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Sample records for rhizoctonia solani causing

  1. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil root rot symptoms were observed in commercial fields in the US Pacific Northwest during the unusually cool and moist spring weather of 2010. Symptoms included sunken lesions on root and stem with brown discoloration, resembling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Rhizoctonia solani was i...

  2. Depth at which Rhizoctonia solani causes infection fo sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani (Kuhn) is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root rot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Typically, Rhizoctonia root rot symptoms appear to be initiated on the plant at the soil line. Recently, sugar beet plants were observed with Rhizoctonia root rot infections close to the root ti...

  3. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  4. Screening of pea genotypes for resistance to root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 is one of the major pathogens that causes pea root rot and stunting in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington. The disease is most severe in fields where wheat has been mono-cropped for a number of years or where cereal cover crops are incorporated just before pea seedin...

  5. Rhizoctonia solani: Understanding the Terminology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani can cause seedling damping-off and root rot in dry bean and a number of other major crops including sugarbeet, soybean, cotton, potato, etc. There appears to be an increase in reported incidence in both temperate regions and in tropical areas. As well as a root rot, some stains ca...

  6. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  7. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-03-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  8. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    PubMed

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  9. First Report of Web Blight of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Aktaruzzaman, Md.; Kim, Joon-Young; Afroz, Tania

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the first occurrence of web blight of rosemary caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-1-IB in Gangneung, Gangwon Province, Korea, in August 2014. The leaf tissues of infected rosemary plants were blighted and white mycelial growth was seen on the stems. The fungus was isolated from diseased leaf tissue and cultured on potato dextrose agar for identification. The young hyphae had acute angular branching near the distal septum of the multinucleate cells and mature hyphal branches formed at an approximately 90° angle. This is morphologically identical to R. solani AG-1-IB, as per previous reports. rDNA-ITS sequences of the fungus were homologous to those of R. solani AG-1-IB isolates in the GenBank database with a similarity percentage of 99%, thereby confirming the identity of the causative agent of the disease. Pathogenicity of the fungus in rosemary plants was also confirmed by Koch's postulates. PMID:26190926

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance: a tool for imaging belowground damage caused by Heterodera schachtii and Rhizoctonia solani on sugar beet.

    PubMed

    Hillnhütter, C; Sikora, R A; Oerke, E-C; van Dusschoten, D

    2012-01-01

    Belowground symptoms of sugar beet caused by the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii include the development of compensatory secondary roots and beet deformity, which, thus far, could only be assessed by destructively removing the entire root systems from the soil. Similarly, the symptoms of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) caused by infections of the soil-borne basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani require the same invasive approach for identification. Here nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used for the non-invasive detection of belowground symptoms caused by BCN and/or RCRR on sugar beet. Excessive lateral root development and beet deformation of plants infected by BCN was obvious 28 days after inoculation (dai) on MRI images when compared with non-infected plants. Three-dimensional images recorded at 56 dai showed BCN cysts attached to the roots in the soil. RCRR was visualized by a lower intensity of the MRI signal at sites where rotting occurred. The disease complex of both organisms together resulted in RCRR development at the site of nematode penetration. Damage analysis of sugar beet plants inoculated with both pathogens indicated a synergistic relationship, which may result from direct and indirect interactions. Nuclear MRI of plants may provide valuable, new insight into the development of pathogens infecting plants below- and aboveground because of its non-destructive nature and the sufficiently high spatial resolution of the method. PMID:21948851

  11. Potential for the integration of biological and chemical control of sheath blight disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on rice.

    PubMed

    Boukaew, Sawai; Klinmanee, Chanasirin; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2013-10-01

    Biological control using antagonistic microbes to minimize the use of chemical pesticides has recently become more prevalent. In an attempt to find an integrated control system for sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani in rice, Streptomyces philanthi RM-1-138, commercial formulations of Bacillus subtilis as Larminar® and B. subtilis strain NSRS 89-24+MK-007 as Biobest® and chemical fungicides including carbendazim®, validamycin®, propiconazole® and mancozeb® were applied alone and in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138. In vitro experiments showed that all treatments tested did provide some control against mycelial growth and sclerotia production by R. solani PTRRS-9. In addition, the four chemical fungicides had no detrimental effects on S. philanthi RM-1-138 even at high concentrations (up to 100 μg/ml). The efficacy of S. philanthi RM-1-138, the commercial formulations of B. subtilis, chemical fungicides alone or in combination with S. philanthi RM-1-138 was also tested in a greenhouse experiment against sheath blight disease on rice plants. All treatments showed some protection of rice for sheath blight by 47-60 % when carbendazim® was applied alone and up to 74 % when combined with S. philanthi RM-1-138. PMID:23653261

  12. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  13. Interaction of sugarbeet host resistance and Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 IIIB strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rhizoctonia root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani can cause serious economic losses in sugarbeet fields. Preliminary evidence suggests there could be interactions between different strains and resistance sources. Thus, field studies were conducted to determine if nine R. solani AG-2-2 IIIB str...

  14. Leuconostoc spp. associated with root rot in sugar beet and their interaction with rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc. Since, the initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly underst...

  15. Suppression of Seedling Damping-Off Caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and Rhizoctonia solani in Container Media Amended with a Diverse Range of Pacific Northwest Compost Sources.

    PubMed

    Scheuerell, Steven J; Sullivan, Dan M; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2005-03-01

    ABSTRACT Suppression of seedling damping-off disease caused by Pythium spp. and Rhizoctonia solani is a potential benefit of formulating soilless container media with compost. Thirty-six compost samples from Pacific Northwest commercial composting facilities were analyzed for a number of physical, chemical, and biological properties, including suppression of damping-off caused by Pythium ultimum, P. irregulare, and R. solani. The samples were produced from diverse feedstocks and composting technol ogies; this was reflected in a large degree of variability in the measured properties. When mixed with sphagnum peat moss and inorganic aggregates, 67% of the compost samples significantly suppressed P. irregulare damping-off of cucumber, 64% suppressed P. ultimum damping-off of cucumber, and 17% suppressed damping-off of cabbage caused by R. solani. Suppression of Pythium damping-off was related to the potential of compost to support microbial activity and a qualitative index of ammonia volatilization. Suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off was not related to any one compost factor. Currently available compost products potentially could provide commercially acceptable control of damping-off caused by Pythium spp., but it is necessary to fortify composts with microbial antagonists for the control of R. solani. PMID:18943125

  16. Host factors governing resistance to Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the state of Washington, USA, annual losses of wheat attributed to soilborne necrotrophic fungal pathogens, such as Rhizoctonia solani, are estimated to be over US$100 million, and global estimates exceed US$1 billion. Host genetic resistance is a sustainable means of disease control that can be ...

  17. Rapid Diagnosis of Soybean Seedling Blight Caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Soybean Charcoal Rot Caused by Macrophomina phaseolina Using LAMP Assays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chenchen; Song, Bi; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wang, YuanChao; Zheng, XiaoBo

    2015-12-01

    A new method of direct detection of pathogenic fungi in infected soybean tissues has been reported here. The method rapidly diagnoses soybean seedling blight caused by Rhizoctonia solani and soybean charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina, and features loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). The primers were designed and screened using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) as target DNAs of both pathogens. An ITS-Rs-LAMP assay for R. solani and an ITS-Mp-LAMP assay for M. phaseolina that can detect the pathogen in diseased soybean tissues in the field have been developed. Both LAMP assays efficiently amplified the target genes over 60 min at 62°C. A yellow-green color (visible to the naked eye) or intense green fluorescence (visible under ultraviolet light) was only observed in the presence of R. solani or M. phaseolina after addition of SYBR Green I. The detection limit of the ITS-Rs-LAMP assay was 10 pg μl⁻¹ of genomic DNA; and that of the ITS-Mp-LAMP assay was 100 pg μl⁻¹ of genomic DNA. Using the two assays described here, we successfully and rapidly diagnosed suspect diseased soybean samples collected in the field from Jiangsu and Anhui provinces. PMID:26606587

  18. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  19. Optimized protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) is a basidiomycetous fungus which includes important plant pathogens, saprophytes and mycorrhizae. R. solani displays several hyphal anastomosis groups (AGs) with distinct host plant specializations. In order to facilitate studies on its biol...

  20. Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 Reduces Sclerotia Formation, Biomass Development, and Disease Incidence of Rhizoctonia solani Causing Damping-Off in Sugar Beet.

    PubMed

    Thrane, C.; Nielsen, M.N.; Sørensen, J.; Olsson, S.

    2001-10-01

    Effects of the biocontrol strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54, on growth and disease development by Rhizoctonia solani causing damping-off in sugar beet were studied in soil microcosms and in pot experiments with natural, clay-type soil. In pot experiments with P. fluorescens DR54-treated seeds, significantly fewer Rhizoctonia-challenged seedlings showed damping-off symptoms than when not inoculated with the biocontrol agent. In the rhizosphere of P. fluorescens DR54 inoculated seeds, the bacterial inoculant was present in high numbers as shown by dilution plating and immunoblotting. By the ELISA antibody technique and direct microscopy of the fungal pathogen grown in soil microcosms, it was shown that the presence of P. fluorescens DR54 on the inoculated seeds had a strong inhibitory effect on development of both mycelium biomass and sclerotia formation by R. solani. In the field experiment, plant emergence was increased by treatment with P. fluorescens DR54 and the inoculant was found to be the dominating rhizosphere colonizing pseudomonad immediately after seedling emergence. PMID:12024268

  1. Proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 sclerotia maturation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Young Sang; Kim, Sang Gon; Chung, Woo Sik; Bae, Hanhong; Jeong, Sung Woo; Shin, Sung Chul; Jeong, Mi-Jeong; Park, Soo-Chul; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Bae, Dong-Won; Lee, Yong Bok

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani), a soil-borne necrotrophic pathogen, causes various plant diseases. Rhizoctonia solani is a mitosporic fungus, the sclerotium of which is the primary inoculum and ensures survival of the fungus during the offseason of the host crop. Since the fungus does not produce any asexual or sexual spores, understanding the biology of sclerotia is important to examine pathogen ecology and develop more efficient methods for crop protection. Here, one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (1-DE and 2-DE, respectively) were used to examine protein regulation during the maturation of fungal sclerotia. A total of 75 proteins (20 proteins from 1-DE using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-time of flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) and 55 proteins from 2-DE using MALDI-TOF MS or MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) were differentially expressed during sclerotial maturation. The identified proteins were classified into ten categories based on their biological functions, including genetic information processing, carbohydrate metabolism, cell defense, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, cellular processes, pathogenicity and mycotoxin production, and hypothetical or unknown functions. Interestingly, two vacuole function-related proteins were highly up-regulated throughout sclerotial maturation, which was confirmed at the transcript level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. These findings contribute to our understanding of the biology of R. solani sclerotia. PMID:24863472

  2. Preparation of Inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn for an Artificially Inoculated Field Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown root and rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is a serious disease resulting in substantial economic losses in sugar beet production worldwide. A consistent, uniform disease pressure of the correct intensity is necessary to effectively screen sugar beet for resistance to Rhizoc...

  3. Preparation of inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani Kühn for an artificially inoculated field trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown root and rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is a serious disease resulting in substantial economic losses in sugar beet production worldwide. A consistent, uniform disease pressure of the correct intensity is necessary to effectively screen sugar beet for resistance to Rhizoc...

  4. Preparation of Inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn for an Artificially Inoculated Field Trail

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown root and rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, is a serious disease resulting in substantial economic losses in sugar beet production worldwide. A consistent, uniform disease pressure of the correct intensity is necessary to effectively screen sugar beet for resistance to Rhizoc...

  5. RL-SAGE and microarray analysis of the rice defense transcriptome after Rhizoctonia solani infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, RNA isolated from R. solani-infected leaves of Jasmine 85 was used for both RL-SAGE library construction and microarra...

  6. RL-SAGE ANALYSIS OF THE RICE DEFENSE TRANSCRIPTOME DURING RICE AND RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI INTERACTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath blight caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani is an emerging problem in rice production worldwide. To elucidate the molecular basis of rice defense to the pathogen, two RL-SAGE libraries were made from the R. solani infected and control plants of Jasmine 85, which is moderately resi...

  7. Optimized protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Lakshman, Sukla; Garrett, Wesley M; Dhar, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani (Teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris, T. praticola) is a basidiomycetous fungus and a major cause of root diseases of economically important plants. Various isolates of this fungus are also beneficially associated with orchids, may serve as biocontrol agents or remain as saprophytes with roles in decaying and recycling of soil organic matter. R. solani displays several hyphal anastomosis groups (AG) with distinct host and pathogenic specializations. Even though there are reports on the physiological and histological basis of Rhizoctonia-host interactions, very little is known about the molecular biology and control of gene expression early during infection by this pathogen. Proteamic technologies are powerful tools for examining alterations in protein profiles. To aid studies on its biology and host pathogen interactions, a two-dimensional (2-D) gel-based global proteomic study has been initiated. To develop an optimized protein extraction protocol for R. solani, we compared two previously reported protein extraction protocols for 2-D gel analysis of R. solani (AG-4) isolate Rs23. Both TCA-acetone precipitation and phosphate solubilization before TCA-acetone precipitation worked well for R. solani protein extraction, although selective enrichment of some proteins was noted with either method. About 450 spots could be detected with the densitiometric tracing of Coomassie blue-stained 2-D PAGE gels covering pH 4-7 and 6.5-205 kDa. Selected protein spots were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Eleven protein spots were positively identified based on peptide mass fingerprinting match with fungal proteins in public databases with the Mascot search engine. These results testify to the suitability of the two optimized protein extraction protocols for 2-D proteomic studies of R. solani. PMID:19202841

  8. Powder formulations of two strains of Bacillus subtilis for control of rape seed damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Farzaneh, M; Sarani, S

    2006-01-01

    Talc-based formulations of Bacillus subtilis strains B1 and B2 were tested as seed and soil treatments separately for their ability to control Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rape seed damping-off, in greenhouse and field trials. In general, the formulated bacteria was more effective to suppress the disease than the suspension of bacterial cells in carboxymethylcellulose solution (1%, w/v), in both greenhouse and field trials. The formulations of strain B1 as soil treatment and strain B2 as seed treatment in greenhouse, and the formulations of strain B2 as seed and soil treatments in field trials had the greatest effect on reducing the rape seed damping-off (66.7%, 73.3%, 41.3%, and 42.4%, respectively). The formulations of strain B1 as soil treatment and strain B2 as seed treatment were the most effective treatments to increase the root dry weights in the infected soil in greenhouse. The formulation of strain B2 as soil treatment had the greatest effect on enhancement of the fresh weight of roots and stem fresh and dry weights. The formulations of strains B1 and B2 stored at 4 degrees C exhibited better shelf life and efficacy in vitro than their counterparts stored at 25 degrees C. Long-term stability of the formulation of strain B1 was found to be better. PMID:17390784

  9. Integrated biological and chemical control of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani using Bacillus subtilis RB14-C and flutolanil.

    PubMed

    Kondoh, M; Hirai, M; Shoda, M

    2001-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis RB14-C was isolated as a potential biological agent to control the occurrence of various plant diseases. Integrated control of damping-off in tomato plants caused by Rhizoctonia solani was carried out in pots using B. subtilis RB14-C and chemical pesticide, flutolanil. The growth of RB14-C was the same in both the flutolanil-containing and the flutolanil-free media, indicating the resistance of RB14-C to flutolanil. Although the productivity of surfactin decreased to one-third in the flutolanil-containing medium, compared with that in the flutolanil-free medium, the productivity of iturin A which is mainly associated with the suppressive ability of RB14-C against plant pathogens was unaffected. The integration of RB14-C and flutolanil reduced the amount of flutolanil used to one-fourth of that of the single use of flutolanil, with the same efficacy of reducing disease occurrence. PMID:16232970

  10. Signaling in the Rhizoctonia solani-rice pathosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic soil borne fungal pathogen known to be a serious crop killer worldwide. A better understanding of the molecular signaling will benefit the development of effective methods to control the pathogen. To dissect molecular signaling between rice and R. solani a combin...

  11. Liquid culture production of microsclerotia and submerged conidia by Trichoderma harzianum active against damping-off disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Kobori, Nilce N; Mascarin, Gabriel M; Jackson, Mark A; Schisler, David A

    2015-04-01

    Media and culturing protocols were identified that supported the formation of submerged conidia and microsclerotia (MS) by Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain T-22 using liquid culture fermentation. Liquid media with a higher carbon concentration (36 g L(-1)) promoted MS formation at all C:N ratios tested. Hyphae aggregated to form MS after 2 d growth and after 7 d MS were fully melanized. This is the first report of MS formation by T. harzianum or any species of Trichoderma. Furthermore, submerged conidia formation was induced by liquid culture media, but yields, desiccation tolerance, and storage stability varied with C:N ratio and carbon rate. Air-dried MS granules (<4% moisture) retained excellent shelf life under cool and unrefrigerated storage conditions with no loss in conidial production. A low-cost complex nitrogen source based on cottonseed flour effectively supported high MS yields. Amending potting mix with dried MS formulations reduced or eliminated damping-off of melon seedlings caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Together, the results provide insights into the liquid culture production, stabilization process, and bioefficacy of the hitherto unreported MS of T. harzianum as a potential biofungicide for use in integrated management programs against soilborne diseases. PMID:25813507

  12. A simple method based on laboratory inoculum and field inoculum for evaluating potato resistance to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Yu, Xiao-Xia; Yu, Zhuo; Xue, Yu-Feng; Qi, Li-Peng

    2014-01-01

    A two-step method was developed to evaluate potato resistance to black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Tuber piece inoculum was first conducted in the laboratory, which was also first reported in this study. After inoculation with pathogen discs and culture for 48 h, the necrotic spots on the inoculated potato pieces were generated and measured by the crossing method. Further evaluation was conducted through field experiments using a wheat bran inoculum method. The wheat bran inoculum was placed into the pit dispersedly and surrounded seed tubers. Each cultivar or line was subjected to five treatments of 0-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-g soil inoculum. The results showed that 2–4 g of wheat bran inoculum was the optimum for identifying tuber black scurf resistance. The laboratory scores positively correlated with the incidence and severity of black scurf in the field. According to the results in the laboratory, relatively resistant cultivars could be selected for further estimation of tuber black scurf resistance in field experiments. It is a practical and effective screening method for rapid identification of resistant potato germplasm, which can reduce workload in the field, shorten time required for identification. PMID:24987302

  13. Rice WRKY4 acts as a transcriptional activator mediating defense responses toward Rhizoctonia solani, the causing agent of rice sheath blight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haihua; Meng, Jiao; Peng, Xixu; Tang, Xinke; Zhou, Pinglan; Xiang, Jianhua; Deng, Xiaobo

    2015-09-01

    WRKY transcription factors have been implicated in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with various plant processes but most notably with plant defense responses to pathogens. Here we demonstrate that expression of rice WRKY4 gene (OsWRKY4) was rapidly and strongly induced upon infection of Rhizoctonia solani, the causing agent of rice sheath blight, and exogenous jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). OsWRKY4 is localized to the nucleus of plant cells and possesses transcriptional activation ability. Modulation of OsWRKY4 transcript levels by constitutive overexpression increases resistance to the necrotrophic sheath blight fungus, concomitant with elevated expression of JA- and ET-responsive pathogenesis-related (PR) genes such as PR1a, PR1b, PR5 and PR10/PBZ1. Suppression by RNA interference (RNAi), on the other hand, compromises resistance to the fungal pathogen. Yeast one-hybrid assay and transient expression in tobacco cells reveal that OsWRKY4 specifically binds to the promoter regions of PR1b and PR5 which contain W-box (TTGAC[C/T]), or W-box like (TGAC[C/T]) cis-elements. In conclusion, we propose that OsWRKY4 functions as an important positive regulator that is implicated in the defense responses to rice sheath blight via JA/ET-dependent signal pathway. PMID:26275661

  14. Screening Sugar Beet Germplasm for Resistance to Rhizoctonia solani in Artifically Induced Field Epiphytotics: Examining 25 Years of Data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot (caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, AG2-2) continues to be a problem in most sugar beet-growing areas in the United States, and is a growing problem worldwide. The USDA-ARS at Fort Collins has screened germplasm in artificially induced epiphytotics to provide uniform...

  15. The prevalence of different strains of Rhizoctonia solani associated with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot symptoms in Ontario sugarbeet fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) [Rhizoctonia solani Kühn] is an important disease of sugarbeets in southwestern Ontario, Canada. A survey of commercial sugarbeet fields was completed in 2010 and 2011 to determine the range of R. solani anastomosis groups (AGs) and inter-specific groups (ISGs) ...

  16. Novel mitoviruses in Rhizoctonia solani AG-3PT infecting potato.

    PubMed

    Das, Subha; Falloon, Richard E; Stewart, Alison; Pitman, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements are ubiquitous in Rhizoctonia solani. Total dsRNA was randomly amplified from a R. solani isolate (RS002) belonging to anastomosis group-3PT (AG-3PT), associated with black scurf in potato. Assembly of resulting cDNA sequences identified a nearly complete genome of a novel virus related to the genus Mitovirus (family Narnaviridae), herein named Rhizoctonia mitovirus 1 RS002 (RMV-1-RS002). The 2797 nucleotide partial genome of RMV-1-RS002 is A-U rich (59.06 %), and can be folded into stable stem-loop structures at 5' and 3' ends. Universal and mold mitochondrial codon usages revealed a large open reading frame in the genome, putatively encoding an 826 amino acid polypeptide, which has conserved motifs for mitoviral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The full length putative polypeptide shared 25.6 % sequence identity with the corresponding region of Tuber excavatum mitovirus (TeMV). The partial genome of a second mitovirus (proposed name Rhizoctonia mitovirus 2 RS002 (RMV-2-RS002)) was also amplified from RS002. A nearly identical copy of RMV-1-RS002 was detected in two additional AG-3PT isolates. These data indicate that multiple mitoviruses can exist in a single isolate of R. solani AG-3PT, and that mitoviruses such as RMV-1-RS002 are probably widespread in this pathogen. The roles of mitoviruses in the biology of R. solani AG-3PT remain unknown. PMID:26895862

  17. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Sturrock, Craig J.; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J.; Ray, Rumiana V.

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host–pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field. PMID:26157449

  18. Effects of damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 2-1 on roots of wheat and oil seed rape quantified using X-ray Computed Tomography and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sturrock, Craig J; Woodhall, James; Brown, Matthew; Walker, Catherine; Mooney, Sacha J; Ray, Rumiana V

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes significant establishment and yield losses to several important food crops globally. This is the first application of high resolution X-ray micro Computed Tomography (X-ray μCT) and real-time PCR to study host-pathogen interactions in situ and elucidate the mechanism of Rhizoctonia damping-off disease over a 6-day period caused by R. solani, anastomosis group (AG) 2-1 in wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gallant) and oil seed rape (OSR, Brassica napus cv. Marinka). Temporal, non-destructive analysis of root system architectures was performed using RooTrak and validated by the destructive method of root washing. Disease was assessed visually and related to pathogen DNA quantification in soil using real-time PCR. R. solani AG2-1 at similar initial DNA concentrations in soil was capable of causing significant damage to the developing root systems of both wheat and OSR. Disease caused reductions in primary root number, root volume, root surface area, and convex hull which were affected less in the monocotyledonous host. Wheat was more tolerant to the pathogen, exhibited fewer symptoms and developed more complex root systems. In contrast, R. solani caused earlier damage and maceration of the taproot of the dicot, OSR. Disease severity was related to pathogen DNA accumulation in soil only for OSR, however, reductions in root traits were significantly associated with both disease and pathogen DNA. The method offers the first steps in advancing current understanding of soil-borne pathogen behavior in situ at the pore scale, which may lead to the development of mitigation measures to combat disease influence in the field. PMID:26157449

  19. Powder formulation of Burkholderia cepacia for control of rape seed damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Sarani, S; Farzaneh, M

    2007-01-01

    Talc-based formulation of Burkholderia cepaci strain Bu1 was tested as seed and soil drenchs separately for its ability to control Rhizoctonia soloni the causal agent of rape seed damping-off in greenhouse and field trials. In general, the formulated bacteria was more effective to suppress the disease than the suspension of bacteria cells in carboxymethylcellulose solution (1% w/v), in both greenhouse and field trials. The formulation of strain Bul as soil and seed treatments had the greatest effect on reducing the rape seed damping-off in greenhouse and field trials (66.7, 53.3, 64.4 and 40% respectively). The formulation of strain Bu1 as soil and seed treatments were the most effective treatments to increase the root dry weights in the infected soil in greenhouse. The formulation of strain Bul as soil drench had the greatest effect on enhancement of the fresh weight of roots and stem fresh and dry weights. The formulation of strain Bu1 stored at 4 degrees C exhibited better shelf Life and efficacy in vitro than it's counterpart stored at 25 degrees C. PMID:18399433

  20. Rhizoctonia belly rot in cucumber fruit using Rhizoctonia solani isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are grown in rotation with sugar beets in some areas in Michigan but their interaction with important diseases affecting sugar beets is not well known. Cucumbers are known to be primarily susceptible to Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, but little is known about their susceptibility to AG 2-2 isola...

  1. First Report of a Root and Crown Disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani on Centaurea maculosa in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted knapweed (SKW) (Centaurea maculosa Lamarck) is a non-indigenous species that is invasive over large areas in the U.S., especially in the western U. S. and Canada. It has been estimated that infestations of SKW cause $42 million in direct and indirect economic losses annually and the weed cou...

