Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) evolve rapidly due in part to their error-prone RNA polymerase. Knowledge of the diversity of HRV populations emerging during the course of a natural infection is essential and represents a basis for the design of future potential vaccines and antiviral drugs. To evaluate HRV evolution in humans, nasal wash samples were collected daily for five days from 15 immunocompetent volunteers experimentally infected with a reference stock of HRV-39. In parallel, HeLa-OH cells were inoculated to compare HRV evolution in vitro. Nasal wash in vivo assessed by real-time PCR showed a viral load that peaked at 48–72 h. Ultra-deep sequencing was used to compare the low-frequency mutation populations present in the HRV-39 inoculum in two human subjects and one HeLa-OH supernatant collected 5 days post-infection. The analysis revealed hypervariable mutation locations in VP2, VP3, VP1, 2C and 3C genes and conserved regions in VP4, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B and 3D genes. These results were confirmed by classical sequencing of additional samples, both from inoculated volunteers and independent cell infections, and suggest that HRV inter-host transmission is not associated with a strong bottleneck effect. A specific analysis of the VP1 capsid gene of 15 human cases confirmed the high mutation incidence in this capsid region, but not in the antiviral drug-binding pocket. We could also estimate a mutation frequency in vivo of 3.4×10?4 mutations/nucleotides and 3.1×10?4 over the entire ORF and VP1 gene, respectively. In vivo, HRV generate new variants rapidly during the course of an acute infection due to mutations that accumulate in hot spot regions located at the capsid level, as well as in 2C and 3C genes.
Gerlach, Daniel; Gobbini, Francesca; Farinelli, Laurent; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Winther, Birgit
Human Rhinovirus (HRV) infection is the cause of about one-half of asthma and COPD exacerbations. With >100 serotypes in the HRV reference set an effort was undertaken to sequence their complete genomes so as to understand diversity, structural variation, and evolution of the virus. Analysis revealed conserved motifs, hypervariable regions, a potential fourth HRV species, within-serotype variation in field isolates, a non-scanning internal ribosome entry site, and evidence for HRV recombination. Techniques have now been developed using next generation sequencing to generate complete genomes from patient isolates with high throughput, deep coverage, and low costs. Thus relationships can now be sought between obstructive lung phenotypes and variation in HRV genomes in infected patients, and, potential novel therapeutic strategies developed based on HRV sequence.
Palmenberg, Ann C.; Rathe, Jennifer A.; Liggett, Stephen B.
Nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 39 rhinovirus B isolates (RV-B), representing 13 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies at the University of Wisconsin that attempt to link rhinovirus (RV) diversity and respiratory disease in infants.
Liggett, Stephen B.; Bochkov, Yury A.; Pappas, Tressa; Lemanske, Robert F.; Gern, James E.; Sengamalay, Naomi; Zhao, Xuechu; Su, Qi; Fraser, Claire M.
BACKGROUND: The human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the most common and diverse respiratory pathogens of humans. Over 100 distinct HRV serotypes are known, yet only 6 genomes are available. Due to the paucity of HRV genome sequence, little is known about the genetic diversity within HRV or the forces driving this diversity. Previous comparative genome sequence analyses indicate that
Amy L Kistler; Dale R Webster; Silvi Rouskin; Vince Magrini; Joel J Credle; David P Schnurr; Homer A Boushey; Elaine R Mardis; Hao Li; Joseph L DeRisi
Full-length or nearly full-length RNA genome sequences for 98 rhinovirus (RV) A isolates (from the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family), representing 43 different genotypes, were resolved as part of ongoing studies to define RV genetic diversity and its potential link to respiratory disease. PMID:24675855
Liggett, Stephen B; Bochkov, Yury A; Pappas, Tressa; Lemanske, Robert F; Gern, James E; Sengamalay, Naomi; Zhao, Xuechu; Su, Qi; Fraser, Claire M; Palmenberg, Ann C
Rhinoviruses and enteroviruses are leading causes of respiratory infections. To evaluate genotypic diversity and identify forces shaping picornavirus evolution, we screened persons with respiratory illnesses by using rhinovirus-specific or generic real-time PCR assays. We then sequenced the 5? untranslated region, capsid protein VP1, and protease precursor 3CD regions of virus-positive samples. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis identified the large genotypic diversity of rhinoviruses circulating in humans. We identified and completed the genome sequence of a new enterovirus genotype associated with respiratory symptoms and acute otitis media, confirming the close relationship between rhinoviruses and enteroviruses and the need to detect both viruses in respiratory specimens. Finally, we identified recombinants among circulating rhinoviruses and mapped their recombination sites, thereby demonstrating that rhinoviruses can recombine in their natural host. This study clarifies the diversity and explains the reasons for evolution of these viruses.
Junier, Thomas; Gerlach, Daniel; Van Belle, Sandra; Turin, Lara; Cordey, Samuel; Muhlemann, Kathrin; Regamey, Nicolas; Aubert, John-David; Soccal, Paola M.; Eigenmann, Philippe; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Kaiser, Laurent
Background The human rhinoviruses (HRV) are one of the most common and diverse respiratory pathogens of humans. Over 100 distinct HRV serotypes are known, yet only 6 genomes are available. Due to the paucity of HRV genome sequence, little is known about the genetic diversity within HRV or the forces driving this diversity. Previous comparative genome sequence analyses indicate that recombination drives diversification in multiple genera of the picornavirus family, yet it remains unclear if this holds for HRV. Results To resolve this and gain insight into the forces driving diversification in HRV, we generated a representative set of 34 fully sequenced HRVs. Analysis of these genomes shows consistent phylogenies across the genome, conserved non-coding elements, and only limited recombination. However, spikes of genetic diversity at both the nucleotide and amino acid level are detectable within every locus of the genome. Despite this, the HRV genome as a whole is under purifying selective pressure, with islands of diversifying pressure in the VP1, VP2, and VP3 structural genes and two non-structural genes, the 3C protease and 3D polymerase. Mapping diversifying residues in these factors onto available 3-dimensional structures revealed the diversifying capsid residues partition to the external surface of the viral particle in statistically significant proximity to antigenic sites. Diversifying pressure in the pleconaril binding site is confined to a single residue known to confer drug resistance (VP1 191). In contrast, diversifying pressure in the non-structural genes is less clear, mapping both nearby and beyond characterized functional domains of these factors. Conclusion This work provides a foundation for understanding HRV genetic diversity and insight into the underlying biology driving evolution in HRV. It expands our knowledge of the genome sequence space that HRV reference serotypes occupy and how the pattern of genetic diversity across HRV genomes differs from other picornaviruses. It also reveals evidence of diversifying selective pressure in both structural genes known to interact with the host immune system and in domains of unassigned function in the non-structural 3C and 3D genes, raising the possibility that diversification of undiscovered functions in these essential factors may influence HRV fitness and evolution.
Kistler, Amy L; Webster, Dale R; Rouskin, Silvi; Magrini, Vince; Credle, Joel J; Schnurr, David P; Boushey, Homer A; Mardis, Elaine R; Li, Hao; DeRisi, Joseph L
Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), first discovered in the 1950s, are responsible for more than one-half of cold-like illnesses and cost billions of dollars annually in medical visits and missed days of work. Advances in molecular methods have enhanced our understanding of the genomic structure of HRV and have led to the characterization of three genetically distinct HRV groups, designated groups A, B, and C, within the genus Enterovirus and the family Picornaviridae. HRVs are traditionally associated with upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and sinusitis. In recent years, the increasing implementation of PCR assays for respiratory virus detection in clinical laboratories has facilitated the recognition of HRV as a lower respiratory tract pathogen, particularly in patients with asthma, infants, elderly patients, and immunocompromised hosts. Cultured isolates of HRV remain important for studies of viral characteristics and disease pathogenesis. Indeed, whether the clinical manifestations of HRV are related directly to viral pathogenicity or secondary to the host immune response is the subject of ongoing research. There are currently no approved antiviral therapies for HRVs, and treatment remains primarily supportive. This review provides a comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the basic virology, pathogenesis, clinical epidemiology, and laboratory features of and treatment and prevention strategies for HRVs.
Lamson, Daryl M.; St. George, Kirsten; Walsh, Thomas J.
Human tumors result from an evolutionary process operating on somatic cells within tissues, whereby natural selection operates on the phenotypic variability generated by the accumulation of genetic, genomic and epigenetic alterations. This somatic evolution leads to adaptations such as increased proliferative, angiogenic, and invasive phenotypes. In this review we outline how cancer genomes are beginning to be investigated from an evolutionary perspective. We describe recent progress in the cataloging of somatic genetic and genomic alterations, and investigate the contributions of germline as well as epigenetic factors to cancer genome evolution. Finally, we outline the challenges facing researchers who investigate the processes driving the evolution of the cancer genome.
Podlaha, Ondrej; Riester, Markus; De, Subhajyoti; Michor, Franziska
Rhinoviruses, prominent agents of the common cold syndrome in man, are small ribonucleic acid (rna) viruses resembling enteroviruses in their physicochemical properties except for high density and lability to acid pH. Rhinoviruses are propagated in human and monkey cells. Highest titers of virus are obtained in HeLa cell cultures. Rhinoviruses produce characteristic cytopathic effect in diploid fibroblasts. A plaque assay in HeLa cells is useful for their titration. The rhinovirus group includes many serotypes. Although rhinoviruses cause predominantly upper respiratory tract symptoms, they may on occasion infect the lower respiratory tract. Volunteers with specific antibody, when challenged with homotypic rhinovirus, are protected against the common cold.
Fiala, Milan; Guze, Lucien B.
A fundamental observation of comparative genomics is that the distribution of evolution rates across the complete sets of orthologous genes in pairs of related genomes remains virtually unchanged throughout the evolution of life, from bacteria to mammals. The most straightforward explanation for the conservation of this distribution appears to be that the relative evolution rates of all genes remain nearly constant, or in other words, that evolutionary rates of different genes are strongly correlated within each evolving genome. This correlation could be explained by a model that we denoted Universal PaceMaker (UPM) of genome evolution. The UPM model posits that the rate of evolution changes synchronously across genome-wide sets of genes in all evolving lineages. Alternatively, however, the correlation between the evolutionary rates of genes could be a simple consequence of molecular clock (MC). We sought to differentiate between the MC and UPM models by fitting thousands of phylogenetic trees for bacterial and archaeal genes to supertrees that reflect the dominant trend of vertical descent in the evolution of archaea and bacteria and that were constrained according to the two models. The goodness of fit for the UPM model was better than the fit for the MC model, with overwhelming statistical significance, although similarly to the MC, the UPM is strongly overdispersed. Thus, the results of this analysis reveal a universal, genome-wide pacemaker of evolution that could have been in operation throughout the history of life.
Snir, Sagi; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.
The advent of massively parallel sequencing technologies has allowed the characterization of cancer genomes at an unprecedented resolution. Investigation of the mutational landscape of tumours is providing new insights into cancer genome evolution, laying bare the interplay of somatic mutation, adaptation of clones to their environment and natural selection. These studies have demonstrated the extent of the heterogeneity of cancer genomes, have allowed inferences to be made about the forces that act on nascent cancer clones as they evolve and have shown insight into the mutational processes that generate genetic variation. Here we review our emerging understanding of the dynamic evolution of the cancer genome and of the implications for basic cancer biology and the development of antitumour therapy.
Yates, Lucy R.; Campbell, Peter J.
The recent explosion of genome sequences from all major phylogenetic groups has unveiled an unexpected wealth of cases of recurrent evolution of strikingly similar genomic features in different lineages. Here, we review the diverse known types of recurrent evolution in eukaryotic genomes, with a special focus on metazoans, ranging from reductive genome evolution to origins of splice-leader trans-splicing, from tandem exon duplications to gene family expansions. We first propose a general classification scheme for evolutionary recurrence at the genomic level, based on the type of driving force—mutation or selection—and the environmental and genomic circumstances underlying these forces. We then discuss various cases of recurrent genomic evolution under this scheme. Finally, we provide a broader context for repeated genomic evolution, including the unique relationship of genomic recurrence with the genotype–phenotype map, and the ways in which the study of recurrent genomic evolution can be used to understand fundamental evolutionary processes.
Maeso, Ignacio; Roy, Scott William; Irimia, Manuel
Mobile elements within genomes have driven genome evolution in diverse ways. Particularly in plants and mammals, retrotransposons have accumulated to constitute a large fraction of the genome and have shaped both genes and the entire genome. Although the host can often control their numbers, massive expansions of retrotransposons have been tolerated during evolution. Now mobile elements are becoming useful tools
Haig H. Kazazian
genome size and karyological data from a wide range of reptilian species. At the whole-genome and chromosomal tiers of organization, we find that reptilian genome size distribution is consistent with a model of continuous gradual evolution while genomic compartmentalization, as manifested in the number of microchromosomes and macrochromosomes, appears to have undergone early rapid change. At the sequence level, the
Chris L. Organ; Ricardo Godinez Moreno; Scott V. Edwards
Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Myco- plasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identifica- tion of large numbers of potentially variable regions,
Eduardo P. C. Rocha; Alain Blanchard
Although often ignored, human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the most frequent causes of respiratory tract infections (RTIs). A group of closely related novel rhinoviruses have recently been discovered. Based on their unique phylogenetic position and distinct genomic features, they are classified as a separate species, HRV-C. After their discovery, HRV-C viruses have been detected in patients worldwide, with a reported prevalence of 1.4–30.9% among tested specimens. This suggests that the species contribute to a significant proportion of RTIs that were unrecognized in the past. HRV-C is also the predominant HRV species, often with a higher detection rate than that of the two previously known species, HRV-A and HRV-B. HRV-C infections appear to peak in fall or winter in most temperate or subtropical countries, but may predominate in the rainy season in the tropics. In children, HRV-C is often associated with upper RTIs, with asthma exacerbation and wheezing episodes being common complications. The virus has also been detected in children with bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia, otitis media, sinusitis and systemic infections complicated by pericarditis. As for adults, HRV-C has been associated with more severe disease such as pneumonia and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, larger clinical studies with asymptomatic controls are required to better define the significance of HRV-C infection in the adult population. On the basis of VP4 sequence analysis, a potential distinct subgroup within HRV-C has also been identified, although more complete genome sequences are needed to better define the genetic diversity of HRV-C.
Lau, S K P; Yip, C C Y; Woo, P C Y; Yuen, K-Y
Long intervening noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcribed from thousands of loci in mammalian genomes and might play widespread roles in gene regulation and other cellular processes. This Review outlines the emerging understanding of lincRNAs in vertebrate animals, with emphases on how they are being identified and current conclusions and questions regarding their genomics, evolution and mechanisms of action.
Ulitsky, Igor; Bartel, David P.
Enabled by comparative genomics, yeasts have increasingly developed into a powerful model system for molecular evolution. Here we survey several areas in which yeast studies have made important contributions, including regulatory evolution, gene duplication and divergence, evolution of gene order and evolution of complexity. In each area we highlight key studies and findings based on techniques ranging from statistical analysis of large datasets to direct laboratory measurements of fitness. Future work will combine traditional evolutionary genetics analysis and experimental evolution with tools from systems biology to yield mechanistic insight into complex phenotypes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760744
Zarin, Taraneh; Moses, Alan M
Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (~8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny information of three sequenced model grass genomes (Brachypodium distachyon, rice [Oryza sativa], and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor]). This enabled a genome-wide high-density comparative analysis of rye/barley/model grass genome synteny. Seventeen conserved syntenic linkage blocks making up the rye and barley genomes were defined in comparison to model grass genomes. Six major translocations shaped the modern rye genome in comparison to a putative Triticeae ancestral genome. Strikingly dissimilar conserved syntenic gene content, gene sequence diversity signatures, and phylogenetic networks were found for individual rye syntenic blocks. This indicates that introgressive hybridizations (diploid or polyploidy hybrid speciation) and/or a series of whole-genome or chromosome duplications played a role in rye speciation and genome evolution. PMID:24104565
Martis, Mihaela M; Zhou, Ruonan; Haseneyer, Grit; Schmutzer, Thomas; Vrána, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; König, Susanne; Kugler, Karl G; Scholz, Uwe; Hackauf, Bernd; Korzun, Viktor; Schön, Chris-Carolin; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Bauer, Eva; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils
The quest for evolutionary mechanisms providing separation between the coding (exons) and noncoding (introns) parts of genomic DNA remains an important focus of genetics. This work combines an analysis of the most recent achievements of genomics and fundamental concepts of random processes to provide a novel point of view on genome evolution. Exon sizes in sequenced genomes show a lognormal distribution typical of a random Kolmogoroff fractioning process. This implies that the process of intron incretion may be independent of exon size, and therefore could be dependent on intron–exon boundaries. All genomes examined have two distinctive classes of exons, each with different evolutionary histories. In the framework proposed in this article, these two classes of exons can be derived from a hypothetical ancestral genome by (spontaneous) symmetry breaking. We note that one of these exon classes comprises mostly alternatively spliced exons.
Ryabov, Yaroslav; Gribskov, Michael
At UCL we have developed several automated protocols for generating protein family resources (CATH; Gene3D). These resources can be used to perform comparative genome analyses in order to understand the evolution of protein families. Also to identify biologically and\\/or medically interesting families for which no structural data currently exists and which may therefore be important targets for structure genomics initiatives.The
David Lee; Alastair Grant; Ian Sillitoe; Mark Dibley; Juan Garcia Ranea; Christine A. Orengo
Background Streptomycetes are filamentous soil-dwelling bacteria. They are best known as the producers of a great variety of natural products such as antibiotics, antifungals, antiparasitics, and anticancer agents and the decomposers of organic substances for carbon recycling. They are also model organisms for the studies of gene regulatory networks, morphological differentiation, and stress response. The availability of sets of genomes from closely related Streptomyces strains makes it possible to assess the mechanisms underlying genome plasticity and systems adaptation. Results We present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the genomes of five Streptomyces species with distinct phenotypes. These streptomycetes have a pan-genome comprised of 17,362 orthologous families which includes 3,096 components in the core genome, 5,066 components in the dispensable genome, and 9,200 components that are uniquely present in only one species. The core genome makes up about 33%-45% of each genome repertoire. It contains important genes for Streptomyces biology including those involved in gene regulation, secretion, secondary metabolism and morphological differentiation. Abundant duplicate genes have been identified, with 4%-11% of the whole genomes composed of lineage-specific expansions (LSEs), suggesting that frequent gene duplication or lateral gene transfer events play a role in shaping the genome diversification within this genus. Two patterns of expansion, single gene expansion and chromosome block expansion are observed, representing different scales of duplication. Conclusions Our results provide a catalog of genome components and their potential functional roles in gene regulatory networks and metabolic networks. The core genome components reveal the minimum requirement for streptomycetes to sustain a successful lifecycle in the soil environment, reflecting the effects of both genome evolution and environmental stress acting upon the expressed phenotypes. A better understanding of the LSE gene families will, on the other hand, bring a wealth of new insights into the mechanisms underlying strain-specific phenotypes, such as the production of novel antibiotics, pathogenesis, and adaptive response to environmental challenges.
SUMMARY The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. This phenomenon, which we term “chromoplexy”, frequently accounts for the dysregulation of prostate cancer genes and appears to disrupt multiple cancer genes coordinately. Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. By characterizing the clonal hierarchy of genomic lesions in prostate tumors, we charted a path of oncogenic events along which chromoplexy may drive prostate carcinogenesis.
Baca, Sylvan C.; Prandi, Davide; Lawrence, Michael S.; Mosquera, Juan Miguel; Romanel, Alessandro; Drier, Yotam; Park, Kyung; Kitabayashi, Naoki; MacDonald, Theresa Y.; Ghandi, Mahmoud; Van Allen, Eliezer; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Sboner, Andrea; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Soong, T. David; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Tewari, Ashutosh; Beltran, Himisha; Onofrio, Robert C.; Boysen, Gunther; Guiducci, Candace; Barbieri, Christopher E.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Carter, Scott L.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Douglas; Ramos, Alex H; Winckler, Wendy; Cipicchio, Michelle; Ardlie, Kristin; Kantoff, Philip W.; Berger, Michael F.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Golub, Todd R.; Meyerson, Matthew; Lander, Eric S.; Elemento, Olivier; Getz, Gad; Demichelis, Francesca; Rubin, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.
The interrupted genome structures of complex multicellular organisms have most likely changed the evolution of the regulation of metabolism and development. Wasted intron sequences make regulation of gene expression in (for example) mammals appear to be unnecessarily complicated. The recent discoveries that globular RNA molecules are very much like the antigen-combining sites of antibodies suggest that intronic RNA may be
Larry Gold; Britta Singer; Yi-Yuan He; Ed Brody
Which genetic changes took place during mammalian, primate and human evolution to build a larger brain? To answer this question, one has to correlate genetic changes with brain size changes across a phylogeny. Such a comparative genomics approach provides unique information to better understand brain evolution and brain development. However, its statistical power is limited for example due to the limited number of species, the presumably complex genetics of brain size evolution and the large search space of mammalian genomes. Hence, it is crucial to add functional information, for example by limiting the search space to genes and regulatory elements known to play a role in the relevant cell types during brain development. Similarly, it is crucial to experimentally follow up on hypotheses generated by such a comparative approach. Recent progress in understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mammalian brain development, in genome sequencing and in genome editing, promises to make a close integration of evolutionary and experimental methods a fruitful approach to better understand the genetics of mammalian brain size evolution.
The wheat group has evolved through allopolyploidization, namely, through hybridization among species from the plant genera Aegilops and Triticum followed by genome doubling. This speciation process has been associated with ecogeographical expansion and with domestication. In the past few decades, we have searched for explanations for this impressive success. Our studies attempted to probe the bases for the wide genetic variation characterizing these species, which accounts for their great adaptability and colonizing ability. Central to our work was the investigation of how allopolyploidization alters genome structure and expression. We found in wheat that allopolyploidy accelerated genome evolution in two ways: (1) it triggered rapid genome alterations through the instantaneous generation of a variety of cardinal genetic and epigenetic changes (which we termed “revolutionary” changes), and (2) it facilitated sporadic genomic changes throughout the species’ evolution (i.e., evolutionary changes), which are not attainable at the diploid level. Our major findings in natural and synthetic allopolyploid wheat indicate that these alterations have led to the cytological and genetic diploidization of the allopolyploids. These genetic and epigenetic changes reflect the dynamic structural and functional plasticity of the allopolyploid wheat genome. The significance of this plasticity for the successful establishment of wheat allopolyploids, in nature and under domestication, is discussed.
Feldman, Moshe; Levy, Avraham A.
Analysis of evolution of paralogous genes in a genome is central to our understanding of genome evolution. Comparison of closely related bacterial genomes, which has provided clues as to how genome sequences evolve under natural conditions, would help in such an analysis. With species Staphylococcus aureus, whole-genome sequences have been decoded for seven strains. We compared their DNA sequences to
Takeshi Tsuru; Mikihiko Kawai; Yoko Mizutani-Ui; Ikuo Uchiyama; Ichizo Kobayashi
Mycoplasmas evolved by a drastic reduction in genome size, but their genomes contain numerous repeated sequences with important roles in their evolution. We have established a bioinformatic strategy to detect the major recombination hot-spots in the genomes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma pulmonis. This allowed the identification of large numbers of potentially variable regions, as well as a comparison of the relative recombination potentials of different genomic regions. Different trends are perceptible among mycoplasmas, probably due to different functional and structural constraints. The largest potential for illegitimate recombination in M.pulmonis is found at the vsa locus and its comparison in two different strains reveals numerous changes since divergence. On the other hand, the main M.pneumoniae and M.genitalium adhesins rely on large distant repeats and, hence, homologous recombination for variation. However, the relation between the existence of repeats and antigenic variation is not necessarily straightforward, since repeats of P1 adhesin were found to be anti-correlated with epitopes recognized by patient antibodies. These different strategies have important consequences for the structures of genomes, since large distant repeats correlate well with the major chromosomal rearrangements. Probably to avoid such events, mycoplasmas strongly avoid inverse repeats, in comparison to co-oriented repeats.
Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Blanchard, Alain
Chromosomal rearrangements frequently occur at specific places ("hot spots") in the genome. These recombination hot spots are usually separated by 50-100 kb regions of DNA that are rarely involved in rearrangements. It is quite likely that there is a correlation between the above-mentioned distances and the average size of DNA loops fixed at the nuclear matrix. Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA loop anchorage regions can be fairly long and can harbor DNA recombination hot spots. We previously proposed that chromosomal DNA loops may constitute the basic units of genome organization in higher eukaryotes. In this review, we consider recombination between DNA loop anchorage regions as a possible source of genome evolution. PMID:19260023
Kantidze, Omar L; Razin, Sergey V
Assume no previous theories about genetics and evolution. What conclusions would we draw from molecular data (e.g. genome sequences)? We start from basic principles of cellular information processing: cells behave cognitively using signal transduction networks; signal transduction involves weak noncovalent interactions; allosteric properties of biomolecules; multivalent storage of information in DNA sequences and nucleoprotein complexes; inertness of naked DNA. Genome informatics thus requires formation of nucleoprotein complexes. Complex formation requires generic repeated signals in the DNA; repetition also permits cooperativity to stabilize weak interactions. DNA is a functional structural component of nucleoprotein complexes, not a passive data tape. Specificity in DNA nucleoprotein complex formation involves combining multiple generic signals and/or sequence recognition by small RNAs. Novel combinations of generic signals and coding sequences arise in genomes by iteration and rearrangement. Cells possess natural genetic engineering functions that actively restructure DNA molecules. These internal DNA remodeling functions act cognitively in response to internal and external inputs. They operate non-randomly with respect to (1) the types of new structures produced and (2) the regions of the genome modified. Whole genome sequence data increasingly documents the historical role of natural genetic engineering in evolutionary changes. Basic principles of cellular molecular biology and DNA function lead to a complex interactive systems view of genome organization. This view incorporates different DNA components found in sequenced genomes. Regulated cellular natural genetic engineering functions permit genomes to serve as Read-Write information storage systems, not just Read-Only memories subject to accidental change. These 21st Century conclusions are most compatible with a systems engineering view of the evolutionary process.
Vibrio cholerae, the etiological agent of the acute secretary diarrheal disease cholera, is still a major public health concern in developing countries. In former centuries cholera was a permanent threat even to the highly developed populations of Europe, North America, and the northern part of Asia. Extensive studies on the cholera bug over more than a century have made significant advances in our understanding of the disease and ways of treating patients. V. cholerae has more than 200 serogroups, but only few serogroups have caused disease on a worldwide scale. Until the present, the evolutionary relationship of these pandemic causing serogroups was not clear. In the last decades, we have witnessed a shift involving genetically and phenotypically varied pandemic clones of V. cholerae in Asia and Africa. The exponential knowledge on the genome of several representatives V. cholerae strains has been used to identify and analyze the key determinants for rapid evolution of cholera pathogen. Recent comparative genomic studies have identified the presence of various integrative mobile genetic elements (IMGEs) in V. cholerae genome, which can be used as a marker of differentiation of all seventh pandemic clones with very similar core genome. This review attempts to bring together some of the important researches in recent times that have contributed towards understanding the genetics, epidemiology and evolution of toxigenic V. cholerae strains. PMID:24462909
Banerjee, Rachana; Das, Bhabatosh; Balakrish Nair, G; Basak, Surajit
The mitochondrial genomes of the Chlorophyta exhibit significant diversity with respect to gene content and genome compactness; however, quantitative data on the rates of nucleotide substitution in mitochondrial DNA, which might help explain the origin of this diversity, are lacking. To gain insight into the evolutionary forces responsible for mitochondrial genome diversification, we sequenced to near completion the mitochondrial genome of the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas incerta, estimated the evolutionary divergence between Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and C. incerta mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNA-coding regions, and compared the relative evolutionary rates in mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates do not differ significantly between the mitochondrial and nuclear protein-coding genes. The mitochondrial rRNA-coding regions, however, are evolving much faster than their nuclear counterparts, and this difference might be explained by relaxed functional constraints on the mitochondrial translational apparatus due to the small number of proteins synthesized in Chlamydomonas mitochondria. Substitution rates at synonymous sites in a nonstandard mitochondrial gene (rtl) and at intronic and synonymous sites in nuclear genes expressed at low levels suggest that the mutation rate is similar in these two genetic compartments. Potential evolutionary forces shaping mitochondrial genome evolution in Chlamydomonas are discussed.
Popescu, Cristina E.; Lee, Robert W.
Contemporary data on human rhinovirus diseases and their pathogenesis are presented. Special attention is paid to complications which may be caused by rhinovirus infections in allergy-susceptible patients. Furthermore, approaches to the diagnostics and treatment of rhinovirus diseases are described. In particular, the advantages of molecular methods for the diagnostics of rhinovirus infection (based on the PCR) in comparison with cultural and immunochemical methods are pointed out. New investigations aimed at the development of specific antirhinovirus preparations--capsid-binding (Pleconaril), blocking the binding of the virus with cell receptors (ICAM, soluble) and inhibiting rhinovirus protease 3C--have been considered. PMID:16279553
Fa?zuloev, E B; Nikonova, A A; Zverev, V V
Background and Aims Brassicaceae, with nearly 340 genera and more than 3350 species, anchors the low range of angiosperm genome sizes. The relatively narrow range of DNA content (0·16 pg < 1C < 1·95 pg) was maintained in spite of extensive chromosomal change. The aim of this study was to erect a cytological and molecular phylogenetic framework for a selected subset of the Brassicacae, and use this as a template to examine genome size evolution in Brassicaceae. Methods DNA contents were determined by flow cytometry and chromosomes were counted for 34 species of the family Brassicaceae and for ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. The amplified and sequenced ITS region for 23 taxa (plus six other taxa with known ITS sequences) were aligned and used to infer evolutionary relationship by parsimony analysis. Key Results DNA content in the species studied ranged over 8-fold (1C = 0·16–1·31 pg), and 4·4-fold (1C = 0·16–0·71 pg) excluding allotetraploid Brassica species. The 1C DNA contents of ten Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes showed little variation, ranging from 0·16 pg to 0·17 pg. Conclusions The tree roots at an ancestral genome size of approximately 1x = 0·2 pg. Arabidopsis thaliana (1C = 0·16 pg; ~157 Mbp) has the smallest genome size in Brassicaceae studied here and apparently represents an evolutionary decrease in genome size. Two other branches that represent probable evolutionary decreases in genome size terminate in Lepidium virginicum and Brassica rapa. Branches in the phylogenetic tree that represent probable evolutionary increases in genome size terminate in Arabidopsis halleri, A. lyrata, Arabis hirsuta, Capsella rubella, Caulanthus heterophyllus, Crucihimalaya, Lepidium sativum, Sisymbrium and Thlaspi arvense. Branches within one clade containing Brassica were identified that represent two ancient ploidy events (2x to 4x and 4x to 6x) that were predicted from published comparative mapping studies.
SPENCER JOHNSTON, J.; PEPPER, ALAN E.; HALL, ANNE E.; JEFFREY CHEN, Z.; HODNETT, GEORGE; DRABEK, JANICE; LOPEZ, REBECCA; JAMES PRICE, H.
Background Paedocypris is a newly established genus of fish in Southeast Asia. Paedocypris is characterized by several unique features, including a tiny adult size (thus named miniature fish or minifish), fragmentary habitats of acidic peat blackwater swamps, an unusual reproduction mode and truncated development. These peculiarities lend themselves excellent for studying chromosome evolution and rapid speciation in vertebrates but also make them highly controversial for the phylogenetic position. Methodology and Principal Findings We have established an organ procedure to prepare chromosome spreads from tiny organs of minifish and performed a cytogenetic study on two species of the genus Paedocypris, namely P. carbunculus (Pc) and P. sp. “Singkep” (Ps). We found 30 and 34 chromosomes in diploid cells of Pc and Ps, respectively, which are unusual in teleost fishes. The diploid metaphase has 5 pairs of metacentrics and 7 pairs of subtelocentrics in Pc compared to 3 pairs of metacentrics and 11 pairs of subtelocentrics in Ps, whereas the haploid metaphase contains 5 metacentrics and 7 subtelocentrics in Pc compared to 3 metacentrics and 11 subtelocentrics Ps. Chromosome behavior in first meiosis revealed the presence of a chromosomal ring consisting of 2 metacentrics in Pc, suggesting that centric fusion rather than fission was responsible for the karyotypic evolution from Ps to Pc. Flow cytometry revealed that Pc had a 45% nuclear staining intensity relative to medaka whose genome is 700 Mb in size and contains 0.81 pg DNA. The Pc genome should have 315 Mb in length and 0.36 pg of DNA, which represent one of the smallest values in vertebrates, suggesting genome miniaturization in this organism. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that gross chromosome rearrangements and genome miniaturization have accompanied the evolution of Paedocypris fishes. Our data also place Paedocypris outside currently described taxa of the Cypriniformes.
Liu, Shaojun; Hui, Tan Heok; Tan, Sze Ley; Hong, Yunhan
Constraints in embryonic development are thought to bias the direction of evolution by making some changes less likely, and others more likely, depending on their consequences on ontogeny. Here, we characterize the constraints acting on genome evolution in vertebrates. We used gene expression data from two vertebrates: zebrafish, using a microarray experiment spanning 14 stages of development, and mouse, using EST counts for 26 stages of development. We show that, in both species, genes expressed early in development (1) have a more dramatic effect of knock-out or mutation and (2) are more likely to revert to single copy after whole genome duplication, relative to genes expressed late. This supports high constraints on early stages of vertebrate development, making them less open to innovations (gene gain or gene loss). Results are robust to different sources of data—gene expression from microarrays, ESTs, or in situ hybridizations; and mutants from directed KO, transgenic insertions, point mutations, or morpholinos. We determine the pattern of these constraints, which differs from the model used to describe vertebrate morphological conservation (“hourglass” model). While morphological constraints reach a maximum at mid-development (the “phylotypic” stage), genomic constraints appear to decrease in a monotonous manner over developmental time.
Roux, Julien; Robinson-Rechavi, Marc
Phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes produce diverse molecular structures and are often present in multiple forms encoded by different genes. This work utilizes comparative genomics and phylogenetics for exploring the distribution, structure and evolution of phospholipid biosynthetic genes and pathways in 26 eukaryotic genomes. Although the basic structure of the pathways was formed early in eukaryotic evolution, the emerging picture indicates that individual enzyme families followed unique evolutionary courses. For example, choline and ethanolamine kinases and cytidylyltransferases emerged in ancestral eukaryotes, whereas, multiple forms of the corresponding phosphatidyltransferases evolved mainly in a lineage specific manner. Furthermore, several unicellular eukaryotes maintain bacterial-type enzymes and reactions for the synthesis of phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. Also, base-exchange phosphatidylserine synthases are widespread and ancestral enzymes. The multiplicity of phospholipid biosynthetic enzymes has been largely generated by gene expansion in a lineage specific manner. Thus, these observations suggest that phospholipid biosynthesis has been an actively evolving system. Finally, comparative genomic analysis indicates the existence of novel phosphatidyltransferases and provides a candidate for the uncharacterized eukaryotic phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase.
Differences in gene regulation are thought to play an important role in speciation and adaptation. Comparative genomic studies of gene expression levels have identified a large number of differentially expressed genes among species, and, in a number of cases, also pointed to connections between interspecies differences in gene regulation and differences in ultimate physiological or morphological phenotypes. The mechanisms underlying changes in gene regulation are also being actively studied using comparative genomic approaches. However, the relative importance of different regulatory mechanisms to interspecies differences in gene expression levels is not yet well understood. In particular, it is often difficult to infer causality between apparent differences in regulatory mechanisms and changes in gene expression levels, a challenge that is compounded by the fact that the link between sequence variation and gene regulation is not clear. Indeed, in certain cases, gene regulation can be conserved even when sequences at associated regulatory elements have changed. In this chapter, I examine different genomic approaches to the study of regulatory evolution and the underlying genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms. I try to distinguish between hypothesis-driven and exploratory studies, and argue that the latter class of studies provides valuable information in its own right as well as necessary context for the former. I discuss issues related to study designs and statistical analyses of genomic studies, and review the evidence for natural selection on gene expression levels and associated regulatory mechanisms. Most of the issues that are discussed pertain to the general nature of multivariate genomic data, and thus are often relevant regardless of the technology that is used to collect high-throughput genomic data (for example, microarrays or massively parallel sequencing).
The genomic revolution has provided the first glimpses of the architecture of regulatory networks. Combined with evolutionary information, the “network view” of life processes leads to remarkable insights into how biological systems have been shaped by various forces. This understanding is critical because biological systems, including regulatory networks, are not products of engineering but of historical contingencies. In this light, we attempt a synthetic overview of the natural history of regulatory networks operating in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. We first introduce regulatory networks and their organizational principles as can be deduced using ideas from the graph theory. We then discuss findings from comparative genomics to illustrate the effects of lineage-specific expansions, gene-loss, and non-protein-coding DNA on the architecture of networks. We consider the interaction between expansions of transcription factors, and cis regulatory and more general chromatin state stabilizing elements in the emergence of morphological complexity. Finally, we consider a case study of the Notch sub-network, which is present throughout Metazoa, to examine how such a regulatory system has been pieced together in evolution from new innovations and pre-existing components that were originally functionally distinct.
Aravind, L.; Anantharaman, Vivek; Venancio, Thiago M.
With almost 20 genomes sequenced from unicellular ascomycetes (Saccharomycotina), and the prospect of many more in the pipeline, we review the patterns and processes of yeast genome evolution. A central core of about 4000 genes is shared by all the sequenced yeast genomes. Gains of genes by horizontal gene transfer seem to be very rare. Gene losses are more frequent,
Devin R. Scannell; Geraldine Butler; Kenneth H. Wolfe
Clinical Features and Complete Genome Characterization of a Distinct Human Rhinovirus (HRV) Genetic Cluster, Probably Representing a Previously Undetected HRV Species, HRV-C, Associated with Acute Respiratory Illness in Children?
Although human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are common causes of respiratory illness, their molecular epidemiology has been poorly investigated. Despite the recent findings of new HRV genotypes, their clinical disease spectrum and phylogenetic positions were not fully understood. In this study, 203 prospectively collected nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs), negative for common respiratory viruses (83 were human bocavirus [HBoV] positive and 120 HBoV negative), from hospitalized children during a 1-year period were subjected to reverse transcription-PCR for HRV. HRV was detected in 14 NPAs positive and 12 NPAs negative for HBoV. Upon VP4 gene analysis, 5 of these 26 HRV strains were found to belong to HRV-A while 21 belonged to a genetic clade probably representing a previously undetected HRV species, HRV-C, that is phylogenetically distinct from the two known HRV species, HRV-A and HRV-B. The VP4 sequences of these HRV-C strains were closely related to the newly identified HRV strains from the United States and Australia. Febrile wheeze or asthma was the most common presentation (76%) of HRV-C infection, which peaked in fall and winter. Complete genome sequencing of three HRV-C strains revealed that HRV-C represents an additional HRV species, with features distinct from HRV-A and HRV-B. Analysis of VP1 of HRV-C revealed major deletions in regions important for neutralization in other HRVs, which may be signs of a distinct species, while within-clade amino acid variation in potentially antigenic regions may indicate the existence of different serotypes among HRV-C strains. A newly identified HRV species, HRV-C, is circulating worldwide and is an important cause of febrile wheeze and asthmatic exacerbations in children requiring hospitalization.
Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsoi, Hoi-wah; Lee, Rodney A.; So, Lok-yee; Lau, Yu-lung; Chan, Kwok-hung; Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Yuen, Kwok-yung
A common belief is that evolution generally proceeds towards greater complexity at both the organismal and the genomic level, numerous examples of reductive evolution of parasites and symbionts notwithstanding. However, recent evolutionary reconstructions challenge this notion. Two notable examples are the reconstruction of the complex archaeal ancestor and the intron-rich ancestor of eukaryotes. In both cases, evolution in most of the lineages was apparently dominated by extensive loss of genes and introns, respectively. These and many other cases of reductive evolution are consistent with a general model composed of two distinct evolutionary phases: the short, explosive, innovation phase that leads to an abrupt increase in genome complexity, followed by a much longer reductive phase, which encompasses either a neutral ratchet of genetic material loss or adaptive genome streamlining. Quantitatively, the evolution of genomes appears to be dominated by reduction and simplification, punctuated by episodes of complexification.
Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V
Background The amount of DNA comprising the genome of an organism (its genome size) varies a remarkable 40 000-fold across eukaryotes, yet most groups are characterized by much narrower ranges (e.g. 14-fold in gymnosperms, 3- to 4-fold in mammals). Angiosperms stand out as one of the most variable groups with genome sizes varying nearly 2000-fold. Nevertheless within angiosperms the majority of families are characterized by genomes which are small and vary little. Species with large genomes are mostly restricted to a few monocots families including Orchidaceae. Scope A survey of the literature revealed that genome size data for Orchidaceae are comparatively rare representing just 327 species. Nevertheless they reveal that Orchidaceae are currently the most variable angiosperm family with genome sizes ranging 168-fold (1C = 0·33–55·4 pg). Analysing the data provided insights into the distribution, evolution and possible consequences to the plant of this genome size diversity. Conclusions Superimposing the data onto the increasingly robust phylogenetic tree of Orchidaceae revealed how different subfamilies were characterized by distinct genome size profiles. Epidendroideae possessed the greatest range of genome sizes, although the majority of species had small genomes. In contrast, the largest genomes were found in subfamilies Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. Genome size evolution within this subfamily was analysed as this is the only one with reasonable representation of data. This approach highlighted striking differences in genome size and karyotype evolution between the closely related Cypripedium, Paphiopedilum and Phragmipedium. As to the consequences of genome size diversity, various studies revealed that this has both practical (e.g. application of genetic fingerprinting techniques) and biological consequences (e.g. affecting where and when an orchid may grow) and emphasizes the importance of obtaining further genome size data given the considerable phylogenetic gaps which have been highlighted by the current study.
Leitch, I. J.; Kahandawala, I.; Suda, J.; Hanson, L.; Ingrouille, M. J.; Chase, M. W.; Fay, M. F.
Clinical Features and Complete Genome Characterization of a Distinct Human Rhinovirus (HRV) Genetic Cluster, Probably Representing a Previously Undetected HRV Species, HRV-C, Associated with Acute Respiratory Illness in Children
Although human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are common causes of respiratory illness, their molecular epidemi- ology has been poorly investigated. Despite the recent findings of new HRV genotypes, their clinical disease spectrum and phylogenetic positions were not fully understood. In this study, 203 prospectively collected nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs), negative for common respiratory viruses (83 were human bocavirus (HBoV) positive and 120 HBoV
Susanna K. P. Lau; Cyril C. Y. Yip; Hoi-wah Tsoi; Rodney A. Lee; Lok-yee So; Yu-lung Lau; Kwok-hung Chan; Patrick C. Y. Woo; Kwok-yung Yuen
BACKGROUND: Despite the economic and ecological importance of ants, genomic tools for this family (Formicidae) remain woefully scarce. Knowledge of genome size, for example, is a useful and necessary prerequisite for the development of many genomic resources, yet it has been reported for only one ant species (Solenopsis invicta), and the two published estimates for this species differ by 146.7
Neil D Tsutsui; Andrew V Suarez; Joseph C Spagna; J Spencer Johnston
The breadth of genomic diversity found among organisms in nature allows populations to adapt to diverse environments. However, genomic diversity is difficult to generate in the laboratory and new phenotypes do not easily arise on practical timescales. Although in vitro and directed evolution methods have created genetic variants with usefully altered phenotypes, these methods are limited to laborious and serial
Harris H. Wang; Farren J. Isaacs; Peter A. Carr; Zachary Z. Sun; George Xu; Craig R. Forest; George M. Church
Bacteria of the Thiomonas genus are ubiquitous in extreme environments, such as arsenic-rich acid mine drainage (AMD). The genome of one of these strains, Thiomonas sp. 3As, was sequenced, annotated, and examined, revealing specific adaptations allowing this bacterium to survive and grow in its highly toxic environment. In order to explore genomic diversity as well as genetic evolution in Thiomonas
Florence Arsène-Ploetze; Sandrine Koechler; Marie Marchal; Jean-Yves Coppée; Michael Chandler; Violaine Bonnefoy; Céline Brochier-Armanet; Mohamed Barakat; Valérie Barbe; Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet; Odile Bruneel; Christopher G. Bryan; Jessica Cleiss-Arnold; Stéphane Cruveiller; Mathieu Erhardt; Audrey Heinrich-Salmeron; Florence Hommais; Catherine Joulian; Evelyne Krin; Aurélie Lieutaud; Didier Lièvremont; Caroline Michel; Daniel Muller; Philippe Ortet; Caroline Proux; Patricia Siguier; David Roche; Zoé Rouy; Grégory Salvignol; Djamila Slyemi; Emmanuel Talla; Stéphanie Weiss; Jean Weissenbach; Claudine Médigue; Philippe N. Bertin
Background Genome evolution in the gymnosperm lineage of seed plants has given rise to many of the most complex and largest plant genomes, however the elements involved are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Gymny is a previously undescribed retrotransposon family in Pinus that is related to Athila elements in Arabidopsis. Gymny elements are dispersed throughout the modern Pinus genome and occupy a physical space at least the size of the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. In contrast to previously described retroelements in Pinus, the Gymny family was amplified or introduced after the divergence of pine and spruce (Picea). If retrotransposon expansions are responsible for genome size differences within the Pinaceae, as they are in angiosperms, then they have yet to be identified. In contrast, molecular divergence of Gymny retrotransposons together with other families of retrotransposons can account for the large genome complexity of pines along with protein-coding genic DNA, as revealed by massively parallel DNA sequence analysis of Cot fractionated genomic DNA. Conclusions/Significance Most of the enormous genome complexity of pines can be explained by divergence of retrotransposons, however the elements responsible for genome size variation are yet to be identified. Genomic resources for Pinus including those reported here should assist in further defining whether and how the roles of retrotransposons differ in the evolution of angiosperm and gymnosperm genomes.
Morse, Alison M.; Peterson, Daniel G.; Islam-Faridi, M. Nurul; Smith, Katherine E.; Magbanua, Zenaida; Garcia, Saul A.; Kubisiak, Thomas L.; Amerson, Henry V.; Carlson, John E.; Nelson, C. Dana; Davis, John M.
Polyploidization has provided much genetic variation for plant adaptive evolution, but the mechanisms by which the molecular evolution of polyploid genomes establishes genetic architecture underlying species differentiation are unclear. Brassica is an ideal model to increase knowledge of polyploid evolution. Here we describe a draft genome sequence of Brassica oleracea, comparing it with that of its sister species B. rapa to reveal numerous chromosome rearrangements and asymmetrical gene loss in duplicated genomic blocks, asymmetrical amplification of transposable elements, differential gene co-retention for specific pathways and variation in gene expression, including alternative splicing, among a large number of paralogous and orthologous genes. Genes related to the production of anticancer phytochemicals and morphological variations illustrate consequences of genome duplication and gene divergence, imparting biochemical and morphological variation to B. oleracea. This study provides insights into Brassica genome evolution and will underpin research into the many important crops in this genus. PMID:24852848
Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Yumei; Yang, Xinhua; Tong, Chaobo; Edwards, David; Parkin, Isobel A P; Zhao, Meixia; Ma, Jianxin; Yu, Jingyin; Huang, Shunmou; Wang, Xiyin; Wang, Junyi; Lu, Kun; Fang, Zhiyuan; Bancroft, Ian; Yang, Tae-Jin; Hu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yue, Zhen; Li, Haojie; Yang, Linfeng; Wu, Jian; Zhou, Qing; Wang, Wanxin; King, Graham J; Pires, J Chris; Lu, Changxin; Wu, Zhangyan; Sampath, Perumal; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Hui; Pan, Shengkai; Yang, Limei; Min, Jiumeng; Zhang, Dong; Jin, Dianchuan; Li, Wanshun; Belcram, Harry; Tu, Jinxing; Guan, Mei; Qi, Cunkou; Du, Dezhi; Li, Jiana; Jiang, Liangcai; Batley, Jacqueline; Sharpe, Andrew G; Park, Beom-Seok; Ruperao, Pradeep; Cheng, Feng; Waminal, Nomar Espinosa; Huang, Yin; Dong, Caihua; Wang, Li; Li, Jingping; Hu, Zhiyong; Zhuang, Mu; Huang, Yi; Huang, Junyan; Shi, Jiaqin; Mei, Desheng; Liu, Jing; Lee, Tae-Ho; Wang, Jinpeng; Jin, Huizhe; Li, Zaiyun; Li, Xun; Zhang, Jiefu; Xiao, Lu; Zhou, Yongming; Liu, Zhongsong; Liu, Xuequn; Qin, Rui; Tang, Xu; Liu, Wenbin; Wang, Yupeng; Zhang, Yangyong; Lee, Jonghoon; Kim, Hyun Hee; Denoeud, France; Xu, Xun; Liang, Xinming; Hua, Wei; Wang, Xiaowu; Wang, Jun; Chalhoub, Boulos; Paterson, Andrew H
Comparative chloroplast genome analyses are mostly carried out at lower taxonomic levels, such as the family and genus levels. At higher taxonomic levels, chloroplast genomes are generally used to reconstruct phylogenies. However, little attention has been paid to chloroplast genome evolution within orders. Here, we present the chloroplast genome of Sedum sarmentosum and take advantage of several available (or elucidated) chloroplast genomes to examine the evolution of chloroplast genomes in Saxifragales. The chloroplast genome of S. sarmentosum is 150,448 bp long and includes 82,212 bp of a large single-copy (LSC) region, 16.670 bp of a small single-copy (SSC) region, and a pair of 25,783 bp sequences of inverted repeats (IRs).The genome contains 131 unique genes, 18 of which are duplicated within the IRs. Based on a comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from four representative Saxifragales families, we observed two gene losses and two pseudogenes in Paeonia obovata, and the loss of an intron was detected in the rps16 gene of Penthorum chinense. Comparisons among the 72 common protein-coding genes confirmed that the chloroplast genomes of S. sarmentosum and Paeonia obovata exhibit accelerated sequence evolution. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between the rates of genome evolution and genome size. The detected genome size variations are predominantly caused by the length of intergenic spacers, rather than losses of genes and introns, gene pseudogenization or IR expansion or contraction. The genome sizes of these species are negatively correlated with nucleotide substitution rates. Species with shorter duration of the life cycle tend to exhibit shorter chloroplast genomes than those with longer life cycles.
