-Toh; Ana Llopart; Manyuan Long; Lloyd Low; Elena Lozovsky; Jian Lu; Meizhong Luo; Carlos A. Machado; Wojciech Makalowski; Mar Marzo; Muneo Matsuda; Luciano Matzkin; Bryant McAllister; Carolyn S. McBride; Brendan McKernan; Kevin McKernan; Maria Mendez-Lago; Patrick Minx; Michael U. Mollenhauer; Kristi Montooth; Stephen M. Mount; Xu Mu; Eugene Myers; Barbara Negre; Stuart Newfeld; Rasmus Nielsen; Mohamed A. F. Noor; Patrick O'Grady; Lior Pachter; Montserrat Papaceit; Matthew J. Parisi; Michael Parisi; Leopold Parts; Jakob S. Pedersen; Graziano Pesole; Adam M. Phillippy; Chris P. Ponting; Mihai Pop; Damiano Porcelli; Jeffrey R. Powell; Sonja Prohaska; Kim Pruitt; Marta Puig; Hadi Quesneville; Kristipati Ravi Ram; David Rand; Matthew D. Rasmussen; Laura K. Reed; Robert Reenan; Amy Reily; Karin A. Remington; Tania T. Rieger; Michael G. Ritchie; Charles Robin; Yu-Hui Rogers; Claudia Rohde; Julio Rozas; Marc J. Rubenfield; Alfredo Ruiz; Susan Russo; Steven L. Salzberg; Alejandro Sanchez-Gracia; David J. Saranga; Hajime Sato; Stephen W. Schaeffer; Michael C. Schatz; Todd Schlenke; Russell Schwartz; Carmen Segarra; Rama S. Singh; Laura Sirot; Marina Sirota; Nicholas B. Sisneros; Chris D. Smith; Temple F. Smith; John Spieth; Deborah E. Stage; Alexander Stark; Wolfgang Stephan; Robert L. Strausberg; Sebastian Strempel; David Sturgill; Granger Sutton; Wei Tao; Sarah Teichmann; Yoshiko N. Tobari; Yoshihiko Tomimura; Jason M. Tsolas; Vera L. S. Valente; Eli Venter; J. Craig Venter; Saverio Vicario; Filipe G. Vieira; Albert J. Vilella; Alfredo Villasante; Brian Walenz; Jun Wang; Marvin Wasserman; Thomas Watts; Derek Wilson; Richard K. Wilson; Rod A. Wing; Mariana F. Wolfner; Alex Wong; Gane Ka-Shu Wong; Chung-I. Wu; Gabriel Wu; Daisuke Yamamoto; Hsiao-Pei Yang; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; James A. Yorke; Kiyohito Yoshida; Evgeny Zdobnov; Peili Zhang; Yu Zhang; Aleksey V. Zimin; Jennifer Baldwin; Amr Abdouelleil; Jamal Abdulkadir; Adal Abebe; Brikti Abera; Justin Abreu; St Christophe Acer; Lynne Aftuck; Allen Alexander; Peter An; Erica Anderson; Scott Anderson; Harindra Arachi; Marc Azer; Pasang Bachantsang; Andrew Barry; Tashi Bayul; Aaron Berlin; Daniel Bessette; Toby Bloom; Jason Blye; Leonid Boguslavskiy; Claude Bonnet; Boris Boukhgalter; Imane Bourzgui; Adam Brown; Patrick Cahill; Sheridon Channer; Yama Cheshatsang; Lisa Chuda; Mieke Citroen; Alville Collymore; Patrick Cooke; Maura Costello; Katie D'Aco; Riza Daza; Georgius de Haan; Stuart Degray; Christina Demaso; Norbu Dhargay; Kimberly Dooley; Erin Dooley; Missole Doricent; Passang Dorje

2007-01-01

185

Eukaryotic genome evolution: rearrangement and coevolution of compartmentalized genetic information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant cell operates with an integrated, compartmentalized genome consisting of nucleus\\/cytosol, plas- tids and mitochondria that, in its entirety, is regulated in time, quantitatively, in multicellular organisms and also in space. This genome, as do genomes of eukaryotes in general, originated in endosymbiotic events, with at least three cells, and was shaped phylogenetically by a massive and highly complex

Reinhold G. Herrmann; Rainer M. Maier; Christian Schmitz-Linneweber

2003-01-01

186

Compositional Evolution of Noncoding DNA in the Human and Chimpanzee Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have examined the compositional evolution of noncoding DNA in the primate genome by comparison of lineage- specific substitutions observed in 1.8 Mb of genomic alignments of human, chimpanzee, and baboon with 6542 human single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rooted using chimpanzee sequence. The pattern of compositional evolution, measured in terms of the numbers of GCfiAT and ATfiGC changes, differs significantly between

Matthew T. Webster; Nick G. C. Smith; Hans Ellegren

187

Genome increase as a clock for the origin and evolution of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The size of non-redundant functional genome can be an indicator of biological complexity of living organisms. Several positive feedback mechanisms including gene cooperation and duplication with subsequent specialization may result in the exponential growth of biological complexity in macro-evolution. RESULTS: I propose a hypothesis that biological complexity increased exponentially during evolution. Regression of the logarithm of functional non-redundant genome

Alexei A Sharov

2006-01-01

188

Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major transitions in animal evolution–the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality–correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae,

Xiujuan Wang; Dennis V. Lavrov; Michael Hofreiter

2008-01-01

189

Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major transitions in animal evolution-the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality-correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae,

Xiujuan Wang; Dennis V. Lavrov

2008-01-01

190

The scope and strength of sex-specific selection in genome evolution.  

PubMed

Males and females share the vast majority of their genomes and yet are often subject to different, even conflicting, selection. Genomic and transcriptomic developments have made it possible to assess sex-specific selection at the molecular level, and it is clear that sex-specific selection shapes the evolutionary properties of several genomic characteristics, including transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, imprinting, genome structure and gene sequence. Sex-specific selection is strongly influenced by mating system, which also causes neutral evolutionary changes that affect different regions of the genome in different ways. Here, we synthesize theoretical and molecular work in order to provide a cohesive view of the role of sex-specific selection and mating system in genome evolution. We also highlight the need for a combined approach, incorporating both genomic data and experimental phenotypic studies, in order to understand precisely how sex-specific selection drives evolutionary change across the genome. PMID:23848139

Wright, A E; Mank, J E

2013-07-13

191

Understanding the rise of the superbug: investigation of the evolution and genomic variation of Staphylococcus aureus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of human infection, and it is becoming increasingly virulent and resistant to antibiotics. Our understanding of the evolution of this species has been greatly enhanced by the recent sequencing of the genomes of seven strains of S. aureus. Comparative genomic analysis allows us to identify variation in the chromosomes and understand the

Jodi A. Lindsay; Matthew T. G. Holden

2006-01-01

192

Patterns of Genome Evolution among the Microsporidian Parasites Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Antonospora locustae and Enterocytozoon bieneusi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Microsporidia are intracellular parasites that are highly-derived relatives of fungi. They have compacted genomes and, despite a high rate of sequence evolution, distantly related species can share high levels of gene order conservation. To date, only two species have been analysed in detail, and data from one of these largely consists of short genomic fragments. It is therefore difficult

Nicolas Corradi; Donna E. Akiyoshi; Hilary G. Morrison; Xiaochuan Feng; Louis M. Weiss; Saul Tzipori; Patrick J. Keeling

2007-01-01

193

A cricket Gene Index: a genomic resource for studying neurobiology, speciation, and molecular evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As the developmental costs of genomic tools decline, genomic approaches to non-model systems are becoming more feasible. Many of these systems may lack advanced genetic tools but are extremely valuable models in other biological fields. Here we report the development of expressed sequence tags (EST's) in an orthopteroid insect, a model for the study of neurobiology, speciation, and evolution.

Patrick D Danley; Sean P Mullen; Fenglong Liu; Vishvanath Nene; John Quackenbush; Kerry L Shaw

2007-01-01

194

A 21st century view of evolution: genome system architecture, repetitive DNA, and natural genetic engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last 50 years of molecular genetics have produced an abundance of new discoveries and data that make it useful to revisit some basic concepts and assumptions in our thinking about genomes and evolution. Chief among these observations are the complex modularity of genome organization, the biological ubiquity of mobile and repetitive DNA sequences, and the fundamental importance of DNA

James A. Shapiro

2005-01-01

195

The Genome Sequence of Taurine Cattle: A Window to Ruminant Biology and Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher

Christine G Elsik; Ross L Tellam; Richard A Gibbs; Kim C Worley; Donna M Muzny; George M Weinstock; David L Adelson; Evan E Eichler; Laura Elnitski; Roderic Guig'o; Debora L Hamernik; Harris A Lewin; Steve M Kappes; David J Lynn; Frank W Nicholas; Alexandre Reymond; Monique Rijnkels; Loren C Skow; Evgeny M Zdobnov; Lawrence Schook; James Womack; Tyler Alioto; Stylianos E Antonarakis; Alex Astashyn; Charles E Chapple; Hsiu-Chuan Chen; Jacqueline Chrast; Francisco Câmara; Olga Ermolaeva; Charlotte N Henrichsen; Wratko Hlavina; Yuri Kapustin; Boris Kiryutin; Paul Kitts; Felix Kokocinski; Melissa Landrum; Donna Maglott; Kim Pruitt; Victor Sapojnikov; Stephen M Searle; Victor Solovyev; Alexandre Souvorov; Catherine Ucla; Carine Wyss; Juan M Anzola; Daniel Gerlach; Eran Elhaik; Dan Graur; Justin T Reese; Robert C Edgar; John C McEwan; Gemma M Payne; Joy M Raison; Thomas Junier; Evgenia V Kriventseva; Eduardo Eyras; Mireya Plass; Ravikiran Donthu; Denis M Larkin; James Reecy; Mary Q Yang; Lin Chen; Ze Cheng; Carol G Chitko-mckown; George E Liu; Lakshmi K Matukumalli; Jiuzhou Song; Bin Zhu; Daniel G Bradley; Fiona S L Brinkman; Lilian P L Lau; Matthew D Whiteside; Angela Walker; Thomas T Wheeler; Theresa Casey; J Bruce German; Danielle G Lemay; Nauman J Maqbool; Adrian J Molenaar; Seongwon Seo; Paul Stothard; Cynthia L Baldwin; Rebecca Baxter; Candice L Brinkmeyer-Langford; Wendy C Brown; Christopher P Childers; Shirley A Ellis; Timothy Connelley; Krista Fritz; Elizabeth J Glass; Carolyn T A Herzig; Antti Iivanainen; Kevin K Lahmers; Anna K Bennett; C Michael Dickens; James G R Gilbert; Darren E Hagen; Hanni Salih; Alexandre R Caetano; Brian Dalrymple; Clare A Gill; Jose Fernando Garcia; Stefan G Hiendleder; Erdogan Memili; Diane Spurlock; John L Williams; Lee Alexander; Michael J Brownstein; Leluo Guan; Marco A Marra; Steven J M Jones; Richard Moore; Stephen S Moore; Andy Roberts; Masaaki Taniguchi; Richard C Waterman; Joseph Chacko; Mimi M Chandrabose; Andy Cree; Marvin Diep Dao; Huyen H Dinh; Ramatu Ayiesha Gabisi; Sandra Hines; Jennifer Hume; Shalini N Jhangiani; Vandita Joshi; Christie L Kovar; Lora R Lewis; Yih-Shin Liu; John Lopez; Margaret B Morgan; Ngoc Bich Nguyen; Geoffrey O Okwuonu; San Juana Ruiz; Rita A Wright; Jireh Santibanez; Christian Buhay; Yan Ding; Shannon Dugan-rocha; Judith Herdandez; Michael Holder; Aniko Sabo; Amy Egan; Jason Goodell; Katarzyna Wilczek-Boney; Gerald R Fowler; Matthew Edward Hitchens; Ryan J Lozado; Charles Moen; David Steffen; James T Warren; JingKun Zhang; Readman Chiu; Jacqueline E Schein; K James Durbin; Paul Havlak; Huaiyang Jiang; Yue Liu; Xiang Qin; Yanru Ren; Yufeng Shen; Henry Song; Stephanie Nicole Bell; Clay Davis; Angela Jolivet Johnson; Sandra Lee; Lynne V Nazareth; Bella Mayurkumar Patel; Ling-Ling Pu; Selina Vattathil; Rex Lee Williams; Stacey Curry; Cerissa Hamilton; Erica Sodergren; David A Wheeler; Wes Barris; Gary L Bennett; Andr'e Eggen; Ronnie D Green; Gregory P Harhay; Matthew Hobbs; Oliver Jann; John W Keele; Matthew P Kent; Sigbjo rn Lien; Stephanie D McKay; Sean Mcwilliam; Abhirami Ratnakumar; Robert D Schnabel; Timothy Smith; Warren M Snelling; Tad S Sonstegard; Roger T Stone; Yoshikazu Sugimoto; Akiko Takasuga; Jeremy F Taylor; Curtis P Van Tassell; Michael D Macneil; Colette A Abbey; Antonio R R Abatepaulo; Virpi Ahola; Iassudara G Almeida; Ariel F Amadio; Elen Anatriello; Suria M Bahadue; Fernando H Biase; Jeffery A Carroll; Clayton R Boldt; Wanessa A Carvalho; Eliane P Cervelatti; Elsa Chacko; Jennifer E Chapin; Ye Cheng; Jungwoo Choi; Adam J Colley; Tatiana A de Campos; Marcos De Donato; Isabel K F De Miranda Santos; Carlo J F de Oliveira; Heather Deobald; Eve Devinoy; Kaitlin E Donohue; Peter Dovc; Annett Eberlein; Carolyn J Fitzsimmons; Alessandra M Franzin; Gustavo R Garcia; Sem Genini; Cody J Gladney; Jason R Grant; Marion L Greaser; Jonathan A Green; Darryl L Hadsell; Hatam A Hakimov; Rob Halgren; Jennifer L Harrow; Elizabeth A Hart; Nicola Hastings; Marta Hern'andez; Zhi-Liang Hu; Aaron Ingham; Terhi Iso-Touru; Catherine Jamis; Kirsty Jensen; Dimos Kapetis; Tovah Kerr; Sari S Khalil; Hasan Khatib; Davood Kolbehdari; Charu G Kumar; Dinesh Kumar; Richard Leach; Justin C-M Lee; Changxi Li; Krystin M Logan; Roberto Malinverni; Elisa Marques; William F Martin; Natalia F Martins; Sandra R Maruyama; Raffaele Mazza; Kim L McLean; Juan F Medrano; Barbara T Moreno; Daniela D Mor'e; Carl T Muntean; Hari P Nandakumar; Marcelo F G Nogueira; Ingrid Olsaker; Sameer D Pant; Francesca Panzitta; Rosemeire C P Pastor; Mario A Poli; Nathan Poslusny; Satyanarayana Rachagani; Shoba Ranganathan; Andrej Razpet

2009-01-01

196

Genome Evolution and Meiotic Maps by Massively Parallel DNA Sequencing: Spotted Gar, an Outgroup for the Teleost Genome Duplication  

PubMed Central

Genomic resources for hundreds of species of evolutionary, agricultural, economic, and medical importance are unavailable due to the expense of well-assembled genome sequences and difficulties with multigenerational studies. Teleost fish provide many models for human disease but possess anciently duplicated genomes that sometimes obfuscate connectivity. Genomic information representing a fish lineage that diverged before the teleost genome duplication (TGD) would provide an outgroup for exploring the mechanisms of evolution after whole-genome duplication. We exploited massively parallel DNA sequencing to develop meiotic maps with thrift and speed by genotyping F1 offspring of a single female and a single male spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) collected directly from nature utilizing only polymorphisms existing in these two wild individuals. Using Stacks, software that automates the calling of genotypes from polymorphisms assayed by Illumina sequencing, we constructed a map containing 8406 markers. RNA-seq on two map-cross larvae provided a reference transcriptome that identified nearly 1000 mapped protein-coding markers and allowed genome-wide analysis of conserved synteny. Results showed that the gar lineage diverged from teleosts before the TGD and its genome is organized more similarly to that of humans than teleosts. Thus, spotted gar provides a critical link between medical models in teleost fish, to which gar is biologically similar, and humans, to which gar is genomically similar. Application of our F1 dense mapping strategy to species with no prior genome information promises to facilitate comparative genomics and provide a scaffold for ordering the numerous contigs arising from next generation genome sequencing.

Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Ferrara, Allyse; Fontenot, Quenton; Postlethwait, John H.

2011-01-01

197

Genetic clustering of all 102 human rhinovirus prototype strains: serotype 87 is close to human enterovirus 70  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rhinoviruses (HRV), common agents of respiratory infections, comprise 102 designated serotypes. The genetic relationships of HRV prototype strains and the possibility of using genetic identification of a given HRV field strain were studied. Genomic sequences in the VP4\\/VP2 region were obtained from all 102 prototype strains. Phylogenetic analysis included 61 recently isolated Finnish field strains. Seventy-six out of the

Carita Savolainen; Soile Blomqvist; Mick N. Muldersã; Tapani Hovi

2002-01-01

198

Genome Size Evolution in Pufferfish: A Comparative Analysis of Diodontid and Tetraodontid Pufferfish Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smooth pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae have the smallest vertebrate genomes yet measured. They have a haploid genome size of ?400 million bp (Mb), which is almost eight times smaller than the human genome. Given that spiny pufferfish from the sister family Diodontidae and a fish from the outgroup Molidae have genomes twice as large as smooth puffers, it appears

Daniel E. Neafsey; Stephen R. Palumbi

2003-01-01

199

Whole genome comparative studies between chicken and turkey and their implications for avian genome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Comparative genomics is a powerful means of establishing inter-specific relationships between gene function\\/location and allows insight into genomic rearrangements, conservation and evolutionary phylogeny. The availability of the complete sequence of the chicken genome has initiated the development of detailed genomic information in other birds including turkey, an agriculturally important species where mapping has hitherto focused on linkage with limited

Darren K Griffin; Lindsay B Robertson; Helen G Tempest; Alain Vignal; Valérie Fillon; Richard PMA Crooijmans; Martien AM Groenen; Svetlana Deryusheva; Elena Gaginskaya; Wilfrid Carré; David Waddington; Richard Talbot; Martin Völker; Julio S Masabanda; Dave W Burt

2008-01-01

200

Epidemiology of the Common Cold in Military Recruits with Emphasis on Infections by Rhinovirus Types 1A, 2, and Two Unclassified Rhinoviruses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An epidemiological study of common colds associated with rhinoviruses was conducted in military recruits while in training. Almost 90% of the subjects were infected with at least 12 different rhinovirus serotypes. Forty percent of these men sustained two ...

M. J. Rosenbaum P. DeBerry E. J. Sullivan W. E. Pierce R. E. Mueller

1970-01-01

201

The role of mRNA-based duplication in the evolution of the primate genome.  

PubMed

Analysis of the human genome suggests novel genes created by retroposition may play an important role in primate evolution. However, data from non-human primates is still scarce. A comprehensive comparison was thus performed among four primate genomes (human, chimpanzee, orangutan, and macaque), which detects elevated rates of retroposition in both the common ancestor of hominoids and macaques. Further analysis shows approximately 10% of intact retrocopies may be under positive selection and at least 4% of retrocopies become functional copies eventually. Moreover, human intact retrocopies were found enriched in transcription-related functions. Collectively, these findings emphasize the important contribution of retroposition to primate genome evolution. PMID:24036455

Zhang, Qu

2013-09-10

202

Massive comparative genomic analysis reveals convergent evolution of specialized bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genome size and gene content in bacteria are associated with their lifestyles. Obligate intracellular bacteria (i.e., mutualists and parasites) have small genomes that derived from larger free-living bacterial ancestors; however, the different steps of bacterial specialization from free-living to intracellular lifestyle have not been studied comprehensively. The growing number of available sequenced genomes makes it possible to perform a

Vicky Merhej; Manuela Royer-Carenzi; Pierre Pontarotti; Didier Raoult

2009-01-01

203

Natural and experimental rhinovirus infections of the lower respiratory tract.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses are the cause of the majority of common colds, but their role in lower respiratory disorders is less clear. Recent studies using the polymerase chain reaction to detect rhinoviruses have established respiratory viral infections as major factors in the induction of acute exacerbations of asthma in both adults and children, both in mild exacerbations and in more severe exacerbations leading to hospital admission. Rhinoviruses were the major virus type detected in these studies, accounting for two-thirds of viruses detected. It is not known whether rhinoviruses produce their effects by directly invading the lower airway or by indirect means. Previous clinical studies provide some evidence that rhinoviruses are capable of infecting the lower airway. However, the immunologic response, both in the upper and lower airways, remains poorly defined. Recent studies have provided evidence of increased cellular activation in peripheral blood and in bronchial biopsies in atopic subjects compared with normal subjects during experimental rhinovirus infections. The reasons for these different cellular responses are unclear. Rhinoviruses as well as other respiratory viruses have been shown to increase levels of a variety of cytokines from respiratory epithelium, monocytes, or macrophages. Prominent among these cytokines is interleukin (IL)-8. We have detected increased levels of IL-8 in nasal secretions from subjects with wild-type rhinovirus infections. We studied the mechanisms of rhinovirus-induced IL-8 production and and found protein release from both pulmonary epithelial and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This protein production was accompanied by increased mRNA expression and evidence of infection of both pulmonary epithelial and monocyte cell lines.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7551413

Johnston, S L

1995-10-01

204

The early stage of bacterial genome-reductive evolution in the host.  

PubMed

The equine-associated obligate pathogen Burkholderia mallei was developed by reductive evolution involving a substantial portion of the genome from Burkholderia pseudomallei, a free-living opportunistic pathogen. With its short history of divergence (approximately 3.5 myr), B. mallei provides an excellent resource to study the early steps in bacterial genome reductive evolution in the host. By examining 20 genomes of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei, we found that stepwise massive expansion of IS (insertion sequence) elements ISBma1, ISBma2, and IS407A occurred during the evolution of B. mallei. Each element proliferated through the sites where its target selection preference was met. Then, ISBma1 and ISBma2 contributed to the further spread of IS407A by providing secondary insertion sites. This spread increased genomic deletions and rearrangements, which were predominantly mediated by IS407A. There were also nucleotide-level disruptions in a large number of genes. However, no significant signs of erosion were yet noted in these genes. Intriguingly, all these genomic modifications did not seriously alter the gene expression patterns inherited from B. pseudomallei. This efficient and elaborate genomic transition was enabled largely through the formation of the highly flexible IS-blended genome and the guidance by selective forces in the host. The detailed IS intervention, unveiled for the first time in this study, may represent the key component of a general mechanism for early bacterial evolution in the host. PMID:20523904

Song, Han; Hwang, Junghyun; Yi, Hyojeong; Ulrich, Ricky L; Yu, Yan; Nierman, William C; Kim, Heenam Stanley

2010-05-27

205

Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies  

PubMed Central

Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

2012-01-01

206

IS1096-mediated DNA rearrangements play a key role in genome evolution of Mycobacterium smegmatis.  

PubMed

The acquisition of DNA and the loss of genetic information are two important mechanisms that contribute to strain-specific differences in genome content. In this study, comparative genomics has allowed us to infer the roles of genomic rearrangement and changes in both distribution and copy number of the insertion element, IS1096, in the evolution of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 from its progenitor, M. smegmatis ATCC 607. Comparative analysis revealed that the ATCC 607 genome contains only 11 IS1096 elements against the 24 reported in mc2155. As mc2155 evolved, there was a considerable expansion in the copy number of IS1096 (+13) as well as duplication of a 56-kb fragment flanked on both sides by IS1096; concurrently, a single IS1096 element and its flank were deleted. This study demonstrates that insertion sequence (IS) expansion and IS-induced rearrangements such as duplication, deletion and shuffling are major forces driving genomic diversity and evolution. PMID:18439874

Wang, Xiao-Ming; Galamba, Alexandra; Warner, Digby F; Soetaert, Karine; Merkel, Jane S; Kalai, Michael; Bifani, Pablo; Lefèvre, Philippe; Mizrahi, Valerie; Content, Jean

2008-04-24

207

Evolution of the Fungi and their Mitochondrial Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of fungi as model eukaryotic organisms, fungal mitochondrial genomics has only recently received considerable attention. Over the past several years, the number of available, completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes from fungi has increased from just 3 to 22 sequences, including representatives of the four principle divisions of this kingdom: Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Zygomycota and Chytridiomycota. This wealth of data

Charles E. Bullerwell; Jessica Leigh; Elias Seif; Joyce E. Longcore; B. Franz Lang

2003-01-01

208

DNA Transposons and the Evolution of Eukaryotic Genomes  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class of elements is distinguished from other types of mobile elements in terms of their structure, amplification dynamics, and genomic effect. We provide an up-to-date outlook on the diversity and taxonomic distribution of all major types of DNA transposons in eukaryotes, including Helitrons and Mavericks. We discuss some of the evolutionary forces that influence their maintenance and diversification in various genomic environments. Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages.

Feschotte, Cedric; Pritham, Ellen J.

2007-01-01

209

A genomic view of 500 million years of cnidarian evolution  

PubMed Central

Cnidarians (corals, anemones, jellyfish, and hydras) are a diverse group of animals of interest to evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and developmental biologists. With the publication of the genome sequences of Hydra and Nematostella, whose last common ancestor was the stem cnidarian, we are beginning to see the genomic underpinnings of cnidarian biology. Cnidarians are known for the remarkable plasticity of their morphology and life cycles. This plasticity is reflected in the Hydra and Nematostella genomes, which differ to an exceptional degree in size, base composition, transposable element content, and gene conservation. We now know what cnidarian genomes are capable of doing given 500 million years; the next challenge is to understand how this genomic history has led to the striking diversity we see in cnidarians.

Steele, Robert E.; David, Charles N.; Technau, Ulrich

2010-01-01

210

Rapid genome change in synthetic polyploids of Brassica and its implications for polyploid evolution.  

PubMed Central

Although the evolutionary success of polyploidy in higher plants has been widely recognized, there is virtually no information on how polyploid genomes have evolved after their formation. In this report, we used synthetic polyploids of Brassica as a model system to study genome evolution in the early generations after polyploidization. The initial polyploids we developed were completely homozygous, and thus, no nuclear genome changes were expected in self-fertilized progenies. However, extensive genome change was detected by 89 nuclear DNA clones used as probes. Most genome changes involved loss and/or gain of parental restriction fragments and appearance of novel fragments. Genome changes occurred in each generation from F2 to F5, and the frequency of change was associated with divergence of the diploid parental genomes. Genetic divergence among the derivatives of synthetic polyploids was evident from variation in genome composition and phenotypes. Directional genome changes, possibly influenced by cytoplasmic-nuclear interactions, were observed in one pair of reciprocal synthetics. Our results demonstrate that polyploid species can generate extensive genetic diversity in a short period of time. The occurrence and impact of this process in the evolution of natural polyploids is unknown, but it may have contributed to the success and diversification of many polyploid lineages in both plants and animals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2

Song, K; Lu, P; Tang, K; Osborn, T C

1995-01-01

211

Clinical Characteristics and Genetic Variability of Human Rhinovirus in Mexico  

PubMed Central

Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a leading cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in young children and infants worldwide and has a high impact on morbidity and mortality in this population. Initially, HRV was classified into two species: HRV-A and HRV-B. Recently, a species called HRV-C and possibly another species, HRV-D, were identified. In Mexico, there is little information about the role of HRV as a cause of ARI, and the presence and importance of species such as HRV-C are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics and genetic variability of HRV in Mexican children. Genetic characterization was carried out by phylogenetic analysis of the 5?-nontranslated region (5?-NTR) of the HRV genome. The results show that the newly identified HRV-C is circulating in Mexican children more frequently than HRV-B but not as frequently as HRV-A, which was the most frequent species. Most of the cases of the three species of HRV were in children under 2 years of age, and all species were associated with very mild and moderate ARI.