  2. Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis V26 as a biological control agent against Rhizoctonia solani on potato.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedher, Saoussen; Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Dammak, Mouna; Jabnoun-Khiareddine, Hayfa; Daami-Remadi, Mejda; Tounsi, Slim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the strain Bacillus subtilis V26, a local isolate from the Tunisian soil, to control potato black scurf caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The in vitro antifungal activity of V26 significantly inhibited R. solani growth compared to the untreated control. Microscopic observations revealed that V26 caused considerable morphological deformations of the fungal hyphae such as vacuolation, protoplast leakage and mycelia crack. The most effective control was achieved when strain V26 was applied 24h prior to inoculation (protective activity) in potato slices. The antagonistic bacterium V26 induced significant suppression of root canker and black scurf tuber colonization compared to untreated controls with a decrease in incidence disease of 63% and 81%, respectively, and promoted plant growth under greenhouse conditions on potato plants. Therefore, B. subtilis V26 has a great potential to be commercialized as a biocontrol agent against R. solani on potato crops. PMID:26563555

  3. Effect of Population Dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia and Paecilomyces lilacinus on Colonization of Polyfoam Rooting Cubes by Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, D. Kelly; Benson, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    Suspensions of Pseudomonas cepacia (strain 5.5B) and Paecilomyces lilacinus (isolate 6.2F) were applied to polyfoam rooting cubes for control of stem rot of poinsettia caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The populations of antagonists and colonization of rooting cubes by R. solani were monitored during a 3-week period. Colonization of cubes by R. solani was reduced in cubes treated with P. cepacia, but the population of P. cepacia decreased by as much as 97% during the test period. Increased colonization by R. solani was correlated with a decline in population of P. cepacia. P. lilacinus was more persistent than P. cepacia in cubes, with only a 21% reduction observed during the 3-week period. Colonization of the P. lilacinus-treated cubes by R. solani was significantly less than colonization of infested controls. No correlation existed between population of P. lilacinus and colonization of cubes by R. solani. PMID:16349353

  4. RSIADB, a collective resource for genome and transcriptome analyses in Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Peng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Zhu, Jun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Rice [Oryza sativa (L.)] feeds more than half of the world’s population. Rhizoctonia solani is a major fungal pathogen of rice causing extreme crop losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. R. solani AG1 IA is a major cause of sheath blight in rice. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, RSIADB, to analyse its draft genome and transcriptome. The database was built using the genome sequence (10 489 genes) and annotation information for R. solani AG1 IA. A total of six RNAseq samples of R. solani AG1 IA were also analysed, corresponding to 10, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 72 h after infection of rice leaves. The RSIADB database enables users to search, browse, and download gene sequences for R. solani AG1 IA, and mine the data using BLAST, Sequence Extractor, Browse and Construction Diagram tools that were integrated into the database. RSIADB is an important genomic resource for scientists working with R. solani AG1 IA and will assist researchers in analysing the annotated genome and transcriptome of this pathogen. This resource will facilitate studies on gene function, pathogenesis factors and secreted proteins, as well as provide an avenue for comparative analyses of genes expressed during different stages of infection. Database URL: http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/rsia/index.php PMID:27022158

  5. Leuconostoc spp. Associated with Root Rot in Sugar Beet and Their Interaction with Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Strausbaugh, Carl A

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is an important disease problem in sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and also shown to be associated with Leuconostoc spp. Initial Leuconostoc studies were conducted with only a few isolates and the relationship of Leuconostoc with R. solani is poorly understood; therefore, a more thorough investigation was conducted. In total, 203 Leuconostoc isolates were collected from recently harvested sugar beet roots in southern Idaho and southeastern Oregon during 2010 and 2012: 88 and 85% Leuconostoc mesenteroides, 6 and 15% L. pseudomesenteroides, 2 and 0% L. kimchi, and 4 and 0% unrecognized Leuconostoc spp., respectively. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing, haplotype 11 (L. mesenteroides isolates) comprised 68 to 70% of the isolates in both years. In pathogenicity field studies with commercial sugar beet 'B-7', all Leuconostoc isolates caused more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) when combined with R. solani than when inoculated alone in both years. Also, 46 of the 52 combination treatments over the 2 years had significantly more rot (P < 0.0001; α = 0.05) than the fungal check. The data support the conclusion that a synergistic interaction leads to more rot when both Leuconostoc spp. and R. solani are present in sugar beet roots. PMID:26735061

  6. Gene expression profiling of the plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 reveals putative virulence factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a ubiquitous basidiomycetous soilborne fungal pathogen causing damping off of seedlings, aerial blights and postharvest diseases. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis a global approach based on analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) was undertaken. ...

  7. Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani can produce both web blight and root rot symptoms in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn (Rs) is an important pathogen in the tropics, causing web blight (WB), and a widespread soil-borne root rot (RR) pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) worldwide. This pathogen is a species complex classified into 14 anastomosis groups (AG). Some AGs have been report...

  8. High-resolution mapping of Rsn1, a locus controlling sensitivity of rice to a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease on all major crop-plant species. Anastomosis group 1-IA is the causal agent of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa), one of the most important rice diseases worldwide. R. solani AG-IA produces a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin a...

  9. Proteomic investigation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 identifies secretome and mycelial proteins with roles in plant cell wall degradation and virulence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 is a soilborne necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen that causes economically important diseases on agronomic crops worldwide. Our long-term goal is to elucidate the molecular basis of pathogenesis of isolates of R. solani AG 4 in an effort to develop more effective control meth...

  10. RSIADB, a collective resource for genome and transcriptome analyses in Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Ai, Peng; Zhang, Jinfeng; Deng, Qiming; Wang, Shiquan; Li, Shuangcheng; Zhu, Jun; Li, Ping; Zheng, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Rice [Oryza sativa (L.)] feeds more than half of the world's population. Rhizoctonia solaniis a major fungal pathogen of rice causing extreme crop losses in all rice-growing regions of the world. R. solani AG1 IA is a major cause of sheath blight in rice. In this study, we constructed a comprehensive and user-friendly web-based database, RSIADB, to analyse its draft genome and transcriptome. The database was built using the genome sequence (10,489 genes) and annotation information for R. solani AG1 IA. A total of six RNAseq samples of R. solani AG1 IA were also analysed, corresponding to 10, 18, 24, 32, 48 and 72 h after infection of rice leaves. The RSIADB database enables users to search, browse, and download gene sequences for R. solani AG1 IA, and mine the data using BLAST, Sequence Extractor, Browse and Construction Diagram tools that were integrated into the database. RSIADB is an important genomic resource for scientists working with R. solani AG1 IA and will assist researchers in analysing the annotated genome and transcriptome of this pathogen. This resource will facilitate studies on gene function, pathogenesis factors and secreted proteins, as well as provide an avenue for comparative analyses of genes expressed during different stages of infection. Database URL:http://genedenovoweb.ticp.net:81/rsia/index.php. PMID:27022158

  11. Population genetic structure of Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT from potatoes in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Muzhinji, Norman; Woodhall, James W; Truter, Mariette; van der Waals, Jacquie E

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 3-PT is an important potato pathogen causing significant yield and quality losses in potato production. However, little is known about the levels of genetic diversity and structure of this pathogen in South Africa. A total of 114 R. solani AG 3-PT isolates collected from four geographic regions were analysed for genetic diversity and structure using eight microsatellite loci. Microsatellite analysis found high intra-population genetic diversity, population differentiation and evidence of recombination. A total of 78 multilocus genotypes were identified with few shared among populations. Low levels of clonality (13-39 %) and high levels of population differentiation were observed among populations. Most of the loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and all four populations showed evidence of a mixed reproductive mode of both clonality and recombination. The PCoA clustering method revealed genetically distinct geographic populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa. This study showed that populations of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa are genetically differentiated and disease management strategies should be applied accordingly. This is the first study of the population genetics of R. solani AG 3-PT in South Africa and results may help to develop knowledge-based disease management strategies. PMID:27109367

  12. Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani on potato by using indigenous Trichoderma spp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Emre Demirer

    2016-04-01

    At this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of Trichoderma isolates that was isolated from the soil samples taken from the different regions on black scurf and stem canker disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn that has been one of the biggest problems of the potato cultivation. At the end of the soil isolations, totally 81 Trichoderma isolates were obtained and their species were identified. Of these isolates, T. harzianum (42%), T. virens (31%), T. asperellum (15%) and T. viride (12%). All of the isolates were tested in vitro for their antagonistic activity against the R. solani isolate. The isolates that show high inhibition rate was selected and tested against R. solani in vitro. Potato plants were grown in a greenhouse for about 10 weeks. Then the plants were evaluated according to the scale, plant height, shoot fresh and dry weights, root fresh and dry weights were noted. The experiment was conducted two times in three replications. At the in vitro tests, generally, it was determined that Trichoderma isolates have inhibited to R. solani and in vivo, they were reduced the effects of the disease and they were raised the development of the plant. In particular, it was determined that some isolates of the T. harzianum and T. virens have reduced the severity of the disease. It was determined that both in vitro and in vivo isolates have shown different efficiency against R. solani.

  13. Transgenic expression of Lactoferrin imparts resistance to a soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var Xanthi) and Arabidopsis (A. thaliana) plants expressing an antimicrobial bovine lactoferrin (BLF) gene were developed and evaluated for resistance against an economically important fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of damping off diseases....

  14. Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in the Infection of the Necrotrophic Fungi, Rhizoctonia solani in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Rhonda C.; Kidd, Brendan N.; Hane, James K.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a nectrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes billions of dollars of damage to agriculture worldwide and infects a broad host range including wheat, rice, potato and legumes. In this study we identify wheat genes that are differentially expressed in response to the R. solani isolate, AG8, using microarray technology. A significant number of wheat genes identified in this screen were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and redox regulation. Levels of ROS species were increased in wheat root tissue following R. solani infection as determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT), 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and titanium sulphate measurements. Pathogen/ROS related genes from R. solani were also tested for expression patterns upon wheat infection. TmpL, a R. solani gene homologous to a gene associated with ROS regulation in Alternaria brassicicola, and OAH, a R. solani gene homologous to oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase which has been shown to produce oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were highly induced in R. solani when infecting wheat. We speculate that the interplay between the wheat and R. solani ROS generating proteins may be important for determining the outcome of the wheat/R. solani interaction. PMID:27031952

  15. Reactive Oxygen Species Play a Role in the Infection of the Necrotrophic Fungi, Rhizoctonia solani in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rhonda C; Kidd, Brendan N; Hane, James K; Anderson, Jonathan P; Singh, Karam B

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a nectrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes billions of dollars of damage to agriculture worldwide and infects a broad host range including wheat, rice, potato and legumes. In this study we identify wheat genes that are differentially expressed in response to the R. solani isolate, AG8, using microarray technology. A significant number of wheat genes identified in this screen were involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and redox regulation. Levels of ROS species were increased in wheat root tissue following R. solani infection as determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT), 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) and titanium sulphate measurements. Pathogen/ROS related genes from R. solani were also tested for expression patterns upon wheat infection. TmpL, a R. solani gene homologous to a gene associated with ROS regulation in Alternaria brassicicola, and OAH, a R. solani gene homologous to oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase which has been shown to produce oxalic acid in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, were highly induced in R. solani when infecting wheat. We speculate that the interplay between the wheat and R. solani ROS generating proteins may be important for determining the outcome of the wheat/R. solani interaction. PMID:27031952

  16. Mass-spectrometry data for Rhizoctonia solani proteins produced during infection of wheat and vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Hane, James K; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Singh, Karam B

    2016-09-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato, legumes and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. The data described in this article is derived from applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Comparisons of the data for sample types in this set will be useful to identify metabolic pathway changes as the fungus switches from saprophytic to a pathogenic lifestyle or pathogenicity related proteins contributing to the ability to cause disease on wheat. The data set is deposited in the PRIDE archive under identifier PRIDE: PXD002806. PMID:27331100

  17. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on green beans

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hazmi, A.S.; Al-Nadary, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita (race 2) and Rhizoctonia solani (AG 4) in a root rot disease complex of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was examined in a greenhouse pot experiment. Three week-old seedlings (cv. Contender) were inoculated with the nematode and/or the fungus in different combinations and sequences. Two months after last nematode inoculation, the test was terminated and data were recorded. The synchronized inoculation by both pathogens (N + F) increased the index of Rhizoctonia root rot and the number of root galls; and suppressed plant growth, compared to controls. However, the severity of root rot and suppression of plant growth were greater and more evident when inoculation by the nematode preceded the fungus (N → F) by two weeks. Nematode reproduction (eggs/g root) was adversely affected by the presence of the fungus except by the synchronized inoculation. When inoculation by nematode preceded the fungus, plant growth was severely suppressed and roots were highly damaged and rotted leading to a decrease of root galls and eggs. PMID:26288560

  18. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on green beans.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Al-Nadary, S N

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita (race 2) and Rhizoctonia solani (AG 4) in a root rot disease complex of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was examined in a greenhouse pot experiment. Three week-old seedlings (cv. Contender) were inoculated with the nematode and/or the fungus in different combinations and sequences. Two months after last nematode inoculation, the test was terminated and data were recorded. The synchronized inoculation by both pathogens (N + F) increased the index of Rhizoctonia root rot and the number of root galls; and suppressed plant growth, compared to controls. However, the severity of root rot and suppression of plant growth were greater and more evident when inoculation by the nematode preceded the fungus (N → F) by two weeks. Nematode reproduction (eggs/g root) was adversely affected by the presence of the fungus except by the synchronized inoculation. When inoculation by nematode preceded the fungus, plant growth was severely suppressed and roots were highly damaged and rotted leading to a decrease of root galls and eggs. PMID:26288560

  19. Identification and Quantification of Pathogenic Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae Using Real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae are the principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot in dryland cereal production systems of the Pacific Northwest. To facilitate the identification and quantification of these pathogens in agricultural samples, we developed SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitati...

  20. Timing and Methodology of Application of Azoxystrobin to Control Rhizoctonia Solani in Sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in North Dakota and Minnesota. This disease is a major limiting factor to sugar beet production. Management strategies currently include using partially resistant cultivars and fungicides. ...

  1. The supernatant of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 has antifungal activity towards Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinqi; Yong, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Ruifu; Shen, Qirong; Yang, Xingming

    2013-08-01

    For clarification of the antagonistic mechanism of Bacillus pumilus SQR-N43 (N43) against Rhizoctonia solani Q1, production of antibiotics by N43 was determined, and the effect of the antibiotics on the pathogen mycelium was microscopically observed. Further more, the control efficiencies of the antifungal compounds on damping-off disease were investigated. The results obtained are listed as follows: N43 produced antibiotic substances towards R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. The antibiotics caused hyphal deformation and enlargement of cytoplasmic vacuoles in R. solani Q1 mycelia. 70% saturation of ammonium sulfate made a complete precipitation of the antibiotics in culture broth. When treated with protease K and trypsase, the activities of antibiotics were decreased by 79% and 53%, respectively, compared with control. The antibiotics were sensitive to high temperature and were alkaline stable. The molecular weights of the substances were about 500-1000 Da. The bio-control efficiencies of the antibiotics had no significant difference with that of N43 cell suspension. It is a first report that B. pumilus strain produced oligopeptides which had inhibitory effect on R. solani Q1 at logarithmic growth phase. PMID:23417338

  2. Evaluation of Brassica species for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani and binucleate Rhizoctonia (Ceratobasidium spp.) under controlled environment conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isolates of R. solani AG 2-1, AG 8, AG 10 and binucleate Rhizoctonia (Ceratobasidium spp.) were tested for virulence on Brassica crops in growth chamber experiments. Isolate virulence and genotype resistance were determined based on percent of seedling survival, shoot length, and shoot fresh weight....

  3. Pectic zymogram variation and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4 to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) isolates in Isfahn, Iran.

    PubMed

    Balali, G R; Kowsari, M

    2004-10-01

    Rhizoctonia disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important fungal diseases in bean fields in Isfahan, Iran. Bean plants showing stem and root cankers were collected and Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from the samples were identified by anastomosis. Pure cultures of bean isolates of R. solani were identified as AG-4. There were also AG-4 isolates from tomato, potato, cucumber, alfalfa and sugar beet in the areas sampled. A total of 163 isolates of R. solani AG-4 originating from stem and root cankers of beans were examined using pectic zymogram electrophoresis. Polygalacturonase (PG) and pectin estrase isozymes were observed in all AG-4 isolates tested. One (PG) and one pectic esterase (PE) band was found in common between all isolates examined. The electrophoretic patterns were grouped into seven zymogram groups (ZGs) according to the diagnostic PG and PE bands. One ZG occurred in a high frequency throughout the areas sampled. A pathogenicity test was conducted and representative isolates of each ZG were used to inoculate healthy bean plants. The results showed that each ZG caused different symptoms with varying severity. Isolates belonging to two ZGs were highly pathogenic causing root, stem and hypocotyl cankers whereas isolates of the other ZGs produced weak or no symptoms. PMID:15645177

  4. Unraveling Aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Mediated Enhanced Production of Rice under Biotic Stress of Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Suchi; Bist, Vidisha; Srivastava, Sonal; Singh, Poonam C.; Trivedi, Prabodh K.; Asif, Mehar H.; Chauhan, Puneet S.; Nautiyal, Chandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study, an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13) is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against R. solani in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic, and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post R. solani infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants’ physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a) involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b) sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c) a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol, and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-D-glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d) production of metabolites like quinazoline and expression of terpene synthase, and (e) hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in B. amyloliquefaciens (SN13) mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27200058

  5. Unraveling Aspects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Mediated Enhanced Production of Rice under Biotic Stress of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Suchi; Bist, Vidisha; Srivastava, Sonal; Singh, Poonam C; Trivedi, Prabodh K; Asif, Mehar H; Chauhan, Puneet S; Nautiyal, Chandra S

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungi causing sheath blight in rice leading to substantial loss in yield. Excessive and persistent use of preventive chemicals raises human health and environment safety concerns. As an alternative, use of biocontrol agents is highly recommended. In the present study, an abiotic stress tolerant, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SN13) is demonstrated to act as a biocontrol agent and enhance immune response against R. solani in rice by modulating various physiological, metabolic, and molecular functions. A sustained tolerance by SN13 primed plant over a longer period of time, post R. solani infection may be attributed to several unconventional aspects of the plants' physiological status. The prolonged stress tolerance observed in presence of SN13 is characterized by (a) involvement of bacterial mycolytic enzymes, (b) sustained maintenance of elicitors to keep the immune system induced involving non-metabolizable sugars such as turanose besides the known elicitors, (c) a delicate balance of ROS and ROS scavengers through production of proline, mannitol, and arabitol and rare sugars like fructopyranose, β-D-glucopyranose and myoinositol and expression of ferric reductases and hypoxia induced proteins, (d) production of metabolites like quinazoline and expression of terpene synthase, and (e) hormonal cross talk. As the novel aspect of biological control this study highlights the role of rare sugars, maintenance of hypoxic conditions, and sucrose and starch metabolism in B. amyloliquefaciens (SN13) mediated sustained biotic stress tolerance in rice. PMID:27200058

  6. Effect of pH on the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from cereal-based cropping systems in eastern Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8 and Rhizoctonia oryzae are serious root diseases in dryland cereal production in Washington State. Isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. from fields with different cropping histories in the low- (12 inches) precipitation zones...

  7. AFLP fingerprinting for identification of infra-species groups of Rhizoctonia solani and Waitea circinata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patch diseases caused by Thanatephorus cucumeris and Waitea circinata varieties (anamorphs: Rhizoctonia species) pose a serious threat to successful maintenance of several important turfgrass species. Reliance on field symptoms to identify Rhizoctonia causal agents can be difficult and misleading. D...

  8. Mid-infared (MidIR) and near-infared (NIR) dection of rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB on barley based artificial inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of Rhizoctonia solani in the soil and how much is needed to cause disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is relatively unknown. This is mostly because of the usually low inoculum densities natually found in soil, and the low sensitivity of traditional serial dilution assays. We invest...

  9. Mid-infared and near-infared detection of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2IIIB on barley based artifical inoculum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of Rhizoctonia solani in the soil and how much is needed to cause disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is relatively unknown. This is mostly because of the usually low inoculum densities natually found in soil, and the low sensitivity of traditional serial dilution assays. We invest...

  10. CULTIVAR SPECIFIC RESPONSE TO THE HOST-SELECTIVE TOXIN PRODUCED BY RHIZOCTONIA SOLANI, THE CAUSAL PATHOGEN OF SHEATH BLIGHT DISEASE Of RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheath Blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is widely regarded as one of the most important diseases of cultivated rice and germplasm improvement is essential for disease management. Genetic sources of tolerance for this disease are known, however, complex quantitative inheritance and high environ...

  11. Long-term Preservation of a Collection of Rhizoctonia solani, using Cryogenic Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important plant pathogen on a number of crops and maintaining an extensive collection of reference isolates is important in understanding relationships of this pathogen with multiple hosts. Current long-term storage methods typically call for frequent transfer increasing the...

  12. Comparative analysis of putative pathogenesis-related gene expression in two Rhizoctonia solani pathosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani, teleomorph Thanatephoris cucumeris, is a polyphagous nectrotrophic plant pathogen of the Basidiomycete order that is split into fourteen different anastomosis groups (AGs) based on hyphal interactions and host range. Currently, little is known about the methods by which R. solan...

  13. Development of an Agrobacterium-based transformation system for Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 8.7 kb binary vector containing the 1.9 kb hygromycin B phosphortransferase (hyg) gene was constructed with promoter and terminator regions from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate- dehydrogenase (gpd) gene of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 3 (AG-3) at the 5'- and 3'- gene termini of hyg. Promot...

  14. Long Term Preservation of a Collection of Rhizoctonia Solani, using Cryogenic Storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is an important plant pathogen on a number of crops and maintaining an extensive collection of reference isolates is important in understanding relationships of this pathogen with multiple hosts. While a number of long-term storage methods have been developed, mos...

  15. Sugar Beet Resistance to Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot: Where does it fit in?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), Rhizoctonia root- or crown-rot is caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG-2-2). Seedling damping-off in sugar beet is caused by R. solani of both anastomosis groups, AG-2-2 and AG-4. Rhizoctonia solani subgroup AG-2-2 IV had been considered to be the primary cause of Rhi...

  16. Proteomic response of Rhizoctonia solani GD118 suppressed by Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liuqing; Liu, Mei; Liao, Meide

    2014-12-01

    Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is considered a worldwide destructive rice disease and leads to considerable yield losses. A bio-control agent, Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04, was screened to resist against the pathogen. The inhibitory effects were investigated (>80 %) by the growth of the hyphae. Microscopic observation of the hypha structure manifested that the morphology of the pathogenic mycelium was strongly affected by P. kribbensis PS04. To explore essentially inhibitory mechanisms, proteomic approach was adopted to identify differentially expressed proteins from R. solani GD118 in response to P. kribbensis PS04 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein profiling was used to identify 13 differential proteins: 10 proteins were found to be down-regulated while 3 proteins were up-regulated. These proteins were involved in material and energy metabolism, antioxidant activity, protein folding and degradation, and cytoskeleton regulation. Among them, material and energy metabolism was differentially regulated by P. kribbensis PS04. Protein expression was separately inhibited by the bio-control agent in oxidation resistance, protein folding and degradation, and cytoskeleton regulation. Proteome changes of the mycelium assist in understanding how the pathogen was directly suppressed by P. kribbensis PS04. PMID:25164959

  17. Population Dynamics of Sugar Beets, Rhizoctonia solani, and Laetisaria arvalis: Responses of a Host, Plant Pathogen, and Hyperparasite to Perturbation in the Field.

    PubMed

    Allen, M F; Boosalis, M G; Kerr, E D; Muldoon, A E; Larsen, H J

    1985-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani causes crown rot of sugar beets, a severe disease that has destroyed up to 60% of the plants in a test field in western Nebraska. Laetisaria arvalis, a natural hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia spp., was isolated from fields in western Nebraska. To test for the potential for biological control of R. solani, in November 1980 (following harvest) we applied various combinations of a nematicide (Telone II; Dow Chemical Co.), a nutrition source (sugar beet pulp), and an inoculum of L. arvalis in a randomized block design. Populations of R. solani, L. arvalis, and sugar beets were monitored monthly through October 1981 (just after harvest). In control and nematicide plots, the R. solani population did not change significantly through time. In plots inoculated with L. arvalis, the R. solani populations declined through March, concomitant with an increase in L. arvalis. L. arvalis then declined with a corresponding increase in the R. solani populations. Beet plant numbers declined significantly in all treatments. We suggest that reduction of the R. solani populations with the hyperparasite L. arvalis is possible but that a stable equilibrium naturally exists. PMID:16346925

  18. Mungbean plants expressing BjNPR1 exhibit enhanced resistance against the seedling rot pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, S; Kirti, P B

    2012-02-01

    Mungbean, Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek is an important pulse crop that is widely cultivated in semi- arid tropics. The crop is attacked by various soil-borne pathogens like Rhizoctonia solani, which causes dry rot disease and seriously affects its productivity. Earlier we characterized the non-expressor of pathogenesis related gene-1(BjNPR1) of mustard, Brassica juncea, the counterpart of AtNPR1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we transformed mungbean with BjNPR1 via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Because of the recalcitrant nature of mungbean, the effect of some factors like Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains (GV2260 and LBA4404), pH, L: -cysteine and tobacco leaf extract was tested in transformation. The transgenic status of 15 plants was confirmed by PCR using primers for nptII. The independent integration of T-DNA in transgenic plants was analyzed by Southern hybridization with an nptII probe and the expression of BjNPR1 was confirmed by RT-PCR. Some of the T(0) plants were selected for detached leaf anti-fungal bioassay using the fungus Rhizoctonia solani, which showed moderate to high level of resistance depending on the level of expression of BjNPR1. The seedling bioassay of transgenic T(2) plants indicated resistance against dry rot disease caused by R. solani. PMID:21584838

  19. Maple Bark Biochar Affects Rhizoctonia solani Metabolism and Increases Damping-Off Severity.

    PubMed

    Copley, Tanya R; Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of biochar on plant yield, nutrient uptake, and soil microbial populations; however, little work has been done on its effect on soilborne plant diseases. To determine the effect of maple bark biochar on Rhizoctonia damping-off, 11 plant species were grown in a soilless potting substrate amended with different concentrations of biochar and inoculated or not with Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 4. Additionally, the effect of biochar amendment on R. solani growth and metabolism in vitro was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of maple bark biochar increased Rhizoctonia damping-off of all 11 plant species. Using multivariate analyses, we observed positive correlations between biochar amendments, disease severity and incidence, abundance of culturable bacterial communities, and physicochemical parameters. Additionally, biochar amendment significantly increased R. solani growth and hyphal extension in vitro, and altered its primary metabolism, notably the mannitol and tricarboxylic acid cycles and the glycolysis pathway. One or several organic compounds present in the biochar, as identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, may be metabolized by R. solani. Taken together, these results indicate that future studies on biochar should focus on the effect of its use as an amendment on soilborne plant pathogens before applying it to soils. PMID:25938176

  20. Bioactive saponin from tea seed pomace with inhibitory effects against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Chun; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Lin, Chih-Lung; Chen, Guo-Feng; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2010-08-11

    The present study was aimed to characterize the antifungal principles in methanol extract of tea ( Camellia oleifera ) seed pomace. Totally, two flavonoids, camelliasides A (1) and B (2), and one saponin mixture composed of camelliasaponin B(1) (3) were identified from the methanol extract. These constituents were tested for their ability to reduce the infection of cabbage seedlings by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn AG-4 and to inhibit growth of the pathogen on potato dextrose agar plates. The saponin mixture is a potential candidate as a new plant-derived pesticide to control Rhizoctonia damping-off of vegetable seedlings. PMID:20681650

  1. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani AG-2, the causal agent of damping-off by Muscodor cinnamomi CMU-Cib 461.