Dong, Wenpan; Xu, Chao; Cheng, Tao; Zhou, Shiliang
It has been argued that the evolution of plant genome size is principally unidirectional and increasing owing to the varied action of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) and mobile element proliferation. However, extreme genome size reductions have been reported in the angiosperm family tree. Here we report the sequence of the 82-megabase genome of the carnivorous bladderwort plant Utricularia gibba. Despite its tiny size, the U. gibba genome accommodates a typical number of genes for a plant, with the main difference from other plant genomes arising from a drastic reduction in non-genic DNA. Unexpectedly, we identified at least three rounds of WGD in U. gibba since common ancestry with tomato (Solanum) and grape (Vitis). The compressed architecture of the U. gibba genome indicates that a small fraction of intergenic DNA, with few or no active retrotransposons, is sufficient to regulate and integrate all the processes required for the development and reproduction of a complex organism. PMID:23665961
Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Lyons, Eric; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; Pérez-Torres, Claudia Anahí; Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Lan, Tianying; Welch, Andreanna J; Juárez, María Jazmín Abraham; Simpson, June; Fernández-Cortés, Araceli; Arteaga-Vázquez, Mario; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Acevedo-Hernández, Gustavo; Schuster, Stephan C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Minoche, André E; Xu, Sen; Lynch, Michael; Oropeza-Aburto, Araceli; Cervantes-Pérez, Sergio Alan; de Jesús Ortega-Estrada, María; Cervantes-Luevano, Jacob Israel; Michael, Todd P; Mockler, Todd; Bryant, Douglas; Herrera-Estrella, Alfredo; Albert, Victor A; Herrera-Estrella, Luis
Current genomic perspectives on animal diversity neglect two prominent phyla, the molluscs and annelids, that together account for nearly one-third of known marine species and are important both ecologically and as experimental systems in classical embryology1–3. Here we describe the draft genomes of the owl limpet (Lottia gigantea), a marine polychaete (Capitella teleta) and a freshwater leech (Helobdella robusta), and compare them with other animal genomes to investigate the origin and diversification of bilaterians from a genomic perspective. We find that the genome organization, gene structure and functional content of these species are more similar to those of some invertebrate deuterostome genomes (for example, amphioxus and sea urchin) than those of other protostomes that have been sequenced to date (flies, nematodes and flatworms). The conservation of these genomic features enables us to expand the inventory of genes present in the last common bilaterian ancestor, establish the tripartite diversification of bilaterians using multiple genomic characteristics and identify ancient conserved long- and short-range genetic linkages across metazoans. Superimposed on this broadly conserved pan-bilaterian background we find examples of lineage-specific genome evolution, including varying rates of rearrangement, intron gain and loss, expansions and contractions of gene families, and the evolution of clade-specific genes that produce the unique content of each genome.
Simakov, Oleg; Marletaz, Ferdinand; Cho, Sung-Jin; Edsinger-Gonzales, Eric; Havlak, Paul; Hellsten, Uffe; Kuo, Dian-Han; Larsson, Tomas; Lv, Jie; Arendt, Detlev; Savage, Robert; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; de Jong, Pieter; Grimwood, Jane; Chapman, Jarrod A.; Shapiro, Harris; Aerts, Andrea; Otillar, Robert P.; Terry, Astrid Y.; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lindberg, David R.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.
Marine stickleback fish have colonized and adapted to thousands of streams and lakes formed since the last ice age, providing an exceptional opportunity to characterize genomic mechanisms underlying repeated ecological adaptation in nature. Here we develop a high-quality reference genome assembly for threespine sticklebacks. By sequencing the genomes of twenty additional individuals from a global set of marine and freshwater populations, we identify a genome-wide set of loci that are consistently associated with marine-freshwater divergence. Our results indicate that reuse of globally shared standing genetic variation, including chromosomal inversions, has an important role in repeated evolution of distinct marine and freshwater sticklebacks, and in the maintenance of divergent ecotypes during early stages of reproductive isolation. Both coding and regulatory changes occur in the set of loci underlying marine-freshwater evolution, but regulatory changes appear to predominate in this well known example of repeated adaptive evolution in nature. PMID:22481358
Jones, Felicity C; Grabherr, Manfred G; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Russell, Pamela; Mauceli, Evan; Johnson, Jeremy; Swofford, Ross; Pirun, Mono; Zody, Michael C; White, Simon; Birney, Ewan; Searle, Stephen; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Dickson, Mark C; Myers, Richard M; Miller, Craig T; Summers, Brian R; Knecht, Anne K; Brady, Shannon D; Zhang, Haili; Pollen, Alex A; Howes, Timothy; Amemiya, Chris; Baldwin, Jen; Bloom, Toby; Jaffe, David B; Nicol, Robert; Wilkinson, Jane; Lander, Eric S; Di Palma, Federica; Lindblad-Toh, Kerstin; Kingsley, David M
A model for the evolution of biological systems in the absence of a nucleic acid-like genome is proposed and applied to model the earliest living organisms -- protocells composed of membrane encapsulated peptides. Assuming that the peptides can make and break bonds between amino acids, and bonds in non-functional peptides are more likely to be destroyed than in functional peptides, it is demonstrated that the catalytic capabilities of the system as a whole can increase. This increase is defined to be non-genomic evolution. The relationship between the proposed mechanism for evolution and recent experiments on self-replicating peptides is discussed.
New, Michael H.; Pohorille, Andrew
Mobile elements make up large portions of most eukaryotic genomes. They create genetic instability, not only through insertional mutation but also by contributing recombination substrates, both during and long after their insertion. The combination of whole-genome sequences and the development of innovative new assays to test the function of mobile elements have increased our understanding of how these elements mobilize
Prescott L Deininger; John V Moran; Mark A Batzer; Haig H Kazazian Jr
Rye (Secale cereale) is closely related to wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Due to its large genome (?8 Gb) and its regional importance, genome analysis of rye has lagged behind other cereals. Here, we established a virtual linear gene order model (genome zipper) comprising 22,426 or 72% of the detected set of 31,008 rye genes. This was achieved by high-throughput transcript mapping, chromosome survey sequencing, and integration of conserved synteny information of three sequenced model grass genomes (Brachypodium distachyon, rice [Oryza sativa], and sorghum [Sorghum bicolor]). This enabled a genome-wide high-density comparative analysis of rye/barley/model grass genome synteny. Seventeen conserved syntenic linkage blocks making up the rye and barley genomes were defined in comparison to model grass genomes. Six major translocations shaped the modern rye genome in comparison to a putative Triticeae ancestral genome. Strikingly dissimilar conserved syntenic gene content, gene sequence diversity signatures, and phylogenetic networks were found for individual rye syntenic blocks. This indicates that introgressive hybridizations (diploid or polyploidy hybrid speciation) and/or a series of whole-genome or chromosome duplications played a role in rye speciation and genome evolution.
Martis, Mihaela M.; Zhou, Ruonan; Haseneyer, Grit; Schmutzer, Thomas; Vrana, Jan; Kubalakova, Marie; Konig, Susanne; Kugler, Karl G.; Scholz, Uwe; Hackauf, Bernd; Korzun, Viktor; Schon, Chris-Carolin; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Bauer, Eva; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Stein, Nils
Marsupials (metatherians), with their position in vertebrate phylogeny and their unique biological features, have been studied for many years by a dedicated group of researchers, but it has only been since the sequencing of the first marsupial genome that their value has been more widely recognised. We now have genome sequences for three distantly related marsupial species (the grey short-tailed opossum, the tammar wallaby, and Tasmanian devil), with the promise of many more genomes to be sequenced in the near future, making this a particularly exciting time in marsupial genomics. The emergence of a transmissible cancer, which is obliterating the Tasmanian devil population, has increased the importance of obtaining and analysing marsupial genome sequence for understanding such diseases as well as for conservation efforts. In addition, these genome sequences have facilitated studies aimed at answering questions regarding gene and genome evolution and provided insight into the evolution of epigenetic mechanisms. Here I highlight the major advances in our understanding of evolution and disease, facilitated by marsupial genome projects, and speculate on the future contributions to be made by such sequences. PMID:24278712
Deakin, Janine E
Species in the filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus display a wide diversity of lifestyles and are of great importance to humans. The decoding of genome sequences from a dozen species that vary widely in their degree of evolutionary affinity has galvanized studies of the function and evolution of the Aspergillus genome in clinical, industrial, and agricultural environments. Here, we synthesize recent key findings that shed light on the architecture of the Aspergillus genome, on the molecular foundations of the genus’ astounding dexterity and diversity in secondary metabolism, and on the genetic underpinnings of virulence in Aspergillus fumigatus, one of the most lethal fungal pathogens. Many of these insights dramatically expand our knowledge of fungal and microbial eukaryote genome evolution and function and argue that Aspergillus constitutes a superb model clade for the study of functional and comparative genomics.
Gibbons, John G.; Rokas, Antonis
Conifers have dominated forests for more than 200?million years and are of huge ecological and economic importance. Here we present the draft assembly of the 20-gigabase genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies), the first available for any gymnosperm. The number of well-supported genes (28,354) is similar to the >100 times smaller genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, and there is no evidence of a recent whole-genome duplication in the gymnosperm lineage. Instead, the large genome size seems to result from the slow and steady accumulation of a diverse set of long-terminal repeat transposable elements, possibly owing to the lack of an efficient elimination mechanism. Comparative sequencing of Pinus sylvestris, Abies sibirica, Juniperus communis, Taxus baccata and Gnetum gnemon reveals that the transposable element diversity is shared among extant conifers. Expression of 24-nucleotide small RNAs, previously implicated in transposable element silencing, is tissue-specific and much lower than in other plants. We further identify numerous long (>10,000?base pairs) introns, gene-like fragments, uncharacterized long non-coding RNAs and short RNAs. This opens up new genomic avenues for conifer forestry and breeding. PMID:23698360
Nystedt, Björn; Street, Nathaniel R; Wetterbom, Anna; Zuccolo, Andrea; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Scofield, Douglas G; Vezzi, Francesco; Delhomme, Nicolas; Giacomello, Stefania; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Vicedomini, Riccardo; Sahlin, Kristoffer; Sherwood, Ellen; Elfstrand, Malin; Gramzow, Lydia; Holmberg, Kristina; Hällman, Jimmie; Keech, Olivier; Klasson, Lisa; Koriabine, Maxim; Kucukoglu, Melis; Käller, Max; Luthman, Johannes; Lysholm, Fredrik; Niittylä, Totte; Olson, Ake; Rilakovic, Nemanja; Ritland, Carol; Rosselló, Josep A; Sena, Juliana; Svensson, Thomas; Talavera-López, Carlos; Theißen, Günter; Tuominen, Hannele; Vanneste, Kevin; Wu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhang, Bo; Zerbe, Philipp; Arvestad, Lars; Bhalerao, Rishikesh; Bohlmann, Joerg; Bousquet, Jean; Garcia Gil, Rosario; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; de Jong, Pieter; MacKay, John; Morgante, Michele; Ritland, Kermit; Sundberg, Björn; Thompson, Stacey Lee; Van de Peer, Yves; Andersson, Björn; Nilsson, Ove; Ingvarsson, Pär K; Lundeberg, Joakim; Jansson, Stefan
We have sequenced the genome of the intracellular symbiont Buchnera aphidicola from the aphid Baizongia pistacea. This strain diverged 80–150 million years ago from the common ancestor of two previously sequenced Buchnera strains. Here, a field-collected, nonclonal sample of insects was used as source material for laboratory procedures. As a consequence, the genome assembly unveiled intrapopulational variation, consisting of ?1,200 polymorphic sites. Comparison of the 618-kb (kbp) genome with the two other Buchnera genomes revealed a nearly perfect gene-order conservation, indicating that the onset of genomic stasis coincided closely with establishment of the symbiosis with aphids, ?200 million years ago. Extensive genome reduction also predates the synchronous diversification of Buchnera and its host; but, at a slower rate, gene loss continues among the extant lineages. A computational study of protein folding predicts that proteins in Buchnera, as well as proteins of other intracellular bacteria, are generally characterized by smaller folding efficiency compared with proteins of free living bacteria. These and other degenerative genomic features are discussed in light of compensatory processes and theoretical predictions on the long-term evolutionary fate of symbionts like Buchnera.
van Ham, Roeland C. H. J.; Kamerbeek, Judith; Palacios, Carmen; Rausell, Carolina; Abascal, Federico; Bastolla, Ugo; Fernandez, Jose M.; Jimenez, Luis; Postigo, Marina; Silva, Francisco J.; Tamames, Javier; Viguera, Enrique; Latorre, Amparo; Valencia, Alfonso; Moran, Federico; Moya, Andres
Background and Aims The genus Carex exhibits karyological peculiarities related to holocentrism, specifically extremely broad and almost continual variation in chromosome number. However, the effect of these peculiarities on the evolution of the genome (genome size, base composition) remains unknown. While in monocentrics, determining the arithmetic relationship between the chromosome numbers of related species is usually sufficient for the detection of particular modes of karyotype evolution (i.e. polyploidy and dysploidy), in holocentrics where chromosomal fission and fusion occur such detection requires knowledge of the DNA content. Methods The genome size and GC content were estimated in 157 taxa using flow cytometry. The exact chromosome numbers were known for 96 measured samples and were taken from the available literature for other taxa. All relationships were tested in a phylogenetic framework using the ITS tree of 105 species. Key Results The 1C genome size varied between 0·24 and 1·64 pg in Carex secalina and C. cuspidata, respectively. The genomic GC content varied from 34·8 % to 40·6 % from C. secalina to C. firma. Both genomic parameters were positively correlated. Seven polyploid and two potentially polyploid taxa were detected in the core Carex clade. A strong negative correlation between genome size and chromosome number was documented in non-polyploid taxa. Non-polyploid taxa of the core Carex clade exhibited a higher rate of genome-size evolution compared with the Vignea clade. Three dioecious taxa exhibited larger genomes, larger chromosomes, and a higher GC content than their hermaphrodite relatives. Conclusions Genomes of Carex are relatively small and very GC-poor compared with other angiosperms. We conclude that the evolution of genome and karyotype in Carex is promoted by frequent chromosomal fissions/fusions, rare polyploidy and common repetitive DNA proliferation/removal.
Lipnerova, Ivana; Bures, Petr; Horova, Lucie; Smarda, Petr
Retrotransposon or retrotransposon-like sequences have been reported to be conserved components of cereal centromeres. Here we show that the published sequences are derived from a single conventional Ty3-gypsy family or a nonautonomous derivative. Both autonomous and nonautonomous elements are likely to have colonized Poaceae centromeres at the time of a common ancestor but have been maintained since by active retrotransposition. The retrotransposon family is also present at a lower copy number in the Arabidopsis genome, where it shows less pronounced localization. The history of the family in the two types of genome provides an interesting contrast between "boom and bust" and persistent evolutionary patterns.
Langdon, T; Seago, C; Mende, M; Leggett, M; Thomas, H; Forster, J W; Jones, R N; Jenkins, G
The shape of the distribution of evolutionary distances between orthologous genes in pairs of closely related genomes is universal throughout the entire range of cellular life forms. The near invariance of this distribution across billions of years of evolution can be accounted for by the Universal Pace Maker (UPM) model of genome evolution that yields a significantly better fit to the phylogenetic data than the Molecular Clock (MC) model. Unlike the MC, the UPM model does not assume constant gene-specific evolutionary rates but rather postulates that, in each evolving lineage, the evolutionary rates of all genes change (approximately) in unison although the pacemakers of different lineages are not necessarily synchronized. Here, we dissect the nearly constant evolutionary rate distribution by comparing the genome-wide relative rates of evolution of individual genes in pairs or triplets of closely related genomes from diverse bacterial and archaeal taxa. We show that, although the gene-specific relative rate is an important feature of genome evolution that explains more than half of the variance of the evolutionary distances, the ranges of relative rate variability are extremely broad even for universal genes. Because of this high variance, the gene-specific rate is a poor predictor of the conservation rank for any gene in any particular lineage.
Wolf, Yuri I.; Snir, Sagi; Koonin, Eugene V.
? Background and Aims Brassicaceae, with nearly 340 genera and more than 3350 species, anchors the low range of angiosperm genome sizes. The relatively narrow range of DNA content (0? 16 pg < 1C < 1? 95 pg) was maintained in spite of extensive chromosomal change. The aim of this study was to erect a cytological and molecular phylogenetic framework
J. SPENCER JOHNSTON; ALAN E. PEPPER; ANNE E. HALL; Z. JEFFREY CHEN; GEORGE HODNETT; JANICE DRABEK; REBECCA LOPEZ; H. JAMES PRICE
During an outbreak of severe acute respiratory infections in 2 orphanages, Vietnam, 7/12 hospitalized children died. All hospitalized children and 26/43 children from outbreak orphanages tested positive for rhinovirus versus 9/40 control children (p = 0.0005). Outbreak rhinoviruses formed a distinct genetic cluster. Human rhinovirus is an underappreciated cause of severe pneumonia in vulnerable groups. PMID:23092635
Hai, Le Thanh; Bich, Vu Thi Ngoc; Ngai, Le Kien; Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Phuc, Phan Huu; Hung, Viet Pham; Taylor, Walter R; Horby, Peter; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Wertheim, Heiman F L
Recent genome sequencing studies have identified several classes of complex genomic rearrangements that appear to be derived from a single catastrophic event. These discoveries identify ways that genomes can be altered in single large jumps rather than by many incremental steps. Here we compare and contrast these phenomena and examine the evidence that they arise “all at once.” We consider the impact of massive chromosomal change for the development of diseases such as cancer and for evolution more generally. Finally, we summarize current models for underlying mechanisms and discuss strategies for testing these models.
Zhang, Cheng-Zhong; Leibowitz, Mitchell L.; Pellman, David
Hexaploid bread wheat contains A, B, and D three subgenomes with its well-characterized ancestral genomes existed at diploid and tetraploid levels, making the wheat act as a good model species for studying evolutionary genomic dynamics. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and related grass genomes to examine the dynamics of homologous regions surrounding Rht-1, a well-known “green revolution” gene. Our results showed that the divergence of the two A genomes in the Rht-1 region from the diploid and tetraploid species is greater than that from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The divergence of D genome between diploid and hexaploid is lower than those of A genome, suggesting that D genome diverged latter than others. The divergence among the A, B and D subgenomes was larger than that among different ploidy levels for each subgenome which mainly resulted from genomic structural variation of insertions and, perhaps deletions, of the repetitive sequences. Meanwhile, the repetitive sequences caused genome expansion further after the divergence of the three subgenomes. However, several conserved non-coding sequences were identified to be shared among the three subgenomes of wheat, suggesting that they may have played an important role to maintain the homolog of three subgenomes. This is a pilot study on evolutionary dynamics across the wheat ploids, subgenomes and differently related grasses. Our results gained new insights into evolutionary dynamics of Rht-1 region at sequence level as well as the evolution of wheat during the plolyploidization process.
Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Shi, Chao; Gu, Yongqiang; Jin, Cuiyun; Gao, Lizhi; Jia, Jizeng
Hexaploid bread wheat contains A, B, and D three subgenomes with its well-characterized ancestral genomes existed at diploid and tetraploid levels, making the wheat act as a good model species for studying evolutionary genomic dynamics. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and related grass genomes to examine the dynamics of homologous regions surrounding Rht-1, a well-known "green revolution" gene. Our results showed that the divergence of the two A genomes in the Rht-1 region from the diploid and tetraploid species is greater than that from the tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. The divergence of D genome between diploid and hexaploid is lower than those of A genome, suggesting that D genome diverged latter than others. The divergence among the A, B and D subgenomes was larger than that among different ploidy levels for each subgenome which mainly resulted from genomic structural variation of insertions and, perhaps deletions, of the repetitive sequences. Meanwhile, the repetitive sequences caused genome expansion further after the divergence of the three subgenomes. However, several conserved non-coding sequences were identified to be shared among the three subgenomes of wheat, suggesting that they may have played an important role to maintain the homolog of three subgenomes. This is a pilot study on evolutionary dynamics across the wheat ploids, subgenomes and differently related grasses. Our results gained new insights into evolutionary dynamics of Rht-1 region at sequence level as well as the evolution of wheat during the plolyploidization process. PMID:24086561
Wu, Jing; Kong, Xiuying; Shi, Chao; Gu, Yongqiang; Jin, Cuiyun; Gao, Lizhi; Jia, Jizeng
Plant mitochondrial genomes have been known to be highly unusual in their large sizes, frequent intra-genomic rearrangement,\\u000a and generally conservative sequence evolution. Recent studies show that in early land plants the mitochondrial genomes exhibit\\u000a a mixed mode of conservative yet dynamic evolution. Here, we report the completely sequenced mitochondrial genome from the\\u000a liverwort Pleurozia purpurea. The circular genome has a
Bin Wang; Jiayu Xue; Libo Li; Yang Liu; Yin-Long Qiu
The Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, is unmatched among plants in its wealth of genomic and functional molecular data and has long served as a model for understanding gene, genome, and trait evolution. However, genome information from a phylogenetic outgroup that is essential for inferring directionality of evolutionary change has been lacking. We therefore sequenced the genome of the spider flower (Tarenaya hassleriana) from the Brassicaceae sister family, the Cleomaceae. By comparative analysis of the two lineages, we show that genome evolution following ancient polyploidy and gene duplication events affect reproductively important traits. We found an ancient genome triplication in Tarenaya (Th-?) that is independent of the Brassicaceae-specific duplication (At-?) and nested Brassica (Br-?) triplication. To showcase the potential of sister lineage genome analysis, we investigated the state of floral developmental genes and show Brassica retains twice as many floral MADS (for minichromosome maintenance1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and serum response factor) genes as Tarenaya that likely contribute to morphological diversity in Brassica. We also performed synteny analysis of gene families that confer self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae and found that the critical serine receptor kinase receptor gene is derived from a lineage-specific tandem duplication. The T. hassleriana genome will facilitate future research toward elucidating the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae genomes. PMID:23983221
Cheng, Shifeng; van den Bergh, Erik; Zeng, Peng; Zhong, Xiao; Xu, Jiajia; Liu, Xin; Hofberger, Johannes; de Bruijn, Suzanne; Bhide, Amey S; Kuelahoglu, Canan; Bian, Chao; Chen, Jing; Fan, Guangyi; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Hall, Jocelyn C; Becker, Annette; Bräutigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P M; Shi, Chengcheng; Zheng, Zhijun; Li, Wujiao; Lv, Mingju; Tao, Yimin; Wang, Junyi; Zou, Hongfeng; Quan, Zhiwu; Hibberd, Julian M; Zhang, Gengyun; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Xu, Xun; Schranz, M Eric
We used comparative genomics to elucidate the genome evolution within the pre–whole-genome duplication genus Eremothecium. To this end, we sequenced and assembled the complete genome of Eremothecium cymbalariae, a filamentous ascomycete representing the Eremothecium type strain. Genome annotation indicated 4712 gene models and 143 tRNAs. We compared the E. cymbalariae genome with that of its relative, the riboflavin overproducer Ashbya (Eremothecium) gossypii, and the reconstructed yeast ancestor. Decisive changes in the Eremothecium lineage leading to the evolution of the A. gossypii genome include the reduction from eight to seven chromosomes, the downsizing of the genome by removal of 10% or 900 kb of DNA, mostly in intergenic regions, the loss of a TY3-Gypsy–type transposable element, the re-arrangement of mating-type loci, and a massive increase of its GC content. Key species-specific events are the loss of MNN1-family of mannosyltransferases required to add the terminal fourth and fifth ?-1,3-linked mannose residue to O-linked glycans and genes of the Ehrlich pathway in E. cymbalariae and the loss of ZMM-family of meiosis-specific proteins and acquisition of riboflavin overproduction in A. gossypii. This reveals that within the Saccharomyces complex genome, evolution is not only based on genome duplication with subsequent gene deletions and chromosomal rearrangements but also on fungi associated with specific environments (e.g. involving fungal-insect interactions as in Eremothecium), which have encountered challenges that may be reflected both in genome streamlining and their biosynthetic potential.
Wendland, Jurgen; Walther, Andrea
\\u000a Bacteria can be considered as the interface between geochemical cycles and the superior forms of life. Therefore, how the\\u000a origin of life has been constructing metabolic complexity from earth geochemistry and how bacterial evolution is continuously\\u000a modifying it represent major issues cross-linking both geochemical and evolutionary viewpoints.
Giovanni Emiliani; Marco Fondi; Pietro Liò; Renato Fani
Throughout mammalian evolution, recombination between the two sex chromosomes was suppressed in a stepwise manner. It is thought that the suppression of recombination led to an accumulation of deleterious mutations and frequent genomic rearrangements on the Y chromosome. In this article, we review three evolutionary aspects related to genomic rearrangements and structures, such as inverted repeats (IRs) and palindromes (PDs), on the mammalian sex chromosomes. First, we describe the stepwise manner in which recombination between the X and Y chromosomes was suppressed in placental mammals and discuss a genomic rearrangement that might have led to the formation of present pseudoautosomal boundaries (PAB). Second, we describe ectopic gene conversion between the X and Y chromosomes, and propose possible molecular causes. Third, we focus on the evolutionary mode and timing of PD formation on the X and Y chromosomes. The sequence of the chimpanzee Y chromosome was recently published by two groups. Both groups suggest that rapid evolution of genomic structure occurred on the Y chromosome. Our re-analysis of the sequences confirmed the species-specific mode of human and chimpanzee Y chromosomal evolution. Finally, we present a general outlook regarding the rapid evolution of mammalian sex chromosomes.
Katsura, Yukako; Iwase, Mineyo; Satta, Yoko
Background Complete mitochondrial genome sequences have become important tools for the study of genome architecture, phylogeny, and molecular evolution. Despite the rapid increase in available mitogenomes, the taxonomic sampling often poorly reflects phylogenetic diversity and is often also biased to represent deeper (family-level) evolutionary relationships. Results We present the first fully sequenced ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) mitochondrial genomes. We sampled four mitogenomes from three species of fire ants, genus Solenopsis, which represent various evolutionary depths. Overall, ant mitogenomes appear to be typical of hymenopteran mitogenomes, displaying a general A+T-bias. The Solenopsis mitogenomes are slightly more compact than other hymentoperan mitogenomes (~15.5 kb), retaining all protein coding genes, ribosomal, and transfer RNAs. We also present evidence of recombination between the mitogenomes of the two conspecific Solenopsis mitogenomes. Finally, we discuss potential ways to improve the estimation of phylogenies using complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Conclusions The ant mitogenome presents an important addition to the continued efforts in studying hymenopteran mitogenome architecture, evolution, and phylogenetics. We provide further evidence that the sampling across many taxonomic levels (including conspecifics and congeners) is useful and important to gain detailed insights into mitogenome evolution. We also discuss ways that may help improve the use of mitogenomes in phylogenetic analyses by accounting for non-stationary and non-homogeneous evolution among branches.
Background Transposable elements (TEs) have the potential to impact genome structure, function and evolution in profound ways. In order to understand the contribution of transposable elements (TEs) to Heliconius melpomene, we queried the H. melpomene draft sequence to identify repetitive sequences. Results We determined that TEs comprise ~25% of the genome. The predominant class of TEs (~12% of the genome) was the non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons, including a novel SINE family. However, this was only slightly higher than content derived from DNA transposons, which are diverse, with several families having mobilized in the recent past. Compared to the only other well-studied lepidopteran genome, Bombyx mori, H. melpomene exhibits a higher DNA transposon content and a distinct repertoire of retrotransposons. We also found that H. melpomene exhibits a high rate of TE turnover with few older elements accumulating in the genome. Conclusions Our analysis represents the first complete, de novo characterization of TE content in a butterfly genome and suggests that, while TEs are able to invade and multiply, TEs have an overall deleterious effect and/or that maintaining a small genome is advantageous. Our results also hint that analysis of additional lepidopteran genomes will reveal substantial TE diversity within the group.
Uncovering general principles of genome evolution that are time-invariant and that operate in germ and somatic cells has implications for genome-wide association studies (GWAS), gene therapy, and disease genomics. Here we investigate the relationship between structural alterations (e.g., insertions and deletions) and single-nucleotide substitutions by comparing the following genomes that diverged at different times across germ- and somatic-cell lineages: (i) the reference human and chimpanzee genome (in million years), (ii) the reference human and personal genomes (in tens of thousands of years), and (iii) structurally altered regions in cancer and genetically engineered cells (in days). At the species level, genes with structural alteration in nearby regions show increased single-nucleotide changes and tend to evolve faster. In personal genomes, the single-nucleotide substitution rate is higher near sites of structural alteration and decreases with increasing distance. In human cancer cell populations and in cells genetically engineered using zinc-finger nucleases, single-nucleotide changes occur frequently near sites of structural alterations. We present evidence that structural alteration induces single-nucleotide changes in nearby regions and discuss possible molecular mechanisms that contribute to this phenomenon. We propose that the low fidelity of nonreplicative error-prone repair polymerases, which are used during insertion or deletion, result in break-repair-induced single-nucleotide mutations in the vicinity of structural alteration. Thus, in the mutational landscape, structural alterations are linked to single-nucleotide changes across different time scales in both somatic- and germ-cell lineages. We discuss implications for genome evolution, GWAS, disease genomics, and gene therapy and emphasize the need to investigate both types of mutations within a single framework.
De, Subhajyoti; Babu, M. Madan
Bacterial pathogens exhibit significant variation in their genomic content of virulence factors. This reflects the abundance of strategies pathogens evolved to infect host organisms by suppressing host immunity. Molecular arms-races have been a strong driving force for the evolution of pathogenicity, with pathogens often encoding overlapping or redundant functions, such as type III protein secretion effectors and hosts encoding ever more sophisticated immune systems. The pathogens' frequent exposure to other microbes, either in their host or in the environment, provides opportunities for the acquisition or interchange of mobile genetic elements. These DNA elements accessorize the core genome and can play major roles in shaping genome structure and altering the complement of virulence factors. Here, we review the different mobile genetic elements focusing on the more recent discoveries and highlighting their role in shaping bacterial pathogen evolution.
Vinatzer, Boris; Arnold, Dawn L; Dorus, Steve; Murillo, Jesus
We report the genome sequence of the nonseed vascular plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and by comparative genomics identify genes that likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular plants and their subsequent evolution
Grigoriev, Igor V.; Banks, Jo Ann; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Bowman, John L.; Gribskov, Michael; dePamphilis, Claude; Albert, Victor A.; Aono, Naoki; Aoyama, Tsuyoshi; Ambrose, Barbara A.; Ashton, Neil W.; Axtell, Michael J.; Barker, Elizabeth; Barker, Michael S.; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Chapple, Clint; Cheng, Chaoyang; Correa, Luiz Gustavo Guedes; Dacre, Michael; DeBarry, Jeremy; Dreyer, Ingo; Elias, Marek; Engstrom, Eric M.; Estelle, Mark; Feng, Liang; Finet, Cedric; Floyd, Sandra K.; Frommer, Wolf B.; Fujita, Tomomichi; Gramzow, Lydia; Gutensohn, Michael; Harholt, Jesper; Hattori, Mitsuru; Heyl, Alexander; Hirai, Tadayoshi; Hiwatashi, Yuji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Iwata, Mineko; Karol, Kenneth G.; Koehler, Barbara; Kolukisaoglu, Uener; Kubo, Minoru; Kurata, Tetsuya; Lalonde, Sylvie; Li, Kejie; Li, Ying; Litt, Amy; Lyons, Eric; Manning, Gerard; Maruyama, Takeshi; Michael, Todd P.; Mikami, Koji; Miyazaki, Saori; Morinaga, Shin-ichi; Murata, Takashi; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Nelson, David R.; Obara, Mari; Oguri, Yasuko; Olmstead, Richard G.; Onodera, Naoko; Petersen, Bent Larsen; Pils, Birgit; Prigge, Michael; Rensing, Stefan A.; Riano-Pachon, Diego Mauricio; Roberts, Alison W.; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Schulz, Burkhard; Schulz, Christian; Shakirov, Eugene V.; Shibagaki, Nakako; Shinohara, Naoki; Shippen, Dorothy E.; Sorensen, Iben; Sotooka, Ryo; Sugimoto, Nagisa; Sugita, Mamoru; Sumikawa, Naomi; Tanurdzic, Milos; Theilsen, Gunter; Ulvskov, Peter; Wakazuki, Sachiko; Weng, Jing-Ke; Willats, William W.G.T.; Wipf, Daniel; Wolf, Paul G.; Yang, Lixing; Zimmer, Andreas D.; Zhu, Qihui; Mitros, Therese; Hellsten, Uffe; Loque, Dominique; Otillar, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Rokhsar, Daniel
Vertebrate evolution has been shaped by several rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that are often suggested to be associated with adaptive radiations and evolutionary innovations. Due to an additional round of WGD, the rainbow trout genome offers a unique opportunity to investigate the early evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome. Here we show that after 100 million years of evolution the two ancestral subgenomes have remained extremely collinear, despite the loss of half of the duplicated protein-coding genes, mostly through pseudogenization. In striking contrast is the fate of miRNA genes that have almost all been retained as duplicated copies. The slow and stepwise rediploidization process characterized here challenges the current hypothesis that WGD is followed by massive and rapid genomic reorganizations and gene deletions. PMID:24755649
Berthelot, Camille; Brunet, Frédéric; Chalopin, Domitille; Juanchich, Amélie; Bernard, Maria; Noël, Benjamin; Bento, Pascal; Da Silva, Corinne; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Aury, Jean-Marc; Louis, Alexandra; Dehais, Patrice; Bardou, Philippe; Montfort, Jérôme; Klopp, Christophe; Cabau, Cédric; Gaspin, Christine; Thorgaard, Gary H; Boussaha, Mekki; Quillet, Edwige; Guyomard, René; Galiana, Delphine; Bobe, Julien; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Genêt, Carine; Wincker, Patrick; Jaillon, Olivier; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Guiguen, Yann
Vertebrate evolution has been shaped by several rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that are often suggested to be associated with adaptive radiations and evolutionary innovations. Due to an additional round of WGD, the rainbow trout genome offers a unique opportunity to investigate the early evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome. Here we show that after 100 million years of evolution the two ancestral subgenomes have remained extremely collinear, despite the loss of half of the duplicated protein-coding genes, mostly through pseudogenization. In striking contrast is the fate of miRNA genes that have almost all been retained as duplicated copies. The slow and stepwise rediploidization process characterized here challenges the current hypothesis that WGD is followed by massive and rapid genomic reorganizations and gene deletions.
Berthelot, Camille; Brunet, Frederic; Chalopin, Domitille; Juanchich, Amelie; Bernard, Maria; Noel, Benjamin; Bento, Pascal; Da Silva, Corinne; Labadie, Karine; Alberti, Adriana; Aury, Jean-Marc; Louis, Alexandra; Dehais, Patrice; Bardou, Philippe; Montfort, Jerome; Klopp, Christophe; Cabau, Cedric; Gaspin, Christine; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Boussaha, Mekki; Quillet, Edwige; Guyomard, Rene; Galiana, Delphine; Bobe, Julien; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Genet, Carine; Wincker, Patrick; Jaillon, Olivier; Crollius, Hugues Roest; Guiguen, Yann
The entire nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, was determined. Two major features distinguish this genome from those of other mammals. First, five tRNA genes around the origin of light strand replication are rearranged. Second, the anticodon of tRNA(Asp) is posttranscriptionally changed by an RNA editing process such that its coding capacity is altered. When the complete protein-coding region of the mitochondrial genome is used as an outgroup for placental mammals it can be shown that rodents represent an earlier branch among placental mammals than primates and artiodactyls and that artiodactyls share a common ancestor with carnivores. The overall rates of evolution of most of the mitochondrial genome of placentals are clocklike. Furthermore, the data indicate that the lineages leading to the mouse and rat may have diverged from each other as much as 35 million years ago.
Janke, A.; Feldmaier-Fuchs, G.; Thomas, W. K.; von-Haeseler, A.; Paabo, S.
In this study, the chloroplast (cp) genome sequences from three early diverged leptosporangiate ferns were completed and analyzed in order to understand the evolution of the genome of the fern lineages. The complete cp genome sequence of Osmunda cinnamomea (Osmundales) was 142,812 base pairs (bp). The cp genome structure was similar to that of eusporangiate ferns. The gene/intron losses that frequently occurred in the cp genome of leptosporangiate ferns were not found in the cp genome of O. cinnamomea. In addition, putative RNA editing sites in the cp genome were rare in O. cinnamomea, even though the sites were frequently predicted to be present in leptosporangiate ferns. The complete cp genome sequence of Diplopterygium glaucum (Gleicheniales) was 151,007 bp and has a 9.7 kb inversion between the trnL-CAA and trnV-GCA genes when compared to O. cinnamomea. Several repeated sequences were detected around the inversion break points. The complete cp genome sequence of Lygodium japonicum (Schizaeales) was 157,142 bp and a deletion of the rpoC1 intron was detected. This intron loss was shared by all of the studied species of the genus Lygodium. The GC contents and the effective numbers of co-dons (ENCs) in ferns varied significantly when compared to seed plants. The ENC values of the early diverged leptosporangiate ferns showed intermediate levels between eusporangiate and core leptosporangiate ferns. However, our phylogenetic tree based on all of the cp gene sequences clearly indicated that the cp genome similarity between O. cinnamomea (Osmundales) and eusporangiate ferns are symplesiomorphies, rather than synapomorphies. Therefore, our data is in agreement with the view that Osmundales is a distinct early diverged lineage in the leptosporangiate ferns.
Kim, Hyoung Tae; Chung, Myong Gi; Kim, Ki-Joong
The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group.
Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.
The plant cell operates with an integrated, compartmentalized genome consisting of nucleus/cytosol, plastids and mitochondria that, in its entirety, is regulated in time, quantitatively, in multicellular organisms and also in space. This genome, as do genomes of eukaryotes in general, originated in endosymbiotic events, with at least three cells, and was shaped phylogenetically by a massive and highly complex restructuring and intermixing of the genetic potentials of the symbiotic partners and by lateral gene transfer. This was accompanied by fundamental changes in expression signals in the entire system at almost all regulatory levels. The gross genome rearrangements contrast with a highly specific compartmental interplay, which becomes apparent in interspecific nuclear-plastid cybrids or hybrids. Organelle exchanges, even between closely related species, can greatly disturb the intracellular genetic balance ("hybrid bleaching"), which is indicative of compartmental coevolution and is of relevance for speciation processes. The photosynthetic machinery of plastids, which is embedded in that genetic machinery, is an appealing model to probe into genomic and organismic evolution and to develop functional molecular genomics. We have studied the reciprocal Atropa belladonna-Nicotiana tabacum cybrids, which differ markedly in their phenotypes, and found that transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes can contribute to genome/plastome incompatibility. Allopolyploidy can influence this phenomenon by providing an increased, cryptic RNA editing potential and the capacity to maintain the integrity of organelles of different taxonomic origins.
Herrmann, Reinhold G; Maier, Rainer M; Schmitz-Linneweber, Christian
Oleaginous microalgae are promising feedstock for biofuels, yet the genetic diversity, origin and evolution of oleaginous traits remain largely unknown. Here we present a detailed phylogenomic analysis of five oleaginous Nannochloropsis species (a total of six strains) and one time-series transcriptome dataset for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis on one representative strain. Despite small genome sizes, high coding potential and relative paucity of mobile elements, the genomes feature small cores of ca. 2,700 protein-coding genes and a large pan-genome of >38,000 genes. The six genomes share key oleaginous traits, such as the enrichment of selected lipid biosynthesis genes and certain glycoside hydrolase genes that potentially shift carbon flux from chrysolaminaran to TAG synthesis. The eleven type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase genes (DGAT-2) in every strain, each expressed during TAG synthesis, likely originated from three ancient genomes, including the secondary endosymbiosis host and the engulfed green and red algae. Horizontal gene transfers were inferred in most lipid synthesis nodes with expanded gene doses and many glycoside hydrolase genes. Thus multiple genome pooling and horizontal genetic exchange, together with selective inheritance of lipid synthesis genes and species-specific gene loss, have led to the enormous genetic apparatus for oleaginousness and the wide genomic divergence among present-day Nannochloropsis. These findings have important implications in the screening and genetic engineering of microalgae for biofuels. PMID:24415958
Wang, Dongmei; Ning, Kang; Li, Jing; Hu, Jianqiang; Han, Danxiang; Wang, Hui; Zeng, Xiaowei; Jing, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Qian; Su, Xiaoquan; Chang, Xingzhi; Wang, Anhui; Wang, Wei; Jia, Jing; Wei, Li; Xin, Yi; Qiao, Yinghe; Huang, Ranran; Chen, Jie; Han, Bo; Yoon, Kangsup; Hill, Russell T; Zohar, Yonathan; Chen, Feng; Hu, Qiang; Xu, Jian
Loren Rieseberg from the University of British Columbia on "The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.
Rieseberg, Loren [University of British Columbia] [University of British Columbia
Loren Rieseberg from the University of British Columbia on "The Sunflower Genome and its Evolution" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.
Rieseberg, Loren [University of British Columbia
Background Parsimony and maximum likelihood methods of phylogenetic tree estimation and parsimony methods for genome rearrangements are central to the study of genome evolution yet to date they have largely been pursued in isolation. Results We present a data structure called a history graph that offers a practical basis for the analysis of genome evolution. It conceptually simplifies the study of parsimonious evolutionary histories by representing both substitutions and double cut and join (DCJ) rearrangements in the presence of duplications. The problem of constructing parsimonious history graphs thus subsumes related maximum parsimony problems in the fields of phylogenetic reconstruction and genome rearrangement. We show that tractable functions can be used to define upper and lower bounds on the minimum number of substitutions and DCJ rearrangements needed to explain any history graph. These bounds become tight for a special type of unambiguous history graph called an ancestral variation graph (AVG), which constrains in its combinatorial structure the number of operations required. We finally demonstrate that for a given history graph G, a finite set of AVGs describe all parsimonious interpretations of G, and this set can be explored with a few sampling moves. Conclusion This theoretical study describes a model in which the inference of genome rearrangements and phylogeny can be unified under parsimony.
In computational evolutionary biology, verification and benchmarking is a challenging task because the evolutionary history of studied biological entities is usually not known. Computer programs for simulating sequence evolution in silico have shown to be viable test beds for the verification of newly developed methods and to compare different algorithms. However, current simulation packages tend to focus either on gene-level aspects of genome evolution such as character substitutions and insertions and deletions (indels) or on genome-level aspects such as genome rearrangement and speciation events. Here, we introduce Artificial Life Framework (ALF), which aims at simulating the entire range of evolutionary forces that act on genomes: nucleotide, codon, or amino acid substitution (under simple or mixture models), indels, GC-content amelioration, gene duplication, gene loss, gene fusion, gene fission, genome rearrangement, lateral gene transfer (LGT), or speciation. The other distinctive feature of ALF is its user-friendly yet powerful web interface. We illustrate the utility of ALF with two possible applications: 1) we reanalyze data from a study of selection after globin gene duplication and test the statistical significance of the original conclusions and 2) we demonstrate that LGT can dramatically decrease the accuracy of two well-established orthology inference methods. ALF is available as a stand-alone application or via a web interface at http://www.cbrg.ethz.ch/alf. PMID:22160766
Dalquen, Daniel A; Anisimova, Maria; Gonnet, Gaston H; Dessimoz, Christophe
In computational evolutionary biology, verification and benchmarking is a challenging task because the evolutionary history of studied biological entities is usually not known. Computer programs for simulating sequence evolution in silico have shown to be viable test beds for the verification of newly developed methods and to compare different algorithms. However, current simulation packages tend to focus either on gene-level aspects of genome evolution such as character substitutions and insertions and deletions (indels) or on genome-level aspects such as genome rearrangement and speciation events. Here, we introduce Artificial Life Framework (ALF), which aims at simulating the entire range of evolutionary forces that act on genomes: nucleotide, codon, or amino acid substitution (under simple or mixture models), indels, GC-content amelioration, gene duplication, gene loss, gene fusion, gene fission, genome rearrangement, lateral gene transfer (LGT), or speciation. The other distinctive feature of ALF is its user-friendly yet powerful web interface. We illustrate the utility of ALF with two possible applications: 1) we reanalyze data from a study of selection after globin gene duplication and test the statistical significance of the original conclusions and 2) we demonstrate that LGT can dramatically decrease the accuracy of two well-established orthology inference methods. ALF is available as a stand-alone application or via a web interface at http://www.cbrg.ethz.ch/alf.
Dalquen, Daniel A.; Anisimova, Maria; Gonnet, Gaston H.; Dessimoz, Christophe
Multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a complex and incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis. Here we use whole-exome sequencing, copy-number profiling and cytogenetics to analyse 84 myeloma samples. Most cases have a complex subclonal structure and show clusters of subclonal variants, including subclonal driver mutations. Serial sampling reveals diverse patterns of clonal evolution, including linear evolution, differential clonal response and branching evolution. Diverse processes contribute to the mutational repertoire, including kataegis and somatic hypermutation, and their relative contribution changes over time. We find heterogeneity of mutational spectrum across samples, with few recurrent genes. We identify new candidate genes, including truncations of SP140, LTB, ROBO1 and clustered missense mutations in EGR1. The myeloma genome is heterogeneous across the cohort, and exhibits diversity in clonal admixture and in dynamics of evolution, which may impact prognostic stratification, therapeutic approaches and assessment of disease response to treatment.
Bolli, Niccolo; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Wedge, David C.; Van Loo, Peter; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Martincorena, Inigo; Dawson, Kevin J.; Iorio, Francesco; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Bignell, Graham R.; Hinton, Jonathan W.; Li, Yilong; Tubio, Jose M.C.; McLaren, Stuart; O' Meara, Sarah; Butler, Adam P.; Teague, Jon W.; Mudie, Laura; Anderson, Elizabeth; Rashid, Naim; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Shammas, Masood A.; Sperling, Adam S.; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Richardson, Paul G.; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Magrangeas, Florence; Minvielle, Stephane; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Facon, Thierry; Futreal, P Andrew; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Campbell, Peter J.; Munshi, Nikhil C.
Gene duplication plays an important role in the evolution of genomes and interactomes. Elucidating how evolution after gene duplication interplays at the sequence and network level is of great interest. In this work, we analyze a data set of gene pairs that arose through whole-genome duplication (WGD) in yeast. All these pairs have the same duplication time, making them ideal for evolutionary investigation. We investigated the interplay between evolution after WGD at the sequence and network levels and correlated these two levels of divergence with gene expression and fitness data. We find that molecular interactions involving WGD genes evolve at rates that are three orders of magnitude slower than the rates of evolution of the corresponding sequences. Furthermore, we find that divergence of WGD pairs correlates strongly with gene expression and fitness data. Because of the role of gene duplication in determining redundancy in biological systems and particularly at the network level, we investigated the role of interaction networks in elucidating the evolutionary fate of duplicated genes. We find that gene neighborhoods in interaction networks provide a mechanism for inferring these fates, and we developed an algorithm for achieving this task. Further epistasis analysis of WGD pairs categorized by their inferred evolutionary fates demonstrated the utility of these techniques. Finally, we find that WGD pairs and other pairs of paralogous genes of small-scale duplication origin share similar properties, giving good support for generalizing our results from WGD pairs to evolution after gene duplication in general.
Zhu, Yun; Lin, Zhenguo; Nakhleh, Luay
Theories focused on kinship and the genetic conflict it induces are widely considered to be the primary explanations for the evolution of genomic imprinting. However, there have appeared many competing ideas that do not involve kinship/conflict. These ideas are often overlooked because kinship/conflict is entrenched in the literature, especially outside evolutionary biology. Here we provide a critical overview of these non-conflict theories, providing an accessible perspective into this literature. We suggest that some of these alternative hypotheses may, in fact, provide tenable explanations of the evolution of imprinting for at least some loci. PMID:24398886
Spencer, H G; Clark, A G
Human hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the smallest RNA virus in genome. HDV genome is divided into a viroid-like sequence and a protein-coding sequence which could have originated from different resources and the HDV genome was eventually constituted through RNA recombination. The genome subsequently diversified through accumulation of mutations selected by interactions between the mutated RNA and proteins with host factors to successfully form the infectious virions. Therefore, we propose that the conservation of HDV nucleotide sequence is highly related with its functionality. Genome analysis of known HDV isolates shows that the C-terminal coding sequences of large delta antigen (LDAg) are the highest diversity than other regions of protein-coding sequences but they still retain biological functionality to interact with the heavy chain of clathrin can be selected and maintained. Since viruses interact with many host factors, including escaping the host immune response, how to design a program to predict RNA genome evolution is a great challenging work.
Huang, Chi-Ruei; Lo, Szecheng J.
Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.
Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.
Alternative splicing is a major cellular mechanism in metazoans for generating proteomic diversity. A large proportion of protein-coding genes in multicellular organisms undergo alternative splicing, and in humans, it has been estimated that nearly 90 % of protein-coding genes-much larger than expected-are subject to alternative splicing. Genomic analyses of alternative splicing have illuminated its universal role in shaping the evolution of genomes, in the control of developmental processes, and in the dynamic regulation of the transcriptome to influence phenotype. Disruption of the splicing machinery has been found to drive pathophysiology, and indeed reprogramming of aberrant splicing can provide novel approaches to the development of molecular therapy. This review focuses on the recent progress in our understanding of alternative splicing brought about by the unprecedented explosive growth of genomic data and highlights the relevance of human splicing variation on disease and therapy. PMID:24378600
Gamazon, Eric R; Stranger, Barbara E
The monotremes (platypuses and echidnas) represent one of only four extant venomous mammalian lineages. Until recently, monotreme venom was poorly understood. However, the availability of the platypus genome and increasingly sophisticated genomic tools has allowed us to characterize platypus toxins, and provides a means of reconstructing the evolutionary history of monotreme venom. Here we review the physiology of platypus and echidna crural (venom) systems as well as pharmacological and genomic studies of monotreme toxins. Further, we synthesize current ideas about the evolution of the venom system, which in the platypus is likely to have been retained from a venomous ancestor, whilst being lost in the echidnas. We also outline several research directions and outstanding questions that would be productive to address in future research. An improved characterization of mammalian venoms will not only yield new toxins with potential therapeutic uses, but will also aid in our understanding of the way that this unusual trait evolves.