Landa-Cardena, Adriana; Morales-Romero, Jaime; Garcia-Roman, Rebeca; Cobian-Guemes, Ana Georgina; Mendez, Ernesto; Ortiz-Leon, Cristina; Pitalua-Cortes, Felipe; Mora, Silvia Ivonne; Montero, Hilda

2012-01-01

212

This Déjà Vu Feeling--Analysis of Multidomain Protein Evolution in Eukaryotic Genomes  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary innovation in eukaryotes and especially animals is at least partially driven by genome rearrangements and the resulting emergence of proteins with new domain combinations, and thus potentially novel functionality. Given the random nature of such rearrangements, one could expect that proteins with particularly useful multidomain combinations may have been rediscovered multiple times by parallel evolution. However, existing reports suggest a minimal role of this phenomenon in the overall evolution of eukaryotic proteomes. We assembled a collection of 172 complete eukaryotic genomes that is not only the largest, but also the most phylogenetically complete set of genomes analyzed so far. By employing a maximum parsimony approach to compare repertoires of Pfam domains and their combinations, we show that independent evolution of domain combinations is significantly more prevalent than previously thought. Our results indicate that about 25% of all currently observed domain combinations have evolved multiple times. Interestingly, this percentage is even higher for sets of domain combinations in individual species, with, for instance, 70% of the domain combinations found in the human genome having evolved independently at least once in other species. We also show that previous, much lower estimates of this rate are most likely due to the small number and biased phylogenetic distribution of the genomes analyzed. The process of independent emergence of identical domain combination is widespread, not limited to domains with specific functional categories. Besides data from large-scale analyses, we also present individual examples of independent domain combination evolution. The surprisingly large contribution of parallel evolution to the development of the domain combination repertoire in extant genomes has profound consequences for our understanding of the evolution of pathways and cellular processes in eukaryotes and for comparative functional genomics.

Zmasek, Christian M.; Godzik, Adam

2012-01-01

213

21 CFR 866.3490 - Rhinovirus serological reagents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3490 Rhinovirus serological reagents. (a)...

2013-04-01

214

The evolution of isochore patterns in vertebrate genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous work from our laboratory showed that (i) vertebrate genomes are mosaics of isochores, typically megabase-size DNA segments that are fairly homogeneous in base composition; (ii) isochores belong to a small number of families (five in the human genome) characterized by different GC levels; (iii) isochore family patterns are different in fishes\\/amphibians and mammals\\/birds, the latter showing GC-rich isochore

Maria Costantini; Rosalia Cammarano; Giorgio Bernardi

2009-01-01

215

Mitochondrial Genome Evolution in a Single Protoploid Yeast Species  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are organelles, which play a key role in some essential functions, including respiration, metabolite biosynthesis, ion homeostasis, and apoptosis. The vast numbers of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of various yeast species, which have recently been published, have also helped to elucidate the structural diversity of these genomes. Although a large corpus of data are now available on the diversity of yeast species, little is known so far about the mtDNA diversity in single yeast species. To study the genetic variations occurring in the mtDNA of wild yeast isolates, we performed a genome-wide polymorphism survey on the mtDNA of 18 Lachancea kluyveri (formerly Saccharomyces kluyveri) strains. We determined the complete mt genome sequences of strains isolated from various geographical locations (in North America, Asia, and Europe) and ecological niches (Drosophila, tree exudates, soil). The mt genome of the NCYC 543 reference strain is 51,525 bp long. It contains the same core of genes as Lachancea thermotolerans, the nearest relative to L. kluyveri. To explore the mt genome variations in a single yeast species, we compared the mtDNAs of the 18 isolates. The phylogeny and population structure of L. kluyveri provide clear-cut evidence for the existence of well-defined geographically isolated lineages. Although these genomes are completely syntenic, their size and the intron content were found to vary among the isolates studied. These genomes are highly polymorphic, showing an average diversity of 28.5 SNPs/kb and 6.6 indels/kb. Analysis of the SNP and indel patterns showed the existence of a particularly high overall level of polymorphism in the intergenic regions. The dN/dS ratios obtained are consistent with purifying selection in all these genes, with the noteworthy exception of the VAR1 gene, which gave a very high ratio. These data suggest that the intergenic regions have evolved very fast in yeast mitochondrial genomes.

Jung, Paul P.; Friedrich, Anne; Reisser, Cyrielle; Hou, Jing; Schacherer, Joseph

2012-01-01

216

Genomics and the Evolution of Pathogenic Vibrio cholerae  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, the complete genome sequence of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is examined. We discuss, in particular,\\u000a the level of gene acquisition in the form of pathogenicity and genomic islands within the species, and the role of these elements\\u000a in the various lifestyles of the organism This chapter will highlight the significant role horizontal gene transfer plays\\u000a in

William S. Jermyn; Yvonne A. O’Shea; Anne Marie Quirke; E. Fidelma Boyd

217

Project 1: Microbial Genomes: A Genomic Approach to Understanding the Evolution of Virulence. Project 2: From Genomes to Life: Drosophilia Development in Space and Time  

SciTech Connect

This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.

Robert DeSalle

2004-09-10

218

Reducing agents inhibit rhinovirus-induced up-regulation of the rhinovirus receptor intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in respiratory epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Rhinoviruses are the major cause of common colds and of asthma exacerbations. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has a central role in airway inflammation and is the receptor for 90% of rhinoviruses. Rhinovirus infection of airway epithelium induces ICAM-1. Because redox state is directly implicated in inflammatory responses via molecular signaling mechanisms, here we studied the effects of reducing agents on rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 expression, mRNA up-regulation, promoter activation, and nuclear factor activation. To investigate the effects of rhinovirus infection on the intracellular redox balance, we also studied whether rhinovirus infection triggers the production of reactive oxygen species. We found that reduced (GSH) but not oxidized (GSSG) glutathione (1-100 microM) inhibited in a dose-dependent manner rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 up-regulation and mRNA induction in primary bronchial and A549 respiratory epithelial cells. GSH but not GSSG also inhibited rhinovirus-induced ICAM-1 promoter activation and rhinovirus-induced NF-kB activation. In parallel, we found that rhinovirus infection induced a rapid increase of intracellular superoxide anion that was maximal at the time of NF-kB activation. This oxidant generation was completely inhibited by GSH. We conclude that redox-mediated intracellular pathways represent an important target for the therapeutic control of rhinovirus-induced diseases. PMID:12368227

Papi, Alberto; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Stanciu, Luminita A; Bellettato, Cinzia M; Pinamonti, Silvano; Degitz, Klaus; Holgate, Stephen T; Johnston, Sebastian L

2002-10-04

219

The complete genome sequence of Lactobacillus bulgaricus reveals extensive and ongoing reductive evolution.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) is a representative of the group of lactic acid-producing bacteria, mainly known for its worldwide application in yogurt production. The genome sequence of this bacterium has been determined and shows the signs of ongoing specialization, with a substantial number of pseudogenes and incomplete metabolic pathways and relatively few regulatory functions. Several unique features of the L. bulgaricus genome support the hypothesis that the genome is in a phase of rapid evolution. (i) Exceptionally high numbers of rRNA and tRNA genes with regard to genome size may indicate that the L. bulgaricus genome has known a recent phase of important size reduction, in agreement with the observed high frequency of gene inactivation and elimination; (ii) a much higher GC content at codon position 3 than expected on the basis of the overall GC content suggests that the composition of the genome is evolving toward a higher GC content; and (iii) the presence of a 47.5-kbp inverted repeat in the replication termination region, an extremely rare feature in bacterial genomes, may be interpreted as a transient stage in genome evolution. The results indicate the adaptation of L. bulgaricus from a plant-associated habitat to the stable protein and lactose-rich milk environment through the loss of superfluous functions and protocooperation with Streptococcus thermophilus. PMID:16754859

van de Guchte, M; Penaud, S; Grimaldi, C; Barbe, V; Bryson, K; Nicolas, P; Robert, C; Oztas, S; Mangenot, S; Couloux, A; Loux, V; Dervyn, R; Bossy, R; Bolotin, A; Batto, J-M; Walunas, T; Gibrat, J-F; Bessières, P; Weissenbach, J; Ehrlich, S D; Maguin, E

2006-06-05

220

Association of intron loss with high mutation rate in Arabidopsis: implications for genome size evolution.  

PubMed

Despite the prevalence of intron losses during eukaryotic evolution, the selective forces acting on them have not been extensively explored. Arabidopsis thaliana lost half of its genome and experienced an elevated rate of intron loss after diverging from A. lyrata. The selective force for genome reduction was suggested to have driven the intron loss. However, the evolutionary mechanism of genome reduction is still a matter of debate. In this study, we found that intron-lost genes have high synonymous substitution rates. Assuming that differences in mutability among different introns are conserved among closely related species, we used the nucleotide substitution rate between orthologous introns in other species as the proxy of the mutation rate of Arabidopsis introns, either lost or extant. The lost introns were found to have higher mutation rates than extant introns. At the genome-wide level, A. thaliana has a higher mutation rate than A. lyrata, which correlates with the higher rate of intron loss and rapid genome reduction of A. thaliana. Our results indicate that selection to minimize mutational hazards might be the selective force for intron loss, and possibly also for genome reduction, in the evolution of A. thaliana. Small genome size and lower genome-wide intron density were widely reported to be correlated with phenotypic features, such as high metabolic rates and rapid growth. We argue that the mutational-hazard hypothesis is compatible with these correlations, by suggesting that selection for rapid growth might indirectly increase mutational hazards. PMID:23516254

Yang, Yu-Fei; Zhu, Tao; Niu, Deng-Ke

2013-01-01

221

The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.  

PubMed

To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production. PMID:19390049

Elsik, Christine G; Tellam, Ross L; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna M; Weinstock, George M; Adelson, David L; Eichler, Evan E; Elnitski, Laura; Guigó, Roderic; Hamernik, Debora L; Kappes, Steve M; Lewin, Harris A; Lynn, David J; Nicholas, Frank W; Reymond, Alexandre; Rijnkels, Monique; Skow, Loren C; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Schook, Lawrence; Womack, James; Alioto, Tyler; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Astashyn, Alex; Chapple, Charles E; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Chrast, Jacqueline; Câmara, Francisco; Ermolaeva, Olga; Henrichsen, Charlotte N; Hlavina, Wratko; Kapustin, Yuri; Kiryutin, Boris; Kitts, Paul; Kokocinski, Felix; Landrum, Melissa; Maglott, Donna; Pruitt, Kim; Sapojnikov, Victor; Searle, Stephen M; Solovyev, Victor; Souvorov, Alexandre; Ucla, Catherine; Wyss, Carine; Anzola, Juan M; Gerlach, Daniel; Elhaik, Eran; Graur, Dan; Reese, Justin T; Edgar, Robert C; McEwan, John C; Payne, Gemma M; Raison, Joy M; Junier, Thomas; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Eyras, Eduardo; Plass, Mireya; Donthu, Ravikiran; Larkin, Denis M; Reecy, James; Yang, Mary Q; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Liu, George E; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhu, Bin; Bradley, Daniel G; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Lau, Lilian P L; Whiteside, Matthew D; Walker, Angela; Wheeler, Thomas T; Casey, Theresa; German, J Bruce; Lemay, Danielle G; Maqbool, Nauman J; Molenaar, Adrian J; Seo, Seongwon; Stothard, Paul; Baldwin, Cynthia L; Baxter, Rebecca; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Brown, Wendy C; Childers, Christopher P; Connelley, Timothy; Ellis, Shirley A; Fritz, Krista; Glass, Elizabeth J; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Iivanainen, Antti; Lahmers, Kevin K; Bennett, Anna K; Dickens, C Michael; Gilbert, James G R; Hagen, Darren E; Salih, Hanni; Aerts, Jan; Caetano, Alexandre R; Dalrymple, Brian; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Gill, Clare A; Hiendleder, Stefan G; Memili, Erdogan; Spurlock, Diane; Williams, John L; Alexander, Lee; Brownstein, Michael J; Guan, Leluo; Holt, Robert A; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Moore, Richard; Moore, Stephen S; Roberts, Andy; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Waterman, Richard C; Chacko, Joseph; Chandrabose, Mimi M; Cree, Andy; Dao, Marvin Diep; Dinh, Huyen H; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Hines, Sandra; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Kovar, Christie L; Lewis, Lora R; Liu, Yih-Shin; Lopez, John; Morgan, Margaret B; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Ruiz, San Juana; Santibanez, Jireh; Wright, Rita A; Buhay, Christian; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Herdandez, Judith; Holder, Michael; Sabo, Aniko; Egan, Amy; Goodell, Jason; Wilczek-Boney, Katarzyna; Fowler, Gerald R; Hitchens, Matthew Edward; Lozado, Ryan J; Moen, Charles; Steffen, David; Warren, James T; Zhang, Jingkun; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Durbin, K James; Havlak, Paul; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Yanru; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry; Bell, Stephanie Nicole; Davis, Clay; Johnson, Angela Jolivet; Lee, Sandra; Nazareth, Lynne V; Patel, Bella Mayurkumar; Pu, Ling-Ling; Vattathil, Selina; Williams, Rex Lee; Curry, Stacey; Hamilton, Cerissa; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A; Barris, Wes; Bennett, Gary L; Eggen, André; Green, Ronnie D; Harhay, Gregory P; Hobbs, Matthew; Jann, Oliver; Keele, John W; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; McKay, Stephanie D; McWilliam, Sean; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Schnabel, Robert D; Smith, Timothy; Snelling, Warren M; Sonstegard, Tad S; Stone, Roger T; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko; Taylor, Jeremy F; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Macneil, Michael D; Abatepaulo, Antonio R R; Abbey, Colette A; Ahola, Virpi; Almeida, Iassudara G; Amadio, Ariel F; Anatriello, Elen; Bahadue, Suria M; Biase, Fernando H; Boldt, Clayton R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Carvalho, Wanessa A; Cervelatti, Eliane P; Chacko, Elsa; Chapin, Jennifer E; Cheng, Ye; Choi, Jungwoo; Colley, Adam J; de Campos, Tatiana A; De Donato, Marcos; Santos, Isabel K F de Miranda; de Oliveira, Carlo J F; Deobald, Heather; Devinoy, Eve; Donohue, Kaitlin E; Dovc, Peter; Eberlein, Annett; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Franzin, Alessandra M; Garcia, Gustavo R; Genini, Sem; Gladney, Cody J; Grant, Jason R; Greaser, Marion L; Green, Jonathan A; Hadsell, Darryl L; Hakimov, Hatam A; Halgren, Rob; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hart, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Nicola; Hernandez, Marta; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ingham, Aaron; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Jamis, Catherine; Jensen, Kirsty; Kapetis, Dimos; Kerr, Tovah; Khalil, Sari S; Khatib, Hasan; Kolbehdari, Davood; Kumar, Charu G; Kumar, Dinesh; Leach, Richard; Lee, Justin C-M; Li, Changxi; Logan, Krystin M; Malinverni, Roberto; Marques, Elisa; Martin, William F; Martins, Natalia F

2009-04-24

222

Dynamics of genome evolution in facultative symbionts of aphids  

PubMed Central

Aphids are sap-feeding insects that host a range of bacterial endosymbionts including the obligate, nutritional mutualist Buchnera plus several bacteria that are not required for host survival. Among the latter, ‘Candidatus Regiella insecticola’ and ‘Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa’ are found in pea aphids and other hosts and have been shown to protect aphids from natural enemies. We have sequenced almost the entire genome of R. insecticola (2.07 Mbp) and compared it with the recently published genome of H. defensa (2.11 Mbp). Despite being sister species the two genomes are highly rearranged and the genomes only have ?55% of genes in common. The functions encoded by the shared genes imply that the bacteria have similar metabolic capabilities, including only two essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways and active uptake mechanisms for the remaining eight, and similar capacities for host cell toxicity and invasion (type 3 secretion systems and RTX toxins). These observations, combined with high sequence divergence of orthologues, strongly suggest an ancient divergence after establishment of a symbiotic lifestyle. The divergence in gene sets and in genome architecture implies a history of rampant recombination and gene inactivation and the ongoing integration of mobile DNA (insertion sequence elements, prophage and plasmids).

Degnan, Patrick H; Leonardo, Teresa E; Cass, Bodil N; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Stern, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Moran, Nancy A

2010-01-01

223

Dynamics of genome evolution in facultative symbionts of aphids.  

PubMed

Aphids are sap-feeding insects that host a range of bacterial endosymbionts including the obligate, nutritional mutualist Buchnera plus several bacteria that are not required for host survival. Among the latter, 'Candidatus Regiella insecticola' and 'Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa' are found in pea aphids and other hosts and have been shown to protect aphids from natural enemies. We have sequenced almost the entire genome of R. insecticola (2.07 Mbp) and compared it with the recently published genome of H.?defensa (2.11 Mbp). Despite being sister species the two genomes are highly rearranged and the genomes only have ?55% of genes in common. The functions encoded by the shared genes imply that the bacteria have similar metabolic capabilities, including only two essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways and active uptake mechanisms for the remaining eight, and similar capacities for host cell toxicity and invasion (type 3 secretion systems and RTX toxins). These observations, combined with high sequence divergence of orthologues, strongly suggest an ancient divergence after establishment of a symbiotic lifestyle. The divergence in gene sets and in genome architecture implies a history of rampant recombination and gene inactivation and the ongoing integration of mobile DNA (insertion sequence elements, prophage and plasmids). PMID:21966902

Degnan, Patrick H; Leonardo, Teresa E; Cass, Bodil N; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Stern, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Moran, Nancy A

2009-10-16

224

Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 by NimbleGen tiling arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Our previous studies revealed that a new disease form of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is associated with specific\\u000a Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) strains. To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of SS2 at the whole-genome\\u000a level, comparative genomic analysis of 18 SS2 strains, selected on the basis of virulence and geographic origin, was performed\\u000a using

Zuowei Wu; Ming Li; Changjun Wang; Jing Li; Na Lu; Ruifen Zhang; Yongqiang Jiang; Ruifu Yang; Cuihua Liu; Hui Liao; George F Gao; Jiaqi Tang; Baoli Zhu

2011-01-01

225

Evolution of closely linked gene pairs in vertebrate genomes.  

PubMed

The orientation of closely linked genes in mammalian genomes is not random: there are more head-to-head (h2h) gene pairs than expected. To understand the origin of this enrichment in h2h gene pairs, we have analyzed the phylogenetic distribution of gene pairs separated by less than 600 bp of intergenic DNA (gene duos). We show here that a lack of head-to-tail (h2t) gene duos is an even more distinctive characteristic of mammalian genomes, with the platypus genome as the only exception. In nonmammalian vertebrate and in nonvertebrate genomes, the frequency of h2h, h2t, and tail-to-tail (t2t) gene duos is close to random. In tetrapod genomes, the h2t and t2t gene duos are more likely to be part of a larger gene cluster of closely spaced genes than h2h gene duos; in fish and urochordate genomes, the reverse is seen. In human and mouse tissues, the expression profiles of gene duos were skewed toward positive coexpression, irrespective of orientation. The organization of orthologs of both members of about 40% of the human gene duos could be traced in other species, enabling a prediction of the organization at the branch points of gnathostomes, tetrapods, amniotes, and euarchontoglires. The accumulation of h2h gene duos started in tetrapods, whereas that of h2t and t2t gene duos only started in amniotes. The apparent lack of evolutionary conservation of h2t and t2t gene duos relative to that of h2h gene duos is thus a result of their relatively late origin in the lineage leading to mammals; we show that once they are formed h2t and t2t gene duos are as stable as h2h gene duos. PMID:18566020

Franck, Erik; Hulsen, Tim; Huynen, Martijn A; de Jong, Wilfried W; Lubsen, Nicolette H; Madsen, Ole

2008-06-19

226

Equine rhinovirus serotypes 1 and 2: relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses.  

PubMed

Equine rhinoviruses (ERVs) are picornaviruses which cause a mild respiratory infection in horses. The illness resembles the common cold brought about by rhinoviruses in humans; however, the presence of a viraemia during ERV-1 infection, the occurrence of persistent infections and the physical properties are all more reminiscent of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). cDNA cloning and sequencing of the genomes of ERV-1 and ERV-2 between the poly(C) and poly(A) tracts showed that the serotypes are heterogeneous. Nevertheless, the genomic architecture of both serotypes is most similar to that of FMDV. Indeed, a comparison of the derived protein sequences of ERV-1 shows that their identity is greatest to FMDV. In contrast, most ERV-2 proteins are more related to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) proteins than they are to FMDV or ERV-1. These results place ERV-1 alongside FMDV in the aphthovirus genus of the picornavirus family and indicate that this virus may serve as a model system for examining the biology of FMDV. PMID:8760418

Wutz, G; Auer, H; Nowotny, N; Grosse, B; Skern, T; Kuechler, E

1996-08-01

227

Evolution of genomic imprinting as a coordinator of coadapted gene expression  

PubMed Central

Genomic imprinting is an epigenetic phenomenon in which the expression of a gene copy inherited from the mother differs from that of the copy inherited from the father. Many imprinted genes appear to be highly interconnected through interactions mediated by proteins, RNA, and DNA. These kinds of interactions often favor the evolution of genetic coadaptation, where beneficially interacting alleles evolve to become coinherited. Here I demonstrate theoretically that the presence of gene interactions that favor coadaptation can also favor the evolution of genomic imprinting. Selection favors genomic imprinting because it coordinates the coexpression of positively interacting alleles at different loci. Evolution is expected to proceed through a scenario where selection builds associations between beneficial combinations of alleles and, if one locus evolves to become imprinted, it leads to selection for its interacting partners to match its pattern of imprinting. This process should favor the evolution of physical linkage between interacting genes and therefore may help explain why imprinted genes tend to be found in clusters. The model suggests that, whereas some genes are expected to evolve their imprinting status because selection directly favors a specific pattern of parent-of-origin-dependent expression, other genes may evolve imprinting as a coevolutionary response to match the expression pattern of their interacting partners. As a result, some genes will show phenotypic effects consistent with the predictions of models for the evolution of genomic imprinting (e.g., conflict models), but other genes may not, having simply evolved imprinting to follow the lead of their interacting partners.

Wolf, Jason B.

2013-01-01

228

The impact of genomics on research in diversity and evolution of archaea.  

PubMed

Since the definition of archaea as a separate domain of life along with bacteria and eukaryotes, they have become one of the most interesting objects of modern microbiology, molecular biology, and biochemistry. Sequencing and analysis of archaeal genomes were especially important for studies on archaea because of a limited availability of genetic tools for the majority of these microorganisms and problems associated with their cultivation. Fifteen years since the publication of the first genome of an archaeon, more than one hundred complete genome sequences of representatives of different phylogenetic groups have been determined. Analysis of these genomes has expanded our knowledge of biology of archaea, their diversity and evolution, and allowed identification and characterization of new deep phylogenetic lineages of archaea. The development of genome technologies has allowed sequencing the genomes of uncultivated archaea directly from enrichment cultures, metagenomic samples, and even from single cells. Insights have been gained into the evolution of key biochemical processes in archaea, such as cell division and DNA replication, the role of horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of archaea, and new relationships between archaea and eukaryotes have been revealed. PMID:22860902

Mardanov, A V; Ravin, N V

2012-08-01

229

Intrachromosomal rearrangements in avian genome evolution: evidence for regions prone to breakpoints.  

PubMed

It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intrachromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intrachromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genome it has become possible to describe intrachromosomal rearrangements between these three important avian species, gain insight into the direction of evolutionary change and assess whether breakpoint regions are reused in birds. To this end, we aligned entire chromosomes between chicken, turkey and zebra finch, identifying syntenic blocks of at least 250?kb. Potential optimal pathways of rearrangements between each of the three genomes were determined, as was a potential Galliform ancestral organization. From this, our data suggest that around one-third of chromosomal breakpoint regions may recur during avian evolution, with 10% of breakpoints apparently recurring in different lineages. This agrees with our previous hypothesis that mechanisms of genome evolution are driven by hotspots of non-allelic homologous recombination. PMID:22045382

Skinner, B M; Griffin, D K

2011-11-02

230

Genome comparisons reveal a dominant mechanism of chromosome number reduction in grasses and accelerated genome evolution in Triticeae  

PubMed Central

Single-nucleotide polymorphism was used in the construction of an expressed sequence tag map of Aegilops tauschii, the diploid source of the wheat D genome. Comparisons of the map with the rice and sorghum genome sequences revealed 50 inversions and translocations; 2, 8, and 40 were assigned respectively to the rice, sorghum, and Ae. tauschii lineages, showing greatly accelerated genome evolution in the large Triticeae genomes. The reduction of the basic chromosome number from 12 to 7 in the Triticeae has taken place by a process during which an entire chromosome is inserted by its telomeres into a break in the centromeric region of another chromosome. The original centromere–telomere polarity of the chromosome arms is maintained in the new chromosome. An intrachromosomal telomere–telomere fusion resulting in a pericentric translocation of a chromosome segment or an entire arm accompanied or preceded the chromosome insertion in some instances. Insertional dysploidy has been recorded in three grass subfamilies and appears to be the dominant mechanism of basic chromosome number reduction in grasses. A total of 64% and 66% of Ae. tauschii genes were syntenic with sorghum and rice genes, respectively. Synteny was reduced in the vicinity of the termini of modern Ae. tauschii chromosomes but not in the vicinity of the ancient termini embedded in the Ae. tauschii chromosomes, suggesting that the dependence of synteny erosion on gene location along the centromere–telomere axis either evolved recently in the Triticeae phylogenetic lineage or its evolution was recently accelerated.

Luo, M. C.; Deal, K. R.; Akhunov, E. D.; Akhunova, A. R.; Anderson, O. D.; Anderson, J. A.; Blake, N.; Clegg, M. T.; Coleman-Derr, D.; Conley, E. J.; Crossman, C. C.; Dubcovsky, J.; Gill, B. S.; Gu, Y. Q.; Hadam, J.; Heo, H. Y.; Huo, N.; Lazo, G.; Ma, Y.; Matthews, D. E.; McGuire, P. E.; Morrell, P. L.; Qualset, C. O.; Renfro, J.; Tabanao, D.; Talbert, L. E.; Tian, C.; Toleno, D. M.; Warburton, M. L.; You, F. M.; Zhang, W.; Dvorak, J.

2009-01-01

231

Complete Genome Viral Phylogenies Suggests the Concerted Evolution of Regulatory Cores and Accessory Satellites  

PubMed Central

We consider the concerted evolution of viral genomes in four families of DNA viruses. Given the high rate of horizontal gene transfer among viruses and their hosts, it is an open question as to how representative particular genes are of the evolutionary history of the complete genome. To address the concerted evolution of viral genes, we compared genomic evolution across four distinct, extant viral families. For all four viral families we constructed DNA-dependent DNA polymerase-based (DdDp) phylogenies and in addition, whole genome sequence, as quantitative descriptions of inter-genome relationships. We found that the history of the polymerase gene was highly predictive of the history of the genome as a whole, which we explain in terms of repeated, co-divergence events of the core DdDp gene accompanied by a number of satellite, accessory genetic loci. We also found that the rate of gene gain in baculovirus and poxviruses proceeds significantly more quickly than the rate of gene loss and that there is convergent acquisition of satellite functions promoting contextual adaptation when distinct viral families infect related hosts. The congruence of the genome and polymerase trees suggests that a large set of viral genes, including polymerase, derive from a phylogenetically conserved core of genes of host origin, secondarily reinforced by gene acquisition from common hosts or co-infecting viruses within the host. A single viral genome can be thought of as a mutualistic network, with the core genes acting as an effective host and the satellite genes as effective symbionts. Larger virus genomes show a greater departure from linkage equilibrium between core and satellites functions.

de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo Marinho; Krakauer, David C.