    PubMed

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kumla, Jaturong; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2012-11-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a damping-off pathogen that causes significant crop loss worldwide. In this study, the potential of Muscodor cinnamomi, a new species of endophytic fungus for controlling R. solani AG-2 damping-off disease of plant seedlings by biological fumigation was investigated. In vitro tests showed that M. cinnamomi volatile compounds inhibited mycelial growth of pathogens. Among nine solid media tested, rye grain was the best grain for inoculum production. An in vivo experiment of four seedlings, bird pepper, bush bean, garden pea and tomato were conducted. The results indicated that treatment with 30 g of M. cinnamomi inoculum was the minimum dose that caused complete control of damping-off symptoms of all seedlings after one month of planting. The R. solani-infested soil showed the lowest percentage of seed germination. In addition, M. cinnamomi did not cause any disease symptoms. From the results it is clear that M. cinnamomi is effective in controlling R. solani AG-2 both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22806753

  2. Degradation of chlorbromuron and related compounds by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Weinberger, M; Bollag, J M

    1972-11-01

    The ability of the soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani to degrade phenyl-substituted urea herbicides was investigated. The fungus was able to transform chlorbromuron [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methyl-1-methoxyurea] to the demethylated product [3-(3-chloro-4-bromophenyl)-1-methoxyurea], which was isolated and identified. Evidence was obtained that further degradation of chlorbromuron occurred. Several other phenylurea compounds (chloroxuron, diuron, fenuron, fluometuron, linuron, metobromuron, neburon, and siduron) were also metabolized by the fungus, indicating that R. solani may possess a generalized ability to attack this group of herbicides. PMID:4640737

  3. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  4. Fungichromin: a substance from Streptomyces padanus with inhibitory effects on Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hsin-Der; Liu, Yung-Chuan; Hsu, Fen-Lin; Mulabagal, Vanisree; Dodda, Rajasekhar; Huang, Jenn-Wen

    2003-01-01

    Streptomyces padanus strain PMS-702 is an antagonist of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, the causal agent of damping-off of cabbage. Treatment of cabbage seeds with the culture filtrate of S. padanus strain PMS-702 was effective in reducing the incidence of damping-off of cabbage. The major active ingredient from the culture filtrate of S. padanus strain PMS-702 was purified by silica gel column chromatography and identified as the polyene macrolide, fungichromin, by NMR and mass spectral data. Bioassay studies showed that fungichromin had a strong antifungal activity against R. solani AG-4, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (over 90% inhibition) was found to be 72 microg/mL. This is the first report of fungichromin from S. padanus as an active ingredient for the control of Rhizoctonia damping-off of cabbage. PMID:12502391

  5. A fungal growth model fitted to carbon-limited dynamics of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Jeger, M J; Lamour, A; Gilligan, C A; Otten, W

    2008-01-01

    Here, a quasi-steady-state approximation was used to simplify a mathematical model for fungal growth in carbon-limiting systems, and this was fitted to growth dynamics of the soil-borne plant pathogen and saprotroph Rhizoctonia solani. The model identified a criterion for invasion into carbon-limited environments with two characteristics driving fungal growth, namely the carbon decomposition rate and a measure of carbon use efficiency. The dynamics of fungal spread through a population of sites with either low (0.0074 mg) or high (0.016 mg) carbon content were well described by the simplified model with faster colonization for the carbon-rich environment. Rhizoctonia solani responded to a lower carbon availability by increasing the carbon use efficiency and the carbon decomposition rate following colonization. The results are discussed in relation to fungal invasion thresholds in terms of carbon nutrition. PMID:18312538

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP

    PubMed Central

    Cubeta, Marc A.; Dean, Ralph A.; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M.; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B.; Pakala, Suchitra M.; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of the Plant-Pathogenic Soil Fungus Rhizoctonia solani Anastomosis Group 3 Strain Rhs1AP.

    PubMed

    Cubeta, Marc A; Thomas, Elizabeth; Dean, Ralph A; Jabaji, Suha; Neate, Stephen M; Tavantzis, Stellos; Toda, Takeshi; Vilgalys, Rytas; Bharathan, Narayanaswamy; Fedorova-Abrams, Natalie; Pakala, Suman B; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Joardar, Vinita; Losada, Liliana; Nierman, William C

    2014-01-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is a pathogen of agricultural crops. Here, we report on the 51,705,945 bp draft consensus genome sequence of R. solani strain Rhs1AP. A comprehensive understanding of the heterokaryotic genome complexity and organization of R. solani may provide insight into the plant disease ecology and adaptive behavior of the fungus. PMID:25359908

  8. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics of the broad host-range pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8.

    PubMed

    Hane, James K; Anderson, Jonathan P; Williams, Angela H; Sperschneider, Jana; Singh, Karam B

    2014-05-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne basidiomycete fungus with a necrotrophic lifestyle which is classified into fourteen reproductively incompatible anastomosis groups (AGs). One of these, AG8, is a devastating pathogen causing bare patch of cereals, brassicas and legumes. R. solani is a multinucleate heterokaryon containing significant heterozygosity within a single cell. This complexity posed significant challenges for the assembly of its genome. We present a high quality genome assembly of R. solani AG8 and a manually curated set of 13,964 genes supported by RNA-seq. The AG8 genome assembly used novel methods to produce a haploid representation of its heterokaryotic state. The whole-genomes of AG8, the rice pathogen AG1-IA and the potato pathogen AG3 were observed to be syntenic and co-linear. Genes and functions putatively relevant to pathogenicity were highlighted by comparing AG8 to known pathogenicity genes, orthology databases spanning 197 phytopathogenic taxa and AG1-IA. We also observed SNP-level "hypermutation" of CpG dinucleotides to TpG between AG8 nuclei, with similarities to repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Interestingly, gene-coding regions were widely affected along with repetitive DNA, which has not been previously observed for RIP in mononuclear fungi of the Pezizomycotina. The rate of heterozygous SNP mutations within this single isolate of AG8 was observed to be higher than SNP mutation rates observed across populations of most fungal species compared. Comparative analyses were combined to predict biological processes relevant to AG8 and 308 proteins with effector-like characteristics, forming a valuable resource for further study of this pathosystem. Predicted effector-like proteins had elevated levels of non-synonymous point mutations relative to synonymous mutations (dN/dS), suggesting that they may be under diversifying selection pressures. In addition, the distant relationship to sequenced necrotrophs of the Ascomycota suggests the R

  9. Genome Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of the Broad Host-Range Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    PubMed Central

    Hane, James K.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Williams, Angela H.; Sperschneider, Jana; Singh, Karam B.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne basidiomycete fungus with a necrotrophic lifestyle which is classified into fourteen reproductively incompatible anastomosis groups (AGs). One of these, AG8, is a devastating pathogen causing bare patch of cereals, brassicas and legumes. R. solani is a multinucleate heterokaryon containing significant heterozygosity within a single cell. This complexity posed significant challenges for the assembly of its genome. We present a high quality genome assembly of R. solani AG8 and a manually curated set of 13,964 genes supported by RNA-seq. The AG8 genome assembly used novel methods to produce a haploid representation of its heterokaryotic state. The whole-genomes of AG8, the rice pathogen AG1-IA and the potato pathogen AG3 were observed to be syntenic and co-linear. Genes and functions putatively relevant to pathogenicity were highlighted by comparing AG8 to known pathogenicity genes, orthology databases spanning 197 phytopathogenic taxa and AG1-IA. We also observed SNP-level “hypermutation” of CpG dinucleotides to TpG between AG8 nuclei, with similarities to repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). Interestingly, gene-coding regions were widely affected along with repetitive DNA, which has not been previously observed for RIP in mononuclear fungi of the Pezizomycotina. The rate of heterozygous SNP mutations within this single isolate of AG8 was observed to be higher than SNP mutation rates observed across populations of most fungal species compared. Comparative analyses were combined to predict biological processes relevant to AG8 and 308 proteins with effector-like characteristics, forming a valuable resource for further study of this pathosystem. Predicted effector-like proteins had elevated levels of non-synonymous point mutations relative to synonymous mutations (dN/dS), suggesting that they may be under diversifying selection pressures. In addition, the distant relationship to sequenced necrotrophs of the Ascomycota suggests the

  10. Scarlet-Rz1, an EMS-generated hexaploid wheat with tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia Ann; Steber, Camille M; Demacon, Victor L; Walter, Nathalie L; Paulitz, Timothy C; Kidwell, Kimberlee K

    2009-07-01

    The necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose barriers to the adoption of conservation tillage in wheat production systems. Existing control practices are only partially effective, and natural genetic resistance to Rhizoctonia has not been identified in wheat or its close relatives. We report the first genetic resistance/tolerance to R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) germplasm 'Scarlet-Rz1'. Scarlet-Rz1 was derived from the allohexaploid spring wheat cultivar Scarlet using EMS mutagenesis. Tolerant seedlings displayed substantial root and shoot growth after 14 days in the presence of 100-400 propagules per gram soil of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae in greenhouse assays. BC(2)F(4) individuals of Scarlet-Rz1 showed a high and consistent degree of tolerance. Seedling tolerance was transmissible and appeared to be dominant or co-dominant. Scarlet-Rz1 is a promising genetic resource for developing Rhizoctonia-tolerant wheat cultivars because the tolerance trait immediately can be deployed into wheat breeding germplasm through cross-hybridization, thereby avoiding difficulties with transfer from secondary or tertiary relatives as well as constraints associated with genetically modified plants. Our findings also demonstrate the utility of chemical mutagenesis for generating tolerance to necrotrophic pathogens in allohexaploid wheat. PMID:19407984

  11. The influence of soil moisture and Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis and intraspecific group on the incidence of damping-off and the incidence and severity of Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) reduces plant stands, sugar quality and yield in sugar beet. To evaluate the influence of R. solani anastomosis (AG) and intraspecific groups and soil moisture on disease incidence and severity, a field trial was established in Ridgetown, Ontario, ...

  12. Induction of Soil Suppressiveness Against Rhizoctonia solani by Incorporation of Dried Plant Residues into Soil.

    PubMed

    Kasuya, Masahiro; Olivier, Andriantsoa R; Ota, Yoko; Tojo, Motoaki; Honjo, Hitoshi; Fukui, Ryo

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT Suppressive effects of soil amendment with residues of 12 cultivars of Brassica rapa on damping-off of sugar beet were evaluated in soils infested with Rhizoctonia solani. Residues of clover and peanut were tested as noncruciferous controls. The incidence of damping-off was significantly and consistently suppressed in the soils amended with residues of clover, peanut, and B. rapa subsp. rapifera 'Saori', but only the volatile substance produced from water-imbibed residue of cv. Saori exhibited a distinct inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of R. solani. Nonetheless, disease suppression in such residue-amended soils was diminished or nullified when antibacterial antibiotics were applied to the soils, suggesting that proliferation of antagonistic bacteria resident to the soils were responsible for disease suppression. When the seed (pericarps) colonized by R. solani in the infested soil without residues were replanted into the soils amended with such residues, damping-off was suppressed in all cases. In contrast, when seed that had been colonized by microorganisms in the soils containing the residues were replanted into the infested soil, damping-off was not suppressed. The evidence indicates that the laimosphere, but not the spermosphere, is the site for the antagonistic microbial interaction, which is the chief principle of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia damping-off. PMID:18943670

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts*

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Hane, James K.; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L.; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J.; Singh, Karam B.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about how R. solani causes disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility to R. solani when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  14. Induction of Laccase Activity in Rhizoctonia solani by Antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens Strains and a Range of Chemical Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Jonathan D.; Olsson, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Fungi often produce the phenoloxidase enzyme laccase during interactions with other organisms, an observation relevant to the development of biocontrols. By incorporating the laccase substrate 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) into agar, we analyzed laccase induction in the plant-pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani when paired against isolates of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. Substantial induction of R. solani laccase was seen only in pairings with strains of P. fluorescens known to produce antifungal metabolites. To study laccase induction further, a range of chemical treatments was applied to R. solani liquid cultures. p-Anisidine, copper(II), manganese(II), calcium ionophore A23187, lithium chloride, calcium chloride, cyclic AMP (cAMP), caffeine, amphotericin B, paraquat, ethanol, and isopropanol were all found to induce laccase; however, the P. fluorescens metabolite viscosinamide did not do so at the concentrations tested. The stress caused by these treatments was assessed by measuring changes in lipid peroxidation levels and dry weight. The results indicated that the laccase induction seen in pairing plate experiments was most likely due to calcium or heat shock signaling in response to the effects of bacterial metabolites, but that heavy metal and cAMP-driven laccase induction was involved in sclerotization. PMID:11319086

  15. [Ultrastructural analysis of anastomosis group 9 of Rhizoctonia solani].

    PubMed

    Cedeño, L; Palacios Prü, E

    1996-01-01

    The ultrastructure of R. solani AG-9 (S-21, ATCC 62804) was investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The most important characteristics were those related with cell wall thickness, cytoplasmic matrix composition, number of nuclei and nucleoli and secretory material production. The majority of examined hyphae showed lateral cell walls thinner than those recorded before. The cytoplasmic matrix consistently appeared differentiated into two classes, one formed by a highly electron dense granular fine material and the other one showing a coloidal substance of very low density which give these cells a 'tiger-like' aspect. The grannular dense matrix always had abundant free ribosomes and usually surrounded the cytoplasmic organelles and the septal pore apparatus. The somatic cells showed up to 5 nuclei, some of which with three nucleoli. Masses of secretory material surrounded by membrane were regularly seen in the cytoplasm, with sizes similar to those of nuclei. PMID:9334448

  16. Draft genome sequence of the sugar beet pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB strain BBA69670.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Andersson, Louise; Rupp, Oliver; Goesmann, Alexander; Pühler, Alfred; Varrelmann, Mark; Dixelius, Christina; Schlüter, Andreas

    2016-03-20

    Rhizoctonia solani is a widespread plant pathogenic fungus featuring a broad host range including several economically important crops. Accordingly, genome analyses of R. solani isolates are important to uncover their pathogenic potential. Draft genome sequences for four R. solani isolates representing three of the 14 R. solani anastomosis groups (AGs) are available. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence for an R. solani AG2-2IIIB isolate that is pathogenic on sugar beet. The fungal genome was assembled in 2065 scaffolds consisting of 5826 contigs amounting to a size of about 52 Mb which is larger than any other R. solani isolate known today. Genes potentially encoding cellulolytic, lignolytic and pectinolytic enzymes were identified. PMID:26851388

  17. Seed disinfection effect of atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma on Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, Terumi; Takai, Yuichiro; Kawaradani, Mitsuo; Okada, Kiyotsugu; Tanimoto, Hideo; Misawa, Tatsuya; Kusakari, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Gas plasma generated and applied under two different systems, atmospheric pressure plasma and low pressure plasma, was used to investigate the inactivation efficacy on the seedborne pathogenic fungus, Rhizoctonia solani, which had been artificially introduced to brassicaceous seeds. Treatment with atmospheric plasma for 10 min markedly reduced the R. solani survival rate from 100% to 3% but delayed seed germination. The low pressure plasma treatment reduced the fungal survival rate from 83% to 1.7% after 10 min and the inactivation effect was dependent on the treatment time. The seed germination rate after treatment with the low pressure plasma was not significantly different from that of untreated seeds. The air temperature around the seeds in the low pressure system was lower than that of the atmospheric system. These results suggested that gas plasma treatment under low pressure could be effective in disinfecting the seeds without damaging them. PMID:24975415

  18. Genome sequence of a novel mycovirus of Rhizoctonia solani, a plant pathogenic fungus.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jie; Chen, Chuan-Yuan; Gao, Bi-Da

    2015-08-01

    Here we present the genome sequence of a novel dsRNA virus we designed as Rhizoctonia solani RNA virus HN008 (RsRV-HN008) from a filamentous fungus R. solani. Its genome (7596 nucleotides) contains two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORF1 and ORF2). ORF1 encoded a 128 kDa protein that showed no significant identity to any other virus sequence in the NCBI database. ORF2 encoded a protein with a molecular weight of 140 kDa and shared a low percentage of sequence identity to the RdRps of unclassified dsRNA viruses. Sequence analysis revealed that RsRV-HN008 may be a member of a novel unclassified family of mycoviruses. PMID:26116286

  19. Proteomic Investigation of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 Identifies Secretome and Mycelial Proteins with Roles in Plant Cell Wall Degradation and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Roberts, Daniel P; Garrett, Wesley M; Natarajan, Savithiry S; Darwish, Omar; Alkharouf, Nadim; Pain, Arnab; Khan, Farooq; Jambhulkar, Prashant P; Mitra, Amitava

    2016-04-20

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 is a soilborne necrotrophic fungal plant pathogen that causes economically important diseases on agronomic crops worldwide. This study used a proteomics approach to characterize both intracellular proteins and the secretome of R. solani AG 4 isolate Rs23A under several growth conditions, the secretome being highly important in pathogenesis. From over 500 total secretome and soluble intracellular protein spots from 2-D gels, 457 protein spots were analyzed and 318 proteins positively matched with fungal proteins of known function by comparison with available R. solani genome databases specific for anastomosis groups 1-IA, 1-IB, and 3. These proteins were categorized to possible cellular locations and functional groups and for some proteins their putative roles in plant cell wall degradation and virulence. The majority of the secreted proteins were grouped to extracellular regions and contain hydrolase activity. PMID:27019116

  20. Evaluation of soil microorganisms with inhibitory activity against Rhizoctonia solani causal agent of the damping-off of canola.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, L; Tewari, J P

    1990-10-01

    Pre- and post-emergence damping-off of canola seedlings caused by Rhizoctonia solani is a serious disease in Western Canada. Other fungi such as Fusarium spp. and Pythium spp. are also related to seedling damping-off. To-day, the search of soil bacteria is becoming a tool to use microorganisms as potential biocontrol agents for several plant diseases. The purpose of this research was to detect bacteria to biologically control R. solani, Pythium spp., and Fusarium spp. Soil samples were collected throughout Alberta during 1987 to isolate bacteria. Canola seedlings were also used to obtain bacteria from the same samples. Plant pathogenic fungi were tested to detect the antagonistic activity of the isolates. Tests were made with coated canola seeds, amendments and fresh of freeze-dried cells. Three hundred forty-one bacterial cultures were isolated. Only 16 inhibited fungal growth: 7 showed the same effects against R. solani and 9 showed uneven effects. Some isolates showed a weak action to Pythium spp. and Fusarium spp. Three isolates showed inhibitory effect on R. solani and Pythium spp. Isolate F1 improved by about 50% the germination of canola seeds in inoculated pots when compared with the inoculated control. Coated seeds had low germination and emergence was below the inoculated control. The emergence of canola seedlings was very much improved when isolate 147 was delivered as an amendment in inoculated pots. Identification showed that 3 bacterial belonged to Bacillus spp., 4 to green fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and 2 were Streptomyces spp. PMID:2133515

  1. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar "Zenith" root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected "Zenith" roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of "Zenith" root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of "Zenith" root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain. PMID:27242730

  2. De novo Transcriptome Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani AG1 IA Strain Early Invasion in Zoysia japonica Root

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chen; Ai, Lin; Wang, Li; Yin, Pingping; Liu, Chenglan; Li, Shanshan; Zeng, Huiming

    2016-01-01

    Zoysia japonica brown spot was caused by necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani invasion, which led to severe financial loss in city lawn and golf ground maintenance. However, little was known about the molecular mechanism of R. solani pathogenicity in Z. japonica. In this study we examined early stage interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica cultivar “Zenith” root by cell ultra-structure analysis, pathogenesis-related proteins assay and transcriptome analysis to explore molecular clues for AG1 IA strain pathogenicity in Z. japonica. No obvious cell structure damage was found in infected roots and most pathogenesis-related protein activities showedg a downward trend especially in 36 h post inoculation, which exhibits AG1 IA strain stealthy invasion characteristic. According to Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database classification, most DEGs in infected “Zenith” roots dynamically changed especially in three aspects, signal transduction, gene translation, and protein synthesis. Total 3422 unigenes of “Zenith” root were predicted into 14 kinds of resistance (R) gene class. Potential fungal resistance related unigenes of “Zenith” root were involved in ligin biosynthesis, phytoalexin synthesis, oxidative burst, wax biosynthesis, while two down-regulated unigenes encoding leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase and subtilisin-like protease might be important for host-derived signal perception to AG1 IA strain invasion. According to Pathogen Host Interaction (PHI) database annotation, 1508 unigenes of AG1 IA strain were predicted and classified into 37 known pathogen species, in addition, unigenes encoding virulence, signaling, host stress tolerance, and potential effector were also predicted. This research uncovered transcriptional profiling during the early phase interaction between R. solani AG1 IA strain and Z. japonica, and will greatly help identify key pathogenicity of AG1 IA strain

  3. EMS-treated hexaploid wheat genotype Scarlet has enhanced tolerance to the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 and R. oryzae. 2009. Theor. Appl. Genet. 119(February): 293-303

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae cause Rhizoctonia root rot and pre-emergence damping-off, yield-limiting diseases that pose a barrier to the adoption of reduced tillage wheat production systems intended to reduce soil erosion. We report the first genetic resistance to necrotrophic root pathogens Rhizo...

  4. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings.

    PubMed

    Walker, G E

    1997-06-01

    A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani isolates obtained from roots of diseased grapevines also was determined both alone and in combination with M. incognita. Ramsey was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 9.8 to 18.4 in a shadehouse and heated glasshouse, respectively) but was resistant to M. javanica and M. hapla. Colombard was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 24.3 and 41.3, respectively) and M. javanica. Shoot growth was suppressed (by 35%) by M. incognita and, to a lesser extent, by M. hapla. Colombard roots were more severely galled than Ramsey roots by all three species, and nematode reproduction was higher on Colombard. Isolates of R. solani assigned to putative anastomosis groups 2-1 and 4, and an unidentified isolate, colonized and induced rotting of grapevine roots. Ramsey was more susceptible to root rotting than Colombard. Shoot growth was inhibited by up to 15% by several AG 4 isolates and by 20% by the AG 2-1 isolate. AG 4 isolates varied in their virulence. Root rotting was higher when grapevines were inoculated with both M. incognita and R. solani and was highest when nematode inoculation preceded the fungus. Shoot weights were lower when vines were inoculated with the nematode 13 days before the fungus compared with inoculation with both the nematode and the fungus on the same day. It was concluded that both the M. incognita population and some R. solani isolates were virulent against both Colombard and Ramsey, and that measures to prevent spread in nursery stock were

  5. Sequence variation of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region among isolates of Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is a common and highly heterogeneous fungal species. Sub-specific groups have been created based on hyphal anastomosis (AGs). One of the newer AGs described is AG-11 from soybean and rice seedlings or soil in Arkansas and lupine in Australia (Carling et al. Phytopathology 84:1378-...