Whittington, Camilla M.; Belov, Katherine
African cichlid fishes are an ideal system for studying explosive rates of speciation and the origin of diversity in adaptive radiation. Within the last few million years, more than 2000 species have evolved in the Great Lakes of East Africa, the largest adaptive radiation in vertebrates. These young species show spectacular diversity in their coloration, morphology and behavior. However, little is known about the genomic basis of this astonishing diversity. Recently, five African cichlid genomes were sequenced, including that of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a basal and only relatively moderately diversified lineage, and the genomes of four representative endemic species of the adaptive radiations, Neolamprologus brichardi, Astatotilapia burtoni, Metriaclima zebra, and Pundamila nyererei. Using the Tilapia genome as a reference genome, we generated a high-resolution genomic variation map, consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), short insertions and deletions (indels), inversions and deletions. In total, around 18.8, 17.7, 17.0, and 17.0 million SNPs, 2.3, 2.2, 1.4, and 1.9 million indels, 262, 306, 162, and 154 inversions, and 3509, 2705, 2710, and 2634 deletions were inferred to have evolved in N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra, respectively. Many of these variations affected the annotated gene regions in the genome. Different patterns of genetic variation were detected during the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. For SNPs, the highest rate of evolution was detected in the common ancestor of N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra. However, for the evolution of inversions and deletions, we found that the rates at the terminal taxa are substantially higher than the rates at the ancestral lineages. The high-resolution map provides an ideal opportunity to understand the genomic bases of the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes.
Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel
African cichlid fishes are an ideal system for studying explosive rates of speciation and the origin of diversity in adaptive radiation. Within the last few million years, more than 2000 species have evolved in the Great Lakes of East Africa, the largest adaptive radiation in vertebrates. These young species show spectacular diversity in their coloration, morphology and behavior. However, little is known about the genomic basis of this astonishing diversity. Recently, five African cichlid genomes were sequenced, including that of the Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), a basal and only relatively moderately diversified lineage, and the genomes of four representative endemic species of the adaptive radiations, Neolamprologus brichardi, Astatotilapia burtoni, Metriaclima zebra, and Pundamila nyererei. Using the Tilapia genome as a reference genome, we generated a high-resolution genomic variation map, consisting of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), short insertions and deletions (indels), inversions and deletions. In total, around 18.8, 17.7, 17.0, and 17.0 million SNPs, 2.3, 2.2, 1.4, and 1.9 million indels, 262, 306, 162, and 154 inversions, and 3509, 2705, 2710, and 2634 deletions were inferred to have evolved in N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra, respectively. Many of these variations affected the annotated gene regions in the genome. Different patterns of genetic variation were detected during the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. For SNPs, the highest rate of evolution was detected in the common ancestor of N. brichardi, A. burtoni, P. nyererei, and M. zebra. However, for the evolution of inversions and deletions, we found that the rates at the terminal taxa are substantially higher than the rates at the ancestral lineages. The high-resolution map provides an ideal opportunity to understand the genomic bases of the adaptive radiation of African cichlid fishes. PMID:24917883
Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel
Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is a highly adapted, human-specific pathogen that causes paratyphoid fever. Cases of paratyphoid fever have recently been increasing, and the disease is becoming a major public health concern, especially in Eastern and Southern Asia. To investigate the genomic variation and evolution of S. Paratyphi A, a pan-genomic analysis was performed on five newly sequenced S. Paratyphi A strains and two other reference strains. A whole genome comparison revealed that the seven genomes are collinear and that their organization is highly conserved. The high rate of substitutions in part of the core genome indicates that there are frequent homologous recombination events. Based on the changes in the pan-genome size and cluster number (both in the core functional genes and core pseudogenes), it can be inferred that the sharply increasing number of pseudogene clusters may have strong correlation with the inactivation of functional genes, and indicates that the S. Paratyphi A genome is being degraded.
Chen, Chunxia; Cui, Xiaoying; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Kan, Biao
Salmonella Paratyphi A (S. Paratyphi A) is a highly adapted, human-specific pathogen that causes paratyphoid fever. Cases of paratyphoid fever have recently been increasing, and the disease is becoming a major public health concern, especially in Eastern and Southern Asia. To investigate the genomic variation and evolution of S. Paratyphi A, a pan-genomic analysis was performed on five newly sequenced S. Paratyphi A strains and two other reference strains. A whole genome comparison revealed that the seven genomes are collinear and that their organization is highly conserved. The high rate of substitutions in part of the core genome indicates that there are frequent homologous recombination events. Based on the changes in the pan-genome size and cluster number (both in the core functional genes and core pseudogenes), it can be inferred that the sharply increasing number of pseudogene clusters may have strong correlation with the inactivation of functional genes, and indicates that the S. Paratyphi A genome is being degraded. PMID:23028950
Liang, Weili; Zhao, Yongbing; Chen, Chunxia; Cui, Xiaoying; Yu, Jun; Xiao, Jingfa; Kan, Biao
This review summarizes aspects of the extensive literature on the patterns and processes underpinning chromosomal evolution in vertebrates and especially placental mammals. It highlights the growing synergy between molecular cytogenetics and comparative genomics, particularly with respect to fully or partially sequenced genomes, and provides novel insights into changes in chromosome number and structure across deep division of the vertebrate tree of life. The examination of basal numbers in the deeper branches of the vertebrate tree suggest a haploid (n) chromosome number of 10–13 in an ancestral vertebrate, with modest increases in tetrapods and amniotes most probably by chromosomal fissioning. Information drawn largely from cross-species chromosome painting in the data-dense Placentalia permits the confident reconstruction of an ancestral karyotype comprising n=23 chromosomes that is similarly retained in Boreoeutheria. Using in silico genome-wide scans that include the newly released frog genome we show that of the nine ancient syntenies detected in conserved karyotypes of extant placentals (thought likely to reflect the structure of ancestral chromosomes), the human syntenic segmental associations 3p/21, 4pq/8p, 7a/16p, 14/15, 12qt/22q and 12pq/22qt predate the divergence of tetrapods. These findings underscore the enhanced quality of ancestral reconstructions based on the integrative molecular cytogenetic and comparative genomic approaches that collectively highlight a pattern of conserved syntenic associations that extends back ?360 million years ago.
Ruiz-Herrera, A; Farre, M; Robinson, T J
Biological systems evolved to be functionally robust in uncertain environments, but also highly adaptable. Such robustness is partly achieved by genetic redundancy, where the failure of a specific component through mutation or environmental challenge can be compensated by duplicate components capable of performing, to a limited extent, the same function. Highly variable environments require very robust systems. Conversely, predictable environments should not place a high selective value on robustness. Here we test this hypothesis by investigating the evolutionary dynamics of genetic redundancy in extremely reduced genomes, found mostly in intracellular parasites and endosymbionts. By combining data analysis with simulations of genome evolution we show that in the extensive gene loss suffered by reduced genomes there is a selective drive to keep the diversity of protein families while sacrificing paralogy. We show that this is not a by-product of the known drivers of genome reduction and that there is very limited convergence to a common core of families, indicating that the repertoire of protein families in reduced genomes is the result of historical contingency and niche-specific adaptations. We propose that our observations reflect a loss of genetic redundancy due to a decreased selection for robustness in a predictable environment.
Pereira-Leal, Jose B.
Few studies have investigated the causes of evolutionary rate variation among plant nuclear genes, especially in recently diverged species still capable of hybridizing in the wild. The recent advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) permits investigation of genome wide rates of protein evolution and the role of selection in generating and maintaining divergence. Here, we use individual whole-transcriptome sequencing (RNAseq) to refine our understanding of the population genomics of wild species of sunflowers (Helianthus spp.) and the factors that affect rates of protein evolution. We aligned 35 GB of transcriptome sequencing data and identified 433,257 polymorphic sites (SNPs) in a reference transcriptome comprising 16,312 genes. Using SNP markers, we identified strong population clustering largely corresponding to the three species analyzed here (Helianthus annuus, H. petiolaris, H. debilis), with one distinct early generation hybrid. Then, we calculated the proportions of adaptive substitution fixed by selection (alpha) and identified gene ontology categories with elevated values of alpha. The “response to biotic stimulus” category had the highest mean alpha across the three interspecific comparisons, implying that natural selection imposed by other organisms plays an important role in driving protein evolution in wild sunflowers. Finally, we examined the relationship between protein evolution (dN/dS ratio) and several genomic factors predicted to co-vary with protein evolution (gene expression level, divergence and specificity, genetic divergence [FST], and nucleotide diversity pi). We find that variation in rates of protein divergence was correlated with gene expression level and specificity, consistent with results from a broad range of taxa and timescales. This would in turn imply that these factors govern protein evolution both at a microevolutionary and macroevolutionary timescale. Our results contribute to a general understanding of the determinants of rates of protein evolution and the impact of selection on patterns of polymorphism and divergence.
Renaut, Sebastien; Grassa, Christopher J.; Moyers, Brook T.; Kane, Nolan C.; Rieseberg, Loren H.
The DNA sequences of wheat Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, were analyzed with a view to understanding the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci from each of the wheats Triticum urartu (A genome), Aegilops tauschii (D genome), Triticum turgidum (AB genome), and Triticum aestivum (ABD genome), as well as two Acc-2-related pseudogenes from T. urartu were sequenced. The 2.3-2.4 Mya divergence time calculated here for the three homoeologous chromosomes, on the basis of coding and intron sequences of the Acc-1 genes, is at the low end of other estimates. Our clock was calibrated by using 60 Mya for the divergence between wheat and maize. On the same time scale, wheat and barley diverged 11.6 Mya, based on sequences of Acc and other genes. The regions flanking the Acc genes are not conserved among the A, B, and D genomes. They are conserved when comparing homoeologous genomes of diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid wheats. Substitution rates in intergenic regions consisting primarily of repetitive sequences vary substantially along the loci and on average are 3.5-fold higher than the Acc intron substitution rates. The composition of the Acc homoeoloci suggests haplotype divergence exceeding in some cases 0.5 Mya. Such variation might result in a significant overestimate of the time since tetraploid wheat formation, which occurred no more than 0.5 Mya. PMID:18599450
Chalupska, D; Lee, H Y; Faris, J D; Evrard, A; Chalhoub, B; Haselkorn, R; Gornicki, P
Blood flukes within the genus Schistosoma still remain a major cause of disease in the tropics and subtropics and the study of their evolution has been an area of major debate and research. With the advent of modern molecular and genomic approaches deeper insights have been attained not only into the divergence and speciation of these worms, but also into the historic movement of these parasites from Asia into Africa, via migration and dispersal of definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This movement was subsequently followed by a radiation of Schistosoma species giving rise to the S. mansoni and S. haematobium groups, as well as the S. indicum group that reinvaded Asia. Each of these major evolutionary events has been marked by distinct changes in genomic structure evident in differences in mitochondrial gene order and nuclear chromosomal architecture between the species associated with Asia and Africa. Data from DNA sequencing, comparative molecular genomics and karyotyping are indicative of major constitutional genomic events which would have become fixed in the ancestral populations of these worms. Here we examine how modern genomic techniques may give a more in depth understanding of the evolution of schistosomes and highlight the complexity of speciation and divergence in this group. PMID:21736723
Lawton, Scott P; Hirai, Hirohisa; Ironside, Joe E; Johnston, David A; Rollinson, David
Blood flukes within the genus Schistosoma still remain a major cause of disease in the tropics and subtropics and the study of their evolution has been an area of major debate and research. With the advent of modern molecular and genomic approaches deeper insights have been attained not only into the divergence and speciation of these worms, but also into the historic movement of these parasites from Asia into Africa, via migration and dispersal of definitive and snail intermediate hosts. This movement was subsequently followed by a radiation of Schistosoma species giving rise to the S. mansoni and S. haematobium groups, as well as the S. indicum group that reinvaded Asia. Each of these major evolutionary events has been marked by distinct changes in genomic structure evident in differences in mitochondrial gene order and nuclear chromosomal architecture between the species associated with Asia and Africa. Data from DNA sequencing, comparative molecular genomics and karyotyping are indicative of major constitutional genomic events which would have become fixed in the ancestral populations of these worms. Here we examine how modern genomic techniques may give a more in depth understanding of the evolution of schistosomes and highlight the complexity of speciation and divergence in this group.
The past decade has witnessed an explosion of genome sequencing and mapping in evolutionary diverse species. While full genome sequencing of mammals is rapidly progressing, the ability to assemble and align orthologous whole chromosome regions from more than a few species is still not possible. The intense focus on building of comparative maps for companion (dog and cat), laboratory (mice and rat) and agricultural (cattle, pig, and horse) animals has traditionally been used as a means to understand the underlying basis of disease-related or economically important phenotypes. However, these maps also provide an unprecedented opportunity to use multispecies analysis as a tool for inferring karyotype evolution. Comparative chromosome painting and related techniques are now considered to be the most powerful approaches in comparative genome studies. Homologies can be identified with high accuracy using molecularly defined DNA probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on chromosomes of different species. Chromosome painting data are now available for members of nearly all mammalian orders. In most orders, there are species with rates of chromosome evolution that can be considered as 'default' rates. The number of rearrangements that have become fixed in evolutionary history seems comparatively low, bearing in mind the 180 million years of the mammalian radiation. Comparative chromosome maps record the history of karyotype changes that have occurred during evolution. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of these recent advances in our endeavor to decipher the karyotype evolution of mammals by integrating the published results together with some of our latest unpublished results.
The RNA world hypothesis views modern organisms as descendants of RNA molecules. The earliest RNA molecules must have been random sequences, from which the first genomes that coded for polymerase ribozymes emerged. The quasispecies theory by Eigen predicts the existence of an error threshold limiting genomic stability during such transitions, but does not address the spontaneity of changes. Following a recent theoretical approach, we applied the quasispecies theory combined with kinetic/thermodynamic descriptions of RNA replication to analyze the collective behavior of RNA replicators based on known experimental kinetics data. We find that, with increasing fidelity (relative rate of base-extension for Watson-Crick versus mismatched base pairs), replications without enzymes, with ribozymes, and with protein-based polymerases are above, near, and below a critical point, respectively. The prebiotic evolution therefore must have crossed this critical region. Over large regions of the phase diagram, fitness increases with increasing fidelity, biasing random drifts in sequence space toward 'crystallization.' This region encloses the experimental nonenzymatic fidelity value, favoring evolutions toward polymerase sequences with ever higher fidelity, despite error rates above the error catastrophe threshold. Our work shows that experimentally characterized kinetics and thermodynamics of RNA replication allow us to determine the physicochemical conditions required for the spontaneous crystallization of biological information. Our findings also suggest that among many potential oligomers capable of templated replication, RNAs may have evolved to form prebiotic genomes due to the value of their nonenzymatic fidelity. PMID:22693440
Woo, Hyung-June; Vijaya Satya, Ravi; Reifman, Jaques
Bacterial genomes evolve through mutations, rearrangements or horizontal gene transfer. Besides the core genes encoding essential metabolic functions, bacterial genomes also harbour a number of accessory genes acquired by horizontal gene transfer that might be beneficial under certain environmental conditions. The horizontal gene transfer contributes to the diversification and adaptation of microorganisms, thus having an impact on the genome plasticity. A significant part of the horizontal gene transfer is or has been facilitated by genomic islands (GEIs). GEIs are discrete DNA segments, some of which are mobile and others which are not, or are no longer mobile, which differ among closely related strains. A number of GEIs are capable of integration into the chromosome of the host, excision, and transfer to a new host by transformation, conjugation or transduction. GEIs play a crucial role in the evolution of a broad spectrum of bacteria as they are involved in the dissemination of variable genes, including antibiotic resistance and virulence genes leading to generation of hospital 'superbugs', as well as catabolic genes leading to formation of new metabolic pathways. Depending on the composition of gene modules, the same type of GEIs can promote survival of pathogenic as well as environmental bacteria. PMID:19178566
Juhas, Mario; van der Meer, Jan Roelof; Gaillard, Muriel; Harding, Rosalind M; Hood, Derek W; Crook, Derrick W
Advances in technology have tremendously increased high throughput whole genome-sequencing efforts, many of which have included prokaryotes that facilitate processes in the extant nitrogen cycle. Molecular genetic and evolutionary analyses of these genomes paired with advances in postgenomics, biochemical and physiological experimentation have enabled scientists to reevaluate existing geochemical and oceanographic data for improved characterization of the extant nitrogen cycle as well as its evolution since the primordial era of planet Earth. Based on the literature and extensive new data relevant to aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX), the natural history of the nitrogen-cycle has been redrawn with emphasis on the early roles of incomplete denitrification and ammonification as driving forces for emergence of ANAMMOX as the foundation for a complete nitrogen cycle, and concluding with emergence of nitrification in the oxic era. PMID:18031536
Klotz, Martin G; Stein, Lisa Y
Despite the practically unlimited number of possible protein sequences, the number of basic shapes in which proteins fold seems not only to be finite, but also to be relatively small, with probably no more than 10,000 folds in existence. Moreover, the distribution of proteins among these folds is highly non-homogeneous -- some folds and superfamilies are extremely abundant, but most are rare. Protein folds and families encoded in diverse genomes show similar size distributions with notable mathematical properties, which also extend to the number of connections between domains in multidomain proteins. All these distributions follow asymptotic power laws, such as have been identified in a wide variety of biological and physical systems, and which are typically associated with scale-free networks. These findings suggest that genome evolution is driven by extremely general mechanisms based on the preferential attachment principle. PMID:12432406
Koonin, Eugene V; Wolf, Yuri I; Karev, Georgy P
Assembly of genes into operons is generally viewed as an important process during the continual adaptation of microbes to changing environmental challenges. However, the genome reorganization events that drive this process are also the roots of instability for existing operons. We have determined that there exists a statistically significant trend that correlates the proportion of genes encoded in operons in archaea to their phylogenetic lineage. We have further characterized how microbes deal with operon instability by mapping and comparing transcriptome architectures of four phylogenetically diverse extremophiles that span the range of operon stabilities observed across archaeal lineages: a photoheterotrophic halophile (Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1), a hydrogenotrophic methanogen (Methanococcus maripaludis S2), an acidophilic and aerobic thermophile (Sulfolobus solfataricus P2), and an anaerobic hyperthermophile (Pyrococcus furiosus DSM 3638). We demonstrate how the evolution of transcriptional elements (promoters and terminators) generates new operons, restores the coordinated regulation of translocated, inverted, and newly acquired genes, and introduces completely novel regulation for even some of the most conserved operonic genes such as those encoding subunits of the ribosome. The inverse correlation (r = –0.92) between the proportion of operons with such internally located transcriptional elements and the fraction of conserved operons in each of the four archaea reveals an unprecedented view into varying stages of operon evolution. Importantly, our integrated analysis has revealed that organisms adapted to higher growth temperatures have lower tolerance for genome reorganization events that disrupt operon structures.
Yoon, Sung Ho; Reiss, David J.; Bare, J. Christopher; Tenenbaum, Dan; Pan, Min; Slagel, Joseph; Moritz, Robert L.; Lim, Sujung; Hackett, Murray; Menon, Angeli Lal; Adams, Michael W.W.; Barnebey, Adam; Yannone, Steven M.; Leigh, John A.; Baliga, Nitin S.
Six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae are recognized within the Streptophyta. Although incongruent with earlier studies based on genes from three cellular compartments, chloroplast and nuclear phylogenomic analyses have resolved identical relationships among these groups, placing the Zygnematales or the Zygnematales + Coleochaetales as sister to land plants. The present investigation aimed at determining whether this consensus view is supported by the mitochondrial genome and at gaining insight into mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) evolution within and across streptophyte algal lineages and during the transition toward the first land plants. We present here the newly sequenced mtDNAs of representatives of the Klebsormidiales (Entransia fimbriata and Klebsormidium spec.) and Zygnematales (Closterium baillyanum and Roya obtusa) and compare them with their homologs in other charophycean lineages as well as in selected embryophyte and chlorophyte lineages. Our results indicate that important changes occurred at the levels of genome size, gene order, and intron content within the Zygnematales. Although the representatives of the Klebsormidiales display more similarity in genome size and intron content, gene order seems more fluid and gene losses more frequent than in other charophycean lineages. In contrast, the two members of the Charales display an extremely conservative pattern of mtDNA evolution. Collectively, our analyses of gene order and gene content and the phylogenies we inferred from 40 mtDNA-encoded proteins failed to resolve the relationships among the Zygnematales, Coleochaetales, and Charales; however, they are consistent with previous phylogenomic studies in favoring that the morphologically complex Charales are not sister to land plants.
Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude
The majority of human rhinoviruses use intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) as a cell surface receptor. Two soluble forms of ICAM-1, one corresponding to the entire extracellular portion [tICAM(453)] and one corresponding to the two N-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains [tICAM(185)], have been produced, and their effects on virus-receptor binding, virus infectivity, and virus integrity have been examined. Results from competitive binding experiments indicate that the virus binding site is largely contained within the two N-terminal domains of ICAM-1. Virus infectivity studies indicate that tICAM(185) prevents infection by direct competition for receptor binding sites on virus, while tICAM(453) prevents infection at concentrations 10-fold lower than that needed to inhibit binding and apparently acts at the entry or uncoating steps. Neutralization by both forms of soluble ICAM-1 requires continual presence of ICAM-1 during the infection and is largely reversible. Both forms of soluble ICAM-1 can alter rhinovirus to yield subviral noninfectious particles lacking the viral subunit VP4 and the RNA genome, thus mimicking virus uncoating in vivo, although this irreversible modification of rhinovirus is not the major mechanism of virus neutralization. Images
Greve, J M; Forte, C P; Marlor, C W; Meyer, A M; Hoover-Litty, H; Wunderlich, D; McClelland, A
Viral respiratory infections can have a profound effect on many aspects of asthma including its inception, exacerbations, and, possibly, severity. Of the many viral respiratory infections that influence asthma, the common cold virus, rhinovirus, has emerged as the most frequent illness associated with exacerbations and other aspects of asthma. The mechanisms by which rhinovirus influences asthma are not fully established, but current evidence indicates that the immune response to this virus is critical in this process. Many airway cell types are involved in the immune response to rhinovirus, but most important are respiratory epithelial cells and possibly macrophages. Infection of epithelial cells generates a variety of proinflammatory mediators to attract inflammatory cells to the airway with a subsequent worsening of underlying disease. Furthermore, there is evidence that the epithelial airway antiviral response to rhinovirus may be defective in asthma. Therefore, understanding the immune response to rhinovirus is a key step in defining mechanisms of asthma, exacerbations, and, perhaps most importantly, improved treatment.
Kelly, John T.; Busse, William W.
We studied 24 young adult male volunteers experimentally inoculated with type 39 rhinovirus to determine whether the course of viral infection was modified by exposure to moderate levels of ozone (0.3 ppm for 6 h per day) over the 5 days after virus inoculation. No differences in rhinovirus titers in nasal secretions, recruitment of neutrophils into nasal secretions, levels of interferon in nasal lavage fluid, in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to rhinovirus antigen, or levels of convalescent serum neutralizing antibody to type 39 rhinovirus were demonstrated in relation to ozone exposure. The level and pattern of ozone exposure used in this experiment had no demonstrable adverse effects on the immune responses necessary to limit and terminate rhinovirus infection of the upper respiratory tract.
Henderson, F.W.; Dubovi, E.J.; Harder, S.; Seal, E. Jr.; Graham, D.
With about 24,000 extant species, teleosts are the largest group of vertebrates. They constitute more than 99% of the ray- finned fishes (Actinopterygii) that diverged from the lobe-finned fish lineage (Sarcopterygii) about 450 MYA. Although the role of genome duplication in the evolution of vertebrates is now established, its role in structuring the teleost genomes has been controversial. At least
Alan Christoffels; Esther G. L. Koh; Jer-ming Chia; Sydney Brenner; Samuel Aparicio; Byrappa Venkatesh
† Background and Aims Plant evolution is well known to be frequently associated with remarkable changes in genome size and composition; however, the knowledge of long-term evolutionary dynamics of these processes still remains very limited. Here a study is made of the fine dynamics of quantitative genome evolution in Festuca (fescue), the largest genus in Poaceae (grasses). † Methods Using
PETR SMARDA; P ETR; B URES; H OROVA ´; BRUNO FOGGI; S. Epifanio
BACKGROUND: While increasing data on bacterial evolution in controlled environments are available, our understanding of bacterial genome evolution in natural environments is limited. We thus performed full genome analyses on four Listeria monocytogenes, including human and food isolates from both a 1988 case of sporadic listeriosis and a 2000 listeriosis outbreak, which had been linked to contaminated food from a
Renato H Orsi; Mark L Borowsky; Peter Lauer; Sarah K Young; Chad Nusbaum; James E Galagan; Bruce W Birren; Reid A Ivy; Qi Sun; Lewis M Graves; Bala Swaminathan; Martin Wiedmann
In eukaryotic genes, the protein coding sequence is split into several fragments, the exons, separated by noncoding DNA stretches, the introns. Prokaryotes do not have introns in their genomes. We report calculations of the stability domains of actin genes for various organisms in the animal, plant, and fungi kingdoms. Actin genes have been chosen because they have been highly conserved during evolution. In these genes, all introns were removed so as to mimic ancient genes at the time of the early eukaryotic development, i.e., before intron insertion. Common stability boundaries are found in evolutionarily distant organisms, which implies that these boundaries date from the early origin of eukaryotes. In general, the boundaries correspond with intron positions in the actins of vertebrates and other animals, but not much for plants and fungi. The sharpest boundary is found in a locus where fungi, algae, and animals have introns in positions separated by one nucleotide only, which identifies a hot spot for insertion. These results suggest that some introns may have been incorporated into the genomes through a thermodynamically driven mechanism, in agreement with previous observations on human genes. They also suggest a different mechanism for intron insertion in plants and animals.
Carlon, E.; Dkhissi, A.; Malki, M. Lejard; Blossey, R.
The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis of 102 major common regions (CR-Ms) from all six components showed a possible concerted evolution within the Pacific group, which is likely due to recombination in this region. The CR-M of additional Rep genes is close to that of DNA 1 and 2. Comparison of tree topologies constructed with DNA 1 and DNA 3 coding sequences of 14 BBTV isolates showed distinct phylogenetic histories based on Kishino-Hasegawa and Shimodaira-Hasegawa tests. The results of principal component analysis of amino acid and codon usages indicate that DNA 1 and 3 have a codon bias different from that of all other genes of nanoviruses, including all currently known additional Rep genes of BBTV, which suggests a possible ancient genome reassortment event between distinctive nanoviruses.
Hu, Jer-Ming; Fu, Hui-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hua; Su, Hong-Ji; Yeh, Hsin-Hung
The two living groups of flying vertebrates, birds and bats, both have constricted genome sizes compared with their close relatives. But nothing is known about the genomic characteristics of pterosaurs, which took to the air over 70 Myr before birds and were the first group of vertebrates to evolve powered flight. Here, we estimate genome size for four species of pterosaurs and seven species of basal archosauromorphs using a Bayesian comparative approach. Our results suggest that small genomes commonly associated with flight in bats and birds also evolved in pterosaurs, and that the rate of genome-size evolution is proportional to genome size within amniotes, with the fastest rates occurring in lineages with the largest genomes. We examine the role that drift may have played in the evolution of genome size within tetrapods by testing for correlated evolution between genome size and body size, but find no support for this hypothesis. By contrast, we find evidence suggesting that a combination of adaptation and phylogenetic inertia best explains the correlated evolution of flight and genome-size contraction. These results suggest that small genome/cell size evolved prior to or concurrently with flight in pterosaurs. We predict that, similar to the pattern seen in theropod dinosaurs, genome-size contraction preceded flight in pterosaurs and bats. PMID:18940771
Organ, Chris L; Shedlock, Andrew M
BACKGROUND: Despite their monophyletic origin, animal and plant mitochondrial genomes have been described as exhibiting different modes of evolution. Indeed, plant mitochondrial genomes feature a larger size, a lower mutation rate and more rearrangements than their animal counterparts. Gene order variation in animal mitochondrial genomes is often described as being due to translocation and inversion events, but tandem duplication followed
Aude Darracq; Jean-Stéphane Varré; Pascal Touzet
Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above\\/below the species\\u000a level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we\\u000a used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex
Claus-Peter Stelzer; Simone Riss; Peter Stadler
We describe the genomic DNA diversity and divergence of the cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia from "Evolution Canyon," a microsite consisting of ecologically contrasting slopes, south-facing slope (SFS) and north-facing slope (NFS), at lower Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel. The opposing slopes share their limestone lithology but vary greatly in their ecology, primarily because of different levels of solar radiation (which is six times higher on the SFS than on the NFS). The warm and xeric SFS displays a tropical African savanna, whereas the cool and mesic NFS displays a temperate South European Mediterranean live-oak maquis shrub forest. The cyanobacterium Nostoc linckia tested here is a sessile microorganism, growing as a carpet on rock surfaces and constantly exposed to environmental fluctuations of solar radiation, temperature, and desiccation. We demonstrate remarkable interslope and intraslope genetic divergence of the genome (including both coding and noncoding regions) of Nostoc linckia, by using 211 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) DNA molecular marker loci. Genetic polymorphism of N. linckia subpopulations on the ecologically harsher SFS was significantly (p <0.05) higher (p = 99.53%) than was that of the subpopulations on the climatically milder nfs (p = 85.78%). genetic polymorphism (p) and gene diversity (he) were significantly correlated with variables influencing aridity stress: solar radiation (sr) (rp = 0.956; p = 0.046), temperature (tm) (rp = 0.993; p = 0.0068), and day-night temperature difference (tdd) (rp = 0.975; p = 0.025). as in other tested organisms from "evolution canyon", but even more exceptionally because of its completely sedentary nature, we suggest that the climatically stressed sfs environment is responsible for this marked increase of genetic polymorphism, which is maintained by the combined evolutionary forces of diversifying and balancing selection. This could highlight the importance of ecological stress and selection in evolution and its remarkable effect on the genetic system across the prokaryotic genome. PMID:12024256
Satish, N.; Krugman, T.; Vinogradova, O.N.; Nevo, E.; Kashi, Y.
Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation to low energy diet or large body size, such as in elephant, dugong, sloth, and pangolin, and adaptation to unusual oxygen requirements, for example diving in cetaceans, flying in bats, and living at high altitudes in alpacas). Signatures of adaptive variation in the NADH dehydrogenase complex were restricted to the loop regions of the transmembrane units which likely function as protons pumps. Evidence of adaptive variation in the cytochrome c oxidase complex was observed mostly at the interface between the mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits, perhaps evidence of co-evolution. The ATP8 subunit, which has an important role in the assembly of F0, exhibited the highest signal of adaptive variation. ATP6, which has an essential role in rotor performance, showed a high adaptive variation in predicted loop areas. Conclusion Our study provides insight into the adaptive evolution of the mtDNA genome in mammals and its implications for the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. We present a framework for future experimental characterization of the impact of specific mutations in the function, physiology, and interactions of the mtDNA encoded proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation.
da Fonseca, Rute R; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ramos, Maria Joao; Antunes, Agostinho
Acute upper viral respiratory infection (VRI) is the number one cause of illness for which patients seek medical care in the United States. Rhinoviruses, members of the family Picornaviridae, are the causative pathogens in more than half of VRIs, and they are associated with acute exacerbations of respiratory disease, including asthma, sinusitis, otitis media, and COPD. Owing to the lack of commercial availability of rapid and cost-effective laboratory tests to confirm the presence of VRI, the diagnosis is most commonly made empirically, based on patient history and physical examination. Currently, no antiviral agents that are active against picornaviruses are available for clinical use. Antimicrobial agents, frequently prescribed for VRIs, are not active against viruses, and their inappropriate and widespread use has contributed to an increase in antimicrobial resistance among bacteria commonly involved in respiratory tract infections. Several newer antiviral agents are being evaluated for treatment of VRIs. Although a variety of mechanisms and agents have been tested, few have shown significant clinical benefit in human trials. The most advanced antiviral agent in clinical trials is pleconaril, a novel viral capsid-binding inhibitor with potent and highly specific in vitro activity against the majority of serotypes of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses. Clinical trials of pleconaril for the treatment of VRIs have been conducted, and the role of pleconaril in patients with chronic lung disease is being evaluated. PMID:12740288
Anzueto, Antonio; Niederman, Michael S
The evolution of the human brain has resulted in numerous specialized features including higher cognitive processes, such as language. The combination of our newfound communication expertise together with the process of transgenerational evolution at the epigenetic level has led to an exponential increase in human knowledge and abilities. In balance with these beneficent attainments though, the human brain has also acquired vulnerabilities to neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, which reflect genetic and environmental factors. To understand the mechanisms of this disease susceptibility, a deeper appreciation of the developmental processes and their relationship to underlying features of brain evolution will be necessary. Knowledge of whole genome sequence and structural variation via high throughput sequencing technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to view human evolution at high resolution. However, phenotype discovery is a critical component of these endeavors and the use of non-traditional model organisms will also be critical for piecing together a complete picture. Ultimately, the union of developmental studies of the brain with studies of unique phenotypes in a myriad of species will result in a more thorough model of the groundwork the human brain built upon. Furthermore, these integrative approaches should provide important insights into human diseases.
Konopka, Genevieve; Geschwind, Daniel H.
• Since the occurrence of giant genomes in angiosperms is restricted to just a few lineages, identifying where shifts towards genome obesity have occurred is essential for understanding the evolutionary mechanisms triggering this process. • Genome sizes were assessed using flow cytometry in 79 species and new chromosome numbers were obtained. Phylogenetically based statistical methods were applied to infer ancestral character reconstructions of chromosome numbers and nuclear DNA contents. • Melanthiaceae are the most diverse family in terms of genome size, with C-values ranging more than 230-fold. Our data confirmed that giant genomes are restricted to tribe Parideae, with most extant species in the family characterized by small genomes. Ancestral genome size reconstruction revealed that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for the family had a relatively small genome (1C = 5.37 pg). Chromosome losses and polyploidy are recovered as the main evolutionary mechanisms generating chromosome number change. • Genome evolution in Melanthiaceae has been characterized by a trend towards genome size reduction, with just one episode of dramatic DNA accumulation in Parideae. Such extreme contrasting profiles of genome size evolution illustrate the key role of transposable elements and chromosome rearrangements in driving the evolution of plant genomes. PMID:24299166
Pellicer, Jaume; Kelly, Laura J; Leitch, Ilia J; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Fay, Michael F
The Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crops, is unmatched among plants in its wealth of genomic and functional molecular data and has long served as a model for understanding gene, genome, and trait evolution. However, genome information from a phylogenetic outgroup that is essential for inferring directionality of evolutionary change has been lacking. We therefore sequenced the genome of the spider flower (Tarenaya hassleriana) from the Brassicaceae sister family, the Cleomaceae. By comparative analysis of the two lineages, we show that genome evolution following ancient polyploidy and gene duplication events affect reproductively important traits. We found an ancient genome triplication in Tarenaya (Th-?) that is independent of the Brassicaceae-specific duplication (At-?) and nested Brassica (Br-?) triplication. To showcase the potential of sister lineage genome analysis, we investigated the state of floral developmental genes and show Brassica retains twice as many floral MADS (for MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR) genes as Tarenaya that likely contribute to morphological diversity in Brassica. We also performed synteny analysis of gene families that confer self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae and found that the critical SERINE RECEPTOR KINASE receptor gene is derived from a lineage-specific tandem duplication. The T. hassleriana genome will facilitate future research toward elucidating the evolutionary history of Brassicaceae genomes.
Cheng, Shifeng; van den Bergh, Erik; Zeng, Peng; Zhong, Xiao; Xu, Jiajia; Liu, Xin; Hofberger, Johannes; de Bruijn, Suzanne; Bhide, Amey S.; Kuelahoglu, Canan; Bian, Chao; Chen, Jing; Fan, Guangyi; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Hall, Jocelyn C.; Becker, Annette; Brautigam, Andrea; Weber, Andreas P.M.; Shi, Chengcheng; Zheng, Zhijun; Li, Wujiao; Lv, Mingju; Tao, Yimin; Wang, Junyi; Zou, Hongfeng; Quan, Zhiwu; Hibberd, Julian M.; Zhang, Gengyun; Zhu, Xin-Guang; Xu, Xun; Schranz, M. Eric
RNA metabolism, broadly defined as the compendium of all processes that involve RNA, including transcription, processing and modification of transcripts, translation, RNA degradation and its regulation, is the central and most evolutionarily conserved part of cell physiology. A comprehensive, genome-wide census of all enzymatic and non-enzymatic protein domains involved in RNA metabolism was conducted by using sequence profile analysis and structural comparisons. Proteins related to RNA metabolism comprise from 3 to 11% of the complete protein repertoire in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, with the greatest fraction seen in parasitic bacteria with small genomes. Approximately one-half of protein domains involved in RNA metabolism are present in most, if not all, species from all three primary kingdoms and are traceable to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). The principal features of LUCA’s RNA metabolism system were reconstructed by parsimony-based evolutionary analysis of all relevant groups of orthologous proteins. This reconstruction shows that LUCA possessed not only the basal translation system, but also the principal forms of RNA modification, such as methylation, pseudouridylation and thiouridylation, as well as simple mechanisms for polyadenylation and RNA degradation. Some of these ancient domains form paralogous groups whose evolution can be traced back in time beyond LUCA, towards low-specificity proteins, which probably functioned as cofactors for ribozymes within the RNA world framework. The main lineage-specific innovations of RNA metabolism systems were identified. The most notable phase of innovation in RNA metabolism coincides with the advent of eukaryotes and was brought about by the merge of the archaeal and bacterial systems via mitochondrial endosymbiosis, but also involved emergence of several new, eukaryote-specific RNA-binding domains. Subsequent, vast expansions of these domains mark the origin of alternative splicing in animals and probably in plants. In addition to the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of RNA metabolism, this analysis produced numerous functional predictions, e.g. of previously undetected enzymes of RNA modification.
Anantharaman, Vivek; Koonin, Eugene V.; Aravind, L.
Understanding the composition, evolution, and function of the Gossypium hirsutum (cotton) genome is complicated by the joint presence of two genomes in its nucleus (AT and DT genomes). These two genomes were derived from progenitor A-genome and D-genome diploids involved in ancestral allopolyploidization. To better understand the allopolyploid genome, we re-sequenced the genomes of extant diploid relatives that contain the A1 (Gossypium herbaceum), A2 (Gossypium arboreum), or D5 (Gossypium raimondii) genomes. We conducted a comparative analysis using deep re-sequencing of multiple accessions of each diploid species and identified 24 million SNPs between the A-diploid and D-diploid genomes. These analyses facilitated the construction of a robust index of conserved SNPs between the A-genomes and D-genomes at all detected polymorphic loci. This index is widely applicable for read mapping efforts of other diploid and allopolyploid Gossypium accessions. Further analysis also revealed locations of putative duplications and deletions in the A-genome relative to the D-genome reference sequence. The approximately 25,400 deleted regions included more than 50% deletion of 978 genes, including many involved with starch synthesis. In the polyploid genome, we also detected 1,472 conversion events between homoeologous chromosomes, including events that overlapped 113 genes. Continued characterization of the Gossypium genomes will further enhance our ability to manipulate fiber and agronomic production of cotton.
Page, Justin T.; Huynh, Mark D.; Liechty, Zach S.; Grupp, Kara; Stelly, David; Hulse, Amanda M.; Ashrafi, Hamid; Van Deynze, Allen; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Udall, Joshua A.
Testing models of macroevolution, and especially the sufficiency of microevolutionary processes, requires good collaboration between molecular biologists and paleontologists. We report such a test for events around the Late Cretaceous by describing the earliest penguin fossils, analyzing complete mitochondrial genomes from an albatross, a petrel, and a loon, and describe the gradual decline of pterosaurs at the same time modern birds radiate. The penguin fossils comprise four naturally associated skeletons from the New Zealand Waipara Greensand, a Paleocene (early Tertiary) formation just above a well-known Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary site. The fossils, in a new genus (Waimanu), provide a lower estimate of 61-62 Ma for the divergence between penguins and other birds and thus establish a reliable calibration point for avian evolution. Combining fossil calibration points, DNA sequences, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian analysis, the penguin calibrations imply a radiation of modern (crown group) birds in the Late Cretaceous. This includes a conservative estimate that modern sea and shorebird lineages diverged at least by the Late Cretaceous about 74 +/- 3 Ma (Campanian). It is clear that modern birds from at least the latest Cretaceous lived at the same time as archaic birds including Hesperornis, Ichthyornis, and the diverse Enantiornithiformes. Pterosaurs, which also coexisted with early crown birds, show notable changes through the Late Cretaceous. There was a decrease in taxonomic diversity, and small- to medium-sized species disappeared well before the end of the Cretaceous. A simple reading of the fossil record might suggest competitive interactions with birds, but much more needs to be understood about pterosaur life histories. Additional fossils and molecular data are still required to help understand the role of biotic interactions in the evolution of Late Cretaceous birds and thus to test that the mechanisms of microevolution are sufficient to explain macroevolution. PMID:16533822
Slack, Kerryn E; Jones, Craig M; Ando, Tatsuro; Harrison, G L Abby; Fordyce, R Ewan; Arnason, Ulfur; Penny, David
Poxviruses are highly successful pathogens, known to infect a variety of hosts. The family Poxviridae includes Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, which has been eradicated as a public health threat but could potentially reemerge as a bioterrorist threat. The risk scenario includes other animal poxviruses and genetically engineered manipulations of poxviruses. Studies of orthologous gene sets have established the evolutionary relationships of members within the Poxviridae family. It is not clear, however, how variations between family members arose in the past, an important issue in understanding how these viruses may vary and possibly produce future threats. Using a newly developed poxvirus-specific tool, we predicted accurate gene sets for viruses with completely sequenced genomes in the genus Orthopoxvirus. Employing sensitive sequence comparison techniques together with comparison of syntenic gene maps, we established the relationships between all viral gene sets. These techniques allowed us to unambiguously identify the gene loss/gain events that have occurred over the course of orthopoxvirus evolution. It is clear that for all existing Orthopoxvirus species, no individual species has acquired protein-coding genes unique to that species. All existing species contain genes that are all present in members of the species Cowpox virus and that cowpox virus strains contain every gene present in any other orthopoxvirus strain. These results support a theory of reductive evolution in which the reduction in size of the core gene set of a putative ancestral virus played a critical role in speciation and confining any newly emerging virus species to a particular environmental (host or tissue) niche.
Hendrickson, Robert Curtis; Wang, Chunlin; Hatcher, Eneida L.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.
Background Recent phylogenetic analyses have identified Amborella trichopoda, an understory tree species endemic to the forests of New Caledonia, as sister to a clade including all other known flowering plant species. The Amborella genome is a unique reference for understanding the evolution of angiosperm genomes because it can serve as an outgroup to root comparative analyses. A physical map, BAC end sequences and sample shotgun sequences provide a first view of the 870 Mbp Amborella genome. Results Analysis of Amborella BAC ends sequenced from each contig suggests that the density of long terminal repeat retrotransposons is negatively correlated with that of protein coding genes. Syntenic, presumably ancestral, gene blocks were identified in comparisons of the Amborella BAC contigs and the sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana, Populus trichocarpa, Vitis vinifera and Oryza sativa genomes. Parsimony mapping of the loss of synteny corroborates previous analyses suggesting that the rate of structural change has been more rapid on lineages leading to Arabidopsis and Oryza compared with lineages leading to Populus and Vitis. The gamma paleohexiploidy event identified in the Arabidopsis, Populus and Vitis genomes is shown to have occurred after the divergence of all other known angiosperms from the lineage leading to Amborella. Conclusions When placed in the context of a physical map, BAC end sequences representing just 5.4% of the Amborella genome have facilitated reconstruction of gene blocks that existed in the last common ancestor of all flowering plants. The Amborella genome is an invaluable reference for inferences concerning the ancestral angiosperm and subsequent genome evolution.
Genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (Genomic SELEX) is an experimental procedure for the expression condition-independent identification of protein-binding RNAs. RNA libraries derived from genomic DNA are generated via random priming, PCR amplification and in vitro transcription. Libraries consist of genomic sequences of selected size, and fragments are flanked by constant sequences required for amplification and transcription. This
Christina Lorenz; Frederike von Pelchrzim; Renée Schroeder
Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the modern genetic system was preceded by the ‘RNA world’ in which RNA genes encoded RNA catalysts. Current gaps in our conceptual framework of early genetic systems make it difficult to imagine how a stable RNA genome may have functioned and how the transition to a DNA genome could have taken place. Here we use the single-celled ciliate, Oxytricha, as an analog to some of the genetic and genomic traits that may have been present in organisms before and during the establishment of a DNA genome. Oxytricha and its close relatives have a unique genome architecture involving two differentiated nuclei, one of which encodes the genome on small, linear nanochromosomes. While its unique genomic characteristics are relatively modern, some physiological processes related to the genomes and nuclei of Oxytricha may exemplify primitive states of the developing genetic system.
Goldman, Aaron David; Landweber, Laura F.
Background The bacterial genus Listeria contains pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, including the pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, both of which carry homologous virulence gene clusters such as the prfA cluster and clusters of internalin genes. Initial evidence for multiple deletions of the prfA cluster during the evolution of Listeria indicates that this genus provides an interesting model for studying the evolution of virulence and also presents practical challenges with regard to definition of pathogenic strains. Results To better understand genome evolution and evolution of virulence characteristics in Listeria, we used a next generation sequencing approach to generate draft genomes for seven strains representing Listeria species or clades for which genome sequences were not available. Comparative analyses of these draft genomes and six publicly available genomes, which together represent the main Listeria species, showed evidence for (i) a pangenome with 2,032 core and 2,918 accessory genes identified to date, (ii) a critical role of gene loss events in transition of Listeria species from facultative pathogen to saprotroph, even though a consistent pattern of gene loss seemed to be absent, and a number of isolates representing non-pathogenic species still carried some virulence associated genes, and (iii) divergence of modern pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species and strains, most likely circa 47 million years ago, from a pathogenic common ancestor that contained key virulence genes. Conclusions Genome evolution in Listeria involved limited gene loss and acquisition as supported by (i) a relatively high coverage of the predicted pan-genome by the observed pan-genome, (ii) conserved genome size (between 2.8 and 3.2 Mb), and (iii) a highly syntenic genome. Limited gene loss in Listeria did include loss of virulence associated genes, likely associated with multiple transitions to a saprotrophic lifestyle. The genus Listeria thus provides an example of a group of bacteria that appears to evolve through a loss of virulence rather than acquisition of virulence characteristics. While Listeria includes a number of species-like clades, many of these putative species include clades or strains with atypical virulence associated characteristics. This information will allow for the development of genetic and genomic criteria for pathogenic strains, including development of assays that specifically detect pathogenic Listeria strains.