2008-01-01

232

Repair-mediated duplication by capture of proximal chromosomal DNA has shaped vertebrate genome evolution.  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of cellular damage that can lead to cell death if not repaired promptly. Experimental systems have shown that DSB repair in eukaryotic cells is often imperfect and may result in the insertion of extra chromosomal DNA or the duplication of existing DNA at the breakpoint. These events are thought to be a source of genomic instability and human diseases, but it is unclear whether they have contributed significantly to genome evolution. Here we developed an innovative computational pipeline that takes advantage of the repetitive structure of genomes to detect repair-mediated duplication events (RDs) that occurred in the germline and created insertions of at least 50 bp of genomic DNA. Using this pipeline we identified over 1,000 probable RDs in the human genome. Of these, 824 were intra-chromosomal, closely linked duplications of up to 619 bp bearing the hallmarks of the synthesis-dependent strand-annealing repair pathway. This mechanism has duplicated hundreds of sequences predicted to be functional in the human genome, including exons, UTRs, intron splice sites and transcription factor binding sites. Dating of the duplication events using comparative genomics and experimental validation revealed that the mechanism has operated continuously but with decreasing intensity throughout primate evolution. The mechanism has produced species-specific duplications in all primate species surveyed and is contributing to genomic variation among humans. Finally, we show that RDs have also occurred, albeit at a lower frequency, in non-primate mammals and other vertebrates, indicating that this mechanism has been an important force shaping vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:19424419

Pace, John K; Sen, Shurjo K; Batzer, Mark A; Feschotte, Cédric

2009-05-08

233

Comparative genomic analysis of C4 photosynthetic pathway evolution in grasses  

PubMed Central

Background Sorghum is the first C4 plant and the second grass with a full genome sequence available. This makes it possible to perform a whole-genome-level exploration of C4 pathway evolution by comparing key photosynthetic enzyme genes in sorghum, maize (C4) and rice (C3), and to investigate a long-standing hypothesis that a reservoir of duplicated genes is a prerequisite for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis from a C3 progenitor. Results We show that both whole-genome and individual gene duplication have contributed to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The C4 gene isoforms show differential duplicability, with some C4 genes being recruited from whole genome duplication duplicates by multiple modes of functional innovation. The sorghum and maize carbonic anhydrase genes display a novel mode of new gene formation, with recursive tandem duplication and gene fusion accompanied by adaptive evolution to produce C4 genes with one to three functional units. Other C4 enzymes in sorghum and maize also show evidence of adaptive evolution, though differing in level and mode. Intriguingly, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene in the C3 plant rice has also been evolving rapidly and shows evidence of adaptive evolution, although lacking key mutations that are characteristic of C4 metabolism. We also found evidence that both gene redundancy and alternative splicing may have sheltered the evolution of new function. Conclusions Gene duplication followed by functional innovation is common to evolution of most but not all C4 genes. The apparently long time-lag between the availability of duplicates for recruitment into C4 and the appearance of C4 grasses, together with the heterogeneity of origins of C4 genes, suggests that there may have been a long transition process before the establishment of C4 photosynthesis.

Wang, Xiyin; Gowik, Udo; Tang, Haibao; Bowers, John E; Westhoff, Peter; Paterson, Andrew H

2009-01-01

234

Genome Size Evolution in New Zealand Triplefin Fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome sizes of 18 species of New Zealand triplefin fishes (family Tripterygiidae) were determined by flow cytometry of erythrocytes. The evolutionary relationships of these species were examined with a molecular phylogeny derived from DNA sequence data based on 1771 base pairs from fragments of three mitochondrial loci (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, and the control region) and one nuclear

ANTHONY J. R. HICKEY; KENDALL D. CLEMENTS

2005-01-01

235

Comparative genomics and evolution of proteins involved in RNA metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

RNA metabolism, broadly defined as the compen- dium of all processes that involve RNA, including transcription, processing and modification of tran- scripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regula- tion, is the central and most evolutionarily conserved part of cell physiology. A comprehensive, genome- wide census of all enzymatic and non-enzymatic protein domains involved in RNA metabolism was conducted by using

Vivek Anantharaman; Eugene V. Koonin; L. Aravind

2002-01-01

236

Reassortment and Concerted Evolution in Banana Bunchy Top Virus Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis

Jer-Ming Hu; Hui-Chuan Fu; Chia-Hua Lin; Hong-Ji Su; Hsin-Hung Yeh

2007-01-01

237

Genetics and Genomics of Wheat Domestication-Driven Evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The cereal crops wheat, rice, maize and sorghum show conservation of large syntenic blocks in spite of more than 40-fold variation in genome and 20-fold variation in chromosome size. It has been proposed that independent mutations at orthologous loci in traits such as shattering, tough fruiting case...

238

Integrin evolution: Insights from ascidian and teleost fish genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrins are a family of ?? heterodimeric receptors essential to cell adhesion in all metazoans. In humans, the family consists of 18 ? and 8 ? subunits that combine to form 24 dimers. Here, we present phylogenetic reconstructions for the ? and ? integrin subunits based on sequences from 24 invertebrate and vertebrate species, including the fully sequenced genomes of

Mikko Huhtala; Jyrki Heino; Daniele Casciari; Alessandra de Luise; Mark S. Johnson

2005-01-01

239

Deletional bias and the evolution of bacterial genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although bacteria increase their DNA content through horizontal transfer and gene duplication, their genomes remain small and, in particular, lack nonfunctional sequences. This pattern is most readily explained by a pervasive bias towards higher numbers of deletions than insertions. When selection is not strong enough to maintain them, genes are lost in large deletions or inactivated and subsequently eroded. Gene

Alex Mira; Howard Ochman; Nancy A. Moran

2001-01-01

240

Genome increase as a clock for the origin and evolution of life  

PubMed Central

Background The size of non-redundant functional genome can be an indicator of biological complexity of living organisms. Several positive feedback mechanisms including gene cooperation and duplication with subsequent specialization may result in the exponential growth of biological complexity in macro-evolution. Results I propose a hypothesis that biological complexity increased exponentially during evolution. Regression of the logarithm of functional non-redundant genome size versus time of origin in major groups of organisms showed a 7.8-fold increase per 1 billion years, and hence the increase of complexity can be viewed as a clock of macro-evolution. A strong version of the exponential hypothesis is that the rate of complexity increase in early (pre-prokaryotic) evolution of life was at most the same (or even slower) than observed in the evolution of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Conclusion The increase of functional non-redundant genome size in macro-evolution was consistent with the exponential hypothesis. If the strong exponential hypothesis is true, then the origin of life should be dated 10 billion years ago. Thus, the possibility of panspermia as a source of life on earth should be discussed on equal basis with alternative hypotheses of de-novo life origin. Panspermia may be proven if bacteria similar to terrestrial ones are found on other planets or satellites in the solar system. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Eugene V. Koonin, Chris Adami and Arcady Mushegian.

Sharov, Alexei A

2006-01-01

241

The genomic impact of 100 million years of social evolution in seven ant species  

PubMed Central

Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general.

Gadau, Jurgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne; Roux, Julien; Simola, Daniel F.; Smith, Chris R.; Suen, Garret; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D.

2011-01-01

242

Large-Scale Trends in the Evolution of Gene Structures within 11 Animal Genomes  

PubMed Central

We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans) together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales—from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for “Comparative Genomics Library”). Our results demonstrate that change in intron–exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities.

Yandell, Mark; Mungall, Chris J; Smith, Chris; Prochnik, Simon; Kaminker, Joshua; Hartzell, George; Lewis, Suzanna; Rubin, Gerald M

2006-01-01

243

Genome size evolution at the speciation level: The cryptic species complex Brachionus plicatilis (Rotifera)  

PubMed Central

Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg). Most of this variation (67%) could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32%) at lower taxonomic levels - within and among genealogical species - and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Conclusions Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.

2011-01-01

244

Evolution Along the Mutation Gradient in the Dynamic Mitochondrial Genome of Salamanders  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are intracellular organelles where oxidative phosphorylation is carried out to complete ATP synthesis. Mitochondria have their own genome; in metazoans, this is a small, circular molecule encoding 13 electron transport proteins, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. In invertebrates, mitochondrial gene rearrangement is common, and it is correlated with increased substitution rates. In vertebrates, mitochondrial gene rearrangement is rare, and its relationship to substitution rate remains unexplored. Mitochondrial genes can also show spatial variation in substitution rates around the genome due to the mechanism of mtDNA replication, which produces a mutation gradient. To date, however, the strength of the mutation gradient and whether movement along the gradient in rearranged (or otherwise modified) genomes impacts genic substitution rates remain unexplored in the majority of vertebrates. Salamanders include both normal mitochondrial genomes and independently derived rearrangements and expansions, providing a rare opportunity to test the effects of large-scale changes to genome architecture on vertebrate mitochondrial gene sequence evolution. We show that: 1) rearranged/expanded genomes have higher substitution rates; 2) most genes in rearranged/expanded genomes maintain their position along the mutation gradient, substitution rates of the genes that do move are unaffected by their new position, and the gradient in salamanders is weak; and 3) genomic rearrangements/expansions occur independent of levels of selective constraint on genes. Together, our results demonstrate that large-scale changes to genome architecture impact mitochondrial gene evolution in predictable ways; however, despite these impacts, the same functional constraints act on mitochondrial protein-coding genes in both modified and normal genomes.

Chong, Rebecca A.; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

2013-01-01

245

Functional genomics and the study of development, variation and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has rarely been possible to connect the developmental and evolutionary branches of genetics, particularly with regard to the precise changes in the molecular control of development that are responsible for phenotypic variation and evolution. Making such connections will require a high-resolution molecular description of the genetic networks that underlie development and an understanding of their responses to genetic and

Kevin P. White

2001-01-01

246

Genome evolution: where do new introns come from?  

PubMed

A new study reports creation of spliceosomal introns in multiple related fungal species by proliferation of cryptic elements. Resonances to a case in unrelated algae suggest such elements hold general answers to long-standing mysteries of intron evolution. PMID:22790002

Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel

2012-07-10

247

The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring

Rute R da Fonseca; Warren E Johnson; Stephen J O'Brien; Maria João Ramos; Agostinho Antunes

2008-01-01

248

The Global Genome Question: Microbes as the Key to Understanding Evolution and Ecology  

SciTech Connect

A colloquium was convened in Longboat Key, Florida, in October 2002, by the American Academy of Microbiology to discuss the role of genomic techniques in microbiology research. Research professionals from both academia and industry met to discuss the current state of knowledge in microbial genomics. Unanswered questions that should drive future studies, technical challenges for applying genomics in microbial systems, and infrastructure and educational needs were discussed. Particular attention was focused on the great potential of genomic approaches to advance our understanding of microbial communities and ecosystems. Recommendations for activities that might promote and accelerate microbial genome science were identified and discussed. Microbiology has always advanced in tandem with new technologies. Beginning with the first observations of microscopic organisms with early microscopes in the 17th century, the tools and methods for studying microbes have continually evolved. Slowly at first, and now with startling speed, scientists have developed increasingly complex and informative tools for analyzing the functions, interactions, and diversity of microorganisms. Today, genomic technologies are revolutionizing microbiology. Genomics employs all or part of the genome to answer questions about an organism and represents a generic tool that can be used to dissect any or all living cells. In this report, the term ''genomics'' includes structural genomic methods that focus on the determination of genomic sequence and higher order structural features, as well as functional genomic methods, which focus on the activities and products encoded by the genome. To date, microbial genomics has largely been applied to individual, isolated microbial strains, with the results extrapolated to the wider world of microbial diversity. We are now presented with an opportune moment to move beyond studies of single isolates and to apply genome sciences directly to the study of microbial communities. It is now possible to adapt genomic tools and approaches to more realistic models of genome evolution and ecology involving natural microbial communities. Microbial communities are formed by organized groups of microbial species, each having different, often complementary functions or activities. In aggregate, the microbial community has emergent properties greater than the sum of its individual members. Outside the laboratory, virtually all microorganisms exist in complex assemblages, in which they exchange genetic material, nutrients, and biochemical signals with one another. While analysis of individual strains has been a highly profitable enterprise, greater strides can now be made by focusing attention on microbial communities. These are the entities that encompass the bulk of microbial interactions, evolutionary processes, and biogeochemical activities, with resulting immense impacts on human health and the entire planetary biosphere. The natural microbial world can be viewed as a landscape of genes and genome ecology, in which organisms exchange genetic information and co-evolve with one another, shaping themselves and the biosphere over time.

Merry R. Buckley

2004-04-04

249

Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution  

PubMed Central

The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza.

Chen, Jinfeng; Huang, Quanfei; Gao, Dongying; Wang, Junyi; Lang, Yongshan; Liu, Tieyan; Li, Bo; Bai, Zetao; Luis Goicoechea, Jose; Liang, Chengzhi; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Wenli; Sun, Shouhong; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Lu; Song, Chengli; Wang, Meijiao; Shi, Jinfeng; Liu, Geng; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Heling; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Qiulin; An, Na; Chen, Yan; Cai, Qingle; Wang, Bo; Liu, Binghang; Min, Jiumeng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Honglong; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Ye; Song, Wenqin; Jiang, Jiming; Jackson, Scott A.; Wing, Rod A.; Wang, Jun; Chen, Mingsheng

2013-01-01

250

Whole-genome sequencing of Oryza brachyantha reveals mechanisms underlying Oryza genome evolution.  

PubMed

The wild species of the genus Oryza contain a largely untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes for rice improvement. Here we report the 261-Mb de novo assembled genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha. Low activity of long-terminal repeat retrotransposons and massive internal deletions of ancient long-terminal repeat elements lead to the compact genome of Oryza brachyantha. We model 32,038 protein-coding genes in the Oryza brachyantha genome, of which only 70% are located in collinear positions in comparison with the rice genome. Analysing breakpoints of non-collinear genes suggests that double-strand break repair through non-homologous end joining has an important role in gene movement and erosion of collinearity in the Oryza genomes. Transition of euchromatin to heterochromatin in the rice genome is accompanied by segmental and tandem duplications, further expanded by transposable element insertions. The high-quality reference genome sequence of Oryza brachyantha provides an important resource for functional and evolutionary studies in the genus Oryza. PMID:23481403

Chen, Jinfeng; Huang, Quanfei; Gao, Dongying; Wang, Junyi; Lang, Yongshan; Liu, Tieyan; Li, Bo; Bai, Zetao; Luis Goicoechea, Jose; Liang, Chengzhi; Chen, Chengbin; Zhang, Wenli; Sun, Shouhong; Liao, Yi; Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Lu; Song, Chengli; Wang, Meijiao; Shi, Jinfeng; Liu, Geng; Liu, Junjie; Zhou, Heling; Zhou, Weili; Yu, Qiulin; An, Na; Chen, Yan; Cai, Qingle; Wang, Bo; Liu, Binghang; Min, Jiumeng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Honglong; Li, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yong; Yin, Ye; Song, Wenqin; Jiang, Jiming; Jackson, Scott A; Wing, Rod A; Wang, Jun; Chen, Mingsheng

2013-01-01

251

Rhinovirus Replication in Human Macrophages Induces NF B-Dependent Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoviruses (RV) are the major cause of acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Rhinoviruses have been shown to activate macrophages, but rhinovirus replication in macrophages has not been reported. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) is implicated in the pathogenesis of acute exacerbations, but its cellular source and mechanisms of induction by virus infection are unclear. We

Vasile Laza-Stanca; Luminita A. Stanciu; Simon D. Message; Michael R. Edwards; James E. Gern; Sebastian L. Johnston

2006-01-01

252

Genome organization and polyploid evolution in the genus Eleusine (Poaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Eleusine (Poaceae) includes six diploid and three polyploid species and has three basic chromosome numbers, x=8, 9 and 10. The species\\u000a are annual as well as perennial and all are wild except E. coracana, which is cultivated for grain and fodder in Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Eleusine coracana and E. africana have the same genome and chromosome number (2n=36).

M. S. Bisht; Y. Mukai

2002-01-01

253

Genome evolution in diploid and tetraploid Coffea species as revealed by comparative analysis of orthologous genome segments.  

PubMed

Sequence comparison of orthologous regions enables estimation of the divergence between genomes, analysis of their evolution and detection of particular features of the genomes, such as sequence rearrangements and transposable elements. Despite the economic importance of Coffea species, little genomic information is currently available. Coffea is a relatively young genus that includes more than one hundred diploid species and a single tetraploid species. Three Coffea orthologous regions of 470-900 kb were analyzed and compared: both subgenomes of allotetraploid Coffea arabica (contributed by the diploid species Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora) and the genome of diploid C. canephora. Sequence divergence was calculated on global alignments or on coding and non-coding sequences separately. A search for transposable elements detected 43 retrotransposons and 198 transposons in the sequences analyzed. Comparative insertion analysis made it possible to locate 165 TE insertions in the phylogenetic tree of the three genomes/subgenomes. In the tetraploid C. arabica, a homoeologous non-reciprocal transposition (HNRT) was detected and characterized: a 50 kb region of the C. eugenioides derived subgenome replaced the C. canephora derived counterpart. Comparative sequence analysis on three Coffea genomes/subgenomes revealed almost perfect gene synteny, low sequence divergence and a high number of shared transposable elements. Compared to the results of similar analysis in other genera (Aegilops/Triticum and Oryza), Coffea genomes/subgenomes appeared to be dramatically less diverged, which is consistent with the relatively recent radiation of the Coffea genus. Based on nucleotide substitution frequency, the HNRT was dated at 10,000-50,000 years BP, which is also the most recent estimation of the origin of C. arabica. PMID:22086332

Cenci, Alberto; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe

2011-11-16

254

Phycobilisomes linker family in cyanobacterial genomes: divergence and evolution  

PubMed Central

Cyanobacteria are the oldest life form making important contributions to global CO2 fixation on the Earth. Phycobilisomes (PBSs) are the major light harvesting systems of most cyanobacteria species. Recent availability of the whole genome database of cyanobacteria provides us a global and further view on the complex structural PBSs. A PBSs linker family is crucial in structure and function of major light-harvesting PBSs complexes. Linker polypeptides are considered to have the same ancestor with other phycobiliproteins (PBPs), and might have been diverged and evolved under particularly selective forces together. In this paper, a total of 192 putative linkers including 167 putative PBSs-associated linker genes and 25 Ferredoxin-NADP oxidoreductase (FNR) genes were detected through whole genome analysis of all 25 cyanobacterial genomes (20 finished and 5 in draft state). We compared the PBSs linker family of cyanobacteria in terms of gene structure, chromosome location, conservation domain, and polymorphic variants, and discussed the features and functions of the PBSs linker family. Most of PBSs-associated linkers in PBSs linker family are assembled into gene clusters with PBPs. A phylogenetic analysis based on protein data demonstrates a possibility of six classes of the linker family in cyanobacteria. Emergence, divergence, and disappearance of PBSs linkers among cyanobacterial species were due to speciation, gene duplication, gene transfer, or gene loss, and acclimation to various environmental selective pressures especially light.

Guan, Xiangyu; Qin, Song; Zhao, Fangqing; Zhang, Xiaowen; Tang, Xuexi

2007-01-01

255

A genomic survey of the fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida indicates genomic plasticity among diplomonads and significant lateral gene transfer in eukaryote genome evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomic studies of the mitochondrion-lacking protist group Diplomonadida (diplomonads) has been lacking, although Giardia lamblia has been intensively studied. We have performed a sequence survey project resulting in 2341 expressed sequence tags (EST) corresponding to 853 unique clones, 5275 genome survey sequences (GSS), and eleven finished contigs from the diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus salmonicida (previously described as S. barkhanus). Results The analyses revealed a compact genome with few, if any, introns and very short 3' untranslated regions. Strikingly different patterns of codon usage were observed in genes corresponding to frequently sampled ESTs versus genes poorly sampled, indicating that translational selection is influencing the codon usage of highly expressed genes. Rigorous phylogenomic analyses identified 84 genes – mostly encoding metabolic proteins – that have been acquired by diplomonads or their relatively close ancestors via lateral gene transfer (LGT). Although most acquisitions were from prokaryotes, more than a dozen represent likely transfers of genes between eukaryotic lineages. Many genes that provide novel insights into the genetic basis of the biology and pathogenicity of this parasitic protist were identified including 149 that putatively encode variant-surface cysteine-rich proteins which are candidate virulence factors. A number of genomic properties that distinguish S. salmonicida from its human parasitic relative G. lamblia were identified such as nineteen putative lineage-specific gene acquisitions, distinct mutational biases and codon usage and distinct polyadenylation signals. Conclusion Our results highlight the power of comparative genomic studies to yield insights into the biology of parasitic protists and the evolution of their genomes, and suggest that genetic exchange between distantly-related protist lineages may be occurring at an appreciable rate in eukaryote genome evolution.

Andersson, Jan O; Sjogren, Asa M; Horner, David S; Murphy, Colleen A; Dyal, Patricia L; Svard, Staffan G; Logsdon, John M; Ragan, Mark A; Hirt, Robert P; Roger, Andrew J

2007-01-01

256

Recent Advances in Understanding the Role of Nutrition in Human Genome Evolution12  

PubMed Central

Dietary transitions in human history have been suggested to play important roles in the evolution of mankind. Genetic variations caused by adaptation to diet during human evolution could have important health consequences in current society. The advance of sequencing technologies and the rapid accumulation of genome information provide an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize genetic variations in human populations and unravel the genetic basis of human evolution. Series of selection detection methods, based on various theoretical models and exploiting different aspects of selection signatures, have been developed. Their applications at the species and population levels have respectively led to the identification of human specific selection events that distinguish human from nonhuman primates and local adaptation events that contribute to human diversity. Scrutiny of candidate genes has revealed paradigms of adaptations to specific nutritional components and genome-wide selection scans have verified the prevalence of diet-related selection events and provided many more candidates awaiting further investigation. Understanding the role of diet in human evolution is fundamental for the development of evidence-based, genome-informed nutritional practices in the era of personal genomics.

Ye, Kaixiong; Gu, Zhenglong

2011-01-01

257

Molecular evolution of the chalcone synthase multigene family in the morning glory genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genomes appear to exploit the process of gene duplication as a primary means of acquiring biochemical and developmental flexibility. Thus, for example, most of the enzymatic components of plant secondary metabolism are encoded by small families of genes that originated through duplication over evolutionary time. The dynamics of gene family evolution are well illustrated by the genes that encode

Mary L. Durbin; Bonnie McCaig; Michael T. Clegg

2000-01-01

258

Covariation of Mitochondrial Genome Size with Gene Lengths: Evidence for Gene Length Reduction During Mitochondrial Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of genome size and gene shortening have been observed in a number of parasitic and mutualistic intracellular symbionts. Reduction of coding capacity is also a unifying principle in the evolutionary history of mitochondria, but little is known about the evolution of gene length in mitochondria. The genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunits I–III, cytochrome b, and the large and

André Schneider; Dieter Ebert

2004-01-01

259

Estimating the tempo and mode of gene family evolution from comparative genomic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of whole genomes has revealed that changes in the size of gene families among organisms is quite common. However, there are as yet no models of gene family evolution that make it possible to estimate ancestral states or to infer upon which lineages gene families have contracted or expanded. In addition, large differences in family size have generally been

Matthew W. Hahn; Tijl De Bie; Jason E. Stajich; Chi Nguyen; Nello Cristianini

2005-01-01

260

Tracking the in vivo evolution of multidrug resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by whole-genome sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spread of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in the clinical environment has begun to pose serious limits to treatment options. Yet virtually nothing is known about how resistance traits are acquired in vivo. Here, we apply the power of whole-genome sequencing to identify steps in the evolution of multidrug resistance in isogenic S. aureus isolates recovered periodically from the

Michael M. Mwangi; S. W. Wu; Yanjiao Zhou; Krzysztof Sieradzki; H. de Lencastre; Paul Richardson; David Bruce; Edward Rubin; Eugene Myers; E. D. Siggia; Alexander Tomasz

2007-01-01

261

A systems approach defining constraints of the genome architecture on lineage selection and evolvability during somatic cancer evolution  

PubMed Central

Summary Most clinically distinguishable malignant tumors are characterized by specific mutations, specific patterns of chromosomal rearrangements and a predominant mechanism of genetic instability but it remains unsolved whether modifications of cancer genomes can be explained solely by mutations and selection through the cancer microenvironment. It has been suggested that internal dynamics of genomic modifications as opposed to the external evolutionary forces have a significant and complex impact on Darwinian species evolution. A similar situation can be expected for somatic cancer evolution as molecular key mechanisms encountered in species evolution also constitute prevalent mutation mechanisms in human cancers. This assumption is developed into a systems approach of carcinogenesis which focuses on possible inner constraints of the genome architecture on lineage selection during somatic cancer evolution. The proposed systems approach can be considered an analogy to the concept of evolvability in species evolution. The principal hypothesis is that permissive or restrictive effects of the genome architecture on lineage selection during somatic cancer evolution exist and have a measurable impact. The systems approach postulates three classes of lineage selection effects of the genome architecture on somatic cancer evolution: i) effects mediated by changes of fitness of cells of cancer lineage, ii) effects mediated by changes of mutation probabilities and iii) effects mediated by changes of gene designation and physical and functional genome redundancy. Physical genome redundancy is the copy number of identical genetic sequences. Functional genome redundancy of a gene or a regulatory element is defined as the number of different genetic elements, regardless of copy number, coding for the same specific biological function within a cancer cell. Complex interactions of the genome architecture on lineage selection may be expected when modifications of the genome architecture have multiple and possibly opposed effects which manifest themselves at disparate times and progression stages. Dissection of putative mechanisms mediating constraints exerted by the genome architecture on somatic cancer evolution may provide an algorithm for understanding and predicting as well as modifying somatic cancer evolution in individual patients.

Rubben, Albert; Nordhoff, Ole

2013-01-01

262

Comparative Analysis of Rice Genome Sequence to Understand the Molecular Basis of Genome Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate sequencing of the rice genome has ignited a passion for elucidating mechanism for sequence diversity among rice varieties\\u000a and species, both in protein-coding regions and in genomic regions that are important for chromosome functions. Here, we have\\u000a shown examples of sequence diversity in genic and non-genic regions. Sequence analysis of chromosome ends has revealed that\\u000a there is diversity in

Jianzhong Wu; Hiroshi Mizuno; Takuji Sasaki; Takashi Matsumoto

2008-01-01

263

Genome mapping in capsicum and the evolution of genome structure in the solanaceae.  

PubMed Central

We have created a genetic map of Capsicum (pepper) from an interspecific F2 population consisting of 11 large (76.2-192.3 cM) and 2 small (19.1 and 12.5 cM) linkage groups that cover a total of 1245.7 cM. Many of the markers are tomato probes that were chosen to cover the tomato genome, allowing comparison of this pepper map to the genetic map of tomato. Hybridization of all tomato-derived probes included in this study to positions throughout the pepper map suggests that no major losses have occurred during the divergence of these genomes. Comparison of the pepper and tomato genetic maps showed that 18 homeologous linkage blocks cover 98.1% of the tomato genome and 95.0% of the pepper genome. Through these maps and the potato map, we determined the number and types of rearrangements that differentiate these species and reconstructed a hypothetical progenitor genome. We conclude there have been 30 breaks as part of 5 translocations, 10 paracentric inversions, 2 pericentric inversions, and 4 disassociations or associations of genomic regions that differentiate tomato, potato, and pepper, as well as an additional reciprocal translocation, nonreciprocal translocation, and a duplication or deletion that differentiate the two pepper mapping parents.

Livingstone, K D; Lackney, V K; Blauth, J R; van Wijk, R; Jahn, M K

1999-01-01

264

[FeFe] hydrogenases and their evolution: a genomic perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Most hydrogenases (H2ases), the enzymes that produce or oxidize dihydrogen, possess dimetallic active sites and belong to either one of two phylogenetically\\u000a distinct classes, the [NiFe] and the [FeFe] H2ases. These families of H2ases share a number of similarities regarding active site structure and reaction mechanism, as a result of convergent evolution.\\u000a They are otherwise alien to each other, in

J. Meyer

2007-01-01

265

Modeling Structural and Genomic Constraints in the Evolution of Proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Macromolecules influence the phenotype of the organism where they are expressed through their function, and in particular through their interactions. Nevertheless, it is very difficult to computationally predict protein function and interactions. Moreover, only a few residues take part in them. For these reasons, models of molecular evolution usually represent folded macromolecules such as RNA or proteins and identify the function of the molecule with the folded structure, whose stability determines the modeled fitness.