  6. Isolation and evaluation of bacteria and fungi as biological control agents against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Lahlali, R; Bajii, M; Jijakli, M H

    2007-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important limiting factors for potato production and storage in Belgium and worldwide. Its management is still strongly dependent on chemical treatments. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting bacteria and fungi in order to control this pathogen. Among a collection of 220 bacterial strains isolated from different organs of healthy potato plants and rhizospheric soils, 25 isolates were selected using screening methods based on in vitro dual culture assays. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of the pathogen was ranged from 59.4 to 95.0%. Also seven fungal strains isolated from the rhizospheric soil and potato roots showed a highly mycelial growth inhibition of R. solani. The mycelial growth inhibition rate obtained with these fungi was included between 60.0 and 99.4%. From this preliminary study, the further investigations will be planned to determine the bacterial isolates systematic, species of fungal strains by using molecular tools and to assess their efficacy against R. solani in greenhouse trials. PMID:18396837

  7. Purification and identification of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 lipopeptide biosurfactant exhibiting antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia bataticola and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Grau-Campistany, Ariadna; Coronel-León, Jonathan; Hammami, Inès; Triki, Mohamed Ali; Manresa, Angeles; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the potential of a soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis strain SPB1, to produce lipopeptide biosurfactants. Firstly, the crude lipopeptide mixture was tested for its inhibitory activity against phytopathogenic fungi. A minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), an inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50%), and an inhibitory concentration at 90% (IC90%) values were determined to be 0.04, 0.012, and 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, for Rhizoctonia bataticola with a fungistatic mode of action. For Rhizoctonia solani, a MIC, an IC50%, and IC90% values were determined to be 4, 0.25, and 3.3 mg/ml, respectively, with a fungicidal mode of action. For both of the fungi, a loss of sclerotial integrity, granulation and fragmentation of hyphal mycelia, followed by hyphal shriveling and cell lysis were observed with the treatment with SPB1 biosurfactant fraction. After extraction, separation, and purification, different lipopeptide compounds were identified in the culture filtrate of strain SPB1. Mass spectroscopic analysis confirmed the presence of different lipopeptide compounds consisting of surfactin isoforms with molecular weights of 1007, 1021, and 1035 Da; iturin isoforms with molecular weights of 1028, 1042, and 1056 Da; and fengycin isoforms with molecular weights of 1432 and 1446 Da. Two new clusters of lipopeptide isoforms with molecular weights of 1410 and 1424 Da and 973 and 987 Da, respectively, were also detected. This study reported the ability of a B. subtilis strain to co-produce lipopeptide isoforms with potential use as antifungal compounds. PMID:26645234

  8. Investigating the roles of MicroRNAs in biotic stress response induced by Rhizoctonia solani in rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syuhada, O. Nurfarahana; Kalaivani, N.

    2014-09-01

    Sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani 1802/KB was screened on two rice varieties, Oryza sativaindica cultivar MR219 and Oryza sativa indica cultivar UKMRC9. The disease symptom was severe in MR219 compared to UKMRC9. Total RNA from R. solani 1802/KB, infected rice leaves of MR219 and infected rice leaves of UKMRC9 were extracted using TRIzol reagent, purified and sent for small RNA sequencing. Three miRNA libraries were generated and analyzed. The libraries generated 65 805, 78 512 and 81 325 known miRNAs respectively. The structure of miRNA of these samples was predicted. The up-regulated and down-regulated of miRNAs target gene prediction and its target functions were discovered and were mainly related to the growth and development of metabolism, protein transport, transcriptional regulation, stress response, and hormone signaling and electron transfer. Sheath blight-induced differential expression of known miRNAs tends to targetMYB transcription factor, F-box proteins, NBS-LRR, leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinases and zinc finger proteins. Detecting new miRNAs and measuring the expression profiles of known miRNAs is an important tasks required for a better understanding of various biological conditions. Therefore, further analysis using Gene Ontology Slim will be conducted to deduce some biological information from the datasets obtained.

  9. Investigating the roles of MicroRNAs in biotic stress response induced by Rhizoctonia solani in rice

    SciTech Connect

    Syuhada, O. Nurfarahana; Kalaivani, N.

    2014-09-03

    Sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani 1802/KB was screened on two rice varieties, Oryza sativaindica cultivar MR219 and Oryza sativa indica cultivar UKMRC9. The disease symptom was severe in MR219 compared to UKMRC9. Total RNA from R. solani 1802/KB, infected rice leaves of MR219 and infected rice leaves of UKMRC9 were extracted using TRIzol reagent, purified and sent for small RNA sequencing. Three miRNA libraries were generated and analyzed. The libraries generated 65 805, 78 512 and 81 325 known miRNAs respectively. The structure of miRNA of these samples was predicted. The up-regulated and down-regulated of miRNAs target gene prediction and its target functions were discovered and were mainly related to the growth and development of metabolism, protein transport, transcriptional regulation, stress response, and hormone signaling and electron transfer. Sheath blight-induced differential expression of known miRNAs tends to targetMYB transcription factor, F-box proteins, NBS-LRR, leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinases and zinc finger proteins. Detecting new miRNAs and measuring the expression profiles of known miRNAs is an important tasks required for a better understanding of various biological conditions. Therefore, further analysis using Gene Ontology Slim will be conducted to deduce some biological information from the datasets obtained.

  10. Molecular characterization of soil bacteria antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani, sheath blight of rice.

    PubMed

    Padaria, Jasdeep C; Singh, Aqbal

    2009-05-01

    Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 has been identified as a potent isolate against Rhizocotonia solani, the fungal pathogen causing sheath blight in rice. The study aimed at probing the role of a 23kb size plasmid pJCP07 of Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 in its fungal antagonism towards Rhizocotonia solani. Plasmid pJCP07 was found to be involved in production of a fungal antagonistic compound as demonstrated by plasmid curing and conjugational transfer experiments. Tn5 insertional studies further confirmed that the plasmid pJCP07 of Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 carries some of the gene(s) involved in production of compound antagonistic to Rhizocotonia solani. The plasmid pJCP07 is thus a mobilizable medium-sized plasmid carrying genes responsible for antagonism of Bacillus pumillus MTCC7615 towards Rhizocotonia solani. PMID:19365757

  11. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping-off by fluorescent pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Afsharmanesh, H; Ahmadzadeh, M; Sharifi-Tehrani, A

    2006-01-01

    Rhizosphere bacteria belonging to the fluorescent pseudomonads are receiving increasing attention for the protection of plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens. Among these pathogens, Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping- off is very important in bean fields of Iran. In this study, the antagonistic activity of 46 isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads (isolated from different area of Iran) and Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 investigated against one isolate of R. solani. About 64% of isolates revealed antagonistic activity against R. solani. Production of antifungal metabolites such as HCN, siderophore and protease was evaluated. The results showed that 97.8%, 17% and 78% of isolates produced siderophore, HCN and protease respectively. There was no significant correlation between antagonistic activity and production of these metabolites. Isolates P-5, P-10 and P-32 with strain CHA0 were selected in order to investigate involvement of siderophore, volatile metabolites (HCN), and non-volatile metabolites in reducing mycelial growth of R. olani. Isolate P-5 showed much more inhibitory effect by production of volatile metabolites and siderophore. Non-volatile metabolites in isolates P-32 and P-5 completely inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus. After the primary labrotory tests, isolates P-14, P-35, P-30, P-5 and strain CHA0 were selected for in vivo experiments. These selected isolates with benomyl fungicide were used as seed coating and soil drenching in sterile soil under greenhouse condition. The result indicated that in seed treatment method, isolates P-30 by 66% had the most effect in disease reduction while in soil treatment method, strain CHAO by 60% had the most effect, such that this two isolates showed significant differences in comparison with plants inoculated with R. solani inoculums. PMID:17390854

  12. Management of Rhizoctonia Damping-off of Brassica Oilseed Crops in the PNW

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani can cause pre and post-emergence damping off of Brassica oilseed species with adverse effects on stand establishment. In greenhouse experiments, we have examined resistance to two groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia solani among various Brassica species and varieties. R. solani AG 2-1 is ...

  13. Identification of signatory secondary metabolites during mycoparasitism of Rhizoctonia solani by Stachybotrys elegans

    PubMed Central

    Chamoun, Rony; Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-01-01

    Stachybotrys elegans is able to parasitize the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 following a complex and intimate interaction, which, among others, includes the production of cell wall-degrading enzymes, intracellular colonization, and expression of pathogenic process encoding genes. However, information on the metabolome level is non-existent during mycoparasitism. Here, we performed a direct-infusion mass spectrometry (DIMS) metabolomics analysis using an LTQ Orbitrap analyzer in order to detect changes in the profiles of induced secondary metabolites of both partners during this mycoparasitic interaction 4 and 5 days following its establishment. The diketopiperazine(s) (DKPs) cyclo(S-Pro-S-Leu)/cyclo(S-Pro-S-Ile), ethyl 2-phenylacetate, and 3-nitro-4-hydroxybenzoic acid were detected as the primary response of Rhizoctonia 4 days following dual-culturing with Stachybotrys, whereas only the latter metabolite was up-regulated 1 day later. On the other hand, trichothecenes and atranones were mycoparasite-derived metabolites identified during mycoparasitism 4 and 5 days following dual-culturing. All the above secondary metabolites are known to exhibit bioactivity, including fungitoxicity, and represent key elements that determine the outcome of the interaction being studied. Results could be further exploited in programs for the evaluation of the bioactivity of these metabolites per se or their chemical analogs, and/or genetic engineering programs to obtain more efficient mycoparasite strains with improved efficacy and toxicological profiles. PMID:25972848

  14. The influence of Bacillus subtilis RB14-C on the development of Rhizoctonia solani and indigenous microorganisms in the soil.

    PubMed

    Szczech, Magdalena; Shoda, Makoto

    2005-05-01

    The effect of soil inoculation with an antagonistic strain Bacillus subtilis RB14-C on the development of Rhizoctonia solani and changes occurring in soil and rhizosphere microbial communities were studied. RB14-C was added to the soil as a water suspension of the cells or as a broth culture. Application of cell suspensions to non-planted soil reduced the number of culturable bacteria. The density of R. solani and the number of filamentous fungi were not significantly affected by RB14-C. A similar effect was observed in the rhizosphere of tomato plants growns in bacterized soil. Broth cultures of RB14-C suppressed R. solani 1 d after inoculation, but after 3 d there was no difference in the pathogen density between soil amended with broth culture and control soil. In microcosm studies, cell suspensions of RB14-C also did not inhibit growth of R. solani on filters buried in soil. However, an inhibitory effect was obtained when a broth culture of the bacterium was used. The effect of RB14-C on fungal biomass was also estimated by measurement of ergosterol concentration in soil. It was found that ergosterol was mostly derived from R. solani and that there were no significant differences in its content between untreated soil and soil treated with RB14-C. The results suggest that suppression of Rhizoctonia damping-off by B. subtilis RB14-C probably is not related to the reduction of the pathogen population in the soil. PMID:16088336

  15. Isolation and characterization of siderophore producing antagonistic rhizobacteria against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K; Arora, Dilip K

    2014-06-01

    Plant protection through siderophore producing rhizobacteria (SPR) has emerged as a sustainable approach for crop health management. In present study, 220 bacteria isolated from tomato rhizosphere were screened for in vitro antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-4. Nine potent antagonistic strains viz., Alcaligenes sp. (MUN1, MB21, and MPF37), Enterobacter sp. (MPM1), Pseudomonas sp. (M10A and MB65), P. aeruginosa (MPF14 and MB123) and P. fluorescens (MPF47) were identified on the basis of physiological characters and 16S rDNA sequencing. These strains were able to produce hydrolytic enzymes, hydrogen cyanide, indole acetic acid, although, only few strains were able to solubilize phosphate. Two strains (MB123 and MPF47) showed significant disease reduction in glasshouse conditions were further evaluated under field conditions using three different application methods. Application of P. fluorescens (MPF47) in nursery as soil mix + seedling root treatments prior to transplantation resulted in significant disease reduction compared to control. Total chlorophyll and available iron were significantly higher in the MPF47 treated plants in contrast to infected control. In conclusion, siderophore producing bacteria MPF47 have strong biocontrol abilities and its application as soil mix + seedling root treatments provided strong shield to plant roots against R. solani and could be used for effective bio-management of pathogen. PMID:23686438

  16. Molecular Characterization and Screening for Sheath Blight Resistance Using Malaysian Isolates of Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Rosli, Marhamah Md.; Shin Tze, Ong

    2014-01-01

    Two field isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were isolated from infected paddy plants in Malaysia. These isolates were verified via ITS-rDNA analysis that yielded ~720 bp products of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS4 region, respectively. The sequenced products showed insertion and substitution incidences which may result in strain diversity and possible variation in disease severity. These strains showed some regional and host-specific relatedness via Maximum Likelihood and further phylogenetic analysis via Maximum Parsimony showed that these strains were closely related to R. solani AG1-1A (with 99-100% identity). Subsequent to strain verification and analysis, these isolates were used in the screening of twenty rice varieties for tolerance or resistance to sheath blight via mycelial plug method where both isolates (1801 and 1802) showed resistance or moderate resistance to Teqing, TETEP, and Jasmine 85. Isolate 1802 was more virulent based on the disease severity index values. This study also showed that the mycelial plug techniques were efficient in providing uniform inoculum and humidity for screening. In addition this study shows that the disease severity index is a better mode of scoring for resistance compared to lesion length. These findings will provide a solid basis for our future breeding and screening activities at the institution. PMID:25258710

  17. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus.

    PubMed

    Kankam, Frederick; Long, Hai-Tao; He, Jing; Zhang, Chun-Hong; Zhang, Hui-Xiu; Pu, Lumei; Qiu, Huizhen

    2016-04-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0-8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue. PMID:27147928

  18. 3-Methylthiopropionic Acid of Rhizoctonia solani AG-3 and Its Role in the Pathogenicity of the Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Kankam, Frederick; Long, Hai-Tao; He, Jing; Zhang, Chun-hong; Zhang, Hui-Xiu; Pu, Lumei; Qiu, Huizhen

    2016-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the role of 3-methylthioproprionic acid (MTPA) in the pathogenicity of potato stem canker, Rhizoctonia solani, and the concentrations required to inhibit growth of R. solani under laboratory and plant house-based conditions. The experiments were laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were 0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM concentrations of MTPA. The purified toxin exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 30°C. MTPA at 1, 2, 4, and 8 mM levels reduced plant height, chlorophyll content, haulm fresh weight, number of stolons, canopy development, and tuber weight of potato plants, as compared to the control. MTPA significantly affected mycelial growth with 8 mM causing the highest infection. The potato seedlings treated with MTPA concentrations of 1.0–8.0 mM induced necrosis of up to 80% of root system area. Cankers were resulted from the injection of potato seedling stems with 8.0 mM MTPA. The results showed the disappearance of cell membrane, rough mitochondrial and cell walls, change of the shape of chloroplasts, and swollen endoplasmic reticulum. Seventy-six (76) hours after toxin treatment, cell contents were completely broken, cytoplasm dissolved, and more chromatin were seen in the nucleus. The results suggested that high levels of the toxin concentration caused cell membrane and cytoplasm fracture. The integrity of cellular structure was destroyed by the phytotoxin. The concentrations of the phytotoxin were significantly correlated with pathogenicity and caused damage to the cell membrane of potato stem base tissue. PMID:27147928

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas simiae Strain 2-36, an In Vitro Antagonist of Rhizoctonia solani and Gaeumannomyces graminis

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Zaky; Chen, Qing; Xu, Renlin; Diange, Adolf E.; Bromfield, Eden S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas simiae 2-36, isolated from a field plot under long-term mineral fertilization, exhibited strong in vitro antagonistic activities against Rhizoctonia solani and Gaeumannomyces graminis. We report here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas simiae 2-36, consisting of 6.4 Mbp with a 60.25% G+C content and 5,790 predicted protein-coding sequences. PMID:25657286

  20. Rhizoctonia root rot of lentil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot is a soilborne disease of lentil caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, and is favored by cool (11-19 C or 52 - 66 F) and wet soil conditions. The disease starts as reddish or dark brown lesions on lentil plants near the soil line, and develops into sunken lesions an...

  1. Management of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot of subarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root and crown rot is caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani and is one of the most severe soil-borne diseases of sugarbeet in Minnesota and North Dakota. Rhizoctonia root and crown rot may reduce yield significantly, and diseased beets may cause problems in storage piles. Fields with...

  2. In vitro and in silico antifungal efficacy of nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorn (NCNH) against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Unni, SreeKuttan M; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Samad, Abdul; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated in vitro antifungal efficiency of nitrogen-doped carbon nanohorn (NCNH) against Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) plant pathogenic fungi. NCNH with size of 50-60 nm and concentrations of 10, 50, 100, and 150 μg mL(-1) were used. The results showed that growth of fungi in the presence of NCNH was significantly (p > .05) inhibited at 150 μg mL(-1) (85.13 ± .97) after 72 h. The results were validated through computational approaches. Molecular docking analysis of NCNH with endochitinase protein of R. solani was performed to validate the potential of antifungal activity of NCNH. Docking results showed different conformations of interaction of NCNH with endochitinase enzyme. The conformation with least binding energy -13.54 kcal/mol was considered further. It is likely that NCNH interacts with the pathogens by mechanically wrapping, which may be one of the major toxicity actions of NCNH against R. solani. The analysis showed that NCNH might interwinds to endochitinase of R. solani leading to the deactivation of the enzyme. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report of antifungal efficacy of NCNH against R. solani and provides useful information about the application of NCNH in resisting crop disease. PMID:25932774

  3. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals intracellular targets for bacillomycin L to induce Rhizoctonia solani Kühn hyphal cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bao; Qin, Yuxuan; Han, Yuzhu; Dong, Chunjuan; Li, Pinglan; Shang, Qingmao

    2016-09-01

    Bacillomycin L, a natural iturinic lipopeptide produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, is characterized by strong antifungal activity against a variety of agronomically important filamentous fungi including Rhizoctonia solani Kühn. To further understand its antifungal actions, proteomes were comparatively studied within R. solani hyphal cells treated with or without bacillomycin L. The results show that 39 proteins were alternatively expressed within cells in response to this lipopeptide, which are involved in stress response, carbohydrate, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism, cellular component organization, calcium homeostasis, protein degradation, RNA processing, gene transcription, and others, suggesting that, in addition to inducing cell membrane permeabilization, iturin exhibits antibiotic activities by targeting intracellular molecules. Based on these results, a model of action of bacillomycin L against R. solani hyphal cells was proposed. Our study provides new insight into the antibiotic mechanisms of iturins. PMID:27267622

  4. Mobile elements and mitochondrial genome expansion in the soil fungus and potato pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-3.

    PubMed

    Losada, Liliana; Pakala, Suman B; Fedorova, Natalie D; Joardar, Vinita; Shabalina, Svetlana A; Hostetler, Jessica; Pakala, Suchitra M; Zafar, Nikhat; Thomas, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Dean, Ralph; Vilgalys, Rytas; Nierman, William C; Cubeta, Marc A

    2014-03-01

    The soil fungus Rhizoctonia solani is an economically important pathogen of agricultural and forestry crops. Here, we present the complete sequence and analysis of the mitochondrial genome of R. solani, field isolate Rhs1AP. The genome (235 849 bp) is the largest mitochondrial genome of a filamentous fungus sequenced to date and exhibits a rich accumulation of introns, novel repeat sequences, homing endonuclease genes, and hypothetical genes. Stable secondary structures exhibited by repeat sequences suggest that they comprise functional, possibly catalytic RNA elements. RNA-Seq expression profiling confirmed that the majority of homing endonuclease genes and hypothetical genes are transcriptionally active. Comparative analysis suggests that the mitochondrial genome of R. solani is an example of a dynamic history of expansion in filamentous fungi. PMID:24461055

  5. Effects of water potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production, and germination of Rhizoctonia solani from potato.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Faye; McQuilken, Mark P; Bain, Ruairidh A

    2006-06-01

    The effects of osmotic and matric potential on mycelial growth, sclerotial production and germination of isolates of Rhizoctonia solani [anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-1 and 3] from potato were studied on potato dextrose agar (PDA) adjusted osmotically with sodium chloride, potassium chloride, glycerol, and matrically with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. All isolates from AGs 2-1 and AG-3 exhibited fastest mycelial growth on unamended PDA (-0.4MPa), and growth generally declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potentials. Growth ceased between -3.5 and -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media, with slight differences between isolates and osmotica. Sclerotium yield declined with decreasing osmotic potential, and formation by AG 2-1 and AG-3 isolates ceased between -1.5 and -3.0MPa and -2.5 and -3.5MPa, respectively. On matrically adjusted media, sclerotial formation by AG 2-1 isolates ceased at -0.8MPa, whereas formation by AG-3 isolates ceased at the lower matric potential of -1.5MPa. Sclerotial germination also declined with decreasing osmotic and matric potential, with total inhibition occurring over the range -3.0 to -4.0MPa on osmotically adjusted media, and at -2.0MPa on matrically adjusted media. In soil, mycelial growth and sclerotial germination of AG-3 isolates declined with decreasing total water potential, with a minimum potential of -6.3MPa permitting both growth and germination. The relevance of these results to the behaviour of R. solani AGs in soil and their pathogenicity on potato is discussed. PMID:16765034

  6. Reduction of Rhizoctonia bare patch win wheat with barley rotations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia bare patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major fungal root disease in no-till cropping systems. In an 8-year experiment comparing various dryland no-till cropping systems near Ritzville, Washington, Rhizoctonia bare patch first appeared in year 3 and continued through year 8. ...

  7. Do fungicides used to control Rhizoctonia solani impact the non-target arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis?

    PubMed

    Buysens, Catherine; Dupré de Boulois, Hervé; Declerck, Stéphane

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the application of biocontrol organisms (e.g., Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp., arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-AMF) is a feasible option to reduce incidence of plant pathogens in an integrated control strategy. However, the utilization of these microorganisms, in particular AMF, may be threatened by the application of fungicides, a widely-used measure to control Rhizoctonia solani in various crops among which potato. Prior to their application, it is thus important to determine the impact of fungicides on AMF. The present study investigated, under in vitro controlled conditions, the impact of azoxystrobin (a systemic broad-spectrum fungicide), flutolanil (a systemic Basidiomycota-specific fungicide), and pencycuron (a contact Rhizoctonia-specific fungicide) and their respective formulations (Amistar, Monarch, and Monceren) on the growth and development of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 (spore germination, root colonization, extraradical mycelium development, and spore production) at doses used to control R. solani. Results demonstrated that azoxystrobin and its formulation Amistar, at threshold values for R. solani control (estimated by the half maximal inhibitory concentration, IC50, on a dry weight basis), did not affect spore germination and potato root colonization by R. irregularis, while the development of extra-radical mycelium and spore production was reduced at 10 times the threshold value. Flutolanil and its formulation Monarch at threshold value did not affect spore germination or extra-radical development but decreased root colonization and arbuscule formation. At threshold value, pencycuron and its formulation Monceren, did not affect spore germination and intra- or extraradical development of R. irregularis. These results suggest that azoxystrobin and pencycuron do not affect the AMF at threshold concentrations to control R. solani in vitro, while flutolanil (as formulation) impacts the intraradical phase of the

  8. Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR of Defense-Associated Gene Transcripts of Rhizoctonia solani-Infected Bean Seedlings in Response to Inoculation with a Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia Isolate.

    PubMed

    Wen, Kui; Seguin, Philippe; St-Arnaud, Marc; Jabaji-Hare, Suha

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Certain isolates of nonpathogenic binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR) are effective biocontrol agents against seedling root rot and damping-off. Inoculation of bean seed with np-BNR strain 232-CG at sowing reduced disease symptoms in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seedlings caused by R. solani. Molecular analyses of the spatial expression of three defense-associated genes were carried out using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assays. This method allowed accurate quantitative evaluation of transcript levels of pG101 encoding for 1,3-beta-D-glucanase, gPAL1 encoding for phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and CHS17 encoding for chalcone synthase in 1- and 2-week-old bean seedlings that were inoculated simultaneously with np-BNR and infected with R. solani, and in seedlings that were singly inoculated with either fungi or not inoculated. In the seedlings that were infected with R. solani only, results revealed that, following infection, activation of all defense-associated gene transcripts was achieved with significant increases ranging from 7- to 40-fold greater than the control, depending on the defense gene and tissue analyzed. Seedlings that were treated with np-BNR and infected with R. solani had expression similar to those that were treated with np-BNR only, but the levels were significantly down-regulated compared with those that were infected with R. solani only. These findings indicate that disease suppression by np-BNR isolate is not correlated to pG101, gPAL1, and CHS17 gene activation. PMID:18943035

  9. Vesicle trafficking via the Spitzenkörper during hyphal tip growth in Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Dijksterhuis, Jan; Molenaar, Douwe

    2013-04-01

    Growing hyphae of Rhizoctonia solani were stained with the endocytic marker dye FM4-64 and imaged by confocal microscopy. Staining of the plasma membrane was followed by labeling of organelles in the cytoplasm (after ~1 min) and of the Spitzenkörper (Spk; after ~2 min). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of the stained Spk demonstrated the vectorial flow of secretory vesicles from the apical cytoplasm to the Spk. This flux was modelled in a two-compartment model. The turnover time of the vesicles of the Spk was estimated to be 1.3-2.5 min. These results are roughly consistent with the expected flux of vesicles through the Spk based on the number of secretory vesicles within the Spk and the number of secretory vesicles that would be necessary to fuse with the apical plasma membrane to maintain hyphal extension rates. These results suggest that membrane retrieval via endocytosis is not as significant as previously suggested. PMID:23334442

  10. Genetic and genomic analysis of Rhizoctonia solani interactions with Arabidopsis; evidence of resistance mediated through NADPH oxidases.