Genome size variation is of fundamental biological importance and has been a longstanding puzzle in evolutionary biology. Several hypotheses for genome size evolution including neutral, maladaptive, and adaptive models have been proposed, but the relative importance of these models remains controversial. Primulina is a genus that is highly diversified in the Karst region of southern China, where genome size variation and the underlying evolutionary mechanisms are poorly understood. We reconstructed the phylogeny of Primulina using DNA sequences for 104 species and determined the genome sizes of 101 species. We examined the phylogenetic signal in genome size variation, and tested the fit to different evolutionary models and for correlations with variation in latitude and specific leaf area (SLA). The results showed that genome size, SLA and latitudinal variation all displayed strong phylogenetic signals, but were best explained by different evolutionary models. Furthermore, significant positive relationships were detected between genome size and SLA and between genome size and latitude. Our study is the first to investigate genome size evolution on such a comprehensive scale and in the Karst region flora. We conclude that genome size in Primulina is phylogenetically conserved but its variation among species is a combined outcome of both neutral and adaptive evolution. PMID:24533910
Kang, Ming; Tao, Junjie; Wang, Jing; Ren, Chen; Qi, Qingwen; Xiang, Qiu-Yun; Huang, Hongwen
We used flow cytometry to measure genome size in 15 species from seven families and subfamilies of tetraodontiform fishes. Previous studies have found that smooth pufferfishes (Tetraodontidae) have the smallest genome of any vertebrate measured to date (0.7-1.0 picograms diploid). We found that spiny pufferfishes (Diodontidae, sister group to the smooth puffers) possess a genome that is about two times
Elizabeth L. Brainerd; Sandra S. Slutz; Edward K. Hall; Randall W. Phillis
The Cambrian explosion is a grand challenge to science today and involves multidisciplinary study. This event is generally believed as a result of genetic innovations, environmental factors and ecological interactions, even though there are many conflicts on nature and timing of metazoan origins. The crux of the matter is that an entire roadmap of the evolution is missing to discern the biological complexity transition and to evaluate the critical role of the Cambrian explosion in the overall evolutionary context. Here, we calculate the time of the Cambrian explosion by a "C-value clock"; our result quite fits the fossil records. We clarify that the intrinsic reason of genome evolution determined the Cambrian explosion. A general formula for evaluating genome size of different species has been found, by which the genome size evolution can be illustrated. The Cambrian explosion, as a major transition of biological complexity, essentially corresponds to a critical turning point in genome size evolution. PMID:20074549
Li, Dirson Jian; Zhang, Shengli
Males and females share the vast majority of their genomes and yet are often subject to different, even conflicting, selection. Genomic and transcriptomic developments have made it possible to assess sex-specific selection at the molecular level, and it is clear that sex-specific selection shapes the evolutionary properties of several genomic characteristics, including transcription, post-transcriptional regulation, imprinting, genome structure and gene sequence. Sex-specific selection is strongly influenced by mating system, which also causes neutral evolutionary changes that affect different regions of the genome in different ways. Here, we synthesize theoretical and molecular work in order to provide a cohesive view of the role of sex-specific selection and mating system in genome evolution. We also highlight the need for a combined approach, incorporating both genomic data and experimental phenotypic studies, in order to understand precisely how sex-specific selection drives evolutionary change across the genome. PMID:23848139
Wright, A E; Mank, J E
BACKGROUND: The size of non-redundant functional genome can be an indicator of biological complexity of living organisms. Several positive feedback mechanisms including gene cooperation and duplication with subsequent specialization may result in the exponential growth of biological complexity in macro-evolution. RESULTS: I propose a hypothesis that biological complexity increased exponentially during evolution. Regression of the logarithm of functional non-redundant genome
Alexei A Sharov
Plants have large and complex mitochondrial genomes in comparison to other eukaryotes. In bryophytes, the mitochondrial genomes\\u000a exhibit a mixed mode of conservative and dynamic evolution. Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome from hornwort\\u000a Phaeoceros laevis, to investigate the level of conservation in mitochondrial genome evolution within hornworts. The circular molecule consists\\u000a of 209,482 base pairs and represents the
Jia-Yu Xue; Yang Liu; Libo Li; Bin Wang; Yin-Long Qiu
The last 50 years of molecular genetics have produced an abundance of new discoveries and data that make it useful to revisit some basic concepts and assumptions in our thinking about genomes and evolution. Chief among these observations are the complex modularity of genome organization, the biological ubiquity of mobile and repetitive DNA sequences, and the fundamental importance of DNA
James A. Shapiro
The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of human infection, and it is becoming increasingly virulent and resistant to antibiotics. Our understanding of the evolution of this species has been greatly enhanced by the recent sequencing of the genomes of seven strains of S. aureus. Comparative genomic analysis allows us to identify variation in the chromosomes and understand the
Jodi A. Lindsay; Matthew T. G. Holden
The determination of the chimpanzee genome sequence provides a means to study both structural and functional aspects of the evolution of the human genome. Here we compare humans and chimpanzees with respect to differences in expression levels and protein-coding sequences for genes active in brain, heart, liver, kidney, and testis. We find that the patterns of differences in gene expression
Philipp Khaitovich; Ines Hellmann; Wolfgang Enard; Katja Nowick; Marcus Leinweber; Henriette Franz; Gunter Weiss; Michael Lachmann; Svante Pääbo
BACKGROUND: Large scale genome arrangement, such as whole gene insertion\\/deletion, plays an important role in bacterial genome evolution. Various methods have been employed to study the dynamic process of gene insertions and deletions, such as parsimony methods and maximum likelihood methods. Previous maximum likelihood studies have assumed that the rate of gene insertions\\/deletions is constant over different genes. This assumption
Weilong Hao; G. Brian Golding
Although the evolutionary success of polyploidy in higher plants has been widely recognized, there is virtually no information on how polyploid genomes have evolved after their formation. In this report, we used synthetic polyploids of Brassica as a model system to study genome evolution in the early generations after polyploidization. The initial polyploids we developed were completely homozygous, and thus,
Keming Song; Ping Lu; Keliang Tang; Thomas C. Osborn
As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses. PMID:24751195
Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K
The long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are the most abundant class of transposable elements in plant genomes and\\u000a play important roles in genome divergence and evolution. Their accumulation is the main factor influencing genome size increase\\u000a in plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a model monocot and is the focus of much biological research due to its economic importance. We
Ling Xu; Yue Zhang; Yuan Su; Lin Liu; Jing Yang; Youyong Zhu; Chengyun Li
Genomic resources for hundreds of species of evolutionary, agricultural, economic, and medical importance are unavailable due to the expense of well-assembled genome sequences and difficulties with multigenerational studies. Teleost fish provide many models for human disease but possess anciently duplicated genomes that sometimes obfuscate connectivity. Genomic information representing a fish lineage that diverged before the teleost genome duplication (TGD) would provide an outgroup for exploring the mechanisms of evolution after whole-genome duplication. We exploited massively parallel DNA sequencing to develop meiotic maps with thrift and speed by genotyping F1 offspring of a single female and a single male spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) collected directly from nature utilizing only polymorphisms existing in these two wild individuals. Using Stacks, software that automates the calling of genotypes from polymorphisms assayed by Illumina sequencing, we constructed a map containing 8406 markers. RNA-seq on two map-cross larvae provided a reference transcriptome that identified nearly 1000 mapped protein-coding markers and allowed genome-wide analysis of conserved synteny. Results showed that the gar lineage diverged from teleosts before the TGD and its genome is organized more similarly to that of humans than teleosts. Thus, spotted gar provides a critical link between medical models in teleost fish, to which gar is biologically similar, and humans, to which gar is genomically similar. Application of our F1 dense mapping strategy to species with no prior genome information promises to facilitate comparative genomics and provide a scaffold for ordering the numerous contigs arising from next generation genome sequencing.
Amores, Angel; Catchen, Julian; Ferrara, Allyse; Fontenot, Quenton; Postlethwait, John H.
It has recently been reported that all but one of the 102 known serotypes of the genus Rhinovirus segregate into two genetic clusters (C. Savolainen, S. Blomqvist, M. N. Mulders, and T. Hovi, J. Gen. Virol. 83:333-340, 2002). The only exception is human rhinovirus 87 (HRV87). Here we demonstrate that HRV87 is genetically and antigenically highly similar to enterovirus 68 (EV68) and is related to EV70, the other member of human enterovirus group D. The partial nucleotide sequences of the 5? untranslated region, capsid regions VP4/VP2 and VP1, and the 3D RNA polymerase gene of the HRV87 prototype strain F02-3607 Corn showed 97.3, 97.8, 95.2, and 95.9% identity to the corresponding regions of EV68 prototype strain Fermon. The amino acid identities were 100 and 98.1% for the products of the two capsid regions and 97.9% for 3D RNA polymerase. Antigenic cross-reaction between HRV87 and EV68 was indicated by microneutralization with monotypic antisera. Phylogenetic analysis showed definite clustering of HRV87 and EV68 with EV70 for all sequences examined. Both HRV87 and EV68 were shown to be acid sensitive by two different assays, while EV70 was acid resistant, which is typical of enteroviruses. The cytopathic effect induced by HRV87 or EV68 was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the decay-accelerating factor known to be the receptor of EV70. We conclude that HRV87 and EV68 are strains of the same picornavirus serotype presenting features of both rhinoviruses and enteroviruses.
Blomqvist, Soile; Savolainen, Carita; Raman, Laura; Roivainen, Merja; Hovi, Tapani
Genome size and complexity vary tremendously among eukaryotic species and their organelles. Comparisons across deeply divergent eukaryotic lineages have suggested that variation in mutation rates may explain this diversity, with increased mutational burdens favoring reduced genome size and complexity. The discovery that mitochondrial mutation rates can differ by orders of magnitude among closely related angiosperm species presents a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from two species in the angiosperm genus Silene with recent and dramatic accelerations in their mitochondrial mutation rates. Contrary to theoretical predictions, these genomes have experienced a massive proliferation of noncoding content. At 6.7 and 11.3 Mb, they are by far the largest known mitochondrial genomes, larger than most bacterial genomes and even some nuclear genomes. In contrast, two slowly evolving Silene mitochondrial genomes are smaller than average for angiosperms. Consequently, this genus captures approximately 98% of known variation in organelle genome size. The expanded genomes reveal several architectural changes, including the evolution of complex multichromosomal structures (with 59 and 128 circular-mapping chromosomes, ranging in size from 44 to 192 kb). They also exhibit a substantial reduction in recombination and gene conversion activity as measured by the relative frequency of alternative genome conformations and the level of sequence divergence between repeat copies. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and chromosome structure can therefore be extremely rapid and interrelated in ways not predicted by current evolutionary theories. Our results raise the hypothesis that changes in recombinational processes, including gene conversion, may be a central force driving the evolution of both mutation rate and genome structure.
Sloan, Daniel B.; Alverson, Andrew J.; Chuckalovcak, John P.; Wu, Martin; McCauley, David E.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.; Taylor, Douglas R.
Genome size and complexity vary tremendously among eukaryotic species and their organelles. Comparisons across deeply divergent eukaryotic lineages have suggested that variation in mutation rates may explain this diversity, with increased mutational burdens favoring reduced genome size and complexity. The discovery that mitochondrial mutation rates can differ by orders of magnitude among closely related angiosperm species presents a unique opportunity to test this hypothesis. We sequenced the mitochondrial genomes from two species in the angiosperm genus Silene with recent and dramatic accelerations in their mitochondrial mutation rates. Contrary to theoretical predictions, these genomes have experienced a massive proliferation of noncoding content. At 6.7 and 11.3 Mb, they are by far the largest known mitochondrial genomes, larger than most bacterial genomes and even some nuclear genomes. In contrast, two slowly evolving Silene mitochondrial genomes are smaller than average for angiosperms. Consequently, this genus captures approximately 98% of known variation in organelle genome size. The expanded genomes reveal several architectural changes, including the evolution of complex multichromosomal structures (with 59 and 128 circular-mapping chromosomes, ranging in size from 44 to 192 kb). They also exhibit a substantial reduction in recombination and gene conversion activity as measured by the relative frequency of alternative genome conformations and the level of sequence divergence between repeat copies. The evolution of mutation rate, genome size, and chromosome structure can therefore be extremely rapid and interrelated in ways not predicted by current evolutionary theories. Our results raise the hypothesis that changes in recombinational processes, including gene conversion, may be a central force driving the evolution of both mutation rate and genome structure. PMID:22272183
Sloan, Daniel B; Alverson, Andrew J; Chuckalovcak, John P; Wu, Martin; McCauley, David E; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Taylor, Douglas R
Motivation: The distributions of many genome-associated quantities, including the membership of paralogous gene fam- ilies can be approximated with power laws. We are interested in developing mathematical models of genome evolution that adequately account for the shape of these distributions and describe the evolutionary dynamics of their formation. Results: We show that simple stochastic models of genome evolution lead to
Georgy P. Karev; Yuri I. Wolf; Eugene V. Koonin
An unstable genome is a hallmark of many cancers. It is unclear, however, whether some mutagenic features driving somatic alterations in cancer are encoded in the genome sequence and whether they can operate in a tissue-specific manner. We performed a genome-wide analysis of 663,446 DNA breakpoints associated with somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) from 2,792 cancer samples classified into 26 cancer
Subhajyoti De; Franziska Michor
BACKGROUND: The vertebrate tetraspanin family has many features which make it suitable for preserving the imprint of ancient sequence evolution and amenable for phylogenomic analysis. So we believe that an in-depth analysis of the tetraspanin evolution not only provides more complete understanding of tetraspanin biology, but offers new insights into the influence of the two rounds of whole genome duplication
Shengfeng Huang; Haozheng Tian; Zelin Chen; Ting Yu; Anlong Xu
The Génolevures online database (http://cbi.labri.fr/Genolevures/) provides data and tools to facilitate comparative genomic studies on hemiascomycetous yeasts. Now, four complete genome sequences recently determined (Candida glabrata, Kluyveromyces lactis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Yarrowia lipolytica) have been added to the partial sequences of 13 species previously analysed by a random approach. The database also includes the reference genome Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Data are presented with a focus on relations between genes and genomes: conservation of genes and gene families, speciation, chromosomal reorganization and synteny. The Génolevures site includes a community area for specific studies by members of the international community. PMID:14681422
Sherman, David; Durrens, Pascal; Beyne, Emmanuelle; Nikolski, Macha; Souciet, Jean-Luc
Laboratory evolution studies provide fundamental biological insight through direct observation of the evolution process. They not only enable testing of evolutionary theory and principles, but also have applications to metabolic engineering and human health. Genome-scale tools are revolutionizing studies of laboratory evolution by providing complete determination of the genetic basis of adaptation and the changes in the organism's gene expression state. Here, we review studies centered on four central themes of laboratory evolution studies: (1) the genetic basis of adaptation; (2) the importance of mutations to genes that encode regulatory hubs; (3) the view of adaptive evolution as an optimization process; and (4) the dynamics with which laboratory populations evolve.
Conrad, Tom M; Lewis, Nathan E; Palsson, Bernhard ?
Background Microsporidia are intracellular parasites that are highly-derived relatives of fungi. They have compacted genomes and, despite a high rate of sequence evolution, distantly related species can share high levels of gene order conservation. To date, only two species have been analysed in detail, and data from one of these largely consists of short genomic fragments. It is therefore difficult to determine how conservation has been maintained through microsporidian evolution, and impossible to identify whether certain regions are more prone to genomic stasis. Principal Findings Here, we analyse three large fragments of the Enterocytozoon bieneusi genome (in total 429 kbp), a species of medical significance. A total of 296 ORFs were identified, annotated and their context compared with Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Antonospora locustae. Overall, a high degree of conservation was found between all three species, and interestingly the level of conservation was similar in all three pairwise comparisons, despite the fact that A. locustae is more distantly related to E. cuniculi and E. bieneusi than either are to each other. Conclusions/Significance Any two genes that are found together in any pair of genomes are more likely to be conserved in the third genome as well, suggesting that a core of genes tends to be conserved across the entire group. The mechanisms of rearrangments identified among microsporidian genomes were consistent with a very slow evolution of their architecture, as opposed to the very rapid sequence evolution reported for these parasites.
Morrison, Hilary G.; Feng, Xiaochuan; Weiss, Louis M.; Tzipori, Saul; Keeling, Patrick J.
Frog sex chromosomes offer an ideal system for advancing our understanding of genome evolution and function because of the variety of sex determination systems in the group, the diversity of sex chromosome maturation states, the ease of experimental manipulation during early development. After briefly reviewing sex chromosome biology generally, we focus on what is known about frog sex determination, sex chromosome evolution, and recent, genomics-facilitated advances in the field. In closing we highlight gaps in our current knowledge of frog sex chromosomes, and suggest priorities for future research that can advance broad knowledge of gene dose and sex chromosome evolution.
Malcom, Jacob W.; Kudra, Randal S.; Malone, John H.
Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.
BACKGROUND: The nucleomorphs associated with secondary plastids of cryptomonads and chlorarachniophytes are the sole examples of organelles with eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Although not as widespread as their prokaryotic equivalents in mitochondria and plastids, nucleomorph genomes share similarities in terms of reduction and compaction. They also differ in several aspects, not least in that they encode proteins that target to the
Nicola J Patron; Matthew B Rogers; Patrick J Keeling
Shah et al have recently reported the first successful sequencing of the entire genome of a solid tumour (Shah et al, 2009). Philippe Bedard and Christos Sotiriou analyse their findings as well as the challenges of applying the study of cancer genomes to clinical cancer care.
Bedard, Philippe L; Sotiriou, Christos
Seven distinct genome-wide divergence measures were applied pairwise to the nine sequenced animal genomes of human, mouse, rat, chicken, pufferfish, fruit fly, mosquito, and two nem- atode worms (Caenorhabditis briggsae and Caenorhabditis ele- gans). Qualitatively, all of these divergence measures are found to correlate with the estimated time since speciation; however, marked deviations are observed in a few lineages. The
Evgeny M. Zdobnova; Christian von Mering; Ivica Letunica; Peer Bork
We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these
Wesley C. Warren; Ladeana W. Hillier; Jennifer A. Marshall Graves; Ewan Birney; Chris P. Ponting; Frank Grützner; Katherine Belov; Webb Miller; Laura Clarke; Asif T. Chinwalla; Shiaw-Pyng Yang; Andreas Heger; Devin P. Locke; Pat Miethke; Paul D. Waters; Frédéric Veyrunes; Lucinda Fulton; Bob Fulton; Tina Graves; John Wallis; Xose S. Puente; Carlos López-Otín; Gonzalo R. Ordóñez; Evan E. Eichler; Lin Chen; Ze Cheng; Janine E. Deakin; Amber Alsop; Katherine Thompson; Patrick Kirby; Anthony T. Papenfuss; Matthew J. Wakefield; Tsviya Olender; Doron Lancet; Gavin A. Huttley; Arian F. A. Smit; Andrew Pask; Peter Temple-Smith; Mark A. Batzer; Jerilyn A. Walker; Miriam K. Konkel; Robert S. Harris; Camilla M. Whittington; Emily S. W. Wong; Neil J. Gemmell; Emmanuel Buschiazzo; Iris M. Vargas Jentzsch; Angelika Merkel; Juergen Schmitz; Anja Zemann; Gennady Churakov; Jan Ole Kriegs; Juergen Brosius; Elizabeth P. Murchison; Ravi Sachidanandam; Carly Smith; Gregory J. Hannon; Enkhjargal Tsend-Ayush; Daniel McMillan; Rosalind Attenborough; Willem Rens; Malcolm Ferguson-Smith; Christophe M. Lefèvre; Julie A. Sharp; Kevin R. Nicholas; David A. Ray; Michael Kube; Richard Reinhardt; Thomas H. Pringle; James Taylor; Russell C. Jones; Brett Nixon; Jean-Louis Dacheux; Hitoshi Niwa; Yoko Sekita; Xiaoqiu Huang; Alexander Stark; Pouya Kheradpour; Manolis Kellis; Paul Flicek; Yuan Chen; Caleb Webber; Ross Hardison; Joanne Nelson; Kym Hallsworth-Pepin; Kim Delehaunty; Chris Markovic; Pat Minx; Yucheng Feng; Colin Kremitzki; Makedonka Mitreva; Jarret Glasscock; Todd Wylie; Patricia Wohldmann; Prathapan Thiru; Michael N. Nhan; Craig S. Pohl; Scott M. Smith; Shunfeng Hou; Marilyn B. Renfree; Elaine R. Mardis; Richard K. Wilson
Natural selection operating within genomes will inevitably result in the appearance of DNAs with no phenotypic expression whose only `function' is survival within genomes. Prokaryotic transposable elements and eukaryotic middle-repetitive sequences can be seen as such DNAs, and thus no phenotypic or evolutionary function need be assigned to them.
W. Ford Doolittle; Carmen Sapienza
Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. Here we report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and non-pathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly
Geraldine Butler; Matthew D. Rasmussen; Michael F. Lin; Manuel A. S. Santos; Sharadha Sakthikumar; Carol A. Munro; Esther Rheinbay; Manfred Grabherr; Anja Forche; Jennifer L. Reedy; Ino Agrafioti; Martha B. Arnaud; Steven Bates; Alistair J. P. Brown; Sascha Brunke; Maria C. Costanzo; David A. Fitzpatrick; Piet W. J. de Groot; David Harris; Lois L. Hoyer; Bernhard Hube; Frans M. Klis; Chinnappa Kodira; Nicola Lennard; Mary E. Logue; Ronny Martin; Aaron M. Neiman; Elissavet Nikolaou; Michael A. Quail; Janet Quinn; Maria C. Santos; Florian F. Schmitzberger; Gavin Sherlock; Prachi Shah; Kevin A. T. Silverstein; Marek S. Skrzypek; David Soll; Rodney Staggs; Ian Stansfield; Michael P. H. Stumpf; Peter E. Sudbery; Thyagarajan Srikantha; Qiandong Zeng; Judith Berman; Matthew Berriman; Joseph Heitman; Neil A. R. Gow; Michael C. Lorenz; Bruce W. Birren; Manolis Kellis; Christina A. Cuomo
Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class of elements is distinguished from other types of mobile elements in terms of their structure, amplification dynamics, and genomic effect. We provide an up-to-date outlook on the diversity and taxonomic distribution of all major types of DNA transposons in eukaryotes, including Helitrons and Mavericks. We discuss some of the evolutionary forces that influence their maintenance and diversification in various genomic environments. Finally, we highlight how the distinctive biological features of DNA transposons have contributed to shape genome architecture and led to the emergence of genetic innovations in different eukaryotic lineages.
Feschotte, Cedric; Pritham, Ellen J.
Cnidarians (corals, anemones, jellyfish, and hydras) are a diverse group of animals of interest to evolutionary biologists, ecologists, and developmental biologists. With the publication of the genome sequences of Hydra and Nematostella, whose last common ancestor was the stem cnidarian, we are beginning to see the genomic underpinnings of cnidarian biology. Cnidarians are known for the remarkable plasticity of their morphology and life cycles. This plasticity is reflected in the Hydra and Nematostella genomes, which differ to an exceptional degree in size, base composition, transposable element content, and gene conservation. We now know what cnidarian genomes are capable of doing given 500 million years; the next challenge is to understand how this genomic history has led to the striking diversity we see in cnidarians.
Steele, Robert E.; David, Charles N.; Technau, Ulrich
The analysis of completely sequenced genomes uncovers an astonishing variability between species in terms of gene content and order. During genome history, the genes are frequently rear-ranged, duplicated, lost, or transferred horizontally between genomes. These events appear to be stochastic, yet they are under selective constraints resulting from the functional interactions between genes. These genomic constraints form the basis for a variety of techniques that employ systematic genome comparisons to predict functional associations among genes. The most powerful techniques to date are based on conserved gene neighborhood, gene fusion events, and common phylogenetic distributions of gene families. Here we show that these techniques, if integrated quantitatively and applied to a sufficiently large number of genomes, have reached a resolution which allows the characterization of function at a higher level than that of the individual gene: global modularity becomes detectable in a functional protein network. In Escherichia coli, the predicted modules can be bench-marked by comparison to known metabolic pathways. We found as many as 74% of the known metabolic enzymes clustering together in modules, with an average pathway specificity of at least 84%. The modules extend beyond metabolism, and have led to hundreds of reliable functional predictions both at the protein and pathway level. The results indicate that modularity in protein networks is intrinsically encoded in present-day genomes. PMID:14673105
von Mering, Christian; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Tsoka, Sophia; Ciccarelli, Francesca D; Pereira-Leal, Jose B; Ouzounis, Christos A; Bork, Peer
Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) are among the most common reasons for which primary care providers are consulted. VRIs due to rhinoviruses-the most commonly implicated etiologic agent-constitute a syndrome characterized by signs and symptoms of a cold. Rhinoviruses have been implicated in respiratory tract illnesses such as sinusitis and otitis media, as well as lower respiratory complications in high-risk populations. Most patients treat VRI with over-the-counter remedies that have been demonstrated to produce marginal clinical benefits. The development of novel antiviral agents has intensified interest in VRIs. Pleconaril, a capsid-function inhibitor currently under FDA review, has been shown in clinical trials to reduce the duration and severity of rhinovirus VRIs. By targeting the cause of illness, antiviral agents represent an opportunity to reduce the substantial clinical burden of VRI. Furthermore, effective therapies can potentially reduce inappropriate antibiotic use for viral infections. PMID:12756426
Fendrick, A Mark
Eukaryotes arose from an endosymbiotic association of an ?-proteobacterium-like organism (the ancestor of mitochondria) with\\u000a a host cell (lacking mitochondria or plastids). Plants arose by the addition of a cyanobacterium-like endosymbiont (the ancestor\\u000a of plastids) to the two-member association. Each member of the association brought a unique internal environment and a unique\\u000a genome. Analyses of recently acquired genomic sequences with
Evolutionary innovation in eukaryotes and especially animals is at least partially driven by genome rearrangements and the resulting emergence of proteins with new domain combinations, and thus potentially novel functionality. Given the random nature of such rearrangements, one could expect that proteins with particularly useful multidomain combinations may have been rediscovered multiple times by parallel evolution. However, existing reports suggest a minimal role of this phenomenon in the overall evolution of eukaryotic proteomes. We assembled a collection of 172 complete eukaryotic genomes that is not only the largest, but also the most phylogenetically complete set of genomes analyzed so far. By employing a maximum parsimony approach to compare repertoires of Pfam domains and their combinations, we show that independent evolution of domain combinations is significantly more prevalent than previously thought. Our results indicate that about 25% of all currently observed domain combinations have evolved multiple times. Interestingly, this percentage is even higher for sets of domain combinations in individual species, with, for instance, 70% of the domain combinations found in the human genome having evolved independently at least once in other species. We also show that previous, much lower estimates of this rate are most likely due to the small number and biased phylogenetic distribution of the genomes analyzed. The process of independent emergence of identical domain combination is widespread, not limited to domains with specific functional categories. Besides data from large-scale analyses, we also present individual examples of independent domain combination evolution. The surprisingly large contribution of parallel evolution to the development of the domain combination repertoire in extant genomes has profound consequences for our understanding of the evolution of pathways and cellular processes in eukaryotes and for comparative functional genomics.
Zmasek, Christian M.; Godzik, Adam
Genomes are shaped by evolutionary processes such as gene genesis, horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and gene loss. To quantify the relative contributions of these processes, we analyze the distribution of 12,762 protein families on a phylogenetic tree, derived from entire genomes of 41 Bacteria and 10 Archaea. We show that gene loss is the most important factor in shaping genome content, being up to three times more frequent than HGT, followed by gene genesis, which may contribute up to twice as many genes as HGT. We suggest that gene gain and gene loss in prokaryotes are balanced; thus, on average, prokaryotic genome size is kept constant. Despite the importance of HGT, our results indicate that the majority of protein families have only been transmitted by vertical inheritance. To test our method, we present a study of strain-specific genes of Helicobacter pylori, and demonstrate correct predictions of gene loss and HGT for at least 81% of validated cases. This approach indicates that it is possible to trace genome content history and quantify the factors that shape contemporary prokaryotic genomes. PMID:12840037
Kunin, Victor; Ouzounis, Christos A
This project seeks to use the genomes of two close relatives, A. actinomycetemcomitans and H. aphrophilus, to understand the evolutionary changes that take place in a genome to make it more or less virulent. Our primary specific aim of this project was to sequence, annotate, and analyze the genomes of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (CU1000, serotype f) and Haemophilus aphrophilus. With these genome sequences we have then compared the whole genome sequences to each other and to the current Aa (HK1651 www.genome.ou.edu) genome project sequence along with other fully sequenced Pasteurellaceae to determine inter and intra species differences that may account for the differences and similarities in disease. We also propose to create and curate a comprehensive database where sequence information and analysis for the Pasteurellaceae (family that includes the genera Actinobacillus and Haemophilus) are readily accessible. And finally we have proposed to develop phylogenetic techniques that can be used to efficiently and accurately examine the evolution of genomes. Below we report on progress we have made on these major specific aims. Progress on the specific aims is reported below under two major headings--experimental approaches and bioinformatics and systematic biology approaches.
Home News and Events Multimedia Library Videos Assessing Tumor Heterogeneity and Tracking Clonal Evolution - Christopher Miller Assessing Tumor Heterogeneity and Tracking Clonal Evolution Using Whole Genome or Exome Sequencing - Christopher Miller,
Despite the prevalence of intron losses during eukaryotic evolution, the selective forces acting on them have not been extensively explored. Arabidopsis thaliana lost half of its genome and experienced an elevated rate of intron loss after diverging from A. lyrata. The selective force for genome reduction was suggested to have driven the intron loss. However, the evolutionary mechanism of genome reduction is still a matter of debate. In this study, we found that intron-lost genes have high synonymous substitution rates. Assuming that differences in mutability among different introns are conserved among closely related species, we used the nucleotide substitution rate between orthologous introns in other species as the proxy of the mutation rate of Arabidopsis introns, either lost or extant. The lost introns were found to have higher mutation rates than extant introns. At the genome-wide level, A. thaliana has a higher mutation rate than A. lyrata, which correlates with the higher rate of intron loss and rapid genome reduction of A. thaliana. Our results indicate that selection to minimize mutational hazards might be the selective force for intron loss, and possibly also for genome reduction, in the evolution of A. thaliana. Small genome size and lower genome-wide intron density were widely reported to be correlated with phenotypic features, such as high metabolic rates and rapid growth. We argue that the mutational-hazard hypothesis is compatible with these correlations, by suggesting that selection for rapid growth might indirectly increase mutational hazards.
Yang, Yu-Fei; Zhu, Tao; Niu, Deng-Ke
Aphids are sap-feeding insects that host a range of bacterial endosymbionts including the obligate, nutritional mutualist Buchnera plus several bacteria that are not required for host survival. Among the latter, 'Candidatus Regiella insecticola' and 'Candidatus Hamiltonella defensa' are found in pea aphids and other hosts and have been shown to protect aphids from natural enemies. We have sequenced almost the entire genome of R. insecticola (2.07 Mbp) and compared it with the recently published genome of H.?defensa (2.11 Mbp). Despite being sister species the two genomes are highly rearranged and the genomes only have ?55% of genes in common. The functions encoded by the shared genes imply that the bacteria have similar metabolic capabilities, including only two essential amino acid biosynthetic pathways and active uptake mechanisms for the remaining eight, and similar capacities for host cell toxicity and invasion (type 3 secretion systems and RTX toxins). These observations, combined with high sequence divergence of orthologues, strongly suggest an ancient divergence after establishment of a symbiotic lifestyle. The divergence in gene sets and in genome architecture implies a history of rampant recombination and gene inactivation and the ongoing integration of mobile DNA (insertion sequence elements, prophage and plasmids). PMID:21966902
Degnan, Patrick H; Leonardo, Teresa E; Cass, Bodil N; Hurwitz, Bonnie; Stern, David; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen; Moran, Nancy A
Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide.
Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.
Olfactory receptor (OR) genes form the largest known multigene family in the human genome. To obtain some insight into their evolutionary history, we have identified the complete set of OR genes and their chromosomal locations from the latest human genome sequences. We detected 388 potentially functional genes that have intact ORFs and 414 apparent pseudogenes. The number and the fraction (48%) of functional genes are considerably larger than the ones previously reported. The human OR genes can clearly be divided into class I and class II genes, as was previously noted. Our phylogenetic analysis has shown that the class II OR genes can further be classified into 19 phylogenetic clades supported by high bootstrap values. We have also found that there are many tandem arrays of OR genes that are phylogenetically closely related. These genes appear to have been generated by tandem gene duplication. However, the relationships between genomic clusters and phylogenetic clades are very complicated. There are a substantial number of cases in which the genes in the same phylogenetic clade are located on different chromosomal regions. In addition, OR genes belonging to distantly related phylogenetic clades are sometimes located very closely in a chromosomal region and form a tight genomic cluster. These observations can be explained by the assumption that several chromosomal rearrangements have occurred at the regions of OR gene clusters and the OR genes contained in different genomic clusters are shuffled.
Niimura, Yoshihito; Nei, Masatoshi
Bacteria lose or gain genetic material and through selection, new variants become fixed in the population. Here we provide the first, genome-wide example of a single bacterial strain's evolution in different deliberately colonized patients and the surprising insight that hosts appear to personalize their microflora. By first obtaining the complete genome sequence of the prototype asymptomatic bacteriuria strain E. coli 83972 and then resequencing its descendants after therapeutic bladder colonization of different patients, we identified 34 mutations, which affected metabolic and virulence-related genes. Further transcriptome and proteome analysis proved that these genome changes altered bacterial gene expression resulting in unique adaptation patterns in each patient. Our results provide evidence that, in addition to stochastic events, adaptive bacterial evolution is driven by individual host environments. Ongoing loss of gene function supports the hypothesis that evolution towards commensalism rather than virulence is favored during asymptomatic bladder colonization.
Wullt, Bjorn; Liesegang, Heiko; Biran, Dvora; Voigt, Birgit; Gronberg-Hernandez, Jenny; Ragnarsdottir, Bryndis; Hecker, Michael; Ron, Eliora Z.; Daniel, Rolf; Gottschalk, Gerhard; Hacker, Jorg; Svanborg, Catharina; Dobrindt, Ulrich
To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production. PMID:19390049
Elsik, Christine G; Tellam, Ross L; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Muzny, Donna M; Weinstock, George M; Adelson, David L; Eichler, Evan E; Elnitski, Laura; Guigó, Roderic; Hamernik, Debora L; Kappes, Steve M; Lewin, Harris A; Lynn, David J; Nicholas, Frank W; Reymond, Alexandre; Rijnkels, Monique; Skow, Loren C; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Schook, Lawrence; Womack, James; Alioto, Tyler; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Astashyn, Alex; Chapple, Charles E; Chen, Hsiu-Chuan; Chrast, Jacqueline; Câmara, Francisco; Ermolaeva, Olga; Henrichsen, Charlotte N; Hlavina, Wratko; Kapustin, Yuri; Kiryutin, Boris; Kitts, Paul; Kokocinski, Felix; Landrum, Melissa; Maglott, Donna; Pruitt, Kim; Sapojnikov, Victor; Searle, Stephen M; Solovyev, Victor; Souvorov, Alexandre; Ucla, Catherine; Wyss, Carine; Anzola, Juan M; Gerlach, Daniel; Elhaik, Eran; Graur, Dan; Reese, Justin T; Edgar, Robert C; McEwan, John C; Payne, Gemma M; Raison, Joy M; Junier, Thomas; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Eyras, Eduardo; Plass, Mireya; Donthu, Ravikiran; Larkin, Denis M; Reecy, James; Yang, Mary Q; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Chitko-McKown, Carol G; Liu, George E; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Song, Jiuzhou; Zhu, Bin; Bradley, Daniel G; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Lau, Lilian P L; Whiteside, Matthew D; Walker, Angela; Wheeler, Thomas T; Casey, Theresa; German, J Bruce; Lemay, Danielle G; Maqbool, Nauman J; Molenaar, Adrian J; Seo, Seongwon; Stothard, Paul; Baldwin, Cynthia L; Baxter, Rebecca; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice L; Brown, Wendy C; Childers, Christopher P; Connelley, Timothy; Ellis, Shirley A; Fritz, Krista; Glass, Elizabeth J; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Iivanainen, Antti; Lahmers, Kevin K; Bennett, Anna K; Dickens, C Michael; Gilbert, James G R; Hagen, Darren E; Salih, Hanni; Aerts, Jan; Caetano, Alexandre R; Dalrymple, Brian; Garcia, Jose Fernando; Gill, Clare A; Hiendleder, Stefan G; Memili, Erdogan; Spurlock, Diane; Williams, John L; Alexander, Lee; Brownstein, Michael J; Guan, Leluo; Holt, Robert A; Jones, Steven J M; Marra, Marco A; Moore, Richard; Moore, Stephen S; Roberts, Andy; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Waterman, Richard C; Chacko, Joseph; Chandrabose, Mimi M; Cree, Andy; Dao, Marvin Diep; Dinh, Huyen H; Gabisi, Ramatu Ayiesha; Hines, Sandra; Hume, Jennifer; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Joshi, Vandita; Kovar, Christie L; Lewis, Lora R; Liu, Yih-Shin; Lopez, John; Morgan, Margaret B; Nguyen, Ngoc Bich; Okwuonu, Geoffrey O; Ruiz, San Juana; Santibanez, Jireh; Wright, Rita A; Buhay, Christian; Ding, Yan; Dugan-Rocha, Shannon; Herdandez, Judith; Holder, Michael; Sabo, Aniko; Egan, Amy; Goodell, Jason; Wilczek-Boney, Katarzyna; Fowler, Gerald R; Hitchens, Matthew Edward; Lozado, Ryan J; Moen, Charles; Steffen, David; Warren, James T; Zhang, Jingkun; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Durbin, K James; Havlak, Paul; Jiang, Huaiyang; Liu, Yue; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Yanru; Shen, Yufeng; Song, Henry; Bell, Stephanie Nicole; Davis, Clay; Johnson, Angela Jolivet; Lee, Sandra; Nazareth, Lynne V; Patel, Bella Mayurkumar; Pu, Ling-Ling; Vattathil, Selina; Williams, Rex Lee; Curry, Stacey; Hamilton, Cerissa; Sodergren, Erica; Wheeler, David A; Barris, Wes; Bennett, Gary L; Eggen, André; Green, Ronnie D; Harhay, Gregory P; Hobbs, Matthew; Jann, Oliver; Keele, John W; Kent, Matthew P; Lien, Sigbjørn; McKay, Stephanie D; McWilliam, Sean; Ratnakumar, Abhirami; Schnabel, Robert D; Smith, Timothy; Snelling, Warren M; Sonstegard, Tad S; Stone, Roger T; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Takasuga, Akiko; Taylor, Jeremy F; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Macneil, Michael D; Abatepaulo, Antonio R R; Abbey, Colette A; Ahola, Virpi; Almeida, Iassudara G; Amadio, Ariel F; Anatriello, Elen; Bahadue, Suria M; Biase, Fernando H; Boldt, Clayton R; Carroll, Jeffery A; Carvalho, Wanessa A; Cervelatti, Eliane P; Chacko, Elsa; Chapin, Jennifer E; Cheng, Ye; Choi, Jungwoo; Colley, Adam J; de Campos, Tatiana A; De Donato, Marcos; Santos, Isabel K F de Miranda; de Oliveira, Carlo J F; Deobald, Heather; Devinoy, Eve; Donohue, Kaitlin E; Dovc, Peter; Eberlein, Annett; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Franzin, Alessandra M; Garcia, Gustavo R; Genini, Sem; Gladney, Cody J; Grant, Jason R; Greaser, Marion L; Green, Jonathan A; Hadsell, Darryl L; Hakimov, Hatam A; Halgren, Rob; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hart, Elizabeth A; Hastings, Nicola; Hernandez, Marta; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ingham, Aaron; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Jamis, Catherine; Jensen, Kirsty; Kapetis, Dimos; Kerr, Tovah; Khalil, Sari S; Khatib, Hasan; Kolbehdari, Davood; Kumar, Charu G; Kumar, Dinesh; Leach, Richard; Lee, Justin C-M; Li, Changxi; Logan, Krystin M; Malinverni, Roberto; Marques, Elisa; Martin, William F; Martins, Natalia F
We present a draft genome sequence of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus. This monotreme exhibits a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. For example, platypuses have a coat of fur adapted to an aquatic lifestyle; platypus females lactate, yet lay eggs; and males are equipped with venom similar to that of reptiles. Analysis of the first monotreme genome aligned these features with genetic innovations. We find that reptile and platypus venom proteins have been co-opted independently from the same gene families; milk protein genes are conserved despite platypuses laying eggs; and immune gene family expansions are directly related to platypus biology. Expansions of protein, non-protein-coding RNA and microRNA families, as well as repeat elements, are identified. Sequencing of this genome now provides a valuable resource for deep mammalian comparative analyses, as well as for monotreme biology and conservation.
Warren, Wesley C.; Hillier, LaDeana W.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.; Birney, Ewan; Ponting, Chris P.; Grutzner, Frank; Belov, Katherine; Miller, Webb; Clarke, Laura; Chinwalla, Asif T.; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Heger, Andreas; Locke, Devin P.; Miethke, Pat; Waters, Paul D.; Veyrunes, Frederic; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Wallis, John; Puente, Xose S.; Lopez-Otin, Carlos; Ordonez, Gonzalo R.; Eichler, Evan E.; Chen, Lin; Cheng, Ze; Deakin, Janine E.; Alsop, Amber; Thompson, Katherine; Kirby, Patrick; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Wakefield, Matthew J.; Olender, Tsviya; Lancet, Doron; Huttley, Gavin A.; Smit, Arian F. A.; Pask, Andrew; Temple-Smith, Peter; Batzer, Mark A.; Walker, Jerilyn A.; Konkel, Miriam K.; Harris, Robert S.; Whittington, Camilla M.; Wong, Emily S. W.; Gemmell, Neil J.; Buschiazzo, Emmanuel; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Merkel, Angelika; Schmitz, Juergen; Zemann, Anja; Churakov, Gennady; Kriegs, Jan Ole; Brosius, Juergen; Murchison, Elizabeth P.; Sachidanandam, Ravi; Smith, Carly; Hannon, Gregory J.; Tsend-Ayush, Enkhjargal; McMillan, Daniel; Attenborough, Rosalind; Rens, Willem; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm; Lefevre, Christophe M.; Sharp, Julie A.; Nicholas, Kevin R.; Ray, David A.; Kube, Michael; Reinhardt, Richard; Pringle, Thomas H.; Taylor, James; Jones, Russell C.; Nixon, Brett; Dacheux, Jean-Louis; Niwa, Hitoshi; Sekita, Yoko; Huang, Xiaoqiu; Stark, Alexander; Kheradpour, Pouya; Kellis, Manolis; Flicek, Paul; Chen, Yuan; Webber, Caleb; Hardison, Ross; Nelson, Joanne; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Delehaunty, Kim; Markovic, Chris; Minx, Pat; Feng, Yucheng; Kremitzki, Colin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Glasscock, Jarret; Wylie, Todd; Wohldmann, Patricia; Thiru, Prathapan; Nhan, Michael N.; Pohl, Craig S.; Smith, Scott M.; Hou, Shunfeng; Renfree, Marilyn B.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.
Evolution of mitochondrial genes is far from clock-like. The substitution rate varies considerably between species, and there\\u000a are many species that have a significantly increased rate with respect to their close relatives. There is also considerable\\u000a variation among species in the rate of gene order rearrangement. Using a set of 55 complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes,\\u000a we estimate the evolutionary distance
Wei Xu; Daniel Jameson; Bin Tang; Paul G. Higgs
Shewanella halifaxensis and Shewanella sediminis were among a few aquatic ?-proteobacteria that were psychrophiles and the first anaerobic bacteria that degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although many mesophilic or psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and ?-proteobacteria were sequenced for their genomes, the genomic evolution pathways for temperature adaptation were poorly understood. On the other hand, the genes responsible for anaerobic RDX mineralization pathways
Jian-Shen Zhao; Yinghai Deng; Dominic Manno; Jalal Hawari
Using DAPI flow cytometry, we examined genome size divergence of the Persian violet, Cyclamen persicum (Primulaceae) (2n=48) on close opposite slopes of Evolution Canyon (EC), Mt. Carmel, Israel. The range of genome size variation\\u000a detected among measured cyclamens was 6.41% in relation to the smallest measured DNA content. Our data on C. persicum at EC showed that local variability in
Tomáš Pavlí?ek; Petr Bureš; Lucie Horová; Olga Raskina; Eviatar Nevo
Apyrases have been suggested to play important roles in plant nutrition, photomorphogenesis, and nodulation. To help trace the evolution of these genes in the legumes—and possibly, the acquisition of new functions for nodulation—apyrase-containing BACs were sequenced from three legume genomes. Genomic sequences from Medicago truncatula, Glycine max and Lotus japonicus were compared to one another and to corresponding regions in
S. B. Cannon; W. R. McCombie; S. Sato; S. Tabata; R. Denny; L. Palmer; M. Katari; N. D. Young; G. Stacey
To explore the mitochondrial genes of the Cruciferae family, the mitochondrial genome of Raphanus sativus (sat) was sequenced and annotated. The circular mitochondrial genome of sat is 239,723 bp and includes 33 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 17 tRNA genes. The mitochondrial genome also contains a pair of large repeat sequences 5.9 kb in length, which may mediate genome reorganization into two sub-genomic circles, with predicted sizes of 124.8 kb and 115.0 kb, respectively. Furthermore, gene evolution of mitochondrial genomes within the Cruciferae family was analyzed using sat mitochondrial type (mitotype), together with six other reported mitotypes. The cruciferous mitochondrial genomes have maintained almost the same set of functional genes. Compared with Cycas taitungensis (a representative gymnosperm), the mitochondrial genomes of the Cruciferae have lost nine protein-coding genes and seven mitochondrial-like tRNA genes, but acquired six chloroplast-like tRNAs. Among the Cruciferae, to maintain the same set of genes that are necessary for mitochondrial function, the exons of the genes have changed at the lowest rates, as indicated by the numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms. The open reading frames (ORFs) of unknown function in the cruciferous genomes are not conserved. Evolutionary events, such as mutations, genome reorganizations and sequence insertions or deletions (indels), have resulted in the non-conserved ORFs in the cruciferous mitochondrial genomes, which is becoming significantly different among mitotypes. This work represents the first phylogenic explanation of the evolution of genes of known function in the Cruciferae family. It revealed significant variation in ORFs and the causes of such variation. PMID:23522384
Chang, Shengxin; Chen, Jianmei; Wang, Yankun; Gu, Bingchao; He, Jianbo; Chu, Pu; Guan, Rongzhan
Many bacterial species, such as the alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, are characterized by open pangenomes and contain multipartite genomes consisting of a chromosome and other large-sized replicons, such as chromids, megaplasmids, and plasmids. The evolutionary forces in both functional and structural aspects that shape the pangenome of species with multipartite genomes are still poorly understood. Therefore, we sequenced the genomes of 10 new S. meliloti strains, analyzed with four publicly available additional genomic sequences. Results indicated that the three main replicons present in these strains (a chromosome, a chromid, and a megaplasmid) partly show replicon-specific behaviors related to strain differentiation. In particular, the pSymB chromid was shown to be a hot spot for positively selected genes, and, unexpectedly, genes resident in the pSymB chromid were also found to be more widespread in distant taxa than those located in the other replicons. Moreover, through the exploitation of a DNA proximity network, a series of conserved “DNA backbones” were found to shape the evolution of the genome structure, with the rest of the genome experiencing rearrangements. The presented data allow depicting a scenario where the pSymB chromid has a distinctive role in intraspecies differentiation and in evolution through positive selection, whereas the pSymA megaplasmid mostly contributes to structural fluidity and to the emergence of new functions, indicating a specific evolutionary role for each replicon in the pangenome evolution.
Galardini, Marco; Pini, Francesco; Bazzicalupo, Marco; Biondi, Emanuele G.; Mengoni, Alessio
It is generally believed that the organization of avian genomes remains highly conserved in evolution as chromosome number is constant and comparative chromosome painting demonstrated there to be very few interchromosomal rearrangements. The recent sequencing of the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) genome allowed an assessment of the number of intrachromosomal rearrangements between it and the chicken (Gallus gallus) genome, revealing a surprisingly high number of intrachromosomal rearrangements. With the publication of the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genome it has become possible to describe intrachromosomal rearrangements between these three important avian species, gain insight into the direction of evolutionary change and assess whether breakpoint regions are reused in birds. To this end, we aligned entire chromosomes between chicken, turkey and zebra finch, identifying syntenic blocks of at least 250?kb. Potential optimal pathways of rearrangements between each of the three genomes were determined, as was a potential Galliform ancestral organization. From this, our data suggest that around one-third of chromosomal breakpoint regions may recur during avian evolution, with 10% of breakpoints apparently recurring in different lineages. This agrees with our previous hypothesis that mechanisms of genome evolution are driven by hotspots of non-allelic homologous recombination.
Skinner, B M; Griffin, D K
Genomic evolution can be highly heterogeneous. Here, we introduce a new framework to simulate genome-wide sequence evolution under a variety of substitution models that may change along the genome and the phylogeny, following complex multispecies coalescent histories that can include recombination, demographics, longitudinal sampling, population subdivision/species history, and migration. A key aspect of our simulation strategy is that the heterogeneity of the whole evolutionary process can be parameterized according to statistical prior distributions specified by the user. We used this framework to carry out a study of the impact of variable codon frequencies across genomic regions on the estimation of the genome-wide nonsynonymous/synonymous ratio. We found that both variable codon frequencies across genes and rate variation among sites and regions can lead to severe underestimation of the global dN/dS values. The program SGWE—Simulation of Genome-Wide Evolution—is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/sgwe-project/, including extensive documentation and detailed examples.
Arenas, Miguel; Posada, David
Background An initial comparative genomic study of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti revealed striking differences in the genome assembly size and in the abundance of transposable elements between the two species. However, the chromosome arms homology between An. gambiae and Ae. aegypti, as well as the distribution of genes and repetitive elements in chromosomes of Ae. aegypti, remained largely unexplored because of the lack of a detailed physical genome map for the yellow fever mosquito. Results Using a molecular landmark-guided fluorescent in situ hybridization approach, we mapped 624 Mb of the Ae. aegypti genome to mitotic chromosomes. We used this map to analyze the distribution of genes, tandem repeats and transposable elements along the chromosomes and to explore the patterns of chromosome homology and rearrangements between Ae. aegypti and An. gambiae. The study demonstrated that the q arm of the sex-determining chromosome 1 had the lowest gene content and the highest density of minisatellites. A comparative genomic analysis with An. gambiae determined that the previously proposed whole-arm synteny is not fully preserved; a number of pericentric inversions have occurred between the two species. The sex-determining chromosome 1 had a higher rate of genome rearrangements than observed in autosomes 2 and 3 of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions The study developed a physical map of 45% of the Ae. aegypti genome and provided new insights into genomic composition and evolution of Ae. aegypti chromosomes. Our data suggest that minisatellites rather than transposable elements played a major role in rapid evolution of chromosome 1 in the Aedes lineage. The research tools and information generated by this study contribute to a more complete understanding of the genome organization and evolution in mosquitoes.
The genome sizes of 18 species of New Zealand triplefin fishes (family Tripterygiidae) were determined by flow cytometry of erythrocytes. The evolutionary relationships of these species were examined with a molecular phylogeny derived from DNA sequence data based on 1771 base pairs from fragments of three mitochondrial loci (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, and the control region) and one nuclear
ANTHONY J. R. HICKEY; KENDALL D. CLEMENTS
We present the structural annotation of 56 different bacterial species based on the assignment of genes to 816 evolutionary superfamilies in the CATH domain structure database. These assignments have enabled us to analyse the recurrence of specific superfamilies within and across the genomes. We have selected the superfamilies that have a very broad representation and therefore appear to be universally
Juan A. G. Ranea; Daniel W. A. Buchan; Janet M. Thornton; Christine A. Orengo
The trypanosomatid protozoa Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania major are related human pathogens that cause markedly distinct diseases. Using information from genome sequencing projects currently underway, we have compared the sequences of large chromosomal fragments from each species. Despite high levels of divergence at the sequence level, these three species exhibit a striking conservation of gene order, suggesting that
Elodie Ghedin; Frederic Bringaud; Jeremy Peterson; Peter Myler; Matthew Berriman; Alasdair Ivens; Björn Andersson; Esteban Bontempi; Jonathan Eisen; Sam Angiuoli; David Wanless; Anna Von Arx; Lee Murphy; Nicola Lennard; Steven Salzberg; Mark D Adams; Owen White; Neil Hall; Kenneth Stuart; Claire M Fraser; Najib M. A El-Sayed
The nanovirus Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) has six standard components in its genome and occasionally contains components encoding additional Rep (replication initiation protein) genes. Phylogenetic network analysis of coding sequences of DNA 1 and 3 confirmed the two major groups of BBTV, a Pacific and an Asian group, but show evidence of web-like phylogenies for some genes. Phylogenetic analysis
Jer-Ming Hu; Hui-Chuan Fu; Chia-Hua Lin; Hong-Ji Su; Hsin-Hung Yeh
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of echinacea for the prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Infection occurred in 44 and 57% and illness occurred in 36 and 43% of the echinacea- and placebo-treated subjects, respectively. This preparation of echinacea had no significant effect on either the occurrence of infection or the severity of illness.