Bastolla, Ugo; Porto, Markus

266

Genomic mutation rates that neutralize adaptive evolution and natural selection.  

PubMed

When mutation rates are low, natural selection remains effective, and increasing the mutation rate can give rise to an increase in adaptation rate. When mutation rates are high to begin with, however, increasing the mutation rate may have a detrimental effect because of the overwhelming presence of deleterious mutations. Indeed, if mutation rates are high enough: (i) adaptive evolution may be neutralized, resulting in a zero (or negative) adaptation rate despite the continued availability of adaptive and/or compensatory mutations, or (ii) natural selection may be neutralized, because the fitness of lineages bearing adaptive and/or compensatory mutations--whether established or newly arising--is eroded by excessive mutation, causing such lineages to decline in frequency. We apply these two criteria to a standard model of asexual adaptive evolution and derive mathematical expressions--some new, some old in new guise--delineating the mutation rates under which either adaptive evolution or natural selection is neutralized. The expressions are simple and require no a priori knowledge of organism- and/or environment-specific parameters. Our discussion connects these results to each other and to previous theory, showing convergence or equivalence of the different results in most cases. PMID:23720539

Gerrish, Philip J; Colato, Alexandre; Sniegowski, Paul D

2013-05-29

267

Evolution of an endofungal Lifestyle: Deductions from the Burkholderia rhizoxinica Genome  

PubMed Central

Background Burkholderia rhizoxinica is an intracellular symbiont of the phytopathogenic zygomycete Rhizopus microsporus, the causative agent of rice seedling blight. The endosymbiont produces the antimitotic macrolide rhizoxin for its host. It is vertically transmitted within vegetative spores and is essential for spore formation of the fungus. To shed light on the evolution and genetic potential of this model organism, we analysed the whole genome of B. rhizoxinica HKI 0454 - a type strain of endofungal Burkholderia species. Results The genome consists of a structurally conserved chromosome and two plasmids. Compared to free-living Burkholderia species, the genome is smaller in size and harbors less transcriptional regulator genes. Instead, we observed accumulation of transposons over the genome. Prediction of primary metabolic pathways and transporters suggests that endosymbionts consume host metabolites like citrate, but might deliver some amino acids and cofactors to the host. The rhizoxin biosynthesis gene cluster shows evolutionary traces of horizontal gene transfer. Furthermore, we analysed gene clusters coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Notably, B. rhizoxinica lacks common genes which are dedicated to quorum sensing systems, but is equipped with a large number of virulence-related factors and putative type III effectors. Conclusions B. rhizoxinica is the first endofungal bacterium, whose genome has been sequenced. Here, we present models of evolution, metabolism and tools for host-symbiont interaction of the endofungal bacterium deduced from whole genome analyses. Genome size and structure suggest that B. rhizoxinica is in an early phase of adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle (genome in transition). By analysis of tranporters and metabolic pathways we predict how metabolites might be exchanged between the symbiont and its host. Gene clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites represent novel targets for genomic mining of cryptic natural products. In silico analyses of virulence-associated genes, secreted proteins and effectors might inspire future studies on molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial-fungal interaction.

2011-01-01

268

The Impact of Genome Triplication on Tandem Gene Evolution in Brassica rapa  

PubMed Central

Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication (TD) are both important modes of gene expansion. However, how WGD influences tandemly duplicated genes is not well studied. We used Brassica rapa, which has undergone an additional genome triplication (WGT) and shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata, and Thellungiella parvula, to investigate the impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution. We identified 2,137, 1,569, 1,751, and 1,135 tandem gene arrays in B. rapa, A. thaliana, A. lyrata, and T. parvula respectively. Among them, 414 conserved tandem arrays are shared by the three species without WGT, which were also considered as existing in the diploid ancestor of B. rapa. Thus, after genome triplication, B. rapa should have 1,242 tandem arrays according to the 414 conserved tandems. Here, we found 400 out of the 414 tandems had at least one syntenic ortholog in the genome of B. rapa. Furthermore, 294 out of the 400 shared syntenic orthologs maintain tandem arrays (more than one gene for each syntenic hit) in B. rapa. For the 294 tandem arrays, we obtained 426 copies of syntenic paralogous tandems in the triplicated genome of B. rapa. In this study, we demonstrated that tandem arrays in B. rapa were dramatically fractionated after WGT when compared either to non-tandem genes in the B. rapa genome or to the tandem arrays in closely related species that have not experienced a recent whole genome polyploidization event.

Fang, Lu; Cheng, Feng; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

2012-01-01

269

Multiple Genomic Recombination Events in the Evolution of Saffold Cardiovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Saffold cardiovirus (SAFV) is a new human cardiovirus with 11 identified genotypes. Little is known about the natural history and pathogenicity of SAFVs. Methodology/Principal Findings We sequenced the genome of five SAFV-1 strains which were identified from fecal samples taken from children with viral diarrhea in Beijing, China between March 2006 and November 2007, and analyzed the phylogenetic and phylodynamic properties of SAFVs using the genome sequences of every known SAFV genotypes. We identified multiple recombination events in our SAFV-1 strains, specifically recombination between SAFV-2, -3, -4, -9, -10 and the prototype SAFV-1 strain in the VP4 region and recombination between SAFV-4, -6, -8, -10, -11 and prototype SAFV-1 in the VP1/2A region. Notably, recombination in the structural gene VP4 is a rare event in Cardiovirus. The ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions to synonymous substitutions indicates a purifying selection of the SAFV genome. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analysis indicates the existence of at least two subclades of SAFV-1 with different origins. Subclade 1 includes two strains isolated from Pakistan, whereas subclade 2 includes the prototype strain and strains isolated in China, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The most recent common ancestor of all SAFV genotypes dates to the 1710s, and SAFV-1, -2, and -3 to the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s, respectively. No obvious relationship between variation and pathogenicity exists in the critical domains of the CD and EF loops of viral capsid proteins or the multi-functional proteins L based on animo acid sequence identity comparison between SAFV genotypes. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that intertypic recombination plays an important role in the diversity of SAFVs, highlighting the diversity of the five strains with the previously described SAFV-1 strains.

Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Chen, Lan; Zhang, Jing; Vernet, Guy; Wang, Jianwei

2013-01-01

270

Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 by NimbleGen tiling arrays  

PubMed Central

Background Our previous studies revealed that a new disease form of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) is associated with specific Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) strains. To achieve a better understanding of the pathogenicity and evolution of SS2 at the whole-genome level, comparative genomic analysis of 18 SS2 strains, selected on the basis of virulence and geographic origin, was performed using NimbleGen tiling arrays. Results Our results demonstrate that SS2 isolates have highly divergent genomes. The 89K pathogenicity island (PAI), which has been previously recognized as unique to the Chinese epidemic strains causing STSS, was partially included in some other virulent and avirulent strains. The ABC-type transport systems, encoded by 89K, were hypothesized to greatly contribute to the catastrophic features of STSS. Moreover, we identified many polymorphisms in genes encoding candidate or known virulence factors, such as PlcR, lipase, sortases, the pilus-associated proteins, and the response regulator RevS and CtsR. On the basis of analysis of regions of differences (RDs) across the entire genome for the 18 selected SS2 strains, a model of microevolution for these strains is proposed, which provides clues into Streptococcus pathogenicity and evolution. Conclusions Our deep comparative genomic analysis of the 89K PAI present in the genome of SS2 strains revealed details into how some virulent strains acquired genes that may contribute to STSS, which may lead to better environmental monitoring of epidemic SS2 strains.

2011-01-01

271

Recombination is associated with the evolution of genome structure and worker behavior in honey bees.  

PubMed

The rise of insect societies, marked by the formation of reproductive and sterile castes, represents a major unsolved mystery in evolution. Across several independent origins of sociality, the genomes of social hymenopterans share two peculiar attributes: high recombination and low but heterogeneous GC content. For example, the genome of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, represents a mosaic of GC-poor and GC-rich regions with rates of recombination an order of magnitude higher than in humans. However, it is unclear how heterogeneity in GC content arises, and how it relates to the expression and evolution of worker traits. Using population genetic analyses, we demonstrate a bias in the allele frequency and fixation rate of derived C or G mutations in high-recombination regions, consistent with recombination's causal influence on GC-content evolution via biased gene conversion. We also show that recombination and biased gene conversion actively maintain the heterogeneous GC content of the honey bee genome despite an overall A/T mutation bias. Further, we found that GC-rich genes and intergenic regions have higher levels of genetic diversity and divergence relative to GC-poor regions, also consistent with recombination's causal influence on the rate of molecular evolution. Finally, we found that genes associated with behavior and those with worker-biased expression are found in GC-rich regions of the bee genome and also experience high rates of molecular evolution. Taken together, these findings suggest that recombination acts to maintain a genetically diverse and dynamic part of the genome where genes underlying worker behavior evolve more quickly. PMID:23071321

Kent, Clement F; Minaei, Shermineh; Harpur, Brock A; Zayed, Amro

2012-10-15

272

Recombination is associated with the evolution of genome structure and worker behavior in honey bees  

PubMed Central

The rise of insect societies, marked by the formation of reproductive and sterile castes, represents a major unsolved mystery in evolution. Across several independent origins of sociality, the genomes of social hymenopterans share two peculiar attributes: high recombination and low but heterogeneous GC content. For example, the genome of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, represents a mosaic of GC-poor and GC-rich regions with rates of recombination an order of magnitude higher than in humans. However, it is unclear how heterogeneity in GC content arises, and how it relates to the expression and evolution of worker traits. Using population genetic analyses, we demonstrate a bias in the allele frequency and fixation rate of derived C or G mutations in high-recombination regions, consistent with recombination’s causal influence on GC-content evolution via biased gene conversion. We also show that recombination and biased gene conversion actively maintain the heterogeneous GC content of the honey bee genome despite an overall A/T mutation bias. Further, we found that GC-rich genes and intergenic regions have higher levels of genetic diversity and divergence relative to GC-poor regions, also consistent with recombination’s causal influence on the rate of molecular evolution. Finally, we found that genes associated with behavior and those with worker-biased expression are found in GC-rich regions of the bee genome and also experience high rates of molecular evolution. Taken together, these findings suggest that recombination acts to maintain a genetically diverse and dynamic part of the genome where genes underlying worker behavior evolve more quickly.

Kent, Clement F.; Minaei, Shermineh; Harpur, Brock A.; Zayed, Amro

2012-01-01

273

Adaptive Evolution and the Birth of CTCF Binding Sites in the Drosophila Genome  

PubMed Central

Changes in the physical interaction between cis-regulatory DNA sequences and proteins drive the evolution of gene expression. However, it has proven difficult to accurately quantify evolutionary rates of such binding change or to estimate the relative effects of selection and drift in shaping the binding evolution. Here we examine the genome-wide binding of CTCF in four species of Drosophila separated by between ?2.5 and 25 million years. CTCF is a highly conserved protein known to be associated with insulator sequences in the genomes of human and Drosophila. Although the binding preference for CTCF is highly conserved, we find that CTCF binding itself is highly evolutionarily dynamic and has adaptively evolved. Between species, binding divergence increased linearly with evolutionary distance, and CTCF binding profiles are diverging rapidly at the rate of 2.22% per million years (Myr). At least 89 new CTCF binding sites have originated in the Drosophila melanogaster genome since the most recent common ancestor with Drosophila simulans. Comparing these data to genome sequence data from 37 different strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we detected signatures of selection in both newly gained and evolutionarily conserved binding sites. Newly evolved CTCF binding sites show a significantly stronger signature for positive selection than older sites. Comparative gene expression profiling revealed that expression divergence of genes adjacent to CTCF binding site is significantly associated with the gain and loss of CTCF binding. Further, the birth of new genes is associated with the birth of new CTCF binding sites. Our data indicate that binding of Drosophila CTCF protein has evolved under natural selection, and CTCF binding evolution has shaped both the evolution of gene expression and genome evolution during the birth of new genes.

Ni, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong E.; Negre, Nicolas; Chen, Sidi; Long, Manyuan; White, Kevin P.

2012-01-01

274

The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution  

PubMed Central

Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ?13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator.

Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Poggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E.; Nowrousian, Minou

2013-01-01

275

The Genome and Development-Dependent Transcriptomes of Pyronema confluens: A Window into Fungal Evolution.  

PubMed

Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ?13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976

Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E; Nowrousian, Minou

2013-09-19

276

Genome Size and GC Content Evolution of Festuca: Ancestral Expansion and Subsequent Reduction  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant evolution is well known to be frequently associated with remarkable changes in genome size and composition; however, the knowledge of long-term evolutionary dynamics of these processes still remains very limited. Here a study is made of the fine dynamics of quantitative genome evolution in Festuca (fescue), the largest genus in Poaceae (grasses). Methods Using flow cytometry (PI, DAPI), measurements were made of DNA content (2C-value), monoploid genome size (Cx-value), average chromosome size (C/n-value) and cytosine + guanine (GC) content of 101 Festuca taxa and 14 of their close relatives. The results were compared with the existing phylogeny based on ITS and trnL-F sequences. Key Results The divergence of the fescue lineage from related Poeae was predated by about a 2-fold monoploid genome and chromosome size enlargement, and apparent GC content enrichment. The backward reduction of these parameters, running parallel in both main evolutionary lineages of fine-leaved and broad-leaved fescues, appears to diverge among the existing species groups. The most dramatic reductions are associated with the most recently and rapidly evolving groups which, in combination with recent intraspecific genome size variability, indicate that the reduction process is probably ongoing and evolutionarily young. This dynamics may be a consequence of GC-rich retrotransposon proliferation and removal. Polyploids derived from parents with a large genome size and high GC content (mostly allopolyploids) had smaller Cx- and C/n-values and only slightly deviated from parental GC content, whereas polyploids derived from parents with small genome and low GC content (mostly autopolyploids) generally had a markedly increased GC content and slightly higher Cx- and C/n-values. Conclusions The present study indicates the high potential of general quantitative characters of the genome for understanding the long-term processes of genome evolution, testing evolutionary hypotheses and their usefulness for large-scale genomic projects. Taken together, the results suggest that there is an evolutionary advantage for small genomes in Festuca.

Smarda, Petr; Bures, Petr; Horova, Lucie; Foggi, Bruno; Rossi, Graziano

2008-01-01

277

What can whole genome expression data tell us about the ecology and evolution of personality?  

PubMed Central

Consistent individual differences in behaviour, aka personality, pose several evolutionary questions. For example, it is difficult to explain within-individual consistency in behaviour because behavioural plasticity is often advantageous. In addition, selection erodes heritable behavioural variation that is related to fitness, therefore we wish to know the mechanisms that can maintain between-individual variation in behaviour. In this paper, we argue that whole genome expression data can reveal new insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying personality, as well as its evolutionary consequences. After introducing the basics of whole genome expression analysis, we show how whole genome expression data can be used to understand whether behaviours in different contexts are affected by the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest strategies for using the power of genomics to understand what maintains behavioural variation, to study the evolution of behavioural correlations and to compare personality traits across diverse organisms.

Bell, Alison M.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2010-01-01

278

What can whole genome expression data tell us about the ecology and evolution of personality?  

PubMed

Consistent individual differences in behaviour, aka personality, pose several evolutionary questions. For example, it is difficult to explain within-individual consistency in behaviour because behavioural plasticity is often advantageous. In addition, selection erodes heritable behavioural variation that is related to fitness, therefore we wish to know the mechanisms that can maintain between-individual variation in behaviour. In this paper, we argue that whole genome expression data can reveal new insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying personality, as well as its evolutionary consequences. After introducing the basics of whole genome expression analysis, we show how whole genome expression data can be used to understand whether behaviours in different contexts are affected by the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest strategies for using the power of genomics to understand what maintains behavioural variation, to study the evolution of behavioural correlations and to compare personality traits across diverse organisms. PMID:21078652

Bell, Alison M; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

2010-12-27

279

Genome evolution and speciation genetics of clawed frogs (Xenopus and Silurana).  

PubMed

Speciation of clawed frogs occurred through bifurcation and reticulation of evolutionary lineages, and resulted in extant species with different ploidy levels. Duplicate gene evolution and expression in these animals provides a unique perspective into the earliest genomic transformations after vertebrate whole genome duplication (WGD) and suggests that functional constraints are relaxed compared to before duplication but still consistently strong for millions of years following WGD. Additionally, extensive quantitative expression divergence between duplicate genes occurred after WGD. Diversification of clawed frogs was potentially catalyzed by transposition and divergent resolution--processes that occur through different genetic mechanisms but that have analogous implications for genome structure. How sex determination is maintained after genome duplication is fundamental to our understanding of why allopolyploidization is so prevalent in this group, and why clawed frogs violate Haldane's Rule for hybrid sterility. Future studies of expression subfunctionalization in polyploids will shed light on the role and purviews of cis- and trans-regulatory elements in gene regulation. PMID:18508539

Evans, Ben J

2008-05-01

280

Polyploidy in fungi: evolution after whole-genome duplication  

PubMed Central

Polyploidy is a major evolutionary process in eukaryotes—particularly in plants and, to a less extent, in animals, wherein several past and recent whole-genome duplication events have been described. Surprisingly, the incidence of polyploidy in other eukaryote kingdoms, particularly within fungi, remained largely disregarded by the scientific community working on the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Recent studies have significantly increased our knowledge of the occurrence and evolutionary significance of fungal polyploidy. The ecological, structural and functional consequences of polyploidy in fungi are reviewed here and compared with the knowledge acquired with conventional plant and animal models. In particular, the genus Saccharomyces emerges as a relevant model for polyploid studies, in addition to plant and animal models.

Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe

2012-01-01

281

Shewanella spp. Genomic Evolution for a Cold Marine Lifestyle and In-Situ Explosive Biodegradation  

PubMed Central

Shewanella halifaxensis and Shewanella sediminis were among a few aquatic ?-proteobacteria that were psychrophiles and the first anaerobic bacteria that degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although many mesophilic or psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and ?-proteobacteria were sequenced for their genomes, the genomic evolution pathways for temperature adaptation were poorly understood. On the other hand, the genes responsible for anaerobic RDX mineralization pathways remain unknown. To determine the unique genomic properties of bacteria responsible for both cold-adaptation and RDX degradation, the genomes of S. halifaxensis and S. sediminis were sequenced and compared with 108 other ?-proteobacteria including Shewanella that differ in temperature and Na+ requirements, as well as RDX degradation capability. Results showed that for coping with marine environments their genomes had extensively exchanged with deep sea bacterial genomes. Many genes for Na+-dependent nutrient transporters were recruited to use the high Na+ content as an energy source. For coping with low temperatures, these two strains as well as other psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and ?-proteobacteria were found to decrease their genome G+C content and proteome alanine, proline and arginine content (p-value <0.01) to increase protein structural flexibility. Compared to poorer RDX-degrading strains, S. halifaxensis and S. sediminis have more number of genes for cytochromes and other enzymes related to RDX metabolic pathways. Experimentally, one cytochrome was found induced in S. halifaxensis by RDX when the chemical was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The isolated protein degraded RDX by mono-denitration and was identified as a multiheme 52 kDa cytochrome using a proteomic approach. The present analyses provided the first insight into divergent genomic evolution of bacterial strains for adaptation to the specific cold marine conditions and to the degradation of the pollutant RDX. The present study also provided the first evidence for the involvement of a specific c-type cytochrome in anaerobic RDX metabolism.

Zhao, Jian-Shen; Deng, Yinghai; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal

2010-01-01

282

Accelerated evolution associated with genome reduction in a free-living prokaryote  

PubMed Central

Background Three complete genomes of Prochlorococcus species, the smallest and most abundant photosynthetic organism in the ocean, have recently been published. Comparative genome analyses reveal that genome shrinkage has occurred within this genus, associated with a sharp reduction in G+C content. As all examples of genome reduction characterized so far have been restricted to endosymbionts or pathogens, with a host-dependent lifestyle, the observed genome reduction in Prochlorococcus is the first documented example of such a process in a free-living organism. Results Our results clearly indicate that genome reduction has been accompanied by an increased rate of protein evolution in P. marinus SS120 that is even more pronounced in P. marinus MED4. This acceleration has affected every functional category of protein-coding genes. In contrast, the 16S rRNA gene seems to have evolved clock-like in this genus. We observed that MED4 and SS120 have lost several DNA-repair genes, the absence of which could be related to the mutational bias and the acceleration of amino-acid substitution. Conclusions We have examined the evolutionary mechanisms involved in this process, which are different from those known from host-dependent organisms. Indeed, most substitutions that have occurred in Prochlorococcus have to be selectively neutral, as the large size of populations imposes low genetic drift and strong purifying selection. We assume that the major driving force behind genome reduction within the Prochlorococcus radiation has been a selective process favoring the adaptation of this organism to its environment. A scenario is proposed for genome evolution in this genus.

Dufresne, Alexis; Garczarek, Laurence; Partensky, Frederic

2005-01-01

283

Parental Origin and Genome Evolution in the Allopolyploid Iris versicolor  

PubMed Central

Background Aims One of the classic examples of an allopolyploid is Iris versicolor, ‘Blue Flag’ (2n = 108), first studied by Edgar Anderson and later popularized by George Ledyard Stebbins in cytogenetics and evolutionary text-books. It is revisited here using modern molecular and cytogenetic tools to investigate its putative allopolyploid origin involving progenitors of I. virginica (2n = 70) and I. setosa (2n = 38). Methods Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization with 5S and 18–26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes, and to study the unit structure, relative abundance and chromosomal location of rDNA sequences. Key Results GISH shows that I. versicolor has inherited the sum of the chromosome complement from the two progenitor species. In I. versicolor all the 18–26S rDNA units and loci are inherited from the progenitor of I. virginica, those loci from the I. setosa progenitor are absent. In contrast 5S rDNA loci and units from both progenitors are found, although one of the two 5S loci expected from the I. setosa progenitor is absent. Conclusions These data confirm Anderson's hypothesis that I. versicolor is an allopolyploid involving progenitors of I. virginica and I. setosa. The number of 18–26S rDNA loci in I. versicolor is similar to that of progenitor I. virginica, suggestive of a first stage in genome diploidization. The locus loss is targeted at the I. setosa-origin subgenome, and this is discussed in relation to other polyploidy systems.

Lim, K. Yoong; Matyasek, Roman; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Andrew

2007-01-01

284

Phylogenetic analysis of T-Box genes demonstrates the importance of amphioxus for understanding evolution of the vertebrate genome.  

PubMed Central

The duplication of preexisting genes has played a major role in evolution. To understand the evolution of genetic complexity it is important to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the genome. A widely held view suggests that the vertebrate genome evolved via two successive rounds of whole-genome duplication. To test this model we have isolated seven new T-box genes from the primitive chordate amphioxus. We find that each amphioxus gene generally corresponds to two or three vertebrate counterparts. A phylogenetic analysis of these genes supports the idea that a single whole-genome duplication took place early in vertebrate evolution, but cannot exclude the possibility that a second duplication later took place. The origin of additional paralogs evident in this and other gene families could be the result of subsequent, smaller-scale chromosomal duplications. Our findings highlight the importance of amphioxus as a key organism for understanding evolution of the vertebrate genome.

Ruvinsky, I; Silver, L M; Gibson-Brown, J J

2000-01-01

285

Transposable elements in the genomes: parasites, junks or drivers of evolution?  

PubMed

In many organisms with large and complex genomes, transposable elements (TEs) constitute up to 50% of the genomic DNA. TEs have been widely studied and they showed high similarities across kingdoms. Several reasons have been adduced for the diverse TEs among plants and animal species. Activities of TEs could give rise to altered gene or genome at very high frequencies in both germinal and somatic tissues. TE-induced genetic variability can range widely; from changes in the arrangement of the whole genome to changes in single nucleotides. This may produce major effects on the phenotypic traits or small silent changes detectable only at the DNA sequence level. TE-induced mutation in the regulatory sequences may be of evolutionary significance and insertions in promoter sequences can alter tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. In addition, transposons can be involved in amplification and dispersal of genes by taking up portions of other sequences within the TEs themselves, moving them to new locations, thereby increasing their copy number. Therefore, mobilization of TEs might benefit the host through enhancement of genetic diversity. However, TE movement have been linked with undesirable traits in plants, hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila and genome instability and diseases in mammals. This review summarises the diversity of TEs across plant and animal kingdoms and their impact and possible role in genomic evolution. It also describes some adverse effects of TEs as agents of genomic instability and diseases such as cancers, and the genetic regulations of their activities. PMID:23678632

Gbadegesin, M A

2012-12-01

286

Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera  

PubMed Central

Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution.

Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

2013-01-01

287

The Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Hornwort Megaceros aenigmaticus Shows a Mixed Mode of Conservative Yet Dynamic Evolution in Early Land Plant Mitochondrial Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land plants possess some of the most unusual mitochondrial genomes among eukaryotes. However, in early land plants these genomes\\u000a resemble those of green and red algae or early eukaryotes. The question of when during land plant evolution the dramatic change\\u000a in mtDNAs occurred remains unanswered. Here we report the first completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of the hornwort,\\u000a Megaceros aenigmaticus, a

Libo Li; Bin Wang; Yang Liu; Yin-Long Qiu

2009-01-01

288

Ancient repeated sequences in the pea and mung bean genomes and implications for genome evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essentially all of the sequences in the pea (Pisum sativum) genome which reassociate with single copy kinetics at standard (Tm -25°C) criterion follow repetitive kinetics at lower temperatures (about Tm-35°C). Analysis of thermal stability profiles for presumptive single copy duplexes show that they contain substantial mismatch even when formed at standard criterion. Thus most of the sequences in the pea

Michael G. Murray; Debra L. Peters; William F. Thompson

1981-01-01

289

Genome Sequences of Three Agrobacterium Biovars Help Elucidate the Evolution of Multichromosome Genomes in Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids each strain harbors. Members of the Rhizobiaceae also have diverse genome architectures that include single chromosomes,

Steven C. Slater; Barry S. Goldman; Brad Goodner; Joao C. Setubal; Stephen K. Farrand; Eugene W. Nester; Thomas J. Burr; Lois Banta; Allan W. Dickerman; Ian Paulsen; Leon Otten; Garret Suen; Roy Welch; Nalvo F. Almeida; Frank Arnold; Oliver T. Burton; Zijin Du; Adam Ewing; Eric Godsy; Sara Heisel; Kathryn L. Houmiel; Jinal Jhaveri; Jing Lu; Nancy M. Miller; Stacie Norton; Qiang Chen; Waranyoo Phoolcharoen; Victoria Ohlin; Dan Ondrusek; Nicole Pride; Shawn L. Stricklin; Jian Sun; Cathy Wheeler; Lindsey Wilson; Huijun Zhu; Derek W. Wood

2009-01-01

290

Genes in the terminal regions of orthopoxvirus genomes experience adaptive molecular evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Orthopoxviruses are dsDNA viruses with large genomes, some encoding over 200 genes. Genes essential for viral replication are located in the center of the linear genome and genes encoding host response modifiers and other host interacting proteins are located in the terminal regions. The central portion of the genome is highly conserved, both in gene content and sequence, while the terminal regions are more diverse. In this study, we investigated the role of adaptive molecular evolution in poxvirus genes and the selective pressures that act on the different regions of the genome. The relative fixation rates of synonymous and non-synonymous mutations (the dN/dS ratio) are an indicator of the mechanism of evolution of sequences, and can be used to identify purifying, neutral, or diversifying selection acting on a gene. Like highly conserved residues, amino acids under diversifying selection may be functionally important. Many genes experiencing diversifying selection are involved in host-pathogen interactions, such as antigen-antibody interactions, or the "host-pathogen arms race." Results We analyzed 175 gene families from orthopoxviruses for evidence of diversifying selection. 79 genes were identified as experiencing diversifying selection, 25 with high confidence. Many of these genes are located in the terminal regions of the genome and function to modify the host response to infection or are virion-associated, indicating a greater role for diversifying selection in host-interacting genes. Of the 79 genes, 20 are of unknown function, and implicating diversifying selection as an important mechanism in their evolution may help characterize their function or identify important functional residues. Conclusions We conclude that diversifying selection is an important mechanism of orthopoxvirus evolution. Diversifying selection in poxviruses may be the result of interaction with host defense mechanisms.