    PubMed

    Foley, Rhonda C; Gleason, Cynthia A; Anderson, Jonathan P; Hamann, Thorsten; Singh, Karam B

    2013-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important soil-borne necrotrophic fungal pathogen, with a broad host range and little effective resistance in crop plants. Arabidopsis is resistant to R. solani AG8 but susceptible to R. solani AG2-1. A screen of 36 Arabidopsis ecotypes and mutants affected in the auxin, camalexin, salicylic acid, abscisic acid and ethylene/jasmonic acid pathways did not reveal any variation in response to R. solani and demonstrated that resistance to AG8 was independent of these defense pathways. The Arabidopsis Affymetrix ATH1 Genome array was used to assess global gene expression changes in plants infected with AG8 and AG2-1 at seven days post-infection. While there was considerable overlap in the response, some gene families were differentially affected by AG8 or AG2-1 and included those involved in oxidative stress, cell wall associated proteins, transcription factors and heat shock protein genes. Since a substantial proportion of the gene expression changes were associated with oxidative stress responses, we analysed the role of NADPH oxidases in resistance. While single NADPH oxidase mutants had no effect, a NADPH oxidase double mutant atrbohf atrbohd resulted in an almost complete loss of resistance to AG8, suggesting that reactive oxidative species play an important role in Arabidopsis's resistance to R. solani. PMID:23451091

  11. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum – Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  12. Development of a qPCR Strategy to Select Bean Genes Involved in Plant Defense Response and Regulated by the Trichoderma velutinum - Rhizoctonia solani Interaction.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Sara; Cominelli, Eleonora; Sparvoli, Francesca; González-López, Oscar; Rodríguez-González, Alvaro; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Casquero, Pedro A

    2016-01-01

    Bean production is affected by a wide diversity of fungal pathogens, among them Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important. A strategy to control bean infectious diseases, mainly those caused by fungi, is based on the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) that can reduce the negative effects of plant pathogens and also can promote positive responses in the plant. Trichoderma is a fungal genus that is able to induce the expression of genes involved in plant defense response and also to promote plant growth, root development and nutrient uptake. In this article, a strategy that combines in silico analysis and real time PCR to detect additional bean defense-related genes, regulated by the presence of Trichoderma velutinum and/or R. solani has been applied. Based in this strategy, from the 48 bean genes initially analyzed, 14 were selected, and only WRKY33, CH5b and hGS showed an up-regulatory response in the presence of T. velutinum. The other genes were or not affected (OSM34) or down-regulated by the presence of this fungus. R. solani infection resulted in a down-regulation of most of the genes analyzed, except PR1, OSM34 and CNGC2 that were not affected, and the presence of both, T. velutinum and R. solani, up-regulates hGS and down-regulates all the other genes analyzed, except CH5b which was not significantly affected. As conclusion, the strategy described in the present work has been shown to be effective to detect genes involved in plant defense, which respond to the presence of a BCA or to a pathogen and also to the presence of both. The selected genes show significant homology with previously described plant defense genes and they are expressed in bean leaves of plants treated with T. velutinum and/or infected with R. solani. PMID:27540382

  13. Mid-Infrared (MIR) and Near-Infrared (NIR) Detection of Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB on Barley-Based Artificial Inoculum.

    PubMed

    Webb, Kimberly M; Calderón, Francisco J

    2015-10-01

    The amount of Rhizoctonia solani in the soil and how much must be present to cause disease in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is relatively unknown. This is mostly because of the usually low inoculum densities found naturally in soil and the low sensitivity of traditional serial dilution assays. We investigated the usefulness of Fourier transform mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic properties in identifying the artificial colonization of barley grains with R. solani AG 2-2 IIIB and in detecting R. solani populations in plant tissues and inoculants. The objectives of this study were to compare the ability of traditional plating assays to NIR and MIR spectroscopies to identify R. solani in different-size fractions of colonized ground barley (used as an artificial inoculum) and to differentiate colonized from non-inoculated barley. We found that NIR and MIR spectroscopies were sensitive in resolving different barley particle sizes, with particles that were <0.25 and 0.25-0.5 mm having different spectral properties than coarser particles. Moreover, we found that barley colonized with R. solani had different MIR spectral properties than the non-inoculated samples for the larger fractions (0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.0, and >2.0 mm) of the ground barley. This colonization was confirmed using traditional plating assays. Comparisons with the spectra from pure fungal cultures and non-inoculated barley suggest that the MIR spectrum of colonized barley is different because of the consumption of C substrates by the fungus rather than because of the presence of fungal bands in the spectra of the colonized samples. We found that MIR was better than NIR spectroscopy in differentiating the colonized from the control samples. PMID:26449805

  14. Rhizoctonia seedling disease on sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off can cause losses in sugar beet as well as providing inoculum for later root rot. The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The pathogen has several subgroups, anastomosis groups (AG), of which AG-4 has historically been associated with damping-off, while AG-2-2 is...

  15. The Urochloa Foliar Blight and Collar Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA Emerged in South America Via a Host Shift from Rice.

    PubMed

    Chavarro Mesa, Edisson; Ceresini, Paulo C; Ramos Molina, Lina M; Pereira, Danilo A S; Schurt, Daniel A; Vieira, José R; Poloni, Nadia M; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-11-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA emerged in the early 1990s as an important pathogen causing foliar blight and collar rot on pastures of the genus Urochloa (signalgrass) in South America. We tested the hypothesis that this pathogen emerged following a host shift or jump as a result of geographical overlapping of host species. The genetic structure of host and regional populations of R. solani AG-1 IA infecting signalgrass, rice, and soybean in Colombia and Brazil was analyzed using nine microsatellite loci in 350 isolates to measure population differentiation and infer the pathogen reproductive system. Phylogeographical analyses based on the microsatellite loci and on three DNA sequence loci were used to infer historical migration patterns and test hypotheses about the origin of the current pathogen populations. Cross pathogenicity assays were conducted to measure the degree of host specialization in populations sampled from different hosts. The combined analyses indicate that the pathogen populations currently infecting Urochloa in Colombia and Brazil most likely originated from a population that originally infected rice. R. solani AG-1 IA populations infecting Urochloa exhibit a mixed reproductive system including both sexual reproduction and long-distance dispersal of adapted clones, most likely on infected seed. The pathogen population on Urochloa has a genetic structure consistent with a high evolutionary potential and showed evidence for host specialization. PMID:26222889

  16. Development of SCAR markers and UP-PCR cross-hybridization method for specific detection of four major subgroups of Rhizoctonia from infected turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species and hyphal anastomosis groups (AG) of Rhizoctonia solani (sensu lato) cause brown patch diseases of turfgrasses. Conventional methods of identification of Rhizoctonia pathogens are time consuming and often inaccurate. A rapid identification assay for Waitea circinata (anamorph: Rhizo...

  17. Mass spectrometry identification of antifungal lipopeptides from Bacillus sp. BCLRB2 against Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Elkahoui, S; Djébali, N; Karkouch, I; Ibrahim, A Hadj; Kalai, L; Bachkovel, S; Tabbene, O; Limam, F

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to characterize the bioactive molecules produced by an antagonistic Bacillus sp. strain BCLRB2 isolated from healthy leaves of olive tree against Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The bacterial strain isolated showed a high and persistent antifungal activity against the two pathogens. The free-cell supernatant showed also a high antifungal activity against R. solani and at a lower extent against S. sclerotiorum. The partial purification of the antifungal substances with methanol gradient applied to C18 column binding the Bacillus BCLRB2 culture supernatant showed that the 20% and 60% methanol fractions had a high and specific activity against S. sclerotiorum and R. solani, respectively. The mass spectrometry identification of the compounds in the fraction specifically active against S. sclerotiorum revealed the presence of bacillomycin D C16 as a major lipopeptide. The fraction specifically active against R. solani contained bacillomycin D C15 and 2 unknown lipopeptides. The 80% methanol fraction had a moderate and a broad spectrum activity against the two pathogens and consisted from two iturin D (C13 and C14) as a major lipopeptides. PMID:25272736

  18. Proteomic response of the biological control fungus Trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Grinyer, Jasmine; Hunt, Sybille; McKay, Matthew; Herbert, Ben R; Nevalainen, Helena

    2005-06-01

    Trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of T. atroviride (T. harzianum P1) grown on media containing either glucose or R. solani cell walls. Protein profiles were compared to identify T. atroviride proteins up-regulated in the presence of the R. solani cell walls. Twenty-four protein spots were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. Identified up-regulated proteins include known fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes such as N-acetyl-beta-D: -glucosaminidase and 42-kDa endochitinase. Three novel proteases of T. atroviride were identified, containing sequence similarity to vacuolar serine protease, vacuolar protease A and a trypsin-like protease from known fungal proteins. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4a, superoxide dismutase and a hypothetical protein from Neurospora crassa were also up-regulated as a response to R. solani cell walls. Several cell wall-degrading enzymes were identified from the T. atroviride culture supernatant, providing further evidence that a cellular response indicative of biological control had occurred. PMID:15856359

  19. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression of a pore-forming toxin and glycosyl hydrolase genes in Rhizoctonia solani during potato sprout infection.

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Rony; Samsatly, Jamil; Pakala, Suman B; Cubeta, Marc A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes black scurf on tubers and stem and stolon canker on underground parts of potato plant. Early in the season, the fungus attacks germinating sprouts underground before they emerge from the soil. Damage at this stage results in delayed emergence of weakened plants with poor and uneven stands. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has been investigated in this study by coupling a cDNA-suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library to differential screening to identify transcripts of R. solani that are down-regulated during infection of potato sprouts. We report on the identification of 33 unique genes with functions related to carbohydrate binding, vitamin synthesis, pathogenicity, translation, ATP and nucleic acid binding and other categories. RACE-PCR was used to clone and characterize the first full-length cDNA clones, RSENDO1 and RSGLYC1 that encode for an eukaryotic delta-endotoxin CytB protein and an intracellular glycosyl hydrolase, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the down-regulation of RSENDO1 during infection of potato sprouts and the up-regulation of RSGLYC1 when the fungus was grown on a cellulose-based nutrient medium. In contrast, additional experiments have highlighted the down-regulation of RSENDO1 when R. solani was co-cultured with the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans and the bacterial antagonist Bacillus subtilis B26. These results advance our understanding of R. solani-potato interaction in subterranean parts of the plant. Such approaches could be considered in building an efficient integrated potato disease management program. PMID:25472038

  20. Influence of glyphosate on Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rhizoctonia solani) in glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous greenhouse studies with a non-commercial glyphosate-resistant sugarbeet variety indicated that susceptibility to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot could increase after glyphosate was applied. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to determine if glyphosate influenced...

  1. Cyclic Lipopeptides of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum Colonizing the Lettuce Rhizosphere Enhance Plant Defense Responses Toward the Bottom Rot Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Soumitra Paul; Uhl, Jenny; Grosch, Rita; Alquéres, Sylvia; Pittroff, Sabrina; Dietel, Kristin; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Borriss, Rainer; Hartmann, Anton

    2015-09-01

    The commercially available inoculant Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is able to considerably reduce lettuce bottom rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani. To understand the interaction between FZB42 and R. solani in the rhizosphere of lettuce, we used an axenic system with lettuce bacterized with FZB42 and inoculated with R. solani. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that FZB42 could delay the initial establishment of R. solani on the plants. To show which secondary metabolites of FZB42 are produced under these in-situ conditions, we developed an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry-based method and identified surfactin, fengycin, and bacillomycin D in the lettuce rhizosphere. We hypothesized that lipopeptides and polyketides play a role in enhancing the plant defense responses in addition to the direct antagonistic effect toward R. solani and used a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay for marker genes involved in defense signaling pathways in lettuce. A significant higher expression of PDF 1.2 observed in the bacterized plants in response to subsequent pathogen challenge showed that FZB42 could enhance the lettuce defense response toward the fungal pathogen. To identify if surfactin or other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites could elicit the observed enhanced defense gene expression, we examined two mutants of FZB42 deficient in production of surfactin and the lipopetides and polyketides, by expression analysis and pot experiments. In the absence of surfactin and other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites, there was no enhanced PDF 1.2-mediated response to the pathogen challenge. Pot experiment results showed that the mutants failed to reduce disease incidence in lettuce as compared with the FZB42 wild type, indicating, that surfactin as well as other nonribosomally synthesized secondary metabolites play a role in the actual disease suppression and on lettuce

  2. Carbon source-dependent effects of anaerobic soil disinfestation on soil microbiome and suppression of rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and pratylenchus penetrans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of carbon source on efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) toward suppression of apple root infection by Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and Pratylenchus penetrans was examined. Orchard grass (GR), rice bran (RB), ethanol (ET), composted steer manure (CM) and Brassica juncea seed meal (S...

  3. Analysis of Phaseolus vulgaris Response to Its Association with Trichoderma harzianum (ALL-42) in the Presence or Absence of the Phytopathogenic Fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Jackeline L.; Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Charneau, Sébastien O.; Felix, Carlos R.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; da Silva, Francilene Lopes; Steindorff, Andrei Stecca; Ulhoa, Cirano J.; Noronha, Eliane F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the ability of Trichoderma harzianum (ALL 42-isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil) to promote common bean growth and to modulate its metabolism and defense response in the presence or absence of the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium solani using a proteomic approach. T. harzianum was able to promote common bean plants growth as shown by the increase in root/foliar areas and by size in comparison to plants grown in its absence. The interaction was shown to modulate the expression of defense-related genes (Glu1, pod3 and lox1) in roots of P. vulgaris. Proteomic maps constructed using roots and leaves of plants challenged or unchallenged by T. harzianum and phytopathogenic fungi showed differences. Reference gels presented differences in spot distribution (absence/presence) and relative volumes of common spots (up or down-regulation). Differential spots were identified by peptide fingerprinting MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. A total of 48 identified spots (19 for leaves and 29 for roots) were grouped into protein functional classes. For leaves, 33%, 22% and 11% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively. For roots, 17.2%, 24.1% and 10.3% of the identified proteins were categorized as pertaining to the groups: metabolism, defense response and oxidative stress response, respectively. PMID:24878929

  4. Identification of anastomosis group of Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of seed rot and damping-off of bean in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bohlooli, A; Okhowat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

    2005-01-01

    Bean is one of the major crops in Iran. Seed rot and damping-off caused by Rhizoctonia solani is the most important disease of bean. In this research, infected roots and seedlings of beans were collected from different fields of Tehran Province. The samples were sterilized with 10% sodium hypochloride (5% stock) and incubated on PDA surface in petri-dishes. The purified fungi kept on filter paper and identified, pathogenicity test of R. solani was carried out on 2 cultivars of bean (red bean cv. Naz and white bean cv. Dehghan) and it determined. For identification of the anastomosis groups, the discs of cultured media with 5 mm. diameter of standard AG placed on one side of microscopic slides covered with water agar (2%) of 1 mm. thick and the isolates of the fungus on another side of slide about 2 cm away from each other. Experiment carried out in 4 replications. The cultures were incubated in 25 +/- 1 degrees C incubator for 24 hours, then the mycelial contact stained with lactophenol, cotton blue and hyphal anastomosis looked for under the light microscope with 10 x 40 and 10 x 100 magnifications. As a result, anastomosis groups: AG4, AG4HGII, AG2-2-2B and AG6 determined, frequency of these groups were 64, 18, 2, 16%, respectively. The group AG6 and subgroups AG4HGII and AG2-2-2B are introduced as new anastomosis groups on bean in Iran. PMID:16637168

  5. Compositional variability and antifungal potentials of ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum and O. kilimandscharicum essential oils against Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum.

    PubMed

    Padalia, Rajendra C; Verma, Ram S; Chauhan, Amit; Goswami, Prakash; Chanotiya, Chandan S; Saroj, Arvind; Samad, Abdul; Khaliq, Abdul

    2014-10-01

    The composition of hydrodistilled essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L. (four chemovariants), O. tenuiflorum L., O. gratissimum L., and O. kilimandscharicum Guerke were analyzed and compared by using capillary gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Phenyl propanoids (upto 87.0%) and monoterpenoids (upto 83.3%) were prevalent constituents distributed in the studied Ocimum taxa. The major constituents of the four distinct chemovariants of O. basilicum were methyl chavicol (86.3%), methyl chavicol (61.5%)/linalool (28.6%), citral (65.9%); and linalool (36.1%)/citral (28.8%). Eugenol (66.5% and 78.0%) was the major constituent of O. tenuiflorum and O. gratissimum. Eugenol (34.0%), β-bisabolene (15.4%), (E)-α-bisabolene (10.9%), methyl chavicol (10.2%) and 1,8-cineole (8.2%) were the major constituents of O. kilimandscharicum. In order to explore the potential for industrial use, the extracted essential oils were assessed for their antifungal potential through poison food technique against two phytopathogens, Rhizoctonia solani and Choanephora cucurbitarum, which cause root and wet rot diseases in various crops. O. tenuiflorum, O. gratissimum, and O. kilimandscharicum exhibited complete growth inhibition against R. solani and C. cucurbitarum after 24 and 48 h of treatment. O. basilicum chemotypes showed variable levels of growth inhibition (63.0%-100%) against these two phytopathogens. PMID:25522548

  6. Identification of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid gene (phc CD) from Bacillus pumilus MTCC7615 and its role in antagonism against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Padaria, Jasdeep Chatrath; Tarafdar, Avijit; Raipuria, Rajkumar; Lone, Showkat Ahmad; Gahlot, Pallavi; Shakil, Najam A; Kumar, Jitendra

    2016-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus MTCC7615, a biocontrol agent isolated from rice rhizosphere was characterized to be antagonistic to Rhizoctonia solani, the pathogen causing sheath blight disease of rice. The phenazine-1-carboxylic acid gene (phc CD) of this bacterium was PCR amplified (1400 bp), cloned, and sequenced. The sequence analysis revealed the presence of two ORFs of phc CD gene commonly found in Pseudomonas species. The sequence showed 98% similarity to phc CD gene of the Pseudomonas isolate LBUM223 (DQ788993). The crude antibiotic extract from B. pumilus MTCC7615 was observed to inhibit mycelial growth of R. solani under in vitro conditions. The HPLC analysis of crude antibiotic extract from B. pumilus MTCC7615 confirmed the presence of phenazine. The study has also reported the presence of phc CD gene which is responsible for the synthesis of phenazine-1-carboxylic acid in B. pumilus. The ability of the bacterial isolate to control sheath blight disease in rice seedlings under in vivo conditions was confirmed by the pot culture experiment. The structural and functional genomics of phc C and phc D genes would lead to a better understanding of phenazine biosynthesis in B. pumilus for its efficient utilization in plant protection strategies. PMID:27106067

  7. High entomotoxicity and mechanism of the fungal GalNAc/Gal-specific Rhizoctonia solani lectin in pest insects.

    PubMed

    Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Damme, Els J M; Caccia, Silvia; Cappelle, Kaat; Vandenborre, Gianni; Ghesquière, Bart; Gevaert, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Whole insect assays where Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin (RSA) was fed to larval stages of the cotton leaf-worm Spodoptera littoralis and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum demonstrated a high concentration-dependent entomotoxicity, suggesting that this GalNAc/Gal-specific fungal lectin might be a good control agent for different pest insects. RSA at 10 mg/g in the solid diet of 2nd-instar caterpillars caused 84% weight reduction after 8 days with none of the caterpillars reaching the 4th-instar stage. In sucking aphids, 50% mortality was achieved after 3 days with 9 μM of RSA in the liquid diet. Feeding of FITC-labeled RSA to both insect pest species revealed strong lectin binding at the apical/luminal side of the midgut epithelium with the brush border zone, suggesting the insect midgut as a primary insecticide target tissue for RSA. This was also confirmed with cell cultures in vitro, where there was high fluorescence binding at the microvillar zone with primary cultures of larval midgut columnar cells of S. littoralis, and also at the surface with the insect midgut CF-203 cell line without lectin uptake in the midgut cells. In vitro assays using insect midgut CF-203 cells, revealed that RSA was highly toxic with an EC50 of 0.3 μM. Preincubation with GalNAc and saponin indicated that this action of RSA was carbohydrate-binding dependent and happened at the surface of the cells. Intoxicated CF-203 cells showed symptoms of apoptosis as nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation, and this concurred with an increase of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activities. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane extracts of CF-203 cells followed by LC-MS/MS allowed the identification of 5747 unique peptides, among which four putatively glycosylated membrane proteins that are associated with apoptosis induction, namely Fas-associated factor, Apoptosis-linked gene-2, Neuroglian and CG2076, as potential binding targets for RSA. These data are discussed in relation to the

  8. The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome.

    PubMed

    Erlacher, Armin; Cardinale, Massimiliano; Grosch, Rita; Grube, Martin; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48%) and Pseudomonadaceae (37%) with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%), Moraxellaceae (16%) and Enterobacteriaceae (25%) with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action. PMID

  9. A survey on basal resistance and riboflavin-induced defense responses of sugar beet against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Parissa; Tarighi, Saeed

    2011-07-01

    We examined basal defense responses and cytomolecular aspects of riboflavin-induced resistance (IR) in sugar beet-Rhizoctonia solani pathsystem by investigating H(2)O(2) burst, phenolics accumulation and analyzing the expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and peroxidase (cprx1) genes. Riboflavin was capable of priming plant defense responses via timely induction of H(2)O(2) production and phenolics accumulation. A correlation was found between induction of resistance by riboflavin and upregulation of PAL and cprx1 which are involved in phenylpropanoid signaling and phenolics metabolism. Application of peroxidase and PAL inhibitors suppressed not only basal resistance, but also riboflavin-IR of sugar beet to the pathogen. Treatment of the leaves with each inhibitor alone or together with riboflavin reduced phenolics accumulation which was correlated with higher level of disease progress. Together, these results demonstrate the indispensability of rapid H(2)O(2) accumulation, phenylpropanoid pathway and phenolics metabolism in basal defense and riboflavin-IR of sugar beet against R. solani. PMID:21269732

  10. The interaction pattern between a homology model of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-hydroxyphenaize by docking study.

    PubMed

    Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Samad, Abdul; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-01-01

    1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ), a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases. PMID:24864254

  11. The Interaction Pattern between a Homology Model of 40S Ribosomal S9 Protein of Rhizoctonia solani and 1-Hydroxyphenaize by Docking Study

    PubMed Central

    Dharni, Seema; Sanchita; Sharma, Ashok; Patra, Dharani Dhar

    2014-01-01

    1-Hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ), a natural product from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain SD12, was earlier reported to have potent antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. In the present work, the antifungal activity of 1-OH-PHZ on 40S ribosomal S9 protein was validated by molecular docking approach. 1-OH-PHZ showed interaction with two polar contacts with residues, Arg69 and Phe19, which inhibits the synthesis of fungal protein. Our study reveals that 1-OH-PHZ can be a potent inhibitor of 40S ribosomal S9 protein of R. solani that may be a promising approach for the management of fungal diseases. PMID:24864254

  12. Integrated effect of microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide in controlling seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani) and improving yield in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Akhter, Wasira; Bhuiyan, Mohamed Khurshed Alam; Sultana, Farjana; Hossain, Mohamed Motaher

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the comparative performance of a few microbial antagonists, organic amendments and fungicides and their integration for the management of seedling mortality (Rhizoctonia solani Kühn) and yield improvement in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Before setting the experiment in field microplots, a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective antagonistic isolate of Trichoderma harzianum, a fungitoxic organic amendment and an appropriate fungicide. A greenhouse pathogenicity test compared differences in seedling mortality in pea inoculated by four isolates of R. solani and identified the isolate RS10 as the most virulent one. Among the 20 isolates screened in dual culture assay on PDA, T. harzianum isolate T-3 was found to show the highest (77.22%) inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani. A complete inhibition (100.00%) of colony growth of R. solani was observed when fungicide Bavistin 50 WP and Provax-200 at the rate of 100 and 250 ppm, respectively, were used, while Provax-200 was found to be highly compatible with T. harzianum. Mustard oilcake gave maximum inhibition (60.28%) of the radial growth of R. solani at all ratios, followed by sesame oilcake and tea waste. Integration of soil treatment with T. harzianum isolate T-3 and mustard oilcake and seed treatment with Provax-200 appeared to be significantly superior in reducing seedling mortality and improving seed yield in pea in comparison to any single or dual application of them in the experimental field. The research results will help growers develop integrated disease management strategies for the control of Rhizoctonia disease in pea. The research results show the need for an integrating selective microbial antagonist, organic amendment and fungicide to achieve appropriate management of seedling mortality (R. solani) and increase of seed yield in pea. PMID:25528673

  13. Natural suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot by soil microbial communities in wheat from a Rhizoctonia decline site.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, limits yield in direct-seeded wheat, which develops distinct patches of stunted plants. At a cropping systems study near Ritzville, WA with continuously cropped wheat, bare patch reached a peak after 5 years of direct-seeding and then declined...

  14. Particle size affects Brassica seed meal-induced pathogen suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. solani AG-5 is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease, and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to B. juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) functions in suppression of this pathogen during the initial 24 h period post-seed meal a...

  15. Isolation and characterization of a phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of rice sheath blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytotoxins (Rs-toxins) produced by R. solani are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this fungal pathogen, but the principal components of this phytotoxin were quite different from previous studies. To isolate and characterize the bioactive components of the Rs-toxin produced by ...