Turner, Ronald B.; Riker, Donald K.; Gangemi, J. David
To determine links between human rhinoviruses (HRV) and asthma, we used data from a case–control study, March 2003–February 2004, among children with asthma. Molecular characterization identified several likely new HRVs and showed that association with asthma exacerbations was largely driven by HRV-A and a phylogenetically distinct clade of 8 strains, genogroup C.
Khetsuriani, Nino; Lu, Xiaoyan; Teague, W. Gerald; Kazerouni, Neely; Anderson, Larry J.
Quantitative enzyme accessibility experiments using nano liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry combined with limited proteolysis and isotope-labeling was used to examine the dynamic nature of the human rhinovirus (HRV) capsid in the presence of three antiviral compounds, a neutralizing Fab, and drug binding cavity mutations. Using these methods, it was found that the antivirals WIN 52084 and picovir (pleconaril) stabilized
Nichole Reisdorph; John J. Thomas; Umesh Katpally; Elaine Chase; Ken Harris; Gary Siuzdak; Thomas J. Smith
Rhinovirus infections occur frequently throughout life and have been reported in about one-third of asymptomatic cases. The clinical significance of sequential rhinovirus infections remains unclear. To determine the incidence and clinical relevance of sequential rhinovirus detections, nasopharyngeal samples from 2485 adults with acute cough/lower respiratory illness were analysed. Patients were enrolled prospectively by general practitioners from 12 European Union countries during three consecutive years (2007-2010). Nasopharyngeal samples were collected at the initial general practitioner consultation and 28 days thereafter and symptom scores were recorded by patients over that period. Rhinovirus RNA was detected in 444 (18%) out of 2485 visit one samples and in 110 (4.4%) out of 2485 visit two respiratory samples. 21 (5%) of the 444 patients had both samples positive for rhinovirus. Genotyping of both virus detections was successful for 17 (81%) out of 21 of these patients. Prolonged rhinovirus shedding occurred in six (35%) out of 21 and re-infection with a different rhinovirus in 11 (65%) out of 21. Rhinovirus re-infections were significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.04) and asthma (p=0.02) and appeared to be more severe than prolonged infections. Our findings indicate that in immunocompetent adults rhinovirus re-infections are more common than prolonged infections, and chronic airway comorbidities might predispose to more frequent rhinovirus re-infections. PMID:24876172
Zlateva, Kalina T; de Vries, Jutte J C; Coenjaerts, Frank E J; van Loon, Anton M; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Butler, Christopher C; Goossens, Herman; Ieven, Margareta; Claas, Eric C J
Biological diversity emerges from the interaction between genomes and their environment. Recent conceptual and technological developments allow dissecting these interactions over short and long time-scales. The 16 contributions to this book by leaders in the field cover major recent progresses in the field of Ecological Genomics. Altogether, they illustrate the interplay between the life-history and genomic architecture of organisms, how the interaction of the environment and the genome is shaping phenotypic variation through phenotypic plasticity, how the process of adaptation may be constrained and fueled by internal and external features of organisms and finally, how species formation is the result of intricate interactions between genomes and the ecological conditions. These contributions also show how fundamental questions in biology transcend the boundaries of kingdoms, species and environments and illustrate how integrative approaches are powerful means to answer the most important and challenging questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:24277292
Landry, Christian R; Aubin-Horth, Nadia
We have used the annotations of six animal genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Ciona intestinalis, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans) together with the sequences of five unannotated Drosophila genomes to survey changes in protein sequence and gene structure over a variety of timescales—from the less than 5 million years since the divergence of D. simulans and D. melanogaster to the more than 500 million years that have elapsed since the Cambrian explosion. To do so, we have developed a new open-source software library called CGL (for “Comparative Genomics Library”). Our results demonstrate that change in intron–exon structure is gradual, clock-like, and largely independent of coding-sequence evolution. This means that genome annotations can be used in new ways to inform, corroborate, and test conclusions drawn from comparative genomics analyses that are based upon protein and nucleotide sequence similarities.
Yandell, Mark; Mungall, Chris J; Smith, Chris; Prochnik, Simon; Kaminker, Joshua; Hartzell, George; Lewis, Suzanna; Rubin, Gerald M
Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general. PMID:21982512
Gadau, Jürgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne; Roux, Julien; Simola, Daniel F; Smith, Chris R; Suen, Garret; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D
Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) represent one of the most successful eusocial taxa in terms of both their geographic distribution and species number. The publication of seven ant genomes within the past year was a quantum leap for socio- and ant genomics. The diversity of social organization in ants makes them excellent model organisms to study the evolution of social systems. Comparing the ant genomes with those of the honeybee, a lineage that evolved eusociality independently from ants, and solitary insects suggests that there are significant differences in key aspects of genome organization between social and solitary insects, as well as among ant species. Altogether, these seven ant genomes open exciting new research avenues and opportunities for understanding the genetic basis and regulation of social species, and adaptive complex systems in general.
Gadau, Jurgen; Helmkampf, Martin; Nygaard, Sanne; Roux, Julien; Simola, Daniel F.; Smith, Chris R.; Suen, Garret; Wurm, Yannick; Smith, Christopher D.
In our previous studies, we developed discrete-space Birth, Death and\\u000aInnovation Models (BDIM) of genome evolution. These models explain the origin\\u000aof the characteristic Pareto distribution of paralogous gene family sizes in\\u000agenomes, and model parameters that provide for the evolution of these\\u000adistributions within a realistic timeframe have been identified. Here we\\u000adevelop the diffusion version of BDIM whose
Georgy P. Karev; Faina S. Berezovskaya; Eugene V. Koonin
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short regulatory RNAs encoded in the genome of DNA viruses, some single cell organisms, plants and animals. With the rapid development of technology, more and more miRNAs are being discovered. However, the origin and evolution of most miRNAs remain obscure. Here we report the origin and evolution dynamics of a human miRNA family.
Zhidong Yuan; Xiao Sun; Dongke Jiang; Yan Ding; Zhiyuan Lu; Lejun Gong; Hongde Liu; Jianming Xie
Background Sorghum is the first C4 plant and the second grass with a full genome sequence available. This makes it possible to perform a whole-genome-level exploration of C4 pathway evolution by comparing key photosynthetic enzyme genes in sorghum, maize (C4) and rice (C3), and to investigate a long-standing hypothesis that a reservoir of duplicated genes is a prerequisite for the evolution of C4 photosynthesis from a C3 progenitor. Results We show that both whole-genome and individual gene duplication have contributed to the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. The C4 gene isoforms show differential duplicability, with some C4 genes being recruited from whole genome duplication duplicates by multiple modes of functional innovation. The sorghum and maize carbonic anhydrase genes display a novel mode of new gene formation, with recursive tandem duplication and gene fusion accompanied by adaptive evolution to produce C4 genes with one to three functional units. Other C4 enzymes in sorghum and maize also show evidence of adaptive evolution, though differing in level and mode. Intriguingly, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene in the C3 plant rice has also been evolving rapidly and shows evidence of adaptive evolution, although lacking key mutations that are characteristic of C4 metabolism. We also found evidence that both gene redundancy and alternative splicing may have sheltered the evolution of new function. Conclusions Gene duplication followed by functional innovation is common to evolution of most but not all C4 genes. The apparently long time-lag between the availability of duplicates for recruitment into C4 and the appearance of C4 grasses, together with the heterogeneity of origins of C4 genes, suggests that there may have been a long transition process before the establishment of C4 photosynthesis.
Wang, Xiyin; Gowik, Udo; Tang, Haibao; Bowers, John E; Westhoff, Peter; Paterson, Andrew H
Background Protein domains can be used to study proteome evolution at a coarse scale. In particular, they are found on genomes with notable statistical distributions. It is known that the distribution of domains with a given topology follows a power law. We focus on a further aspect: these distributions, and the number of distinct topologies, follow collective trends, or scaling laws, depending on the total number of domains only, and not on genome-specific features. Results We present a stochastic duplication/innovation model, in the class of the so-called 'Chinese restaurant processes', that explains this observation with two universal parameters, representing a minimal number of domains and the relative weight of innovation to duplication. Furthermore, we study a model variant where new topologies are related to occurrence in genomic data, accounting for fold specificity. Conclusions Both models have general quantitative agreement with data from hundreds of genomes, which indicates that the domains of a genome are built with a combination of specificity and robust self-organizing phenomena. The latter are related to the basic evolutionary 'moves' of duplication and innovation, and give rise to the observed scaling laws, a priori of the specific evolutionary history of a genome. We interpret this as the concurrent effect of neutral and selective drives, which increase duplication and decrease innovation in larger and more complex genomes. The validity of our model would imply that the empirical observation of a small number of folds in nature may be a consequence of their evolution.
Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Sellerio, Alessandro L; Heijning, Philip D; Bassetti, Bruno
Mammalian genomes are replete with millions of polymorphic sites, among which those genetic variants that are colocated on the same chromosome and exist close to one another form blocks of closely linked mutations known as haplotypes. The linkage within haplotypes is constantly disrupted due to meiotic recombination events. Whole ensembles of such numerous haplotypes are subjected to evolutionary pressure, where mutations influence each other and should be considered as a whole entity—a gigantic matrix, unique for each individual genome. This idea was implemented into a computational approach, named Genome Evolution by Matrix Algorithms (GEMA) to model genomic changes taking into account all mutations in a population. GEMA has been tested for modeling of entire human chromosomes. The program can precisely mimic real biological processes that have influence on genome evolution such as: 1) Authentic arrangements of genes and functional genomic elements, 2) frequencies of various types of mutations in different nucleotide contexts, and 3) nonrandom distribution of meiotic recombination events along chromosomes. Computer modeling with GEMA has demonstrated that the number of meiotic recombination events per gamete is among the most crucial factors influencing population fitness. In humans, these recombinations create a gamete genome consisting on an average of 48 pieces of corresponding parental chromosomes. Such highly mosaic gamete structure allows preserving fitness of population under the intense influx of novel mutations (40 per individual) even when the number of mutations with deleterious effects is up to ten times more abundant than those with beneficial effects.
Qiu, Shuhao; McSweeny, Andrew; Choulet, Samuel; Saha-Mandal, Arnab; Fedorova, Larisa; Fedorov, Alexei
Among the Chalcidoids, hymenopteran parasitic wasps that have diversified lifestyles, a partial mitochondrial genome has been reported only from Nasonia. This genome had many unusual features, especially a dramatic reorganization and a high rate of evolution. Comparisons based on more mitochondrial genomic data from the same superfamily were required to reveal weather these unusual features are peculiar to Nasonia or not. In the present study, we sequenced the nearly complete mitochondrial genomes from the species Philotrypesis. pilosa and Philotrypesis sp., both of which were associated with Ficus hispida. The acquired data included all of the protein-coding genes, rRNAs, and most of the tRNAs, and in P. pilosa the control region. High levels of nucleotide divergence separated the two species. A comparison of all available hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes (including a submitted partial genome from Ceratosolen solmsi) revealed that the Chalcidoids had dramatic mitochondrial gene rearrangments, involved not only the tRNAs, but also several protein-coding genes. The AT-rich control region was translocated and inverted in Philotrypesis. The mitochondrial genomes also exhibited rapid rates of evolution involving elevated nonsynonymous mutations. PMID:22073180
Xiao, Jin-Hua; Jia, Jing-Guo; Murphy, Robert W; Huang, Da-Wei
Background Studies on genome size variation in animals are rarely done at lower taxonomic levels, e.g., slightly above/below the species level. Yet, such variation might provide important clues on the tempo and mode of genome size evolution. In this study we used the flow-cytometry method to study the evolution of genome size in the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cryptic species complex consisting of at least 14 closely related species. Results We found an unexpectedly high variation in this species complex, with genome sizes ranging approximately seven-fold (haploid '1C' genome sizes: 0.056-0.416 pg). Most of this variation (67%) could be ascribed to the major clades of the species complex, i.e. clades that are well separated according to most species definitions. However, we also found substantial variation (32%) at lower taxonomic levels - within and among genealogical species - and, interestingly, among species pairs that are not completely reproductively isolated. In one genealogical species, called B. 'Austria', we found greatly enlarged genome sizes that could roughly be approximated as multiples of the genomes of its closest relatives, which suggests that whole-genome duplications have occurred early during separation of this lineage. Overall, genome size was significantly correlated to egg size and body size, even though the latter became non-significant after controlling for phylogenetic non-independence. Conclusions Our study suggests that substantial genome size variation can build up early during speciation, potentially even among isolated populations. An alternative, but not mutually exclusive interpretation might be that reproductive isolation tends to build up unusually slow in this species complex.
A colloquium was convened in Longboat Key, Florida, in October 2002, by the American Academy of Microbiology to discuss the role of genomic techniques in microbiology research. Research professionals from both academia and industry met to discuss the current state of knowledge in microbial genomics. Unanswered questions that should drive future studies, technical challenges for applying genomics in microbial systems, and infrastructure and educational needs were discussed. Particular attention was focused on the great potential of genomic approaches to advance our understanding of microbial communities and ecosystems. Recommendations for activities that might promote and accelerate microbial genome science were identified and discussed. Microbiology has always advanced in tandem with new technologies. Beginning with the first observations of microscopic organisms with early microscopes in the 17th century, the tools and methods for studying microbes have continually evolved. Slowly at first, and now with startling speed, scientists have developed increasingly complex and informative tools for analyzing the functions, interactions, and diversity of microorganisms. Today, genomic technologies are revolutionizing microbiology. Genomics employs all or part of the genome to answer questions about an organism and represents a generic tool that can be used to dissect any or all living cells. In this report, the term ''genomics'' includes structural genomic methods that focus on the determination of genomic sequence and higher order structural features, as well as functional genomic methods, which focus on the activities and products encoded by the genome. To date, microbial genomics has largely been applied to individual, isolated microbial strains, with the results extrapolated to the wider world of microbial diversity. We are now presented with an opportune moment to move beyond studies of single isolates and to apply genome sciences directly to the study of microbial communities. It is now possible to adapt genomic tools and approaches to more realistic models of genome evolution and ecology involving natural microbial communities. Microbial communities are formed by organized groups of microbial species, each having different, often complementary functions or activities. In aggregate, the microbial community has emergent properties greater than the sum of its individual members. Outside the laboratory, virtually all microorganisms exist in complex assemblages, in which they exchange genetic material, nutrients, and biochemical signals with one another. While analysis of individual strains has been a highly profitable enterprise, greater strides can now be made by focusing attention on microbial communities. These are the entities that encompass the bulk of microbial interactions, evolutionary processes, and biogeochemical activities, with resulting immense impacts on human health and the entire planetary biosphere. The natural microbial world can be viewed as a landscape of genes and genome ecology, in which organisms exchange genetic information and co-evolve with one another, shaping themselves and the biosphere over time.
Merry R. Buckley
Genome reduction in obligately intracellular bacteria is one of the most well-established patterns in the field of molecular evolution. In the extreme, many sap-feeding insects harbor nutritional symbionts with genomes that are so reduced that it is not clear how they perform basic cellular functions. For example, the primary symbiont of psyllids (Carsonella) maintains one of the smallest and most AT-rich bacterial genomes ever identified and has surprisingly lost many genes that are thought to be essential for its role in provisioning its host with amino acids. However, our understanding of this extreme case of genome reduction is limited, as genomic data for Carsonella are available from only a single host species, and little is known about the functional role of “secondary” bacterial symbionts in psyllids. To address these limitations, we analyzed complete Carsonella genomes from pairs of congeneric hosts in three divergent genera within the Psyllidae (Ctenarytaina, Heteropsylla, and Pachypsylla) as well as complete secondary symbiont genomes from two of these host species (Ctenarytaina eucalypti and Heteropsylla cubana). Although the Carsonella genomes are generally conserved in size, structure, and GC content and exhibit genome-wide signatures of purifying selection, we found that gene loss has remained active since the divergence of the host species and had a particularly large impact on the amino acid biosynthesis pathways that define the symbiotic role of Carsonella. In some cases, the presence of additional bacterial symbionts may compensate for gene loss in Carsonella, as functional gene content indicates a high degree of metabolic complementarity between co-occurring symbionts. The genomes of the secondary symbionts also show signatures of long-term evolution as vertically transmitted, intracellular bacteria, including more extensive genome reduction than typically observed in facultative symbionts. Therefore, a history of co-evolution with secondary bacterial symbionts can partially explain the ongoing genome reduction in Carsonella. However, the absence of these secondary symbionts in other host lineages indicates that the relationships are dynamic and that other mechanisms, such as changes in host diet or functional coordination with the host genome, must also be at play.
Sloan, Daniel B.; Moran, Nancy A.
Sequence comparison of orthologous regions enables estimation of the divergence between genomes, analysis of their evolution and detection of particular features of the genomes, such as sequence rearrangements and transposable elements. Despite the economic importance of Coffea species, little genomic information is currently available. Coffea is a relatively young genus that includes more than one hundred diploid species and a single tetraploid species. Three Coffea orthologous regions of 470-900 kb were analyzed and compared: both subgenomes of allotetraploid Coffea arabica (contributed by the diploid species Coffea eugenioides and Coffea canephora) and the genome of diploid C. canephora. Sequence divergence was calculated on global alignments or on coding and non-coding sequences separately. A search for transposable elements detected 43 retrotransposons and 198 transposons in the sequences analyzed. Comparative insertion analysis made it possible to locate 165 TE insertions in the phylogenetic tree of the three genomes/subgenomes. In the tetraploid C. arabica, a homoeologous non-reciprocal transposition (HNRT) was detected and characterized: a 50 kb region of the C. eugenioides derived subgenome replaced the C. canephora derived counterpart. Comparative sequence analysis on three Coffea genomes/subgenomes revealed almost perfect gene synteny, low sequence divergence and a high number of shared transposable elements. Compared to the results of similar analysis in other genera (Aegilops/Triticum and Oryza), Coffea genomes/subgenomes appeared to be dramatically less diverged, which is consistent with the relatively recent radiation of the Coffea genus. Based on nucleotide substitution frequency, the HNRT was dated at 10,000-50,000 years BP, which is also the most recent estimation of the origin of C. arabica. PMID:22086332
Cenci, Alberto; Combes, Marie-Christine; Lashermes, Philippe
Candida species are the most common cause of opportunistic fungal infection worldwide. We report the genome sequences of six Candida species and compare these and related pathogens and nonpathogens. There are significant expansions of cell wall, secreted, and transporter gene families in pathogenic species, suggesting adaptations associated with virulence. Large genomic tracts are homozygous in three diploid species, possibly resulting from recent recombination events. Surprisingly, key components of the mating and meiosis pathways are missing from several species. These include major differences at the Mating-type loci (MTL); Lodderomyces elongisporus lacks MTL, and components of the a1/alpha2 cell identity determinant were lost in other species, raising questions about how mating and cell types are controlled. Analysis of the CUG leucine to serine genetic code change reveals that 99% of ancestral CUG codons were erased and new ones arose elsewhere. Lastly, we revise the C. albicans gene catalog, identifying many new genes.
Butler, Geraldine; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Lin, Michael F.; Santos, Manuel A.S.; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Munro, Carol A.; Rheinbay, Esther; Grabherr, Manfred; Forche, Anja; Reedy, Jennifer L.; Agrafioti, Ino; Arnaud, Martha B.; Bates, Steven; Brown, Alistair J.P.; Brunke, Sascha; Costanzo, Maria C.; Fitzpatrick, David A.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Harris, David; Hoyer, Lois L.; Hube, Bernhard; Klis, Frans M.; Kodira, Chinnappa; Lennard, Nicola; Logue, Mary E.; Martin, Ronny; Neiman, Aaron M.; Nikolaou, Elissavet; Quail, Michael A.; Quinn, Janet; Santos, Maria C.; Schmitzberger, Florian F.; Sherlock, Gavin; Shah, Prachi; Silverstein, Kevin; Skrzypek, Marek S.; Soll, David; Staggs, Rodney; Stansfield, Ian; Stumpf, Michael P H; Sudbery, Peter E.; Thyagarajan, Srikantha; Zeng, Qiandong; Berman, Judith; Berriman, Matthew; Heitman, Joseph; Gow, Neil A. R.; Lorenz, Michael C.; Birren, Bruce W.; Kellis, Manolis; Cuomo, Christina A.
The phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae causes serious diseases in a wide range of important crop plants, with recent severe outbreaks on the New Zealand kiwifruit crop and among British horse chestnut trees. Next-generation genome sequencing of over 25 new strains has greatly broadened our understanding of how this species adapts to a diverse range of plant hosts. Not unexpectedly, the genomes were found to be highly dynamic, and extensive polymorphism was found in the distribution of type III secreted effectors (T3SEs) and other virulence-associated genes, even among strains within the same pathovar. An underexplored area brought to light by these data is the specific metabolic adaptations required for growth on woody hosts. These studies provide a tremendous wealth of candidates for more refined functional characterization, which is greatly enhancing our ability to disentangle the web of host-pathogen interactions that determine disease outcomes. PMID:21568703
O'Brien, Heath E; Thakur, Shalabh; Guttman, David S
The enlargement of the genome size and the decrease in genome compactness with increase in the number and size of introns is a general pattern during the evolution of eukaryotes. Among the possible mechanisms for modifying intron size, it has been suggested that the insertion of transposable elements might have an important role in driving intron evolution. The analysis of
Barbara Cardazzo; Luca Bargelloni; Luisa Toffolatti; Tomaso Patarnello
Genome size was estimated using Feulgen densitometry for 76 accessions of 40 taxa of Orobanche and two taxa each of the related genera Phelypaea and Cistanche, providing the first data set for any group of nonphotosynthetic angiosperms. The 2C-values were 16.8-19.9 pg in Cistanche, 2.9-11.6 pg in Orobanche sect. Orobanche, 6.8-10.8 pg in sect. Trionychon, 4.3-5.1 pg in sect. Myzorrhiza,
HANNA WEISS-SCHNEEWEISS; JOHANN GREILHUBER; GERALD M. SCHNEEWEISS
We present the structural annotation of 56 different bacterial species based on the assignment of genes to 816 evolutionary superfamilies in the CATH domain structure database. These assignments have enabled us to analyse the recurrence of specific superfamilies within and across the genomes. We have selected the superfamilies that have a very broad representation and therefore appear to be universally distributed in a significant number of bacterial lineages. Occurrence profiles of these universally distributed superfamilies are compared with genome size in order to estimate the correlation between superfamily duplication and the increase in proteome size. This distinguishes between those size-dependent superfamilies where frequency of occurrence is highly correlated with increase in genome size, and size-independent superfamilies where no correlation is observed. Consideration of the size correlation and the ratio between the mean and the standard deviations for all the superfamily profiles allows more detailed subdivisions and classification of superfamilies. For example, within the size-independent superfamilies, we distinguished a group that are distributed evenly amongst all the genomes. Within the size-dependent superfamilies we differentiated two groups: linearly distributed and non-linearly distributed. Functional annotation using the COG database was performed for all superfamilies in each of these groups, and this revealed significant differences amongst the three sets of superfamilies. Evenly distributed, size-independent domains are shown to be involved primarily in protein translation and biosynthesis. For the size-dependent superfamilies, linearly distributed superfamilies are involved mainly in metabolism, and non-linearly distributed superfamily domains are involved principally in gene regulation. PMID:15095866
Ranea, Juan A G; Buchan, Daniel W A; Thornton, Janet M; Orengo, Christine A
\\u000a Brassicaceae (crucifers or the mustard family) is a large plant family comprising over 330 genera and about 3,700 species,\\u000a including several important crop plants (e.g. Brassica species), ornamentals as well as model organisms in the plant sciences (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In recent years, the wealth of Arabidopsis and Brassica genomic resources along with newly established tools and techniques fostered the
Martin A. Lysak; Marcus A. Koch
BACKGROUND: Mid-range inhomogeneity or MRI is the significant enrichment of particular nucleotides in genomic sequences extending from 30 up to several thousands of nucleotides. The best-known manifestation of MRI is CpG islands representing CG-rich regions. Recently it was demonstrated that MRI could be observed not only for G+C content but also for all other nucleotide pairings (e.g. A+G and G+T)
Ashwin Prakash; Samuel S Shepard; Jie He; Benjamin Hart; Miao Chen; Surya P Amarachintha; Olga Mileyeva-Biebesheimer; Jason Bechtel; Alexei Fedorov
We study the evolutionary effects of reduced recombination on the Drosophila melanogaster genome, analyzing more than 200 new genes that lack crossing-over and employing a novel orthology search among species of the melanogaster subgroup. These genes are located in the heterochromatin of chromosomes other than the dot (fourth) chromosome. Noncrossover regions of the genome all exhibited an elevated level of evolutionary divergence from D. yakuba at nonsynonymous sites, lower codon usage bias, lower GC content in coding and noncoding regions, and longer introns. Levels of gene expression are similar for genes in regions with and without crossing-over, which rules out the possibility that the reduced level of adaptation that we detect is caused by relaxed selection due to lower levels of gene expression in the heterochromatin. The patterns observed are consistent with a reduction in the efficacy of selection in all regions of the genome of D. melanogaster that lack crossing-over, as a result of the effects of enhanced Hill–Robertson interference. However, we also detected differences among nonrecombining locations: The X chromosome seems to exhibit the weakest effects, whereas the fourth chromosome and the heterochromatic genes on the autosomes located most proximal to the centromere showed the largest effects. However, signatures of selection on both nonsynonymous mutations and on codon usage persist in all heterochromatic regions.
Campos, Jose L.; Charlesworth, Brian; Haddrill, Penelope R.
The epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting has motivated the development of numerous theories for its evolutionary origins and genomic distribution. In this review, we examine the three theories that have best withstood theoretical and empirical scrutiny. These are: Haig and colleagues' kinship theory; Day and Bonduriansky's sexual antagonism theory; and Wolf and Hager's maternal-offspring coadaptation theory. These theories have fundamentally different perspectives on the adaptive significance of imprinting. The kinship theory views imprinting as a mechanism to change gene dosage, with imprinting evolving because of the differential effect that gene dosage has on the fitness of matrilineal and patrilineal relatives. The sexual antagonism and maternal-offspring coadaptation theories view genomic imprinting as a mechanism to modify the resemblance of an individual to its two parents, with imprinting evolving to increase the probability of expressing the fitter of the two alleles at a locus. In an effort to stimulate further empirical work on the topic, we carefully detail the logic and assumptions of all three theories, clarify the specific predictions of each and suggest tests to discriminate between these alternative theories for why particular genes are imprinted. PMID:24755983
Patten, M M; Ross, L; Curley, J P; Queller, D C; Bonduriansky, R; Wolf, J B
BACKGROUND: The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring
Rute R da Fonseca; Warren E Johnson; Stephen J O'Brien; Maria João Ramos; Agostinho Antunes
Background The cattle UL16-binding protein 1 (ULBP1) and ULBP2 genes encode members of the MHC Class I superfamily that have homology to the human ULBP genes. Human ULBP1 and ULBP2 interact with the NKG2D receptor to activate effector cells in the immune system. The human cytomegalovirus UL16 protein is known to disrupt the ULBP-NKG2D interaction, thereby subverting natural killer cell-mediated responses. Previous Southern blotting experiments identified evidence of increased ULBP copy number within the genomes of ruminant artiodactyls. On the basis of these observations we hypothesized that the cattle ULBPs evolved by duplication and sequence divergence to produce a sufficient number and diversity of ULBP molecules to deliver an immune activation signal in the presence of immunogenic peptides. Given the importance of the ULBPs in antiviral immunity in other species, our goal was to determine the copy number and genomic organization of the ULBP genes in the cattle genome. Results Sequencing of cattle bacterial artificial chromosome genomic inserts resulted in the identification of 30 cattle ULBP loci existing in two gene clusters. Evidence of extensive segmental duplication and approximately 14 Kbp of novel repetitive sequences were identified within the major cluster. Ten ULBPs are predicted to be expressed at the cell surface. Substitution analysis revealed 11 outwardly directed residues in the predicted extracellular domains that show evidence of positive Darwinian selection. These positively selected residues have only one residue that overlaps with those proposed to interact with NKG2D, thus suggesting the interaction with molecules other than NKG2D. Conclusion The ULBP loci in the cattle genome apparently arose by gene duplication and subsequent sequence divergence. Substitution analysis of the ULBP proteins provided convincing evidence for positive selection on extracellular residues that may interact with peptide ligands. These results support our hypothesis that the cattle ULBPs evolved under adaptive diversifying selection to avoid interaction with a UL16-like molecule whilst preserving the NKG2D binding site. The large number of ULBPs in cattle, their extensive diversification, and the high prevalence of bovine herpesvirus infections make this gene family a compelling target for studies of antiviral immunity.
Larson, Joshua H; Marron, Brandy M; Beever, Jonathan E; Roe, Bruce A; Lewin, Harris A
Accurate sequencing of the rice genome has ignited a passion for elucidating mechanism for sequence diversity among rice varieties\\u000a and species, both in protein-coding regions and in genomic regions that are important for chromosome functions. Here, we have\\u000a shown examples of sequence diversity in genic and non-genic regions. Sequence analysis of chromosome ends has revealed that\\u000a there is diversity in
Jianzhong Wu; Hiroshi Mizuno; Takuji Sasaki; Takashi Matsumoto
Demosponges, the largest and most diverse class in the phylum Porifera, possess mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markedly different from that in other animals. Although several studies investigated evolution of demosponge mtDNA among major lineages of the group, the changes within these groups remain largely unexplored. Recently we determined mitochondrial genomic sequence of the Lake Baikal sponge Lubomirskia baicalensis and described proliferation of small inverted repeats (hairpins) that occurred in it since the divergence between L. baicalensis and the most closely related cosmopolitan freshwater sponge Ephydatia muelleri. Here we report mitochondrial genomes of three additional species of Lake Baikal sponges: Swartschewskia papyracea, Rezinkovia echinata and Baikalospongia intermedia morpha profundalis (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Lubomirskiidae) and from a more distantly related freshwater sponge Corvomeyenia sp. (Demospongiae, Haplosclerida, Metaniidae). We use these additional sequences to explore mtDNA evolution in Baikalian sponges, paying particular attention to the variation in the rates of nucleotide substitutions and the distribution of hairpins, abundant in these genomes. We show that most of the changes in Lubomirskiidae mitochondrial genomes are due to insertion/deletion/duplication of these elements rather than single nucleotide substitutions. Thus inverted repeats can act as an important force in evolution of mitochondrial genome architecture and be a valuable marker for population- and species-level studies in this group. In addition, we infer (((Rezinkovia+Lubomirskia)+Swartschewskia)+Baikalospongia) phylogeny for the family Lubomirskiidae based on the analysis of mitochondrial coding sequences from freshwater sponges. PMID:22669046
Lavrov, Dennis V; Maikova, Olga O; Pett, Walker; Belikov, Sergey I
Evolutionary adaptation can be extremely fast, especially in response to high selection intensities. A prime example is the surge of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The genomic underpinnings of such rapid changes may provide information on the genetic processes that enhance fast responses and the particular trait functions under selection. Here, we use experimentally evolved Escherichia coli for a detailed dissection of the genomics of rapid antibiotic resistance evolution. Our new analyses demonstrate that amplification of a sequence region containing several known antibiotic resistance genes represents a fast genomic response mechanism under high antibiotic stress, here exerted by drug combination. In particular, higher dosage of such antibiotic combinations coincided with higher copy number of the sequence region. The amplification appears to be evolutionarily costly, because amplification levels rapidly dropped after removal of the drugs. Our results suggest that amplification is a scalable process, as copy number rapidly changes in response to the selective pressure encountered. Moreover, repeated patterns of convergent evolution were found across the experimentally evolved bacterial populations, including those with lower antibiotic selection intensities. Intriguingly, convergent evolution was identified on different organizational levels, ranging from the above sequence amplification, high variant frequencies in specific genes, prevalence of individual nonsynonymous mutations to the unusual repeated occurrence of a particular synonymous mutation in Glycine codons. We conclude that constrained evolutionary trajectories underlie rapid adaptation to antibiotics. Of the identified genomic changes, sequence amplification seems to represent the most potent, albeit costly genomic response mechanism to high antibiotic stress.
Laehnemann, David; Pena-Miller, Rafael; Rosenstiel, Philip; Beardmore, Robert; Jansen, Gunther; Schulenburg, Hinrich
Reduction of genome size and gene shortening have been observed in a number of parasitic and mutualistic intracellular symbionts. Reduction of coding capacity is also a unifying principle in the evolutionary history of mitochondria, but little is known about the evolution of gene length in mitochondria. The genes for cytochrome c oxidase subunits I–III, cytochrome b, and the large and
André Schneider; Dieter Ebert
Plant genomes appear to exploit the process of gene duplication as a primary means of acquiring biochemical and developmental flexibility. Thus, for example, most of the enzymatic components of plant secondary metabolism are encoded by small families of genes that originated through duplication over evolutionary time. The dynamics of gene family evolution are well illustrated by the genes that encode
Mary L. Durbin; Bonnie McCaig; Michael T. Clegg
The term “imprinted gene” refers to genes whose expression is conditioned by their parental origin. Among theories to unravel the evolution of genomic imprinting, the kinship theory prevails as the most widely accepted, because it sheds light on many aspects of the biology of imprinted genes. While most assumptions underlying this theory have not escaped scrutiny, one remains overlooked: mothers
The human genome evolution project seeks to reveal the genetic underpinnings of key phenotypic features that are distinctive of humans, such as a greatly enlarged cerebral cortex, slow development, and long life spans. This project has focused predominantly on genotypic changes during the 6-million-year descent from the last common ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees. Here, we argue that adaptive
Monica Uddin; Morris Goodman; Offer Erez; Roberto Romero; Guozhen Liu; Munirul Islam; Juan C. Opazo; Chet C. Sherwood; Lawrence I. Grossman; Derek E. Wildman
The presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in the citric-acid cycle has been studied in 19 completely sequenced genomes. In the majority of species, the cycle appears to be incomplete or absent. Several distinct, incomplete cycles reflect adaptations to different environments. Their distribution over the phylogenetic tree hints at precursors in the evolution of the citric-acid cycle.
Martijn A. Huynen; Thomas Dandekar; Peer Bork
The decipherment of higher level relationships among the orders of Afrotheria – an extraordinary assumption in mammalian evolution – constitutes one of the major disputes in the evolutionary history of mammals. Recent comprehensive studies of various genomic data, including mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, chromosomal syntenic associations and retroposon insertions support strongly the monophyly of Afrotheria. However, the relationships within
N. Poulakakis; A. Stamatakis
Dietary transitions in human history have been suggested to play important roles in the evolution of mankind. Genetic variations caused by adaptation to diet during human evolution could have important health consequences in current society. The advance of sequencing technologies and the rapid accumulation of genome information provide an unprecedented opportunity to comprehensively characterize genetic variations in human populations and unravel the genetic basis of human evolution. Series of selection detection methods, based on various theoretical models and exploiting different aspects of selection signatures, have been developed. Their applications at the species and population levels have respectively led to the identification of human specific selection events that distinguish human from nonhuman primates and local adaptation events that contribute to human diversity. Scrutiny of candidate genes has revealed paradigms of adaptations to specific nutritional components and genome-wide selection scans have verified the prevalence of diet-related selection events and provided many more candidates awaiting further investigation. Understanding the role of diet in human evolution is fundamental for the development of evidence-based, genome-informed nutritional practices in the era of personal genomics.
Ye, Kaixiong; Gu, Zhenglong
Summary Most clinically distinguishable malignant tumors are characterized by specific mutations, specific patterns of chromosomal rearrangements and a predominant mechanism of genetic instability but it remains unsolved whether modifications of cancer genomes can be explained solely by mutations and selection through the cancer microenvironment. It has been suggested that internal dynamics of genomic modifications as opposed to the external evolutionary forces have a significant and complex impact on Darwinian species evolution. A similar situation can be expected for somatic cancer evolution as molecular key mechanisms encountered in species evolution also constitute prevalent mutation mechanisms in human cancers. This assumption is developed into a systems approach of carcinogenesis which focuses on possible inner constraints of the genome architecture on lineage selection during somatic cancer evolution. The proposed systems approach can be considered an analogy to the concept of evolvability in species evolution. The principal hypothesis is that permissive or restrictive effects of the genome architecture on lineage selection during somatic cancer evolution exist and have a measurable impact. The systems approach postulates three classes of lineage selection effects of the genome architecture on somatic cancer evolution: i) effects mediated by changes of fitness of cells of cancer lineage, ii) effects mediated by changes of mutation probabilities and iii) effects mediated by changes of gene designation and physical and functional genome redundancy. Physical genome redundancy is the copy number of identical genetic sequences. Functional genome redundancy of a gene or a regulatory element is defined as the number of different genetic elements, regardless of copy number, coding for the same specific biological function within a cancer cell. Complex interactions of the genome architecture on lineage selection may be expected when modifications of the genome architecture have multiple and possibly opposed effects which manifest themselves at disparate times and progression stages. Dissection of putative mechanisms mediating constraints exerted by the genome architecture on somatic cancer evolution may provide an algorithm for understanding and predicting as well as modifying somatic cancer evolution in individual patients.
Rubben, Albert; Nordhoff, Ole
The replicative retrotransposon life cycle offers the potential for explosive increases in copy number and consequent inflation of genome size. The BARE-1 retrotransposon family of barley is conserved, disperse, and transcriptionally active. To assess the role of BARE-1 in genome evolution, we determined the copy number of its integrase, its reverse transcriptase, and its long terminal repeat (LTR) domains throughout the genus Hordeum. On average, BARE-1 contributes 13.7 x 10(3) full-length copies, amounting to 2.9% of the genome. The number increases with genome size. Two LTRs are associated with each internal domain in intact retrotransposons, but surprisingly, BARE-1 LTRs were considerably more prevalent than would be expected from the numbers of intact elements. The excess in LTRs increases as both genome size and BARE-1 genomic fraction decrease. Intrachromosomal homologous recombination between LTRs could explain the excess, removing BARE-1 elements and leaving behind solo LTRs, thereby reducing the complement of functional retrotransposons in the genome and providing at least a partial "return ticket from genomic obesity."
Vicient, CM; Suoniemi, A; Anamthawat-Jonsson, K; Tanskanen, J; Beharav, A; Nevo, E; Schulman, AH
Most studies on PRRSV evolution have been limited to a particular region of the viral genome. A thorough genome-wide understanding of the impact of different mechanisms on shaping PRRSV genetic diversity is still lacking. To this end, deep sequencing was used to obtain genomic sequences of a diverse set of 16 isolates from a region of Hong Kong with a complex PRRSV epidemiological record. Genome assemblies and phylogenetic typing indicated the co-circulation of strains of both genotypes (type 1and type 2) with varying Nsp2 deletion patterns and distinct evolutionary lineages (“High Fever”-like and local endemic type). Recombination analyses revealed genomic breakpoints in structural and non-structural regions of genomes of both genotypes with evidence of many recombination events originating from common ancestors. Additionally, the high fold of coverage per nucleotide allowed the characterization of minor variants arising from the quasispecies of each strain. Overall, 0.56–2.83% of sites were found to be polymorphic with respect to cognate consensus genomes. The distribution of minor variants across each genome was not uniform indicating the influence of selective forces. Proportion of variants capable of causing an amino acid change in their respective codons ranged between 25–67% with many predicted to be non-deleterious. Low frequency deletion variants were also detected providing one possible mechanism for their sudden emergence as cited in previous reports.
Brar, Manreetpal Singh; Shi, Mang; Hui, Raymond Kin-Hi; Leung, Frederick Chi-Ching
Background Burkholderia rhizoxinica is an intracellular symbiont of the phytopathogenic zygomycete Rhizopus microsporus, the causative agent of rice seedling blight. The endosymbiont produces the antimitotic macrolide rhizoxin for its host. It is vertically transmitted within vegetative spores and is essential for spore formation of the fungus. To shed light on the evolution and genetic potential of this model organism, we analysed the whole genome of B. rhizoxinica HKI 0454 - a type strain of endofungal Burkholderia species. Results The genome consists of a structurally conserved chromosome and two plasmids. Compared to free-living Burkholderia species, the genome is smaller in size and harbors less transcriptional regulator genes. Instead, we observed accumulation of transposons over the genome. Prediction of primary metabolic pathways and transporters suggests that endosymbionts consume host metabolites like citrate, but might deliver some amino acids and cofactors to the host. The rhizoxin biosynthesis gene cluster shows evolutionary traces of horizontal gene transfer. Furthermore, we analysed gene clusters coding for nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS). Notably, B. rhizoxinica lacks common genes which are dedicated to quorum sensing systems, but is equipped with a large number of virulence-related factors and putative type III effectors. Conclusions B. rhizoxinica is the first endofungal bacterium, whose genome has been sequenced. Here, we present models of evolution, metabolism and tools for host-symbiont interaction of the endofungal bacterium deduced from whole genome analyses. Genome size and structure suggest that B. rhizoxinica is in an early phase of adaptation to the intracellular lifestyle (genome in transition). By analysis of tranporters and metabolic pathways we predict how metabolites might be exchanged between the symbiont and its host. Gene clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites represent novel targets for genomic mining of cryptic natural products. In silico analyses of virulence-associated genes, secreted proteins and effectors might inspire future studies on molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial-fungal interaction.
The genomic organization of a gene coding for an ?1 subunit of a voltage-gated calcium channel of Drosophila melanogaster (Dmca1A) was determined. Thirty-four exons, distributed over 45 kb of genomic sequence, have been identified and mapped, including exons in three regions involved in alternative splicing and new sites potentially involved in RNA editing. The comparison of the intron/exon boundaries of this channel with a mammalian counterpart shows that the genomic structure of these two genes has remained fairly similar during evolution, with more than half of the Drosophila intron positions being perfectly conserved compared to the human channel. Phylogenetic analysis of the mutually exclusive alternative exons revealed that they have diverged considerably. It is suggested that this divergence, rather than reflecting evolutionary age, is the likely result of accelerated rates of evolution following duplication.
Peixoto, A. A.; Smith, L. A.; Hall, J. C.
Numerous evolutionary theories have been developed to explain the epigenetic phenomenon of genomic imprinting. Here, we explore a subset of theories wherein non-additive genetic interactions can favour imprinting. In the simplest genic interaction-the case of underdominance-imprinting can be favoured to hide effectively low-fitness heterozygous genotypes; however, as there is no asymmetry between maternally and paternally inherited alleles in this model, other means of enforcing monoallelic expression may be more plausible evolutionary outcomes than genomic imprinting. By contrast, more successful interaction models of imprinting rely on an asymmetry between the maternally and paternally inherited alleles at a locus that favours the silencing of one allele as a means of coordinating the expression of high-fitness allelic combinations. For example, with interactions between autosomal loci, imprinting functionally preserves high-fitness genotypes that were favoured by selection in the previous generation. In this scenario, once a focal locus becomes imprinted, selection at interacting loci favours a matching imprint. Uniparental transmission generates similar asymmetries for sex chromosomes and cytoplasmic factors interacting with autosomal loci, with selection favouring the expression of either maternal or paternally derived autosomal alleles depending on the pattern of transmission of the uniparentally inherited factor. In a final class of models, asymmetries arise when genes expressed in offspring interact with genes expressed in one of its parents. Under such a scenario, a locus evolves to have imprinted expression in offspring to coordinate the interaction with its parent's genome. We illustrate these models and explore key links and differences using a unified framework. PMID:24619179
Wolf, J B; Brandvain, Y
Three cloned strains of Oryctes baculovirus were released into a previously unexposed population of the host insect, the coconut palm rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The experiment was conducted on Meemu Atoll in the Maldive Islands. Viruses were isolated from the beetle population at 1 year, 1.75 years, and 4 years after release. No changes in genotype were observed in viruses isolated after 1 and 1.75 years. After 4 years, however, three types of genomic change had occurred. A recombinant derived from two of the released strains, an isolate containing a 100-bp insert, and one example of a point mutation were found in the 22 isolates examined. PMID:2403706
Crawford, A M; Zelazny, B
. Most hydrogenases (H2ases), the enzymes that produce or oxidize dihydrogen, possess dimetallic active sites and belong to either one of two phylogenetically\\u000a distinct classes, the [NiFe] and the [FeFe] H2ases. These families of H2ases share a number of similarities regarding active site structure and reaction mechanism, as a result of convergent evolution.\\u000a They are otherwise alien to each other, in
The major transitions in human evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, from protozoans to metazoans, from the first animals to bilaterians and finally from a primitive chordate to vertebrates were all accompanied by increases in genome complexity. Rare fusion of divergent genomes rather than continuous single gene duplications could explain these jumps in evolution. The origin of eukaryotes was proposed to be due to a symbiosis of Archaea and Bacteria. Symbiosis is clearly seen as the source for mitochondria. A fundamental difference of higher eukaryotes is the cycle from haploidy to diploidy, a well-regulated genome duplication. Of course, self-fertilization exists, but the potential of sex increases with the difference of the haploid stages, such as the sperm and the egg. What should be the advantage of having two identical copies of a gene? Still, genes duplicate all the time and even genomes duplicate rather often. In plants, polyploidy is well recognized, but seems to be abundant in fungi and even in animals, too. However, hybridization, rather than autopolyploidy, seems to be the potential mechanism for creating something new. The problem with chimaeric, symbiotic or reticulate evolution events is that they blur phylogenetic lineages. Unrecognized paralogous genes or random loss of one of the paralogs in different lineages can lead to false conclusions. Horizontal genome transfer, genome fusion or hybridization might be only truly innovative combined with rare geological transitions such as change to an oxygen atmosphere, snowball Earth events or the Cambrian explosion, but correlates well with the major transitions in evolution. PMID:12836681
Molecular methods of viral screening have demonstrated that human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are associated with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia), exacerbations of chronic pulmonary disease and the development of asthma. Patients with severe chronic diseases are at greater risk of developing major clinical problems when infected by HRVs, particularly if they are immunocompromised or have a chronic lung disease. Analysing the characteristics of HRVs does not provide any certainty concerning the risk of a poor prognosis and, although viremia seems to be associated with an increased risk of severe HRV infection, the available data are too scanty to be considered conclusive. However, a chest x-ray showing alveolar involvement suggests the potentially negative evolution of a bacterial superinfection. There is therefore an urgent need for more effective diagnostic, preventive and therapeutic measures in order to prevent HRV infection, and identify and treat the patients at highest risk. PMID:24559383
Principi, Nicola; Daleno, Cristina; Esposito, Susanna
Expression profiling is one of the most important tools for dissecting biological functions of genes and the upregulation or downregulation of gene expression is sufficient for recreating phenotypic differences. Expression divergence of genes significantly contributes to phenotypic variations. However, little is known on the molecular basis of expression divergence and evolution among rice genotypes with contrasting phenotypes. In this study, we have implemented an integrative approach using bioinformatics and experimental analyses to provide insights into genomic variation, expression divergence, and evolution between salinity-sensitive rice variety Nipponbare and tolerant rice line Pokkali under normal and high salinity stress conditions. We have detected thousands of differentially expressed genes between these two genotypes and thousands of up- or downregulated genes under high salinity stress. Many genes were first detected with expression evidence using custom microarray analysis. Some gene families were preferentially regulated by high salinity stress and might play key roles in stress-responsive biological processes. Genomic variations in promoter regions resulted from single nucleotide polymorphisms, indels (1–10 bp of insertion/deletion), and structural variations significantly contributed to the expression divergence and regulation. Our data also showed that tandem and segmental duplication, CACTA and hAT elements played roles in the evolution of gene expression divergence and regulation between these two contrasting genotypes under normal or high salinity stress conditions.
Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ma, Ali; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan
Expression profiling is one of the most important tools for dissecting biological functions of genes and the upregulation or downregulation of gene expression is sufficient for recreating phenotypic differences. Expression divergence of genes significantly contributes to phenotypic variations. However, little is known on the molecular basis of expression divergence and evolution among rice genotypes with contrasting phenotypes. In this study, we have implemented an integrative approach using bioinformatics and experimental analyses to provide insights into genomic variation, expression divergence, and evolution between salinity-sensitive rice variety Nipponbare and tolerant rice line Pokkali under normal and high salinity stress conditions. We have detected thousands of differentially expressed genes between these two genotypes and thousands of up- or downregulated genes under high salinity stress. Many genes were first detected with expression evidence using custom microarray analysis. Some gene families were preferentially regulated by high salinity stress and might play key roles in stress-responsive biological processes. Genomic variations in promoter regions resulted from single nucleotide polymorphisms, indels (1-10 bp of insertion/deletion), and structural variations significantly contributed to the expression divergence and regulation. Our data also showed that tandem and segmental duplication, CACTA and hAT elements played roles in the evolution of gene expression divergence and regulation between these two contrasting genotypes under normal or high salinity stress conditions. PMID:24121498
Jiang, Shu-Ye; Ma, Ali; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan
The rise of insect societies, marked by the formation of reproductive and sterile castes, represents a major unsolved mystery in evolution. Across several independent origins of sociality, the genomes of social hymenopterans share two peculiar attributes: high recombination and low but heterogeneous GC content. For example, the genome of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, represents a mosaic of GC-poor and GC-rich regions with rates of recombination an order of magnitude higher than in humans. However, it is unclear how heterogeneity in GC content arises, and how it relates to the expression and evolution of worker traits. Using population genetic analyses, we demonstrate a bias in the allele frequency and fixation rate of derived C or G mutations in high-recombination regions, consistent with recombination’s causal influence on GC-content evolution via biased gene conversion. We also show that recombination and biased gene conversion actively maintain the heterogeneous GC content of the honey bee genome despite an overall A/T mutation bias. Further, we found that GC-rich genes and intergenic regions have higher levels of genetic diversity and divergence relative to GC-poor regions, also consistent with recombination’s causal influence on the rate of molecular evolution. Finally, we found that genes associated with behavior and those with worker-biased expression are found in GC-rich regions of the bee genome and also experience high rates of molecular evolution. Taken together, these findings suggest that recombination acts to maintain a genetically diverse and dynamic part of the genome where genes underlying worker behavior evolve more quickly.