2011-01-01

291

Adaptive immunity to rhinoviruses: sex and age matter  

PubMed Central

Background Rhinoviruses (RV) are key triggers in acute asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that men suffer from infectious diseases more frequently and with greater severity than women. Additionally, the immune response to most infections and vaccinations decreases with age. Most immune function studies do not account for such differences, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if the immune response to rhinovirus varies with sex or age. Methods Blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 63 healthy individuals and grouped by sex and age (?50 years old and ?52 years old). Cells were cultured with rhinovirus 16 at a multiplicity of infection of 1. The chemokine IP-10 was measured at 24 h as an index of innate immunity while IFN? and IL-13 were measured at 5 days as an index of adaptive immunity. Results Rhinovirus induced IFN? and IL-13 was significantly higher in ?50 year old women than in age matched men (p < 0.02 and p < 0.05) and ?52 year old women (p < 0.02 and p > 0.005). There was no sex or age based difference in rhinovirus induced IP-10 expression. Both IFN? and IL-13 were negatively correlated with age in women but not in men. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-menopausal women have a stronger adaptive immune response to rhinovirus infection than men and older people, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be determined. Our findings highlight the importance of gender and age balance in clinical studies and in the development of new treatments and vaccines.

2010-01-01

292

Genomic organization and evolution of the soybean SB92 satellite sequence.  

PubMed

Repetitive DNA sequences comprise a large percentage of plant genomes, and their characterization provides information about both species and genome evolution. We have isolated a recombinant clone containing a highly repeated DNA element (SB92) that is homologous to ca. 0.9% of the soybean genome or about 10(5) copies. This repeated sequence is tandemly arranged and is found in four or five major genomic locations. FISH analysis of metaphase chromosomes suggests that two of these locations are centromeric. We have determined the sequence of two cloned repeats and performed genomic sequencing to obtain a consensus sequence. The consensus repeat size was 92 bp and exhibited an average of 10% nucleotide substitution relative to the two cloned repeats. This high level of sequence diversity suggests an ancient origin but is inconsistent with the limited phylogenetic distribution of SB92, which is found at high copy number only in the annual soybeans. It therefore seems likely that this sequence is undergoing very rapid evolution. PMID:8541510

Vahedian, M; Shi, L; Zhu, T; Okimoto, R; Danna, K; Keim, P

1995-11-01

293

Comparative Analyses of DNA Methylation and Sequence Evolution Using Nasonia Genomes  

PubMed Central

The functional and evolutionary significance of DNA methylation in insect genomes remains to be resolved. Nasonia is well situated for comparative analyses of DNA methylation and genome evolution, since the genomes of a moderately distant outgroup species as well as closely related sibling species are available. Using direct sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA, we uncovered a substantial level of DNA methylation in 17 of 18 Nasonia vitripennis genes and a strong correlation between methylation level and CpG depletion. Notably, in the sex-determining locus transformer, the exon that is alternatively spliced between the sexes is heavily methylated in both males and females, whereas other exons are only sparsely methylated. Orthologous genes of the honeybee and Nasonia show highly similar relative levels of CpG depletion, despite ?190 My divergence. Densely and sparsely methylated genes in these species also exhibit similar functional enrichments. We found that the degree of CpG depletion is negatively correlated with substitution rates between closely related Nasonia species for synonymous, nonsynonymous, and intron sites. This suggests that mutation rates increase with decreasing levels of germ line methylation. Thus, DNA methylation is prevalent in the Nasonia genome, may participate in regulatory processes such as sex determination and alternative splicing, and is correlated with several aspects of genome and sequence evolution.

Park, Jungsun; Peng, Zuogang; Zeng, Jia; Elango, Navin; Park, Taesung; Wheeler, Dave; Werren, John H.; Yi, Soojin V.

2011-01-01

294

Comparative analyses of DNA methylation and sequence evolution using Nasonia genomes.  

PubMed

The functional and evolutionary significance of DNA methylation in insect genomes remains to be resolved. Nasonia is well situated for comparative analyses of DNA methylation and genome evolution, since the genomes of a moderately distant outgroup species as well as closely related sibling species are available. Using direct sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA, we uncovered a substantial level of DNA methylation in 17 of 18 Nasonia vitripennis genes and a strong correlation between methylation level and CpG depletion. Notably, in the sex-determining locus transformer, the exon that is alternatively spliced between the sexes is heavily methylated in both males and females, whereas other exons are only sparsely methylated. Orthologous genes of the honeybee and Nasonia show highly similar relative levels of CpG depletion, despite ~190 My divergence. Densely and sparsely methylated genes in these species also exhibit similar functional enrichments. We found that the degree of CpG depletion is negatively correlated with substitution rates between closely related Nasonia species for synonymous, nonsynonymous, and intron sites. This suggests that mutation rates increase with decreasing levels of germ line methylation. Thus, DNA methylation is prevalent in the Nasonia genome, may participate in regulatory processes such as sex determination and alternative splicing, and is correlated with several aspects of genome and sequence evolution. PMID:21693438

Park, Jungsun; Peng, Zuogang; Zeng, Jia; Elango, Navin; Park, Taesung; Wheeler, Dave; Werren, John H; Yi, Soojin V

2011-06-20

295

Genome sequence diversity and clues to the evolution of variola (smallpox) virus.  

PubMed

Comparative genomics of 45 epidemiologically varied variola virus isolates from the past 30 years of the smallpox era indicate low sequence diversity, suggesting that there is probably little difference in the isolates' functional gene content. Phylogenetic clustering inferred three clades coincident with their geographical origin and case-fatality rate; the latter implicated putative proteins that mediate viral virulence differences. Analysis of the viral linear DNA genome suggests that its evolution involved direct descent and DNA end-region recombination events. Knowing the sequences will help understand the viral proteome and improve diagnostic test precision, therapeutics, and systems for their assessment. PMID:16873609

Esposito, Joseph J; Sammons, Scott A; Frace, A Michael; Osborne, John D; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Zhang, Ming; Govil, Dhwani; Damon, Inger K; Kline, Richard; Laker, Miriam; Li, Yu; Smith, Geoffrey L; Meyer, Hermann; Leduc, James W; Wohlhueter, Robert M

2006-07-27

296

Principles of Genome Evolution in the Drosophila melanogaster Species Group  

PubMed Central

That closely related species often differ by chromosomal inversions was discovered by Sturtevant and Plunkett in 1926. Our knowledge of how these inversions originate is still very limited, although a prevailing view is that they are facilitated by ectopic recombination events between inverted repetitive sequences. The availability of genome sequences of related species now allows us to study in detail the mechanisms that generate interspecific inversions. We have analyzed the breakpoint regions of the 29 inversions that differentiate the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and two closely related species, D. simulans and D. yakuba, and reconstructed the molecular events that underlie their origin. Experimental and computational analysis revealed that the breakpoint regions of 59% of the inversions (17/29) are associated with inverted duplications of genes or other nonrepetitive sequences. In only two cases do we find evidence for inverted repetitive sequences in inversion breakpoints. We propose that the presence of inverted duplications associated with inversion breakpoint regions is the result of staggered breaks, either isochromatid or chromatid, and that this, rather than ectopic exchange between inverted repetitive sequences, is the prevalent mechanism for the generation of inversions in the melanogaster species group. Outgroup analysis also revealed evidence for widespread breakpoint recycling. Lastly, we have found that expression domains in D. melanogaster may be disrupted in D. yakuba, bringing into question their potential adaptive significance.

Ranz, Jose M; Maurin, Damien; Chan, Yuk S; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Hillier, LaDeana W; Roote, John; Ashburner, Michael; Bergman, Casey M

2007-01-01

297

Evolution of electron transfer out of the cell: comparative genomics of six Geobacter genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Geobacter species grow by transferring electrons out of the cell - either to Fe(III)-oxides or to man-made substances like energy-harvesting electrodes. Study of Geobacter sulfurreducens has shown that TCA cycle enzymes, inner-membrane respiratory enzymes, and periplasmic and outer-membrane cytochromes are required. Here we present comparative analysis of six Geobacter genomes, including species from the clade that predominates in the

Jessica E Butler; Nelson D Young; Derek R Lovley

2010-01-01

298

Genome Mapping in Capsicum and the Evolution of Genome Structure in the Solanaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a genetic map of Capsicum (pepper) from an interspecific F2 population consisting of 11 large (76.2-192.3 cM) and 2 small (19.1 and 12.5 cM) linkage groups that cover a total of 1245.7 cM. Many of the markers are tomato probes that were chosen to cover the tomato genome, allowing comparison of this pepper map to the genetic

Kevin D. Livingstone; Vincent K. Lackney; James R. Blauth; Rik van Wijk; Molly Kyle Jahn

299

The genomics of selection in dogs and the parallel evolution between dogs and humans.  

PubMed

The genetic bases of demographic changes and artificial selection underlying domestication are of great interest in evolutionary biology. Here we perform whole-genome sequencing of multiple grey wolves, Chinese indigenous dogs and dogs of diverse breeds. Demographic analysis show that the split between wolves and Chinese indigenous dogs occurred 32,000 years ago and that the subsequent bottlenecks were mild. Therefore, dogs may have been under human selection over a much longer time than previously concluded, based on molecular data, perhaps by initially scavenging with humans. Population genetic analysis identifies a list of genes under positive selection during domestication, which overlaps extensively with the corresponding list of positively selected genes in humans. Parallel evolution is most apparent in genes for digestion and metabolism, neurological process and cancer. Our study, for the first time, draws together humans and dogs in their recent genomic evolution. PMID:23673645

Wang, Guo-dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-chuan; Fan, Ruo-xi; Cao, Xue; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Liu, Fei; Wu, Hong; Cheng, Lu-guang; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Poyarkov, Nikolai A; Tang, Shu-sheng; Zhao, Wen-ming; Gao, Yun; Lv, Xue-mei; Irwin, David M; Savolainen, Peter; Wu, Chung-I; Zhang, Ya-ping

2013-01-01

300

The bovine lactation genome: insights into the evolution of mammalian milk  

PubMed Central

Background The newly assembled Bos taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes. Results Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome. Intersection of these genes with 238 milk production quantitative trait loci curated from the literature decreased the search space for milk trait effectors by more than an order of magnitude. Genome location analysis revealed a tendency for milk protein genes to be clustered with other mammary genes. Using the genomes of a monotreme (platypus), a marsupial (opossum), and five placental mammals (bovine, human, dog, mice, rat), gene loss and duplication, phylogeny, sequence conservation, and evolution were examined. Compared with other genes in the bovine genome, milk and mammary genes are: more likely to be present in all mammals; more likely to be duplicated in therians; more highly conserved across Mammalia; and evolving more slowly along the bovine lineage. The most divergent proteins in milk were associated with nutritional and immunological components of milk, whereas highly conserved proteins were associated with secretory processes. Conclusions Although both copy number and sequence variation contribute to the diversity of milk protein composition across species, our results suggest that this diversity is primarily due to other mechanisms. Our findings support the essentiality of milk to the survival of mammalian neonates and the establishment of milk secretory mechanisms more than 160 million years ago.

Lemay, Danielle G; Lynn, David J; Martin, William F; Neville, Margaret C; Casey, Theresa M; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Barris, Wesley C; Hinrichs, Angie S; Molenaar, Adrian J; Pollard, Katherine S; Maqbool, Nauman J; Singh, Kuljeet; Murney, Regan; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Tellam, Ross L; Medrano, Juan F; German, J Bruce; Rijnkels, Monique

2009-01-01

301

Genome evolution and speciation: toward quantitative descriptions of pattern and process.  

PubMed

Studies of patterns of differentiation across genomes are accumulating, yet integrative work that combines approaches and fully capitalizes on new technologies to test explicit hypotheses is still rare. Thus, debates persist about the rate, magnitude, and causes of genomic change. This special section is devoted to helping resolve these debates. The eight studies contained within demonstrate how we can begin to move away from vague metaphors toward quantitative and more precise descriptors of patterns of genetic architecture and divergence. However, a particular genomic pattern can often arise via different combinations of various processes such as selection, gene flow, recombination, mutation, genetic drift, and demographic variability. Thus, substantial challenges remain in elucidating which evolutionary processes generated observed genomic patterns. Nonetheless, the studies in this section demonstrate ways forward toward bridging pattern and process, including experimental work, genetic mapping, increased knowledge of natural history and demography, and comparative studies spanning taxa at different points in the speciation continuum. Such collective work will lead to more powerful hypothesis testing. Future work can also help better integrate the contributions of ecology, genome structure (e.g., inversions and translocations), and genetic conflict to genome evolution. PMID:24033160

Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L

2013-07-04

302

The sacred lotus genome provides insights into the evolution of flowering plants.  

PubMed

Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36 385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis. PMID:23952714

Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong

2013-10-11

303

Revisiting the evolution of mouse LINE-1 in the genomic era  

PubMed Central

Background LINE-1 (L1) is the dominant category of transposable elements in placental mammals. L1 has significantly affected the size and structure of all mammalian genomes and understanding the nature of the interactions between L1 and its mammalian host remains a question of crucial importance in comparative genomics. For this reason, much attention has been dedicated to the evolution of L1. Among the most studied elements is the mouse L1 which has been the subject of a number of studies in the 1980s and 1990s. These seminal studies, performed in the pre-genomic era when only a limited number of L1 sequences were available, have significantly improved our understanding of L1 evolution. Yet, no comprehensive study on the evolution of L1 in mouse has been performed since the completion of this genome sequence. Results Using the Genome Parsing Suite we performed the first evolutionary analysis of mouse L1 over the entire length of the element. This analysis indicates that the mouse L1 has recruited novel 5’UTR sequences more frequently than previously thought and that the simultaneous activity of non-homologous promoters seems to be one of the conditions for the co-existence of multiple L1 families or lineages. In addition the exchange of genetic information between L1 families is not limited to the 5’UTR as evidence of inter-family recombination was observed in ORF1, ORF2, and the 3’UTR. In contrast to the human L1, there was little evidence of rapid amino-acid replacement in the coiled-coil of ORF1, although this region is structurally unstable. We propose that the structural instability of the coiled-coil domain might be adaptive and that structural changes in this region are selectively equivalent to the rapid evolution at the amino-acid level reported in the human lineage. Conclusions The pattern of evolution of L1 in mouse shows some similarity with human suggesting that the nature of the interactions between L1 and its host might be similar in these two species. Yet, some notable differences, particularly in the evolution of ORF1, suggest that the molecular mechanisms involved in host-L1 interactions might be different in these two species.

2013-01-01

304

Dynamics and innovations within oomycete genomes: insights into biology, pathology, and evolution.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic microbes known as oomycetes are common inhabitants of terrestrial and aquatic environments and include saprophytes and pathogens. Lifestyles of the pathogens extend from biotrophy to necrotrophy, obligate to facultative pathogenesis, and narrow to broad host ranges on plants or animals. Sequencing of several pathogens has revealed striking variation in genome size and content, a plastic set of genes related to pathogenesis, and adaptations associated with obligate biotrophy. Features of genome evolution include repeat-driven expansions, deletions, gene fusions, and horizontal gene transfer in a landscape organized into gene-dense and gene-sparse sectors and influenced by transposable elements. Gene expression profiles are also highly dynamic throughout oomycete life cycles, with transcriptional polymorphisms as well as differences in protein sequence contributing to variation. The genome projects have set the foundation for functional studies and should spur the sequencing of additional species, including more diverse pathogens and nonpathogens. PMID:22923046

Judelson, Howard S

2012-08-24

305

Parallel evolution of truncated transfer RNA genes in arachnid mitochondrial genomes.  

PubMed

The cloverleaf secondary structure of transfer RNA (tRNA) is highly conserved across all forms of life. Here, we provide sequence data and inferred secondary structures for all tRNA genes from 8 new arachnid mitochondrial genomes, including representatives from 6 orders. These data show remarkable reductions in tRNA gene sequences, indicating that T-arms are missing from many of the 22 tRNAs in the genomes of 4 out of 7 orders of arachnids. Additionally, all opisthothele spiders possess some tRNA genes that lack sequences that could form well-paired aminoacyl acceptor stems. We trace the evolution of T-arm loss onto phylogenies of arachnids and show that a genome-wide propensity to lose sequences that encode canonical cloverleaf structures likely evolved multiple times within arachnids. Mapping of structural characters also shows that certain tRNA genes appear more evolutionarily prone to lose the sequence coding for the T-arm and that once a T-arm is lost, it is not regained. We use tRNA structural data to construct a phylogeny of arachnids and find high bootstrap support for a clade that is not supported in phylogenies that are based on more traditional morphological characters. Together, our data demonstrate variability in structural evolution among different tRNAs as well as evidence for parallel evolution of the loss of sequence coding for tRNA arms within an ancient and diverse group of animals. PMID:18296699

Masta, Susan E; Boore, Jeffrey L

2008-02-23

306

Evolution of the chloroplast genome and polymorphic ITS regions in Allium subg. Melanocrommyum.  

PubMed

Relationships based on PCR-RFLPs of non-coding regions of cpDNA indicate that some of the largest subgenera of the genus Allium and five of the largest sections of the Central Asian subg. Melanocrommyum are artificial. Internested synapomorphic mutations without homoplasy were found only in the chloroplast genomes of plants of subg. Melanocrommyum that occur in the border region of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Eighteen of 49 plants surveyed were polymorphic for their ITS regions. Even plants that had identical chloroplast genomes were polymorphic for nuclear ribosomal regions. These individuals had markedly different frequencies of ITS variants that were detected with various restriction enzymes. The geographic partitioning of chloroplast haplotypes and the fact that the ITS variants could not be ordered hierarchically can readily be envisioned to result from gene flow. Processes such as concerted evolution and parallel morphological evolution may also be partly responsible for the disconcordance of mutations in the chloroplast and nuclear genome. However, the chimeric nature of the nuclear ribosomal regions indicates that concerted evolution is not the dominating process in Allium subg. Melanocrommyum. PMID:10231958

Mes, T H; Fritsch, R M; Pollner, S; Bachmann, K

1999-04-01

307

Evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes--a perspective from the inferred ancestral domain architectures†  

PubMed Central

Most eukaryotic proteins are composed of two or more domains. These assemble in a modular manner to create new proteins usually by the acquisition of one or more domains to an existing protein. Promiscuous domains which are found embedded in a variety of proteins and co-exist with many other domains are of particular interest and were shown to have roles in signaling pathways and mediating network communication. The evolution of domain promiscuity is still an open problem, mostly due to the lack of sequenced ancestral genomes. Here we use inferred domain architectures of ancestral genomes to trace the evolution of domain promiscuity in eukaryotic genomes. We find an increase in average promiscuity along many branches of the eukaryotic tree. Moreover, domain promiscuity can proceed at almost a steady rate over long evolutionary time or exhibit lineage-specific acceleration. We also observe that many signaling and regulatory domains gained domain promiscuity around the Bilateria divergence. In addition we show that those domains that played a role in the creation of two body axes and existed before the divergence of the bilaterians from fungi/metazoan achieve a boost in their promiscuities during the bilaterian evolution.

Cohen-Gihon, Inbar; Fong, Jessica H.; Sharan, Roded; Nussinov, Ruth

2012-01-01

308

Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggest that rates of molecular evolution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic plant lineages, including sequences from all three genomes, is needed to examine the generality of the relationship between rates of molecular evolution and parasitism in plants. Results We analysed DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast genomes for 12 independent evolutionary origins of parasitism in angiosperms. We demonstrated that parasitic lineages have a faster rate of molecular evolution than their non-parasitic relatives in sequences for all three genomes, for both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Conclusions Our results prove that raised rates of molecular evolution are a general feature of parasitic plants, not confined to a few taxa or specific genes. We discuss possible causes for this relationship, including increased positive selection associated with host-parasite arms races, relaxed selection, reduced population size or repeated bottlenecks, increased mutation rates, and indirect causal links with generation time and body size. We find no evidence that faster rates are due to smaller effective populations sizes or changes in selection pressure. Instead, our results suggest that parasitic plants have a higher mutation rate than their close non-parasitic relatives. This may be due to a direct connection, where some aspect of the parasitic lifestyle drives the evolution of raised mutation rates. Alternatively, this pattern may be driven by an indirect connection between rates and parasitism: for example, parasitic plants tend to be smaller than their non-parasitic relatives, which may result in more cell generations per year, thus a higher rate of mutations arising from DNA copy errors per unit time. Demonstration that adoption of a parasitic lifestyle influences the rate of genomic evolution is relevant to attempts to infer molecular phylogenies of parasitic plants and to estimate their evolutionary divergence times using sequence data.

2013-01-01

309

The structure and early evolution of recently arisen gene duplicates in the Caenorhabditis elegans genome.  

PubMed Central

The significance of gene duplication in provisioning raw materials for the evolution of genomic diversity is widely recognized, but the early evolutionary dynamics of duplicate genes remain obscure. To elucidate the structural characteristics of newly arisen gene duplicates at infancy and their subsequent evolutionary properties, we analyzed gene pairs with < or =10% divergence at synonymous sites within the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Structural heterogeneity between duplicate copies is present very early in their evolutionary history and is maintained over longer evolutionary timescales, suggesting that duplications across gene boundaries in conjunction with shuffling events have at least as much potential to contribute to long-term evolution as do fully redundant (complete) duplicates. The median duplication span of 1.4 kb falls short of the average gene length in C. elegans (2.5 kb), suggesting that partial gene duplications are frequent. Most gene duplicates reside close to the parent copy at inception, often as tandem inverted loci, and appear to disperse in the genome as they age, as a result of reduced survivorship of duplicates located in proximity to the ancestral copy. We propose that illegitimate recombination events leading to inverted duplications play a disproportionately large role in gene duplication within this genome in comparison with other mechanisms.

Katju, Vaishali; Lynch, Michael

2003-01-01

310

Genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii highlights extensive lateral gene transfer and early evolution of tyrosine kinase signaling.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The Amoebozoa constitute one of the primary divisions of eukaryotes, encompassing taxa of both biomedical and evolutionary importance, yet its genomic diversity remains largely unsampled. Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. RESULTS: Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis highlights the important role of LGT in the biology of Ac and in the diversification of microbial eukaryotes. The early evolution of a key signaling facility implicated in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity strongly argues for its emergence early in the Unikont lineage. Overall, the availability of an Ac genome should aid in deciphering the biology of the Amoebozoa and facilitate functional genomic studies in this important model organism and environmental host. PMID:23375108

Clarke, Michael; Lohan, Amanda J; Liu, Bernard; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Roy, Scott; Zafar, Nikhat; Bertelli, Claire; Schilde, Christina; Kianianmomeni, Arash; Bürglin, Thomas R; Frech, Christian; Turcotte, Bernard; Kopec, Klaus O; Synnott, John M; Choo, Caleb; Paponov, Ivan; Finkler, Aliza; Heng Tan, Chris Soon; Hutchins, Andrew P; Weinmeier, Thomas; Rattei, Thomas; Chu, Jeffery Sc; Gimenez, Gregory; Irimia, Manuel; Rigden, Daniel J; Fitzpatrick, David A; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Bateman, Alex; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Tang, Petrus; Hegemann, Peter; Fromm, Hillel; Raoult, Didier; Greub, Gilbert; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Chen, Nansheng; Nash, Piers; Ginger, Michael L; Horn, Matthias; Schaap, Pauline; Caler, Lis; Loftus, Brendan J

2013-02-01

311

The evolution of tRNA-Leu genes in animal mitochondrial genomes.  

PubMed

Animal mitochondrial genomes usually have two transfer RNAs for leucine: one, with anticodon UAG, translates the four-codon family CUN, while the other, with anticodon UAA, translates the two-codon family UUR. These two genes must differ at the third anticodon position, but in some species the genes differ at many additional sites, indicating that these genes have been independent for a long time. Duplication and deletion of genes in mitochondrial genomes occur frequently during the evolution of the Metazoa. If a tRNA-Leu gene were duplicated and a substitution occurred in the anticodon, this would effectively turn one type of tRNA into the other. The original copy of the second tRNA type might then be lost by a deletion elsewhere in the genome. There are several groups of species in which the two tRNA-Leu genes occur next to one another (or very close) on the genome, which suggests that tandem duplication has occurred. Here we use RNA-specific phylogenetic methods to determine evolutionary trees for both genes. We present evidence that the process of duplication, anticodon mutation, and deletion of tRNA-Leu genes has occurred at least five times during the evolution of the metazoa-once in the common ancestor of all protostomes, once in the common ancestor of echinoderms and hemichordates, once in the hermit crab, and twice independently in mollusks. PMID:14708576

Higgs, Paul G; Jameson, Daniel; Jow, Howsun; Rattray, Magnus

2003-10-01

312

The Complete Chloroplast Genome of Banana (Musa acuminata, Zingiberales): Insight into Plastid Monocotyledon Evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Banana (genus Musa) is a crop of major economic importance worldwide. It is a monocotyledonous member of the Zingiberales, a sister group of the widely studied Poales. Most cultivated bananas are natural Musa inter-(sub-)specific triploid hybrids. A Musa acuminata reference nuclear genome sequence was recently produced based on sequencing of genomic DNA enriched in nucleus. Methodology/Principal Findings The Musa acuminata chloroplast genome was assembled with chloroplast reads extracted from whole-genome-shotgun sequence data. The Musa chloroplast genome is a circular molecule of 169,972 bp with a quadripartite structure containing two single copy regions, a Large Single Copy region (LSC, 88,338 bp) and a Small Single Copy region (SSC, 10,768 bp) separated by Inverted Repeat regions (IRs, 35,433 bp). Two forms of the chloroplast genome relative to the orientation of SSC versus LSC were found. The Musa chloroplast genome shows an extreme IR expansion at the IR/SSC boundary relative to the most common structures found in angiosperms. This expansion consists of the integration of three additional complete genes (rps15, ndhH and ycf1) and part of the ndhA gene. No such expansion has been observed in monocots so far. Simple Sequence Repeats were identified in the Musa chloroplast genome and a new set of Musa chloroplastic markers was designed. Conclusion The complete sequence of M. acuminata ssp malaccensis chloroplast we reported here is the first one for the Zingiberales order. As such it provides new insight in the evolution of the chloroplast of monocotyledons. In particular, it reinforces that IR/SSC expansion has occurred independently several times within monocotyledons. The discovery of new polymorphic markers within Musa chloroplast opens new perspectives to better understand the origin of cultivated triploid bananas.

Martin, Guillaume; Baurens, Franc-Christophe; Cardi, Celine; Aury, Jean-Marc; D'Hont, Angelique

2013-01-01

313

Gene and genome duplications in vertebrates: the one-to-four (-to-eight in fish) rule and the evolution of novel gene functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

One important mechanism for functional innovation during evolution is the duplication of genes and entire genomes. Evidence is accumulating that during the evolution of vertebrates from early deuterostome ancestors entire genomes were duplicated through two rounds of duplications (the ‘one-to-two-to-four’ rule). The first genome duplication in chordate evolution might predate the Cambrian explosion. The second genome duplication possibly dates back

Axel Meyer; Manfred Schartl

1999-01-01

314

Mechanisms of Gene Duplication and Translocation and Progress towards Understanding Their Relative Contributions to Animal Genome Evolution  

PubMed Central

Duplication of genetic material is clearly a major route to genetic change, with consequences for both evolution and disease. A variety of forms and mechanisms of duplication are recognised, operating across the scales of a few base pairs upto entire genomes. With the ever-increasing amounts of gene and genome sequence data that are becoming available, our understanding of the extent of duplication is greatly improving, both in terms of the scales of duplication events as well as their rates of occurrence. An accurate understanding of these processes is vital if we are to properly understand important events in evolution as well as mechanisms operating at the level of genome organisation. Here we will focus on duplication in animal genomes and how the duplicated sequences are distributed, with the aim of maintaining a focus on principles of evolution and organisation that are most directly applicable to the shaping of our own genome.

Mendivil Ramos, Olivia; Ferrier, David E. K.