  16. High-resolution mapping of Rsn1, a locus controlling sensitivity of rice to a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin from Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Stefano; Jackson, Aaron K; Brooks, Steven A

    2011-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes disease on many crop-plant species. Anastomosis group 1-IA is the causal agent of sheath blight of rice (Oryza sativa L.), one of the most important rice diseases worldwide. R. solani AG1-IA produces a necrosis-inducing phytotoxin and rice cultivar's sensitivity to the toxin correlates with disease susceptibility. Unlike genetic analyses of sheath blight resistance where resistance loci have been reported as quantitative trait loci, phytotoxin sensitivity is inherited as a Mendelian trait that permits high-resolution mapping of the sensitivity genes. An F(2) mapping population derived from parent cultivars 'Cypress' (toxin sensitive) and 'Jasmine 85' (toxin insensitive) was used to map Rsn1, the necrosis-inducing locus. Initial mapping based on 176 F(2) progeny and 69 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers located Rsn1 on the long arm of chromosome 7, with tight linkage to SSR marker RM418. A high-resolution genetic map of the region was subsequently developed using a total of 1,043 F(2) progeny, and Rsn1 was mapped to a 0.7 cM interval flanked by markers NM590 and RM418. Analysis of the corresponding 29 Kb genomic sequences from reference cultivars 'Nipponbare' and '93-11' revealed the presence of four putative genes within the interval. Two are expressed cytokinin-O-glucosyltransferases, which fit an apoptotic pathway model of toxin activity, and are individually being investigated further as potential candidates for Rsn1. PMID:21424397

  17. Development of a Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB Specific Gene Model Enables Comparative Genome Analyses between Phytopathogenic R. solani AG1-IA, AG1-IB, AG3 and AG8 Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Wibberg, Daniel; Rupp, Oliver; Blom, Jochen; Jelonek, Lukas; Kröber, Magdalena; Verwaaijen, Bart; Goesmann, Alexander; Albaum, Stefan; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, a soil-born plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, affects various economically important agricultural and horticultural crops. The draft genome sequence for the R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 as well as a corresponding transcriptome dataset (Expressed Sequence Tags—ESTs) were established previously. Development of a specific R. solani AG1-IB gene model based on GMAP transcript mapping within the eukaryotic gene prediction platform AUGUSTUS allowed detection of new genes and provided insights into the gene structure of this fungus. In total, 12,616 genes were recognized in the genome of the AG1-IB isolate. Analysis of predicted genes by means of different bioinformatics tools revealed new genes whose products potentially are involved in degradation of plant cell wall components, melanin formation and synthesis of secondary metabolites. Comparative genome analyses between members of different R. solani anastomosis groups, namely AG1-IA, AG3 and AG8 and the newly annotated R. solani AG1-IB genome were performed within the comparative genomics platform EDGAR. It appeared that only 21 to 28% of all genes encoded in the draft genomes of the different strains were identified as core genes. Based on Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) and Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI) analyses, considerable sequence differences between isolates representing different anastomosis groups were identified. However, R. solani isolates form a distinct cluster in relation to other fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota. The isolate representing AG1-IB encodes significant more genes featuring predictable functions in secondary metabolite production compared to other completely sequenced R. solani strains. The newly established R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene layout now provides a reliable basis for post-genomics studies. PMID:26690577

  18. Development of a Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB Specific Gene Model Enables Comparative Genome Analyses between Phytopathogenic R. solani AG1-IA, AG1-IB, AG3 and AG8 Isolates.

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Rupp, Oliver; Blom, Jochen; Jelonek, Lukas; Kröber, Magdalena; Verwaaijen, Bart; Goesmann, Alexander; Albaum, Stefan; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani, a soil-born plant pathogenic basidiomycetous fungus, affects various economically important agricultural and horticultural crops. The draft genome sequence for the R. solani AG1-IB isolate 7/3/14 as well as a corresponding transcriptome dataset (Expressed Sequence Tags--ESTs) were established previously. Development of a specific R. solani AG1-IB gene model based on GMAP transcript mapping within the eukaryotic gene prediction platform AUGUSTUS allowed detection of new genes and provided insights into the gene structure of this fungus. In total, 12,616 genes were recognized in the genome of the AG1-IB isolate. Analysis of predicted genes by means of different bioinformatics tools revealed new genes whose products potentially are involved in degradation of plant cell wall components, melanin formation and synthesis of secondary metabolites. Comparative genome analyses between members of different R. solani anastomosis groups, namely AG1-IA, AG3 and AG8 and the newly annotated R. solani AG1-IB genome were performed within the comparative genomics platform EDGAR. It appeared that only 21 to 28% of all genes encoded in the draft genomes of the different strains were identified as core genes. Based on Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) and Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI) analyses, considerable sequence differences between isolates representing different anastomosis groups were identified. However, R. solani isolates form a distinct cluster in relation to other fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota. The isolate representing AG1-IB encodes significant more genes featuring predictable functions in secondary metabolite production compared to other completely sequenced R. solani strains. The newly established R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 gene layout now provides a reliable basis for post-genomics studies. PMID:26690577

  19. Characterization of antagonistic-potential of two Bacillus strains and their biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia solani in tomato.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, Supriya; Kumar, Sudheer; Kashyap, Prem Lal; Srivastava, Alok K

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biocontrol mechanism of two antagonistic Bacillus strains (Bacillus subtilis MB14 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens MB101), three in vitro antagonism assays were screened and the results were concluded that both strains inhibited Rhizoctonia solani growth in a similar manner by dual culture assay, but the maximum percent of inhibition only resulted with MB101 by volatile and diffusible metabolite assays. Moreover, cell free supernatant (CFS) of MB101 also showed significant (p > 0.05) growth inhibition as compared to MB14, when 10 and 20% CFS mix with the growth medium of R. solani. After in vitro-validation, both strains were evaluated under greenhouse and the results concluded that strain MB101 had significant biocontrol potential as compared to MB14. Strain MB101 was enhanced the plant height, biomass and chlorophyll content of tomato plant through a higher degree of root colonization. In field trials, strain MB101 showed higher lessening in root rot symptoms with significant fruit yield as compare to strain MB14 and infected control. Next to the field study, the presence of four antibiotic genes (srfAA, fenD, ituC, and bmyB) also concluded the antifungal nature of both Bacillus strains. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences revealed a close relatedness of three genes (srfAA, fenD, and ituC) with earlier reported sequences of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. However, bmyB showed heterogeneity in among both strains (MB14 and MB101) and it may be concluded that higher degree of antagonism, root colonization and different antibiotic producing genes may play an important role in biocontrol mechanism of strain MB101. PMID:24277414

  20. Characterization of genes involved in biosynthesis of a novel antibiotic from Burkholderia cepacia BC11 and their role in biological control of Rhizoctonia solani

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Y.; Carlson, R.; Tharpe, W.; Schell, M.A.

    1998-10-01

    Genetic manipulation of fluorescent pseudomonads has provided major insight into their production of antifungal molecules and their role in biological control of plant disease. Burkholderia cepacia also produces antifungal activities, but its biological control activity is much less well characterized, in part due to difficulties in applying genetic tools. Here the authors report genetic and biochemical characterization of a soil isolate of B. cepacia relating to its production of an unusual antibiotic that is very active against a variety of soil fungi. Purification and preliminary structural analyses suggest that this antibiotic (called AFC-BC11) is a novel lipopeptide associated largely with the cell membrane. Analysis of conditions for optimal production of AFC-BC11 indicated stringent environmental regulation of its synthesis. Furthermore, the authors show that production of AFC-BC11 is largely responsible for the ability of B. cepacia BC11 to effectively control the damping-Off of cotton caused by the fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a gnotobiotic system. Using Tn5 mutagenesis, they identified, cloned, and characterized a region of the genome of strain BC11 that is required for production of this antifungal metabolite. DNA sequence analysis suggested that this region encodes proteins directly involved in the production of a nonribosomally synthesized lipopeptide.

  1. Co-expression of RCH10 and AGLU1 confers rice resistance to fungal sheath blight Rhizoctonia solani and blast Magnorpathe oryzae and reveals impact on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Mao, Bizeng; Liu, Xuehui; Hu, Dongwei; Li, Debao

    2014-04-01

    Rice sheath blight and blast caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn and Magnorpathe oryzae respectively, are the two most destructive fungal diseases in rice. With no genetic natural traits conferring resistance to sheath blight, transgenic manipulation provides an obvious approach. In this study, the rice basic chitinase gene (RCH10) and the alfalfa β-1,3-glucanase gene (AGLU1) were tandemly inserted into transformation vector pBI101 under the control of 35S promoter with its enhancer sequence to generate a double-defense gene expression cassette pZ100. The pZ100 cassette was transformed into rice (cv. Taipei 309) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. More than 160 independent transformants were obtained and confirmed by PCR. Northern analysis of inheritable progenies revealed similar levels of both RCH10 and AGLU1 transcripts in the same individuals. Disease resistance to both sheath blight and blast was challenged in open field inoculation. Immunogold detection revealed that RCH10 and AGLU1 proteins were initially located mainly in the chloroplasts and were delivered to the vacuole and cell wall upon infection, suggesting that these subcellular compartments act as the gathering and execution site for these anti-fungal proteins. We also observed that transgenic seeds display lower germination rate and seedling vigor, indicating that defense enhancement might be achieved at the expense of development. PMID:24197785

  2. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS metabolomics networking unravels global potato sprout's responses to Rhizoctonia solani infection.

    PubMed

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A; Jabaji, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypersensitive reaction (HR) such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents. PMID:22880040

  3. Interplay between Parasitism and Host Ontogenic Resistance in the Epidemiology of the Soil-Borne Plant Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Delarue, Patrick; Morlière, Stéphanie; Montfort, Françoise; Hervé, Maxime R.; Poggi, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i) its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii) after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed. PMID:25127238

  4. Interplay between parasitism and host ontogenic resistance in the epidemiology of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Simon, Thomas E; Le Cointe, Ronan; Delarue, Patrick; Morlière, Stéphanie; Montfort, Françoise; Hervé, Maxime R; Poggi, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Spread of soil-borne fungal plant pathogens is mainly driven by the amount of resources the pathogen is able to capture and exploit should it behave either as a saprotroph or a parasite. Despite their importance in understanding the fungal spread in agricultural ecosystems, experimental data related to exploitation of infected host plants by the pathogen remain scarce. Using Rhizoctonia solani / Raphanus sativus as a model pathosystem, we have obtained evidence on the link between ontogenic resistance of a tuberizing host and (i) its susceptibility to the pathogen and (ii) after infection, the ability of the fungus to spread in soil. Based on a highly replicable experimental system, we first show that infection success strongly depends on the host phenological stage. The nature of the disease symptoms abruptly changes depending on whether infection occurred before or after host tuberization, switching from damping-off to necrosis respectively. Our investigations also demonstrate that fungal spread in soil still depends on the host phenological stage at the moment of infection. High, medium, or low spread occurred when infection was respectively before, during, or after the tuberization process. Implications for crop protection are discussed. PMID:25127238

  5. FT-ICR/MS and GC-EI/MS Metabolomics Networking Unravels Global Potato Sprout's Responses to Rhizoctonia solani Infection

    PubMed Central

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Jabaji, Suha

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of plant-pathogen interactions makes their dissection a challenging task for metabolomics studies. Here we are reporting on an integrated metabolomics networking approach combining gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance/mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS) and bioinformatics analyses for the study of interactions in the potato sprout-Rhizoctonia solani pathosystem and the fluctuations in the global metabolome of sprouts. The developed bioanalytical and bioinformatics protocols provided a snapshot of the sprout's global metabolic network and its perturbations as a result of pathogen invasion. Mevalonic acid and deoxy-xylulose pathways were substantially up-regulated leading to the biosynthesis of sesquiterpene alkaloids such as the phytoalexins phytuberin, rishitin, and solavetivone, and steroidal alkaloids having solasodine and solanidine as their common aglycons. Additionally, the perturbation of the sprout's metabolism was depicted in fluctuations of the content of their amino acids pool and that of carboxylic and fatty acids. Components of the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and hypersensitive reaction (HR) such as azelaic and oxalic acids were detected in increased levels in infected sprouts and strategies of the pathogen to overcome plant defense were proposed. Our metabolic approach has not only greatly expanded the multitude of metabolites previously reported in potato in response to pathogen invasion, but also enabled the identification of bioactive plant-derived metabolites providing valuable information that could be exploited in biotechnology, biomarker-assisted plant breeding, and crop protection for the development of new crop protection agents. PMID:22880040

  6. Development of a difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA.

    PubMed

    Leng, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Qian; Zhang, Yunsong; Zhao, Maojun; Pan, Guangtang

    2012-06-01

    According to its physical and chemical properties, the composition of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was as follows: xylene as solvent, emulsifier HSH as surfactant and methanol as cosurfactant. The optimal formulation of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was oil/SAA/water = 1/2/5 (w/w), in which the SAA consisted of emulsifier HSH and methanol with ratio of 3/2 (w/w). The cloud point of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 70 degrees C and its effective ingredient content was 2.5% measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Its heat storage stability was studied according to the standards. The decomposition rates of the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion were merely 2.45%, 2.63% respectively and met the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) standards of pesticide microemulsion. Investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) the particle size of difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion was 90-140 nm and its antifungal activities against Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA were tested and compared with that of Meiyu. We found that the inhibition rates in the difenoconazole/propiconazole microemulsion treatment group were significantly higher than that of the emulsion group with the same content of effective ingredients and the study also revealed that its inhibiting ability on the formation and germination of sclerotia was significant. PMID:22822543

  7. Enhanced production of phenazine-like metabolite produced by Streptomyces aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 against rice pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Hariharan; Shanmugaiah, Vellasamy; Nithya, Karmegham; Balasubramanian, Natesan; Sharma, Mahaveer P; Gachomo, Emma W; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of a rhizobacterium Streptomyces aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 for the production of bioactive metabolites with antifungal properties was evaluated under in vitro conditions. The production of bioactive metabolites by S. aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 in International Streptomyces Project-2 (ISP-2) broth, supplemented with glucose and ammonium acetate was found to be the most suitable carbon and nitrogen sources for the maximum production of bioactive metabolites against rice pathogen, Rhizoctonia solani. The zone of inhibition range from 23.5 to 28.5 mm and 10.3 to 18.3 mm for glucose and ammonium acetate supplemented media, respectively. The culture filtrate of S. aurantiogriseus VSMGT1014 at pH 7.5, 37 °C at 120 rpm in 6 days of incubation showed the maximum production of bioactive metabolites with antagonistic potential. The crude metabolite was characterized by different spectral studies such as Ultraviolet spectrum, infrared-spectrum and based on the different analytical techniques, including thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with the retention time 29.4 and the bioactive metabolite was identified as phenazine, which was confirmed by pure phenazine compound as positive control. PMID:26627705

  8. Influence of sugarbeet tillage Systems on the rhizoctonia-bacterial root rot complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rhizoctonia-bacterial root rot complex in sugarbeet caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Leuconostoc mesenteroides can cause significant yield losses. To investigate the impact of different tillage systems on this complex, field studies were conducted from 2009 to 2011. Split blocks with conventio...

  9. Rhizoctonia seed, seedling, and wet root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn can cause seed and seedling rot of both lentil and chickpea as well as many other agricultural crops worldwide. The pathogen is favored in cool, sandy soil with high organic matter under no-till or reduced-till soil management practices. Survival spor...

  10. Transcriptome analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 applying high-throughput sequencing of expressed sequence tags (ESTs).

    PubMed

    Wibberg, Daniel; Jelonek, Lukas; Rupp, Oliver; Kröber, Magdalena; Goesmann, Alexander; Grosch, Rita; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a soil-borne plant pathogenic fungus of the phylum Basidiomycota. It affects a wide range of agriculturally important crops and hence is responsible for economically relevant crop losses. Transcriptome analysis of the bottom rot pathogen R. solani AG1-1B (isolate 7/3/14) by applying high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics methods addressing Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data interpretation provided new insights in expressed genes of this fungus. Two normalized cDNA libraries representing different cultivation conditions of the fungus were sequenced on the 454 FLX (Roche) system. Subsequent to cDNA sequence assembly and quality control, ESTs were analysed applying advanced bioinformatics methods. More than 14 000 transcript isoforms originating from approximately 10 000 predictable R. solani AG1-IB 7/3/14 genes are represented in each dataset. Comparative analyses revealed several differentially expressed genes depending on the growth conditions applied. Determinants with predicted functions in recognition processes between the fungus and the host plant were identified. Moreover, many R. solani AG1-IB ESTs were predicted to encode putative cellulose, pectin, and lignin degrading enzymes. Furthermore, genes playing a possible role in mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades, 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism, melanin synthesis, plant defence antagonism, phytotoxin, and mycotoxin synthesis were detected. PMID:25209639

  11. Effect of Sugar Beet Variety and Nonhost Plant on Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB Soil Inoculum Potential Measured in Soil DNA Extracts.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Sascha; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Märländer, Bernward; Varrelmann, Mark

    2016-09-01

    A direct soil DNA extraction method from soil samples (250 g) was applied for detection of the soilborne sugar-beet-infecting pathogen Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG) 2-2IIIB using a newly developed real-time polymerase chain reaction assay that showed specificity to AG2-2IIIB when tested against various R. solani AG. The assay showed a good relation between cycle threshold and amount of AG2-2IIIB sclerotia detected in three spiked field soils and was also able to detect the pathogen in naturally infested field soil samples. A field trial was conducted to quantify R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil inoculum potential (IP) before and after growing a susceptible and a resistant sugar beet variety as well as after subsequent growth of an expected nonhost winter rye. Plants of the susceptible sugar beet variety displayed a higher disease severity. A more than sixfold increase of the R. solani AG2-2IIIB soil IP was observed in contrast to the resistant variety that resulted in a constant IP. Growing winter rye significantly reduced soil IP to the initial level at sowing. Further research is required to better understand the interaction between disease occurrence and soil IP as well as the environmental influence on IP development. PMID:27143412

  12. Identification of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot in mutant and wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct seeding cereal crops into non-tilled fields is a practice that is gaining importance in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Unfortunately, Rhizoctonia root rot and bare-patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 limits the yield of direct-seeded cereals in this region. No resistan...

  13. Changes in the contents of metabolites and enzyme activities in rice plants responding to Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn infection: activation of glycolysis and connection to phenylpropanoid pathway.

    PubMed

    Mutuku, J Musembi; Nose, Akihiro

    2012-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn causes sheath blight disease in rice, and genetic resistance against it is the most desirable characteristic. Current improvement efforts are based on analysis of polygenic quantitative trait loci (QTLs), but interpretation is limited by the lack of information on the changes in metabolic pathways. Our previous studies linked activation of the glycolytic pathway to enhanced generation of lignin in the phenylpropanoid pathway. The current studies investigated the regulation of glycolysis by examining the time course of changes in enzymatic activities and metabolite contents. The results showed that the activities of all glycolytic enzymes as well as fructose-6-phosphate (F-6-P), fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P(2)), dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAP), 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PG), phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and pyruvate contents increased. These results combined with our previous findings that the expression of phosphoglucomutase (PGM), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), enolase and pyruvate kinase (PK) increased after infection suggested that the additional establishment of glycolysis in the cytosol compartment occurred after infection. Further evidence for this was our recent findings that the increase in expression of the 6-phosphofructokinase (PFK) plastid isozyme Os06g05860 was accompanied by an increase in expression of three cytosolic PFK isozymes, i.e. Os01g09570, Os01g53680 and Os04g39420, as well as pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofrucokinase (PFP) isozymes Os08g25720 (α-subunit) and Os06g13810 (β-subunit) in infected rice plants of the resistant line. The results also showed that the reactions catalysed by PFK/PFP, aldolase, GAPDH + phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and PK in leaf sheaths of R. solani-infected rice plants were non-equilibrium reactions in vivo. This study showed that PGM, phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), TPI and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGmu

  14. GalNAc/Gal-binding Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin has antiproliferative activity in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells via MAPK and JAK/STAT signaling.

    PubMed

    Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Damme, Els J M; Vandenborre, Gianni; Ghesquière, Bart; Trooskens, Geert; Gevaert, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin, further referred to as RSA, is a lectin isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Previously, we reported a high entomotoxic activity of RSA towards the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. To better understand the mechanism of action of RSA, Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of the lectin and FITC-labeled RSA binding was examined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. RSA has antiproliferative activity with a median effect concentration (EC(50)) of 0.35 µM. In addition, the lectin was typically bound to the cell surface but not internalized. In contrast, the N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin WGA and the galactose-binding lectin PNA, which were both also inhibitory for S2 cell proliferation, were internalized whereas the mannose-binding lectin GNA did not show any activity on these cells, although it was internalized. Extracted DNA and nuclei from S2 cells treated with RSA were not different from untreated cells, confirming inhibition of proliferation without apoptosis. Pre-incubation of RSA with N-acetylgalactosamine clearly inhibited the antiproliferative activity by RSA in S2 cells, demonstrating the importance of carbohydrate binding. Similarly, the use of MEK and JAK inhibitors reduced the activity of RSA. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane proteins from S2 cells allowed the identification of several cell surface receptors involved in both signaling transduction pathways. PMID:22529896

  15. GalNAc/Gal-Binding Rhizoctonia solani Agglutinin Has Antiproliferative Activity in Drosophila melanogaster S2 Cells via MAPK and JAK/STAT Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hamshou, Mohamad; Van Damme, Els J. M.; Vandenborre, Gianni; Ghesquière, Bart; Trooskens, Geert; Gevaert, Kris; Smagghe, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani agglutinin, further referred to as RSA, is a lectin isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani. Previously, we reported a high entomotoxic activity of RSA towards the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. To better understand the mechanism of action of RSA, Drosophila melanogaster Schneider S2 cells were treated with different concentrations of the lectin and FITC-labeled RSA binding was examined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. RSA has antiproliferative activity with a median effect concentration (EC50) of 0.35 µM. In addition, the lectin was typically bound to the cell surface but not internalized. In contrast, the N-acetylglucosamine-binding lectin WGA and the galactose-binding lectin PNA, which were both also inhibitory for S2 cell proliferation, were internalized whereas the mannose-binding lectin GNA did not show any activity on these cells, although it was internalized. Extracted DNA and nuclei from S2 cells treated with RSA were not different from untreated cells, confirming inhibition of proliferation without apoptosis. Pre-incubation of RSA with N-acetylgalactosamine clearly inhibited the antiproliferative activity by RSA in S2 cells, demonstrating the importance of carbohydrate binding. Similarly, the use of MEK and JAK inhibitors reduced the activity of RSA. Finally, RSA affinity chromatography of membrane proteins from S2 cells allowed the identification of several cell surface receptors involved in both signaling transduction pathways. PMID:22529896

  16. Screening of a dry bean Andean diversity panel for potential sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR), caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is a major problem in most sugar beet production areas and can cause substantial losses in both yield and quality. Over the last decade, it has become the most prevalent root disease of sugar beet in Michigan and several other regi...

  17. Plant-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trifolium resupinatum seed exudate and their antifungal efficacy on Neofusicoccum parvum and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Khatami, Mehrdad; Nejad, Meysam Soltani; Salari, Samira; Almani, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, biosynthesis and the utilisation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become an interesting subject. In this study, the authors investigated the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Trifolium resupinatum (Persian clover) seed exudates. The characterisation of AgNPs were analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Also, antifungal efficacy of biogenic AgNPs against two important plant-pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani and Neofusicoccum Parvum) in vitro condition was evaluated. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centred cubic geometry. TEM images revealed the spherical shape of the AgNPs with an average size of 17 nm. The synthesised AgNPs were formed at room temperature and kept stable for 4 months. The maximum distributions of the synthesised AgNPs were seen to range in size from 5 to 10 nm. The highest inhibition effect was observed against R. solani at 40 ppm concentration of AgNPs (94.1%) followed by N. parvum (84%). The results showed that the antifungal activity of AgNPs was dependent on the amounts of AgNPs. In conclusion, the AgNPs obtained from T. resupinatum seed exudate exhibit good antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi R. solani and N. Parvum. PMID:27463795

  18. An immunological approach to quantifying the saprotrophic growth dynamics of Trichoderma species during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in a soil-less mix.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Christopher R

    2004-04-01

    Studies of the saprotrophic growth dynamics of Trichoderma species and their fungal hosts during antagonistic interactions are severely hampered by the absence of methods that allow the unambiguous identification and quantification of individual genera in complex environments such as soil or compost containing mixed populations of fungi. Furthermore, methods are required that allow discrimination between active hyphal growth and other components of fungal biomass such as quiescent spores that are produced in large numbers by Trichoderma species. This study details the use of monoclonal antibodies to quantify the saprotrophic growth dynamics of the soil-borne plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and biological control strains of Trichoderma asperellum and Trichoderma harzianum during antagonistic interactions in peat-based microcosms. Quantification was based on the immunological detection of constitutive, extracellular antigens that are secreted from the growing tip of Rhizoctonia and Trichoderma mycelium and, in the case of Trichoderma harzianum, from quiescent phialoconidia also. The Trichoderma-specific monoclonal antibody (MF2) binds to a protein epitope of the enzyme glucoamylase, which was shown by immunofluorescence and immunogold electron gold microscopy studies of Trichoderma virens in vitro to be produced at the origin of germ tube emergence in phialoconidia and from the growing tip of germ tubes. In addition, a non-destructive immunoblotting technique showed that the enzyme was secreted during active growth of Trichoderma asperellum mycelium in peat. The Rhizoctonia solani-specific monoclonal antibody (EH2) similarly binds to a protein epitope of a glycoprotein that is secreted during active mycelial growth. Extracts derived from lyophilized mycelium were used as a quantifiable and repeatable source of antigens for construction of calibration curves. These curves were used to convert the absorbance values obtained in ELISA tests of peat extracts to biomass

  19. Genes of the de novo and Salvage Biosynthesis Pathways of Vitamin B6 are Regulated under Oxidative Stress in the Plant Pathogen Rhizoctonia solani

    PubMed Central

    Samsatly, Jamil; Chamoun, Rony; Gluck-Thaler, Emile; Jabaji, Suha

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin B6 is recognized as an important cofactor required for numerous metabolic enzymes, and has been shown to act as an antioxidant and play a role in stress responses. It can be synthesized through two different routes: salvage and de novo pathways. However, little is known about the possible function of the vitamin B6 pathways in the fungal plant pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. Using genome walking, the de novo biosynthetic pathway genes; RsolPDX1 and RsolPDX2 and the salvage biosynthetic pathway gene, RsolPLR were sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequences of the three genes had high degrees of similarity to other fungal PDX1, PDX2, and PLR proteins and are closely related to other R. solani anastomosis groups. We also examined their regulation when subjected to reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress inducers, the superoxide generator paraquat, or H2O2, and compared it to the well-known antioxidant genes, catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The genes were differentially regulated with transcript levels as high as 33 fold depending on the gene and type of stress reflecting differences in the type of damage induced by ROS. Exogenous addition of the vitamers PN or PLP in culture medium significantly induced the transcription of the vitamin B6 de novo encoding genes as early as 0.5 hour post treatment (HPT). On the other hand, transcription of RsolPLR was vitamer-specific; a down regulation upon supplementation of PN and upregulation with PLP. Our results suggest that accumulation of ROS in R. solani mycelia is linked to transcriptional regulation of the three genes and implicate the vitamin B6 biosynthesis machinery in R. solani, similar to catalases and GST, as an antioxidant stress protector against oxidative stress. PMID:26779127

  20. Carbon Source-Dependent Effects of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Soil Microbiome and Suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and Pratylenchus penetrans.