Kent, Clement F.; Minaei, Shermineh; Harpur, Brock A.; Zayed, Amro
Changes in the physical interaction between cis-regulatory DNA sequences and proteins drive the evolution of gene expression. However, it has proven difficult to accurately quantify evolutionary rates of such binding change or to estimate the relative effects of selection and drift in shaping the binding evolution. Here we examine the genome-wide binding of CTCF in four species of Drosophila separated by between ?2.5 and 25 million years. CTCF is a highly conserved protein known to be associated with insulator sequences in the genomes of human and Drosophila. Although the binding preference for CTCF is highly conserved, we find that CTCF binding itself is highly evolutionarily dynamic and has adaptively evolved. Between species, binding divergence increased linearly with evolutionary distance, and CTCF binding profiles are diverging rapidly at the rate of 2.22% per million years (Myr). At least 89 new CTCF binding sites have originated in the Drosophila melanogaster genome since the most recent common ancestor with Drosophila simulans. Comparing these data to genome sequence data from 37 different strains of Drosophila melanogaster, we detected signatures of selection in both newly gained and evolutionarily conserved binding sites. Newly evolved CTCF binding sites show a significantly stronger signature for positive selection than older sites. Comparative gene expression profiling revealed that expression divergence of genes adjacent to CTCF binding site is significantly associated with the gain and loss of CTCF binding. Further, the birth of new genes is associated with the birth of new CTCF binding sites. Our data indicate that binding of Drosophila CTCF protein has evolved under natural selection, and CTCF binding evolution has shaped both the evolution of gene expression and genome evolution during the birth of new genes.
Ni, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong E.; Negre, Nicolas; Chen, Sidi; Long, Manyuan; White, Kevin P.
Background Despite their monophyletic origin, animal and plant mitochondrial genomes have been described as exhibiting different modes of evolution. Indeed, plant mitochondrial genomes feature a larger size, a lower mutation rate and more rearrangements than their animal counterparts. Gene order variation in animal mitochondrial genomes is often described as being due to translocation and inversion events, but tandem duplication followed by loss has also been proposed as an alternative process. In plant mitochondrial genomes, at the species level, gene shuffling and duplicate occurrence are such that no clear phylogeny has ever been identified, when considering genome structure variation. Results In this study we analyzed the whole sequences of eight mitochondrial genomes from maize and teosintes in order to comprehend the events that led to their structural features, i.e. the order of genes, tRNAs, rRNAs, ORFs, pseudogenes and non-coding sequences shared by all mitogenomes and duplicate occurrences. We suggest a tandem duplication model similar to the one described in animals, except that some duplicates can remain. This model enabled us to develop a manual method to deal with duplicates, a recurrent problem in rearrangement analyses. The phylogenetic tree exclusively based on rearrangement and duplication events is congruent with the tree based on sequence polymorphism, validating our evolution model. Conclusions This study suggests more similarity than usually reported between plant and animal mitochondrial genomes in their mode of evolution. Further work will consist of developing new tools in order to automatically look for signatures of tandem duplication events in other plant mitogenomes and evaluate the occurrence of this process on a larger scale.
Fungi are a large group of eukaryotes found in nearly all ecosystems. More than 250 fungal genomes have already been sequenced, greatly improving our understanding of fungal evolution, physiology, and development. However, for the Pezizomycetes, an early-diverging lineage of filamentous ascomycetes, there is so far only one genome available, namely that of the black truffle, Tuber melanosporum, a mycorrhizal species with unusual subterranean fruiting bodies. To help close the sequence gap among basal filamentous ascomycetes, and to allow conclusions about the evolution of fungal development, we sequenced the genome and assayed transcriptomes during development of Pyronema confluens, a saprobic Pezizomycete with a typical apothecium as fruiting body. With a size of 50 Mb and ~13,400 protein-coding genes, the genome is more characteristic of higher filamentous ascomycetes than the large, repeat-rich truffle genome; however, some typical features are different in the P. confluens lineage, e.g. the genomic environment of the mating type genes that is conserved in higher filamentous ascomycetes, but only partly conserved in P. confluens. On the other hand, P. confluens has a full complement of fungal photoreceptors, and expression studies indicate that light perception might be similar to distantly related ascomycetes and, thus, represent a basic feature of filamentous ascomycetes. Analysis of spliced RNA-seq sequence reads allowed the detection of natural antisense transcripts for 281 genes. The P. confluens genome contains an unusually high number of predicted orphan genes, many of which are upregulated during sexual development, consistent with the idea of rapid evolution of sex-associated genes. Comparative transcriptomics identified the transcription factor gene pro44 that is upregulated during development in P. confluens and the Sordariomycete Sordaria macrospora. The P. confluens pro44 gene (PCON_06721) was used to complement the S. macrospora pro44 deletion mutant, showing functional conservation of this developmental regulator. PMID:24068976
Traeger, Stefanie; Altegoer, Florian; Freitag, Michael; Gabaldon, Toni; Kempken, Frank; Kumar, Abhishek; Marcet-Houben, Marina; Pöggeler, Stefanie; Stajich, Jason E; Nowrousian, Minou
Background and Aims Plant evolution is well known to be frequently associated with remarkable changes in genome size and composition; however, the knowledge of long-term evolutionary dynamics of these processes still remains very limited. Here a study is made of the fine dynamics of quantitative genome evolution in Festuca (fescue), the largest genus in Poaceae (grasses). Methods Using flow cytometry (PI, DAPI), measurements were made of DNA content (2C-value), monoploid genome size (Cx-value), average chromosome size (C/n-value) and cytosine + guanine (GC) content of 101 Festuca taxa and 14 of their close relatives. The results were compared with the existing phylogeny based on ITS and trnL-F sequences. Key Results The divergence of the fescue lineage from related Poeae was predated by about a 2-fold monoploid genome and chromosome size enlargement, and apparent GC content enrichment. The backward reduction of these parameters, running parallel in both main evolutionary lineages of fine-leaved and broad-leaved fescues, appears to diverge among the existing species groups. The most dramatic reductions are associated with the most recently and rapidly evolving groups which, in combination with recent intraspecific genome size variability, indicate that the reduction process is probably ongoing and evolutionarily young. This dynamics may be a consequence of GC-rich retrotransposon proliferation and removal. Polyploids derived from parents with a large genome size and high GC content (mostly allopolyploids) had smaller Cx- and C/n-values and only slightly deviated from parental GC content, whereas polyploids derived from parents with small genome and low GC content (mostly autopolyploids) generally had a markedly increased GC content and slightly higher Cx- and C/n-values. Conclusions The present study indicates the high potential of general quantitative characters of the genome for understanding the long-term processes of genome evolution, testing evolutionary hypotheses and their usefulness for large-scale genomic projects. Taken together, the results suggest that there is an evolutionary advantage for small genomes in Festuca.
Smarda, Petr; Bures, Petr; Horova, Lucie; Foggi, Bruno; Rossi, Graziano
The prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing in Lithuania as in the world. The prevalence of allergic sensitization is often higher than 50% of the population. The "hygiene hypothesis" proposed that reduced immune-stimulation by infections may have resulted in the more widespread clinical expression of atopic disease. However, it alone does not provide an adequate explanation for the observed increase of allergic diseases. Human rhinovirus infections are the major infections with a worldwide distribution. Viral infections of the respiratory tract are the most common triggers of acute asthma exacerbations. These exacerbations are poorly responsive to current asthma therapies and new approaches to therapy are needed. The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge and clinical implications of human rhinovirus infection in allergy and asthma development and needs for further research. Recent evidence has shown that the immune responses to human rhinoviruses differ between asthmatic and nonasthmatic subjects. Novel insights into the mechanisms of virus-induced asthma exacerbations support the possibility that viral infections may be involved in the epithelial cells damage, inflammation, and airway hyperresponsiveness as well as in profibrotic response and induction of airway remodeling. The data of original investigations support the concept that the immune stimulation by rhinovirus infections contributes to the development of asthma, when an atopic host is infected with human rhinoviruses. Early rhinoviral wheezing is the predictor of subsequent asthma development in high-risk children. Synergistic effect of allergic sensitization, allergen exposure, and viral infection was suggested in the increased risk of hospitalization for asthma in both children and adults. Timing of allergen exposure may be important in a synergistic outcome. The increased susceptibility to rhinovirus infections was identified in atopic asthma. This review also presents the current options on the treatment and prevention of virus-induced asthma. Further studies are needed in order to differentiate between the response to viruses of healthy and atopic or nonatopic asthmatic children and adults. New research data may lead to novel strategies in treatment and prevention of asthma exacerbations as well as prevention of asthma induction. PMID:20051716
Emuzyte, Regina; Firantiene, Regina; Petraityte, Rasa; Sasnauskas, Kestutis
Consistent individual differences in behaviour, aka personality, pose several evolutionary questions. For example, it is difficult to explain within-individual consistency in behaviour because behavioural plasticity is often advantageous. In addition, selection erodes heritable behavioural variation that is related to fitness, therefore we wish to know the mechanisms that can maintain between-individual variation in behaviour. In this paper, we argue that whole genome expression data can reveal new insights into the proximate mechanisms underlying personality, as well as its evolutionary consequences. After introducing the basics of whole genome expression analysis, we show how whole genome expression data can be used to understand whether behaviours in different contexts are affected by the same molecular mechanisms. We suggest strategies for using the power of genomics to understand what maintains behavioural variation, to study the evolution of behavioural correlations and to compare personality traits across diverse organisms.
Bell, Alison M.; Aubin-Horth, Nadia
Spiders are ecologically important predators with complex venom and extraordinarily tough silk that enables capture of large prey. Here we present the assembled genome of the social velvet spider and a draft assembly of the tarantula genome that represent two major taxonomic groups of spiders. The spider genomes are large with short exons and long introns, reminiscent of mammalian genomes. Phylogenetic analyses place spiders and ticks as sister groups supporting polyphyly of the Acari. Complex sets of venom and silk genes/proteins are identified. We find that venom genes evolved by sequential duplication, and that the toxic effect of venom is most likely activated by proteases present in the venom. The set of silk genes reveals a highly dynamic gene evolution, new types of silk genes and proteins, and a novel use of aciniform silk. These insights create new opportunities for pharmacological applications of venom and biomaterial applications of silk. PMID:24801114
Sanggaard, Kristian W; Bechsgaard, Jesper S; Fang, Xiaodong; Duan, Jinjie; Dyrlund, Thomas F; Gupta, Vikas; Jiang, Xuanting; Cheng, Ling; Fan, Dingding; Feng, Yue; Han, Lijuan; Huang, Zhiyong; Wu, Zongze; Liao, Li; Settepani, Virginia; Thøgersen, Ida B; Vanthournout, Bram; Wang, Tobias; Zhu, Yabing; Funch, Peter; Enghild, Jan J; Schauser, Leif; Andersen, Stig U; Villesen, Palle; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bilde, Trine; Wang, Jun
Background The Xanthomonadaceae family contains two xylem-limited plant pathogenic bacterial species, Xanthomonas albilineans and Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa was the first completely sequenced plant pathogen. It is insect-vectored, has a reduced genome and does not possess hrp genes which encode a Type III secretion system found in most plant pathogenic bacteria. X. fastidiosa was excluded from the Xanthomonas group based on phylogenetic analyses with rRNA sequences. Results The complete genome of X. albilineans was sequenced and annotated. X. albilineans, which is not known to be insect-vectored, also has a reduced genome and does not possess hrp genes. Phylogenetic analysis using X. albilineans genomic sequences showed that X. fastidiosa belongs to the Xanthomonas group. Order of divergence of the Xanthomonadaceae revealed that X. albilineans and X. fastidiosa experienced a convergent reductive genome evolution during their descent from the progenitor of the Xanthomonas genus. Reductive genome evolutions of the two xylem-limited Xanthomonadaceae were compared in light of their genome characteristics and those of obligate animal symbionts and pathogens. Conclusion The two xylem-limited Xanthomonadaceae, during their descent from a common ancestral parent, experienced a convergent reductive genome evolution. Adaptation to the nutrient-poor xylem elements and to the cloistered environmental niche of xylem vessels probably favoured this convergent evolution. However, genome characteristics of X. albilineans differ from those of X. fastidiosa and obligate animal symbionts and pathogens, indicating that a distinctive process was responsible for the reductive genome evolution in this pathogen. The possible role in genome reduction of the unique toxin albicidin, produced by X. albilineans, is discussed.
Genomic imprinting is widespread in eutherian mammals. Marsupial mammals also have genomic imprinting, but in fewer loci. It has long been thought that genomic imprinting is somehow related to placentation and/or viviparity in mammals, although neither is restricted to mammals. Most imprinted genes are expressed in the placenta. There is no evidence for genomic imprinting in the egg-laying monotreme mammals, despite their short-lived placenta that transfers nutrients from mother to embryo. Post natal genomic imprinting also occurs, especially in the brain. However, little attention has been paid to the primary source of nutrition in the neonate in all mammals, the mammary gland. Differentially methylated regions (DMRs) play an important role as imprinting control centres in each imprinted region which usually comprises both paternally and maternally expressed genes (PEGs and MEGs). The DMR is established in the male or female germline (the gDMR). Comprehensive comparative genome studies demonstrated that two imprinted regions, PEG10 and IGF2-H19, are conserved in both marsupials and eutherians and that PEG10 and H19 DMRs emerged in the therian ancestor at least 160 Ma, indicating the ancestral origin of genomic imprinting during therian mammal evolution. Importantly, these regions are known to be deeply involved in placental and embryonic growth. It appears that most maternal gDMRs are always associated with imprinting in eutherian mammals, but emerged at differing times during mammalian evolution. Thus, genomic imprinting could evolve from a defence mechanism against transposable elements that depended on DNA methylation established in germ cells.
Renfree, Marilyn B.; Suzuki, Shunsuke; Kaneko-Ishino, Tomoko
The neural crest is an excellent model system for the study of cell type diversification during embryonic development due to its multipotency, motility, and ability to form a broad array of derivatives ranging from neurons and glia, to cartilage, bone, and melanocytes. As a uniquely vertebrate cell population, it also offers important clues regarding vertebrate origins. In the past 30 yr, introduction of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the dissection of the genetic program controlling neural crest development and has provided important insights into gene regulatory mechanisms underlying cell migration and differentiation. More recently, new genomic approaches have provided a platform and tools that are changing the depth and breadth of our understanding of neural crest development at a “systems” level. Such advances provide an insightful view of the regulatory landscape of neural crest cells and offer a new perspective on developmental as well as stem cell and cancer biology.
Simoes-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E.
The biology of cancer is critically reviewed and evidence adduced that its development can be modelled as a somatic cellular Darwinian evolutionary process. The evidence for involvement of genomic instability (GI) is also reviewed. A variety of quasi-mechanistic models of carcinogenesis are reviewed, all based on this somatic Darwinian evolutionary hypothesis; in particular, the multi-stage model of Armitage and Doll (Br. J. Cancer 1954:8;1-12), the two-mutation model of Moolgavkar, Venzon, and Knudson (MVK) (Math. Biosci. 1979:47;55-77), the generalized MVK model of Little (Biometrics 1995:51;1278-1291) and various generalizations of these incorporating effects of GI (Little and Wright Math. Biosci. 2003:183;111-134; Little et al. J. Theoret. Biol. 2008:254;229-238). Reviewers This article was reviewed by RA Gatenby and M Kimmel.
The neural crest is an excellent model system for the study of cell type diversification during embryonic development due to its multipotency, motility, and ability to form a broad array of derivatives ranging from neurons and glia, to cartilage, bone, and melanocytes. As a uniquely vertebrate cell population, it also offers important clues regarding vertebrate origins. In the past 30 yr, introduction of recombinant DNA technology has facilitated the dissection of the genetic program controlling neural crest development and has provided important insights into gene regulatory mechanisms underlying cell migration and differentiation. More recently, new genomic approaches have provided a platform and tools that are changing the depth and breadth of our understanding of neural crest development at a "systems" level. Such advances provide an insightful view of the regulatory landscape of neural crest cells and offer a new perspective on developmental as well as stem cell and cancer biology. PMID:23817048
Simões-Costa, Marcos; Bronner, Marianne E
Polyploidy is a major evolutionary process in eukaryotes—particularly in plants and, to a less extent, in animals, wherein several past and recent whole-genome duplication events have been described. Surprisingly, the incidence of polyploidy in other eukaryote kingdoms, particularly within fungi, remained largely disregarded by the scientific community working on the evolutionary consequences of polyploidy. Recent studies have significantly increased our knowledge of the occurrence and evolutionary significance of fungal polyploidy. The ecological, structural and functional consequences of polyploidy in fungi are reviewed here and compared with the knowledge acquired with conventional plant and animal models. In particular, the genus Saccharomyces emerges as a relevant model for polyploid studies, in addition to plant and animal models.
Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe
Background Aims One of the classic examples of an allopolyploid is Iris versicolor, ‘Blue Flag’ (2n = 108), first studied by Edgar Anderson and later popularized by George Ledyard Stebbins in cytogenetics and evolutionary text-books. It is revisited here using modern molecular and cytogenetic tools to investigate its putative allopolyploid origin involving progenitors of I. virginica (2n = 70) and I. setosa (2n = 38). Methods Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and Southern hybridization with 5S and 18–26S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) probes were used to identify the parental origin of chromosomes, and to study the unit structure, relative abundance and chromosomal location of rDNA sequences. Key Results GISH shows that I. versicolor has inherited the sum of the chromosome complement from the two progenitor species. In I. versicolor all the 18–26S rDNA units and loci are inherited from the progenitor of I. virginica, those loci from the I. setosa progenitor are absent. In contrast 5S rDNA loci and units from both progenitors are found, although one of the two 5S loci expected from the I. setosa progenitor is absent. Conclusions These data confirm Anderson's hypothesis that I. versicolor is an allopolyploid involving progenitors of I. virginica and I. setosa. The number of 18–26S rDNA loci in I. versicolor is similar to that of progenitor I. virginica, suggestive of a first stage in genome diploidization. The locus loss is targeted at the I. setosa-origin subgenome, and this is discussed in relation to other polyploidy systems.
Lim, K. Yoong; Matyasek, Roman; Kovarik, Ales; Leitch, Andrew
A polyploid organism by possessing more than two sets of chromosomes from one species (autopolyploidy) or two or more species (allopolyploidy) is known to have evolutionary advantages. However, by what means a polyploid accommodates increased genetic dosage or divergent genomes (allopolyploidy) in one cell nucleus and cytoplasm constitutes an enormous challenge. Recent years have witnessed efforts and progress in exploring
Bao Liu; Chunming Xu; Na Zhao; Bao Qi; Josphert N. Kimatu; Jinsong Pang; Fangpu Han
The family Rhizobiaceae contains plant-associated bacteria with critical roles in ecology and agriculture. Within this family, many Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium strains are nitrogen-fixing plant mutualists, while many strains designated as Agrobacterium are plant pathogens. These contrasting lifestyles are primarily dependent on the transmissible plasmids each strain harbors. Members of the Rhizobiaceae also have diverse genome architectures that include single chromosomes,
Steven C. Slater; Barry S. Goldman; Brad Goodner; Joao C. Setubal; Stephen K. Farrand; Eugene W. Nester; Thomas J. Burr; Lois Banta; Allan W. Dickerman; Ian Paulsen; Leon Otten; Garret Suen; Roy Welch; Nalvo F. Almeida; Frank Arnold; Oliver T. Burton; Zijin Du; Adam Ewing; Eric Godsy; Sara Heisel; Kathryn L. Houmiel; Jinal Jhaveri; Jing Lu; Nancy M. Miller; Stacie Norton; Qiang Chen; Waranyoo Phoolcharoen; Victoria Ohlin; Dan Ondrusek; Nicole Pride; Shawn L. Stricklin; Jian Sun; Cathy Wheeler; Lindsey Wilson; Huijun Zhu; Derek W. Wood
We report the results of an extensive investigation of genomic structures in the human genome, with a particular focus on relatively large repeats (>50?kb) in adjacent chromosomal regions. We named such structures “Flowers” because the pattern observed on dot plots resembles a flower. We detected a total of 291 Flowers in the human genome. They were predominantly located in euchromatic regions. Flowers are gene-rich compared to the average gene density of the genome. Genes involved in systems receiving environmental information, such as immunity and detoxification, were overrepresented in Flowers. Within a Flower, the mean number of duplication units was approximately four. The maximum and minimum identities between homologs in a Flower showed different distributions; the maximum identity was often concentrated to 100% identity, while the minimum identity was evenly distributed in the range of 78% to 100%. Using a gene conversion detection test, we found frequent and/or recent gene conversion events within the tested Flowers. Interestingly, many of those converted regions contained protein-coding genes. Computer simulation studies suggest that one role of such frequent gene conversions is the elongation of the life span of gene families in a Flower by the resurrection of pseudogenes.
Kim, Hie Lim; Iwase, Mineyo; Igawa, Takeshi; Nishioka, Tasuku; Kaneko, Satoko; Katsura, Yukako; Takahata, Naoyuki; Satta, Yoko
Detecting gene losses is a novel aspect of evolutionary genomics that has been made feasible by whole-genome sequencing. However, research to date has concentrated on elucidating evolutionary patterns of genomic components shared between species, rather than identifying disparities between genomes. In this study, we searched for gene losses in the lineage leading to eutherian mammals. First, as a pilot analysis, we selected five gene families (Wnt, Fgf, Tbx, TGF?, and Frizzled) for molecular phylogenetic analyses, and identified mammalian lineage-specific losses of Wnt11b, Tbx6L/VegT/tbx16, Nodal-related, ADMP1, ADMP2, Sizzled, and Crescent. Second, automated genome-wide phylogenetic screening was implemented based on this pilot analysis. As a result, we detected 147 chicken genes without eutherian orthologs, which resulted from 141 gene loss events. Our inventory contained a group of regulatory genes governing early embryonic axis formation, such as Noggins, and multiple members of the opsin and prolactin-releasing hormone receptor (“PRLHR”) gene families. Our findings highlight the potential of genome-wide gene phylogeny (“phylome”) analysis in detecting possible rearrangement of gene networks and the importance of identifying losses of ancestral genomic components in analyzing the molecular basis underlying phenotypic evolution.
Kuraku, Shigehiro; Kuratani, Shigeru
In many organisms with large and complex genomes, transposable elements (TEs) constitute up to 50% of the genomic DNA. TEs have been widely studied and they showed high similarities across kingdoms. Several reasons have been adduced for the diverse TEs among plants and animal species. Activities of TEs could give rise to altered gene or genome at very high frequencies in both germinal and somatic tissues. TE-induced genetic variability can range widely; from changes in the arrangement of the whole genome to changes in single nucleotides. This may produce major effects on the phenotypic traits or small silent changes detectable only at the DNA sequence level. TE-induced mutation in the regulatory sequences may be of evolutionary significance and insertions in promoter sequences can alter tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. In addition, transposons can be involved in amplification and dispersal of genes by taking up portions of other sequences within the TEs themselves, moving them to new locations, thereby increasing their copy number. Therefore, mobilization of TEs might benefit the host through enhancement of genetic diversity. However, TE movement have been linked with undesirable traits in plants, hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila and genome instability and diseases in mammals. This review summarises the diversity of TEs across plant and animal kingdoms and their impact and possible role in genomic evolution. It also describes some adverse effects of TEs as agents of genomic instability and diseases such as cancers, and the genetic regulations of their activities. PMID:23678632
Gbadegesin, M A
Land plants possess some of the most unusual mitochondrial genomes among eukaryotes. However, in early land plants these genomes\\u000a resemble those of green and red algae or early eukaryotes. The question of when during land plant evolution the dramatic change\\u000a in mtDNAs occurred remains unanswered. Here we report the first completely sequenced mitochondrial genome of the hornwort,\\u000a Megaceros aenigmaticus, a
Libo Li; Bin Wang; Yang Liu; Yin-Long Qiu
The duplication of preexisting genes has played a major role in evolution. To understand the evolution of genetic complexity it is important to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the genome. A widely held view suggests that the vertebrate genome evolved via two successive rounds of whole-genome duplication. To test this model we have isolated seven new T-box genes from the primitive chordate amphioxus. We find that each amphioxus gene generally corresponds to two or three vertebrate counterparts. A phylogenetic analysis of these genes supports the idea that a single whole-genome duplication took place early in vertebrate evolution, but cannot exclude the possibility that a second duplication later took place. The origin of additional paralogs evident in this and other gene families could be the result of subsequent, smaller-scale chromosomal duplications. Our findings highlight the importance of amphioxus as a key organism for understanding evolution of the vertebrate genome.
Ruvinsky, I; Silver, L M; Gibson-Brown, J J
It has been long known that insect-infecting trypanosomatid flagellates from the genera Angomonas and Strigomonas harbor bacterial endosymbionts (Candidatus Kinetoplastibacterium or TPE [trypanosomatid proteobacterial endosymbiont]) that supplement the host metabolism. Based on previous analyses of other bacterial endosymbiont genomes from other lineages, a stereotypical path of genome evolution in such bacteria over the duration of their association with the eukaryotic host has been characterized. In this work, we sequence and analyze the genomes of five TPEs, perform their metabolic reconstruction, do an extensive phylogenomic analyses with all available Betaproteobacteria, and compare the TPEs with their nearest betaproteobacterial relatives. We also identify a number of housekeeping and central metabolism genes that seem to have undergone positive selection. Our genome structure analyses show total synteny among the five TPEs despite millions of years of divergence, and that this lineage follows the common path of genome evolution observed in other endosymbionts of diverse ancestries. As previously suggested by cell biology and biochemistry experiments, Ca. Kinetoplastibacterium spp. preferentially maintain those genes necessary for the biosynthesis of compounds needed by their hosts. We have also shown that metabolic and informational genes related to the cooperation with the host are overrepresented amongst genes shown to be under positive selection. Finally, our phylogenomic analysis shows that, while being in the Alcaligenaceae family of Betaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of these endosymbionts are not in the genus Bordetella as previously reported, but more likely in the Taylorella genus.
Alves, Joao M.P.; Serrano, Myrna G.; Maia da Silva, Flavia; Voegtly, Logan J.; Matveyev, Andrey V.; Teixeira, Marta M.G.; Camargo, Erney P.; Buck, Gregory A.
Background The fungus Marssonina brunnea is a causal pathogen of Marssonina leaf spot that devastates poplar plantations by defoliating susceptible trees before normal fall leaf drop. Results We sequence the genome of M. brunnea with a size of 52 Mb assembled into 89 scaffolds, representing the first sequenced Dermateaceae genome. By inoculating this fungus onto a poplar hybrid clone, we investigate how M. brunnea interacts and co-evolves with its host to colonize poplar leaves. While a handful of virulence genes in M. brunnea, mostly from the LysM family, are detected to up-regulate during infection, the poplar down-regulates its resistance genes, such as nucleotide binding site domains and leucine rich repeats, in response to infection. From 10,027 predicted proteins of M. brunnea in a comparison with those from poplar, we identify four poplar transferases that stimulate the host to resist M. brunnea. These transferas-encoding genes may have driven the co-evolution of M. brunnea and Populus during the process of infection and anti-infection. Conclusions Our results from the draft sequence of the M. brunnea genome provide evidence for genome-genome interactions that play an important role in poplar-pathogen co-evolution. This knowledge could help to design effective strategies for controlling Marssonina leaf spot in poplar.
Background Polyploid species contribute to Oryza diversity. However, the mechanisms underlying gene and genome evolution in Oryza polyploids remain largely unknown. The allotetraploid Oryza minuta, which is estimated to have formed less than one million years ago, along with its putative diploid progenitors (O. punctata and O. officinalis), are quite suitable for the study of polyploid genome evolution using a comparative genomics approach. Results Here, we performed a comparative study of a large genomic region surrounding the Shattering4 locus in O. minuta, as well as in O. punctata and O. officinalis. Duplicated genomes in O. minuta have maintained the diploid genome organization, except for several structural variations mediated by transposon movement. Tandem duplicated gene clusters are prevalent in the Sh4 region, and segmental duplication followed by random deletion is illustrated to explain the gene gain-and-loss process. Both copies of most duplicated genes still persist in O. minuta. Molecular evolution analysis suggested that these duplicated genes are equally evolved and mostly manipulated by purifying selection. However, cDNA-SSCP analysis revealed that the expression patterns were dramatically altered between duplicated genes: nine of 29 duplicated genes exhibited expression divergence in O. minuta. We further detected one gene silencing event that was attributed to gene structural variation, but most gene silencing could not be related to sequence changes. We identified one case in which DNA methylation differences within promoter regions that were associated with the insertion of one hAT element were probably responsible for gene silencing, suggesting a potential epigenetic gene silencing pathway triggered by TE movement. Conclusions Our study revealed both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in duplicated gene silencing in the allotetraploid O. minuta.
The significance of whole-genome duplications (WGD) for vertebrate evolution remains controversial, in part because the mechanisms by which WGD contributed to functional evolution or speciation are still incompletely characterized. Fish genomes provide an ideal context in which to examine the consequences of WGD, because the teleost lineage experienced an additional WGD soon after divergence from tetrapods and because five teleost genomes are available for comparative analysis. Here we present an integrated approach to characterize these post-duplication genomes based on genome-scale synteny, phylogenetic, temporal, and spatial gene expression and on protein sequence data. A minimum of 3%–4% of protein-coding loci have been retained in two copies in each of the five fish genomes, and many of these duplicates are key developmental genes that function as transcription factors or signaling molecules. Almost all duplicate gene pairs we examined have diverged in spatial and/or temporal expression during embryogenesis. A quarter of duplicate pairs have diverged in function via the acquisition of novel protein domains or via changes in the subcellular localization of their encoded proteins. We compared the spatial expression and protein domain architecture of zebrafish WGD-duplicates to those of their single mouse ortholog and found many examples supporting a model of neofunctionalization. WGD-duplicates have acquired novel protein domains more often than have single-copy genes. Post-WGD changes at the gene regulatory level were more common than changes at the protein level. We conclude that the most significant consequence of WGD for vertebrate evolution has been to enable more-specialized regulatory control of development via the acquisition of novel spatiotemporal expression domains. We find limited evidence that reciprocal gene loss led to reproductive isolation and speciation in this lineage.
Kassahn, Karin S.; Dang, Vinh T.; Wilkins, Simon J.; Perkins, Andrew C.; Ragan, Mark A.
Rhinoviruses are the most common causes of viral respiratory infections and complications caused by viral respiratory infections in patients with underlying lung disease. Major recent therapeutic advances include the development of capsid-function inhibitors (pleconaril), inhibitors of 3C protease (AG7088), and recombinant soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, all of which exhibit potent antirhinoviral activity invitro and varying activity in clinical trials.
Mark A McKinlay
BACKGROUND: Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are the predominant cause of common cold. In addition, HRVs are implicated in the worsening of COPD and asthma, as well as the loss of lung transplants. Despite significant efforts, no anti-viral agent is approved for the prevention or treatment of HRV-infection. RESULTS: In this study we demonstrate that Iota-Carrageenan, a sulphated polysaccharide derived from red
Andreas Grassauer; Regina Weinmuellner; Christiane Meier; Alexander Pretsch; Eva Prieschl-Grassauer; Hermann Unger
That closely related species often differ by chromosomal inversions was discovered by Sturtevant and Plunkett in 1926. Our knowledge of how these inversions originate is still very limited, although a prevailing view is that they are facilitated by ectopic recombination events between inverted repetitive sequences. The availability of genome sequences of related species now allows us to study in detail the mechanisms that generate interspecific inversions. We have analyzed the breakpoint regions of the 29 inversions that differentiate the chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and two closely related species, D. simulans and D. yakuba, and reconstructed the molecular events that underlie their origin. Experimental and computational analysis revealed that the breakpoint regions of 59% of the inversions (17/29) are associated with inverted duplications of genes or other nonrepetitive sequences. In only two cases do we find evidence for inverted repetitive sequences in inversion breakpoints. We propose that the presence of inverted duplications associated with inversion breakpoint regions is the result of staggered breaks, either isochromatid or chromatid, and that this, rather than ectopic exchange between inverted repetitive sequences, is the prevalent mechanism for the generation of inversions in the melanogaster species group. Outgroup analysis also revealed evidence for widespread breakpoint recycling. Lastly, we have found that expression domains in D. melanogaster may be disrupted in D. yakuba, bringing into question their potential adaptive significance.
Ranz, Jose M; Maurin, Damien; Chan, Yuk S; von Grotthuss, Marcin; Hillier, LaDeana W; Roote, John; Ashburner, Michael; Bergman, Casey M
Background Human rhinoviruses, major precipitants of asthma exacerbations, induce lower airway inflammation and mediate angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility that rhinoviruses may also contribute to the fibrotic component of airway remodeling. Methods Levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) mRNA and protein were measured following rhinovirus infection of bronchial epithelial cells. The profibrotic effect of epithelial products was assessed by DNA synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase activity assays. Moreover, epithelial cells were exposed to supernatants from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells, obtained from healthy donors or atopic asthmatic subjects and subsequently infected by rhinovirus and bFGF release was estimated. bFGF was also measured in respiratory secretions from atopic asthmatic patients before and during rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations. Results Rhinovirus epithelial infection stimulated mRNA expression and release of bFGF, the latter being positively correlated with cell death under conditions promoting rhinovirus-induced cytotoxicity. Supernatants from infected cultures induced lung fibroblast proliferation, which was inhibited by anti-bFGF antibody, and demonstrated increased matrix metalloproteinase activity. Rhinovirus-mediated bFGF release was significantly higher in an in vitro simulation of atopic asthmatic environment and, importantly, during rhinovirus-associated asthma exacerbations. Conclusions Rhinovirus infection induces bFGF release by airway epithelium, and stimulates stroma cell proliferation contributing to airway remodeling in asthma. Repeated rhinovirus infections may promote asthma persistence, particularly in the context of atopy; prevention of such infections may influence the natural history of asthma.
The relative rate of occurrence of nucleotide substitutions versus indel (insertion/deletion) events is investigated by comparing complete DNA sequence data from the noncoding portion of the chloroplast genome that maps between the genes rbcL and atp beta. The sequence data are obtained from nine species that represent three tribes of the grass family. Indels could be categorized by those that are deletions or duplications of adjacent or proximal sequences and those that do not appear to be permutations of adjacent sequences. The first category represents 82% of the recorded indels. These indels may also be characterized by being direct duplications of one to several bases usually within runs of As or Ts or by being duplications or deletions of more complex sequences. When viewed from within groups of closely related taxa, indel events appear to occur at an equal or slightly faster rate than do nucleotide substitution events. However, the apparent rate of accumulation of indels in more distantly related species is significantly slower than that of nucleotide substitutions. This difference in apparent accumulation rates between indel events and nucleotide substitutions suggests that the proportion of superimposed changes has been higher among all indel events than among all nucleotide substitution events. Indeed the indels involving more complex sequences were found to be confined across taxa to a number of highly labile sites. Independent, though similar, indel events occur at identical sites in unrelated taxa, yet may not be shared among related taxa, resulting in a type of molecular parallelism. As a result, the phylogenetic tree based on indel events represents an evolutionary hypothesis which is inconsistent with the accepted phylogeny of these grasses. The phylogenetic tree based on nucleotide substitutions is consistent with accepted phylogeny. PMID:8081547
Golenberg, E M; Clegg, M T; Durbin, M L; Doebley, J; Ma, D P
Background Integrons are mechanisms that facilitate horizontal gene transfer, allowing bacteria to integrate and express foreign DNA. These are important in the exchange of antibiotic resistance determinants, but can also transfer a diverse suite of genes unrelated to pathogenicity. Here, we provide a systematic analysis of the distribution and diversity of integron intI genes and integron-containing bacteria. Results We found integrons in 103 different pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, in six major phyla. Integrons were widely scattered, and their presence was not confined to specific clades within bacterial orders. Nearly 1/3 of the intI genes that we identified were pseudogenes, containing either an internal stop codon or a frameshift mutation that would render the protein product non-functional. Additionally, 20% of bacteria contained more than one integrase gene. dN/dS ratios revealed mutational hotspots in clades of Vibrio and Shewanella intI genes. Finally, we characterized the gene cassettes associated with integrons in Methylobacillus flagellatus KT and Dechloromonas aromatica RCB, and found a heavy metal efflux gene as well as genes involved in protein folding and stability. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that the present distribution of integrons is due to multiple losses and gene transfer events. While, in some cases, the ability to integrate and excise foreign DNA may be selectively advantageous, the gain, loss, or rearrangment of gene cassettes could also be deleterious, selecting against functional integrases. Thus, such a high fraction of pseudogenes may suggest that the selective impact of integrons on genomes is variable, oscillating between beneficial and deleterious, possibly depending on environmental conditions.
Nemergut, Diana R; Robeson, Michael S; Kysela, Robert F; Martin, Andrew P; Schmidt, Steven K; Knight, Rob
During the 2009-2010 influenza pandemic, pregnant women were identified at high risk for severe infection. In case of influenza-like illness they were systematically treated with oseltamivir. When performed, virological diagnosis showed that some of these women were not influenza-infected. The objectives of the study were to identify viruses which could induce an influenza-like illness in pregnant women during the 2009-2010 pandemic, then to establish possible links between detected viruses and symptoms, and then characterize human rhinoviruses (HRV) strains detected in some samples. Nasal swabs from 78 pregnant women presenting with influenza-like illness and previously tested for influenza virus by RT-PCR in 2009-2010 were further assayed by multiplex RespiFinder assay and bocavirus PCR to search for 13 other viruses. Genotyping of HRV strains was carried out using partial genomic sequencing in the VP4/VP2 region. Influenza A virus infection was confirmed in 33 women (42%). Non-influenza viruses were detected in 18 additional cases (23%). Rhinoviruses were the most numerous (13%) and belonged to 9 different genotypes distributed between the 3 genogroups. When comparing symptoms observed in influenza-infected women and women infected by other viruses, shivers were more frequent in the former group (P=0.02), and expectorations in the latter (P=0.03). During the influenza pandemic 2009-2010, non-influenza viruses and mostly rhinoviruses were an underestimated cause of influenza-like illness in pregnant women. Viral diagnosis should help to stop empiric oseltamivir therapy in influenza-negative patients and antibiotic treatment in patients infected with a non-influenza virus. PMID:23722328
Pilorgé, Léa; Chartier, Mélanie; Méritet, Jean-François; Cervantes, Minerva; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Launay, Odile; Rozenberg, Flore; Krivine, Anne
Background Cellular life with complex metabolism probably evolved during the reign of RNA, when it served as both information carrier and enzyme. Jensen proposed that enzymes of primordial cells possessed broad specificities: they were generalist. When and under what conditions could primordial metabolism run by generalist enzymes evolve to contemporary-type metabolism run by specific enzymes? Results Here we show by numerical simulation of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction chain that specialist enzymes spread after the invention of the chromosome because protocells harbouring unlinked genes maintain largely non-specific enzymes to reduce their assortment load. When genes are linked on chromosomes, high enzyme specificity evolves because it increases biomass production, also by reducing taxation by side reactions. Conclusion The constitution of the genetic system has a profound influence on the limits of metabolic efficiency. The major evolutionary transition to chromosomes is thus proven to be a prerequisite for a complex metabolism. Furthermore, the appearance of specific enzymes opens the door for the evolution of their regulation. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Sándor Pongor, Gáspár Jékely, and Rob Knight.
Sacred lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is an ornamental plant that is also used for food and medicine. This basal eudicot species is especially important from an evolutionary perspective, as it occupies a critical phylogenetic position in flowering plants. Here we report the draft genome of a wild strain of sacred lotus. The assembled genome is 792 Mb, which is approximately 85-90% of genome size estimates. We annotated 392 Mb of repeat sequences and 36,385 protein-coding genes within the genome. Using these sequence data, we constructed a phylogenetic tree and confirmed the basal location of sacred lotus within eudicots. Importantly, we found evidence for a relatively recent whole-genome duplication event; any indication of the ancient paleo-hexaploid event was, however, absent. Genomic analysis revealed evidence of positive selection within 28 embryo-defective genes and one annexin gene that may be related to the long-term viability of sacred lotus seed. We also identified a significant expansion of starch synthase genes, which probably elevated starch levels within the rhizome of sacred lotus. Sequencing this strain of sacred lotus thus provided important insights into the evolution of flowering plant and revealed genetic mechanisms that influence seed dormancy and starch synthesis. PMID:23952714
Wang, Yun; Fan, Guangyi; Liu, Yiman; Sun, Fengming; Shi, Chengcheng; Liu, Xin; Peng, Jing; Chen, Wenbin; Huang, Xinfang; Cheng, Shifeng; Liu, Yuping; Liang, Xinming; Zhu, Honglian; Bian, Chao; Zhong, Lan; Lv, Tian; Dong, Hongxia; Liu, Weiqing; Zhong, Xiao; Chen, Jing; Quan, Zhiwu; Wang, Zhihong; Tan, Benzhong; Lin, Chufa; Mu, Feng; Xu, Xun; Ding, Yi; Guo, An-Yuan; Wang, Jun; Ke, Weidong
We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ?10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern.
Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar
Background The newly assembled Bos taurus genome sequence enables the linkage of bovine milk and lactation data with other mammalian genomes. Results Using publicly available milk proteome data and mammary expressed sequence tags, 197 milk protein genes and over 6,000 mammary genes were identified in the bovine genome. Intersection of these genes with 238 milk production quantitative trait loci curated from the literature decreased the search space for milk trait effectors by more than an order of magnitude. Genome location analysis revealed a tendency for milk protein genes to be clustered with other mammary genes. Using the genomes of a monotreme (platypus), a marsupial (opossum), and five placental mammals (bovine, human, dog, mice, rat), gene loss and duplication, phylogeny, sequence conservation, and evolution were examined. Compared with other genes in the bovine genome, milk and mammary genes are: more likely to be present in all mammals; more likely to be duplicated in therians; more highly conserved across Mammalia; and evolving more slowly along the bovine lineage. The most divergent proteins in milk were associated with nutritional and immunological components of milk, whereas highly conserved proteins were associated with secretory processes. Conclusions Although both copy number and sequence variation contribute to the diversity of milk protein composition across species, our results suggest that this diversity is primarily due to other mechanisms. Our findings support the essentiality of milk to the survival of mammalian neonates and the establishment of milk secretory mechanisms more than 160 million years ago.
Lemay, Danielle G; Lynn, David J; Martin, William F; Neville, Margaret C; Casey, Theresa M; Rincon, Gonzalo; Kriventseva, Evgenia V; Barris, Wesley C; Hinrichs, Angie S; Molenaar, Adrian J; Pollard, Katherine S; Maqbool, Nauman J; Singh, Kuljeet; Murney, Regan; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Tellam, Ross L; Medrano, Juan F; German, J Bruce; Rijnkels, Monique
Legumes (Fabaceae or Leguminosae) are unique among cultivated plants for their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation with rhizobial bacteria, a process that takes place in a specialized structure known as the nodule. Legumes belong to one of the two main groups of eurosids, the Fabidae, which includes most species capable of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation 1. Legumes comprise several evolutionary lineages derived from a common ancestor 60 million years ago (Mya). Papilionoids are the largest clade, dating nearly to the origin of legumes and containing most cultivated species 2. Medicago truncatula (Mt) is a long-established model for the study of legume biology. Here we describe the draft sequence of the Mt euchromatin based on a recently completed BAC-assembly supplemented with Illumina-shotgun sequence, together capturing ~94% of all Mt genes. A whole-genome duplication (WGD) approximately 58 Mya played a major role in shaping the Mt genome and thereby contributed to the evolution of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. Subsequent to the WGD, the Mt genome experienced higher levels of rearrangement than two other sequenced legumes, Glycine max (Gm) and Lotus japonicus (Lj). Mt is a close relative of alfalfa (M. sativa), a widely cultivated crop with limited genomics tools and complex autotetraploid genetics. As such, the Mt genome sequence provides significant opportunities to expand alfalfa’s genomic toolbox.
Young, Nevin D.; Debelle, Frederic; Oldroyd, Giles E. D.; Geurts, Rene; Cannon, Steven B.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Benedito, Vagner A.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Gouzy, Jerome; Schoof, Heiko; Van de Peer, Yves; Proost, Sebastian; Cook, Douglas R.; Meyers, Blake C.; Spannagl, Manuel; Cheung, Foo; De Mita, Stephane; Krishnakumar, Vivek; Gundlach, Heidrun; Zhou, Shiguo; Mudge, Joann; Bharti, Arvind K.; Murray, Jeremy D.; Naoumkina, Marina A.; Rosen, Benjamin; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Tang, Haibao; Rombauts, Stephane; Zhao, Patrick X.; Zhou, Peng; Barbe, Valerie; Bardou, Philippe; Bechner, Michael; Bellec, Arnaud; Berger, Anne; Berges, Helene; Bidwell, Shelby; Bisseling, Ton; Choisne, Nathalie; Couloux, Arnaud; Denny, Roxanne; Deshpande, Shweta; Dai, Xinbin; Doyle, Jeff; Dudez, Anne-Marie; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fouteau, Stephanie; Franken, Carolien; Gibelin, Chrystel; Gish, John; Goldstein, Steven; Gonzalez, Alvaro J.; Green, Pamela J.; Hallab, Asis; Hartog, Marijke; Hua, Axin; Humphray, Sean; Jeong, Dong-Hoon; Jing, Yi; Jocker, Anika; Kenton, Steve M.; Kim, Dong-Jin; Klee, Kathrin; Lai, Hongshing; Lang, Chunting; Lin, Shaoping; Macmil, Simone L; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Matthews, Lucy; McCorrison, Jamison; Monaghan, Erin L.; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Najar, Fares Z.; Nicholson, Christine; Noirot, Celine; O'Bleness, Majesta; Paule, Charles R.; Poulain, Julie; Prion, Florent; Qin, Baifang; Qu, Chunmei; Retzel, Ernest F.; Riddle, Claire; Sallet, Erika; Samain, Sylvie; Samson, Nicolas; Sanders, Iryna; Saurat, Olivier; Scarpelli, Claude; Schiex, Thomas; Segurens, Beatrice; Severin, Andrew J.; Sherrier, D. Janine; Shi, Ruihua; Sims, Sarah; Singer, Susan R.; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Sterck, Lieven; Viollet, Agnes; Wang, Bing-Bing; Wang, Keqin; Wang, Mingyi; Wang, Xiaohong; Warfsmann, Jens; Weissenbach, Jean; White, Doug D.; White, Jim D.; Wiley, Graham B.; Wincker, Patrick; Xing, Yanbo; Yang, Limei; Yao, Ziyun; Ying, Fu; Zhai, Jixian; Zhou, Liping; Zuber, Antoine; Denarie, Jean; Dixon, Richard A.; May, Gregory D.; Schwartz, David C.; Rogers, Jane; Quetier, Francis; Town, Christopher D.; Roe, Bruce A.
Little is known about the genetic basis of convergent traits that originate repeatedly over broad taxonomic scales. The myogenic electric organ has evolved six times in fishes to produce electric fields used in communication, navigation, predation, or defense. We have examined the genomic basis of the convergent anatomical and physiological origins of these organs by assembling the genome of the electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) and sequencing electric organ and skeletal muscle transcriptomes from three lineages that have independently evolved electric organs. Our results indicate that, despite millions of years of evolution and large differences in the morphology of electric organ cells, independent lineages have leveraged similar transcription factors and developmental and cellular pathways in the evolution of electric organs. PMID:24970089
Gallant, Jason R; Traeger, Lindsay L; Volkening, Jeremy D; Moffett, Howell; Chen, Po-Hao; Novina, Carl D; Phillips, George N; Anand, Rene; Wells, Gregg B; Pinch, Matthew; Güth, Robert; Unguez, Graciela A; Albert, James S; Zakon, Harold H; Samanta, Manoj P; Sussman, Michael R
Nematodes and arthropods are the most speciose animal groups and possess Class 2 B1 G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Existing models of invertebrate Class 2 B1 GPCR evolution are mainly centered on Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster and a few other nematode and arthropod representatives. The present study reevaluates the evolution of metazoan Class 2 B1 GPCRs and orthologues by exploring the receptors in several nematode and arthropod genomes and comparing them to the human receptors. Three novel receptor phylogenetic clusters were identified and designated cluster A, cluster B and PDF-R-related cluster. Clusters A and B were identified in several nematode and arthropod genomes but were absent from D. melanogaster and Culicidae genomes, whereas the majority of the members of the PDF-R-related cluster were from nematodes. Cluster A receptors were nematode and arthropod-specific but shared a conserved gene environment with human receptor loci. Cluster B members were orthologous to human GCGR, PTHR and Secretin members with which they probably shared a common origin. PDF-R and PDF-R related clusters were present in representatives of both nematodes and arthropods. The results of comparative analysis of GPCR evolution and diversity in protostomes confirm previous notions that C. elegans and D. melanogaster genomes are not good representatives of nematode and arthropod phyla. We hypothesize that at least four ancestral Class 2 B1 genes emerged early in the metazoan radiation, which after the protostome-deuterostome split underwent distinct selective pressures that resulted in duplication and deletion events that originated the current Class 2 B1 GPCRs in nematode and arthropod genomes. PMID:24651821
Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Power, Deborah M
Using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation approach to study genomes of length L, we obtain 1/ L corrections for the steady state population distributions and mean fitness functions for horizontal gene transfer model, as well as for the diploid evolution model with general fitness landscapes. Our numerical solutions confirm the obtained analytic equations. Our method could be applied to the general case of nonlinear Markov models.