2012-01-01

315

Accelerated Evolution of Mitochondrial but Not Nuclear Genomes of Hymenoptera: New Evidence from Crabronid Wasps  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes). Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of Apocrita is unlikely to be the major cause for the elevated substitution rates observed in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes.

Kaltenpoth, Martin; Showers Corneli, Patrice; Dunn, Diane M.; Weiss, Robert B.

2012-01-01

316

Evolution of the mitochondrial genome in snakes: Gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships  

PubMed Central

Background Snakes as a major reptile group display a variety of morphological characteristics pertaining to their diverse behaviours. Despite abundant analyses of morphological characters, molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear genes are limited. As a result, the phylogeny of snakes remains controversial. Previous studies on mitochondrial genomes of snakes have demonstrated duplication of the control region and translocation of trnL to be two notable features of the alethinophidian (all serpents except blindsnakes and threadsnakes) mtDNAs. Our purpose is to further investigate the gene organizations, evolution of the snake mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic relationships among several major snake families. Results The mitochondrial genomes were sequenced for four taxa representing four different families, and each had a different gene arrangement. Comparative analyses with other snake mitochondrial genomes allowed us to summarize six types of mitochondrial gene arrangement in snakes. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (BI, ML, MP, NJ) arrived at a similar topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene arrangements in snakes. Conclusion The phylogenetic relationships among the major families of snakes are in accordance with the mitochondrial genomes in terms of gene arrangements. The gene arrangement in Ramphotyphlops braminus mtDNA is inferred to be ancestral for snakes. After the divergence of the early Ramphotyphlops lineage, three types of rearrangements occurred. These changes involve translocations within the IQM tRNA gene cluster and the duplication of the CR. All phylogenetic methods support the placement of Enhydris plumbea outside of the (Colubridae + Elapidae) cluster, providing mitochondrial genomic evidence for the familial rank of Homalopsidae.

Yan, Jie; Li, Hongdan; Zhou, Kaiya

2008-01-01

317

Functional Convergence in Reduced Genomes of Bacterial Symbionts Spanning 200 My of Evolution  

PubMed Central

The main genomic changes in the evolution of host-restricted microbial symbionts are ongoing inactivation and loss of genes combined with rapid sequence evolution and extreme structural stability; these changes reflect high levels of genetic drift due to small population sizes and strict clonality. This genomic erosion includes irreversible loss of genes in many functional categories and can include genes that underlie the nutritional contributions to hosts that are the basis of the symbiotic association. Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is an ancient symbiont of sap-feeding insects and is typically coresident with another bacterial symbiont that varies among host subclades. Previously sequenced Sulcia genomes retain pathways for the same eight essential amino acids, whereas coresident symbionts synthesize the remaining two. Here, we describe a dual symbiotic system consisting of Sulcia and a novel species of Betaproteobacteria, Candidatus Zinderia insecticola, both living in the spittlebug Clastoptera arizonana. This Sulcia has completely lost the pathway for the biosynthesis of tryptophan and, therefore, retains the ability to make only 7 of the 10 essential amino acids. Zinderia has a tiny genome (208 kb) and the most extreme nucleotide base composition (13.5% G + C) reported to date, yet retains the ability to make the remaining three essential amino acids, perfectly complementing capabilities of the coresident Sulcia. Combined with the results from related symbiotic systems with complete genomes, these data demonstrate the critical role that bacterial symbionts play in the host insect’s biology and reveal one outcome following the loss of a critical metabolic activity through genome reduction.

McCutcheon, John P.; Moran, Nancy A.

2010-01-01

318

Research and Development of Rhinovirus and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Vaccines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rhinoviruses: One 10-liter lot and one 6-liter lot of R-14 have been prepared in roller bottles of WI-38 cells with adequate guinea pig potency to warrant safety testing. One 10-liter lot of R-13 vaccine did not have a high enough guinea pig potency to wa...

J. C. Holper

1968-01-01

319

Rhinovirus infection in nonasthmatic subjects: effects on intrapulmonary airways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cold is a highly prevalent, uncomplicated upper airway disease. However, rhinovirus (RV) infection can lead to exacerbation of asthma, with worsening in airway hyperresponsiveness and bronchial inflammation. The current authors questioned whether such involvement of the intrapulmonary airways is disease specific. Twelve nonatopic, healthy subjects (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) w80% predicted, provocation concentration causing a

J. de Kluijver; K. Grunberg; J. K. Sont; M. Hoogeveen; E. P. A. de Klerk; C. R. Dick; P. J. Sterk

2002-01-01

320

Intranasal pirodavir (R77,975) treatment of rhinovirus colds.  

PubMed Central

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial assessed the therapeutic efficacy of intranasal pirodavir in naturally occurring rhinovirus colds. Adults with symptoms of < or = 2 days' duration were randomly assigned to intranasal sprays of pirodavir (2 mg per treatment) or placebo six times daily for 5 days. In people with laboratory-documented rhinovirus colds (53 in the pirodavir group, 55 in the placebo group), no significant differences in the resolution of respiratory symptoms were apparent between the groups. The median duration of illness was 7 days in each group. Similarly, scores for individual symptoms found no differences in favor of pirodavir during or after treatment. In contrast, reduced frequencies of rhinovirus shedding were observed in the pirodavir group on day 3 (70 versus 23%; P < 0.001) and day 5 (38 versus 12%; P = 0.002) but not after the cessation of treatment, on day 7 (19 versus 21%). No pirodavir-resistant viruses were recovered from treated individuals. The pirodavir group had higher rates of nasal dryness, blood in mucus, or unpleasant taste on several study days. In summary, intranasal sprays of pirodavir were associated with significant antiviral effects but no clinical benefit in treating naturally occurring rhinovirus colds.

Hayden, F G; Hipskind, G J; Woerner, D H; Eisen, G F; Janssens, M; Janssen, P A; Andries, K

1995-01-01

321

Production and Packaging of Rhinovirus Seed and Specific Antiserum.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pools of six rhinovirus serotypes (78, 79, 80, 81, 82 and 84 were prepared in Hela cells at 33C in 64 x 685 mm roller drum tubes with approximately an area of 1200 sq cm. One liter of each pool was reserved as Seed Virus Reagent. Part of the balance was g...

S. S. Kalter

1973-01-01

322

Ineffectiveness of Echinacea for Prevention of Experimental Rhinovirus Colds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of echinacea for the prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Infection occurred in 44 and 57% and illness occurred in 36 and 43% of the echinacea- and placebo-treated subjects, respectively. This preparation of echinacea had no significant effect on either the occurrence of infection or the severity of illness. Since the

RONALD B. TURNER; DONALD K. RIKER; J. DAVID GANGEMI

2000-01-01

323

Molecular Diagnosis of Human Rhinovirus Infections: Comparison with Virus Isolation  

Microsoft Academic Search

To compare the sensitivity and specificity of RT-PCR with that of virus isolation in the detection of human rhinoviruses, we tested nasopharyngeal aspirates from 200 patients on the 1st and 7th days after the onset of the common cold. An assay utilizing a short amplicon in the conserved 5* noncoding region was found highly sensitive. Of 192 positive samples altogether,

TIMO HYYPIA; TUOMO PUHAKKA; OLLI RUUSKANEN; MIKA MAKELA; ANITA AROLA; PERTTI ARSTILA

1998-01-01

324

An Exercise in Molecular Epidemiology: Human Rhinovirus Prevalence and Genetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Human rhinovirus (HRV) is one of the most common human respiratory pathogens and is responsible for the majority of upper respiratory illnesses. Recently, a phylogeny was constructed from all known American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) HRV sequences. From this study, three HRV classifications (HRVA, HRVB, and HRVC) were determined and…

Albright, Catherine J.; Hall, David J.

2011-01-01

325

Human rhinovirus capsid dynamics is controlled by canyon flexibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative enzyme accessibility experiments using nano liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry combined with limited proteolysis and isotope-labeling was used to examine the dynamic nature of the human rhinovirus (HRV) capsid in the presence of three antiviral compounds, a neutralizing Fab, and drug binding cavity mutations. Using these methods, it was found that the antivirals WIN 52084 and picovir (pleconaril) stabilized

Nichole Reisdorph; John J. Thomas; Umesh Katpally; Elaine Chase; Ken Harris; Gary Siuzdak; Thomas J. Smith

2003-01-01

326

Rhinovirus Disrupts the Barrier Function of Polarized Airway Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale : Secondary bacterial infection following rhinovirus (RV) in- fection has been recognized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objectives: We sought to understand mechanisms by which RV in- fection facilitates secondary bacterial infection. Methods: Primary human airway epithelial cells grown at air-liquid interface and human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) cells grown as polarized monolayers were infected apically with RV. Transmigration of

Umadevi Sajjan; Qiong Wang; Ying Zhao; Dieter C. Gruenert; Marc B. Hershenson

327

Modulation of the Immune System by Human Rhinoviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are the major cause of the common cold, one of the most frequent infectious diseases in humans. Though HRV infections of the upper respiratory tract are usually rather harmless, there is increasing evidence that HRV sets the stage for more dangerous pathogens, elicits asthmatic exacerbations, severe diseases in the lower respiratory tract and even autoimmunity. The pathogenic

Stefanie Kirchberger; Otto Majdic; Johannes Stöckl

2007-01-01

328

Comparative genomics reveals conservative evolution of the xylem transcriptome in vascular plants  

PubMed Central

Background Wood is a valuable natural resource and a major carbon sink. Wood formation is an important developmental process in vascular plants which played a crucial role in plant evolution. Although genes involved in xylem formation have been investigated, the molecular mechanisms of xylem evolution are not well understood. We use comparative genomics to examine evolution of the xylem transcriptome to gain insights into xylem evolution. Results The xylem transcriptome is highly conserved in conifers, but considerably divergent in angiosperms. The functional domains of genes in the xylem transcriptome are moderately to highly conserved in vascular plants, suggesting the existence of a common ancestral xylem transcriptome. Compared to the total transcriptome derived from a range of tissues, the xylem transcriptome is relatively conserved in vascular plants. Of the xylem transcriptome, cell wall genes, ancestral xylem genes, known proteins and transcription factors are relatively more conserved in vascular plants. A total of 527 putative xylem orthologs were identified, which are unevenly distributed across the Arabidopsis chromosomes with eight hot spots observed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that evolution of the xylem transcriptome has paralleled plant evolution. We also identified 274 conifer-specific xylem unigenes, all of which are of unknown function. These xylem orthologs and conifer-specific unigenes are likely to have played a crucial role in xylem evolution. Conclusions Conifers have highly conserved xylem transcriptomes, while angiosperm xylem transcriptomes are relatively diversified. Vascular plants share a common ancestral xylem transcriptome. The xylem transcriptomes of vascular plants are more conserved than the total transcriptomes. Evolution of the xylem transcriptome has largely followed the trend of plant evolution.

2010-01-01

329

Distinct genomic signatures of adaptation in pre- and postnatal environments during human evolution  

PubMed Central

The human genome evolution project seeks to reveal the genetic underpinnings of key phenotypic features that are distinctive of humans, such as a greatly enlarged cerebral cortex, slow development, and long life spans. This project has focused predominantly on genotypic changes during the 6-million-year descent from the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. Here, we argue that adaptive genotypic changes during earlier periods of evolutionary history also helped shape the distinctive human phenotype. Using comparative genome sequence data from 10 vertebrate species, we find a signature of human ancestry-specific adaptive evolution in 1,240 genes during their descent from the LCA with rodents. We also find that the signature of adaptive evolution is significantly different for highly expressed genes in human fetal and adult-stage tissues. Functional annotation clustering shows that on the ape stem lineage, an especially evident adaptively evolved biological pathway contains genes that function in mitochondria, are crucially involved in aerobic energy production, and are highly expressed in two energy-demanding tissues, heart and brain. Also, on this ape stem lineage, there was adaptive evolution among genes associated with human autoimmune and aging-related diseases. During more recent human descent, the adaptively evolving, highly expressed genes in fetal brain are involved in mediating neuronal connectivity. Comparing adaptively evolving genes from pre- and postnatal-stage tissues suggests that different selective pressures act on the development vs. the maintenance of the human phenotype.

Uddin, Monica; Goodman, Morris; Erez, Offer; Romero, Roberto; Liu, Guozhen; Islam, Munirul; Opazo, Juan C.; Sherwood, Chet C.; Grossman, Lawrence I.; Wildman, Derek E.

2008-01-01

330

Genomic evolution of the placenta using co-option and duplication and divergence  

PubMed Central

The invention of the placenta facilitated the evolution of mammals. How the placenta evolved from the simple structure observed in birds and reptiles into the complex organ that sustains human life is one of the great mysteries of evolution. By using a timecourse microarray analysis including the entire lifetime of the placenta, we uncover molecular and genomic changes that underlie placentation and find that two distinct evolutionary mechanisms were utilized during placental evolution in mice and human. Ancient genes involved in growth and metabolism were co-opted for use during early embryogenesis, likely enabling the accelerated development of extraembryonic tissues. Recently duplicated genes are utilized at later stages of placentation to meet the metabolic needs of a diverse range of pregnancy physiologies. Together, these mechanisms served to develop the specialized placenta, a novel structure that led to expansion of the eutherian mammal, including humankind.

Knox, Kirstin; Baker, Julie C.

2008-01-01

331

Seventeen New Complete mtDNA Sequences Reveal Extensive Mitochondrial Genome Evolution within the Demospongiae  

PubMed Central

Two major transitions in animal evolution–the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality–correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13–15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2–27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida). Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida) including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements, occurred in parallel in several lineages and suggest general trends in demosponge mtDNA evolution.

Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V.

2008-01-01

332

Seventeen new complete mtDNA sequences reveal extensive mitochondrial genome evolution within the Demospongiae.  

PubMed

Two major transitions in animal evolution--the origins of multicellularity and bilaterality--correlate with major changes in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) organization. Demosponges, the largest class in the phylum Porifera, underwent only the first of these transitions and their mitochondrial genomes display a peculiar combination of ancestral and animal-specific features. To get an insight into the evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Demospongiae, we determined 17 new mtDNA sequences from this group and analyzing them with five previously published sequences. Our analysis revealed that all demosponge mtDNAs are 16- to 25-kbp circular molecules, containing 13-15 protein genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 2-27 tRNA genes. All but four pairs of sampled genomes had unique gene orders, with the number of shared gene boundaries ranging from 1 to 41. Although most demosponge species displayed low rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution, a significant acceleration in evolutionary rates occurred in the G1 group (orders Dendroceratida, Dictyoceratida, and Verticillitida). Large variation in mtDNA organization was also observed within the G0 group (order Homosclerophorida) including gene rearrangements, loss of tRNA genes, and the presence of two introns in Plakortis angulospiculatus. While introns are rare in modern-day demosponge mtDNA, we inferred that at least one intron was present in cox1 of the common ancestor of all demosponges. Our study uncovered an extensive mitochondrial genomic diversity within the Demospongiae. Although all sampled mitochondrial genomes retained some ancestral features, including a minimally modified genetic code, conserved structures of tRNA genes, and presence of multiple non-coding regions, they vary considerably in their size, gene content, gene order, and the rates of sequence evolution. Some of the changes in demosponge mtDNA, such as the loss of tRNA genes and the appearance of hairpin-containing repetitive elements, occurred in parallel in several lineages and suggest general trends in demosponge mtDNA evolution. PMID:18628961

Wang, Xiujuan; Lavrov, Dennis V

2008-07-16

333

Within-Genome Evolution of REPINs: a New Family of Miniature Mobile DNA in Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Repetitive sequences are a conserved feature of many bacterial genomes. While first reported almost thirty years ago, and frequently exploited for genotyping purposes, little is known about their origin, maintenance, or processes affecting the dynamics of within-genome evolution. Here, beginning with analysis of the diversity and abundance of short oligonucleotide sequences in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, we show that over-represented short sequences define three distinct groups (GI, GII, and GIII) of repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences. Patterns of REP distribution suggest that closely linked REP sequences form a functional replicative unit: REP doublets are over-represented, randomly distributed in extragenic space, and more highly conserved than singlets. In addition, doublets are organized as inverted repeats, which together with intervening spacer sequences are predicted to form hairpin structures in ssDNA or mRNA. We refer to these newly defined entities as REPINs (REP doublets forming hairpins) and identify short reads from population sequencing that reveal putative transposition intermediates. The proximal relationship between GI, GII, and GIII REPINs and specific REP-associated tyrosine transposases (RAYTs), combined with features of the putative transposition intermediate, suggests a mechanism for within-genome dissemination. Analysis of the distribution of REPs in a range of RAYT–containing bacterial genomes, including Escherichia coli K-12 and Nostoc punctiforme, show that REPINs are a widely distributed, but hitherto unrecognized, family of miniature non-autonomous mobile DNA.

Bertels, Frederic; Rainey, Paul B.

2011-01-01

334

Genomic rearrangements and the evolution of clusters of locally adaptive loci.  

PubMed

Numerous studies of ecological genetics have found that alleles contributing to local adaptation sometimes cluster together, forming "genomic islands of divergence." Divergence hitchhiking theory posits that these clusters evolve by the preferential establishment of tightly linked locally adapted mutations, because such linkage reduces the rate that recombination breaks up locally favorable combinations of alleles. Here, I use calculations based on previously developed analytical models of divergence hitchhiking to show that very few clustered mutations should be expected in a single bout of adaptation, relative to the number of unlinked mutations, suggesting that divergence hitchhiking theory alone may often be insufficient to explain empirical observations. Using individual-based simulations that allow for the transposition of a single genetic locus from one position on a chromosome to another, I then show that tight clustering of the loci involved in local adaptation tends to evolve on biologically realistic time scales. These results suggest that genomic rearrangements may often be an important component of local adaptation and the evolution of genomic islands of divergence. More generally, these results suggest that genomic architecture and functional neighborhoods of genes may be actively shaped by natural selection in heterogeneous environments. Because small-scale changes in gene order are relatively common in some taxa, comparative genomic studies could be coupled with studies of adaptation to explore how commonly such rearrangements are involved in local adaptation. PMID:23610436

Yeaman, Sam

2013-04-22

335

Expanding the Diversity of Mycobacteriophages: Insights into Genome Architecture and Evolution  

PubMed Central

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and comparatively analyzed, these likely represent only a small portion of the diversity of the mycobacteriophage population at large. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 18 new mycobacteriophages isolated from geographically distinct locations within the United States. Although no clear correlation between location and genome type can be discerned, these genomes expand our knowledge of mycobacteriophage diversity and enhance our understanding of the roles of mobile elements in viral evolution. Expansion of the number of mycobacteriophages grouped within Cluster A provides insights into the basis of immune specificity in these temperate phages, and we also describe a novel example of apparent immunity theft. The isolation and genomic analysis of bacteriophages by freshman college students provides an example of an authentic research experience for novice scientists.

Pope, Welkin H.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Peebles, Craig L.; Al-Atrache, Zein; Alcoser, Turi A.; Alexander, Lisa M.; Alfano, Matthew B.; Alford, Samantha T.; Amy, Nichols E.; Anderson, Marie D.; Anderson, Alexander G.; Ang, Andrew A. S.; Ares, Manuel; Barber, Amanda J.; Barker, Lucia P.; Barrett, Jonathan M.; Barshop, William D.; Bauerle, Cynthia M.; Bayles, Ian M.; Belfield, Katherine L.; Best, Aaron A.; Borjon, Agustin; Bowman, Charles A.; Boyer, Christine A.; Bradley, Kevin W.; Bradley, Victoria A.; Broadway, Lauren N.; Budwal, Keshav; Busby, Kayla N.; Campbell, Ian W.; Campbell, Anne M.; Carey, Alyssa; Caruso, Steven M.; Chew, Rebekah D.; Cockburn, Chelsea L.; Cohen, Lianne B.; Corajod, Jeffrey M.; Cresawn, Steven G.; Davis, Kimberly R.; Deng, Lisa; Denver, Dee R.; Dixon, Breyon R.; Ekram, Sahrish; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Engelsen, Angela E.; English, Belle E. V.; Erb, Marcella L.; Estrada, Crystal; Filliger, Laura Z.; Findley, Ann M.; Forbes, Lauren; Forsyth, Mark H.; Fox, Tyler M.; Fritz, Melissa J.; Garcia, Roberto; George, Zindzi D.; Georges, Anne E.; Gissendanner, Christopher R.; Goff, Shannon; Goldstein, Rebecca; Gordon, Kobie C.; Green, Russell D.; Guerra, Stephanie L.; Guiney-Olsen, Krysta R.; Guiza, Bridget G.; Haghighat, Leila; Hagopian, Garrett V.; Harmon, Catherine J.; Harmson, Jeremy S.; Hartzog, Grant A.; Harvey, Samuel E.; He, Siping; He, Kevin J.; Healy, Kaitlin E.; Higinbotham, Ellen R.; Hildebrandt, Erin N.; Ho, Jason H.; Hogan, Gina M.; Hohenstein, Victoria G.; Holz, Nathan A.; Huang, Vincent J.; Hufford, Ericka L.; Hynes, Peter M.; Jackson, Arrykka S.; Jansen, Erica C.; Jarvik, Jonathan; Jasinto, Paul G.; Jordan, Tuajuanda C.; Kasza, Tomas; Katelyn, Murray A.; Kelsey, Jessica S.; Kerrigan, Larisa A.; Khaw, Daryl; Kim, Junghee; Knutter, Justin Z.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Larkin, Gail V.; Laroche, Jennifer R.; Latif, Asma; Leuba, Kohana D.; Leuba, Sequoia I.; Lewis, Lynn O.; Loesser-Casey, Kathryn E.; Long, Courtney A.; Lopez, A. Javier; Lowery, Nicholas; Lu, Tina Q.; Mac, Victor; Masters, Isaac R.; McCloud, Jazmyn J.; McDonough, Molly J.; Medenbach, Andrew J.; Menon, Anjali; Miller, Rachel; Morgan, Brandon K.; Ng, Patrick C.; Nguyen, Elvis; Nguyen, Katrina T.; Nguyen, Emilie T.; Nicholson, Kaylee M.; Parnell, Lindsay A.; Peirce, Caitlin E.; Perz, Allison M.; Peterson, Luke J.; Pferdehirt, Rachel E.; Philip, Seegren V.; Pogliano, Kit; Pogliano, Joe; Polley, Tamsen; Puopolo, Erica J.; Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Resiss, Michael J.; Rhyan, Corwin N.; Robinson, Yetta M.; Rodriguez, Lauren L.; Rose, Andrew C.; Rubin, Jeffrey D.; Ruby, Jessica A.; Saha, Margaret S.; Sandoz, James W.; Savitskaya, Judith; Schipper, Dale J.; Schnitzler, Christine E.; Schott, Amanda R.; Segal, J. Bradley; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Sheldon, Kathryn E.; Shepard, Erica M.; Shepardson, Jonathan W.; Shroff, Madav K.; Simmons, Jessica M.; Simms, Erika F.; Simpson, Brandy M.; Sinclair, Kathryn M.; Sjoholm, Robert L.; Slette, Ingrid J.; Spaulding, Blaire C.; Straub, Clark L.; Stukey, Joseph; Sughrue, Trevor; Tang, Tin-Yun; Tatyana, Lyons M.; Taylor, Stephen B.; Taylor, Barbara J.; Temple, Louise M.; Thompson, Jasper V.; Tokarz, Michael P.; Trapani, Stephanie E.; Troum, Alexander P.; Tsay, Jonathan; Tubbs, Anthony T.; Walton, Jillian M.; Wang, Danielle H.; Wang, Hannah; Warner, John R.; Weisser, Emilie G.; Wendler, Samantha C.; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A.; Whelan, Hilary M.; Williamson, Kurt E.; Willis, Angelica N.; Wirtshafter, Hannah S.; Wong, Theresa W.; Wu, Phillip; Yang, Yun jeong; Yee, Brandon C.; Zaidins, David A.; Zhang, Bo; Zuniga, Melina Y.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.

2011-01-01

336

Evidence for directed evolution of larger size motif in Arabidopsis thaliana genome.  

PubMed

Transcription control of gene expression depends on a variety of interactions mediated by the core promoter region, sequence specific DNA-binding proteins, and their cognate promoter elements. The prominent group of cis acting elements in plants contains an ACGT core. The cis element with this core has been shown to be involved in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and light response. In this study, genome-wide comparison of the frequency of occurrence of two ACGT elements without any spacers as well as those separated by spacers of different length was carried out. In the first step, the frequency of occurrence of the cis element sequences across the whole genome was determined by using BLAST tool. In another approach the spacer sequence was randomized before making the query. As expected, the sequence ACGTACGT had maximum occurrence in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. As we increased the spacer length, one nucleotide at a time, the probability of its occurrence in genome decreased. This trend continued until an unexpectedly sharp rise in frequency of (ACGT)N25(ACGT). The observation of higher probability of bigger size motif suggests its directed evolution in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. PMID:22645502

Mehrotra, Rajesh; Yadav, Amit; Bhalothia, Purva; Karan, Ratna; Mehrotra, Sandhya

2012-05-03

337

Evidence for Directed Evolution of Larger Size Motif in Arabidopsis thaliana Genome  

PubMed Central

Transcription control of gene expression depends on a variety of interactions mediated by the core promoter region, sequence specific DNA-binding proteins, and their cognate promoter elements. The prominent group of cis acting elements in plants contains an ACGT core. The cis element with this core has been shown to be involved in abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and light response. In this study, genome-wide comparison of the frequency of occurrence of two ACGT elements without any spacers as well as those separated by spacers of different length was carried out. In the first step, the frequency of occurrence of the cis element sequences across the whole genome was determined by using BLAST tool. In another approach the spacer sequence was randomized before making the query. As expected, the sequence ACGTACGT had maximum occurrence in Arabidopsis thaliana genome. As we increased the spacer length, one nucleotide at a time, the probability of its occurrence in genome decreased. This trend continued until an unexpectedly sharp rise in frequency of (ACGT)N25(ACGT). The observation of higher probability of bigger size motif suggests its directed evolution in Arabidopsis thaliana genome.

Mehrotra, Rajesh; Yadav, Amit; Bhalothia, Purva; Karan, Ratna; Mehrotra, Sandhya

2012-01-01

338

Crucial role for insertion sequence elements in Lactobacillus helveticus evolution as revealed by interstrain genomic comparison.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus helveticus is a versatile dairy bacterium found to possess heterogeneous genotypes depending on the ecosystem from which it was isolated. The recently published genome sequence showed the remarkable flexibility of its structure, demonstrated by a substantial level of insertion sequence (IS) element expansion in association with massive gene decay. To assess this diversity and examine the level of genome plasticity within the L. helveticus species, an array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment was designed in which 10 strains were analyzed. The aCGH experiment revealed 16 clusters of open reading frames (ORFs) flanked by IS elements. Four of these ORFs are associated with restriction/modification which may have played a role in accelerated evolution of strains in a commercially intensive ecosystem undoubtedly challenged through successive phage attack. Furthermore, analysis of the IS-flanked clusters demonstrated that the most frequently encountered ISs were also those most abundant in the genome (IS1201, ISL2, ISLhe1, ISLhe2, ISLhe65, and ISLhe63). These findings contribute to the overall viewpoint of the versatile character of IS elements and the role they may play in bacterial genome plasticity. PMID:19880644

Kaleta, Pawel; O'Callaghan, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Beresford, Thomas P; Ross, R Paul

2009-10-30

339

Crucial Role for Insertion Sequence Elements in Lactobacillus helveticus Evolution as Revealed by Interstrain Genomic Comparison ?  

PubMed Central

Lactobacillus helveticus is a versatile dairy bacterium found to possess heterogeneous genotypes depending on the ecosystem from which it was isolated. The recently published genome sequence showed the remarkable flexibility of its structure, demonstrated by a substantial level of insertion sequence (IS) element expansion in association with massive gene decay. To assess this diversity and examine the level of genome plasticity within the L. helveticus species, an array-based comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment was designed in which 10 strains were analyzed. The aCGH experiment revealed 16 clusters of open reading frames (ORFs) flanked by IS elements. Four of these ORFs are associated with restriction/modification which may have played a role in accelerated evolution of strains in a commercially intensive ecosystem undoubtedly challenged through successive phage attack. Furthermore, analysis of the IS-flanked clusters demonstrated that the most frequently encountered ISs were also those most abundant in the genome (IS1201, ISL2, ISLhe1, ISLhe2, ISLhe65, and ISLhe63). These findings contribute to the overall viewpoint of the versatile character of IS elements and the role they may play in bacterial genome plasticity.