    PubMed

    Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Mazzola, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The effect of carbon source on efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) toward suppression of apple root infection by Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and Pratylenchus penetrans was examined. Orchard grass (GR), rice bran (RB), ethanol (ET), composted steer manure (CM), and Brassica juncea seed meal (SM) were used as ASD carbon inputs, with plant assays conducted in natural and pasteurized orchard soils. Subsequent studies investigated the effect of GR application rate used in ASD on control of these pathogens. In general, apple root infection by R. solani AG-5 was significantly lower in ET, GR, RB, and SM ASD treatments compared with the control. Among different ASD treatments, apple seedling growth was significantly greater when GR or SM was used as the carbon input relative to all other ASD treatments. R. solani AG-5 DNA abundance was significantly reduced in all ASD treatments, regardless of amendment type, compared with the control. In independent experiments, ASD-GR was consistently superior to ASD-CM for limiting pathogen activity in soils. ASD treatment with a grass input rate of 20 t ha(-1) provided superior suppression of P. penetrans but grass application rate did not affect ASD efficacy in control of R. solani AG-5. The soil microbiome from ASD-GR-treated soils was clearly distinct from the control and ASD-CM-treated soils. In contrast, composition of the microbiome from control and ASD-CM-treated soils could not be differentiated. Comparative results from pasteurized and nonpasteurized soils suggest that there is potential for GR based ASD treatment to recruit microbial elements that persist over the anaerobic phase of soil incubation, which may functionally contribute to disease suppression. When ASD was conducted with GR, microbial diversity was markedly reduced relative to the control or ASD-CM soil suggesting that this parameter, typically associated with system resilience, was not instrumental to the function of ASD-induced soil suppressiveness

  1. The role of bacterial communities in the natural suppression of Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat Triticum aestivum L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia bare patch and root rot of wheat, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, develops as distinct patches of stunted plants, and limits the yield of direct-seeded wheat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. At a long-term wheat cropping systems study site near Ritzville, WA, conve...

  2. Screening a dry bean Andean diversity panel for potential sources of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia root rot and damping-off, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, are among the most economically important root and hypocotyl diseases in the world and affect a wide range of hosts including the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). To identify potential sources of resistance, screening material was ...

  3. Natural Suppression of Rhizoctonia Bare Patch in a Long-Term No-Till Cropping Systems Experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soil-borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 is a major concern for farmers who practice no-till in the inland Pacific Northwest, USA. Bare patches caused by Rhizoctonia first appeared in 1999 during year 3 of a 15-year no-till cropping systems experiment near Ritzville, WA (269 mm annual precipit...

  4. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off and promotion of tomato plant growth by endophytic actinomycetes isolated from native plants of Algerian Sahara.

    PubMed

    Goudjal, Yacine; Toumatia, Omrane; Yekkour, Amine; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Mathieu, Florence; Zitouni, Abdelghani

    2014-01-20

    Thirty-four endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from the roots of native plants of the Algerian Sahara. Morphological and chemical studies showed that twenty-nine isolates belonged to the Streptomyces genus and five were non-Streptomyces. All isolates were screened for their in vitro antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani. The six that had the greatest pathogen inhibitory capacities were subsequently tested for their in vivo biocontrol potential on R. solani damping-off in sterilized and non-sterilized soils, and for their plant-growth promoting activities on tomato seedlings. In both soils, coating tomato seeds with antagonistic isolates significantly reduced (P<0.05) the severity of damping-off of tomato seedlings. Among the isolates tested, the strains CA-2 and AA-2 exhibited the same disease incidence reduction as thioperoxydicarbonic diamide, tetramethylthiram (TMTD) and no significant differences (P<0.05) were observed. Furthermore, they resulted in a significant increase in the seedling fresh weight, the seedling length and the root length of the seed-treated seedlings compared to the control. The taxonomic position based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phylogenetic studies indicated that the strains CA-2 and AA-2 were related to Streptomyces mutabilis NBRC 12800(T) (100% of similarity) and Streptomyces cyaneofuscatus JCM 4364(T) (100% of similarity), respectively. PMID:23920229

  5. Transgenic rice with inducible ethylene production exhibits broad-spectrum disease resistance to the fungal pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, Emily E; Wang, Qin; Yang, Yinong

    2013-01-01

    Rice blast (Magnaporthe oryzae) and sheath blight (Rhizoctonia solani) are the two most devastating diseases of rice (Oryza sativa), and have severe impacts on crop yield and grain quality. Recent evidence suggests that ethylene (ET) may play a more prominent role than salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in mediating rice disease resistance. In this study, we attempt to genetically manipulate endogenous ET levels in rice for enhancing resistance to rice blast and sheath blight diseases. Transgenic lines with inducible production of ET were generated by expressing the rice ACS2 (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a key enzyme of ET biosynthesis) transgene under control of a strong pathogen-inducible promoter. In comparison with the wild-type plant, the OsACS2-overexpression lines showed significantly increased levels of the OsACS2 transcripts, endogenous ET and defence gene expression, especially in response to pathogen infection. More importantly, the transgenic lines exhibited increased resistance to a field isolate of R. solani, as well as different races of M. oryzae. Assessment of the growth rate, generational time and seed production revealed little or no differences between wild type and transgenic lines. These results suggest that pathogen-inducible production of ET in transgenic rice can enhance resistance to necrotrophic and hemibiotrophic fungal pathogens without negatively impacting crop productivity. PMID:23031077

  6. Overexpression of GhWRKY27a reduces tolerance to drought stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection in transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yan; Jia, Haihong; Wang, Fang; Wang, Chen; Liu, Shuchang; Guo, Xingqi

    2015-01-01

    WRKY proteins constitute transcriptional regulators involved in various biological processes, especially in coping with diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. However, in contrast to other well-characterized WRKY groups, the functions of group III WRKY transcription factors are poorly understood in the economically important crop cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). In this study, a group III WRKY gene from cotton, GhWRKY27a, was isolated and characterized. Our data indicated that GhWRKY27a localized to the nucleus and that GhWRKY27a expression could be strongly induced by abiotic stresses, pathogen infection, and multiple defense-related signaling molecules. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of GhWRKY27a enhanced tolerance to drought stress in cotton. In contrast, GhWRKY27a overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana markedly reduced plant tolerance to drought stress, as determined through physiological analyses of leaf water loss, survival rates, and the stomatal aperture. This susceptibility was coupled with reduced stomatal closure in response to abscisic acid and decreased expression of stress-related genes. In addition, GhWRKY27a-overexpressing plants exhibited reduced resistance to Rhizoctonia solani infection, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic lines exhibiting more severe disease symptoms, accompanied by attenuated expression of defense-related genes in N. benthamiana. Taken together, these findings indicated that GhWRKY27a functions in negative responses to drought tolerance and in resistance to R. solani infection. PMID:26483697

  7. Distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers for multilocus phylogeography of the soybean- and rice-infecting fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    A series of multilocus sequence-based nuclear DNA markers was developed to infer the phylogeographical history of the Basidiomycetous fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA infecting rice and soybean worldwide. The strategy was based on sequencing of cloned genomic DNA fragments (previously used as RFLP probes) and subsequent screening of fungal isolates to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Ten primer pairs were designed based on these sequences, which resulted in PCR amplification of 200-320 bp size products and polymorphic sequences in all markers analyzed. By direct sequencing we identified both homokaryon and heterokaryon (i.e. dikaryon) isolates at each marker. Cloning the PCR products effectively estimated the allelic phase from heterokaryotic isolates. Information content varied among markers from 0.5 to 5.9 mutations per 100 bp. Thus, the former RFLP codominant probes were successfully converted into six distinctively variable sequence-based nuclear DNA markers. Rather than discarding low polymorphism loci, the combination of these distinctively variable anonymous nuclear markers would constitute an asset for the unbiased estimate of the phylogeographical parameters such as population sizes and divergent times, providing a more reliable species history that shaped the current population structure of R. solani AG-1 IA. PMID:21637462

  8. Chitinolytic Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 isolated from Chilika lake, India enhances plant growth and biocontrol efficacy through chitin supplementation against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Shrivastava, Pooja; Sivakumar, G

    2015-08-01

    A chitinolytic actinomycete Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 was isolated from water sample of Chilika lake, India and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It showed in vitro antifungal activity against the sclerotia producing pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a dual culture assay and by chitinase enzyme production in a chitin supplemented minimal broth. Moreover, isolate S5MW2 was further characterized for biocontrol (BC) and plant growth promoting features in a greenhouse experiment with or without colloidal chitin (CC). Results of greenhouse experiment showed that CC supplementation with S5MW2 showed a significant growth of tomato plants and superior disease reduction as compared to untreated control and without CC treated plants. Moreover, higher accumulation of chitinase also recovered in the CC supplemented plants. Significant effect of CC also concurred with the Analysis of Variance of greenhouse parameters. These results show that the a marine antagonist S5MW2 has BC efficiency against R. solani and chitinase enzyme played important role in plant resistance. PMID:25982747

  9. Release of SR98 Sugarbeet Germplasm with High Levels of Resistance to Rhizoctonia Damping-Off, Crown and Root Rot, and Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SR98 (PI 655951) is a sugarbeet germplasm with smooth, low soil tare root and high levels of resistance to damping-off and crown and root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG2-2). Previous smooth–root releases have been highly susceptible to diseases caused by R. solani, and the SR98 has incorporate...

  10. Rhizoctonia seedling damping-off in sugar beet in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani is an important seedling pathogen of sugar beet, causing damping-off following seedling emergence. Anastomosis group (AG)-4 has been the primary seedling pathogen reported on sugar beet, however, recent screening has found high incidence of infection by AG-2-2. Isolations of R. so...

  11. Rhizoctonia damping-off stem canker and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

  12. Bacillomycin L and surfactin contribute synergistically to the phenotypic features of Bacillus subtilis 916 and the biocontrol of rice sheath blight induced by Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chuping; Zhou, Huafei; Zou, Jincheng; Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Rongsheng; Xiang, Yaping; Chen, Zhiyi

    2015-02-01

    The antagonistic activity of lipopeptides in Bacillus subtilis 916 has been well documented, yet relatively little is known about their mechanism in biofilm formation and environmental colonization. This study sought to examine the interaction of B. subtilis 916 on Rhizoctonia solani-infected rice sheath to elucidate the mechanism of colonization on plant leaves. Results showed that the mutants Δbac, Δsrf, and Δsrf + bac of B. subtilis 916, deficient in bacillomycin L and surfactin production, respectively, not only altered colony morphology but also changed swarming motility, reduced antagonistic activity, and decreased biofilm formation. In particular, biofilm formation in mutant Δbac, not Δsrf or Δsrf + bac, were restored with addition of surfactin and bacillomycin L at 10 and 50 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, surfactin and bacillomycin L were able to restore or enhance swarming motility in the corresponding mutants at 10 μg/mL, respectively. With the aid of green fluorescent protein tagging, it was demonstrated that B. subtilis 916 formed a robust biofilm on the rice sheath blight lesion and colonized well on R. solani-infected rice sheath, while its corresponding mutants performed poorly. These observations also correlated with the rice cultivar pot experiments, in which B. subtilis 916 exhibited greater biocontrol than its mutants. Our results suggest that surfactin and bacillomycin L contribute differently but synergistically to the biocontrol of rice sheath blight in B. subtilis 916 through its antifungal activity, biofilm formation, and colonization. PMID:25398282

  13. Bi-fluorescence imaging for estimating accurately the nuclear condition of Rhizoctonia spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the absence of perfect state, the number of nuclei in their vegetative hyphae is one of the anamorphic features that separate Rhizoctonia solani from other Rhizoctonia-like fungi. Anamorphs of Rhizoctonia solani are typically multinucleate while the other Rhizoctonia species are binucleate. Howev...

  14. Isolation, Identification and Optimal Culture Conditions of Streptomyces albidoflavus C247 Producing Antifungal Agents against Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Rezuanul; Jeong, Yong Tae; Ryu, Yeon Ju; Song, Chi Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Streptomyces albidoflavus C247 was isolated from the soil of the Gyeongsan golf course in Korea. Physiological, biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis strongly suggested that the isolate belonged to Streptomyces albidoflavus. Preliminary screening revealed that the isolate was active against fungi and bacteria. Self-directing optimization was employed to determine the best combination of parameters such as carbon and nitrogen source, pH and temperature. Nutritional and culture conditions for the production of antibiotics by this organism under shake-flask conditions were also optimized. Maltose (5%) and soytone (5%) were found to be the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of antibiotics by S. albidoflavus C247. Additionally, 62.89% mycelial growth inhibition was achieved when the organism was cultured at 30℃ and pH 6.5. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) was the best extraction solvent for the isolation of the antibiotics, and 100 µg/ml of EtOAc extract was found to inhibit 60.27% of the mycelial growth of Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2(IV) when the poison plate diffusion method was conducted. PMID:23983519

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani Identifies Infection-specific, Redox Associated Proteins and Insight into Adaptation to Different Plant Hosts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jonathan P; Hane, James K; Stoll, Thomas; Pain, Nicholas; Hastie, Marcus L; Kaur, Parwinder; Hoogland, Christine; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Singh, Karam B

    2016-04-01

    Rhizoctonia solaniis an important root infecting pathogen of a range of food staples worldwide including wheat, rice, maize, soybean, potato and others. Conventional resistance breeding strategies are hindered by the absence of tractable genetic resistance in any crop host. Understanding the biology and pathogenicity mechanisms of this fungus is important for addressing these disease issues, however, little is known about howR. solanicauses disease. This study capitalizes on recent genomic studies by applying mass spectrometry based proteomics to identify soluble, membrane-bound and culture filtrate proteins produced under wheat infection and vegetative growth conditions. Many of the proteins found in the culture filtrate had predicted functions relating to modification of the plant cell wall, a major activity required for pathogenesis on the plant host, including a number found only under infection conditions. Other infection related proteins included a high proportion of proteins with redox associated functions and many novel proteins without functional classification. The majority of infection only proteins tested were confirmed to show transcript up-regulation during infection including a thaumatin which increased susceptibility toR. solaniwhen expressed inNicotiana benthamiana In addition, analysis of expression during infection of different plant hosts highlighted how the infection strategy of this broad host range pathogen can be adapted to the particular host being encountered. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002806. PMID:26811357

  16. Influence of Rhizoctonia-Bacterial root rot complex on storability of sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The root rot complex, caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, can lead to yield loss in the field but may also lead to problems with sucrose loss in storage. Thus, studies were conducted to investigate if placing sugar beet roots suffering from root rot together with healthy roo...

  17. Postharvest respiration rate and sucrose content of Rhizoctonia-infected sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizotonia crown and root rot of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L), caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2, is increasing in Minnesota and North Dakota. As the disease increases in prevalence and severity, more diseased roots are being stored in piles where they affect storability and postharvest quality. T...

  18. Postharvest respiration rate and sucrose content of Rhizoctonia-infected sugarbeet roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizotonia crown and root rot of sugarbeet, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2, is increasing in Minnesota and North Dakota. As the disease increases in prevalence and severity, more diseased roots are being stored in piles where they affect storability and postharvest quality. The objective of th...

  19. Comparison of bacterial communities from inside and outside of Rhizoctonia bare patches in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 causes distinct patches of stunted wheat in the field. Bacterial communities from bulk soil and rhizospheres of wheat were analyzed with pyrosequencing. Replicated samples were taken from inside and outside of patches; and from patches that had recovered the previous 1–2 year...

  20. Rhizoctonia web blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by several Rhizoctonia spp., is an important disease of evergreen azaleas and other ornamental plants in nurseries. The primary pathogens causing web blight are binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AG) (= Ceratobasidium D.P. Rogers, teleomorph). In southern AL an...

  1. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on growth and biological efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis against Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of bean damping-off.

    PubMed

    Peighamy-Ashnaei, S; Sharifi-Tehrani, A; Ahmadzadeh, M; Behboudi, K

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important environmental factors that regulate the growth and antagonistic efficacy of biocontrol agents is the medium. The aim of this paper was to find the nitrogen and carbon sources that provide maximum biomass production of strains P-5 and P-6 (Pseudomonas fluorescens), B-3 and B-16 (Bacillus subtilis) and minimum cost of media, whilst maintaining biocontrol efficacy. All of the strains were grown in seven liquid media (pH=6.9) including: sucrose + yeast extract, molasses of sugar beet + yeast extract in 2:1 and 1:1 w/w ratios, molasses of sugar beet + urea, nutrient broth, molasses and malt extract, at an initial inoculation of 1 x 10(5) CFU ml(-1). Cells from over night cultures used to inoculate soil at 1 x 10(9) CFU cm(-3) soil. At the same time, fungal inoculum (infected millet seed with Rhizoctonia solani) was added to soil at the rate of 2 g kg(-1) soil. Results indicated that growth of P-6, B-3 and B-16 in molasses + yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium was significantly higher than in the other media. Molasses + yeast extract (1:1 and 2:1 w/w) media supported rapid growth and high cell yields in P-5. In greenhouse condition, results indicated that the influence of the media on the biocontrol efficacy of P-5, P-6, B-3 and B-16 was the same and Pseudomonas fluorescens P-5 in molasses and malt extract media reduced the severity of disease up to 72.8 percent. On the other hand, there were observed significant differences on bean growth after one month in greenhouse. P-5 in molasses + yeast extract (1:1 w/w) medium had the most effects on bean growth promotion. In this study molasses media showed good yield efficacy in all of the strains. The high sucrose concentration in molasses justifies the high biomass in all of the strains. Also, the low cost of molasses allows its concentration to be increased in media. On the other hand, yeast extract was the best organic nitrogen source for antagonist bacteria but it is expensive for an industrial process

  2. Inoculation and Scoring Methods for Rice Sheath Blight Disease Caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant resistance (R) genes provide effective protection against invading pathogens at the front line of defense. Advances in genomic technology have accelerated efforts to characterize a wide range of crop R genes from diverse and economically important crops, resulting in effective crop protection....

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  4. Molecular and genetic aspects of controlling the soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium.

    PubMed

    Okubara, Patricia A; Dickman, Martin B; Blechl, Ann E

    2014-11-01

    The soilborne necrotrophic pathogens Rhizoctonia and Pythium infect a wide range of crops in the US and worldwide. These pathogens pose challenges to growers because the diseases they cause are not adequately controlled by fungicides, rotation or, for many hosts, natural genetic resistance. Although a combination of management practices are likely to be required for control of Rhizoctonia and Pythium, genetic resistance remains a key missing component. This review discusses the recent deployment of introduced genes and genome-based information for control of Rhizoctonia, with emphasis on three pathosystems: Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and wheat, R. solani AG1-IA and rice, and R. solani AG3 or AG4 and potato. Molecular mechanisms underlying disease suppression will be addressed, if appropriate. Although less is known about genes and factors suppressive to Pythium, pathogen genomics and biological control studies are providing useful leads to effectors and antifungal factors. Prospects for resistance to Rhizoctonia and Pythium spp. will continue to improve with growing knowledge of pathogenicity strategies, host defense gene action relative to the pathogen infection process, and the role of environmental factors on pathogen-host interactions. PMID:25438786

  5. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Nunes, E; Silva, V; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Zaror, L; Fischman, O

    2004-04-01

    Fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. We report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani (4) and Fusarium oxysporum (4) in São Paulo, Brazil. These species were isolated from toenails in all cases. The infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. The clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkeratosis with yellowish brown coloration. The eight cases reported here suggest that Fusarium spp. should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of tinea unguium. PMID:15180157

  6. Influence of Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma spp. in growth of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and in the induction of plant defense-related genes

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Sara; Gutiérrez, Santiago; Malmierca, Monica G.; Lorenzana, Alicia; Campelo, M. Piedad; Hermosa, Rosa; Casquero, Pedro A.

    2015-01-01

    Many Trichoderma species are well-known for their ability to promote plant growth and defense. We study how the interaction of bean plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affect the plants growth and the level of expression of defense-related genes. Trichoderma isolates were evaluated in vitro for their potential to antagonize R. solani. Bioassays were performed in climatic chambers and development of the plants was evaluated. The effect of Trichoderma treatment and/or R. solani infection on the expression of bean defense-related genes was analyzed by real-time PCR and the production of ergosterol and squalene was quantified. In vitro growth inhibition of R. solani was between 86 and 58%. In in vivo assays, the bean plants treated with Trichoderma harzianum T019 always had an increased size respect to control and the plants treated with this isolate did not decrease their size in presence of R. solani. The interaction of plants with R. solani and/or Trichoderma affects the level of expression of seven defense-related genes. Squalene and ergosterol production differences were found among the Trichoderma isolates, T019 showing the highest values for both compounds. T. harzianum T019 shows a positive effect on the level of resistance of bean plants to R. solani. This strain induces the expression of plant defense-related genes and produces a higher level of ergosterol, indicating its ability to grow at a higher rate in the soil, which would explain its positive effects on plant growth and defense in the presence of the pathogen. PMID:26442006

  7. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  8. Pathogenicity of three isolates of Rhizoctonia sp. from wheat and peanut on hard red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia-induced root diseases can significantly affect wheat and peanut production where these two field crops are grown in rotation. Hence, this study characterized two isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. from wheat [R. cerealis (RC) and R. solani (RSW)] and one from peanut [R. solani (RSP) ] for cul...

  9. Effect of inoculum density and soil tillage on the development and severity of rhizoctonia root rot.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K L; Paulitz, T C

    2008-03-01

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause substantial yield losses in direct-seeded cereal crops compared with conventional tillage. To investigate the mechanisms behind this increased disease, soils from tilled or direct-seeded fields were inoculated with Rhizoctonia spp. at population densities from 0.8 to 250 propagules per gram and planted with barley (Hordeum vulgare). The incidence and severity of disease did not differ between soils with different tillage histories. Both R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae stunted plants at high inoculum densities, with the latter causing pre-emergence damping-off. High inoculum densities of both species stimulated early production of crown roots in barley seedlings. Intact soil cores from these same tilled and direct-seeded fields were used to evaluate the growth of Rhizoctonia spp. from colonized oat seeds. Growth of R. oryzae was not affected by previous tillage history. However, R. solani AG-8 grew more rapidly through soil from a long-term direct-seeded field compared to tilled soils. The differential response between these two experiments (mixed, homogenized soil versus intact soil) suggests that soil structure plays a major role in the proliferation of R. solani AG-8 through soils with different tillage histories. PMID:18944081

  10. The effect of temperature on Rhizoctonia disease development and fungicide efficacy in controlling Rhizoctonia root rot on sugarbeet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugarbeet. This disease has recently been increasing in occurrence and severity in sugarbeet production areas in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota. Since the intraspecific groups AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-...

  11. A double-stranded RNA element from a hypovirulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani occurs in DNA form and is genetically related to the pentafunctional AROM protein of the shikimate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lakshman, Dilip K.; Jian, Jianhua; Tavantzis, Stellos M.

    1998-01-01

    M2 is a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) element occurring in the hypovirulent isolate Rhs 1A1 of the plant pathogenic basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani. Rhs 1A1 originated as a sector of the virulent field isolate Rhs 1AP, which contains no detectable amount of the M2 dsRNA. The complete sequence (3,570 bp) of the M2 dsRNA has been determined. A 6.9-kbp segment of total DNA from either Rhs 1A1 or Rhs 1AP hybridizes with an M2-specific cDNA probe. The sequences of M2 dsRNA and of PCR products generated from Rhs 1A1 total DNA were found to be identical. Thus this report describes a fungal host containing full-length DNA copies of a dsRNA element. A major portion of the M2 dsRNA is located in the cytoplasm, whereas a smaller amount is found in mitochondria. Based on either the universal or the mitochondrial genetic code of filamentous fungi, one strand of M2 encodes a putative protein of 754 amino acids. The resulting polypeptide has all four motifs of a dsRNA viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) and is phylogenetically related to the RDRP of a mitochondrial dsRNA associated with hypovirulence in strain NB631 of Cryphonectria parasitica, incitant of chestnut blight. This polypeptide also has significant sequence similarity with two domains of a pentafunctional polypeptide, which catalyzes the five central steps of the shikimate pathway in yeast and filamentous fungi. PMID:9600982

  12. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  13. Root Rot of Balloon Flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) Caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Chi Sung; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Son, Kyeong In; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Jeon, Kwon-Seok; Yoon, Jun-Hyuck; Koh, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorum) is a kind of mountain herbs whose roots have restorative properties and the cultivating acreage of balloon flower has been steadily increasing in Korea. More frequent rain and high amount of rainfalls as a result of climate changes predisposed balloon flower to the outbreaks of root rot at high-density cultivation area in recent years. Root crowns were usually discolored into brown to blackish brown at first and the infected plants showed slight wilting symptom at early infection stage. Severely infected roots were entirely rotted and whole plants eventually died at late infection stage. The overall disease severities of root rot of balloon flower were quite variable according to the surveyed fields in Jeonnam, Gyeongnam and Jeju Provinces, which ranged from 0.1% to 40%. The root rot occurred more severely at the paddy or clay soils than the sandy soils and their severities were much higher at lowland than upland in the same localty. The disease increased with aging of the balloon flower. The causal fungi were identified as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum on the basis of their mycological characteristics. The optimum temperature ranges of their mycelial growths was found to be 24°C. The pathogenic characters of F. solani and F. oxysporum treated by artificial wounding inoculation on healthy roots of balloon flower revealed that F. solani was more virulent than F. oxysporum. This study identified the causal agents of root rot of balloon flower as Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum, probably for the first time. PMID:25288973

  14. Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis caused by Fusarium solani in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta L.).