Kirakosyan, Zara; Saakian, David B.; Hu, Chin-Kun
A review of the modern data concerning the phenotypical and genetic peculiarities of the recently emerged highly virulent\\u000a variants of V. cholerae El-Tor biovar (the etiological agent of the current cholera pandemic) is presented. The molecular-genetic mechanisms that\\u000a are considered to be a basis for V. cholerae genome evolution during the modern period are discussed. The transposon role in the
N. I. Smirnova; A. A. Goryaev; V. V. Kutyrev
An important challenge is to develop absolute time calibrations for molecular-level evolutionary processes. This is especially difficult for free-living microorganisms, which lack an interpretable fossil record. Absolute rates of genome change would enable connection of (for example) environmental perturbations documented in the geologic record to organismal responses. Thus, the stimuli for speciation and mechanisms of speciation could be directly linked. It may be possible to apply comprehensive environmental genomic studies in carefully chosen geological settings in order to tackle this problem. For example, Tyson et al. (2004) assembled sequence data from a low diversity biofilm community from an acidic ecosystem to reconstruct near complete and partial genomes for the dominant strain populations. As sequence data from many individuals were assembled into each composite genome, the dataset provides information about strain-level diversity. Ongoing growth in sequencing capability makes application of this approach to increasingly complex ecosystems feasible. Comparisons among groups of genomes from organisms separated by different evolutionary distances can reveal information about the relative rates at which different forms of genomic change occur. For example, the number of changes in gene content and gene order in the genomes of members of a strain population may be small, but the placement and types of mobile constituents (e.g., transposases and prophage) may differ significantly. Each type of genome change can be quantified (e.g., number of nucleotide polymorphisms, amino acid changes, gene duplications, gene loss/gain, gene order shuffling). These data also can be collected for organisms from the same lineage that diverged earlier (e.g., for species or genera). Statistics for each type of genome change yield semi-independent measures of evolutionary distance or relative rates of genomic change. Absolute time calibration is all that is needed to convert these data to real rates. Genomic studies could be carried out in geologic systems for which a date of onset of an environmental change conducive to colonization (e.g., the appearance of a hot spring or onset of acidification) can be determined. If it is assumed that at many of the current microorganisms descended from the colonists, then evolutionary rates can be estimated. Such analyses could be conducted at multiple sites of the same type to verify findings. Comparisons involving geographically separated sites would also provide information about the rates and pathways of microbial dispersal. The coupling of genomics with geochronology appears to be a logical extension of palaeontological studies, and should advance understanding of biological evolution over Earth history.
The eukaryotic microbes known as oomycetes are common inhabitants of terrestrial and aquatic environments and include saprophytes and pathogens. Lifestyles of the pathogens extend from biotrophy to necrotrophy, obligate to facultative pathogenesis, and narrow to broad host ranges on plants or animals. Sequencing of several pathogens has revealed striking variation in genome size and content, a plastic set of genes related to pathogenesis, and adaptations associated with obligate biotrophy. Features of genome evolution include repeat-driven expansions, deletions, gene fusions, and horizontal gene transfer in a landscape organized into gene-dense and gene-sparse sectors and influenced by transposable elements. Gene expression profiles are also highly dynamic throughout oomycete life cycles, with transcriptional polymorphisms as well as differences in protein sequence contributing to variation. The genome projects have set the foundation for functional studies and should spur the sequencing of additional species, including more diverse pathogens and nonpathogens.
Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections. Objectives: To investigate relationships between rhinovirus infection and bacterial infection and the role of antimicrobial peptides in COPD exacerbations. Methods: We infected subjects with moderate COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function with rhinovirus. Induced sputum was collected before and repeatedly after rhinovirus infection and virus and bacterial loads measured with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and culture. The antimicrobial peptides secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), elafin, pentraxin, LL-37, ?-defensins and ?-defensin-2, and the protease neutrophil elastase were measured in sputum supernatants. Measurements and Main Results: After rhinovirus infection, secondary bacterial infection was detected in 60% of subjects with COPD, 9.5% of smokers, and 10% of nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Sputum virus load peaked on Days 5–9 and bacterial load on Day 15. Sputum neutrophil elastase was significantly increased and SLPI and elafin significantly reduced after rhinovirus infection exclusively in subjects with COPD with secondary bacterial infections, and SLPI and elafin levels correlated inversely with bacterial load. Conclusions: Rhinovirus infections are frequently followed by secondary bacterial infections in COPD and cleavage of the antimicrobial peptides SLPI and elafin by virus-induced neutrophil elastase may precipitate these secondary bacterial infections. Therapy targeting neutrophil elastase or enhancing innate immunity may be useful novel therapies for prevention of secondary bacterial infections in virus-induced COPD exacerbations.
Mallia, Patrick; Footitt, Joseph; Sotero, Rosa; Jepson, Annette; Contoli, Marco; Trujillo-Torralbo, Maria-Belen; Kebadze, Tatiana; Aniscenko, Julia; Oleszkiewicz, Gregory; Gray, Katrina; Message, Simon D.; Ito, Kazuhiro; Barnes, Peter J.; Adcock, Ian M.; Papi, Alberto; Stanciu, Luminita A.; Elkin, Sarah L.; Kon, Onn M.; Johnson, Malcolm
One-step, real-time PCR assays for rhinovirus have been developed for a limited number of PCR amplification platforms and chemistries, and some exhibit cross-reactivity with genetically similar enteroviruses. We developed a one-step, real-time PCR assay for rhinovirus by using a sequence detection system (Applied Biosystems; Foster City, CA). The primers were designed to amplify a 120-base target in the noncoding region of picornavirus RNA, and a TaqMan (Applied Biosystems) degenerate probe was designed for the specific detection of rhinovirus amplicons. The PCR assay had no cross-reactivity with a panel of 76 nontarget nucleic acids, which included RNAs from 43 enterovirus strains. Excellent lower limits of detection relative to viral culture were observed for the PCR assay by using 38 of 40 rhinovirus reference strains representing different serotypes, which could reproducibly detect rhinovirus serotype 2 in viral transport medium containing 10 to 10,000 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose endpoint) units/ml of the virus. However, for rhinovirus serotypes 59 and 69, the PCR assay was less sensitive than culture. Testing of 48 clinical specimens from children with cold-like illnesses for rhinovirus by the PCR and culture assays yielded detection rates of 16.7% and 6.3%, respectively. For a batch of 10 specimens, the entire assay was completed in 4.5 hours. This real-time PCR assay enables detection of many rhinovirus serotypes with the Applied Biosystems reagent-instrument platform.
Do, Duc H.; Laus, Stella; Leber, Amy; Marcon, Mario J.; Jordan, Jeanne A.; Martin, Judith M.; Wadowsky, Robert M.
To assess whether infants hospitalized after an apparently life-threatening event had an associated respiratory virus infection, we analyzed nasopharyngeal aspirates from 16 patients. Nine of 11 infants with positive virus results were infected by rhinoviruses. We detected the new genogroup of rhinovirus C in 6 aspirates.
Garcia, M. Luz; Pozo, Francisco; Reyes, Noelia; Perez-Brena, Pilar; Casas, Inmaculada
Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have been identified in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but no such example has been identified from extracellular ones. Here we first report such a case in stinkbugs of the family Plataspidae, wherein a specific gut bacterium is vertically transmitted via “symbiont capsule.” In all of the plataspid species, females produced symbiont capsules upon oviposition and their gut exhibited specialized traits for capsule production. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the plataspid symbionts constituted a distinct group in the ?-Proteobacteria, whose sister group was the aphid obligate endocellular symbionts Buchnera. Removal of the symbionts resulted in retarded growth, mortality, and sterility of the insects. The host phylogeny perfectly agreed with the symbiont phylogeny, indicating strict host-symbiont cospeciation despite the extracellular association. The symbionts exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition, accelerated molecular evolution, and reduced genome size, as has been observed in obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These findings suggest that not the endocellular conditions themselves but the population genetic attributes of the vertically transmitted symbionts are probably responsible for the peculiar genetic traits of these insect symbionts. We proposed the designation “Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata” for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont associations can be easily manipulated, provide a novel system that enables experimental approaches to previously untouched aspects of the insect-microbe mutualism. Furthermore, comparative analyses of the sister groups, the endocellular Buchnera and the extracellular Ishikawaella, would lead to insights into how the different symbiotic lifestyles have affected their genomic evolution.
Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Nikoh, Naruo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema
Biosynthetic pathway evolution needs to consider the evolution of a group of genes that code for enzymes catalysing the multiple chemical reaction steps leading to the final end product. Tryptophan biosynthetic pathway has five chemical reaction steps that are highly conserved in diverse microbial genomes, though the genes of the pathway enzymes show considerable variations in arrangements, operon structure (gene fusion and splitting) and regulation. We use a combined bioinformatic and statistical analyses approach to address the question if the pathway genes from different microbial genomes, belonging to a wide range of groups, show similar evolutionary relationships within and between them. Our analyses involved detailed study of gene organization (fusion/splitting events), base composition, relative synonymous codon usage pattern of the genes, gene expressivity, amino acid usage, etc. to assess inter- and intra-genic variations, between and within the pathway genes, in diverse group of microorganisms. We describe these genetic and genomic variations in the tryptophan pathway genes in different microorganisms to show the similarities across organisms, and compare the same genes across different organisms to find the possible variability arising possibly due to horizontal gene transfers. Such studies form the basis for moving from single gene evolution to pathway evolutionary studies that are important steps towards understanding the systems biology of intracellular pathways. PMID:24592292
Priya, V K; Sarkar, Susmita; Sinha, Somdatta
Snakes are limbless predators, and many species use venom to help overpower relatively large, agile prey. Snake venoms are complex protein mixtures encoded by several multilocus gene families that function synergistically to cause incapacitation. To examine venom evolution, we sequenced and interrogated the genome of a venomous snake, the king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), and compared it, together with our unique transcriptome, microRNA, and proteome datasets from this species, with data from other vertebrates. In contrast to the platypus, the only other venomous vertebrate with a sequenced genome, we find that snake toxin genes evolve through several distinct co-option mechanisms and exhibit surprisingly variable levels of gene duplication and directional selection that correlate with their functional importance in prey capture. The enigmatic accessory venom gland shows a very different pattern of toxin gene expression from the main venom gland and seems to have recruited toxin-like lectin genes repeatedly for new nontoxic functions. In addition, tissue-specific microRNA analyses suggested the co-option of core genetic regulatory components of the venom secretory system from a pancreatic origin. Although the king cobra is limbless, we recovered coding sequences for all Hox genes involved in amniote limb development, with the exception of Hoxd12. Our results provide a unique view of the origin and evolution of snake venom and reveal multiple genome-level adaptive responses to natural selection in this complex biological weapon system. More generally, they provide insight into mechanisms of protein evolution under strong selection. PMID:24297900
Vonk, Freek J; Casewell, Nicholas R; Henkel, Christiaan V; Heimberg, Alysha M; Jansen, Hans J; McCleary, Ryan J R; Kerkkamp, Harald M E; Vos, Rutger A; Guerreiro, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J; Wüster, Wolfgang; Woods, Anthony E; Logan, Jessica M; Harrison, Robert A; Castoe, Todd A; de Koning, A P Jason; Pollock, David D; Yandell, Mark; Calderon, Diego; Renjifo, Camila; Currier, Rachel B; Salgado, David; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Hyder, Asad S; Ribeiro, José M C; Arntzen, Jan W; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M; Boetzer, Marten; Pirovano, Walter; Dirks, Ron P; Spaink, Herman P; Duboule, Denis; McGlinn, Edwina; Kini, R Manjunatha; Richardson, Michael K
Most current thinking about evolution is couched in the concept of trees. The notion of a tree with recursively bifurcating branches representing recurrent divergence events is a plausible metaphor to describe the evolution of multicellular organisms like vertebrates or land plants. But if we try to force the tree metaphor onto the whole of the evolutionary process, things go badly awry, because the more closely we inspect microbial genomes through the looking glass of gene and genome sequence comparisons, the smaller the amount of the data that fits the concept of a bifurcating tree becomes. That is mainly because among microbes, endosymbiosis and lateral gene transfer are important, two mechanisms of natural variation that differ from the kind of natural variation that Darwin had in mind. For such reasons, when it comes to discussing the relationships among all living things, that is, including the microbes and all of their genes rather than just one or a select few, many biologists are now beginning to talk about networks rather than trees in the context of evolutionary relationships among microbial chromosomes. But talk is not enough. If we were to actually construct networks instead of trees to describe the evolutionary process, what would they look like? Here we consider endosymbiosis and an example of a network of genomes involving 181 sequenced prokaryotes and how that squares off with some ideas about early cell evolution.
Dagan, Tal; Martin, William
Background The Amoebozoa constitute one of the primary divisions of eukaryotes, encompassing taxa of both biomedical and evolutionary importance, yet its genomic diversity remains largely unsampled. Here we present an analysis of a whole genome assembly of Acanthamoeba castellanii (Ac) the first representative from a solitary free-living amoebozoan. Results Ac encodes 15,455 compact intron-rich genes, a significant number of which are predicted to have arisen through inter-kingdom lateral gene transfer (LGT). A majority of the LGT candidates have undergone a substantial degree of intronization and Ac appears to have incorporated them into established transcriptional programs. Ac manifests a complex signaling and cell communication repertoire, including a complete tyrosine kinase signaling toolkit and a comparable diversity of predicted extracellular receptors to that found in the facultatively multicellular dictyostelids. An important environmental host of a diverse range of bacteria and viruses, Ac utilizes a diverse repertoire of predicted pattern recognition receptors, many with predicted orthologous functions in the innate immune systems of higher organisms. Conclusions Our analysis highlights the important role of LGT in the biology of Ac and in the diversification of microbial eukaryotes. The early evolution of a key signaling facility implicated in the evolution of metazoan multicellularity strongly argues for its emergence early in the Unikont lineage. Overall, the availability of an Ac genome should aid in deciphering the biology of the Amoebozoa and facilitate functional genomic studies in this important model organism and environmental host.
Many other human species appeared in evolution in the last 6 million years that have not been able to survive to modern times and are broadly known as archaic humans, as opposed to the extant modern humans. It has always been considered fascinating to compare the modern human genome with that of archaic humans to identify modern human-specific sequence variants and figure out those that made modern humans different from their predecessors or cousin species. Neanderthals are the latest humans to become extinct, and many factors made them the best representatives of archaic humans. Even though a number of comparisons have been made sporadically between Neanderthals and modern humans, mostly following a candidate gene approach, the major breakthrough took place with the sequencing of the Neanderthal genome. The initial genome-wide comparison, based on the first draft of the Neanderthal genome, has generated some interesting inferences regarding variations in functional elements that are not shared by the two species and the debated admixture question. However, there are certain other genetic elements that were not included or included at a smaller scale in those studies, and they should be compared comprehensively to better understand the molecular make-up of modern humans and their phenotypic characteristics. Besides briefly discussing the important outcomes of the comparative analyses made so far between modern humans and Neanderthals, we propose that future comparative studies may include retrotransposons, pseudogenes, and conserved non-coding regions, all of which might have played significant roles during the evolution of modern humans.
Animal mitochondrial genomes usually have two transfer RNAs for leucine: one, with anticodon UAG, translates the four-codon family CUN, while the other, with anticodon UAA, translates the two-codon family UUR. These two genes must differ at the third anticodon position, but in some species the genes differ at many additional sites, indicating that these genes have been independent for a long time. Duplication and deletion of genes in mitochondrial genomes occur frequently during the evolution of the Metazoa. If a tRNA-Leu gene were duplicated and a substitution occurred in the anticodon, this would effectively turn one type of tRNA into the other. The original copy of the second tRNA type might then be lost by a deletion elsewhere in the genome. There are several groups of species in which the two tRNA-Leu genes occur next to one another (or very close) on the genome, which suggests that tandem duplication has occurred. Here we use RNA-specific phylogenetic methods to determine evolutionary trees for both genes. We present evidence that the process of duplication, anticodon mutation, and deletion of tRNA-Leu genes has occurred at least five times during the evolution of the metazoa-once in the common ancestor of all protostomes, once in the common ancestor of echinoderms and hemichordates, once in the hermit crab, and twice independently in mollusks. PMID:14708576
Higgs, Paul G; Jameson, Daniel; Jow, Howsun; Rattray, Magnus
The genome sequence of a second fruit fly, D. pseudoobscura, presents an opportunity for comparative analysis of a primary model organism D. melanogaster. The vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled leading to the identification of approximately 1300 syntenic blocks. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 35 My since divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome wide average consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than control sequences between the species but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a picture of repeat mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high co-adaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila.
Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.; Hradecky, Pavel; Letovsky, Stan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thornton, Kevin; Todd, Melissa J.; Chen, Rui; Meisel, Richard P.; Couronne, Olivier; Hua, Sujun; Smith, Mark A.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Howells, Sally L.; Scherer, Steven E.; Sodergren, Erica; Matthews, Beverly B.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Rives, Catherine M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Havlak, Paul; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Gill, Rachel; Hume, Jennifer; Morgan, Margaret B.; Miner, George; Hamilton, Cerissa; Huang, Yanmei; Waldron, Lenee; Verduzco, Daniel; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Dubchak, Inna; Noor, Mohamed A.F.; Anderson, Wyatt; White, Kevin P.; Clark, Andrew G.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Gelbart, William; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.
Mitochondrial genes in animals are especially useful as molecular markers for the reconstruction of phylogenies among closely related taxa, due to the generally high substitution rates. Several insect orders, notably Hymenoptera and Phthiraptera, show exceptionally high rates of mitochondrial molecular evolution, which has been attributed to the parasitic lifestyle of current or ancestral members of these taxa. Parasitism has been hypothesized to entail frequent population bottlenecks that increase rates of molecular evolution by reducing the efficiency of purifying selection. This effect should result in elevated substitution rates of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, but to date no extensive comparative study has tested this hypothesis in insects. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of a crabronid wasp, the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae), and we use it to compare evolutionary rates among the four largest holometabolous insect orders (Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera) based on phylogenies reconstructed with whole mitochondrial genomes as well as four single-copy nuclear genes (18S rRNA, arginine kinase, wingless, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase). The mt-genome of P. triangulum is 16,029 bp in size with a mean A+T content of 83.6%, and it encodes the 37 genes typically found in arthropod mt genomes (13 protein-coding, 22 tRNA, and two rRNA genes). Five translocations of tRNA genes were discovered relative to the putative ancestral genome arrangement in insects, and the unusual start codon TTG was predicted for cox2. Phylogenetic analyses revealed significantly longer branches leading to the apocritan Hymenoptera as well as the Orussoidea, to a lesser extent the Cephoidea, and, possibly, the Tenthredinoidea than any of the other holometabolous insect orders for all mitochondrial but none of the four nuclear genes tested. Thus, our results suggest that the ancestral parasitic lifestyle of Apocrita is unlikely to be the major cause for the elevated substitution rates observed in hymenopteran mitochondrial genomes.
Kaltenpoth, Martin; Showers Corneli, Patrice; Dunn, Diane M.; Weiss, Robert B.
Whole-genome duplication events (polyploidy events) and gene loss events have played important roles in the evolution of legumes. Here we show that the vast majority of Hsf gene duplications resulted from whole genome duplication events rather than tandem duplication, and significant differences in gene retention exist between species. By searching for intraspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found that genome duplications accounted for 42 of 46 Hsf-containing segments in Glycine max, while paired segments were rarely identified in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan. However, by comparing interspecies microsynteny, we determined that the great majority of Hsf-containing segments in Lotus japonicas, Medicago truncatula and Cajanus cajan show extensive conservation with the duplicated regions of Glycine max. These segments formed 17 groups of orthologous segments. These results suggest that these regions shared ancient genome duplication with Hsf genes in Glycine max, but more than half of the copies of these genes were lost. On the other hand, the Glycine max Hsf gene family retained approximately 75% and 84% of duplicated genes produced from the ancient genome duplication and recent Glycine-specific genome duplication, respectively. Continuous purifying selection has played a key role in the maintenance of Hsf genes in Glycine max. Expression analysis of the Hsf genes in Lotus japonicus revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages and responses to various abiotic stimuli. This study traces the evolution of Hsf genes in legume species and demonstrates that the rates of gene gain and loss are far from equilibrium in different species.
Jin, Jing; Jin, Xiaolei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Cheng, Beijiu
Background Snakes as a major reptile group display a variety of morphological characteristics pertaining to their diverse behaviours. Despite abundant analyses of morphological characters, molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear genes are limited. As a result, the phylogeny of snakes remains controversial. Previous studies on mitochondrial genomes of snakes have demonstrated duplication of the control region and translocation of trnL to be two notable features of the alethinophidian (all serpents except blindsnakes and threadsnakes) mtDNAs. Our purpose is to further investigate the gene organizations, evolution of the snake mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic relationships among several major snake families. Results The mitochondrial genomes were sequenced for four taxa representing four different families, and each had a different gene arrangement. Comparative analyses with other snake mitochondrial genomes allowed us to summarize six types of mitochondrial gene arrangement in snakes. Phylogenetic reconstruction with commonly used methods of phylogenetic inference (BI, ML, MP, NJ) arrived at a similar topology, which was used to reconstruct the evolution of mitochondrial gene arrangements in snakes. Conclusion The phylogenetic relationships among the major families of snakes are in accordance with the mitochondrial genomes in terms of gene arrangements. The gene arrangement in Ramphotyphlops braminus mtDNA is inferred to be ancestral for snakes. After the divergence of the early Ramphotyphlops lineage, three types of rearrangements occurred. These changes involve translocations within the IQM tRNA gene cluster and the duplication of the CR. All phylogenetic methods support the placement of Enhydris plumbea outside of the (Colubridae + Elapidae) cluster, providing mitochondrial genomic evidence for the familial rank of Homalopsidae.
Yan, Jie; Li, Hongdan; Zhou, Kaiya
The main genomic changes in the evolution of host-restricted microbial symbionts are ongoing inactivation and loss of genes combined with rapid sequence evolution and extreme structural stability; these changes reflect high levels of genetic drift due to small population sizes and strict clonality. This genomic erosion includes irreversible loss of genes in many functional categories and can include genes that underlie the nutritional contributions to hosts that are the basis of the symbiotic association. Candidatus Sulcia muelleri is an ancient symbiont of sap-feeding insects and is typically coresident with another bacterial symbiont that varies among host subclades. Previously sequenced Sulcia genomes retain pathways for the same eight essential amino acids, whereas coresident symbionts synthesize the remaining two. Here, we describe a dual symbiotic system consisting of Sulcia and a novel species of Betaproteobacteria, Candidatus Zinderia insecticola, both living in the spittlebug Clastoptera arizonana. This Sulcia has completely lost the pathway for the biosynthesis of tryptophan and, therefore, retains the ability to make only 7 of the 10 essential amino acids. Zinderia has a tiny genome (208 kb) and the most extreme nucleotide base composition (13.5% G + C) reported to date, yet retains the ability to make the remaining three essential amino acids, perfectly complementing capabilities of the coresident Sulcia. Combined with the results from related symbiotic systems with complete genomes, these data demonstrate the critical role that bacterial symbionts play in the host insect’s biology and reveal one outcome following the loss of a critical metabolic activity through genome reduction.
McCutcheon, John P.; Moran, Nancy A.
Background Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggest that rates of molecular evolution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic plant lineages, including sequences from all three genomes, is needed to examine the generality of the relationship between rates of molecular evolution and parasitism in plants. Results We analysed DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast genomes for 12 independent evolutionary origins of parasitism in angiosperms. We demonstrated that parasitic lineages have a faster rate of molecular evolution than their non-parasitic relatives in sequences for all three genomes, for both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Conclusions Our results prove that raised rates of molecular evolution are a general feature of parasitic plants, not confined to a few taxa or specific genes. We discuss possible causes for this relationship, including increased positive selection associated with host-parasite arms races, relaxed selection, reduced population size or repeated bottlenecks, increased mutation rates, and indirect causal links with generation time and body size. We find no evidence that faster rates are due to smaller effective populations sizes or changes in selection pressure. Instead, our results suggest that parasitic plants have a higher mutation rate than their close non-parasitic relatives. This may be due to a direct connection, where some aspect of the parasitic lifestyle drives the evolution of raised mutation rates. Alternatively, this pattern may be driven by an indirect connection between rates and parasitism: for example, parasitic plants tend to be smaller than their non-parasitic relatives, which may result in more cell generations per year, thus a higher rate of mutations arising from DNA copy errors per unit time. Demonstration that adoption of a parasitic lifestyle influences the rate of genomic evolution is relevant to attempts to infer molecular phylogenies of parasitic plants and to estimate their evolutionary divergence times using sequence data.
Duplication of genetic material is clearly a major route to genetic change, with consequences for both evolution and disease. A variety of forms and mechanisms of duplication are recognised, operating across the scales of a few base pairs upto entire genomes. With the ever-increasing amounts of gene and genome sequence data that are becoming available, our understanding of the extent of duplication is greatly improving, both in terms of the scales of duplication events as well as their rates of occurrence. An accurate understanding of these processes is vital if we are to properly understand important events in evolution as well as mechanisms operating at the level of genome organisation. Here we will focus on duplication in animal genomes and how the duplicated sequences are distributed, with the aim of maintaining a focus on principles of evolution and organisation that are most directly applicable to the shaping of our own genome.
Mendivil Ramos, Olivia; Ferrier, David E. K.
Numerous studies of ecological genetics have found that alleles contributing to local adaptation sometimes cluster together, forming “genomic islands of divergence.” Divergence hitchhiking theory posits that these clusters evolve by the preferential establishment of tightly linked locally adapted mutations, because such linkage reduces the rate that recombination breaks up locally favorable combinations of alleles. Here, I use calculations based on previously developed analytical models of divergence hitchhiking to show that very few clustered mutations should be expected in a single bout of adaptation, relative to the number of unlinked mutations, suggesting that divergence hitchhiking theory alone may often be insufficient to explain empirical observations. Using individual-based simulations that allow for the transposition of a single genetic locus from one position on a chromosome to another, I then show that tight clustering of the loci involved in local adaptation tends to evolve on biologically realistic time scales. These results suggest that genomic rearrangements may often be an important component of local adaptation and the evolution of genomic islands of divergence. More generally, these results suggest that genomic architecture and functional neighborhoods of genes may be actively shaped by natural selection in heterogeneous environments. Because small-scale changes in gene order are relatively common in some taxa, comparative genomic studies could be coupled with studies of adaptation to explore how commonly such rearrangements are involved in local adaptation.
Genomics poses challenges that are specific to historians of science. Such challenges are not necessarily met by most recent sociologically-oriented approaches. This paper argues that historians of genomics can draw some lessons from the history of molecular biology, in part because some of the actors, concepts, and tools have made a transition between the two fields. More importantly, historians face the marginalization of scientific fields and actors that played a role in the integration of both ultra-disciplines. While biochemistry and genetics played an underrated role in the rising of molecular biology, research on the molecular evolution of informational molecules (molecular phylogenetics) played a neglected but nevertheless central role in the development of conceptual and analytical bioinformatics tools for genomics. Even today genomic tools incorporate underlying assumptions that show their origins in problems of comparative biology. This is particularly true in the case of the algorithms for sequence alignment, first proposed by Needleman and Wunsch (1970). The present essay also makes reference to areas in the history of science that require further investigation for an understanding of the transformations brought about by genomics to biological research, namely, the role of automation--beyond sequencing--and the intersection of biology and mathematics. PMID:20848807
Mycobacteriophages are viruses that infect mycobacterial hosts such as Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All mycobacteriophages characterized to date are dsDNA tailed phages, and have either siphoviral or myoviral morphotypes. However, their genetic diversity is considerable, and although sixty-two genomes have been sequenced and comparatively analyzed, these likely represent only a small portion of the diversity of the mycobacteriophage population at large. Here we report the isolation, sequencing and comparative genomic analysis of 18 new mycobacteriophages isolated from geographically distinct locations within the United States. Although no clear correlation between location and genome type can be discerned, these genomes expand our knowledge of mycobacteriophage diversity and enhance our understanding of the roles of mobile elements in viral evolution. Expansion of the number of mycobacteriophages grouped within Cluster A provides insights into the basis of immune specificity in these temperate phages, and we also describe a novel example of apparent immunity theft. The isolation and genomic analysis of bacteriophages by freshman college students provides an example of an authentic research experience for novice scientists.
Pope, Welkin H.; Jacobs-Sera, Deborah; Russell, Daniel A.; Peebles, Craig L.; Al-Atrache, Zein; Alcoser, Turi A.; Alexander, Lisa M.; Alfano, Matthew B.; Alford, Samantha T.; Amy, Nichols E.; Anderson, Marie D.; Anderson, Alexander G.; Ang, Andrew A. S.; Ares, Manuel; Barber, Amanda J.; Barker, Lucia P.; Barrett, Jonathan M.; Barshop, William D.; Bauerle, Cynthia M.; Bayles, Ian M.; Belfield, Katherine L.; Best, Aaron A.; Borjon, Agustin; Bowman, Charles A.; Boyer, Christine A.; Bradley, Kevin W.; Bradley, Victoria A.; Broadway, Lauren N.; Budwal, Keshav; Busby, Kayla N.; Campbell, Ian W.; Campbell, Anne M.; Carey, Alyssa; Caruso, Steven M.; Chew, Rebekah D.; Cockburn, Chelsea L.; Cohen, Lianne B.; Corajod, Jeffrey M.; Cresawn, Steven G.; Davis, Kimberly R.; Deng, Lisa; Denver, Dee R.; Dixon, Breyon R.; Ekram, Sahrish; Elgin, Sarah C. R.; Engelsen, Angela E.; English, Belle E. V.; Erb, Marcella L.; Estrada, Crystal; Filliger, Laura Z.; Findley, Ann M.; Forbes, Lauren; Forsyth, Mark H.; Fox, Tyler M.; Fritz, Melissa J.; Garcia, Roberto; George, Zindzi D.; Georges, Anne E.; Gissendanner, Christopher R.; Goff, Shannon; Goldstein, Rebecca; Gordon, Kobie C.; Green, Russell D.; Guerra, Stephanie L.; Guiney-Olsen, Krysta R.; Guiza, Bridget G.; Haghighat, Leila; Hagopian, Garrett V.; Harmon, Catherine J.; Harmson, Jeremy S.; Hartzog, Grant A.; Harvey, Samuel E.; He, Siping; He, Kevin J.; Healy, Kaitlin E.; Higinbotham, Ellen R.; Hildebrandt, Erin N.; Ho, Jason H.; Hogan, Gina M.; Hohenstein, Victoria G.; Holz, Nathan A.; Huang, Vincent J.; Hufford, Ericka L.; Hynes, Peter M.; Jackson, Arrykka S.; Jansen, Erica C.; Jarvik, Jonathan; Jasinto, Paul G.; Jordan, Tuajuanda C.; Kasza, Tomas; Katelyn, Murray A.; Kelsey, Jessica S.; Kerrigan, Larisa A.; Khaw, Daryl; Kim, Junghee; Knutter, Justin Z.; Ko, Ching-Chung; Larkin, Gail V.; Laroche, Jennifer R.; Latif, Asma; Leuba, Kohana D.; Leuba, Sequoia I.; Lewis, Lynn O.; Loesser-Casey, Kathryn E.; Long, Courtney A.; Lopez, A. Javier; Lowery, Nicholas; Lu, Tina Q.; Mac, Victor; Masters, Isaac R.; McCloud, Jazmyn J.; McDonough, Molly J.; Medenbach, Andrew J.; Menon, Anjali; Miller, Rachel; Morgan, Brandon K.; Ng, Patrick C.; Nguyen, Elvis; Nguyen, Katrina T.; Nguyen, Emilie T.; Nicholson, Kaylee M.; Parnell, Lindsay A.; Peirce, Caitlin E.; Perz, Allison M.; Peterson, Luke J.; Pferdehirt, Rachel E.; Philip, Seegren V.; Pogliano, Kit; Pogliano, Joe; Polley, Tamsen; Puopolo, Erica J.; Rabinowitz, Hannah S.; Resiss, Michael J.; Rhyan, Corwin N.; Robinson, Yetta M.; Rodriguez, Lauren L.; Rose, Andrew C.; Rubin, Jeffrey D.; Ruby, Jessica A.; Saha, Margaret S.; Sandoz, James W.; Savitskaya, Judith; Schipper, Dale J.; Schnitzler, Christine E.; Schott, Amanda R.; Segal, J. Bradley; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Sheldon, Kathryn E.; Shepard, Erica M.; Shepardson, Jonathan W.; Shroff, Madav K.; Simmons, Jessica M.; Simms, Erika F.; Simpson, Brandy M.; Sinclair, Kathryn M.; Sjoholm, Robert L.; Slette, Ingrid J.; Spaulding, Blaire C.; Straub, Clark L.; Stukey, Joseph; Sughrue, Trevor; Tang, Tin-Yun; Tatyana, Lyons M.; Taylor, Stephen B.; Taylor, Barbara J.; Temple, Louise M.; Thompson, Jasper V.; Tokarz, Michael P.; Trapani, Stephanie E.; Troum, Alexander P.; Tsay, Jonathan; Tubbs, Anthony T.; Walton, Jillian M.; Wang, Danielle H.; Wang, Hannah; Warner, John R.; Weisser, Emilie G.; Wendler, Samantha C.; Weston-Hafer, Kathleen A.; Whelan, Hilary M.; Williamson, Kurt E.; Willis, Angelica N.; Wirtshafter, Hannah S.; Wong, Theresa W.; Wu, Phillip; Yang, Yun jeong; Yee, Brandon C.; Zaidins, David A.; Zhang, Bo; Zuniga, Melina Y.; Hendrix, Roger W.; Hatfull, Graham F.
Repetitive sequences are a conserved feature of many bacterial genomes. While first reported almost thirty years ago, and frequently exploited for genotyping purposes, little is known about their origin, maintenance, or processes affecting the dynamics of within-genome evolution. Here, beginning with analysis of the diversity and abundance of short oligonucleotide sequences in the genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25, we show that over-represented short sequences define three distinct groups (GI, GII, and GIII) of repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences. Patterns of REP distribution suggest that closely linked REP sequences form a functional replicative unit: REP doublets are over-represented, randomly distributed in extragenic space, and more highly conserved than singlets. In addition, doublets are organized as inverted repeats, which together with intervening spacer sequences are predicted to form hairpin structures in ssDNA or mRNA. We refer to these newly defined entities as REPINs (REP doublets forming hairpins) and identify short reads from population sequencing that reveal putative transposition intermediates. The proximal relationship between GI, GII, and GIII REPINs and specific REP-associated tyrosine transposases (RAYTs), combined with features of the putative transposition intermediate, suggests a mechanism for within-genome dissemination. Analysis of the distribution of REPs in a range of RAYT–containing bacterial genomes, including Escherichia coli K-12 and Nostoc punctiforme, show that REPINs are a widely distributed, but hitherto unrecognized, family of miniature non-autonomous mobile DNA.
Bertels, Frederic; Rainey, Paul B.
Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60?million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1-2 Myr ago, conferred about 30-36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), genetic complexity equalled only by Brassica among sequenced angiosperms. Nascent fibre evolution, before allopolyploidy, is elucidated by comparison of spinnable-fibred Gossypium herbaceum A and non-spinnable Gossypium longicalyx F genomes to one another and the outgroup D genome of non-spinnable Gossypium raimondii. The sequence of a G. hirsutum A(t)D(t) (in which 't' indicates tetraploid) cultivar reveals many non-reciprocal DNA exchanges between subgenomes that may have contributed to phenotypic innovation and/or other emergent properties such as ecological adaptation by polyploids. Most DNA-level novelty in G. hirsutum recombines alleles from the D-genome progenitor native to its New World habitat and the Old World A-genome progenitor in which spinnable fibre evolved. Coordinated expression changes in proximal groups of functionally distinct genes, including a nuclear mitochondrial DNA block, may account for clusters of cotton-fibre quantitative trait loci affecting diverse traits. Opportunities abound for dissecting emergent properties of other polyploids, particularly angiosperms, by comparison to diploid progenitors and outgroups. PMID:23257886
Paterson, Andrew H; Wendel, Jonathan F; Gundlach, Heidrun; Guo, Hui; Jenkins, Jerry; Jin, Dianchuan; Llewellyn, Danny; Showmaker, Kurtis C; Shu, Shengqiang; Udall, Joshua; Yoo, Mi-jeong; Byers, Robert; Chen, Wei; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Duke, Mary V; Gong, Lei; Grimwood, Jane; Grover, Corrinne; Grupp, Kara; Hu, Guanjing; Lee, Tae-ho; Li, Jingping; Lin, Lifeng; Liu, Tao; Marler, Barry S; Page, Justin T; Roberts, Alison W; Romanel, Elisson; Sanders, William S; Szadkowski, Emmanuel; Tan, Xu; Tang, Haibao; Xu, Chunming; Wang, Jinpeng; Wang, Zining; Zhang, Dong; Zhang, Lan; Ashrafi, Hamid; Bedon, Frank; Bowers, John E; Brubaker, Curt L; Chee, Peng W; Das, Sayan; Gingle, Alan R; Haigler, Candace H; Harker, David; Hoffmann, Lucia V; Hovav, Ran; Jones, Donald C; Lemke, Cornelia; Mansoor, Shahid; ur Rahman, Mehboob; Rainville, Lisa N; Rambani, Aditi; Reddy, Umesh K; Rong, Jun-kang; Saranga, Yehoshua; Scheffler, Brian E; Scheffler, Jodi A; Stelly, David M; Triplett, Barbara A; Van Deynze, Allen; Vaslin, Maite F S; Waghmare, Vijay N; Walford, Sally A; Wright, Robert J; Zaki, Essam A; Zhang, Tianzhen; Dennis, Elizabeth S; Mayer, Klaus F X; Peterson, Daniel G; Rokhsar, Daniel S; Wang, Xiyin; Schmutz, Jeremy
Gene families, which encode toxins, are found in many poisonous animals, yet there is limited understanding of their evolution at the nucleotide level. The release of the genome draft sequence for the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis enabled a comprehensive study of a gene family whose neurotoxin products affect voltage-gated sodium channels. All gene family members are clustered in a highly repetitive approximately 30-kb genomic region and encode a single toxin, Nv1. These genes exhibit extreme conservation at the nucleotide level which cannot be explained by purifying selection. This conservation greatly differs from the toxin gene families of other animals (e.g., snakes, scorpions, and cone snails), whose evolution was driven by diversifying selection, thereby generating a high degree of genetic diversity. The low nucleotide diversity at the Nv1 genes is reminiscent of that reported for DNA encoding ribosomal RNA (rDNA) and 2 hsp70 genes from Drosophila, which have evolved via concerted evolution. This evolutionary pattern was experimentally demonstrated in yeast rDNA and was shown to involve unequal crossing-over. Through sequence analysis of toxin genes from multiple N. vectensis populations and 2 other anemone species, Anemonia viridis and Actinia equina, we observed that the toxin genes for each sea anemone species are more similar to one another than to those of other species, suggesting they evolved by manner of concerted evolution. Furthermore, in 2 of the species (A. viridis and A. equina) we found genes that evolved under diversifying selection, suggesting that concerted evolution and accelerated evolution may occur simultaneously. PMID:18222944
Moran, Yehu; Weinberger, Hagar; Sullivan, James C; Reitzel, Adam M; Finnerty, John R; Gurevitz, Michael
Background Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences present in the genomes of most organisms. They have been extensively studied in animals, fungi, and plants, and have been shown to have important functions in genome dynamics and species evolution. Recent genomic data can now enlarge the identification and study of TEs to other branches of the eukaryotic tree of life. Diatoms, which belong to the heterokont group, are unicellular eukaryotic algae responsible for around 40% of marine primary productivity. The genomes of a centric diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and a pennate diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that likely diverged around 90 Mya, have recently become available. Results In the present work, we establish that LTR retrotransposons (LTR-RTs) are the most abundant TEs inhabiting these genomes, with a much higher presence in the P. tricornutum genome. We show that the LTR-RTs found in diatoms form two new phylogenetic lineages that appear to be diatom specific and are also found in environmental samples taken from different oceans. Comparative expression analysis in P. tricornutum cells cultured under 16 different conditions demonstrate high levels of transcriptional activity of LTR retrotransposons in response to nitrate limitation and upon exposure to diatom-derived reactive aldehydes, which are known to induce stress responses and cell death. Regulatory aspects of P. tricornutum retrotransposon transcription also include the occurrence of nitrate limitation sensitive cis-regulatory components within LTR elements and cytosine methylation dynamics. Differential insertion patterns in different P. tricornutum accessions isolated from around the world infer the role of LTR-RTs in generating intraspecific genetic variability. Conclusion Based on these findings we propose that LTR-RTs may have been important for promoting genome rearrangements in diatoms.
Background The phylogenetic position of the Protura, traditionally considered the most basal hexapod group, is disputed because it has many unique morphological characters compared with other hexapods. Although mitochondrial genome information has been used extensively in phylogenetic studies, such information is not available for the Protura. This has impeded phylogenetic studies on this taxon, as well as the evolution of the arthropod mitochondrial genome. Results In this study, the mitochondrial genome of Sinentomon erythranum was sequenced, as the first proturan species to be reported. The genome contains a number of special features that differ from those of other hexapods and arthropods. As a very small arthropod mitochondrial genome, its 14,491 nucleotides encode 37 typical mitochondrial genes. Compared with other metazoan mtDNA, it has the most biased nucleotide composition with T = 52.4%, an extreme and reversed AT-skew of -0.351 and a GC-skew of 0.350. Two tandemly repeated regions occur in the A+T-rich region, and both could form stable stem-loop structures. Eighteen of the 22 tRNAs are greatly reduced in size with truncated secondary structures. The gene order is novel among available arthropod mitochondrial genomes. Rearrangements have involved in not only small tRNA genes, but also PCGs (protein-coding genes) and ribosome RNA genes. A large block of genes has experienced inversion and another nearby block has been reshuffled, which can be explained by the tandem duplication and random loss model. The most remarkable finding is that trnL2(UUR) is not located between cox1 and cox2 as observed in most hexapod and crustacean groups, but is between rrnL and nad1 as in the ancestral arthropod ground pattern. The "cox1-cox2" pattern was further confirmed in three more representative proturan species. The phylogenetic analyses based on the amino acid sequences of 13 mitochondrial PCGs suggest S. erythranum failed to group with other hexapod groups. Conclusions The mitochondrial genome of S. erythranum shows many different features from other hexapod and arthropod mitochondrial genomes. It underwent highly divergent evolution. The "cox1-cox2" pattern probably represents the ancestral state for all proturan mitogenomes, and suggests a long evolutionary history for the Protura.
Shewanella halifaxensis and Shewanella sediminis were among a few aquatic gamma-proteobacteria that were psychrophiles and the first anaerobic bacteria that degraded hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Although many mesophilic or psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and gamma-proteobacteria were sequenced for their genomes, the genomic evolution pathways for temperature adaptation were poorly understood. On the other hand, the genes responsible for anaerobic RDX mineralization pathways remain unknown. To determine the unique genomic properties of bacteria responsible for both cold-adaptation and RDX degradation, the genomes of S. halifaxensis and S. sediminis were sequenced and compared with 108 other gamma-proteobacteria including Shewanella that differ in temperature and Na+ requirements, as well as RDX degradation capability. Results showed that for coping with marine environments their genomes had extensively exchanged with deep sea bacterial genomes. Many genes for Na+-dependent nutrient transporters were recruited to use the high Na+ content as an energy source. For coping with low temperatures, these two strains as well as other psychrophilic strains of Shewanella and gamma-proteobacteria were found to decrease their genome G+C content and proteome alanine, proline and arginine content (p-value <0.01) to increase protein structural flexibility. Compared to poorer RDX-degrading strains, S. halifaxensis and S. sediminis have more number of genes for cytochromes and other enzymes related to RDX metabolic pathways. Experimentally, one cytochrome was found induced in S. halifaxensis by RDX when the chemical was the sole terminal electron acceptor. The isolated protein degraded RDX by mono-denitration and was identified as a multiheme 52 kDa cytochrome using a proteomic approach. The present analyses provided the first insight into divergent genomic evolution of bacterial strains for adaptation to the specific cold marine conditions and to the degradation of the pollutant RDX. The present study also provided the first evidence for the involvement of a specific c-type cytochrome in anaerobic RDX metabolism. PMID:20174598
Zhao, Jian-Shen; Deng, Yinghai; Manno, Dominic; Hawari, Jalal
As an obligate step for picornaviruses to replicate their genome, the small viral peptide VPg must first be specifically conjugated with uridine nucleotides at a conserved tyrosine hydroxyl group. The resulting VPg-pUpU serves as the primer for genome replication. The uridylylation reaction requires the coordinated activity of many components, including the viral polymerase, a conserved internal RNA stem loop structure, and additional viral proteins. Formation of this complex and the resulting conjugation reaction catalyzed by the polymerase, offers a number of biochemical targets for inhibition of an essential process in the viral life cycle. Therefore, an assay recapitulating uridylylation would provide multiple opportunities for discovering potential antiviral agents. Our goal was to identify inhibitors of human rhinovirus (HRV) VPg uridylylation, which might ultimately be useful to reduce or prevent HRV-induced lower airway immunologic inflammatory responses, a major cause of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. We have reconstituted the complex uridylylation reaction in an AlphaScreen suitable for high-throughput screening, in which a rabbit polyclonal antiserum specific for uridylylated VPg serves as a key reagent. Assay results were validated by quantitative mass spectrometric detection of uridylylation. PMID:23813021
Gingras, Rock; Mekhssian, Kevork; Fenwick, Craig; White, Peter W; Thibeault, Diane
To maintain normal physiological functions, different tissues may have different developmental constraints on expressed genes. Consequently, the evolutionary tolerance for genomic evolution varies among tissues. Here, we formulate this argument as a "tissue-driven hypothesis" based on the stabilizing selection model. Moreover, several predicted genomic correlations are tested by the human-mouse microarray data. Our results are as follows. First, between the human and mouse, we have elaborated the among-tissue covariation between tissue expression distance (E(ti)) and tissue sequence distance (D(ti)). This highly significant E(ti) - D(ti) correlation emerges when the expression divergence and protein sequence divergence are under the same tissue constraints. Second, the tissue-driven hypothesis further explains the observed significant correlation between the tissue expression distance (between the human and mouse) and the duplicate tissue distance (T(dup)) between human (or mouse) paralogous genes. In other words, between-duplicate and interspecies expression divergences covary among tissues. Third, for genes with the same expression broadness, we found that genes expressed in more stringent tissues (e.g., neurorelated) generally tend to evolve more slowly than those in more relaxed tissues (e.g., hormone-related). We conclude that tissue factors should be considered as an important component in shaping the pattern of genomic evolution and correlations. PMID:17301236
Gu, Xun; Su, Zhixi
The spread of multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains in the clinical environment has begun to pose serious limits to treatment options. Yet virtually nothing is known about how resistance traits are acquired in vivo. Here, we apply the power of whole-genome sequencing to identify steps in the evolution of multidrug resistance in isogenic S. aureus isolates recovered periodically from the bloodstream of a patient undergoing chemotherapy with vancomycin and other antibiotics. After extensive therapy, the bacterium developed resistance, and treatment failed. Sequencing the first vancomycin susceptible isolate and the last vancomycin nonsusceptible isolate identified genome wide only 35 point mutations in 31 loci. These mutations appeared in a sequential order in isolates that were recovered at intermittent times during chemotherapy in parallel with increasing levels of resistance. The vancomycin nonsusceptible isolates also showed a 100-fold decrease in susceptibility to daptomycin, although this antibiotic was not used in the therapy. One of the mutated loci associated with decreasing vancomycin susceptibility (the vraR operon) was found to also carry mutations in six additional vancomycin nonsusceptible S. aureus isolates belonging to different genetic backgrounds and recovered from different geographic sites. As costs drop, whole-genome sequencing will become a useful tool in elucidating complex pathways of in vivo evolution in bacterial pathogens.
Mwangi, Michael M.; Wu, Shang Wei; Zhou, Yanjiao; Sieradzki, Krzysztof; de Lencastre, Herminia; Richardson, Paul; Bruce, David; Rubin, Edward; Myers, Eugene; Siggia, Eric D.; Tomasz, Alexander
Background Snake mitochondrial genomes are of great interest in understanding mitogenomic evolution because of gene duplications and rearrangements and the fast evolutionary rate of their genes compared to other vertebrates. Mitochondrial gene sequences have also played an important role in attempts to resolve the contentious phylogenetic relationships of especially the early divergences among alethinophidian snakes. Two recent innovative studies found dramatic gene- and branch-specific relative acceleration in snake protein-coding gene evolution, particularly along internal branches leading to Serpentes and Alethinophidia. It has been hypothesized that some of these rate shifts are temporally (and possibly causally) associated with control region duplication and/or major changes in ecology and anatomy. Results The near-complete mitochondrial (mt) genomes of three henophidian snakes were sequenced: Anilius scytale, Rhinophis philippinus, and Charina trivirgata. All three genomes share a duplicated control region and translocated tRNALEU, derived features found in all alethinophidian snakes studied to date. The new sequence data were aligned with mt genome data for 21 other species of snakes and used in phylogenetic analyses. Phylogenetic results agreed with many other studies in recovering several robust clades, including Colubroidea, Caenophidia, and Cylindrophiidae+Uropeltidae. Nodes within Henophidia that have been difficult to resolve robustly in previous analyses remained uncompellingly resolved here. Comparisons of relative rates of evolution of rRNA vs. protein-coding genes were conducted by estimating branch lengths across the tree. Our expanded sampling revealed dramatic acceleration along the branch leading to Typhlopidae, particularly long rRNA terminal branches within Scolecophidia, and that most of the dramatic acceleration in protein-coding gene rate along Serpentes and Alethinophidia branches occurred before Anilius diverged from other alethinophidians. Conclusions Mitochondrial gene sequence data alone may not be able to robustly resolve basal divergences among alethinophidian snakes. Taxon sampling plays an important role in identifying mitogenomic evolutionary events within snakes, and in testing hypotheses explaining their origin. Dramatic rate shifts in mitogenomic evolution occur within Scolecophidia as well as Alethinophidia, thus falsifying the hypothesis that these shifts in snakes are associated exclusively with evolution of a non-burrowing lifestyle, macrostomatan feeding ecology and/or duplication of the control region, both restricted to alethinophidians among living snakes.