Kaleta, Pawel; O'Callaghan, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Beresford, Thomas P.; Ross, R. Paul

2010-01-01

340

Expanding the diversity of mycobacteriophages: insights into genome architecture and evolution.  

PubMed

Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and comparatively analyzed, these likely represent only a small portion of the diversity of the mycobacteriophage population at large. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 18 new mycobacteriophages isolated from geographically distinct locations within the United States. Although no clear correlation between location and genome type can be discerned, these genomes expand our knowledge of mycobacteriophage diversity and enhance our understanding of the roles of mobile elements in viral evolution. Expansion of the number of mycobacteriophages grouped within Cluster A provides insights into the basis of immune specificity in these temperate phages, and we also describe a novel example of apparent immunity theft. The isolation and genomic analysis of bacteriophages by freshman college students provides an example of an authentic research experience for novice scientists. PMID:21298013

Pope, Welkin H; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A; Peebles, Craig L; Al-Atrache, Zein; Alcoser, Turi A; Alexander, Lisa M; Alfano, Matthew B; Alford, Samantha T; Amy, Nichols E; Anderson, Marie D; Anderson, Alexander G; Ang, Andrew A S; Ares, Manuel; Barber, Amanda J; Barker, Lucia P; Barrett, Jonathan M; Barshop, William D; Bauerle, Cynthia M; Bayles, Ian M; Belfield, Katherine L; Best, Aaron A; Borjon, Agustin; Bowman, Charles A; Boyer, Christine A; Bradley, Kevin W; Bradley, Victoria A; Broadway, Lauren N; Budwal, Keshav; Busby, Kayla N; Campbell, Ian W; Campbell, Anne M; Carey, Alyssa; Caruso, Steven M; Chew, Rebekah D; Cockburn, Chelsea L; Cohen, Lianne B; Corajod, Jeffrey M; Cresawn, Steven G; Davis, Kimberly R; Deng, Lisa; Denver, Dee R; Dixon, Breyon R; Ekram, Sahrish; Elgin, Sarah C R; Engelsen, Angela E; English, Belle E V; Erb, Marcella L; Estrada, Crystal; Filliger, Laura Z; Findley, Ann M; Forbes, Lauren; Forsyth, Mark H; Fox, Tyler M; Fritz, Melissa J; Garcia, Roberto; George, Zindzi D; Georges, Anne E; Gissendanner, Christopher R; Goff, Shannon; Goldstein, Rebecca; Gordon, Kobie C; Green, Russell D; Guerra, Stephanie L; Guiney-Olsen, Krysta R; Guiza, Bridget G; Haghighat, Leila; Hagopian, Garrett V; Harmon, Catherine J; Harmson, Jeremy S; Hartzog, Grant A; Harvey, Samuel E; He, Siping; He, Kevin J; Healy, Kaitlin E; Higinbotham, Ellen R; Hildebrandt, Erin N; Ho, Jason H; Hogan, Gina M; Hohenstein, Victoria G; Holz, Nathan A; Huang, Vincent J; Hufford, Ericka L; Hynes, Peter M; Jackson, Arrykka S; Jansen, Erica C; Jarvik, Jonathan; Jasinto, Paul G; Jordan, Tuajuanda C; Kasza, Tomas; Katelyn, Murray A; Kelsey, Jessica S; Kerrigan, Larisa A; Khaw, Daryl; Kim, Junghee; Knutter, Justin Z; Ko, Ching-Chung; Larkin, Gail V; Laroche, Jennifer R; Latif, Asma; Leuba, Kohana D; Leuba, Sequoia I; Lewis, Lynn O; Loesser-Casey, Kathryn E; Long, Courtney A; Lopez, A Javier; Lowery, Nicholas; Lu, Tina Q; Mac, Victor; Masters, Isaac R; McCloud, Jazmyn J; McDonough, Molly J; Medenbach, Andrew J; Menon, Anjali; Miller, Rachel; Morgan, Brandon K; Ng, Patrick C; Nguyen, Elvis; Nguyen, Katrina T; Nguyen, Emilie T; Nicholson, Kaylee M; Parnell, Lindsay A; Peirce, Caitlin E; Perz, Allison M; Peterson, Luke J; Pferdehirt, Rachel E; Philip, Seegren V; Pogliano, Kit; Pogliano, Joe; Polley, Tamsen; Puopolo, Erica J; Rabinowitz, Hannah S; Resiss, Michael J; Rhyan, Corwin N; Robinson, Yetta M; Rodriguez, Lauren L; Rose, Andrew C; Rubin, Jeffrey D; Ruby, Jessica A; Saha, Margaret S; Sandoz, James W; Savitskaya, Judith; Schipper, Dale J; Schnitzler, Christine E; Schott, Amanda R; Segal, J Bradley; Shaffer, Christopher D; Sheldon, Kathryn E; Shepard, Erica M; Shepardson, Jonathan W; Shroff, Madav K; Simmons, Jessica M; Simms, Erika F; Simpson, Brandy M; Sinclair, Kathryn M; Sjoholm, Robert L; Slette, Ingrid J; Spaulding, Blaire C; Straub, Clark L; Stukey, Joseph; Sughrue, Trevor; Tang, Tin-Yun; Tatyana, Lyons M; Taylor, Stephen B; Taylor, Barbara J; Temple, Louise M; Thompson, Jasper V; Tokarz, Michael P; Trapani, Stephanie E; Troum, Alexander P; Tsay, Jonathan; Tubbs, Anthony T; Walton, Jillian M; Wang, Danielle H; Wang, Hannah; Warner, John R; Weisser, Emilie G; Wendler, Samantha C; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A; Whelan, Hilary M; Williamson, Kurt E; Willis, Angelica N; Wirtshafter, Hannah S; Wong, Theresa W; Wu, Phillip; Yang, Yun jeong; Yee, Brandon C; Zaidins, David A; Zhang, Bo; Zúniga, Melina Y; Hendrix, Roger W; Hatfull, Graham F

2011-01-27

341

Potential impact of stress activated retrotransposons on genome evolution in a marine diatom  

PubMed Central

Background Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences present in the genomes of most organisms. They have been extensively studied in animals, fungi, and plants, and have been shown to have important functions in genome dynamics and species evolution. Recent genomic data can now enlarge the identification and study of TEs to other branches of the eukaryotic tree of life. Diatoms, which belong to the heterokont group, are unicellular eukaryotic algae responsible for around 40% of marine primary productivity. The genomes of a centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and a pennate diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that likely diverged around 90 Mya, have recently become available. Results In the present work, we establish that LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant TEs inhabiting these genomes, with a much higher presence in the P. tricornutum genome. We show that the LTR-RTs found in diatoms form two new phylogenetic lineages that appear to be diatom specific and are also found in environmental samples taken from different oceans. Comparative expression analysis in P. tricornutum cells cultured under 16 different conditions demonstrate high levels of transcriptional activity of LTR retrotransposons in response to nitrate limitation and upon exposure to diatom-derived reactive aldehydes, which are known to induce stress responses and cell death. Regulatory aspects of P. tricornutum retrotransposon transcription also include the occurrence of nitrate limitation sensitive cis-regulatory components within LTR elements and cytosine methylation dynamics. Differential insertion patterns in different P. tricornutum accessions isolated from around the world infer the role of LTR-RTs in generating intraspecific genetic variability. Conclusion Based on these findings we propose that LTR-RTs may have been important for promoting genome rearrangements in diatoms.

2009-01-01

342

Genome-physics interaction as a new concept to reduce the number of genetic parameters in artificial evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper reports on investigations on the possible advantage of the coupling between genomes and physics of cells in artificial evolution. The idea is simple: evolution can rely on physical processes during development allowing to produce shapes without need to specify how exactly this shaping has to be done. Evolving a minimal energy surface such as soap bubbles would need

Peter Eggenberger Hotz

2003-01-01

343

Evolution of the vertebrate genome as reflected in paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene constellations on several human chromosomes are interpreted as indications of large regional duplications that took place during evolution of the vertebrate genome. Four groups of paralogous chromosomal regions in man and the house mouse are suggested and are believed to be conserved remnants of the two or three rounds of tetraploidization that are likely to have occurred during evolution

L Lundin

1993-01-01

344

Insights into the evolution of Yersinia pestis through whole-genome comparison with Yersinia pseudotuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, is a highly uniform clone that diverged recently from the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Despite their close genetic relationship, they differ radically in their pathogenicity and transmission. Here, we report the complete genomic sequence of Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 and its use for detailed genome comparisons with available Y. pestis sequences. Analyses of identified differences across a panel of Yersinia isolates from around the world reveal 32 Y. pestis chromosomal genes that, together with the two Y. pestis-specific plasmids, to our knowledge, represent the only new genetic material in Y. pestis acquired since the the divergence from Y. pseudotuberculosis. In contrast, 149 other pseudogenes (doubling the previous estimate) and 317 genes absent from Y. pestis were detected, indicating that as many as 13% of Y. pseudotuberculosis genes no longer function in Y. pestis. Extensive insertion sequence-mediated genome rearrangements and reductive evolution through massive gene loss, resulting in elimination and modification of preexisting gene expression pathways, appear to be more important than acquisition of genes in the evolution of Y. pestis. These results provide a sobering example of how a highly virulent epidemic clone can suddenly emerge from a less virulent, closely related progenitor.

Chain, P. S. G.; Carniel, E.; Larimer, F. W.; Lamerdin, J.; Stoutland, P. O.; Regala, W. M.; Georgescu, A. M.; Vergez, L. M.; Land, M. L.; Motin, V. L.; Brubaker, R. R.; Fowler, J.; Hinnebusch, J.; Marceau, M.; Medigue, C.; Simonet, M.; Chenal-Francisque, V.; Souza, B.; Dacheux, D.; Elliott, J. M.; Derbise, A.; Hauser, L. J.; Garcia, E.

2004-01-01

345

Glass sponges and bilaterian animals share derived mitochondrial genomic features: a common ancestry or parallel evolution?  

PubMed

Glass sponges (Hexactinellida) are a group of deep-water benthic animals that have a unique syncytial organization and possess a characteristic siliceous skeleton. Although hexactinellids are traditionally grouped with calcareous and demosponges in the phylum Porifera, the monophyly of sponges and the phylogenetic position of the Hexactinellida remain contentious. We determined and analyzed the nearly complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the hexactinellid sponges Iphiteon panicea and Sympagella nux. Unexpectedly, our analysis revealed several mitochondrial genomic features shared between glass sponges and bilaterian animals, including an Arg --> Ser change in the genetic code, a characteristic secondary structure of one of the serine tRNAs, highly derived tRNA and rRNA genes, and the presence of a single large noncoding region. At the same time, glass sponge mtDNA contains atp9, a gene previously found only in the mtDNA of demosponges (among animals), and encodes a tRNA(Pro);(UGG) with an atypical A11-U24 pair that is also found in demosponges and placozoans. Most of our sequence-based phylogenetic analyses place Hexactinellida as the sister group to the Bilateria; however, these results are suspect given accelerated rates of mitochondrial sequence evolution in these groups. Thus, it remains an open question whether shared mitochondrial genomic features in glass sponges and bilaterian animals reflect their close phylogenetic affinity or provide a remarkable example of parallel evolution. PMID:17434903

Haen, Karri M; Lang, B Franz; Pomponi, Shirley A; Lavrov, Dennis V

2007-04-13

346

The Mitochondrial Genomes of the Early Land Plants Treubia lacunosa and Anomodon rugelii: Dynamic and Conservative Evolution  

PubMed Central

Early land plant mitochondrial genomes captured important changes of mitochondrial genome evolution when plants colonized land. The chondromes of seed plants show several derived characteristics, e.g., large genome size variation, rapid intra-genomic rearrangement, abundant introns, and highly variable levels of RNA editing. On the other hand, the chondromes of charophytic algae are still largely ancestral in these aspects, resembling those of early eukaryotes. When the transition happened has been a long-standing question in studies of mitochondrial genome evolution. Here we report complete mitochondrial genome sequences from an early-diverging liverwort, Treubia lacunosa, and a late-evolving moss, Anomodon rugelii. The two genomes, 151,983 and 104,239 base pairs in size respectively, contain standard sets of protein coding genes for respiration and protein synthesis, as well as nearly full sets of rRNA and tRNA genes found in the chondromes of the liverworts Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The gene orders of these two chondromes are identical to those of the other liverworts and moss. Their intron contents, with all cis-spliced group I or group II introns, are also similar to those in the previously sequenced liverwort and moss chondromes. These five chondromes plus the two from the hornworts Phaeoceros laevis and Megaceros aenigmaticus for the first time allowed comprehensive comparative analyses of structure and organization of mitochondrial genomes both within and across the three major lineages of bryophytes. These analyses led to the conclusion that the mitochondrial genome experienced dynamic evolution in genome size, gene content, intron acquisition, gene order, and RNA editing during the origins of land plants and their major clades. However, evolution of this organellar genome has remained rather conservative since the origin and initial radiation of early land plants, except within vascular plants.

Liu, Yang; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wang, Bin; Li, Libo; Qiu, Yin-Long

2011-01-01

347

Whole Genome Analysis of Leptospira licerasiae Provides Insight into Leptospiral Evolution and Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

The whole genome analysis of two strains of the first intermediately pathogenic leptospiral species to be sequenced (Leptospira licerasiae strains VAR010 and MMD0835) provides insight into their pathogenic potential and deepens our understanding of leptospiral evolution. Comparative analysis of eight leptospiral genomes shows the existence of a core leptospiral genome comprising 1547 genes and 452 conserved genes restricted to infectious species (including L. licerasiae) that are likely to be pathogenicity-related. Comparisons of the functional content of the genomes suggests that L. licerasiae retains several proteins related to nitrogen, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism which might help to explain why these Leptospira grow well in artificial media compared with pathogenic species. L. licerasiae strains VAR010T and MMD0835 possess two prophage elements. While one element is circular and shares homology with LE1 of L. biflexa, the second is cryptic and homologous to a previously identified but unnamed region in L. interrogans serovars Copenhageni and Lai. We also report a unique O-antigen locus in L. licerasiae comprised of a 6-gene cluster that is unexpectedly short compared with L. interrogans in which analogous regions may include >90 such genes. Sequence homology searches suggest that these genes were acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Furthermore, seven putative genomic islands ranging in size from 5 to 36 kb are present also suggestive of antecedent LGT. How Leptospira become naturally competent remains to be determined, but considering the phylogenetic origins of the genes comprising the O-antigen cluster and other putative laterally transferred genes, L. licerasiae must be able to exchange genetic material with non-invasive environmental bacteria. The data presented here demonstrate that L. licerasiae is genetically more closely related to pathogenic than to saprophytic Leptospira and provide insight into the genomic bases for its infectiousness and its unique antigenic characteristics.

Selengut, Jeremy D.; Harkins, Derek M.; Patra, Kailash P.; Moreno, Angelo; Lehmann, Jason S.; Purushe, Janaki; Sanka, Ravi; Torres, Michael; Webster, Nicholas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Matthias, Michael A.

2012-01-01

348

Core-SINE blocks comprise a large fraction of monotreme genomes; implications for vertebrate chromosome evolution.  

PubMed

The genomes of the egg-laying platypus and echidna are of particular interest because monotremes are the most basal mammal group. The chromosomal distribution of an ancient family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs), the core-SINEs, was investigated to better understand monotreme genome organization and evolution. Previous studies have identified the core-SINE as the predominant SINE in the platypus genome, and in this study we quantified, characterized and localized subfamilies. Dot blot analysis suggested that a very large fraction (32% of the platypus and 16% of the echidna genome) is composed of Mon core-SINEs. Core-SINE-specific primers were used to amplify PCR products from platypus and echidna genomic DNA. Sequence analysis suggests a common consensus sequence Mon 1-B, shared by platypus and echidna, as well as platypus-specific Mon 1-C and echidna specific Mon 1-D consensus sequences. FISH mapping of the Mon core-SINE products to platypus metaphase spreads demonstrates that the Mon-1C subfamily is responsible for the striking Mon core-SINE accumulation in the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs and the largest X chromosome. This unusual distribution highlights the dichotomy between the seven large chromosome pairs and the 19 smaller pairs in the monotreme karyotype, which has some similarity to the macro- and micro-chromosomes of birds and reptiles, and suggests that accumulation of repetitive sequences may have enlarged small chromosomes in an ancestral vertebrate. In the forthcoming sequence of the platypus genome there are still large gaps, and the extensive Mon core-SINE accumulation on the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs may provide one explanation for this missing sequence. PMID:18185983

Kirby, Patrick J; Greaves, Ian K; Koina, Edda; Waters, Paul D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

2008-01-09

349

Comparative genomics and evolution of conserved noncoding elements (CNE) in rainbow trout  

PubMed Central

Background Recent advances in the accumulation of genetic mapping and DNA sequence information from several salmonid species support the long standing view of an autopolyploid origin of these fishes (i.e., 4R). However, the paralogy relationships of the chromosomal segments descendent from earlier polyploidization events (i.e., 2R/3R) largely remain unknown, mainly due to an unbalanced pseudogenization of paralogous genes that were once resident on the ancient duplicated segments. Inter-specific conserved noncoding elements (CNE) might hold the key in identifying these regions, if they are associated with arrays of genes that have been highly conserved in syntenic blocks through evolution. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the chromosomal positions of subset of CNE in the rainbow trout genome using a comparative genomic framework. Results Through a genome wide analysis, we selected 41 pairs of adjacent CNE located on various chromosomes in zebrafish and obtained their intervening, less conserved, sequence information from rainbow trout. We identified 56 distinct fragments corresponding to about 150 Kbp of sequence data that were localized to 67 different chromosomal regions in the rainbow trout genome. The genomic positions of many duplicated CNE provided additional support for some previously suggested homeologies in this species. Additionally, we now propose 40 new potential paralogous affinities by analyzing the variation in the segregation patterns of some multi-copy CNE along with the synteny association comparison using several model vertebrates. Some of these regions appear to carry signatures of the 1R, 2R or 3R duplications. A subset of these CNE markers also demonstrated high utility in identifying homologous chromosomal segments in the genomes of Atlantic salmon and Arctic charr. Conclusion CNE seem to be more efficacious than coding sequences in providing insights into the ancient paralogous affinities within the vertebrate genomes. Such a feature makes these elements extremely attractive for comparative genomics studies, as they can be treated as 'anchor' markers to investigate the association of distally located candidate genes on the homologous genomic segments of closely or distantly related organisms.

Moghadam, Hooman K; Ferguson, Moira M; Danzmann, Roy G

2009-01-01

350

Genomic organization and evolution of immunoglobulin kappa gene enhancers and kappa deleting element in mammals  

PubMed Central

We have studied the genomic structure and evolutionary pattern of immunoglobulin kappa deleting element (KDE) and three kappa enhancers (KE5?, KE3?P, and KE3?D) in eleven mammalian genomic sequences. Our results show that the relative positions and the genomic organization of the KDE and the kappa enhancers are conserved in all mammals studied and have not been affected by the local rearrangements in the immunoglobulin kappa (IGK) light chain locus over a long evolutionary time (?120 million years of mammalian evolution). Our observations suggest that the sequence motifs in these regulatory elements have been conserved by purifying selection to achieve proper regulation of the expression of the IGK light chain genes. The conservation of the three enhancers in all mammals indicates that these species may use similar mechanisms to regulate IGK gene expression. However, some activities of the IGK enhancers might have evolved in the eutherian lineage. The presence of the three IGK enhancers, KDE, and other recombining elements (REs) in all mammals (including platypus) suggest that these genomic elements were in place before the mammalian radiation.

Das, Sabyasachi; Nikolaidis, Nikolas; Nei, Masatoshi

2009-01-01

351

Accelerated Evolution of Conserved Noncoding Sequences in theHuman Genome  

SciTech Connect

Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detect"cryptic" functional elements, which are too weakly conserved amongmammals to distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem,we explored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

Prambhakar, Shyam; Noonan, James P.; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, EdwardM.

2006-07-06

352

Recent recombination events in the core genome are associated with adaptive evolution in Enterococcus faecium.  

PubMed

Reasons for the rising clinical impact of the bacterium Enterococcus faecium include the species' rapid acquisition of adaptive genetic elements. Here, we focused on the impact of recombination on the evolution of E. faecium. We used the recently developed BratNextGen algorithm to detect recombinant regions in the core genome of 34 E. faecium strains, including three newly sequenced clinical strains. Recombination was found to have a significant impact on the E. faecium genome: of the original 1.2 million positions in the core genome, 0.5 million were predicted to have been affected by recombination in at least one strain. Importantly, strains in one of the two major E. faecium clades (clade B), which contains most of the E. faecium human gut commensals, formed the most important reservoir for donating foreign DNA to the second major E. faecium clade (clade A), which contains most of the clinical isolates. Also, several genomic regions were found to mainly recombine in specific hospital-associated E. faecium strains. One of these regions (the epa-like locus) likely encodes the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. These findings suggest a crucial role for recombination in the emergence of E. faecium as a successful hospital-associated pathogen. PMID:23882129

de Been, Mark; van Schaik, Willem; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J

2013-08-01

353

Peregrine and saker falcon genome sequences provide insights into evolution of a predatory lifestyle.  

PubMed

As top predators, falcons possess unique morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that allow them to be successful hunters: for example, the peregrine is renowned as the world's fastest animal. To examine the evolutionary basis of predatory adaptations, we sequenced the genomes of both the peregrine (Falco peregrinus) and saker falcon (Falco cherrug), and we present parallel, genome-wide evidence for evolutionary innovation and selection for a predatory lifestyle. The genomes, assembled using Illumina deep sequencing with greater than 100-fold coverage, are both approximately 1.2 Gb in length, with transcriptome-assisted prediction of approximately 16,200 genes for both species. Analysis of 8,424 orthologs in both falcons, chicken, zebra finch and turkey identified consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in these raptors. SNP-based inference showed contrasting recent demographic trajectories for the two falcons, and gene-based analysis highlighted falcon-specific evolutionary novelties for beak development and olfaction and specifically for homeostasis-related genes in the arid environment-adapted saker. PMID:23525076

Zhan, Xiangjiang; Pan, Shengkai; Wang, Junyi; Dixon, Andrew; He, Jing; Muller, Margit G; Ni, Peixiang; Hu, Li; Liu, Yuan; Hou, Haolong; Chen, Yuanping; Xia, Jinquan; Luo, Qiong; Xu, Pengwei; Chen, Ying; Liao, Shengguang; Cao, Changchang; Gao, Shukun; Wang, Zhaobao; Yue, Zhen; Li, Guoqing; Yin, Ye; Fox, Nick C; Wang, Jun; Bruford, Michael W

2013-03-24

354

What are the genomic drivers of the rapid evolution of PRDM9?  

PubMed

Mammalian Prdm9 has been proposed to be a key determinant of the positioning of chromosome double-strand breaks during meiosis, a contributor to speciation processes, and the most rapidly evolving gene in human, and other animal, genomes. Prdm9 genes often exhibit substantial variation in their numbers of encoded zinc fingers (ZFs), not only between closely related species but also among individuals of a species. The near-identity of these ZF sequences appears to render them very unstable in copy number. The rare sequence differences, however, cluster within ZF sites that determine the DNA-binding specificity of PRDM9, and these substitutions are frequently positively selected. Here, possible drivers of the rapid evolution of Prdm9 are discussed, including selection for efficient pairing of homologous chromosomes or for recombination of deleterious linked alleles, and selection against depletion of recombination hotspots or against disease-associated genome rearrangement. PMID:21388701

Ponting, Chris P

2011-03-08

355

Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria.  

PubMed

Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via "symbiont capsule." In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the gamma-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation "Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata" for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution. PMID:17032065

Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

2006-10-01

356

Deciphering neo-sex and B chromosome evolution by the draft genome of Drosophila albomicans  

PubMed Central

Background Drosophila albomicans is a unique model organism for studying both sex chromosome and B chromosome evolution. A pair of its autosomes comprising roughly 40% of the whole genome has fused to the ancient X and Y chromosomes only about 0.12 million years ago, thereby creating the youngest and most gene-rich neo-sex system reported to date. This species also possesses recently derived B chromosomes that show non-Mendelian inheritance and significantly influence fertility. Methods We sequenced male flies with B chromosomes at 124.5-fold genome coverage using next-generation sequencing. To characterize neo-Y specific changes and B chromosome sequences, we also sequenced inbred female flies derived from the same strain but without B's at 28.5-fold. Results We assembled a female genome and placed 53% of the sequence and 85% of the annotated proteins into specific chromosomes, by comparison with the 12 Drosophila genomes. Despite its very recent origin, the non-recombining neo-Y chromosome shows various signs of degeneration, including a significant enrichment of non-functional genes compared to the neo-X, and an excess of tandem duplications relative to other chromosomes. We also characterized a B-chromosome linked scaffold that contains an actively transcribed unit and shows sequence similarity to the subcentromeric regions of both the ancient X and the neo-X chromosome. Conclusions Our results provide novel insights into the very early stages of sex chromosome evolution and B chromosome origination, and suggest an unprecedented connection between the births of these two systems in D. albomicans.

2012-01-01

357

The dynamics of gene duplication and transposons in microbial genome evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evidence indicates that new functional genes emerge from a process of gene duplication coupled with selection for a novel function. Recently, Bergthorsson et al. proposed a model of continuous selection in order to describe this process. Here, we examine their proposed evolutionary scheme, by modeling gene evolution using a stochastic simulation. Our results indicate that this model, and a related one that includes horizontal gene transfer, can account for the distribution of transposons in microbial genomes, and reproduce the observed environmentally-driven spatial dependence of transposon density in marine bacteria.

Chia, Nicholas; Goldenfeld, Nigel

2010-03-01

358

Comparative Genomics of 28 Salmonella enterica Isolates: Evidence for CRISPR-Mediated Adaptive Sublineage Evolution ?†  

PubMed Central

Despite extensive surveillance, food-borne Salmonella enterica infections continue to be a significant burden on public health systems worldwide. As the S. enterica species comprises sublineages that differ greatly in antigenic representation, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance phenotypes, a better understanding of the species' evolution is critical for the prediction and prevention of future outbreaks. The roles that virulence and resistance phenotype acquisition, exchange, and loss play in the evolution of S. enterica sublineages, which to a certain extent are represented by serotypes, remains mostly uncharacterized. Here, we compare 17 newly sequenced and phenotypically characterized nontyphoidal S. enterica strains to 11 previously sequenced S. enterica genomes to carry out the most comprehensive comparative analysis of this species so far. These phenotypic and genotypic data comparisons in the phylogenetic species context suggest that the evolution of known S. enterica sublineages is mediated mostly by two mechanisms, (i) the loss of coding sequences with known metabolic functions, which leads to functional reduction, and (ii) the acquisition of horizontally transferred phage and plasmid DNA, which provides virulence and resistance functions and leads to increasing specialization. Matches between S. enterica clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), part of a defense mechanism against invading plasmid and phage DNA, and plasmid and prophage regions suggest that CRISPR-mediated immunity could control short-term phenotype changes and mediate long-term sublineage evolution. CRISPR analysis could therefore be critical in assessing the evolutionary potential of S. enterica sublineages and aid in the prediction and prevention of future S. enterica outbreaks.