    PubMed Central

    Cabañes, F J; Alonso, J M; Castellá, G; Alegre, F; Domingo, M; Pont, S

    1997-01-01

    Fusarium solani was reported as the agent of a cutaneous infection in an injured sea turtle collected in the Mediterranean Sea. The turtle was treated with both a topical 10% solution of iodine in alcohol and ketoconazole. The source of the causal agent was traced to the sand in the tank in which the turtle was maintained. The strain was only sensitive in vitro to amphotericin B and was resistant to 5-fluorocytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. PMID:9399554

  15. Blackpatch of Clover, Cause of Slobbers Syndrome: A Review of the Disease and the Pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Isabelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota), morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals and their biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested. PMID:26858953

  16. Blackpatch of Clover, Cause of Slobbers Syndrome: A Review of the Disease and the Pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A

    2016-01-01

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.). This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine causes livestock to salivate profusely, and swainsonine causes neurological problems. Although the blackpatch fungus was classified as a Rhizoctonia species (phylum Basidiomycota), morphological studies have indicated that it is in the phylum Ascomycota, and sequencing data have indicated that it may be a new genus of ascomycete. The effects of the alkaloids on grazing mammals and their biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied. In contrast, few studies have been done on management of the disease, which requires a greater understanding of the pathogen. Methods of disease management have included seed treatments and fungicides, but these have not been investigated since the 1950s. Searches for resistant cultivars have been limited. This review summarizes the biological effects and biosynthetic precursors of slaframine and swainsonine. Emphasis is placed on current knowledge about the epidemiology of blackpatch disease and the ecology and taxonomy of the pathogen. Possibilities for future research and disease management efforts are suggested. PMID:26858953

  17. Nonpathogenic Binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. and Benzothiadiazole Protect Cotton Seedlings Against Rhizoctonia Damping-Off and Alternaria Leaf Spot in Cotton.

    PubMed

    Jabaji-Hare, Suha; Neate, Stephen M

    2005-09-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports have shown induction of resistance to Rhizoctonia root rot using nonpathogenic strains of binucleate Rhizoctonia spp. (np-BNR). This study evaluates the biocontrol ability of several np-BNR isolates against root and foliar diseases of cotton in greenhouse trials, provides evidence for induced systemic resistance (ISR) as a mechanism in this biocontrol, and compares the disease control provided by np-BNR with that provided by the chemical inducer benzothiadiazole (BTH). Pretreatment of cotton seedlings with np-BNR isolates provided good protection against pre- and post-emergence damping-off caused by a virulent strain of Rhizoctonia solani (AG-4). Seedling stand of protected cotton was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of nonprotected seedlings. Several np-BNR isolates significantly reduced disease severity. The combination of BTH and np-BNR provided significant protection against seedling rot and leaf spot in cotton; however, the degree of disease reduction was comparable to that obtained with np-BNR treatment alone. Significant reduction in leaf spot symptoms caused by Alternaria macrospora occurred on cotyledons pretreated with np-BNR or sprayed with BTH, and the np- BNR-treated seedlings had significantly less leaf spot than BTH-treated seedlings. The results demonstrate that np-BNR isolates can protect cotton from infections caused by both root and leaf pathogens and that disease control was superior to that observed with a chemical inducer. PMID:18943300

  18. Yield responses of three onion cultivars to stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia spp. cause patches of stunted onion plants in onion bulbs crop in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon when onion crops are planted in sandy soils of this semi-arid region following winter cereal cover crops. A herbicide application is used to kill the cereal cover crop, usually ...

  19. Efficacy of fungicides to manage onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, 2011-2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion stunting, caused by Rhizoctonia spp., has become a significant soilborne problem of onion bulb crops planted in sandy soils in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Research on the epidemiology and management of this disease is in progress. ...

  20. Molecular Characterization, Morphological Characteristics, Virulence, and Geographic Distribution of Rhizoctonia spp. in Washington State.

    PubMed

    Jaaffar, Ahmad Kamil Mohd; Paulitz, Timothy C; Schroeder, Kurtis L; Thomashow, Linda S; Weller, David M

    2016-05-01

    Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-8 and R. oryzae, are chronic and important yield-limiting diseases of wheat and barley in the Inland Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. Major gaps remain in our understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, in part because multiple Rhizoctonia AGs and species can be isolated from the same cereal roots from the field, contributing to the challenge of identifying the causal agents correctly. In this study, a collection totaling 498 isolates of Rhizoctonia was assembled from surveys conducted from 2000 to 2009, 2010, and 2011 over a wide range of cereal production fields throughout Washington State in the PNW. To determine the identity of the isolates, PCR with AG- or species-specific primers and/or DNA sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacers was performed. R. solani AG-2-1, AG-8, AG-10, AG-3, AG-4, and AG-11 comprised 157 (32%), 70 (14%), 21 (4%), 20 (4%), 1 (0.2%), and 1 (0.2%), respectively, of the total isolates. AG-I-like binucleate Rhizoctonia sp. comprised 44 (9%) of the total; and 53 (11%), 80 (16%), and 51 (10%) were identified as R. oryzae genotypes I, II, and III, respectively. Isolates of AG-2-1, the dominant Rhizoctonia, occurred in all six agronomic zones defined by annual precipitation and temperature within the region sampled. Isolates of AG-8 also were cosmopolitan in their distribution but the frequency of isolation varied among years, and they were most abundant in zones of low and moderate precipitation. R. oryzae was cosmopolitan, and collectively the three genotypes comprised 37% of the isolates. Only isolates of R. solani AG-8 and R. oryzae genotypes II and III (but not genotype I) caused symptoms typically associated with Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch of wheat. Isolates of AG-2-1 caused only mild root rot and AG-I-like binucleate isolates and members of groups AG-3, AG-4, and AG-11 showed only slight or no discoloration

  1. Chitinase production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774 and its effect on biocontrol of Rhizoctonia diseases of potato.

    PubMed

    Saber, Wesam I A; Ghoneem, Khalid M; Al-Askar, Abdulaziz A; Rashad, Younes M; Ali, Abeer A; Rashad, Ehsan M

    2015-12-01

    Stem canker and black scurf of potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, can be serious diseases causing an economically significant damage. Biocontrol activity of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 11774 against the Rhizoctonia diseases of potato was investigated in this study. Chitinase enzyme was optimally produced by B. subtilis under batch fermentation conditions similar to those of the potato-growing soil. The maximum chitinase was obtained at initial pH 8 and 30 °C. In vitro, the lytic action of the B. subtilis chitinase was detected releasing 355 μg GlcNAc ml⁻¹ from the cell wall extract of R. solani and suggesting the presence of various chitinase enzymes in the bacterial filtrate. In dual culture test, the antagonistic behavior of B. subtilis resulted in the inhibition of the radial growth of R. solani by 48.1% after 4 days. Moreover, the extracted B. subtilis chitinase reduced the growth of R. solani by 42.3% when incorporated with the PDA plates. Under greenhouse conditions, application of a bacterial suspension of B. subtilis at 109 cell mL⁻¹ significantly reduced the disease incidence of stem canker and black scurf to 22.3 and 30%, respectively. In addition, it significantly improved some biochemical parameters, growth and tubers yield. Our findings indicate two points; firstly, B. subtilis possesses a good biocontrol activity against Rhizoctonia diseases of potato, secondly, the harmonization and suitability of the soil conditions to the growth and activity of B. subtilis guaranteed a high controlling capacity against the target pathogen. PMID:26616375

  2. Temperature, Moisture, and Fungicide Effects in Managing Rhizoctonia Root and Crown Rot of Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2 is the causal agent of Rhizoctonia root and crown rot in sugar beet. To assess the capacity at which other anastomosis groups (AGs) are able to infect sugar beet, 15 AGs and subgroups were tested for pathogenicity on resistant (FC708 CMS) and susceptible (Monohikari) seedl...

  3. Agroecological factors correlated to Rhizoctonia spp. in dryland wheat production zones of Washington state, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrotrophic soilborne fungal pathogens Rhizoctonia solani AG8 and R. oryzae are principal causal agents of Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat in dryland cropping systems of the Pacific Northwest (PNW). A three-year survey of 33 parcels at eleven growers’ sites and 22 plots at twelve Washington State...

  4. Rapid quantitative assessment of Rhizoctonia tolerance in roots of wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG8, causal agent of Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch in dryland cereal production systems of the Pacific Northwest, USA and Australia, reduces yields in a wide range of crops. Disease is not consistently controlled by available management practices, and genetic resistance is d...

  5. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53, a potent biocontrol agent resists Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage through hormonal and antioxidants regulation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sang-Mo; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-10-01

    The fungus Rhizoctonia solani is one of the causal agents of numerous diseases that affect crop growth and yield. The aim of this present investigation was to identify a biocontrol agent that acts against R. solani and to determine the agent's protective effect through phytohormones and antioxidant regulation in experimentally infected Chinese cabbage plants. Four rhizospheric soil bacterial isolates GR53, GR169, GR786, and GR320 were tested for their antagonistic activity against R. solani. Among these isolates, GR53 significantly suppressed fungal growth. GR53 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum by phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence. The biocontrol activity of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 was tested in Chinese cabbage plants under controlled conditions. Results showed that R. solani inhibited plant growth (length, width, fresh and dry weight of leaves) by reducing chlorophyll and total phenolic content, as well as by increasing the levels of salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, abscisic acid, and DPPH scavenging activity. By regulating the levels of these compounds, the co-inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 heightened induced systemic resistance in infected Chinese cabbage, effectively mitigating R. solani-induced damaging effects and improving plant growth. The results obtained from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum GR53 is an effective biocontrol agent to prevent the damage caused by R. solani in Chinese cabbage plants. PMID:26160009

  6. Real-time PCR assay for detection of Rhizoctonia sp. in insect galled roots of Lepidium draba sp draba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of necrotrophic soil-borne pathogens, Rhizoctonia spp., with a root-attacking weevil, Ceutorhynchus assimilis, and diseased tissues of Lepidium draba, an invasive perennial weed in the U.S., has been documented in its Eurasian native range. Among all isolates of Rhizoctonia solani an...

  7. DNA fingerprinting and anastomosis grouping reveal similar genetic diversity in Rhizoctonia species infecting turfgrasses in the transition zone of USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia blight (sensu lato) is a common and serious disease of many turfgrass species. The most widespread causal agent, R. solani, consists of several genetically different subpopulations. Though hyphal anastomosis reactions have been used to group Rhizoctonia species, they are time consuming a...

  8. Blackpatch of clover, cause of slobbers syndrome: A review of the disease and the pathogen, Rhizoctonia leguminicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia leguminicola Gough and E.S. Elliott is a widely used name for the causal agent of blackpatch disease of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), which infects other legumes as well. This fungal pathogen produces alkaloids (slaframine and swainsonine) that affect grazing mammals. Slaframine ca...

  9. Stalk rot of sugar beet caused by Fusarium solani on the Pacific coast.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium stalk blight can cause loss of seed production in sugar beet. The only known causal agent is Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. betae. In 2006, plants that had been grown as stecklings in Oregon and planted in the greenhouse in California for seed production showed symptoms of stalk blight. In add...

  10. The role of chitosan in protection of soybean from sudden death syndrome caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Kotchadat, Kanignun; Kumsopa, Acharaporn; Visarathanonth, Niphon

    2007-05-01

    The in vitro antifungal properties of chitosan and its role in protection of soybean from a sudden death syndrome (SDS) were evaluated. Chitosan inhibited the radial and submerged growth of F. solani f. sp. glycines with a marked effect at concentrations up to 1mg/ml indicating antifungal property and at 3mg/ml was able to delay SDS symptoms expression on soybean leaves for over three days after fungal inoculation when applied preventively. Chitosan was able to induce the level of chitinase activity in soybean resulting in the retardation of SDS development in soybean leaves. However, the SDS symptoms gradually appeared and were associated with the reduction of chitinase activity level after five days of infection period. These results suggested the role of chitosan in partially protecting soybeans from F. solani f. sp. glycines infection. PMID:16828285

  11. Interplay between orfamides, sessilins and phenazines in the control of Rhizoctonia diseases by Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a.

    PubMed

    Olorunleke, Feyisara Eyiwumi; Hua, Gia Khuong Hoang; Kieu, Nam Phuong; Ma, Zongwang; Höfte, Monica

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the role of phenazines and cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) (orfamides and sessilins), antagonistic metabolites produced by Pseudomonas sp. CMR12a, in the biological control of damping-off disease on Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis) caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-1 and root rot disease on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by R. solani AG 4-HGI. A Pseudomonas mutant that only produced phenazines suppressed damping-off disease on Chinese cabbage to the same extent as CMR12a, while its efficacy to reduce root rot on bean was strongly impaired. In both pathosystems, the phenazine mutant that produced both CLPs was equally effective, but mutants that produced only one CLP lost biocontrol activity. In vitro microscopic assays revealed that mutants that only produced sessilins or orfamides inhibited mycelial growth of R. solani when applied together, while they were ineffective on their own. Phenazine-1-carboxamide suppressed mycelial growth of R. solani AG 2-1 but had no effect on AG 4-HGI. Orfamide B suppressed mycelial growth of both R. solani anastomosis groups in a dose-dependent way. Our results point to an additive interaction between both CLPs. Moreover, phenazines alone are sufficient to suppress Rhizoctonia disease on Chinese cabbage, while they need to work in tandem with the CLPs on bean. PMID:26085277

  12. Biological control of take-all and Rhizoctonia root rot of wheat by the cyclic lipopeptide-producing strain Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens HC1-07, isolated from the phyllosphere of wheat grown in Hebei province, China, inhibited a broad range of plant pathogens, including Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and Rhizoctonia solani AG-8, and suppressed the soilborne diseases of wheat, take-all and Rhizoctonia roo...

  13. Analysis of phylogenetic relationship of Cylindrocarpon lichenicola and Acremonium falciforme to the Fusarium solani species complex and a review of similarities in the spectrum of opportunistic infections caused by these fungi.

    PubMed

    Summerbell, R C; Schroers, H-J

    2002-08-01

    An emerging pattern of similarity in medical case reports led to a project to compare the phylogenetic affinities of two well-known tropical fungal opportunistic pathogens, Cylindrocarpon lichenicola and Acremonium falciforme, to members of the Fusarium solani species complex. C. lichenicola and A. falciforme, despite their deviating conidial morphologies, were shown via sequencing of the ribosomal large subunit to be well instituted within a clade mainly consisting of typical F. solani strains and other species until recently considered variants of F. solani. The original name Fusarium lichenicola C. B. Massalongo is reestablished, and the new combination F. falciforme is made. Recognition of these species as fusaria is necessary for correct interpretation of current and future molecular diagnostic tests. Reevaluation of species morphology in light of the molecular findings showed that certain features, especially elongate filiform conidiophores with integrated terminal phialides, facilitate correct microscopic classification of these atypical Fusarium species. There is a strong and underrecognized overlap in the spectra of cases caused by members of the F. solani clade, particularly ocular infections, mycetomas, and, in the neutropenic host, disseminated and other serious systemic infections. A novel synthesis of case reports shows that patients from areas with warm climates may develop a distinctive fusarial intertrigo caused by F. solani, Fusarium lichenicola, or Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:12149344

  14. Effect of timing of glyphosate application to a winter wheat cover crop on stunting of spring-sown onions caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Washington, 2012.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of patches of stunted onion plants caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an emerging problem in onion bulb crops planted in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Cereals such as winter wheat are used as cover crops to protect onion seedlin...

  15. First Report of Aerial Blight of Ruth’s Golden Aster (Pityopsis ruthii) caused by Rhizoctonia solani in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruth's golden aster (Pityopsis ruthii) is an endangered, herbaceous perennial that occurs only at a few sites along small reaches of the Hiwassee and Ocoee rivers in Polk County, Tennessee. This species has ornamental potential. In 2012, we vegetatively propagated various genotypes and established p...

  16. Infection cushion formation by Rhizoctonia spp. on peanut and wheat root systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formation of infection cushions by Rhizoctonia solani (isolate G-24) and R. cerealis (isolate Fellers) was examined on cellophane membranes in response to stimulation by roots of peanut (Okrun, Tamspan 90, Southwest runner and Line 209) and hard red winter wheat (Jagger, 2137, and 2174). Root s...

  17. Rhizoctonia Crown and Root Rot Resistance of Beta PI's from the USDA-ARS NPGS, 2009.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta vulgaris plant introductions (PI) were screened for Rhizoctonia root and crown rot, at the USDA-ARS Fort Collins, CO Research Farm. Inoculum of R. solani isolate R-9 (AG-2-2), colonized to dry barley and course ground, was applied to the crown of plants at a rate of 4.8 g/m. Beets were lifted...

  18. Efficacy of different fungicides against Rhizoctonia brown patch and Pythium blight on turfgrass in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mocioni, M; Titone, P; Garibaldi, A; Gullino, M L

    2003-01-01

    Brown patch, incited by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, and Pythium blight, caused by Pythium spp. are two of the diseases most frequently observed on turfgrass in high maintenance stands, as on golf courses. In such conditions the control strategies, based on chemicals, are particularly difficult due to the scarcity of fungicides registered for turf in Italy. The results obtained in experimental trials carried out to evaluate the efficacy of chemical and biological products against brown patch and Pythium blight are reported. On mature turfgrass, maintained under fairway conditions, azoxystrobin, and trifoxystrobin, not yet registered on turf, were very effective against brown patch. Tebuconazole, applied in three different formulations, was very effective against R. solani, while Trichoderma spp. and azadiractine did not control the pathogen. In greenhouse conditions on Agrostis stolonifera, in the presence of severe disease incidence, due to artificial inoculation, benalaxyl-M satisfactorily controlled Pythium blight; Trichoderma spp. as well as a commercial formulation of T. harzianum, applied one week before the inoculation, were not effective. Among the fungicides not yet registered for use on turfgrass in Italy, metalaxyl-M + mancozeb was effective against Pythium blight. PMID:15151284

  19. Cropping systems and cultural practices determine the Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Hua, Gia Khuong Hoang; Bertier, Lien; Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  20. Cropping Systems and Cultural Practices Determine the Rhizoctonia Anastomosis Groups Associated with Brassica spp. in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Soltaninejad, Saman; Höfte, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Ninety seven Rhizoctonia isolates were collected from different Brassica species with typical Rhizoctonia symptoms in different provinces of Vietnam. The isolates were identified using staining of nuclei and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS barcoding gene. The majority of the isolates were multinucleate R. solani and four isolates were binucleate Rhizoctonia belonging to anastomosis groups (AGs) AG-A and a new subgroup of A-F that we introduce here as AG-Fc on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. The most prevalent multinucleate AG was AG 1-IA (45.4% of isolates), followed by AG 1-ID (17.5%), AG 1-IB (13.4%), AG 4-HGI (12.4%), AG 2-2 (5.2%), AG 7 (1.0%) and an unknown AG related to AG 1-IA and AG 1-IE that we introduce here as AG 1-IG (1.0%) on the basis of differences in rDNA-ITS sequence. AG 1-IA and AG 1-ID have not been reported before on Brassica spp. Pathogenicity tests revealed that isolates from all AGs, except AG-A, induced symptoms on detached leaves of several cabbage species. In in vitro tests on white cabbage and Chinese cabbage, both hosts were severely infected by AG 1-IB, AG 2-2, AG 4-HGI, AG 1-IG and AG-Fc isolates, while under greenhouse conditions, only AG 4-HGI, AG 2-2 and AG-Fc isolates could cause severe disease symptoms. The occurrence of the different AGs seems to be correlated with the cropping systems and cultural practices in different sampling areas suggesting that agricultural practices determine the AGs associated with Brassica plants in Vietnam. PMID:25372406

  1. Carbon source-dependent efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot of apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 is a significant component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease (ARD). A non-fumigant alternative, such as ASD, is highly desired for control of ARD. We examined the influence of carbon input as a determinant of ASD efficacy in the supression of apple ...

  2. Identification of Sugar Beet Germplasm EL51 as a Source of Resistance to Post-Emergence Rhizoctonia Damping-Off

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani is a major agent of seedling stand declines in Michigan sugar beet production. Disease progress, starting from 2-week-old sugar beet seedlings, was scored daily over the following ca. two weeks in a controlled environment, using two AG-2-2 isolates and two AG-4 i...

  3. Lignin Degradation by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the soilborne fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. Lignin degradation may play a role in the infection, colonization, and survival of the fungus in root tissue . Lignin degradation by F. solani f. sp...

  4. Coprinellus curtus (Hitoyo-take) prevents diseases of vegetables caused by pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Saito, Miyuki; Suzuki, Nobuaki

    2007-10-01

    A strain of Coprinellus curtus (designated GM-21), a basidiomycete that suppressed bottom-rot disease of Chinese cabbage, 'pak-choi' (Brassica campestris), caused by the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani Pak-choi 2 was isolated. The mechanism of plant disease suppression was discovered to be hyphal interference, a combative fungal interaction between strain GM-21 and the pathogen. The antifungal spectrum of strain GM-21 was shown to include R. solani and Fusarium sp., i.e. strain GM-21 showed disease-suppressive ability against bottom-rot disease of lettuce and Rhizoctonia-patch disease of mascarene grass caused by strains of R. solani. In addition, clear evidence of hyphal interference between strain GM-21 and Fusarium pathogens that cause crown (foot) and root-rot disease of tomato and Fusarium wilt of melon, respectively, was demonstrated. It was thus considered that GM-21 is effective for suppressing soil-borne pathogens, and that GM-21 presents new possibilities for biological control of vegetable diseases. PMID:17850327

  5. Pathogenicity of some Rhizoctonia solaniz isolates associated with root/collar rots on the cultivars of bean in greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Bohlooli, A; Okhovvat, S M; Javan-Nikkhah, M

    2006-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen isolates of Rhizoctonia solani were gathered from infected roots and hypocotyls of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in the fields of Tehran Province, Iran. Two isolates of the collected samples belonged to binucleate and 81 isolates to multinucleate of R. solani. The multinucleate isolates showed different anastomosis groups as AG-4 (subg. AG-4 HGI, AG-4HGII), AG-6 and AG-2. In greenhouse, pathogenicity tests carried out on bean cv. Naz in randomized design with 4 replications and each replication (pots) with 5 seeds of bean. Infection was done with seeds of wheat which were infected to the fungus with pasteurized soil. Results showed that the highest disease severity was caused by AG-4 (Rs21) isolates, whereas AG-4 (Rs74) isolates were weakly pathogenic with 90% and 21% infection, respectively. In this test the major pathogenic isolates belonged to AG-4 and they caused seed rot and damping-off of bean and AG-6 isolates were non-pathogenic. Five isolates of the fungus with major pathogenicity (Rs7, Rs18, Rs21, Rs62 and Rs71) selected and used for the reaction with different cultivars of bean. In this test, the cultivars and lines of bean (Pinto, red, white, green) studied in factorial experiment as randomized block design with 4 replications (pots). Results showed that none of the cultivars was completely resistant, however green bean cv. Sanry and pinto cv. Shad with number 4.8 disease severities had the highest susceptibility to seed rot and damping-off and red bean cv. Goli with 2.58 had the lowest susceptibility to the infection. Reaction of the cultivars and lines to the isolates of R. solani was significantly different at 1% level. Isolates of the fungus, Rs7, Rs21 with 84%, 90% pathogenicity was more virulent than the others. PMID:17390878

  6. Chemical and Hot Water Treatments to Eliminate Rhizoctonia From Azalea Stem Cuttings: Failures and Successes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Azalea web blight is an annual problem on some evergreen azalea cultivars grown in containerized nursery production in the southern and eastern United States. The binucleate Rhizoctonia species, which cause the disease, are spread on new shoot growth harvested for propagation. Rhizoctonia can be eli...

  7. Characterization of Rhizoctonia isolates associated with damping-off and crown rot of rooibos seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia species were reported to be an important component of the complex involved in damping-off of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) seedlings and cause severe crown rot of seedlings in nurseries. However, no information is available on the anastomosis groups (AGs) of Rhizoctonia associated with d...

  8. Potential of spreading binucleate Rhizoctonia from nursery propagation floors to trays containing azalea stem cuttings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binucleate Rhizoctonia fungi cause web blight on azaleas and other woody ornamental plants. This research focused on one aspect of how the pathogen may spread from contaminated floors of propagation houses into trays containing clean azalea stem cuttings that generate new root systems. Rhizoctonia w...

  9. Rhizoctonia web blight development on container-grown azalea in relation to time and environmental factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to mid-September in blocks of nursery-grown plants at thre...

  10. Risk of Rhizoctonia Web Blight Development on Container-Grown Azalea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia web blight, caused by binucleate Rhizoctonia spp., is an annual problem in the southern United States on container-grown azaleas (Rhododendron spp.) that receive daily irrigation. Disease progress was assessed weekly from mid-May to early October in blocks of nursery-grown plants at four...