Rhinoviruses are the most common causes of viral respiratory infections and complications caused by viral respiratory infections in patients with underlying lung disease. Major recent therapeutic advances include the development of capsid-function inhibitors (pleconaril), inhibitors of 3C protease (AG7088), and recombinant soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, all of which exhibit potent antirhinoviral activity in vitro and varying activity in clinical trials. Pleconaril and AG7088 have shown the most promise and are the most advanced in clinical trials. PMID:11764773
McKinlay, M A
The whole genome analysis of two strains of the first intermediately pathogenic leptospiral species to be sequenced (Leptospira licerasiae strains VAR010 and MMD0835) provides insight into their pathogenic potential and deepens our understanding of leptospiral evolution. Comparative analysis of eight leptospiral genomes shows the existence of a core leptospiral genome comprising 1547 genes and 452 conserved genes restricted to infectious species (including L. licerasiae) that are likely to be pathogenicity-related. Comparisons of the functional content of the genomes suggests that L. licerasiae retains several proteins related to nitrogen, amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism which might help to explain why these Leptospira grow well in artificial media compared with pathogenic species. L. licerasiae strains VAR010T and MMD0835 possess two prophage elements. While one element is circular and shares homology with LE1 of L. biflexa, the second is cryptic and homologous to a previously identified but unnamed region in L. interrogans serovars Copenhageni and Lai. We also report a unique O-antigen locus in L. licerasiae comprised of a 6-gene cluster that is unexpectedly short compared with L. interrogans in which analogous regions may include >90 such genes. Sequence homology searches suggest that these genes were acquired by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Furthermore, seven putative genomic islands ranging in size from 5 to 36 kb are present also suggestive of antecedent LGT. How Leptospira become naturally competent remains to be determined, but considering the phylogenetic origins of the genes comprising the O-antigen cluster and other putative laterally transferred genes, L. licerasiae must be able to exchange genetic material with non-invasive environmental bacteria. The data presented here demonstrate that L. licerasiae is genetically more closely related to pathogenic than to saprophytic Leptospira and provide insight into the genomic bases for its infectiousness and its unique antigenic characteristics.
Selengut, Jeremy D.; Harkins, Derek M.; Patra, Kailash P.; Moreno, Angelo; Lehmann, Jason S.; Purushe, Janaki; Sanka, Ravi; Torres, Michael; Webster, Nicholas J.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Matthias, Michael A.
Background Escherichia coli is an important species of bacteria that can live as a harmless inhabitant of the guts of many animals, as a pathogen causing life-threatening conditions or freely in the non-host environment. This diversity of lifestyles has made it a particular focus of interest for studies of genetic variation, mainly with the aim to understand how a commensal can become a deadly pathogen. Many whole genomes of E. coli have been fully sequenced in the past few years, which offer helpful data to help understand how this important species evolved. Results We compared 27 whole genomes encompassing four phylogroups of Escherichia coli (A, B1, B2 and E). From the core-genome we established the clonal relationships between the isolates as well as the role played by homologous recombination during their evolution from a common ancestor. We found strong evidence for sexual isolation between three lineages (A+B1, B2, E), which could be explained by the ecological structuring of E. coli and may represent on-going speciation. We identified three hotspots of homologous recombination, one of which had not been previously described and contains the aroC gene, involved in the essential shikimate metabolic pathway. We also described the role played by non-homologous recombination in the pan-genome, and showed that this process was highly heterogeneous. Our analyses revealed in particular that the genomes of three enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) strains within phylogroup B1 have converged from originally separate backgrounds as a result of both homologous and non-homologous recombination. Conclusions Recombination is an important force shaping the genomic evolution and diversification of E. coli, both by replacing fragments of genes with an homologous sequence and also by introducing new genes. In this study, several non-random patterns of these events were identified which correlated with important changes in the lifestyle of the bacteria, and therefore provide additional evidence to explain the relationship between genomic variation and ecological adaptation.
Plant mitochondrial genomes are notorious for their large and variable size, nonconserved open reading frames of unknown function, and high rates of rearrangement. Paradoxically, the mutation rates are very low. However, mutation rates can only be measured in sequences that can be aligned—a very small part of plant mitochondrial genomes. Comparison of the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana allows the alignment of noncoding as well as coding DNA and estimation of the mutation rates in both. A recent chimeric duplication is also analyzed. A hypothesis is proposed that the mechanisms of plant mitochondrial DNA repair account for these features and includes different mechanisms in transcribed and nontranscribed regions. Within genes, a bias toward gene conversion would keep measured mutation rates low, whereas in noncoding regions, break-induced replication (BIR) explains the expansion and rearrangements. Both processes are types of double-strand break repair, but enhanced second-strand capture in transcribed regions versus BIR in nontranscribed regions can explain the two seemingly contradictory features of plant mitochondrial genome evolution—the low mutation rates in genes and the striking expansions of noncoding sequences.
Christensen, Alan C.
As top predators, falcons possess unique morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations that allow them to be successful hunters: for example, the peregrine is renowned as the world's fastest animal. To examine the evolutionary basis of predatory adaptations, we sequenced the genomes of both the peregrine (Falco peregrinus) and saker falcon (Falco cherrug), and we present parallel, genome-wide evidence for evolutionary innovation and selection for a predatory lifestyle. The genomes, assembled using Illumina deep sequencing with greater than 100-fold coverage, are both approximately 1.2 Gb in length, with transcriptome-assisted prediction of approximately 16,200 genes for both species. Analysis of 8,424 orthologs in both falcons, chicken, zebra finch and turkey identified consistent evidence for genome-wide rapid evolution in these raptors. SNP-based inference showed contrasting recent demographic trajectories for the two falcons, and gene-based analysis highlighted falcon-specific evolutionary novelties for beak development and olfaction and specifically for homeostasis-related genes in the arid environment-adapted saker. PMID:23525076
Zhan, Xiangjiang; Pan, Shengkai; Wang, Junyi; Dixon, Andrew; He, Jing; Muller, Margit G; Ni, Peixiang; Hu, Li; Liu, Yuan; Hou, Haolong; Chen, Yuanping; Xia, Jinquan; Luo, Qiong; Xu, Pengwei; Chen, Ying; Liao, Shengguang; Cao, Changchang; Gao, Shukun; Wang, Zhaobao; Yue, Zhen; Li, Guoqing; Yin, Ye; Fox, Nick C; Wang, Jun; Bruford, Michael W
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are the most common solid malignancy in young adult men, but the genes and genomic regions involved in their etiology are not fully defined. We report here an investigation of DNA copy number changes in GCTs using 1 Mb BAC arrays. As expected, 12p gain was the defining genomic alteration, occurring in 72/74 GCTs. Parallel expression profiling of these tumors identified potential oncogenes from gained regions (LYN and RAB25) and potential tumor suppressor genes in regions of loss (SYNPO2, TTC12, IGSF4, and EPB41L3). Notably, we observed specific genomic alterations associated with histology, including gain of 17p11.2-q21.32 and loss of 2p25.3 in embryonal carcinoma, gain of 8p23.3-12 and loss of 5p15.33-35.3, 11q23.1-25, and 13q12.11-34 in seminoma, and gain of 1q31.3-42.3, 3p, 14q11.2-32.33, and 20q and loss of 8q11.1-23.1 in yolk sac tumors (YST). Many significant genes that mapped to these regions had previously been associated with specific histologies, such as EOMES (chr3) and BMP2 (chr20) in YST and SPRY2 (chr13) and SOX17 (chr8) in seminomas. Additionally, our results suggest a model in which histologic differentiation of GCTs may drive genomic evolution. PMID:17943972
Korkola, J E; Heck, S; Olshen, A B; Reuter, V E; Bosl, G J; Houldsworth, J; Chaganti, R S K
For 10,000?years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ?1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model. PMID:23151582
Groenen, Martien A M; Archibald, Alan L; Uenishi, Hirohide; Tuggle, Christopher K; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Rothschild, Max F; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Park, Chankyu; Milan, Denis; Megens, Hendrik-Jan; Li, Shengting; Larkin, Denis M; Kim, Heebal; Frantz, Laurent A F; Caccamo, Mario; Ahn, Hyeonju; Aken, Bronwen L; Anselmo, Anna; Anthon, Christian; Auvil, Loretta; Badaoui, Bouabid; Beattie, Craig W; Bendixen, Christian; Berman, Daniel; Blecha, Frank; Blomberg, Jonas; Bolund, Lars; Bosse, Mirte; Botti, Sara; Bujie, Zhan; Bystrom, Megan; Capitanu, Boris; Carvalho-Silva, Denise; Chardon, Patrick; Chen, Celine; Cheng, Ryan; Choi, Sang-Haeng; Chow, William; Clark, Richard C; Clee, Christopher; Crooijmans, Richard P M A; Dawson, Harry D; Dehais, Patrice; De Sapio, Fioravante; Dibbits, Bert; Drou, Nizar; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Eversole, Kellye; Fadista, João; Fairley, Susan; Faraut, Thomas; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Fowler, Katie E; Fredholm, Merete; Fritz, Eric; Gilbert, James G R; Giuffra, Elisabetta; Gorodkin, Jan; Griffin, Darren K; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hayward, Alexander; Howe, Kerstin; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Humphray, Sean J; Hunt, Toby; Hornshøj, Henrik; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Jern, Patric; Jones, Matthew; Jurka, Jerzy; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kapetanovic, Ronan; Kim, Jaebum; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Larson, Greger; Lee, Kyooyeol; Lee, Kyung-Tai; Leggett, Richard; Lewin, Harris A; Li, Yingrui; Liu, Wansheng; Loveland, Jane E; Lu, Yao; Lunney, Joan K; Ma, Jian; Madsen, Ole; Mann, Katherine; Matthews, Lucy; McLaren, Stuart; Morozumi, Takeya; Murtaugh, Michael P; Narayan, Jitendra; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Ni, Peixiang; Oh, Song-Jung; Onteru, Suneel; Panitz, Frank; Park, Eung-Woo; Park, Hong-Seog; Pascal, Geraldine; Paudel, Yogesh; Perez-Enciso, Miguel; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Reecy, James M; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra; Rohrer, Gary A; Rund, Lauretta; Sang, Yongming; Schachtschneider, Kyle; Schraiber, Joshua G; Schwartz, John; Scobie, Linda; Scott, Carol; Searle, Stephen; Servin, Bertrand; Southey, Bruce R; Sperber, Goran; Stadler, Peter; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Tafer, Hakim; Thomsen, Bo; Wali, Rashmi; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun; White, Simon; Xu, Xun; Yerle, Martine; Zhang, Guojie; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Shuhong; Rogers, Jane; Churcher, Carol; Schook, Lawrence B
Reasons for the rising clinical impact of the bacterium Enterococcus faecium include the species’ rapid acquisition of adaptive genetic elements. Here, we focused on the impact of recombination on the evolution of E. faecium. We used the recently developed BratNextGen algorithm to detect recombinant regions in the core genome of 34 E. faecium strains, including three newly sequenced clinical strains. Recombination was found to have a significant impact on the E. faecium genome: of the original 1.2 million positions in the core genome, 0.5 million were predicted to have been affected by recombination in at least one strain. Importantly, strains in one of the two major E. faecium clades (clade B), which contains most of the E. faecium human gut commensals, formed the most important reservoir for donating foreign DNA to the second major E. faecium clade (clade A), which contains most of the clinical isolates. Also, several genomic regions were found to mainly recombine in specific hospital-associated E. faecium strains. One of these regions (the epa-like locus) likely encodes the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides. These findings suggest a crucial role for recombination in the emergence of E. faecium as a successful hospital-associated pathogen.
de Been, Mark; van Schaik, Willem; Cheng, Lu; Corander, Jukka; Willems, Rob J.
The key genes required for Bacillus anthracis to cause anthrax have been acquired recently by horizontal gene transfer. To understand the genetic background for the evolution of B. anthracis virulence, we obtained high-redundancy genome sequences of 45 strains of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato (s.l.) species that were chosen for their genetic diversity within the species based on the existing multilocus sequence typing scheme. From the resulting data, we called more than 324,000 new genes representing more than 12,333 new gene families for this group. The core genome size for the B. cereus s.l. group was ?1750 genes, with another 2150 genes found in almost every genome constituting the extended core. There was a paucity of genes specific and conserved in any clade. We found no evidence of recent large-scale gene loss in B. anthracis or for unusual accumulation of nonsynonymous DNA substitutions in the chromosome; however, several B. cereus genomes isolated from soil and not previously associated with human disease were degraded to various degrees. Although B. anthracis has undergone an ecological shift within the species, its chromosome does not appear to be exceptional on a macroscopic scale compared with close relatives.
Zwick, Michael E.; Joseph, Sandeep J.; Didelot, Xavier; Chen, Peter E.; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Willner, Kristin; Nolan, Nichole; Lentz, Shannon; Thomason, Maureen K.; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga; Mateczun, Alfred J.; Du, Lei; Read, Timothy D.
The ascomycete fungus Beauveria bassiana is a pathogen of hundreds of insect species and is commercially produced as an environmentally friendly mycoinsecticide. We sequenced the genome of B. bassiana and a phylogenomic analysis confirmed that ascomycete entomopathogenicity is polyphyletic, but also revealed convergent evolution to insect pathogenicity. We also found many species-specific virulence genes and gene family expansions and contractions that correlate with host ranges and pathogenic strategies. These include B. bassiana having many more bacterial-like toxins (suggesting an unsuspected potential for oral toxicity) and effector-type proteins. The genome also revealed that B. bassiana resembles the closely related Cordyceps militaris in being heterothallic, although its sexual stage is rarely observed. A high throughput RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis revealed that B. bassiana could sense and adapt to different environmental niches by activating well-defined gene sets. The information from this study will facilitate further development of B. bassiana as a cost-effective mycoinsecticide. PMID:22761991
Xiao, Guohua; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Zheng, Peng; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Zhang, Siwei; Xie, Xue-Qin; Shang, Yanfang; St Leger, Raymond J; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Wang, Chengshu; Feng, Ming-Guang
Mammalian Prdm9 has been proposed to be a key determinant of the positioning of chromosome double-strand breaks during meiosis, a contributor to speciation processes, and the most rapidly evolving gene in human, and other animal, genomes. Prdm9 genes often exhibit substantial variation in their numbers of encoded zinc fingers (ZFs), not only between closely related species but also among individuals of a species. The near-identity of these ZF sequences appears to render them very unstable in copy number. The rare sequence differences, however, cluster within ZF sites that determine the DNA-binding specificity of PRDM9, and these substitutions are frequently positively selected. Here, possible drivers of the rapid evolution of Prdm9 are discussed, including selection for efficient pairing of homologous chromosomes or for recombination of deleterious linked alleles, and selection against depletion of recombination hotspots or against disease-associated genome rearrangement. PMID:21388701
Ponting, Chris P
Cyanobacteria forged two major evolutionary transitions with the invention of oxygenic photosynthesis and the bestowal of photosynthetic lifestyle upon eukaryotes through endosymbiosis. Information germane to understanding those transitions is imprinted in cyanobacterial genomes, but deciphering it is complicated by lateral gene transfer (LGT). Here, we report genome sequences for the morphologically most complex true-branching cyanobacteria, and for Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110, which with 12,356 proteins is the most gene-rich prokaryote currently known. We investigated components of cyanobacterial evolution that have been vertically inherited, horizontally transferred, and donated to eukaryotes at plastid origin. The vertical component indicates a freshwater origin for water-splitting photosynthesis. Networks of the horizontal component reveal that 60% of cyanobacterial gene families have been affected by LGT. Plant nuclear genes acquired from cyanobacteria define a lower bound frequency of 611 multigene families that, in turn, specify diazotrophic cyanobacterial lineages as having a gene collection most similar to that possessed by the plastid ancestor.
Dagan, Tal; Roettger, Mayo; Stucken, Karina; Landan, Giddy; Koch, Robin; Major, Peter; Gould, Sven B.; Goremykin, Vadim V.; Rippka, Rosmarie; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole; Gugger, Muriel; Lockhart, Peter J.; Allen, John F.; Brune, Iris; Maus, Irena; Puhler, Alfred; Martin, William F.
The fungus Harpophora oryzae is a close relative of the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and a beneficial endosymbiont of wild rice. Here, we show that H. oryzae evolved from a pathogenic ancestor. The overall genomic structures of H. and M. oryzae were found to be similar. However, during interactions with rice, the expression of 11.7% of all genes showed opposing trends in the two fungi, suggesting differences in gene regulation. Moreover, infection patterns, triggering of host defense responses, signal transduction and nutritional preferences exhibited remarkable differentiation between the two fungi. In addition, the H. oryzae genome was found to contain thousands of loci of transposon-like elements, which led to the disruption of 929 genes. Our results indicate that the gain or loss of orphan genes, DNA duplications, gene family expansions and the frequent translocation of transposon-like elements have been important factors in the evolution of this endosymbiont from a pathogenic ancestor. PMID:25048173
Xu, Xi-Hui; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, Chen; Kubicek, Christian P; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Mao, Li-Juan; Wang, Jia-Ying; Chen, Chen; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long
The fungus Harpophora oryzae is a close relative of the pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae and a beneficial endosymbiont of wild rice. Here, we show that H. oryzae evolved from a pathogenic ancestor. The overall genomic structures of H. and M. oryzae were found to be similar. However, during interactions with rice, the expression of 11.7% of all genes showed opposing trends in the two fungi, suggesting differences in gene regulation. Moreover, infection patterns, triggering of host defense responses, signal transduction and nutritional preferences exhibited remarkable differentiation between the two fungi. In addition, the H. oryzae genome was found to contain thousands of loci of transposon-like elements, which led to the disruption of 929 genes. Our results indicate that the gain or loss of orphan genes, DNA duplications, gene family expansions and the frequent translocation of transposon-like elements have been important factors in the evolution of this endosymbiont from a pathogenic ancestor.
Xu, Xi-Hui; Su, Zhen-Zhu; Wang, Chen; Kubicek, Christian P.; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Mao, Li-Juan; Wang, Jia-Ying; Chen, Chen; Lin, Fu-Cheng; Zhang, Chu-Long
Background The genus Cuscuta L. (Convolvulaceae), commonly known as dodders, are epiphytic vines that invade the stems of their host with haustorial feeding structures at the points of contact. Although they lack expanded leaves, some species are noticeably chlorophyllous, especially as seedlings and in maturing fruits. Some species are reported as crop pests of worldwide distribution, whereas others are extremely rare and have local distributions and apparent niche specificity. A strong phylogenetic framework for this large genus is essential to understand the interesting ecological, morphological and molecular phenomena that occur within these parasites in an evolutionary context. Results Here we present a well-supported phylogeny of Cuscuta using sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and plastid rps2, rbcL and matK from representatives across most of the taxonomic diversity of the genus. We use the phylogeny to interpret morphological and plastid genome evolution within the genus. At least three currently recognized taxonomic sections are not monophyletic and subgenus Cuscuta is unequivocally paraphyletic. Plastid genes are extremely variable with regards to evolutionary constraint, with rbcL exhibiting even higher levels of purifying selection in Cuscuta than photosynthetic relatives. Nuclear genome size is highly variable within Cuscuta, particularly within subgenus Grammica, and in some cases may indicate the existence of cryptic species in this large clade of morphologically similar species. Conclusion Some morphological characters traditionally used to define major taxonomic splits within Cuscuta are homoplastic and are of limited use in defining true evolutionary groups. Chloroplast genome evolution seems to have evolved in a punctuated fashion, with episodes of loss involving suites of genes or tRNAs followed by stabilization of gene content in major clades. Nearly all species of Cuscuta retain some photosynthetic ability, most likely for nutrient apportionment to their seeds, while complete loss of photosynthesis and possible loss of the entire chloroplast genome is limited to a single small clade of outcrossing species found primarily in western South America.
McNeal, Joel R; Arumugunathan, Kathiravetpilla; Kuehl, Jennifer V; Boore, Jeffrey L; dePamphilis, Claude W
Infections by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (STEC O157) are the predominant cause of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome in the United States. In silico comparison of the two complete STEC O157 genomes (Sakai and EDL933) revealed a strikingly high level of sequence identity in orthologous protein-coding genes, limiting the use of nucleotide sequences to study the evolution and epidemiology of this bacterial pathogen. To systematically examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at a genome scale, we designed comparative genome sequencing microarrays and analyzed 1199 chromosomal genes (a total of 1,167,948 bp) and 92,721 bp of the large virulence plasmid (pO157) of eleven outbreak-associated STEC O157 strains. We discovered 906 SNPs in 523 chromosomal genes and observed a high level of DNA polymorphisms among the pO157 plasmids. Based on a uniform rate of synonymous substitution for Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica (4.7 × 10?9 per site per year), we estimate that the most recent common ancestor of the contemporary ?-glucuronidase-negative, non-sorbitolfermenting STEC O157 strains existed ca. 40 thousand years ago. The phylogeny of the STEC O157 strains based on the informative synonymous SNPs was compared to the maximum parsimony trees inferred from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable numbers of tandem repeats analysis. The topological discrepancies indicate that, in contrast to the synonymous mutations, parts of STEC O157 genomes have evolved through different mechanisms with highly variable divergence rates. The SNP loci reported here will provide useful genetic markers for developing high-throughput methods for fine-resolution genotyping of STEC O157. Functional characterization of nucleotide polymorphisms should shed new insights on the evolution, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of STEC O157 and related pathogens.
Zhang, Wei; Qi, Weihong; Albert, Thomas J.; Motiwala, Alifiya S.; Alland, David; Hyytia-Trees, Eija K.; Ribot, Efrain M.; Fields, Patricia I.; Whittam, Thomas S.; Swaminathan, Bala
RNA viruses evolve very rapidly, often recombine, and are subject to strong host (immune response) and anthropogenic (antiretroviral drugs) selective forces. Given their compact and extensively sequenced genomes, comparative analysis of RNA viral data can provide important insights into the molecular mechanisms of adaptation, pathogenicity, immune evasion, and drug resistance. In this chapter, we present an example-based overview of recent advances in evolutionary models and statistical approaches that enable screening viral alignments for evidence of adaptive change in the presence of recombination, detecting bursts of directional adaptive evolution associated with the phenotypic changes, and detecting of coevolving sites in viral genes. PMID:22399462
Pond, Sergei L Kosakovsky; Murrell, Ben; Poon, Art F Y
An understanding of ctenophore biology is critical for reconstructing events that occurred early in animal evolution. Towards this goal, we have sequenced, assembled, and annotated the genome of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi. Our phylogenomic analyses of both amino acid positions and gene content suggests that ctenophores rather than sponges are the sister lineage to all other animals. Mnemiopsis lacks many of the genes found in bilaterian mesodermal cell types, suggesting that these cell types evolved independently. The set of neural genes in Mnemiopsis is similar to that of sponges, indicating that sponges may have lost a nervous system. These results present a new view of early animal evolution that accounts for major losses and/or gains of sophisticated cell types, including nerve and muscle cells.
Ryan, Joseph F.; Pang, Kevin; Schnitzler, Christine E.; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Moreland, R. Travis; Simmons, David K.; Koch, Bernard J.; Francis, Warren R.; Havlak, Paul; Smith, Stephen A.; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Haddock, Steven H. D.; Dunn, Casey W.; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.; Mullikin, James C.; Martindale, Mark Q.; Baxevanis, Andreas D.
Rhinovirus (RV), which is responsible for the majority of common colds, also causes exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. So far, there are no drugs available for treatment of rhinovirus infection. We examined the effect of quercetin, a plant flavanol on RV infection in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of airway epithelial cells with quercetin decreased Akt phosphosphorylation, viral endocytosis and IL-8 responses. Addition of quercetin 6h after RV infection (after viral endocytosis) reduced viral load, IL-8 and IFN responses in airway epithelial cells. This was associated with decreased levels of negative and positive strand viral RNA, and RV capsid protein, abrogation of RV-induced eIF4GI cleavage and increased phosphorylation of eIF2?. In mice infected with RV, quercetin treatment decreased viral replication as well as expression of chemokines and cytokines. Quercetin treatment also attenuated RV-induced airway cholinergic hyperresponsiveness. Together, our results suggest that quercetin inhibits RV endocytosis and replication in airway epithelial cells at multiple stages of the RV life cycle. Quercetin also decreases expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improves lung function in RV-infected mice. Based on these observations, further studies examining the potential benefits of quercetin in the prevention and treatment of RV infection are warranted. PMID:22465313
Ganesan, Shyamala; Faris, Andrea N; Comstock, Adam T; Wang, Qiong; Nanua, Suparna; Hershenson, Marc B; Sajjan, Uma S
Although antihistamines are widely used for symptomatic treatment of seasonal (allergic) rhinitis, the role of histamines in the pathogenesis of infectious rhinitis is not clear. Two antihistamines, orally administered chlorpheniramine maleate (CM) and diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DH) administered by intranasal spray, were used under double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled conditions to assess both tolerance and efficacy in volunteers with experimental rhinovirus (RV) colds. In the initial trial, CM (4.0 mg per treatment) was ingested 4 times daily for 4 days beginning 24 h after intranasal inoculation of RV type 29 in susceptible volunteers. In the second trial, DH was sprayed intranasally 4 times daily (2 mg per treatment) for 5 days beginning 24 h after inoculation of RV type 39. Clinical colds occurred in 60% of the CM group (n = 13) and 73% of the placebo (n = 15) in the first study, and in 66% of the DH group (n = 12) compared with 81% in the placebo group (n = 11) in the second. Both CM and DH were well tolerated but had no significant effects on nasal symptoms or nasal mucus production. The findings provide additional evidence against an important role for histamine in the pathogenesis of nasal symptomatology in rhinovirus colds. PMID:3307567
Gaffey, M J; Gwaltney, J M; Sastre, A; Dressler, W E; Sorrentino, J V; Hayden, F G
Birds are characterised by feathers, flight, a small genome and a very distinctive karyotype. Despite the large numbers of chromosomes, the diploid count of 2n approximately 80 has remained remarkably constant with 63% of birds where 2n = 74-86, 24% with 2n = 66-74 and extremes of 2n = 40 and 2n = 142. Of these, the most studied is the chicken (2n = 78), and molecular cytogenetic probes generated from this species have been used to further understand the evolution of the avian genome. The ancestral karyotype is, it appears, very similar to that of the chicken, with chicken chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4q, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 4p and Z representing the ancestral avian chromosomes 1-10 + Z; chromosome 4 being the most ancient. Avian evolution occurred primarily in three stages: the divergence of the group represented by extant ratites (emu, ostrich etc.) from the rest; divergence of the Galloanserae (chicken, turkey, duck, goose etc.)--the most studied group; and divergence of the 'land' and 'water' higher birds. Other than sex chromosome differentiation in the first divergence there are no specific changes associated with any of these evolutionary milestones although certain families and orders have undergone multiple fusions (and some fissions), which has reduced their chromosome number; the Falconiformes are the best described. Most changes, overall, seem to involve chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 10 and Z where the Z changes are intrachromosomal; there are also some recurring (convergent) events. Of these, the most puzzling involves chromosomes 4 and 10, which appear to have undergone multiple fissions and/or fusions throughout evolution - three possible hypotheses are presented to explain the findings. We conclude by speculating as to the reasons for the strange behaviour of these chromosomes as well as the role of telomeres and nuclear organisation in avian evolution. PMID:17675846
Griffin, D K; Robertson, L B W; Tempest, H G; Skinner, B M
The evolution of drug resistance in fungal pathogens compromises the efficacy of the limited number of antifungal drugs. Drug combinations have emerged as a powerful strategy to enhance antifungal efficacy and abrogate drug resistance, but the impact on the evolution of drug resistance remains largely unexplored. Targeting the molecular chaperone Hsp90 or its downstream effector, the protein phosphatase calcineurin, abrogates resistance to the most widely deployed antifungals, the azoles, which inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis. Here, we evolved experimental populations of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the leading human fungal pathogen Candida albicans with azole and an inhibitor of Hsp90, geldanamycin, or calcineurin, FK506. To recapitulate a clinical context where Hsp90 or calcineurin inhibitors could be utilized in combination with azoles to render resistant pathogens responsive to treatment, the evolution experiment was initiated with strains that are resistant to azoles in a manner that depends on Hsp90 and calcineurin. Of the 290 lineages initiated, most went extinct, yet 14 evolved resistance to the drug combination. Drug target mutations that conferred resistance to geldanamycin or FK506 were identified and validated in five evolved lineages. Whole-genome sequencing identified mutations in a gene encoding a transcriptional activator of drug efflux pumps, PDR1, and a gene encoding a transcriptional repressor of ergosterol biosynthesis genes, MOT3, that transformed azole resistance of two lineages from dependent on calcineurin to independent of this regulator. Resistance also arose by mutation that truncated the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, and by mutation in LCB1, encoding a sphingolipid biosynthetic enzyme. Genome analysis revealed extensive aneuploidy in four of the C. albicans lineages. Thus, we identify molecular determinants of the transition of azole resistance from calcineurin dependence to independence and establish multiple mechanisms by which resistance to drug combinations evolves, providing a foundation for predicting and preventing the evolution of drug resistance. PMID:23593013
Hill, Jessica A; Ammar, Ron; Torti, Dax; Nislow, Corey; Cowen, Leah E
Summary Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) die from progressive disease after relapse, which is associated with clonal evolution at the cytogenetic level1,2. To determine the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, we sequenced the primary tumor and relapse genomes from 8 AML patients, and validated hundreds of somatic mutations using deep sequencing; this allowed us to precisely define clonality and clonal evolution patterns at relapse. Besides discovering novel, recurrently mutated genes (e.g. WAC, SMC3, DIS3, DDX41, and DAXX) in AML, we found two major clonal evolution patterns during AML relapse: 1) the founding clone in the primary tumor gained mutations and evolved into the relapse clone, or 2) a subclone of the founding clone survived initial therapy, gained additional mutations, and expanded at relapse. In all cases, chemotherapy failed to eradicate the founding clone. The comparison of relapse-specific vs. primary tumor mutations in all 8 cases revealed an increase in transversions, probably due to DNA damage caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy. These data demonstrate that AML relapse is associated with the addition of new mutations and clonal evolution, which is shaped in part by the chemotherapy that the patients receive to establish and maintain remissions.
Ding, Li; Ley, Timothy J.; Larson, David E.; Miller, Christopher A.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Welch, John S.; Ritchey, Julie K.; Young, Margaret A.; Lamprecht, Tamara; McLellan, Michael D.; McMichael, Joshua F.; Wallis, John W.; Lu, Charles; Shen, Dong; Harris, Christopher C.; Dooling, David J.; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Chen, Ken; Schmidt, Heather; Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle; Magrini, Vincent J.; Cook, Lisa; McGrath, Sean D.; Vickery, Tammi L.; Wendl, Michael C.; Heath, Sharon; Watson, Mark A.; Link, Daniel C.; Tomasson, Michael H.; Shannon, William D.; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Westervelt, Peter; Walter, Matthew J.; Graubert, Timothy A.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; DiPersio, John F.
Most patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) die from progressive disease after relapse, which is associated with clonal evolution at the cytogenetic level. To determine the mutational spectrum associated with relapse, we sequenced the primary tumour and relapse genomes from eight AML patients, and validated hundreds of somatic mutations using deep sequencing; this allowed us to define clonality and clonal evolution patterns precisely at relapse. In addition to discovering novel, recurrently mutated genes (for example, WAC, SMC3, DIS3, DDX41 and DAXX) in AML, we also found two major clonal evolution patterns during AML relapse: (1) the founding clone in the primary tumour gained mutations and evolved into the relapse clone, or (2) a subclone of the founding clone survived initial therapy, gained additional mutations and expanded at relapse. In all cases, chemotherapy failed to eradicate the founding clone. The comparison of relapse-specific versus primary tumour mutations in all eight cases revealed an increase in transversions, probably due to DNA damage caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy. These data demonstrate that AML relapse is associated with the addition of new mutations and clonal evolution, which is shaped, in part, by the chemotherapy that the patients receive to establish and maintain remissions. PMID:22237025
Ding, Li; Ley, Timothy J; Larson, David E; Miller, Christopher A; Koboldt, Daniel C; Welch, John S; Ritchey, Julie K; Young, Margaret A; Lamprecht, Tamara; McLellan, Michael D; McMichael, Joshua F; Wallis, John W; Lu, Charles; Shen, Dong; Harris, Christopher C; Dooling, David J; Fulton, Robert S; Fulton, Lucinda L; Chen, Ken; Schmidt, Heather; Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle; Magrini, Vincent J; Cook, Lisa; McGrath, Sean D; Vickery, Tammi L; Wendl, Michael C; Heath, Sharon; Watson, Mark A; Link, Daniel C; Tomasson, Michael H; Shannon, William D; Payton, Jacqueline E; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Westervelt, Peter; Walter, Matthew J; Graubert, Timothy A; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; DiPersio, John F
Background Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae causes bacterial blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major disease that constrains production of this staple crop in many parts of the world. We report here on the complete genome sequence of strain PXO99A and its comparison to two previously sequenced strains, KACC10331 and MAFF311018, which are highly similar to one another. Results The PXO99A genome is a single circular chromosome of 5,240,075 bp, considerably longer than the genomes of the other strains (4,941,439 bp and 4,940,217 bp, respectively), and it contains 5083 protein-coding genes, including 87 not found in KACC10331 or MAFF311018. PXO99A contains a greater number of virulence-associated transcription activator-like effector genes and has at least ten major chromosomal rearrangements relative to KACC10331 and MAFF311018. PXO99A contains numerous copies of diverse insertion sequence elements, members of which are associated with 7 out of 10 of the major rearrangements. A rapidly-evolving CRISPR (clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats) region contains evidence of dozens of phage infections unique to the PXO99A lineage. PXO99A also contains a unique, near-perfect tandem repeat of 212 kilobases close to the replication terminus. Conclusion Our results provide striking evidence of genome plasticity and rapid evolution within Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. The comparisons point to sources of genomic variation and candidates for strain-specific adaptations of this pathogen that help to explain the extraordinary diversity of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae genotypes and races that have been isolated from around the world.
Salzberg, Steven L; Sommer, Daniel D; Schatz, Michael C; Phillippy, Adam M; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Tsuge, Seiji; Furutani, Ayako; Ochiai, Hirokazu; Delcher, Arthur L; Kelley, David; Madupu, Ramana; Puiu, Daniela; Radune, Diana; Shumway, Martin; Trapnell, Cole; Aparna, Gudlur; Jha, Gopaljee; Pandey, Alok; Patil, Prabhu B; Ishihara, Hiromichi; Meyer, Damien F; Szurek, Boris; Verdier, Valerie; Koebnik, Ralf; Dow, J Maxwell; Ryan, Robert P; Hirata, Hisae; Tsuyumu, Shinji; Won Lee, Sang; Ronald, Pamela C; Sonti, Ramesh V; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Leach, Jan E; White, Frank F; Bogdanove, Adam J
DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are essential components of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. LacI-family TFs (LacI-TFs) are broadly distributed among certain lineages of bacteria. The majority of characterized LacI-TFs sense sugar effectors and regulate carbohydrate utilization genes. The comparative genomics approaches enable in silico identification of TF-binding sites and regulon reconstruction. To study the function and evolution of LacI-TFs, we performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of their regulons. For over 1300 LacI-TFs from over 270 bacterial genomes, we predicted their cognate DNA-binding motifs and identified target genes. Using the genome context and metabolic subsystem analyses of reconstructed regulons, we tentatively assigned functional roles and predicted candidate effectors for 78 and 67% of the analyzed LacI-TFs, respectively. Nearly 90% of the studied LacI-TFs are local regulators of sugar utilization pathways, whereas the remaining 125 global regulators control large and diverse sets of metabolic genes. The global LacI-TFs include the previously known regulators CcpA in Firmicutes, FruR in Enterobacteria, and PurR in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as the three novel regulators-GluR, GapR, and PckR-that are predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism in three lineages of Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of regulators combined with the reconstructed regulons provides a model of evolutionary diversification of the LacI protein family. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed LacI-TF regulons in bacteria is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). It provides a framework for future structural and functional classification of the LacI protein family and identification of molecular determinants of the DNA and ligand specificity. The inferred regulons can be also used for functional gene annotation and reconstruction of sugar catabolic networks in diverse bacterial lineages. PMID:24966856
Ravcheev, Dmitry A; Khoroshkin, Matvei S; Laikova, Olga N; Tsoy, Olga V; Sernova, Natalia V; Petrova, Svetlana A; Rakhmaninova, Aleksandra B; Novichkov, Pavel S; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Rodionov, Dmitry A
Background Tandemly repeated DNA, also called as satellite DNA, is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes. Satellite repeats can expand and contract dramatically, which may cause genome size variation among genetically-related species. However, the origin and expansion mechanism are not clear yet and needed to be elucidated. Results FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeat showing homology with intergenic spacer (IGS) of rDNA present in the tomato genome. By comparing the sequences representing distinct stages in the divergence of rDNA repeat with those of canonical rDNA arrays, the molecular mechanism of the evolution of satellite repeat is described. Comprehensive sequence analysis and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that a long terminal repeat retrotransposon was interrupted into each copy of the 18S rDNA and polymerized by recombination rather than transposition via an RNA intermediate. The repeat was expanded through doubling the number of IGS into the 25S rRNA gene, and also greatly increasing the copy number of type I subrepeat in the IGS of 25-18S rDNA by segmental duplication. Homogenization to a single type of subrepeat in the satellite repeat was achieved as the result of amplifying copy number of the type I subrepeat but eliminating neighboring sequences including the type II subrepeat and rRNA coding sequence from the array. FISH analysis revealed that the satellite repeats are commonly present in closely-related Solanum species, but vary in their distribution and abundance among species. Conclusion These results represent that the dynamic satellite repeats were originated from intergenic spacer of rDNA unit in the tomato genome. This result could serve as an example towards understanding the initiation and the expansion of the satellite repeats in complex eukaryotic genome.
Jo, Sung-Hwan; Koo, Dal-Hoe; Kim, Jihyun F; Hur, Cheol-Goo; Lee, Sanghyeob; Yang, Tae-jin; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Choi, Doil
The emergence of extreme-drug-resistant (EDR) bacterial strains in hospital and nonhospital clinical settings is a big and growing public health threat. Understanding the antibiotic resistance mechanisms at the genomic levels can facilitate the development of next-generation agents. Here, comparative genomics has been employed to analyze the rapid evolution of an EDR Acinetobacter baumannii clone from the intensive care unit (ICU) of Rigshospitalet at Copenhagen. Two resistant A. baumannii strains, 48055 and 53264, were sequentially isolated from two individuals who had been admitted to ICU within a 1-month interval. Multilocus sequence typing indicates that these two isolates belonged to ST208. The A. baumannii 53264 strain gained colistin resistance compared with the 48055 strain and became an EDR strain. Genome sequencing indicates that A. baumannii 53264 and 48055 have almost identical genomes—61 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found between them. The A. baumannii 53264 strain was assembled into 130 contigs, with a total length of 3,976,592 bp with 38.93% GC content. The A. baumannii 48055 strain was assembled into 135 contigs, with a total length of 4,049,562 bp with 39.00% GC content. Genome comparisons showed that this A. baumannii clone is classified as an International clone II strain and has 94% synteny with the A. baumannii ACICU strain. The ResFinder server identified a total of 14 antibiotic resistance genes in the A. baumannii clone. Proteomic analyses revealed that a putative porin protein was down-regulated when A. baumannii 53264 was exposed to antimicrobials, which may reduce the entry of antibiotics into the bacterial cell.
Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Chua, Song Lin; Liu, Yang; H?iby, Niels; Andersen, Leif Percival; Givskov, Michael; Song, Zhijun; Yang, Liang
Antarctic notothenioids radiated over millions of years in subzero waters, evolving peculiar features, such as antifreeze glycoproteins and absence of heat shock response. Icefish, family Channichthyidae, also lack oxygen-binding proteins and display extreme modifications, including high mitochondrial densities in aerobic tissues. A genomic expansion accompanying the evolution of these fish was reported, but paucity of genomic information limits the understanding of notothenioid cold adaptation. We reconstructed and annotated the first skeletal muscle transcriptome of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus providing a new resource for icefish genomics (http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/chamatusbase/, last accessed December 12, 2012). We exploited deep sequencing of this energy-dependent tissue to test the hypothesis of selective duplication of genes involved in mitochondrial function. We developed a bioinformatic approach to univocally assign C. hamatus transcripts to orthology groups extracted from phylogenetic trees of five model species. Chionodraco hamatus duplicates were recorded for each orthology group allowing the identification of duplicated genes specific to the icefish lineage. Significantly more duplicates were found in the icefish when transcriptome data were compared with whole-genome data of model species. Indeed, duplicated genes were significantly enriched in proteins with mitochondrial localization, involved in mitochondrial function and biogenesis. In cold conditions and without oxygen-carrying proteins, energy production is challenging. The combination of high mitochondrial densities and the maintenance of duplicated genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and aerobic respiration might confer a selective advantage by improving oxygen diffusion and energy supply to aerobic tissues. Our results provide new insights into the genomic basis of icefish cold adaptation.
Coppe, Alessandro; Agostini, Cecilia; Marino, Ilaria A.M.; Zane, Lorenzo; Bargelloni, Luca; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Patarnello, Tomaso
DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs) are essential components of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria. LacI-family TFs (LacI-TFs) are broadly distributed among certain lineages of bacteria. The majority of characterized LacI-TFs sense sugar effectors and regulate carbohydrate utilization genes. The comparative genomics approaches enable in silico identification of TF-binding sites and regulon reconstruction. To study the function and evolution of LacI-TFs, we performed genomics-based reconstruction and comparative analysis of their regulons. For over 1300 LacI-TFs from over 270 bacterial genomes, we predicted their cognate DNA-binding motifs and identified target genes. Using the genome context and metabolic subsystem analyses of reconstructed regulons, we tentatively assigned functional roles and predicted candidate effectors for 78 and 67% of the analyzed LacI-TFs, respectively. Nearly 90% of the studied LacI-TFs are local regulators of sugar utilization pathways, whereas the remaining 125 global regulators control large and diverse sets of metabolic genes. The global LacI-TFs include the previously known regulators CcpA in Firmicutes, FruR in Enterobacteria, and PurR in Gammaproteobacteria, as well as the three novel regulators—GluR, GapR, and PckR—that are predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism in three lineages of Alphaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of regulators combined with the reconstructed regulons provides a model of evolutionary diversification of the LacI protein family. The obtained genomic collection of in silico reconstructed LacI-TF regulons in bacteria is available in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov). It provides a framework for future structural and functional classification of the LacI protein family and identification of molecular determinants of the DNA and ligand specificity. The inferred regulons can be also used for functional gene annotation and reconstruction of sugar catabolic networks in diverse bacterial lineages.
Ravcheev, Dmitry A.; Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Laikova, Olga N.; Tsoy, Olga V.; Sernova, Natalia V.; Petrova, Svetlana A.; Rakhmaninova, Aleksandra B.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.
Knowledge on mutation processes is central to interpreting genetic analysis data as well as understanding the underlying nature of almost all evolutionary phenomena. However, studies on genome-wide mutational spectrum and dynamics in fungal pathogens are scarce, hindering our understanding of their evolution and biology. Here, we explored changes in the phenotypes and genome sequences of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae during the forced in vitro evolution by weekly transfer of cultures on artificial media. Through combination of experimental evolution with high throughput sequencing technology, we found that mutations accumulate rapidly prior to visible phenotypic changes and that both genetic drift and selection seem to contribute to shaping mutational landscape, suggesting the buffering capacity of fungal genome against mutations. Inference of mutational effects on phenotypes through the use of T-DNA insertion mutants suggested that at least some of the DNA sequence mutations are likely associated with the observed phenotypic changes. Furthermore, our data suggest oxidative damages and UV as major sources of mutation during subcultures. Taken together, our work revealed important properties of original source of variation in the genome of the rice blast fungus. We believe that these results provide not only insights into stability of pathogenicity and genome evolution in plant pathogenic fungi but also a model in which evolution of fungal pathogens in natura can be comparatively investigated.
Jeon, Junhyun; Choi, Jaeyoung; Lee, Gir-Won; Dean, Ralph A.; Lee, Yong-Hwan
The significance of human rhinoviruses (HRV) as prevailing respiratory pathogens has sharpened during the recent years followed by implementation of molecular methods in detection. Rhinoviruses are detected exceedingly in hospitalized cases of respiratory infection with varying severity, in addition to being frequent in cases of common cold. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrence of HRV in a prospective study material. The prospective INDIS material comprises nasopharyngeal (N=429) and fecal (N=425) specimens from children under 11 years of age collected during any clinical infection. Validated real-time RT-PCR assays were applied for the detection of HRV. HRV were detected numerously not only in the nasopharyngeal specimens, but a myriad also in fecal specimens, 236 (55.0%) and 149 (35.1%), respectively, fecal findings actually beyond anticipation. A total of 13 of HRV-positive fecal specimens were selected for genetic typing in the VP4/VP2 coding region. HRV-A strains were detected in seven specimens: HRV-A9, -A10, -A24, -A49, -A56 and -A82. HRV-B-strains were detected three times: HRV-B42 and -B79, and HRV-C twice: HRV-C12 and HRV-Cpat4. HRV-B42 also showed cytopathic effect in cell culture, confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and VP4/VP2 sequencing, suggesting presence of viable HRV in fecal specimens. PMID:23765783
Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Simonen-Tikka, Marja-Leena; Klemola, Päivi; Blomqvist, Soile; Suomenrinne, Sointu; Näntö-Salonen, Kirsti; Simell, Olli; Roivainen, Merja
The current limitations in genome sequencing technology require the construction of physical maps for high-quality draft sequences of large plant genomes, such as that of Aegilops tauschii, the wheat D-genome progenitor. To construct a physical map of the Ae. tauschii genome, we fingerprinted 461,706 bacterial artificial chromosome clones, assembled contigs, designed a 10K Ae. tauschii Infinium SNP array, constructed a 7,185-marker genetic map, and anchored on the map contigs totaling 4.03 Gb. Using whole genome shotgun reads, we extended the SNP marker sequences and found 17,093 genes and gene fragments. We showed that collinearity of the Ae. tauschii genes with Brachypodium distachyon, rice, and sorghum decreased with phylogenetic distance and that structural genome evolution rates have been high across all investigated lineages in subfamily Pooideae, including that of Brachypodieae. We obtained additional information about the evolution of the seven Triticeae chromosomes from 12 ancestral chromosomes and uncovered a pattern of centromere inactivation accompanying nested chromosome insertions in grasses. We showed that the density of noncollinear genes along the Ae. tauschii chromosomes positively correlates with recombination rates, suggested a cause, and showed that new genes, exemplified by disease resistance genes, are preferentially located in high-recombination chromosome regions.
Luo, Ming-Cheng; Gu, Yong Q.; You, Frank M.; Deal, Karin R.; Ma, Yaqin; Hu, Yuqin; Huo, Naxin; Wang, Yi; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Shiyong; Jorgensen, Chad M.; Zhang, Yong; McGuire, Patrick E.; Pasternak, Shiran; Stein, Joshua C.; Ware, Doreen; Kramer, Melissa; McCombie, W. Richard; Kianian, Shahryar F.; Martis, Mihaela M.; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Sehgal, Sunish K.; Li, Wanlong; Gill, Bikram S.; Bevan, Michael W.; Simkova, Hana; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Weining, Song; Lazo, Gerard R.; Anderson, Olin D.; Dvorak, Jan
Background Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains has shown divergence into two distinct lineages, lineages I and II, that appear to have distinct ecological characteristics, with lineage I strains more commonly associated with human disease. In this study, microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was used to identify genomic differences among 31 E. coli O157:H7 strains that belong to various phage types (PTs) and different lineage-specific polymorphism assay (LSPA) types. Results A total of 4,084 out of 6,057 ORFs were detected in all E. coli O157:H7 strains and 1,751 were variably present or absent. Based on this data, E. coli O157:H7 strains were divided into three distinct clusters, which consisted of 15 lineage I (LSPA type 111111), four lineage I/II (designated in this study) (LSPA type 211111) and 12 lineage II strains (LSPA 222222, 222211, 222212, and 222221), respectively. Eleven different genomic regions that were dominant in lineage I strains (present in ?80% of lineage I and absent from ? 92% of lineage II strains) spanned segments containing as few as two and up to 25 ORFs each. These regions were identified within E. coli Sakai S-loops # 14, 16, 69, 72, 78, 83, 85, 153 and 286, Sakai phage 10 (S-loops # 91, 92 and 93) and a genomic backbone region. All four lineage I/II strains were of PT 2 and possessed eight of these 11 lineage I-dominant loci. Several differences in virulence-associated loci were noted between lineage I and lineage II strains, including divergence within S-loop 69, which encodes Shiga toxin 2, and absence of the non-LEE encoded effector genes nleF and nleH1-2 and the perC homologue gene pchD in lineage II strains. Conclusion CGH data suggest the existence of two dominant lineages as well as LSPA type and PT-related subgroups within E. coli O157:H7. The genomic composition of these subgroups supports the phylogeny that has been inferred from other methods and further suggests that genomic divergence from an ancestral form and lateral gene transfer have contributed to their evolution. The genomic features identified in this study may contribute to apparent differences in the epidemiology and ecology of strains of different E. coli O157:H7 lineages.
Zhang, Yongxiang; Laing, Chad; Steele, Marina; Ziebell, Kim; Johnson, Roger; Benson, Andrew K; Taboada, Eduardo; Gannon, Victor PJ
Mutualistic symbioses between eukaryotes and beneficial microorganisms of their microbiome play an essential role in nutrition, protection against disease, and development of the host. However, the impact of beneficial symbionts on the evolution of host genomes remains poorly characterized. Here we used the independent loss of the most widespread plant-microbe symbiosis, arbuscular mycorrhization (AM), as a model to address this question. Using a large phenotypic approach and phylogenetic analyses, we present evidence that loss of AM symbiosis correlates with the loss of many symbiotic genes in the Arabidopsis lineage (Brassicales). Then, by analyzing the genome and/or transcriptomes of nine other phylogenetically divergent non-host plants, we show that this correlation occurred in a convergent manner in four additional plant lineages, demonstrating the existence of an evolutionary pattern specific to symbiotic genes. Finally, we use a global comparative phylogenomic approach to track this evolutionary pattern among land plants. Based on this approach, we identify a set of 174 highly conserved genes and demonstrate enrichment in symbiosis-related genes. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that beneficial symbionts maintain purifying selection on host gene networks during the evolution of entire lineages. PMID:25032823
Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Varala, Kranthi; Edger, Patrick P; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Pires, J Chris; Ané, Jean-Michel
Mutualistic symbioses between eukaryotes and beneficial microorganisms of their microbiome play an essential role in nutrition, protection against disease, and development of the host. However, the impact of beneficial symbionts on the evolution of host gen