Fricke, W. Florian; Mammel, Mark K.; McDermott, Patrick F.; Tartera, Carmen; White, David G.; LeClerc, J. Eugene; Ravel, Jacques; Cebula, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

359

Clonal evolution in relapsed acute myeloid leukemia revealed by whole genome sequencing  

PubMed Central

Summary Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) die from progressive disease after relapse, which is associated with clonal evolution at the cytogenetic level1,2. To determine the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, we sequenced the primary tumor and relapse genomes from 8 AML patients, and validated hundreds of somatic mutations using deep sequencing; this allowed us to precisely define clonality and clonal evolution patterns at relapse. Besides discovering novel, recurrently mutated genes (e.g. WAC, SMC3, DIS3, DDX41, and DAXX) in AML, we found two major clonal evolution patterns during AML relapse: 1) the founding clone in the primary tumor gained mutations and evolved into the relapse clone, or 2) a subclone of the founding clone survived initial therapy, gained additional mutations, and expanded at relapse. In all cases, chemotherapy failed to eradicate the founding clone. The comparison of relapse-specific vs. primary tumor mutations in all 8 cases revealed an increase in transversions, probably due to DNA damage caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy. These data demonstrate that AML relapse is associated with the addition of new mutations and clonal evolution, which is shaped in part by the chemotherapy that the patients receive to establish and maintain remissions.

Ding, Li; Ley, Timothy J.; Larson, David E.; Miller, Christopher A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Welch, John S.; Ritchey, Julie K.; Young, Margaret A.; Lamprecht, Tamara; McLellan, Michael D.; McMichael, Joshua F.; Wallis, John W.; Lu, Charles; Shen, Dong; Harris, Christopher C.; Dooling, David J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Ken; Schmidt, Heather; Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle; Magrini, Vincent J.; Cook, Lisa; McGrath, Sean D.; Vickery, Tammi L.; Wendl, Michael C.; Heath, Sharon; Watson, Mark A.; Link, Daniel C.; Tomasson, Michael H.; Shannon, William D.; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Westervelt, Peter; Walter, Matthew J.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; DiPersio, John F.

2011-01-01

360

Middle ear abnormalities during natural rhinovirus colds in adults.  

PubMed

To determine middle ear pressure (MEP) changes during natural rhinovirus colds, adults with illness for < or = 3 days were tested by digital tympanometer daily for 5 days (study 1) or every other day for 7 days (study 2). Abnormal MEPs (< -50 or > +20 mm H2O) were found in 72% of 36 patients in study 1 (P < .001, vs. baseline of 11%) and 76% of 55 patients in study 2 (P < .001, vs. 15% of 103 healthy controls). Major abnormalities (> or = +100 or < or = -100 mm H2O) were found in 61% of patients in study 1 (P < .001, vs. baseline of 0) and 47% in study 2 (P < .001, vs. control of 5%). MEP abnormalities usually resolved by day 14. Only 1 subject developed clinically apparent otitis media. Earache or respiratory symptom scores did not correlate with MEP abnormalities. These results indicate that natural rhinovirus colds in adults are frequently associated with marked but transient MEP abnormalities. PMID:8354902

Elkhatieb, A; Hipskind, G; Woerner, D; Hayden, F G

1993-09-01

361

Rhinovirus-induced basic fibroblast growth factor release mediates airway remodeling features  

PubMed Central

Background Human rhinoviruses, major precipitants of asthma exacerbations, induce lower airway inflammation and mediate angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility that rhinoviruses may also contribute to the fibrotic component of airway remodeling. Methods Levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA and protein were measured following rhinovirus infection of bronchial epithelial cells. The profibrotic effect of epithelial products was assessed by DNA synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase activity assays. Moreover, epithelial cells were exposed to supernatants from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained from healthy donors or atopic asthmatic subjects and subsequently infected by rhinovirus and bFGF release was estimated. bFGF was also measured in respiratory secretions from atopic asthmatic patients before and during rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Results Rhinovirus epithelial infection stimulated mRNA expression and release of bFGF, the latter being positively correlated with cell death under conditions promoting rhinovirus-induced cytotoxicity. Supernatants from infected cultures induced lung fibroblast proliferation, which was inhibited by anti-bFGF antibody, and demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Rhinovirus-mediated bFGF release was significantly higher in an in vitro simulation of atopic asthmatic environment and, importantly, during rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations. Conclusions Rhinovirus infection induces bFGF release by airway epithelium, and stimulates stroma cell proliferation contributing to airway remodeling in asthma. Repeated rhinovirus infections may promote asthma persistence, particularly in the context of atopy; prevention of such infections may influence the natural history of asthma.

2012-01-01

362

Genome evolution in the cold: Antarctic icefish muscle transcriptome reveals selective duplications increasing mitochondrial function.  

PubMed

Antarctic notothenioids radiated over millions of years in subzero waters, evolving peculiar features, such as antifreeze glycoproteins and absence of heat shock response. Icefish, family Channichthyidae, also lack oxygen-binding proteins and display extreme modifications, including high mitochondrial densities in aerobic tissues. A genomic expansion accompanying the evolution of these fish was reported, but paucity of genomic information limits the understanding of notothenioid cold adaptation. We reconstructed and annotated the first skeletal muscle transcriptome of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus providing a new resource for icefish genomics (http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/chamatusbase/, last accessed December 12, 2012). We exploited deep sequencing of this energy-dependent tissue to test the hypothesis of selective duplication of genes involved in mitochondrial function. We developed a bioinformatic approach to univocally assign C. hamatus transcripts to orthology groups extracted from phylogenetic trees of five model species. Chionodraco hamatus duplicates were recorded for each orthology group allowing the identification of duplicated genes specific to the icefish lineage. Significantly more duplicates were found in the icefish when transcriptome data were compared with whole-genome data of model species. Indeed, duplicated genes were significantly enriched in proteins with mitochondrial localization, involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis. In cold conditions and without oxygen-carrying proteins, energy production is challenging. The combination of high mitochondrial densities and the maintenance of duplicated genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and aerobic respiration might confer a selective advantage by improving oxygen diffusion and energy supply to aerobic tissues. Our results provide new insights into the genomic basis of icefish cold adaptation. PMID:23196969

Coppe, Alessandro; Agostini, Cecilia; Marino, Ilaria A M; Zane, Lorenzo; Bargelloni, Luca; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Patarnello, Tomaso

2013-01-01

363

Double-strand break repair processes drive evolution of the mitochondrial genome in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondrial genome of higher plants is unusually dynamic, with recombination and nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) activities producing variability in size and organization. Plant mitochondrial DNA also generally displays much lower nucleotide substitution rates than mammalian or yeast systems. Arabidopsis displays these features and expedites characterization of the mitochondrial recombination surveillance gene MSH1 (MutS 1 homolog), lending itself to detailed study of de novo mitochondrial genome activity. In the present study, we investigated the underlying basis for unusual plant features as they contribute to rapid mitochondrial genome evolution. Results We obtained evidence of double-strand break (DSB) repair, including NHEJ, sequence deletions and mitochondrial asymmetric recombination activity in Arabidopsis wild-type and msh1 mutants on the basis of data generated by Illumina deep sequencing and confirmed by DNA gel blot analysis. On a larger scale, with mitochondrial comparisons across 72 Arabidopsis ecotypes, similar evidence of DSB repair activity differentiated ecotypes. Forty-seven repeat pairs were active in DNA exchange in the msh1 mutant. Recombination sites showed asymmetrical DNA exchange within lengths of 50- to 556-bp sharing sequence identity as low as 85%. De novo asymmetrical recombination involved heteroduplex formation, gene conversion and mismatch repair activities. Substoichiometric shifting by asymmetrical exchange created the appearance of rapid sequence gain and loss in association with particular repeat classes. Conclusions Extensive mitochondrial genomic variation within a single plant species derives largely from DSB activity and its repair. Observed gene conversion and mismatch repair activity contribute to the low nucleotide substitution rates seen in these genomes. On a phenotypic level, these patterns of rearrangement likely contribute to the reproductive versatility of higher plants.

2011-01-01

364

Transcriptomic and genomic evolution under constant cold in Antarctic notothenioid fish  

PubMed Central

The antifreeze glycoprotein-fortified Antarctic notothenioid fishes comprise the predominant fish suborder in the isolated frigid Southern Ocean. Their ecological success undoubtedly entailed evolutionary acquisition of a full suite of cold-stable functions besides antifreeze protection. Prior studies of adaptive changes in these teleost fishes generally examined a single genotype or phenotype. We report here the genome-wide investigations of transcriptional and genomic changes associated with Antarctic notothenioid cold adaptation. We sequenced and characterized 33,560 ESTs from four tissues of the Antarctic notothenioid Dissostichus mawsoni and derived 3,114 nonredundant protein gene families and their expression profiles. Through comparative analyses of same-tissue transcriptome profiles of D. mawsoni and temperate/tropical teleost fishes, we identified 177 notothenioid protein families that were expressed many fold over the latter, indicating cold-related up-regulation. These up-regulated gene families operate in protein biosynthesis, protein folding and degradation, lipid metabolism, antioxidation, antiapoptosis, innate immunity, choriongenesis, and others, all of recognizable functional importance in mitigating stresses in freezing temperatures during notothenioid life histories. We further examined the genomic and evolutionary bases for this expressional up-regulation by comparative genomic hybridization of DNA from four pairs of Antarctic and basal non-Antarctic notothenioids to 10,700 D. mawsoni cDNA probes and discovered significant to astounding (3- to >300-fold, P < 0.05) Antarctic-specific duplications of 118 protein-coding genes, many of which correspond to the up-regulated gene families. Results of our integrative tripartite study strongly suggest that evolution under constant cold has resulted in dramatic genomic expansions of specific protein gene families, augmenting gene expression and gene functions contributing to physiological fitness of Antarctic notothenioids in freezing polar conditions.

Chen, Zuozhou; Cheng, C.-H. Christina; Zhang, Junfang; Cao, Lixue; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Longhai; Jin, Yudong; Ye, Hua; Deng, Cheng; Dai, Zhonghua; Xu, Qianghua; Hu, Peng; Sun, Shouhong; Shen, Yu; Chen, Liangbiao

2008-01-01

365

Genome Evolution in the Cold: Antarctic Icefish Muscle Transcriptome Reveals Selective Duplications Increasing Mitochondrial Function  

PubMed Central

Antarctic notothenioids radiated over millions of years in subzero waters, evolving peculiar features, such as antifreeze glycoproteins and absence of heat shock response. Icefish, family Channichthyidae, also lack oxygen-binding proteins and display extreme modifications, including high mitochondrial densities in aerobic tissues. A genomic expansion accompanying the evolution of these fish was reported, but paucity of genomic information limits the understanding of notothenioid cold adaptation. We reconstructed and annotated the first skeletal muscle transcriptome of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus providing a new resource for icefish genomics (http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/chamatusbase/, last accessed December 12, 2012). We exploited deep sequencing of this energy-dependent tissue to test the hypothesis of selective duplication of genes involved in mitochondrial function. We developed a bioinformatic approach to univocally assign C. hamatus transcripts to orthology groups extracted from phylogenetic trees of five model species. Chionodraco hamatus duplicates were recorded for each orthology group allowing the identification of duplicated genes specific to the icefish lineage. Significantly more duplicates were found in the icefish when transcriptome data were compared with whole-genome data of model species. Indeed, duplicated genes were significantly enriched in proteins with mitochondrial localization, involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis. In cold conditions and without oxygen-carrying proteins, energy production is challenging. The combination of high mitochondrial densities and the maintenance of duplicated genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and aerobic respiration might confer a selective advantage by improving oxygen diffusion and energy supply to aerobic tissues. Our results provide new insights into the genomic basis of icefish cold adaptation.

Coppe, Alessandro; Agostini, Cecilia; Marino, Ilaria A.M.; Zane, Lorenzo; Bargelloni, Luca; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Patarnello, Tomaso

2013-01-01

366

Corticosteroids inhibit rhinovirus-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 up-regulation and promoter activation on respiratory epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Rhinoviruses are associated with the majority of asthma exacerbations. To date, the pathogenesis of virus-induced asthma exacerbations is still unclear, and no safe effective therapy is available. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has a central role in inflammatory cell recruitment to the airways in asthma and is the receptor for 90% of rhinoviruses. We have previously shown that rhinovirus infection

Alberto Papi; Nikolaos G. Papadopoulos; Klaus Degitz; Stephen T. Holgate; Sebastian L. Johnston

2000-01-01

367

A 4-gigabase physical map unlocks the structure and evolution of the complex genome of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor  

PubMed Central

The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,706 bacterial artificial chromosome clones, assembled contigs, designed a 10K Ae. tauschii Infinium SNP array, constructed a 7,185-marker genetic map, and anchored on the map contigs totaling 4.03 Gb. Using whole genome shotgun reads, we extended the SNP marker sequences and found 17,093 genes and gene fragments. We showed that collinearity of the Ae. tauschii genes with Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum decreased with phylogenetic distance and that structural genome evolution rates have been high across all investigated lineages in subfamily Pooideae, including that of Brachypodieae. We obtained additional information about the evolution of the seven Triticeae chromosomes from 12 ancestral chromosomes and uncovered a pattern of centromere inactivation accompanying nested chromosome insertions in grasses. We showed that the density of noncollinear genes along the Ae. tauschii chromosomes positively correlates with recombination rates, suggested a cause, and showed that new genes, exemplified by disease resistance genes, are preferentially located in high-recombination chromosome regions.

Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q.; You, Frank M.; Deal, Karin R.; Ma, Yaqin; Hu, Yuqin; Huo, Naxin; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Shiyong; Jorgensen, Chad M.; Zhang, Yong; McGuire, Patrick E.; Pasternak, Shiran; Stein, Joshua C.; Ware, Doreen; Kramer, Melissa; McCombie, W. Richard; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Sehgal, Sunish K.; Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S.; Bevan, Michael W.; Simkova, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Weining, Song; Lazo, Gerard R.; Anderson, Olin D.; Dvorak, Jan

2013-01-01

368

The evolution of human influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006: A complete genome study  

PubMed Central

Background Knowledge about the complete genome constellation of seasonal influenza A viruses from different countries is valuable for monitoring and understanding of the evolution and migration of strains. Few complete genome sequences of influenza A viruses from Europe are publicly available at the present time and there have been few longitudinal genome studies of human influenza A viruses. We have studied the evolution of circulating human H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 influenza A viruses from 1999 to 2006, we analysed 234 Danish human influenza A viruses and characterised 24 complete genomes. Results H3N2 was the prevalent strain in Denmark during the study period, but H1N1 dominated the 2000–2001 season. H1N2 viruses were first observed in Denmark in 2002–2003. After years of little genetic change in the H1N1 viruses the 2005–2006 season presented H1N1 of greater variability than before. This indicates that H1N1 viruses are evolving and that H1N1 soon is likely to be the prevalent strain again. Generally, the influenza A haemagglutinin (HA) of H3N2 viruses formed seasonal phylogenetic clusters. Different lineages co-circulating within the same season were also observed. The evolution has been stochastic, influenced by small "jumps" in genetic distance rather than constant drift, especially with the introduction of the Fujian-like viruses in 2002–2003. Also evolutionary stasis-periods were observed which might indicate well fit viruses. The evolution of H3N2 viruses have also been influenced by gene reassortments between lineages from different seasons. None of the influenza genes were influenced by strong positive selection pressure. The antigenic site B in H3N2 HA was the preferred site for genetic change during the study period probably because the site A has been masked by glycosylations. Substitutions at CTL-epitopes in the genes coding for the neuraminidase (NA), polymerase acidic protein (PA), matrix protein 1 (M1), non-structural protein 1 (NS1) and especially the nucleoprotein (NP) were observed. The N-linked glycosylation pattern varied during the study period and the H3N2 isolates from 2004 to 2006 were highly glycosylated with ten predicted sequons in HA, the highest amount of glycosylations observed in this study period. Conclusion The present study is the first to our knowledge to characterise the evolution of complete genomes of influenza A H3N2, H1N1 and H1N2 isolates from Europe over a time period of seven years from 1999 to 2006. More precise knowledge about the circulating strains may have implications for predicting the following season strains and thereby better matching the vaccine composition.

Bragstad, Karoline; Nielsen, Lars P; Fomsgaard, Anders

2008-01-01

369

Phylogenetic analyses alone are insufficient to determine whether genome duplication(s) occurred during early vertebrate evolution.  

PubMed

The widely accepted notion that two whole-genome duplications occurred during early vertebrate evolution (the 2R hypothesis) stems from the fact that vertebrates often possess several genes corresponding to a single invertebrate homolog. However the number of genes predicted by the Human Genome Project is less than twice as many as in the Drosophila melanogaster or Caenorhabditis elegans genomes. This ratio could be explained by two rounds of genome duplication followed by extensive gene loss, by a single genome duplication, by sequential local duplications, or by a combination of any of the above. The traditional method used to distinguish between these possibilities is to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of vertebrate genes to their invertebrate orthologs; ratios of invertebrate-to-vertebrate counterparts are then used to infer the number of gene duplication events. The lancelet, amphioxus, is the closest living invertebrate relative of the vertebrates, and unlike protostomes such as flies or nematodes, is therefore the most appropriate outgroup for understanding the genomic composition of the last common ancestor of all vertebrates. We analyzed the relationships of all available amphioxus genes to their vertebrate homologs. In most cases, one to three vertebrate genes are orthologous to each amphioxus gene (median number=2). Clearly this result, and those of previous studies using this approach, cannot distinguish between alternative scenarios of chordate genome expansion. We conclude that phylogenetic analyses alone will never be sufficient to determine whether genome duplication(s) occurred during early chordate evolution, and argue that a "phylogenomic" approach, which compares paralogous clusters of linked genes from complete amphioxus and human genome sequences, will be required if the pattern and process of early chordate genome evolution is ever to be reconstructed. PMID:14508816

Horton, Amy C; Mahadevan, Navin R; Ruvinsky, Ilya; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J

2003-10-15

370

Evolution of gene regulation of pluripotency - the case for wiki tracks at genome browsers  

PubMed Central

Background Experimentally validated data on gene regulation are hard to obtain. In particular, information about transcription factor binding sites in regulatory regions are scattered around in the literature. This impedes their systematic in-context analysis, e.g. the inference of their conservation in evolutionary history. Results We demonstrate the power of integrative bioinformatics by including curated transcription factor binding site information into the UCSC genome browser, using wiki and custom tracks, which enable easy publication of annotation data. Data integration allows to investigate the evolution of gene regulation of the pluripotency-associated genes Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog. For the first time, experimentally validated transcription factor binding sites in the regulatory regions of all three genes were assembled together based on manual curation of data from 39 publications. Using the UCSC genome browser, these data were then visualized in the context of multi-species conservation based on genomic alignment. We confirm previous hypotheses regarding the evolutionary age of specific regulatory patterns, establishing their "deep homology". We also confirm some other principles of Carroll's "Genetic theory of Morphological Evolution", such as "mosaic pleiotropy", exemplified by the dual role of Sox2 reflected in its regulatory region. Conclusions We were able to elucidate some aspects of the evolution of gene regulation for three genes associated with pluripotency. Based on the expected return on investment for the community, we encourage other scientists to contribute experimental data on gene regulation (original work as well as data collected for reviews) to the UCSC system, to enable studies of the evolution of gene regulation on a large scale, and to report their findings. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Gustavo Glusman and Dr. Juan Caballero, Institute for Systems Biology, Seattle, USA (nominated by Dr. Doron Lancet, Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel), Dr. Niels Grabe, TIGA Center (BIOQUANT) and Medical Systems Biology Group, Institute of Medical Biometry and Informatics, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany (nominated by Dr. Mikhail Gelfand, Department of Bioinformatics, Institute of Information Transfer Problems, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russian Federation) and Dr. Franz-Josef Müller, Center for Regenerative Medicine, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA and University Hospital for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (part of ZIP gGmbH), University of Kiel, Germany (nominated by Dr. Trey Ideker, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla CA, United States).

2010-01-01

371

Genomic basis of aging and life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Natural diversity in aging and other life-history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore, the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation. PMID:23106705

Remolina, Silvia C; Chang, Peter L; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Hughes, Kimberly A

2012-06-27

372

Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes Micromonas.  

PubMed

Picoeukaryotes are a taxonomically diverse group of organisms less than 2 micrometers in diameter. Photosynthetic marine picoeukaryotes in the genus Micromonas thrive in ecosystems ranging from tropical to polar and could serve as sentinel organisms for biogeochemical fluxes of modern oceans during climate change. These broadly distributed primary producers belong to an anciently diverged sister clade to land plants. Although Micromonas isolates have high 18S ribosomal RNA gene identity, we found that genomes from two isolates shared only 90% of their predicted genes. Their independent evolutionary paths were emphasized by distinct riboswitch arrangements as well as the discovery of intronic repeat elements in one isolate, and in metagenomic data, but not in other genomes. Divergence appears to have been facilitated by selection and acquisition processes that actively shape the repertoire of genes that are mutually exclusive between the two isolates differently than the core genes. Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution. PMID:19359590

Worden, Alexandra Z; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Mock, Thomas; Rouzé, Pierre; Simmons, Melinda P; Aerts, Andrea L; Allen, Andrew E; Cuvelier, Marie L; Derelle, Evelyne; Everett, Meredith V; Foulon, Elodie; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Henrissat, Bernard; Napoli, Carolyn; McDonald, Sarah M; Parker, Micaela S; Rombauts, Stephane; Salamov, Aasf; Von Dassow, Peter; Badger, Jonathan H; Coutinho, Pedro M; Demir, Elif; Dubchak, Inna; Gentemann, Chelle; Eikrem, Wenche; Gready, Jill E; John, Uwe; Lanier, William; Lindquist, Erika A; Lucas, Susan; Mayer, Klaus F X; Moreau, Herve; Not, Fabrice; Otillar, Robert; Panaud, Olivier; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Paulsen, Ian; Piegu, Benoit; Poliakov, Aaron; Robbens, Steven; Schmutz, Jeremy; Toulza, Eve; Wyss, Tania; Zelensky, Alexander; Zhou, Kemin; Armbrust, E Virginia; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Goodenough, Ursula W; Van de Peer, Yves; Grigoriev, Igor V

2009-04-10

373

Analysis of the African coelacanth genome sheds light on tetrapod evolution  

PubMed Central

It was a zoological sensation when a living specimen of the coelacanth was first discovered in 1938, as this lineage of lobe-finned fish was thought to have gone extinct 70 million years ago. The modern coelacanth looks remarkably similar to many of its ancient relatives, and its evolutionary proximity to our own fish ancestors provides a glimpse of the fish that first walked on land. Here we report the genome sequence of the African coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae. Through a phylogenomic analysis, we conclude that the lungfish, and not the coelacanth, is the closest living relative of tetrapods. Coelacanth protein-coding genes are significantly more slowly evolving than those of tetrapods, unlike other genomic features . Analyses of changes in genes and regulatory elements during the vertebrate adaptation to land highlight genes involved in immunity, nitrogen excretion and the development of fins, tail, ear, eye, brain, and olfaction. Functional assays of enhancers involved in the fin-to-limb transition and in the emergence of extra-embryonic tissues demonstrate the importance of the coelacanth genome as a blueprint for understanding tetrapod evolution.

Amemiya, Chris T.; Alfoldi, Jessica; Lee, Alison P.; Fan, Shaohua; Philippe, Herve; MacCallum, Iain; Braasch, Ingo; Manousaki, Tereza; Schneider, Igor; Rohner, Nicolas; Organ, Chris; Chalopin, Domitille; Smith, Jeramiah J.; Robinson, Mark; Dorrington, Rosemary A.; Gerdol, Marco; Aken, Bronwen; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; Barucca, Marco; Baurain, Denis; Berlin, Aaron M.; Blatch, Gregory L.; Buonocore, Francesco; Burmester, Thorsten; Campbell, Michael S.; Canapa, Adriana; Cannon, John P.; Christoffels, Alan; De Moro, Gianluca; Edkins, Adrienne L.; Fan, Lin; Fausto, Anna Maria; Feiner, Nathalie; Forconi, Mariko; Gamieldien, Junaid; Gnerre, Sante; Gnirke, Andreas; Goldstone, Jared V.; Haerty, Wilfried; Hahn, Mark E.; Hesse, Uljana; Hoffmann, Steve; Johnson, Jeremy; Karchner, Sibel I.; Kuraku, Shigehiro; Lara, Marcia; Levin, Joshua Z.; Litman, Gary W.; Mauceli, Evan; Miyake, Tsutomu; Mueller, M. Gail; Nelson, David R.; Nitsche, Anne; Olmo, Ettore; Ota, Tatsuya; Pallavicini, Alberto; Panji, Sumir; Picone, Barbara; Ponting, Chris P.; Prohaska, Sonja J.; Przybylski, Dariusz; Saha, Nil Ratan; Ravi, Vydianathan; Ribeiro, Filipe J.; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Scapigliati, Giuseppe; Searle, Stephen M. J.; Sharpe, Ted; Simakov, Oleg; Stadler, Peter F.; Stegeman, John J.; Sumiyama, Kenta; Tabbaa, Diana; Tafer, Hakim; Turner-Maier, Jason; van Heusden, Peter; White, Simon; Williams, Louise; Yandell, Mark; Brinkmann, Henner; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Tabin, Clifford J.; Shubin, Neil; Schartl, Manfred; Jaffe, David; Postlethwait, John H.; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Di Palma, Federica; Lander, Eric S.; Meyer, Axel; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin

2013-01-01

374

Genomic evidence for the parallel evolution of coastal forms in the Senecio lautus complex.  

PubMed

Instances of parallel ecotypic divergence where adaptation to similar conditions repeatedly cause similar phenotypic changes in closely related organisms are useful for studying the role of ecological selection in speciation. Here we used a combination of traditional and next generation genotyping techniques to test for the parallel divergence of plants from the Senecio lautus complex, a phenotypically variable groundsel that has adapted to disparate environments in the South Pacific. Phylogenetic analysis of a broad selection of Senecio species showed that members of the S. lautus complex form a distinct lineage that has diversified recently in Australasia. An inspection of thousands of polymorphisms in the genome of 27 natural populations from the S. lautus complex in Australia revealed a signal of strong genetic structure independent of habitat and phenotype. Additionally, genetic differentiation between populations was correlated with the geographical distance separating them, and the genetic diversity of populations strongly depended on geographical location. Importantly, coastal forms appeared in several independent phylogenetic clades, a pattern that is consistent with the parallel evolution of these forms. Analyses of the patterns of genomic differentiation between populations further revealed that adjacent populations displayed greater genomic heterogeneity than allopatric populations and are differentiated according to variation in soil composition. These results are consistent with a process of parallel ecotypic divergence in face of gene flow. PMID:23710896

Roda, Federico; Ambrose, Luke; Walter, Gregory M; Liu, Huanle L; Schaul, Andrea; Lowe, Andrew; Pelser, Pieter B; Prentis, Peter; Rieseberg, Loren H; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel

2013-05-25

375

Low Grade Rhinovirus Infection Induces a Prolonged Release of IL8 in Pulmonary Epithelium1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhinoviruses are important respiratory pathogens implicated in asthma exacerbations. The mechanisms by which rhinoviruses trigger inflammatory responses in the lower airway are poorly understood, in particular their ability to infect the lower airway. Bronchial inflammatory cell (lymphocyte and eosinophil) recruitment has been demonstrated. IL-8 is a potent proinflammatory chemokine that is chemotactic for neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils, and monocytes and may

Sebastian L. Johnston; Alberto Papi; Philip J. Bates; John G. Mastronarde; Martha M. Monick; Gary W. Hunninghake

376

A One-Step, Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Rhinovirus  

PubMed Central

One-step, real-time PCR assays for rhinovirus have been developed for a limited number of PCR amplification platforms and chemistries, and some exhibit cross-reactivity with genetically similar enteroviruses. We developed a one-step, real-time PCR assay for rhinovirus by using a sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems; Foster City, CA). The primers were designed to amplify a 120-base target in the noncoding region of picornavirus RNA, and a TaqMan (Applied Biosystems) degenerate probe was designed for the specific detection of rhinovirus amplicons. The PCR assay had no cross-reactivity with a panel of 76 nontarget nucleic acids, which included RNAs from 43 enterovirus strains. Excellent lower limits of detection relative to viral culture were observed for the PCR assay by using 38 of 40 rhinovirus reference strains representing different serotypes, which could reproducibly detect rhinovirus serotype 2 in viral transport medium containing 10 to 10,000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose endpoint) units/ml of the virus. However, for rhinoviru